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Sample records for marine sponge haliclona

  1. Cyclic 3-alkyl pyridinium alkaloid monomers from a New Zealand Haliclona sp. marine sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Vidhiya; Ryan, Jason L; Keyzers, Robert A

    2013-10-25

    Bioassay and NMR approaches have been used to guide the isolation of one known and two new cyclic 3-alkyl pyridinium alkaloid (3-APA) monomers from the New Zealand marine sponge Haliclona sp. The new compounds, dehydrohaliclocyclins C (3) and F (4), are the first reported examples of cyclic 3-APA monomers with unsaturation in the alkyl chain. The known compound haliclocyclin C (2) was also isolated from a mixture with 4. The structures of compounds 2-4 were elucidated using NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical degradation.

  2. Antifouling activity exhibited by secondary metabolites of the marine sponge, Haliclona exigua (Kirkpatrick)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LimnaMol, V.P.; Raveendran, T.V.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    stream_size 29406 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Int_Biodeterior_Biodegrad_63_67.pdf.txt stream_source_info Int_Biodeterior_Biodegrad_63_67.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... 1    Author version: Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad.: 63(1); 2009; 67-72 Antifouling activity exhibited by secondary metabolites of the marine sponge, Haliclona exigua (Kirkpatrick) VP LIMNA MOL a , TV RAVEENDRAN a, * & PS PARAMESWARAN b a...

  3. Antiamoebic activity of marine sponge Haliclona exigua (Krikpatrick

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    V Lakshmi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The methanol and methanol-chloroform (1:1 extracts of the freshly collected Haliclona exigua showed minumim inhibitory concentration (MIC of 125 ug/ml and 250 ug/ml respectively in in vitro studies, but when both of these were tested in vivo in rats, only methanol-chloroform showed 80% inhibition of trophozoites at the dose of 900 mg/kg body weight against Entamoeba histolytica. Therefore only methanol-chloroform extract was further fractionated into four fractions (hexane, chloroform, n-butanol soluble and n-butanol insoluble fractions. Out of these, only hexane and n-butanol soluble fractions showed 80% inhibition of trophozoites at 900 mg/kg dose. Further the chromatography of the n-butanol fraction yielded araguspongin-C which showed promising results at different doses.

  4. SUSPENSION-FEEDING IN MARINE SPONGES HALICHONDRIA-PANICEA AND HALICLONA-URCEOLUS - EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON FILTRATION-RATE AND ENERGY-COST OF PUMPING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H.U.; Thomassen, S.; Jakobsen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Filtration rate (measured as clearance of algal cells) was measured at different temperatures in the sponge Halichondria panicea. An increase in water temperature from 6 to 12-degrees-C caused the mean filtration rate to increase 4.3 +/- 2.3 times. This value was higher than previously found...... for other marine ciliary suspension-feeding animals. Filtration rate at 12-degrees-C was also measured in Haliclona urceolus by means of an indirect clearance method in addition to a direct technique for measuring pumping rate. It was found that the 2 sponge species had near-identical filtration rates......, with maximum rates of approximately 60 ml min-1 (g dry weight)-1 at 12-degrees-C. The normal pump pressure, or operating point O(p), of a standard sponge (based on our own measurements and calculations from literature data for a 0.1 g dry weight Haliclona sp.) was estimated as the sum of main contributions...

  5. Isolation and analysis of bacteria with antimicrobial activities from the marine sponge Haliclona simulans collected from Irish waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jonathan; Baker, Paul; Piper, Clare; Cotter, Paul D; Walsh, Marcella; Mooij, Marlies J; Bourke, Marie B; Rea, Mary C; O'Connor, Paula M; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin; O'Gara, Fergal; Marchesi, Julian R; Dobson, Alan D W

    2009-01-01

    Samples of the marine sponge Haliclona simulans were collected from Irish coastal waters, and bacteria were isolated from these samples. Phylogenetic analyses of the cultured isolates showed that four different bacterial phyla were represented; Bacteriodetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes. The sponge bacterial isolates were assayed for the production of antimicrobial substances, and biological activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi were demonstrated, with 50% of isolates showing antimicrobial activity against at least one of the test strains. Further testing showed that the antimicrobial activities extended to the important pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium difficile, multi-drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and pathogenic yeast strains. The Actinomycetes were numerically the most abundant producers of antimicrobial activities, although activities were also noted from Bacilli and Pseudovibrio isolates. Surveys for the presence of potential antibiotic encoding polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes also revealed that genes for the biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites were present in most bacterial phyla but were particularly prevalent among the Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. This study demonstrates that the culturable fraction of bacteria from the sponge H. simulans is diverse and appears to possess much potential as a source for the discovery of new medically relevant biological active agents.

  6. Subtilomycin: A New Lantibiotic from Bacillus subtilis Strain MMA7 Isolated from the Marine Sponge Haliclona simulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Robert W.; Barret, Matthieu; Cotter, Paul D.; O’Connor, Paula M.; Chen, Rui; Morrissey, John P.; Dobson, Alan D. W.; O’Gara, Fergal; Barbosa, Teresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriocins are attracting increased attention as an alternative to classic antibiotics in the fight against infectious disease and multidrug resistant pathogens. Bacillus subtilis strain MMA7 isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona simulans displays a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, as well as several pathogenic Candida species. This activity is in part associated with a newly identified lantibiotic, herein named as subtilomycin. The proposed biosynthetic cluster is composed of six genes, including protein-coding genes for LanB-like dehydratase and LanC-like cyclase modification enzymes, characteristic of the class I lantibiotics. The subtilomycin biosynthetic cluster in B. subtilis strain MMA7 is found in place of the sporulation killing factor (skf) operon, reported in many B. subtilis isolates and involved in a bacterial cannibalistic behaviour intended to delay sporulation. The presence of the subtilomycin biosynthetic cluster appears to be widespread amongst B. subtilis strains isolated from different shallow and deep water marine sponges. Subtilomycin possesses several desirable industrial and pharmaceutical physicochemical properties, including activity over a wide pH range, thermal resistance and water solubility. Additionally, the production of the lantibiotic subtilomycin could be a desirable property should B. subtilis strain MMA7 be employed as a probiotic in aquaculture applications. PMID:23736764

  7. Subtilomycin: A New Lantibiotic from Bacillus subtilis Strain MMA7 Isolated from the Marine Sponge Haliclona simulans

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    Teresa M. Barbosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins are attracting increased attention as an alternative to classic antibiotics in the fight against infectious disease and multidrug resistant pathogens. Bacillus subtilis strain MMA7 isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona simulans displays a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, as well as several pathogenic Candida species. This activity is in part associated with a newly identified lantibiotic, herein named as subtilomycin. The proposed biosynthetic cluster is composed of six genes, including protein-coding genes for LanB-like dehydratase and LanC-like cyclase modification enzymes, characteristic of the class I lantibiotics. The subtilomycin biosynthetic cluster in B. subtilis strain MMA7 is found in place of the sporulation killing factor (skf operon, reported in many B. subtilis isolates and involved in a bacterial cannibalistic behaviour intended to delay sporulation. The presence of the subtilomycin biosynthetic cluster appears to be widespread amongst B. subtilis strains isolated from different shallow and deep water marine sponges. Subtilomycin possesses several desirable industrial and pharmaceutical physicochemical properties, including activity over a wide pH range, thermal resistance and water solubility. Additionally, the production of the lantibiotic subtilomycin could be a desirable property should B. subtilis strain MMA7 be employed as a probiotic in aquaculture applications.

  8. Lipid contents of the sponge Haliclona sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Several fatty acids, sterols, batyl alcohol and its analogs and an N-acylated sphingosine (ceramide) have been isolated from the lipid fraction of the extract of the sponge Haliclona sp. The major sterol is found to be cholesterol (54%), followed...

  9. Biological characterisation of Haliclona (?gellius) sp.: sponge and associated microorganisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.; Holmes, B.; Nichols, S.A.; Blanch, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    We have characterised the northern Pacific undescribed sponge Haliclona (?gellius) sp. based on rDNA of the sponge and its associated microorganisms. The sponge is closely related to Amphimedon queenslandica from the Great Barrier Reef as the near-complete 18S rDNA sequences of both sponges were

  10. Carbon conversion and metabolic rate in two marine sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, M.; Van Rijswijk, P.; Martens, D.; Egorova-Zachernyuk, T.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The carbon metabolism of two marine sponges, Haliclona oculata and Dysidea avara, has been studied using a 13C isotope pulse-chase approach. The sponges were fed 13C-labeled diatoms (Skeletonema costatum) for 8 h and they took up between 75 and 85%. At different times, sponges were sampled for total

  11. Effect of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) treatment on the composition and function of the bacterial community in the sponge Haliclona cymaeformis.

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Ren-Mao; Lee, On On; Wang, Yong; Cai, Lin; Bougouffa, Salim; Chiu, Jill Man Ying; Wu, Rudolf Shiu Sun; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    . In the present study, we studied the short-period effect of PBDE-47 (2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) treatment on the community structure and functional gene composition of the bacterial community inhabiting the marine sponge Haliclona cymaeformis. Our

  12. Effect of Copper Treatment on the Composition and Function of the Bacterial Community in the Sponge Haliclona cymaeformis

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, R.-M.

    2014-11-04

    Marine sponges are the most primitive metazoan and host symbiotic microorganisms. They are crucial components of the marine ecological system and play an essential role in pelagic processes. Copper pollution is currently a widespread problem and poses a threat to marine organisms. Here, we examined the effects of copper treatment on the composition of the sponge-associated bacterial community and the genetic features that facilitate the survival of enriched bacteria under copper stress. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that the sponge Haliclona cymaeformis harbored symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing Ectothiorhodospiraceae and photosynthetic Cyanobacteria as dominant species. However, these autotrophic bacteria decreased substantially after treatment with a high copper concentration, which enriched for a heterotrophic-bacterium-dominated community. Metagenomic comparison revealed a varied profile of functional genes and enriched functions, including bacterial motility and chemotaxis, extracellular polysaccharide and capsule synthesis, virulence-associated genes, and genes involved in cell signaling and regulation, suggesting short-period mechanisms of the enriched bacterial community for surviving copper stress in the microenvironment of the sponge. Microscopic observation and comparison revealed dynamic bacterial aggregation within the matrix and lysis of sponge cells. The bacteriophage community was also enriched, and the complete genome of a dominant phage was determined, implying that a lytic phage cycle was stimulated by the high copper concentration. This study demonstrated a copper-induced shift in the composition of functional genes of the sponge-associated bacterial community, revealing the selective effect of copper treatment on the functions of the bacterial community in the microenvironment of the sponge. IMPORTANCE This study determined the bacterial community structure of the common sponge Haliclona cymaeformis and examined the effect of copper

  13. Cyclic Bis-1,3-dialkylpyridiniums from the Sponge Haliclona sp.

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    Jongheon Shin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight novel cyclic bis-1,3-dialkylpyridiniums, as well as two known compounds from the cyclostellettamine class, were isolated from the sponge Haliclona sp. from Korea. Structures of these novel compounds were determined using combined NMR and FAB-MS/MS analyses. Several of these compounds exhibited moderate cytotoxic and antibacterial activities against A549 cell-line and Gram-positive strains, respectively. The structure-activity relationships of cyclostellettamines are discussed based on their bioactivities.

  14. Long-Chain Acetylenic Ketones from the Micronesian Sponge Haliclona sp. Importance of the 1-yn-3-ol Group for Antitumor Activity

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    Guang-Xiong Zhou

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Two new long-chain C33 polyacetylenic compounds, halicynones A and B were isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. along with known analogs. The known compound pellynol A possessing a 1-yn-3-ol terminus, exhibited strong antitumor activity against the human colon tumor cell line HCT-116 (IC50 0.026 μg/mL, however, the corresponding 1-yn-3-one, halicynone A, was inactive, which suggests an important role for the terminal 1-yn-3-ol functional group in mediating cytotoxic activity.

  15. Studies on the Red Sea Sponge Haliclona sp. for its Chemical and Cytotoxic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Massarani, Shaza Mohamed; El-Gamal, Ali Ali; Al-Said, Mansour Sulaiman; Abdel-Kader, Maged S; Ashour, Abdelkader E; Kumar, Ashok; Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Al-Rehaily, Adnan Jathlan; Ghabbour, Hazem A; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2016-01-01

    A great number of novel compounds with rich chemical diversity and significant bioactivity have been reported from Red Sea sponges. To isolate, identify, and evaluate the cytotoxic activity of the chemical constituents of a sponge belonging to genus Haliclona collected from the Eastern coast of the Red Sea. The total ethanolic extract of the titled sponge was subjected to intensive chromatographic fractionation and purification guided by cytotoxic bioassay toward various cancer cell lines. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques including one-dimension and two-dimension nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, ultraviolet, and infrared data, as well as comparison with the reported spectral data for the known compounds. X-ray single-crystal structure determination was performed to determine the absolute configuration of compound 4. The screening of antiproliferative activity of the compounds was carried on three tumor cell lines, namely the human cervical cancer (HeLa), human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), and human medulloblastoma (Daoy) cells using MTT assay. This investigation resulted in the isolation of a new indole alkaloid, 1-(1H-indol-3-yloxy) propan-2-ol (1), with the previously synthesized pyrrolidine alkaloid, (2R, 3S, 4R, 5R) pyrrolidine-(1-hydroxyethyl)-3,4-diol hydrochloride (4), isolated here from a natural source for the first time. In addition, six known compounds tetillapyrone (2), nortetillapyrone (3), 2-methyl maleimide-5-oxime (5), maleimide-5-oxime (6), 5-(hydroxymethyl) dihydrofuran-2 (3H)-one (7), and ergosta-5,24 (28)-dien-3-ol (8) were also identified. Most of the isolated compounds exhibited weak cytotoxic activity against HepG-2, Daoy, and HeLa cancer cell lines. This is the first report of the occurrence of the indole and pyrrolidine alkaloids, 1-(1H-indol-2-yloxy) propan-2-ol (1), and the - (1-hydroxyethyl)-3,4-diol hydrochloride (4), in the Red Sea Haliclona sp. From the Red Sea

  16. Effect of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) treatment on the composition and function of the bacterial community in the sponge Haliclona cymaeformis.

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Ren-Mao

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges play important roles in benthic environments and are sensitive to environmental stresses. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as flame retardants since the 1970s and are cytotoxic and genotoxic to organisms. In the present study, we studied the short-period effect of PBDE-47 (2,2\\',4,4\\'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) treatment on the community structure and functional gene composition of the bacterial community inhabiting the marine sponge Haliclona cymaeformis. Our results showed that the bacterial community shifted from an autotrophic bacteria-dominated community to a heterotrophic bacteria-dominated community in response to PBDE-47 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. A potentially symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) was dominant (>80% in abundance) in the untreated sponge. However, exposure to a high concentration (1 μg/L) of PBDE-47 caused a substantial decrease in the potential symbiont and an enrichment of heterotrophic bacteria like Clostridium. A metagenomic analysis showed a selective effect of the high concentration treatment on the functional gene composition of the enriched heterotrophic bacteria, revealing an enrichment for the functions responsible for DNA repair, multidrug efflux pumping, and bacterial chemotaxis and motility. This study demonstrated that PBDE-47 induced a shift in the composition of the community and functional genes in the sponge-associated bacterial community, revealing the selective effect of PBDE-47 treatment on the functions of the bacterial community in the microenvironment of the sponge.

  17. Sediment impacts on marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James J; McGrath, Emily; Biggerstaff, Andrew; Bates, Tracey; Bennett, Holly; Marlow, Joseph; Shaffer, Megan

    2015-05-15

    Changes in sediment input to marine systems can influence benthic environments in many ways. Sponges are important components of benthic ecosystems world-wide and as sessile suspension feeders are likely to be impacted by changes in sediment levels. Despite this, little is known about how sponges respond to changes in settled and suspended sediment. Here we review the known impacts of sedimentation on sponges and their adaptive capabilities, whilst highlighting gaps in our understanding of sediment impacts on sponges. Although the literature clearly shows that sponges are influenced by sediment in a variety of ways, most studies confer that sponges are able to tolerate, and in some cases thrive, in sedimented environments. Critical gaps exist in our understanding of the physiological responses of sponges to sediment, adaptive mechanisms, tolerance limits, and the particularly the effect of sediment on early life history stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bacterial Diversity Associated with Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, Cohabiting Sponges in the Coral Reef Ecosystem of Gulf of Mannar, Southeast Coast of India.

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    C Jasmin

    Full Text Available Sponges are abundant, diverse and functionally important organisms of coral reef ecosystems. Sponge-associated microorganisms have been receiving greater attention because of their significant contribution to sponge biomass, biogeochemical cycles and biotechnological potentials. However, our understanding of the sponge microbiome is limited to a few species of sponges from restricted geographical locations. Here, we report for the first time the bacterial diversity of two cohabiting sponges, viz. Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, as well as that in the ambient water from the coral reef ecosystems of the Gulf of Mannar, located along the southeast coast of India. Two hundred and fifty two clones in the 16S rRNA gene library of these sponges were grouped into eight distinct phyla, of which four belonged to the core group that are associated only with sponges. Phylogenetic analysis of the core bacteria showed close affinity to other sponge-associated bacteria from different geographical locations. γ-Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Deferribacter were the core groups in C. cavernosa while β and δ-Proteobacteria performed this role in H. pigmentifera. We observed greater OTU diversity for C. cavernosa (Hǀ 2.07 compared to H. pigmentifera (Hǀ 1.97. UniFrac analysis confirmed the difference in bacterial diversity of the two sponge species and also between the sponges and the reef water (p<0.001. The results of our study restate the existence of a host driven force in shaping the sponge microbiome.

  19. Cytotoxicity evaluation of extracts and fractions of five marine sponges from the Persian Gulf and HPLC fingerprint analysis of cytotoxic extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davood; Mahdian; Milad; Iranshahy; Abolfazl; Shakeri; Azar; Hoseini; Hoda; Yavari; Melika; Nazemi; Mehrdad; Iranshahi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To screen the cytotoxic effects of some marine sponges extracts on HeLa and PC12 cells.Methods: Five marine sponges including Ircinia echinata(I. echinata), Dysidea avara,Axinella sinoxea, Haliclona tubifera and Haliclona violacea were collected from the Persian Gulf(Hengam Island). The cytotoxic effect of these sponges was evaluated by using MTT assay. The metabolic high performance liquid chromatography fingerprint of I. echinata was also carried out at two wavelengths(254 and 280 nm).Results: Among the sponges tested in this study, the extracts of I. echinata and Dysidea avara possessed the cytotoxic effect on HeLa and PC12 cells. The obtained fractions from high performance liquid chromatography were evaluated for their cytotoxic properties against the cell lines. The isolated fractions did not show significant cytotoxic properties.Conclusions: I. echinata could be considered as a potential extract for chemotherapy.Further investigation is needed to determine the accuracy of mechanism.

  20. Cytotoxicity evaluation of extracts and fractions of ifve marine sponges from the Persian Gulf and HPLC ifngerprint analysis of cytotoxic extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davood Mahdian; Milad Iranshahy; Abolfazl Shakeri; Azar Hoseini; Hoda Yavari; Melika Nazemi; Mehrdad Iranshahi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To screen the cytotoxic effects of some marine sponges extracts on HeLa and PC12 cells. Methods: Five marine sponges including Ircinia echinata (I. echinata), Dysidea avara, Axinella sinoxea, Haliclona tubifera and Haliclona violacea were collected from the Persian Gulf (Hengam Island). The cytotoxic effect of these sponges was evaluated by using MTT assay. The metabolic high performance liquid chromatography fingerprint of I. echinata was also carried out at two wavelengths (254 and 280 nm). Results:Among the sponges tested in this study, the extracts of I. echinata and Dysidea avara possessed the cytotoxic effect on HeLa and PC12 cells. The obtained fractions from high performance liquid chromatography were evaluated for their cytotoxic properties against the cell lines. The isolated fractions did not show significant cytotoxic properties. Conclusions:I. echinata could be considered as a potential extract for chemotherapy. Further investigation is needed to determine the accuracy of mechanism.

  1. Heavy metal distribution in organic and siliceous marine sponge tissues measured by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, S; Annibaldi, A; Truzzi, C; Scarponi, G

    2016-10-15

    May sponge spicules represent a "tank" to accumulate heavy metals? In this study we test this hypothesis determining the distribution of Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations between organic and siliceous tissues in Antarctic Demospongia (Sphaerotylus antarcticus, Kirkpatrikia coulmani and Haliclona sp.) and in the Mediterranean species Petrosia ficiformis. Results show that although, in these sponges, spicules represent about 80% of the mass content, the accumulation of pollutant is lower in the spicules than in the corresponding organic fraction. The contribution of tissues to the total sponge content of Cd, Pb and Cu is respectively 99%, 82% and 97% for Antarctic sponges and 96%, 95% and 96% for P. ficiformis, similar in polar and temperate organisms. These results pave the way to a better understanding of the role of marine sponges in uptaking heavy metals and to their possible use as monitor of marine ecosystems, recommend by the Water Framework Directive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Copper Treatment on the Composition and Function of the Bacterial Community in the Sponge Haliclona cymaeformis

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, R.-M.; Wang, Y.; Bougouffa, Salim; Gao, Z.-M.; Cai, L.; Zhang, W.-P.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Qian, P.-Y.

    2014-01-01

    and poses a threat to marine organisms. Here, we examined the effects of copper treatment on the composition of the sponge-associated bacterial community and the genetic features that facilitate the survival of enriched bacteria under copper stress. The 16S

  3. Sponge epizoism in the Caribbean and the discovery of new Plakortis and Haliclona species, and polymorphism of Xestospongia deweerdtae (Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Jan; Zea, Sven; Hill, Russell T

    2016-10-24

    The new discovery by Vicente et al. (2014) of specialized epizoic symbioses between sponges of the genera Plakortis and Xestospongia revealed the obligate interaction of two new Plakortis spp. associating with Xestospongia deweerdtae and a new Xestospongia sp. In this study we formally describe the two new Plakortis spp. as Plakortis deweerdtaephila sp. nov. (previously reported as Plakortis sp. 1), Plakortis symbiotica sp. nov. (previously reported as Plakortis sp. 2) and describe the new Xestospongia sp. epibiont as Haliclona (Halichoclona) plakophila sp. nov.  Plakortis deweerdtaephila associates only with X. deweerdtae, and has very small to large straight diods (24.2-233.7 μm long) and triods (26.4-102.6 μm long) that form large ectosomal circular meshes (114-329 μm diameter). P. symbiotica associates with both X. deweerdtae and H. plakophila, has larger curved diods (71.9-141.8 μm long) and triods (20.4-70.6 μm long) that form smaller ectosomal circular meshes (43-121 μm diameter) than P. deweerdtaephila. Phylogenetic analysis of cox1 and cob gene fragments revealed a strongly supported clade that grouped both Plakortis spp. nov. distantly from any other known Plakortis spp. H. plakophila is described as a thin encrusting veneer of tissue with occasional papillae, so far only found associated with P. symbiotica in La Parguera, Puerto Rico. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and cox1 gene fragments place it distantly from any known clade of Haplosclerida. We found a new associated morphotype of X. deweerdtae from Bocas del Toro Panama, which completely overgrew P. deweerdtaephila. In addition, free-living morphotypes from Panama produce larger S-shaped and round bracket shaped strongyles never before observed for this species, leading us to redescribe X. deweerdtae. All X. deweerdtae morphotypes shared >99% sequence homology of cox1, 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA genes with the holotype of X. deweerdtae. This study highlights the highly variable morphological

  4. Proliferative Activity of Mammary Carcinoma Cells by AgNOR Count in C3H mice Receiving Ethanol Extract of Sponge Haliclona sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijabat, Lanceria; Susilaningsih, Neni; Trianto, Agus; Murwani, Retno

    2018-02-01

    Quantification of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNORs) was considered as one of markers of proliferative activity of cancer cells. Sponge Haliclona sp extract contains anticancer bioactive compounds and our previous study showed that the extract was able to improve histological grade of induced mammary adenocarcinoma in mice. The following research was conducted to study the extract administration on the proliferative activity of the carcinoma cells represented by AgNOR count in mice. This experimental study applied post test only control group design. Twenty C3H mice were divided into four groups namely C (control), H1, H2 and H3. Each group was given 0, 0.15, 1.5, and 15 mg Haliclona sp extract respectively. After three weeks of extract administration, mice were inoculated with breast cancer cells from donor mice. The extract administration were continued for another three weeks. AgNOR count was performed on tumor sections and expressed as mean of AgNOR (mAgNOR) and percentage of AgNOR (pAgNOR). Means of mAgNOR in C, H1, H2 and H3 were 4.070, 3.195, 3.450, and 3.190 respectively. Means of pAgNOR in C, H1, H2 and H3 were 34,40, 25,40, 38,40 and 19,80 respectively. The lowest means of mAgNOR and pAgNOR which is an indication of lower proliferative activity of the cancer cells was found in H3. However no significant difference can be found among treatment groups (p>0.05). Using AgNOR count, the ethanol extract of Haliclona sp could not show significant reduction in proliferation of mammary carcinoma cells of C3H mice. This finding support the view that AgNOR alone could not be used to determine pathology of cancer cells.

  5. Antiviral lead compounds from marine sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil; Kaur, Mandeep; Minneman, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    ). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due

  6. Antagonistic activity of marine sponges associated Actinobacteria

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    Selvakumar Dharmaraj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To focus on the isolation and preliminary characterization of marine sponges associated Actinobacteria particularly Streptomyces species and also their antagonistic activities against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Methods: The sponges were collected from Kovalam and Vizhinjam port of south-west coast of Kerala, India. Isolation of strains was carried out from sponge extracts using international Streptomyces project media. For preliminary identification of the strains, morphological (mycelial colouration, soluble pigments, melanoid pigmentation, spore morphology, nutritional uptake (carbon utilisation, amonoacids influence, sodium chloride tolerance, physiological (pH, temperature and chemotaxonomical characterization were done. Antimicrobial studies were also carried out for the selected strains. Results: With the help of the spicule structures, the collected marine sponges were identified as Callyspongia diffusa, Mycale mytilorum, Tedania anhelans and Dysidea fragilis. Nearly 94 strains were primarily isolated from these sponges and further they were sub-cultured using international Streptomyces project media. The strains exhibited different mycelial colouration (aerial and substrate, soluble and melanoid pigmentations. The strains possessed three types of sporophore morphology namely rectus flexibilis, spiral and retinaculiaperti. Among the 94 isolates, seven exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities with maximal zone of inhibition of 30 mm. The nutritional, physiological and chemotaxonomical characteristic study helped in the conventional identification of the seven strains and they all suggest that the strains to be grouped under the genus Streptomyces. Conclusions: The present study clearly helps in the preliminary identification of the isolates associated with marine sponges. Antagonistic activities prove the production of antimicrobial metabolites against the pathogens. Marine sponges associated Streptomyces are

  7. Chemical ecology of marine sponges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thakur, N.L.; Singh, A.

    . University of California Press, Berkeley/Los Angeles, 268 pp Bewley CA, He H, Williams DH, Faulkner DJ (1996) Aciculitins AC: cytotoxic and antifungal cyclic pep- tides from the lithistid sponge Aciculites orientalis. J Am Chem Soc 118(18):4314–4321 48 N...

  8. Cryptic species obscure introduction pathway of the blue Caribbean sponge (Haliclona (Soestella caerulea, (order: Haplosclerida to Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid S. Knapp

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryptic species are widespread across the phylum Porifera making the identification of non-indigenous species difficult, an issue not easily resolved by the use of morphological characteristics. The widespread order Haplosclerida is a prime example due to limited and plastic morphological features. Here, we study the reported introduction of Haliclona (Soestella caerulea from the Caribbean to Palmyra Atoll via Hawaiʻi using morphological characteristics and genetic analyses based on one nuclear (18s rDNA and three mitochondrial (COI, the barcoding COI extension (COI ext. and rnl rDNA markers. Despite no clear division in lengths of the oxea spicules between the samples, both mtDNA and nDNA phylogenetic trees supported similar topologies resolving two distinct clades. Across the two clades, the concatenated mtDNA tree resolved twelve subclades, with the COI ext. yielding most of the variability between the samples. Low sequence divergence values (0.68% between two of the subclades indicate that the same species is likely to occur at Palmyra, Hawaiʻi and the Caribbean, supporting the hypothesis that H. caerulea was introduced to Palmyra from the Caribbean, although whether species came directly from the Caribbean to Palmyra or from Hawaiʻi remains unresolved. Conversely, the pattern of highly divergent cryptic species supports the notion that traditionally used spicule measurements are taxonomically unreliable in this group. This study illustrates how understanding the scale of within- as opposed to between-species level genetic variation is critical for interpreting biogeographic patterns and inferring the origins of introduced organisms.

  9. Bioactive alkaloids from marine sponges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; Majik, M.S.

    lines while kuanoniamine C was less potent but showed high selectivity toward the estrogen dependent breast cancer cell line (Kijjoa et. al., 2007). Recently, Davis’s and coworkers, reported two new cytotoxici- ty peridoacridine alkaloids viz... 10 sponge, Trachycladus laevispirulifer. Excitingly, it displayed promising selective cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer cell lines. 12.3.1. BISINDOLE ALKALOIDS Bis-indole alkaloids, consisting of two indole moieties...

  10. Antiviral lead compounds from marine sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Sagar, Sunil

    2010-10-11

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hopedto be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  11. Bacteria From Marine Sponges: A Source of New Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Fehmida; Faheem, Muhammad; Azhar, Esam I; Yasir, Muhammad; Alvi, Sana A; Kamal, Mohammad A; Ullah, Ikram; Naseer, Muhammad I

    2017-01-01

    Sponges are rich source of bioactive natural products synthesized by the symbiotic bacteria belonging to different phyla. Due to a competition for space and nutrients the marine bacteria associated with sponges could produce more antibiotic substances. To explore the proactive potential of marine microbes extensive research has been done. These bioactive metabolites have some unique properties that are pharmaceutically important. For this review, we have performed a non-systematic search of the available literature though various online search engines. This review provides an insight that how majority of active metabolites have been identified from marine invertebrates of which sponges predominate. Sponges harbor abundant and diverse microorganisms, which are the sources of a range of marine bioactive metabolites. From sponges and their associated microorganisms, approximately 5,300 different natural compounds are known. Current research on sponge-microbe interaction and their active metabolites has become a focal point for many researchers. Various active metabolites derived from sponges are now known to be produced by their symbiotic microflora. In this review, we attempt to report the latest studies regarding capability of bacteria from sponges as producers of bioactive metabolite. Moreover, these sponge associated bacteria are an important source of different enzymes of industrial significance. In present review, we will address some novel approaches for discovering marine metabolites from bacteria that have the greatest potential to be used in clinical treatments. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Metabolomic Profiling and Genomic Study of a Marine Sponge-Associated Streptomyces sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegelmann, Christina; Margassery, Lekha Menon; Kennedy, Jonathan; Zhang, Tong; O’Brien, Ciarán; O’Gara, Fergal; Morrissey, John P.; Dobson, Alan D. W.; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomics and genomics are two complementary platforms for analyzing an organism as they provide information on the phenotype and genotype, respectively. These two techniques were applied in the dereplication and identification of bioactive compounds from a Streptomyces sp. (SM8) isolated from the sponge Haliclona simulans from Irish waters. Streptomyces strain SM8 extracts showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. NMR analysis of the active fractions proved that hydroxylated saturated fatty acids were the major components present in the antibacterial fractions. Antimycin compounds were initially putatively identified in the antifungal fractions using LC-Orbitrap. Their presence was later confirmed by comparison to a standard. Genomic analysis of Streptomyces sp. SM8 revealed the presence of multiple secondary metabolism gene clusters, including a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of the antifungal antimycin family of compounds. The antimycin gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. SM8 was inactivated by disruption of the antimycin biosynthesis gene antC. Extracts from this mutant strain showed loss of antimycin production and significantly less antifungal activity than the wild-type strain. Three butenolides, 4,10-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (1), 4,11-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (2), and 4-hydroxy-10-methyl-11-oxo-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (3) that had previously been reported from marine Streptomyces species were also isolated from SM8. Comparison of the extracts of Streptomyces strain SM8 and its host sponge, H. simulans, using LC-Orbitrap revealed the presence of metabolites common to both extracts, providing direct evidence linking sponge metabolites to a specific microbial symbiont. PMID:24893324

  13. Metabolomic Profiling and Genomic Study of a Marine Sponge-Associated Streptomyces sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Viegelmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics and genomics are two complementary platforms for analyzing an organism as they provide information on the phenotype and genotype, respectively. These two techniques were applied in the dereplication and identification of bioactive compounds from a Streptomyces sp. (SM8 isolated from the sponge Haliclona simulans from Irish waters. Streptomyces strain SM8 extracts showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. NMR analysis of the active fractions proved that hydroxylated saturated fatty acids were the major components present in the antibacterial fractions. Antimycin compounds were initially putatively identified in the antifungal fractions using LC-Orbitrap. Their presence was later confirmed by comparison to a standard. Genomic analysis of Streptomyces sp. SM8 revealed the presence of multiple secondary metabolism gene clusters, including a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of the antifungal antimycin family of compounds. The antimycin gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. SM8 was inactivated by disruption of the antimycin biosynthesis gene antC. Extracts from this mutant strain showed loss of antimycin production and significantly less antifungal activity than the wild-type strain. Three butenolides, 4,10-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (1, 4,11-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (2, and 4-hydroxy-10-methyl-11-oxo-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (3 that had previously been reported from marine Streptomyces species were also isolated from SM8. Comparison of the extracts of Streptomyces strain SM8 and its host sponge, H. simulans, using LC-Orbitrap revealed the presence of metabolites common to both extracts, providing direct evidence linking sponge metabolites to a specific microbial symbiont.

  14. Sphingosines Derived from Marine Sponge as Potential Multi-Target Drug Related to Disorders in Cancer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegelmeyer, Renata; Schröder, Rafael; Rambo, Douglas F.; Dresch, Roger R.; Carraro, João L. F.; Mothes, Beatriz; Moreira, José Cláudio F.; da Frota Junior, Mário L. C.; Henriques, Amélia T.

    2015-01-01

    Haliclona tubifera, marine sponge species abundant in Brazilian coastline, presents only a few papers published in the literature. Recently, we have reported the isolation of two modified C18 sphingoid bases: (2R,3R,6R,7Z)-2-aminooctadec-7-ene-1,3,6-triol and and (2R,3R,6R)-2-aminooctadec-1,3,6-triol. In order to continue our research, in this work aimed at the biological investigation of fractions that led to the isolation of these compounds. We evaluated the cytotoxic effect of marine sponge H. tubifera fractions in glioma (U87) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) human cell lines. In addition, considering the link between cancer, imbalance of reactive oxygen species and coagulation disorders, we also investigated the in vitro effects on blood coagulation and their redox properties. We showed that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction, rich in sphingoid bases, had important cytotoxic effects in both cancer cell lines with an IC50 < 15 μg/mL and also can inhibit the production of peroxyl radicals. Interestingly, this fraction increased the recalcification time of human blood, showing anticoagulant properties. The present study indicates the sphingosines fraction as a promising source of chemical prototypes, especially multifunctional drugs in cancer therapy. PMID:26308014

  15. Antibacterial Properties of Marine Sponges from Mauritius Waters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    assay. The extracts were screened for the presence of compounds that could be responsible for bioactivity. ... Keywords: Biemna tubulosa, Stylissa spp., Antibacterial activity, Marine sponges, MIC. Tropical ..... Bio-organic and Med. Chem 2003 ...

  16. New bromotyrosine alkaloids from the marine sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; Rodrigues, C; Naik, C; Parameswaran, P.S.; Wahidullah, S.

    Seven new bromotyrosine alkaloids Purpurealidin A, B, C, D, F, G, H and the known compounds Purealidin Q, Purpurealidin E, 16-Debromoaplysamine-4 and Purpuramine I have been isolated from the marine sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea. Their structure...

  17. Cultivation of Marine Sponges: From Sea to Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.

    2004-01-01

    Marine sponges are one of the richest natural sources of secondary metabolites with a potential pharmaceutical application. A plethora of chemical compounds, with widely varying carbon skeletons, possessing among other anticancer, antiviral, antibiotic, antiinflammatory and antimalaria activity has

  18. Bacterial diversity associated with Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, cohabiting sponges in the coral reef ecosystem of Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jasmin, C; Anas, A.; Nair, S.

    1.97). UniFrac analysis confirmed the difference in bacterial diversity of the two sponge species and also between the sponges and the reef water(p<0.001). The results of our study restate the existence of a host driven force in shaping the sponge...

  19. PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY INDUCED IN TRANSPLANT EXPERIMENTS IN A MUTUALISTIC ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE RED ALGA JANIA ADHAERENS (RHODOPHYTA, CORALLINALES) AND THE SPONGE HALICLONA CAERULEA (PORIFERA: HAPLOSCLERIDA): MORPHOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE ALGA(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez, Susana; Ávila, Enrique; Carballo, José Luis

    2009-02-01

    The association between the red macroalga Jania adhaerens J. V. Lamour. and the sponge Haliclona caerulea is the most successful life-form between 2 and 4 m depth in Mazatlán Bay (Mexican Pacific). J. adhaerens colonizes the rocky intertidal area and penetrates into deeper areas only when it lives in association with H. caerulea. The aposymbiotic form of the sponge has not been reported in the bay. To understand the ecological success of this association, we examined the capacity of J. adhaerens to acclimate in Mazatlán Bay using transplant experiments. The transplanted aposymbiotic J. adhaerens did not survive the first 2 weeks; however, J. adhaerens when living in association with H. caerulea, acclimated easily to depth, showing no sign of mortality during the 103 d of the experiment. We conclude that the ability of J. adhaerens to colonize in deeper areas in this hydrodynamic environment may in part rely on the protection provided by the sponge to the algal canopy. Both species contribute to the shape of the associated form. Nevertheless, the morphological variation in the association appears to be dominated by the variation in J. adhaerens canopy to regulate pigment self-shading under light-limited conditions and/or tissue resistance under high hydrodynamics. Consequently, our results are consistent with light as the abiotic controlling factor, which regulates the lower depth distribution of the association in Mazatlán Bay, through limiting the growth rate of J. adhaerens. Hydrodynamics may determine the upper limit of the association by imposing high mass losses. © 2009 Phycological Society of America.

  20. Potential of sponges and microalgae for marine biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Marine organisms can be used to produce several novel products that have applications in new medical technologies, in food and feed ingredients and as biofuels. In this paper two examples are described: the development of marine drugs from sponges and the use of microalgae to produce bulk chemicals

  1. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations of Bacterial Communities Associated with Marine Sponges from San Juan Island, Washington

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, O. O.

    2009-04-10

    This study attempted to assess whether conspecific or congeneric sponges around San Juan Island, Washington, harbor specific bacterial communities. We used a combination of culture-independent DNA fingerprinting techniques (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE]) and culture-dependent approaches. The results indicated that the bacterial communities in the water column consisted of more diverse bacterial ribotypes than and were drastically different from those associated with the sponges. High levels of similarity in sponge-associated bacterial communities were found only in Myxilla incrustans and Haliclona rufescens, while the bacterial communities in Halichondria panicea varied substantially among sites. Certain terminal restriction fragments or DGGE bands were consistently obtained for different individuals of M. incrustans and H. rufescens collected from different sites, suggesting that there are stable or even specific associations of certain bacteria in these two sponges. However, no specific bacterial associations were found for H. panicea or for any one sponge genus. Sequencing of nine DGGE bands resulted in recovery of seven sequences that best matched the sequences of uncultured Proteobacteria. Three of these sequences fell into the sponge-specific sequence clusters previously suggested. An uncultured alphaproteobacterium and a culturable Bacillus sp. were found exclusively in all M. incrustans sponges, while an uncultured gammaproteobacterium was unique to H. rufescens. In contrast, the cultivation approach indicated that sponges contained a large proportion of Firmicutes, especially Bacillus, and revealed large variations in the culturable bacterial communities associated with congeneric and conspecific sponges. This study revealed sponge species-specific but not genus- or site-specific associations between sponges and bacterial communities and emphasized the importance of using a combination

  2. Manoalide-related Sesterterpene from the Marine Sponge Luffariella variabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Toshiyuki; Harada, Daisuke; Hirata, Mitsunobu; Yamashita, Keisuke; Palaniveloo, Kishneth; Okamura, Hiroaki; Iwagawa, Tetsuo; Arima, Naomichi; Iriguchi, Toshiyuki; de Voogd, Nicole J; Vairappan, Charles S

    2015-06-01

    A new manoalide-related sesterterpene, (4E,6E)-dehydro-25-O-methylmanoalide (1), was isolated from the organic extracts of the Bornean marine sponge Luffariella variabilis, together with the known compound (4E,6E)-dehydromanoalide (2). The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by interpretation of its spectroscopic data.

  3. Cytotoxic Natural Products from Marine Sponge-Derived Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence indicates that marine sponge-derived microbes possess the potential ability to make prolific natural products with therapeutic effects. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of new cytotoxic agents from these marine microbes over the last 62 years from 1955 to 2016, which are assorted into seven types: terpenes, alkaloids, peptides, aromatics, lactones, steroids, and miscellaneous compounds.

  4. Bioactive Natural Products of Marine Sponges from the Genus Hyrtios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourhan Hisham Shady

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are known as a rich source for novel bioactive compounds with valuable pharmacological potential. One of the most predominant sponge genera is Hyrtios, reported to have various species such as Hyrtios erectus, Hyrtios reticulatus, Hyrtios gumminae, Hyrtios communis, and Hyrtios tubulatus and a number of undescribed species. Members of the genus Hyrtios are a rich source of natural products with diverse and valuable biological activities, represented by different chemical classes including alkaloids, sesterterpenes and sesquiterpenes. This review covers the literature until June 2016, providing a complete survey of all compounds isolated from the genus Hyrtios with their corresponding biological activities whenever applicable.

  5. Symbiotic Fungus of Marine Sponge Axinella sp. Producing Antibacterial Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trianto, A.; Widyaningsih, S.; Radjasa, OK; Pribadi, R.

    2017-02-01

    The emerging of multidrug resistance pathogenic bacteria cause the treatment of the diseaseshave become ineffective. There for, invention of a new drug with novel mode of action is an essential for curing the disease caused by an MDR pathogen. Marine fungi is prolific source of bioactive compound that has not been well explored. This study aim to obtain the marine sponges-associated fungus that producing anti-MDR bacteria substaces. We collected the sponge from Riung water, NTT, Indonesia. The fungus was isolated with affixed method, followed with purification with streak method. The overlay and disk diffusion agar methods were applied for bioactivity test for the isolate and the extract, respectively. Molecular analysis was employed for identification of the isolate. The sponge was identified based on morphological and spicular analysis. The ovelay test showed that the isolate KN15-3 active against the MDR Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli. The extract of the cultured KN15-3 was also inhibited the S. aureus and E. coli with inhibition zone 2.95 mm and 4.13 mm, respectively. Based on the molecular analysis, the fungus was identified as Aspergillus sydowii. While the sponge was identified as Axinella sp.

  6. Immunosuppressive compounds from a deep water marine sponge, Agelas flabelliformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, S P; Cranick, S; Longley, R E

    1989-01-01

    Two immunosuppressive compounds, 4 alpha-methyl-5 alpha-cholest-8-en-3 beta-ol and 4,5-dibromo-2-pyrrolic acid were isolated from a deep water marine sponge, Agelas flabelliformis. Their structures were determined by comparison of their spectral data with those of samples isolated from other organisms. Both compounds were highly active in suppression of the response of murine splenocytes in the two-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) with little to no demonstrable cytotoxicity at lower doses. In addition, 4,5-dibromo-2-pyrrolic acid suppressed the proliferative response of splenocytes to suboptimal concentrations of the mitogen, concanavalin A (Con A). These results describe for the first time compounds isolated from the marine sponge A. flabelliformis that possess potent in vitro immunosuppressive activity.

  7. Antiparasitic bromotyrosine derivatives from the Caribbean marine Sponge Aiolochroia crassa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeano, Elkin; Martinez, Alejandro; Thomas, Olivier P.; Robledo, Sara; Munoz, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Six bromotyrosine-derived compounds were isolated from the Caribbean marine sponge Aiolochroia crassa: 3-bromo-5-hydroxy Ο-methyltyrosine (1), 3-bromo-N,N,N-trimethyltyrosinium (2), 3-bromo-N,N,N,ο-tetramethyltyrosinium (3), 3,5-dibromo-N,N,Ntrimethyltyrosinium (4), 3,5-dibromo-N,N,N,O-tetramethyltyrosinium (5), and aeroplysinin-1 (6). Structural determination was performed using NMR, MS and comparison with literature data. All isolated compounds were screened for their in vitro activity against Leishmania panamensis, Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma cruzi. Compound 4 showed selective antiparasitic activity against Leishmania and Plasmodium parasites. This is the first report of compounds 1, 4 and 5 in the sponge A. crassa and the first biological activity reports for compounds 2-4. This work shows that bromotyrosines are potential antiparasitic agents. (author)

  8. Diversity of bacteria in the marine sponge Aplysina fulva in Brazilian coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardoim, C.C.P.; Costa, R.; Araujo, F. V.; Hajdu, E.; Peixoto, R.; Lins, U.; Rosado, A. S.; van Elsas, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms can account for up to 60% of the fresh weight of marine sponges. Marine sponges have been hypothesized to serve as accumulation spots of particular microbial communities, but it is unknown to what extent these communities are directed by the organism or the site or occur randomly. To

  9. Phylogenetic diversity and community structure of sponge-associated bacteria from mangroves of the Caribbean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Jiangke; Sun, Jin; Lee, On On; Yim, Him Wong; Qian, Pei Yuan

    2011-01-01

    ribosomal RNA gene sequences, of the 4 sponge species Aplysina fulva, Haliclona hogarthi, Tedania ignis and Ircinia strobilina as well as of ambient seawater. The sponge-associated bacterial communities contained 13 phyla, including Poribacteria

  10. Steroids from marine sponges Suberites vestigium and Chrotella australiensis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mishra, P.D; Wahidullah, S.; De; Kamat, S.Y.

    The sponges Suberites vestigium and Chrotella australiensis have been examined for steriods. Both the sponges contain C sub(27-29) mono and diunsaturated sterols, in addition sponge C. australiensis contains cholest-4-ene-3-one and 24-ethyl cholest...

  11. A tendem mass spectrometric approach for determining the structure of molecular species of ceramide in the marine sponge, Haliclona cribricutis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; Majik, M.; Naik, C.G.

    , “Squid nerve Sphingomyelin containing an unusual sphingoid base”, J. Lipid Res. 41, 1118 (2000). 24. J.D. Watts, M. Gu, A.J. Polverino, S.D. Patterson and R. Aebersold, “Fas-induced apoptosis of T cells occurs independently of ceramide generation...

  12. Anti-Biofilm Compounds Derived from Marine Sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Melander

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial biofilms are surface-attached communities of microorganisms that are protected by an extracellular matrix of biomolecules. In the biofilm state, bacteria are significantly more resistant to external assault, including attack by antibiotics. In their native environment, bacterial biofilms underpin costly biofouling that wreaks havoc on shipping, utilities, and offshore industry. Within a host environment, they are insensitive to antiseptics and basic host immune responses. It is estimated that up to 80% of all microbial infections are biofilm-based. Biofilm infections of indwelling medical devices are of particular concern, since once the device is colonized, infection is almost impossible to eliminate. Given the prominence of biofilms in infectious diseases, there is a notable effort towards developing small, synthetically available molecules that will modulate bacterial biofilm development and maintenance. Here, we highlight the development of small molecules that inhibit and/or disperse bacterial biofilms specifically through non-microbicidal mechanisms. Importantly, we discuss several sets of compounds derived from marine sponges that we are developing in our labs to address the persistent biofilm problem. We will discuss: discovery/synthesis of natural products and their analogues—including our marine sponge-derived compounds and initial adjuvant activity and toxicological screening of our novel anti-biofilm compounds.

  13. Cyclodipeptides from metagenomic library of a japanese marine sponge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Rui; Wang, Bochu; Zhub, Liancai, E-mail: wangbc2000@126.com [Bioengineering College, Chongqing University, Chongqing, (China); Wang, Manyuan [School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing (China); Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Abe, Ikuro, E-mail: abei@mol.f.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-12-01

    Culture-independent metagenomics is an attractive and promising approach to explore unique bioactive small molecules from marine sponges harboring uncultured symbiotic microbes. Therefore, we conducted functional screening of the metagenomic library constructed from the Japanese marine sponge Discodermia calyx. Bioassay-guided fractionation of plate culture extract of antibacterial clone pDC113 afforded eleven cyclodipeptides: Cyclo(l-Thr-l-Leu) (1), Cyclo(l-Val-d-Pro) (2), Cyclo(l-Ile-d-Pro) (3), Cyclo(l-Leu-l-Pro) (4), Cyclo(l-Val-l-Leu) (5), Cyclo(l-Leu-l-Ile) (6), Cyclo(l-Leu-l-Leu) (7), Cyclo(l-Phe-l-Tyr) (8), Cyclo(l-Trp-l-Pro) (9), Cyclo(l-Val-l-Trp) (10) and Cyclo(l-Ile-l-Trp) (11). To the best of our knowledge, these are first cyclodepeptides isolated from metagenomic library. Sequence analysis suggested that isolated cyclodipeptides were not synthesized by nonribosomal peptide synthetases and there was no significant indication of cyclodipeptide synthetases. (author)

  14. Cyclodipeptides from metagenomic library of a japanese marine sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Rui; Wang, Bochu; Zhub, Liancai; Wang, Manyuan; Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Abe, Ikuro

    2013-01-01

    Culture-independent metagenomics is an attractive and promising approach to explore unique bioactive small molecules from marine sponges harboring uncultured symbiotic microbes. Therefore, we conducted functional screening of the metagenomic library constructed from the Japanese marine sponge Discodermia calyx. Bioassay-guided fractionation of plate culture extract of antibacterial clone pDC113 afforded eleven cyclodipeptides: Cyclo(l-Thr-l-Leu) (1), Cyclo(l-Val-d-Pro) (2), Cyclo(l-Ile-d-Pro) (3), Cyclo(l-Leu-l-Pro) (4), Cyclo(l-Val-l-Leu) (5), Cyclo(l-Leu-l-Ile) (6), Cyclo(l-Leu-l-Leu) (7), Cyclo(l-Phe-l-Tyr) (8), Cyclo(l-Trp-l-Pro) (9), Cyclo(l-Val-l-Trp) (10) and Cyclo(l-Ile-l-Trp) (11). To the best of our knowledge, these are first cyclodepeptides isolated from metagenomic library. Sequence analysis suggested that isolated cyclodipeptides were not synthesized by nonribosomal peptide synthetases and there was no significant indication of cyclodipeptide synthetases. (author)

  15. Marine sponge-associated bacteria as a potential source for polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Saibaba, Ganesan; Kiran, George Seghal; Yang, Yung-Hun; Selvin, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    Marine sponges are filter feeding porous animals and usually harbor a remarkable array of microorganisms in their mesohyl tissues as transient and resident endosymbionts. The marine sponge-microbial interactions are highly complex and, in some cases, the relationships are thought to be truly symbiotic or mutualistic rather than temporary associations resulting from sponge filter-feeding activity. The marine sponge-associated bacteria are fascinating source for various biomolecules that are of potential interest to several biotechnological industries. In recent times, a particular attention has been devoted to bacterial biopolymer (polyesters) such as intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) produced by sponge-associated bacteria. Bacterial PHAs act as an internal reserve for carbon and energy and also are a tremendous alternative for fossil fuel-based polymers mainly due to their eco-friendliness. In addition, PHAs are produced when the microorganisms are under stressful conditions and this biopolymer synthesis might be exhibited as one of the survival mechanisms of sponge-associated or endosymbiotic bacteria which exist in a highly competitive and stressful sponge-mesohyl microenvironment. In this review, we have emphasized the industrial prospects of marine bacteria for the commercial production of PHAs and special importance has been given to marine sponge-associated bacteria as a potential resource for PHAs.

  16. Marine Sponge Derived Natural Products between 2001 and 2010: Trends and Opportunities for Discovery of Bioactives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehbub, Mohammad Ferdous; Lei, Jie; Franco, Christopher; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges belonging to the phylum Porifera (Metazoa), evolutionarily the oldest animals are the single best source of marine natural products. The present review presents a comprehensive overview of the source, taxonomy, country of origin or geographical position, chemical class, and biological activity of sponge-derived new natural products discovered between 2001 and 2010. The data has been analyzed with a view to gaining an outlook on the future trends and opportunities in the search for new compounds and their sources from marine sponges. PMID:25196730

  17. Comparisons of the fungal and protistan communities among different marine sponge holobionts by pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liming; Liu, Fang; Karuppiah, Valliappan; Ren, Yi; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    To date, the knowledge of eukaryotic communities associated with sponges remains limited compared with prokaryotic communities. In a manner similar to prokaryotes, it could be hypothesized that sponge holobionts have phylogenetically diverse eukaryotic symbionts, and the eukaryotic community structures in different sponge holobionts were probably different. In order to test this hypothesis, the communities of eukaryota associated with 11 species of South China Sea sponges were compared with the V4 region of 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Consequently, 135 and 721 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi and protists were obtained at 97 % sequence similarity, respectively. These sequences were assigned to 2 phyla of fungi (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) and 9 phyla of protists including 5 algal phyla (Chlorophyta, Haptophyta, Streptophyta, Rhodophyta, and Stramenopiles) and 4 protozoal phyla (Alveolata, Cercozoa, Haplosporidia, and Radiolaria) including 47 orders (12 fungi, 35 protists). Entorrhizales of fungi and 18 orders of protists were detected in marine sponges for the first time. Particularly, Tilletiales of fungi and Chlorocystidales of protists were detected for the first time in marine habitats. Though Ascomycota, Alveolata, and Radiolaria were detected in all the 11 sponge species, sponge holobionts have different fungi and protistan communities according to OTU comparison and principal component analysis at the order level. This study provided the first insights into the fungal and protistan communities associated with different marine sponge holobionts using pyrosequencing, thus further extending the knowledge on sponge-associated eukaryotic diversity.

  18. Bioactive Compounds from the Red Sea Marine Sponge Hyrtios Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Z. Asfour

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In continuation of our search for drug leads from Red Sea sponges we have investigated the ethyl acetate fraction of the organic extract of the Red Sea sponge Hyrtios species. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the active fraction resulted into the identification of three new alkaloids, hyrtioerectines D–F (1–3. Hyrtioerectines D–F belong to the rare marine alkaloids in which the indole and β-carboline fragments of the molecule are linked through C-3/C-3 of both moieties. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on different spectroscopic data including UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC and high-resolution mass spectral studies. The antimicrobial activity against several pathogens and the free radical scavenging activity of the compounds using DPPH reagent were evaluated. In addition, the growth inhibitory activity of the compounds against three cancer cell lines was also evaluated. Hyrtioerectines D–F (1–3 displayed variable antimicrobial, free radical scavenging and cancer growth inhibition activities. Generally, compounds 1 and 3 were more active than compound 2.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Marine Sponge Symbiont Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea IPB1, Isolated from Hilo, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai-Kawada, Francis E; Yakym, Christopher J; Helmkampf, Martin; Hagiwara, Kehau; Ip, Courtney G; Antonio, Brandi J; Armstrong, Ellie; Ulloa, Wesley J; Awaya, Jonathan D

    2016-09-22

    We report here the 6.0-Mb draft genome assembly of Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea strain IPB1 that was isolated from the Hawaiian marine sponge Iotrochota protea Genome mining complemented with bioassay studies will elucidate secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways and will help explain the ecological interaction between host sponge and microorganism. Copyright © 2016 Sakai-Kawada et al.

  20. Alcalóides alquilpiridínicos de esponjas marinhas Alkylpyridine alkaloids from marine sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaíla M. P. Almeida

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry of alkylpyridine alkaloids originating from marine sponges is comprehensively reviewed, with emphasis on their natural occurrence, methods for their isolation, spectroscopic characterization, biological activities e chemical synthesis. A likely chemotaxonomic role is suggested, as markers for sponges of the Order Haplosclerida (Demospongiae.

  1. Cell kinetics of the marine sponge Halisarca caerulea reveal rapid cell turnover and shedding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goeij, de J.M.; Kluijver, de A.; Duyl, van F.C.; Vacelet, J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Goeij, de A.F.P.M.; Cleutjens, J.P.M.; Schutte, B.

    2009-01-01

    This study reveals the peculiar in vivo cell kinetics and cell turnover of the marine sponge Halisarca caerulea under steady-state conditions. The tropical coral reef sponge shows an extremely high proliferation activity, a short cell cycle duration and massive cell shedding. Cell turnover is

  2. Sponge species composition, abundance, and cover in marine lakes and coastal mangroves in Berau, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, L.E.; Cleary, D.F.R.; Voogd, de N.J.

    2013-01-01

    We compared the species composition, abundance, and cover of sponges in 2 marine lakes (Kakaban Lake and Haji Buang Lake) and adjacent coastal mangroves on the islands of Kakaban and Maratua in the Berau region of Indonesia. We recorded a total of 115 sponge species, 33 of which were restricted to

  3. Antiparasitic bromotyrosine derivatives from the marine sponge Verongula rigida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Elkin; Thomas, Olivier P; Robledo, Sara; Munoz, Diana; Martinez, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Nine bromotyrosine-derived compounds were isolated from the Caribbean marine sponge Verongula rigida. Two of them, aeroplysinin-1 (1) and dihydroxyaerothionin (2), are known compounds for this species, and the other seven are unknown compounds for this species, namely: 3,5-dibromo-N,N,N-trimethyltyraminium (3), 3,5-dibromo-N,N,N, O-tetramethyltyraminium (4), purealidin R (5), 19-deoxyfistularin 3 (6), purealidin B (7), 11-hydroxyaerothionin (8) and fistularin-3 (9). Structural determination of the isolated compounds was performed using one- and two-dimensional NMR, MS and other spectroscopy data. All isolated compounds were screened for their in vitro activity against three parasitic protozoa: Leishmania panamensis, Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma cruzi. Compounds 7 and 8 showed selective antiparasitic activity at 10 and 5 μM against Leishmania and Plasmodium parasites, respectively. Cytotoxicity of these compounds on a human promonocytic cell line was also assessed.

  4. Antifungal potential of marine sponge extract against plant and fish pathogenic fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Ravichandran, S.; Ribeiro, M.; Ciavatta, M.L.

    scope for rediscovering compounds with antimicrobial activity. This study screens extracts (Diethyl Ether and Butanol) of a marine red-Sea sponge Negombata magnifica for invitro fungicidal activity against 10 plant and 3 fish pathogens. Fungicidal...

  5. Natural marine sponges for bone tissue engineering: The state of art and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Renata Neves; Custódio, Márcio Reis; Rennó, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2017-08-01

    Marine life and its rich biodiversity provide a plentiful resource of potential new products for the society. Remarkably, marine organisms still remain a largely unexploited resource for biotechnology applications. Among them, marine sponges are sessile animals from the phylum Porifera dated at least from 580 million years ago. It is known that molecules from marine sponges present a huge therapeutic potential in a wide range of applications mainly due to its antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antibiotic effects. In this context, this article reviews all the information available in the literature about the potential of the use of marine sponges for bone tissue engineering applications. First, one of the properties that make sponges interesting as bone substitutes is their structural characteristics. Most species have an efficient interconnected porous architecture, which allows them to process a significant amount of water and facilitates the flow of fluids, mimicking an ideal bone scaffold. Second, sponges have an organic component, the spongin, which is analogous to vertebral collagen, the most widely used natural polymer for tissue regeneration. Last, osteogenic properties of marine sponges is also highlighted by their mineral content, such as biosilica and other compounds, that are able to support cell growth and to stimulate bone formation and mineralization. This review focuses on recent studies concerning these interesting properties, as well as on some challenges to be overcome in the bone tissue engineering field. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1717-1727, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Presence of Aspergillus sydowii, a pathogen of gorgonian sea fans in the marine sponge Spongia obscura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ein-Gil, Neta; Ilan, Micha; Carmeli, Shmuel; Smith, Garriet W; Pawlik, Joseph R; Yarden, Oded

    2009-06-01

    The fungus Aspergillus sydowii is the causative agent of epidemics that affect gorgonian corals (sea fans) and has significantly affected their populations in the Caribbean Sea. We have isolated a strain of A. sydowii from healthy marine sponges (Spongia obscura) collected in Bahamian inshore waters. After its identification on the basis of morphology, molecular markers and chemical profiling followed by pathogenicity tests, we found this strain to be highly similar to a strain isolated from diseased coral, and have shown the capacity of this fungus to persist in sponge environment. Our findings suggest that sponges have the possibility of being reservoirs of a potential marine pathogen.

  7. Characterisation of Non-Autoinducing Tropodithietic Acid (TDA) Production from Marine Sponge Pseudovibrio Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Catriona; Reen, F. Jerry; Mooij, Marlies J.

    2014-01-01

    is the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA). The aim of this study was to provide insight into the bioactivity of and the factors governing the production of TDA in marine Pseudovibrio isolates from a collection of marine sponges. The TDA produced by these Pseudovibrio isolates exhibited potent...

  8. New records of five sponge species (Porifera) for the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evcen, Alper; Çinar, Melih Ertan; Zengin, Mustafa; Süer, Serdar; Rüzgar, Melih

    2016-04-13

    The present study deals with five sponge species [Chalinula renieroides, Haliclona (Halichoclona) fulva, H. (Rhizoniera) rosea, Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) pansa and Ircinia variabilis] belonging to 3 families (Chalinidae, Hymedesmiidae, and Irciniidae) found at one locality (near the opening of Kızılırmak River) on the Black Sea coast of Turkey. All these species are new records for the Black Sea. Three species (Chalinula renieroides, H. (R.) rosea and H. (H.) pansa] are also new records for the marine fauna of Turkey. All these species were previously reported from Mediterranean Sea and the eastern Atlantic Ocean. The morphological and distributional features of these species are presented.

  9. Gene Expression Dynamics Accompanying the Sponge Thermal Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Christine; Conaco, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponges are important members of coral reef ecosystems. Thus, their responses to changes in ocean chemistry and environmental conditions, particularly to higher seawater temperatures, will have potential impacts on the future of these reefs. To better understand the sponge thermal stress response, we investigated gene expression dynamics in the shallow water sponge, Haliclona tubifera (order Haplosclerida, class Demospongiae), subjected to elevated temperature. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we show that these conditions result in the activation of various processes that interact to maintain cellular homeostasis. Short-term thermal stress resulted in the induction of heat shock proteins, antioxidants, and genes involved in signal transduction and innate immunity pathways. Prolonged exposure to thermal stress affected the expression of genes involved in cellular damage repair, apoptosis, signaling and transcription. Interestingly, exposure to sublethal temperatures may improve the ability of the sponge to mitigate cellular damage under more extreme stress conditions. These insights into the potential mechanisms of adaptation and resilience of sponges contribute to a better understanding of sponge conservation status and the prediction of ecosystem trajectories under future climate conditions.

  10. Larvicidal and insecticidal properties of some marine sponges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... Considering both these activities, the following sponges. Psammaplysilla .... ticidal activities even at higher concentrations or doses. (400 ppm for .... cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems and other miscellaneous ...

  11. Two new pyrrolo-2-aminoimidazoles from a Myanmarese marine sponge, Clathria prolifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, So-Yeun; Win, Nwet Nwet; Wong, Chin Piow; Ito, Takuya; Hoshino, Shotaro; Ngwe, Hla; Aye, Aung Aung; Han, Nang Mya; Zhang, Huiping; Hayashi, Fumiaki; Abe, Ikuro; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2018-06-01

    Marine organisms such as marine sponges and soft corals are valuable sources of pharmacologically active secondary metabolites. In our ongoing research on the discovery of new secondary metabolites from marine organisms, two new pyrrolo-2-aminoimidazoles, clathriroles A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the water-soluble portion prepared from the methanol and acetone (2:1) extract of the marine sponge, Clathria prolifera, collected in Myanmar. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were determined using extensive spectroscopic techniques, including NMR, HRESIMS, IR, and optical rotation, and comparisons with the reported literature. The spectroscopic analyses of 1 and 2 suggested that 1 is an enantiomer of antifungal N-methylmanzacidin C isolated from the marine sponge Axinella brevistyla, whereas 2 is a diastereomer of manzacidin D at C-11 isolated from the marine sponge Astrosclera willeyana. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of the pyrrolo-2-aminoimidazole compounds from C. prolifera. Furthermore, in contrast to the potency of N-methylmanzacidin C against Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the antifungal assay revealed that 1 and 2 lack any activity against this strain. Thus, these observations may suggest that the absolute configurations at both C-9 and C-11 play an important role in controlling the antifungal activity of this type of compound.

  12. Metagenomic approaches to exploit the biotechnological potential of the microbial consortia of marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jonathan; Marchesi, Julian R; Dobson, Alan D W

    2007-05-01

    Natural products isolated from sponges are an important source of new biologically active compounds. However, the development of these compounds into drugs has been held back by the difficulties in achieving a sustainable supply of these often-complex molecules for pre-clinical and clinical development. Increasing evidence implicates microbial symbionts as the source of many of these biologically active compounds, but the vast majority of the sponge microbial community remain uncultured. Metagenomics offers a biotechnological solution to this supply problem. Metagenomes of sponge microbial communities have been shown to contain genes and gene clusters typical for the biosynthesis of biologically active natural products. Heterologous expression approaches have also led to the isolation of secondary metabolism gene clusters from uncultured microbial symbionts of marine invertebrates and from soil metagenomic libraries. Combining a metagenomic approach with heterologous expression holds much promise for the sustainable exploitation of the chemical diversity present in the sponge microbial community.

  13. Implications of Sponge Biodiversity Patterns for the Management of a Marine Reserve in Northern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Przeslawski

    Full Text Available Marine reserves are becoming progressively more important as anthropogenic impacts continue to increase, but we have little baseline information for most marine environments. In this study, we focus on the Oceanic Shoals Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR in northern Australia, particularly the carbonate banks and terraces of the Sahul Shelf and Van Diemen Rise which have been designated a Key Ecological Feature (KEF. We use a species-level inventory compiled from three marine surveys to the CMR to address several questions relevant to marine management: 1 Are carbonate banks and other raised geomorphic features associated with biodiversity hotspots? 2 Can environmental (depth, substrate hardness, slope or biogeographic (east vs west variables help explain local and regional differences in community structure? 3 Do sponge communities differ among individual raised geomorphic features? Approximately 750 sponge specimens were collected in the Oceanic Shoals CMR and assigned to 348 species, of which only 18% included taxonomically described species. Between eastern and western areas of the CMR, there was no difference between sponge species richness or assemblages on raised geomorphic features. Among individual raised geomorphic features, sponge assemblages were significantly different, but species richness was not. Species richness showed no linear relationships with measured environmental factors, but sponge assemblages were weakly associated with several environmental variables including mean depth and mean backscatter (east and west and mean slope (east only. These patterns of sponge diversity are applied to support the future management and monitoring of this region, particularly noting the importance of spatial scale in biodiversity assessments and associated management strategies.

  14. Implications of Sponge Biodiversity Patterns for the Management of a Marine Reserve in Northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeslawski, Rachel; Alvarez, Belinda; Kool, Johnathan; Bridge, Tom; Caley, M. Julian; Nichol, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Marine reserves are becoming progressively more important as anthropogenic impacts continue to increase, but we have little baseline information for most marine environments. In this study, we focus on the Oceanic Shoals Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) in northern Australia, particularly the carbonate banks and terraces of the Sahul Shelf and Van Diemen Rise which have been designated a Key Ecological Feature (KEF). We use a species-level inventory compiled from three marine surveys to the CMR to address several questions relevant to marine management: 1) Are carbonate banks and other raised geomorphic features associated with biodiversity hotspots? 2) Can environmental (depth, substrate hardness, slope) or biogeographic (east vs west) variables help explain local and regional differences in community structure? 3) Do sponge communities differ among individual raised geomorphic features? Approximately 750 sponge specimens were collected in the Oceanic Shoals CMR and assigned to 348 species, of which only 18% included taxonomically described species. Between eastern and western areas of the CMR, there was no difference between sponge species richness or assemblages on raised geomorphic features. Among individual raised geomorphic features, sponge assemblages were significantly different, but species richness was not. Species richness showed no linear relationships with measured environmental factors, but sponge assemblages were weakly associated with several environmental variables including mean depth and mean backscatter (east and west) and mean slope (east only). These patterns of sponge diversity are applied to support the future management and monitoring of this region, particularly noting the importance of spatial scale in biodiversity assessments and associated management strategies. PMID:26606745

  15. Reductive Dehalogenation of Brominated Phenolic Compounds by Microorganisms Associated with the Marine Sponge Aplysina aerophoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Young-Beom; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Fennell, Donna E.; Kerkhof, Lee J.; Hentschel, Ute; Häggblom, Max M.

    2003-01-01

    Marine sponges are natural sources of brominated organic compounds, including bromoindoles, bromophenols, and bromopyrroles, that may comprise up to 12% of the sponge dry weight. Aplysina aerophoba sponges harbor large numbers of bacteria that can amount to 40% of the biomass of the animal. We postulated that there might be mechanisms for microbially mediated degradation of these halogenated chemicals within the sponges. The capability of anaerobic microorganisms associated with the marine sponge to transform haloaromatic compounds was tested under different electron-accepting conditions (i.e., denitrifying, sulfidogenic, and methanogenic). We observed dehalogenation activity of sponge-associated microorganisms with various haloaromatics. 2-Bromo-, 3-bromo-, 4-bromo-, 2,6-dibromo-, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol, and 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoate were reductively debrominated under methanogenic and sulfidogenic conditions with no activity observed in the presence of nitrate. Monochlorinated phenols were not transformed over a period of 1 year. Debromination of 2,4,6-tribromophenol, and 2,6-dibromophenol to 2-bromophenol was more rapid than the debromination of the monobrominated phenols. Ampicillin and chloramphenicol inhibited activity, suggesting that dehalogenation was mediated by bacteria. Characterization of the debrominating methanogenic consortia by using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that different 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) phylotypes were enriched on the different halogenated substrates. Sponge-associated microorganisms enriched on organobromine compounds had distinct 16S rDNA TRFLP patterns and were most closely related to the δ subgroup of the proteobacteria. The presence of homologous reductive dehalogenase gene motifs in the sponge-associated microorganisms suggested that reductive dehalogenation might be coupled to dehalorespiration. PMID:12839794

  16. Biodiversity, molecular ecology and phylogeography of marine sponges: patterns, implications and outlooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörheide, Gert; Solé-Cava, Antonio M; Hooper, John N A

    2005-04-01

    Marine sponges are an ecologically important and highly diverse component of marine benthic communities, found in all the world's oceans, at all depths. Although their commercial potential and evolutionary importance is increasingly recognized, many pivotal aspects of their basic biology remain enigmatic. Knowledge of historical biogeographic affinities and biodiversity patterns is rudimentary, and there are still few data about genetic variation among sponge populations and spatial patterns of this variation. Biodiversity analyses of tropical Australasian sponges revealed spatial trends not universally reflected in the distributions of other marine phyla within the Indo-West Pacific region. At smaller spatial scales sponges frequently form heterogeneous, spatially patchy assemblages, with some empirical evidence suggesting that environmental variables such as light and/or turbidity strongly contribute to local distributions. There are no apparent latitudinal diversity gradients at larger spatial scales but stochastic processes, such as changing current patterns, the presence or absence of major carbonate platforms and historical biogeography, may determine modern day distributions. Studies on Caribbean oceanic reefs have revealed similar patterns, only weakly correlated with environmental factors. However, several questions remain where molecular approaches promise great potential, e.g., concerning connectivity and biogeographic relationships. Studies to date have helped to reveal that sponge populations are genetically highly structured and that historical processes might play an important role in determining such structure. Increasingly sophisticated molecular tools are now being applied, with results contributing significantly to a better understanding of poriferan microevolutionary processes and molecular ecology.

  17. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the marine sponge skeleton as a bone mimicking biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Samit K; Kundu, Biswanath; Mahato, Arnab; Thakur, Narsinh L; Joardar, Siddhartha N; Mandal, Biman B

    2015-02-01

    This investigation was carried out to identify and characterize marine sponges as potential bioscaffolds in bone tissue engineering. The marine sponge (Biemna fortis) samples were collected from the rocky intertidal region of Anjuna, Goa, India, freeze-dried and converted to pure cristobalite at low temperature. After thorough evaluation of sponge samples by DTA-TGA thermography, XRD, FTIR, SEM and cell cytotoxicity by MTT assay, bare sponge scaffolds were fabricated by firing at 1190 °C. These scaffolds were loaded with growth factors (IGF-1 and BMP-2), checked for quasi-dynamic in vitro release kinetics and finally implanted into femoral bone defects in rabbits for up to 90 days, by keeping an empty defect as a control. The in vivo bone healing process was evaluated and compared using chronological radiology, histology, SEM and fluorochrome labeling studies. SEM revealed that the sponge skeleton possesses a collagenous fibrous network consisting of highly internetworked porosity in the size range of 10-220 μm. XRD and FTIR analysis showed a cristobalite phase with acicular crystals of high aspect ratio, and crystallinity was found to increase from 725 to 1190 °C. MTT assay demonstrated the non-cytotoxicity of the samples. A combination of burst and sustained release profile was noticed for both the growth factors and about 74.3% and 83% total release at day 28. In the radiological, histological, scanning electron microscopy and fluorochrome labeling analysis, the IGF-1 impregnated converted sponge scaffold promoted excellent osseous tissue formation followed by the BMP-2 loaded and bare one. These observations suggest that the marine sponge alone and in combination with growth factors is a promising biomaterial for bone repair and bone augmentation.

  18. Diversity and antimicrobial potential of culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia P.J. Rua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are the oldest Metazoa, very often presenting a complex microbial consortium. Such is the case of the marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. In this investigation we characterized the diversity of some of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria living in association with A. brasiliensis and determined their antimicrobial activity. The genera Endozoicomonas (N = 32, Bacillus (N = 26, Shewanella (N = 17, Pseudovibrio (N = 12, and Ruegeria (N = 8 were dominant among the recovered isolates, corresponding to 97% of all isolates. Approximately one third of the isolates living in association with A. brasiliensis produced antibiotics that inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that bacteria associated with this sponge play a role in its health.

  19. Cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of the marine sponge Aaptos suberitoides against T47D cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Awik Puji Dyah; Prastiwi, Rarastoeti; Sukardiman, Wahyuningsih, Tri

    2018-04-01

    Aaptos suberitoides marine sponge produce many kinds of secondary metabolites. The purpose of this study were to examine the cytotoxic, proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction of marine sponge A.suberitoides. The sponge was extracted with 96 % ethanol. Ethanol extract cytotoxicity assay were performed with MTT method (Microculture Tetrazolium) against to cell line of T47D. The proliferation inhibition were done by doubling time. The apoptosis induction by observing the treated cell morphology after staining with acrydine orange. The results show that cytotoxic activity of the ethanol extract was 153.109 µg/mL, inhibits cell proliferation cell lines of T47D at 24 hours of incubation and apoptosis induction.

  20. An enrichment of CRISPR and other defense-related features in marine sponge-associated microbial metagenomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Horn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many marine sponges are populated by dense and taxonomically diverse microbial consortia. We employed a metagenomics approach to unravel the differences in the functional gene repertoire among three Mediterranean sponge species, Petrosia ficiformis, Sarcotragus foetidus, Aplysina aerophoba and seawater. Different signatures were observed between sponge and seawater metagenomes with regard to microbial community composition, GC content, and estimated bacterial genome size. Our analysis showed further a pronounced repertoire for defense systems in sponge metagenomes. Specifically, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR, restriction modification, DNA phosphorothioation and phage growth limitation systems were enriched in sponge metagenomes. These data suggest that defense is an important functional trait for an existence within sponges that requires mechanisms to defend against foreign DNA from microorganisms and viruses. This study contributes to an understanding of the evolutionary arms race between viruses/phages and bacterial genomes and it sheds light on the bacterial defenses that have evolved in the context of the sponge holobiont.

  1. Progress towards a controlled culture of the marine sponge Pseudosuberites andrewsi in a bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, R.; Belarbi, El H.; Molina Grima, E.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Explants of the tropical sponge Pseudosuberites andrewsi were fed with the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornotum. The food was supplied either as intact algae or as a filtered crude extract. Growth (measured as an increase in underwater weight) was found in both experiments. The explants fed with

  2. Nepheliosyne B, a New Polyacetylenic Acid from the New Caledonian Marine Sponge Niphates sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Auberger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new C47 polyoxygenated acetylenic acid, nepheliosyne B (2, along with the previously described nepheliosyne A (1, have been isolated from the New Caledonian marine sponge Niphates sp. Their structures have been elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. These metabolites exhibited a moderate cytotoxicity against K562, U266, SKM1, and Kasumi cancer cell lines.

  3. Puupehanol, a Sesquiterpene-Dihydroquinone Derivative from the Marine Sponge Hyrtios sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puupehanol (1), a new sesquiterpene-dihydroquinone derivative, was isolated from the marine sponge Hyrtios sp., along with the known compounds puupehenone (2) and chloropuupehenone (3). The structure of 1 was established as (20R,21R)-21-hydroxy-20,21-dihydropuupehenone by interpretation of spectros...

  4. Taxonomic and Functional Microbial Signatures of the Endemic Marine Sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade-Silva, Amaro E.; Rua, Cintia; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Dutilh, Bas E.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Edwards, Robert A.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Berlinck, Roberto G. S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2012-01-01

    The endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis (Porifera, Demospongiae, Haplosclerida) is a known source of secondary metabolites such as arenosclerins A-C. In the present study, we established the composition of the A. brasiliensis microbiome and the metabolic pathways associated with this community. We used 454 shotgun pyrosequencing to generate approximately 640,000 high-quality sponge-derived sequences (∼150 Mb). Clustering analysis including sponge, seawater and twenty-three other metagenomes derived from marine animal microbiomes shows that A. brasiliensis contains a specific microbiome. Fourteen bacterial phyla (including Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Cloroflexi) were consistently found in the A. brasiliensis metagenomes. The A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for Betaproteobacteria (e.g., Burkholderia) and Gammaproteobacteria (e.g., Pseudomonas and Alteromonas) compared with the surrounding planktonic microbial communities. Functional analysis based on Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) indicated that the A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for sequences associated with membrane transport and one-carbon metabolism. In addition, there was an overrepresentation of sequences associated with aerobic and anaerobic metabolism as well as the synthesis and degradation of secondary metabolites. This study represents the first analysis of sponge-associated microbial communities via shotgun pyrosequencing, a strategy commonly applied in similar analyses in other marine invertebrate hosts, such as corals and algae. We demonstrate that A. brasiliensis has a unique microbiome that is distinct from that of the surrounding planktonic microbes and from other marine organisms, indicating a species-specific microbiome. PMID:22768320

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Rhodococcus sp. Strain WMMA185, a Marine Sponge-Associated Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Adnani, Navid; Braun, Doug R.; McDonald, Bradon R.; Chevrette, Marc G.; Currie, Cameron R.; Bugni, Tim S.

    2016-01-01

    The Rhodococcus strain WMMA185 was isolated from the marine sponge Chondrilla nucula as part of ongoing drug discovery efforts. Analysis of the 4.44-Mb genome provides information regarding interspecies interactions as pertains to regulation of secondary metabolism and natural product biosynthetic potentials.

  6. Nine acetylenic alcohols isolated from the Okinawan marine sponge of the genus Petrosia (Strongylophora).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watanabe, K.; Mori, G.; Iguchi, K.; Suzuki, M.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    Nine new acetylenic alcohols 1-9 were isolated from a marine sponge belonging to the genus Petrosia (Strongylophora). The structures were elucidated mainly based on the analysis of one-and two-dimensional NMR spectral data. To determine the position of the central double bonds in 1-8, each compound

  7. Ophirapstanol trisulfate, a new biologically active steroid sulfate from the deep water marine sponge Topsentia ophiraphidites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, S P; Sennett, S H; Kelly-Borges, M; Bryant, R W

    1994-12-01

    Ophirapstanol trisulfate [1], a new steroid trisulfate related to sokotrasterol trisulfate was isolated from a deep water marine sponge Topsentia ophiraphidites. Compound 1 exhibited significant inhibition in the guanosine diphosphate/G-protein RAS exchange assay. The structure elucidation of 1 and ophirapstanol [2] by nmr spectroscopy is described.

  8. Discobahamins A and B, new peptides from the Bahamian deep water marine sponge Discodermia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, S P; Pomponi, S A; McCarthy, P J

    1994-01-01

    Discobahamin A [1] and discobahamin B [2] are two bioactive peptides isolated from a new species of the Bahamian deep water marine sponge Discodermia. The discobahamins are inhibitors of the growth of Candida albicans, and the isolation and structure elucidation of 1 and 2 by nmr and chemical methods is described.

  9. Gracilioethers A-C, Antimalarial Metabolites from the Marine Sponge Agelas gracilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ueoka, R.; Nakao, Y.; Kawatsu, S.; Yaegashi, J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Matsunaga, S.; Furihata, K; van Soest, R.W.M.; Fusetani, N.

    2009-01-01

    Three new antiprotozoan compounds, gracilioethers A−C (1−3), have been isolated from the marine sponge Agelas gracilis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical methods. Gracilioethers A−C showed antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values

  10. Metagenomic binning of a marine sponge microbiome reveals unity in defense but metabolic specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Beate M; Hackl, Thomas; Horn, Hannes; Bayer, Kristina; Hentschel, Ute

    2017-11-01

    Marine sponges are ancient metazoans that are populated by distinct and highly diverse microbial communities. In order to obtain deeper insights into the functional gene repertoire of the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba, we combined Illumina short-read and PacBio long-read sequencing followed by un-targeted metagenomic binning. We identified a total of 37 high-quality bins representing 11 bacterial phyla and two candidate phyla. Statistical comparison of symbiont genomes with selected reference genomes revealed a significant enrichment of genes related to bacterial defense (restriction-modification systems, toxin-antitoxin systems) as well as genes involved in host colonization and extracellular matrix utilization in sponge symbionts. A within-symbionts genome comparison revealed a nutritional specialization of at least two symbiont guilds, where one appears to metabolize carnitine and the other sulfated polysaccharides, both of which are abundant molecules in the sponge extracellular matrix. A third guild of symbionts may be viewed as nutritional generalists that perform largely the same metabolic pathways but lack such extraordinary numbers of the relevant genes. This study characterizes the genomic repertoire of sponge symbionts at an unprecedented resolution and it provides greater insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying microbial-sponge symbiosis.

  11. Carbohydrate self-recognition mediates marine sponge cellular adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Haseley, S.R.; Vermeer, H.J.; Kamerling, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Sponges (Porifera), the simplest and earliest multicellular organisms, are thought to have evolved from their unicellular ancestors about 1 billion years ago by developing cell-recognition and adhesion mechanisms to discriminate against 'non-self.' Consequently, they are used as models for

  12. Ecology and biotechnological potential of bacterial community from three marine sponges of the coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO V. DE ARAÚJO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Marine sponges has been a large reservoir of microbial diversity, with the presence of many species specific populations as well as producing biologically active compounds, which has attracted great biotechnological interest. In order to verify the influence of the environment in the composition of the bacterial community present in marine sponges and biotechnological potential of bacteria isolated from these organisms, three species of sponges and the waters surrounding them were collected in different beaches of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The profile of the bacterial community present in sponges and water was obtained by PCR-DGGE technique and the biotechnological potential of the strains isolated by producing amylase, cellulase, protease and biosurfactants. The results showed that despite the influence of the environment in the composition of the microbial community, studied marine sponges shown to have specific bacterial populations, with some, showing potential in the production of substances of biotechnological applications.

  13. Phospholipid studies of marine organisms: 14. Ether lipids of the sponge Tethya aurantia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.M.; Djerassi, C.

    1987-01-01

    The novel unesterified alkyl glycerol monoethers, (2S)-1-(hexadecyloxy)-2,3-propanediol (1), (2S)-1-(16-methylheptadecyloxy)-2,3-propanediol (2) and (2S)-1-(15-methylheptadecyloxy)-2,3-propanediol (3) were isolated from the marine sponge Tethya aurantia and were characterized by spectroscopic methods. These three saturated ethers as well as a series of alk-1'-enyl glycerol monoethers were also encountered in the phospholipids of the same sponge after reduction with LiAlH4. Incorporation experiments with dissociated cells of T. aurantia indicated that [1- 14 C]-hexadecanol was incorporated into the unesterified alkyl glycerol monoethers

  14. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of marine sponge Clathria vulpina extract against chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaram Prasanna Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the antiplasmodial potential of marine sponge Clathria vulpina (C. vulpina against chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum. Methods: The marine sponge C. vulpina was collected from Thondi coast, authenticated and subjected for extraction by soaking in ethanol:water mixture (3:1 ratio. The percentage of extract was calculated. Filter sterilized extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, 3.125 μg/mL were screened for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine sensitive P. falciparum. The extract was also tested for its hemolytic activity. Results: The percentage yield of extract of C. vulpina was found to be 4.8%. The crude extract of C. vulpina showed excellent antiplasmodial activity (IC 50=14.75 μg/mL which was highly comparable to the positive control chloroquine (IC50=7 μg/mL. Statistical analysis reveals that the significant antiplasmodial activity (P<0.05 was observed between the concentrations and the time of exposure. The chemical injury to erythrocytes was also carried out, which showed that there were no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the ethanolic extracts of sponges after 48 h of incubation. The extract showed slight hemolytic activity which almost equal to chloroquine at 100 μg/mL concentration (1.023%. Conclusions: The marine sponge C. vulpina can be used as a putative antiplasmodial drug after completing successful clinical trials.

  15. Affinities of the Aphanocapsa feldmanni-like cyanobacteria from the marine sponge Xestospongia muta based on genetic and morphological analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez, R.; Erpenbeck, D.J.G.; Richelle-Maurer, E.; van Dijk, T.R.; Woldringh, C.L.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    The marine sponge Xestospongia muta (Porifera: Demospongiae: Haplosclerida) harbours cyanobacteria in its peripheral tissue that have been described as having an Aphanocapsa feldmanni-type appearance. Through subsequent cell fractionation steps we obtained a virtually pure cell suspension of the

  16. Polyketide Synthases in the Microbiome of the Marine Sponge Plakortis halichondrioides: A Metagenomic Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Della Sala

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sponge-associated microorganisms are able to assemble the complex machinery for the production of secondary metabolites such as polyketides, the most important class of marine natural products from a drug discovery perspective. A comprehensive overview of polyketide biosynthetic genes of the sponge Plakortis halichondrioides and its symbionts was obtained in the present study by massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing of complex and heterogeneous PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction products amplified from the metagenomic DNA of a specimen of P. halichondrioides collected in the Caribbean Sea. This was accompanied by a survey of the bacterial diversity within the sponge. In line with previous studies, sequences belonging to supA and swfA, two widespread sponge-specific groups of polyketide synthase (PKS genes were dominant. While they have been previously reported as belonging to Poribacteria (a novel bacterial phylum found exclusively in sponges, re-examination of current genomic sequencing data showed supA and swfA not to be present in the poribacterial genome. Several non-supA, non-swfA type-I PKS fragments were also identified. A significant portion of these fragments resembled type-I PKSs from protists, suggesting that bacteria may not be the only source of polyketides from P. halichondrioides, and that protistan PKSs should receive further investigation as a source of novel polyketides.

  17. Isolation, Identification And Screening Antibacterial Activity from Marine Sponge-Associated Fungi Against Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandala Sibero, Mada; Sabdaningsih, Aninditia; Cristianawati, Olvi; Nuryadi, Handung; Karna Radjasa, Ocky; Sabdono, Agus; Trianto, Agus

    2017-02-01

    Irrational used of antibiotic in several decades ago causing resistant in bacteria and decreasing the cure rate of infectious diseases. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli is known to cause various of infectious diseases such as urinary tract infection, nosocomial bloodstream infection, meningitis, bacteraemia, and gastrointestinal disease. Marine sponge-associated fungi have potential as source of new compound to combat MDR E. coli. The aims of this research were to isolate marine sponge-assosiated fungi, to screen potential fungi against MDR E. coli, to identify the potential fungi and its host sponge. There were 29 marine sponge-associated fungi successfully isolated from 9 sponges. Among 29 sponge-associated fungi screened, there were 7 isolates showed antibacterial activity against MDR E. coli. The best inhibition zone produced by MPS 14.1/MT 02 and MPS 14.3/MT 04 from sponge PP.SP.16.14. According to fungi identification result fungus MPS 14.1/MT 02 was identified as Trichoderma asperellum while MPS 14.3/MT 04 was identified as Trichoderma reesei. Sponge identification leaded the PP.SP.16.14 as Cinachyrella sp.

  18. Hologenome analysis of two marine sponges with different microbiomes

    KAUST Repository

    Ryu, Tae Woo

    2016-02-29

    Background Sponges (Porifera) harbor distinct microbial consortia within their mesohyl interior. We herein analysed the hologenomes of Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria, which notably differ in their microbiome content. Results Our analysis revealed that S. carteri has an expanded repertoire of immunological domains, specifically Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich (SRCR)-like domains, compared to X. testudinaria. On the microbial side, metatranscriptome analyses revealed an overrepresentation of potential symbiosis-related domains in X. testudinaria. Conclusions Our findings provide genomic insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying host-symbiont coevolution and may serve as a roadmap for future hologenome analyses.

  19. Preliminary study on swarming marine bacteria isolated from Pulau Tinggi's sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairi, Fareed; Idris, Hamidah; Zakaria, Nur Syuhana; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    Marine sponges were known to produce novel bioactive compounds that have anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-cancer and anti-fungal activities. Most of the bioactive compounds were secreted from the bacteria that lives on the sponges. The bacterial communities also produced biofilm, toxin or biosurfactant that protect the sponges from disease or in-coming predator. In this study, twenty nine marine bacteria with swarming motility characteristic was isolated from 2 different sponge samples collected in Pulau Tinggi These isolates were grown and their genome were extracted for molecular identification using the 16S rRNA approach. Sequence comparison using BLASTn and multiple alignments using MEGA4 was performed to produce a phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic tree revealed that 20 of the isolates were grouped under α-Proteobacteria that comprised of 19 isolates in the Vibrionaceae family and one belongs to Aeromonadaceae family. Furthermore, six isolates from Actinobacteria family and three isolates from Firmicutes were also detected. The swarming characteristic indicates the possible production of biosurfactant.

  20. A New Diketopiperazine from the Marine Sponge Callyspongia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the sponge Callyspongia sp . from the South China Sea afforded one new diketopiperazine , cyclo-(R-Pro-6-hydroxyl-S -Ile (1, along with six known d iketopiperazines : staphyloamide A (2, cyclo- (S-Pro-S-Phe (3, cyclo-(R-Pro-R-Phe (4, cyclo- (S-Pro-R-Leu (5 , cyclo-(S-Pro-R-Ala (6, cyclo-(R-Tyr-R-Phe (7, and three known tryptophan-derived alkaloids: C 2-α-D-mannosylpyranosyl-tryptophan (8, (1 R , 3 S -1-methyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-3-carboxylic acid (9, and (1R,3R-1-methyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-3-carboxylic acid (10 . The structures were determined on the basis of NMR and MS analysis , and the absolute configuration was determined by comparison of the optical rotation with the known compounds. This is the first report of compounds 1, 2 , 8–10 from the sponge Callyspongia . Cyclo- (S-Pro-R-Leu (5 , and cyclo-(S-Pro-R-Ala (6 exhibited antifouling activity against cyprid larvae of the barnacle with the LC 50 values of 3.5 μg/cm 2 and 6.0 μg/cm 2, respectively .

  1. Antimicrobial evaluation of the crude extract of symbiotic fungi from marine sponge Reniera japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Bai

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponge-derived microbes are one of the rich sources of bioactive natural products with a broad spectrum of bioactivities. The present work focuses on the isolation and antimicrobial screening of the marine sponge-associated fungi from Reniera japonica MNP-2016. The results indicated that five fungi (L1-2, L2-1, L4, L8-1 and L14 were successfully isolated. Bioassay tests showed that only strain L14 had strong inhibitory effect on the pathogens, Staphyloccocus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. 18S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that strain L14 was ascribed to Aspergillus genus. To the best of our knowledge, this work was the first report on the isolation and antimicrobial evaluation of fungi from R. japonica.

  2. New isomalabaricane triterpenes from the marine sponge Stelletta globostellata that induce morphological changes in rat fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, N; Matsunaga, S; Wada, S i; Watabe, S; Fusetani, N

    2000-02-01

    Three new isomalabaricane triterpenes, 29-hydroxystelliferin D (2), 3-epi-29-hydroxystelliferin E (3), and 3-epi-29-hydroxystelliferin A (4), were isolated from the marine sponge Stelletta globostellata. Their structures, including absolute stereochemistry, were determined on the basis of spectral data and chemical methods. Rat fibroblasts treated with 0.2 microM of 2-4 exhibited unusual morphological characteristics, followed by death in 5 days.

  3. A new cytotoxic sterol methoxymethyl ether from a deep water marine sponge Scleritoderma sp. cf. paccardi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, S P; Kelly-Borges, M; Longley, R E

    1996-02-01

    24(R)-Methyl-5 alpha-cholest-7-enyl 3 beta-methoxymethyl ether (1), a new sterol ether, has been isolated from a deep-water marine sponge Scleritoderma sp. cf. paccardi. Compound 1 exhibited in vitro cytotoxicity against the cultured murine P-388 tumor cell line with an IC50 of 2.3 micrograms/mL. The isolation and structure elucidation of 1 by NMR spectroscopy is described.

  4. An Overview on Marine Sponge-Symbiotic Bacteria as Unexhausted Sources for Natural Product Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice M. Brinkmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial symbiotic communities of marine macro-organisms carry functional metabolic profiles different to the ones found terrestrially and within surrounding marine environments. These symbiotic bacteria have increasingly been a focus of microbiologists working in marine environments due to a wide array of reported bioactive compounds of therapeutic importance resulting in various patent registrations. Revelations of symbiont-directed host specific functions and the true nature of host-symbiont interactions, combined with metagenomic advances detecting functional gene clusters, will inevitably open new avenues for identification and discovery of novel bioactive compounds of biotechnological value from marine resources. This review article provides an overview on bioactive marine symbiotic organisms with specific emphasis placed on the sponge-associated ones and invites the international scientific community to contribute towards establishment of in-depth information of the environmental parameters defining selection and acquisition of true symbionts by the host organisms.

  5. Cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of selected marine sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chairman K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anticancer activity of the crude extracts of Rhabdastrella globostellata (R. globostellata and Spirastrella inconstans (S. inconstans var. moeandrina Dendy. Methods: Soxhlet extraction method was used to extract the secondary metabolites and various assays antioxidant, anticancer and various assays were carried out. The extract were tested anticancer activity against a HeLa, Raw 264.7 and Hek-293. Results: The sponge extracts tested exhibited from median to high toxicity in at least one of the toxicity bioassays performed. The antioxidant activity of the isolated metabolite in ethylacetate solution was assessed by SOD and GTH assays and compared with that of other known natural antioxidants. Conclusions: Potent antioxidants have been detected among both phenolic metabolites and alkaloids. Antioxidant effects of tested compounds have been attributed to their action as chain-breaking antioxidants and/or as scavengers of radicals

  6. Isolation, Phylogenetic Analysis and Anti-infective Activity Screening of Marine Sponge-Associated Actinomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safwat Ahmed

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial actinomycetes are noteworthy producers of a multitude of antibiotics, however the marine representatives are much less studied in this regard. In this study, 90 actinomycetes were isolated from 11 different species of marine sponges that had been collected from offshore Ras Mohamed (Egypt and from Rovinj (Croatia. Phylogenetic characterization of the isolates based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing supported their assignment to 18 different actinomycete genera representing seven different suborders. Fourteen putatively novel species were identified based on sequence similarity values below 98.2% to other strains in the NCBI database. A putative new genus related to Rubrobacter was isolated on M1 agar that had been amended with sponge extract, thus highlighting the need for innovative cultivation protocols. Testing for anti-infective activities was performed against clinically relevant, Gram-positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria, fungi (Candida albicans and human parasites (Leishmania major, Trypanosoma brucei. Bioactivities against these pathogens were documented for 10 actinomycete isolates. These results show a high diversity of actinomycetes associated with marine sponges as well as highlight their potential to produce anti-infective agents.

  7. Elemental composition by EDXRF of marine sponges from the Berlengas portuguese natural park - western portuguese coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Maria Fatima; Conceicao, Ana; Barbosa, Teresa

    2001-01-01

    Marine sponges are sedentary and unselective filter-feeding metazoans, which are nowadays represented by more than six thousand species with the Demospongiae being the most representative, inhabiting all aquatic environments. Due to their way of feeding, by filtering large amounts of water, these benthic organisms are particularly exposed to pollutants. Previous studies have demonstrated their aptitude in being used as environmental monitors. Besides, some authors have evidenced a selective bio-accumulation capability for some transition elements (e.g. Ni, Zn) which is dependent on the species. The present work aims at the investigation of marine sponges collected at the Berlengas Islands located at Western Portuguese Coastal area. These islands constitute a National Park with controlled access and low signal of anthropogenic influences, being a nearly ideal habitat to evaluate a possible selective bio-accumulation. Thirty-five sponges collected in August 1998, at the Berlengas National Park were classified and analysed by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRF). The major, minor and some trace elements: Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, I and Pb were determined. Besides, sediment samples were also taken from the area to assess some lithological influence on the sponge composition. Due to the high percentage of elements that do not emit characteristic X-ray lines, absorption corrections for quantitative calculations were carried out taking into account the ratio between the inelastic and elastic scattered incident radiation of compounds and standard reference materials, from a silver secondary target. A lithological influence on the sponge major elemental composition is demonstrated. The absence of any trace metal contamination was confirmed and a clear selective bio-accumulation in some trace elements, such as Ni, Zn and As was detected

  8. Diversity of bacteria in the marine sponge Aplysina fulva in Brazilian coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardoim, C C P; Costa, R; Araújo, F V; Hajdu, E; Peixoto, R; Lins, U; Rosado, A S; van Elsas, J D

    2009-05-01

    Microorganisms can account for up to 60% of the fresh weight of marine sponges. Marine sponges have been hypothesized to serve as accumulation spots of particular microbial communities, but it is unknown to what extent these communities are directed by the organism or the site or occur randomly. To address this question, we assessed the composition of specific bacterial communities associated with Aplysina fulva, one of the prevalent sponge species inhabiting Brazilian waters. Specimens of A. fulva and surrounding seawater were collected in triplicate in shallow water at two sites, Caboclo Island and Tartaruga beach, Búzios, Brazil. Total community DNA was extracted from the samples using "direct" and "indirect" approaches. 16S rRNA-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses of the total bacterial community and of specific bacterial groups--Pseudomonas and Actinobacteria--revealed that the structure of these assemblages in A. fulva differed drastically from that observed in seawater. The DNA extraction methodology and sampling site were determinative for the composition of actinobacterial communities in A. fulva. However, no such effects could be gleaned from total bacterial and Pseudomonas PCR-DGGE profiles. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from directly and indirectly extracted DNA did not differ significantly with respect to diversity and composition. Altogether, the libraries encompassed 15 bacterial phyla and the candidate division TM7. Clone sequences affiliated with the Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria were, in this order, most abundant. The bacterial communities associated with the A. fulva specimens were distinct and differed from those described in studies of sponge-associated microbiota performed with other sponge species.

  9. Diversity of Bacteria in the Marine Sponge Aplysina fulva in Brazilian Coastal Waters▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardoim, C. C. P.; Costa, R.; Araújo, F. V.; Hajdu, E.; Peixoto, R.; Lins, U.; Rosado, A. S.; van Elsas, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms can account for up to 60% of the fresh weight of marine sponges. Marine sponges have been hypothesized to serve as accumulation spots of particular microbial communities, but it is unknown to what extent these communities are directed by the organism or the site or occur randomly. To address this question, we assessed the composition of specific bacterial communities associated with Aplysina fulva, one of the prevalent sponge species inhabiting Brazilian waters. Specimens of A. fulva and surrounding seawater were collected in triplicate in shallow water at two sites, Caboclo Island and Tartaruga beach, Búzios, Brazil. Total community DNA was extracted from the samples using “direct” and “indirect” approaches. 16S rRNA-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses of the total bacterial community and of specific bacterial groups—Pseudomonas and Actinobacteria—revealed that the structure of these assemblages in A. fulva differed drastically from that observed in seawater. The DNA extraction methodology and sampling site were determinative for the composition of actinobacterial communities in A. fulva. However, no such effects could be gleaned from total bacterial and Pseudomonas PCR-DGGE profiles. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from directly and indirectly extracted DNA did not differ significantly with respect to diversity and composition. Altogether, the libraries encompassed 15 bacterial phyla and the candidate division TM7. Clone sequences affiliated with the Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria were, in this order, most abundant. The bacterial communities associated with the A. fulva specimens were distinct and differed from those described in studies of sponge-associated microbiota performed with other sponge species. PMID:19304829

  10. A heteroaromatic acid from marine sponge Suberites vestigium

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mishra, P.D.; Wahidullah, S.; Kamat, S.Y.

    as synthetic products are widely used as medicine, however, organic compounds containing pyrazole nucleus have not been reported from marine flora and fauna. Structure elucidation of the compound is based on spectral evidences....

  11. Microbial communities and bioactive compounds in marine sponges of the family irciniidae-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardoim, Cristiane C P; Costa, Rodrigo

    2014-09-30

    Marine sponges harbour complex microbial communities of ecological and biotechnological importance. Here, we propose the application of the widespread sponge family Irciniidae as an appropriate model in microbiology and biochemistry research. Half a gram of one Irciniidae specimen hosts hundreds of bacterial species-the vast majority of which are difficult to cultivate-and dozens of fungal and archaeal species. The structure of these symbiont assemblages is shaped by the sponge host and is highly stable over space and time. Two types of quorum-sensing molecules have been detected in these animals, hinting at microbe-microbe and host-microbe signalling being important processes governing the dynamics of the Irciniidae holobiont. Irciniids are vulnerable to disease outbreaks, and concerns have emerged about their conservation in a changing climate. They are nevertheless amenable to mariculture and laboratory maintenance, being attractive targets for metabolite harvesting and experimental biology endeavours. Several bioactive terpenoids and polyketides have been retrieved from Irciniidae sponges, but the actual producer (host or symbiont) of these compounds has rarely been clarified. To tackle this, and further pertinent questions concerning the functioning, resilience and physiology of these organisms, truly multi-layered approaches integrating cutting-edge microbiology, biochemistry, genetics and zoology research are needed.

  12. Microbial Communities and Bioactive Compounds in Marine Sponges of the Family Irciniidae—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane C. P. Hardoim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges harbour complex microbial communities of ecological and biotechnological importance. Here, we propose the application of the widespread sponge family Irciniidae as an appropriate model in microbiology and biochemistry research. Half a gram of one Irciniidae specimen hosts hundreds of bacterial species—the vast majority of which are difficult to cultivate—and dozens of fungal and archaeal species. The structure of these symbiont assemblages is shaped by the sponge host and is highly stable over space and time. Two types of quorum-sensing molecules have been detected in these animals, hinting at microbe-microbe and host-microbe signalling being important processes governing the dynamics of the Irciniidae holobiont. Irciniids are vulnerable to disease outbreaks, and concerns have emerged about their conservation in a changing climate. They are nevertheless amenable to mariculture and laboratory maintenance, being attractive targets for metabolite harvesting and experimental biology endeavours. Several bioactive terpenoids and polyketides have been retrieved from Irciniidae sponges, but the actual producer (host or symbiont of these compounds has rarely been clarified. To tackle this, and further pertinent questions concerning the functioning, resilience and physiology of these organisms, truly multi-layered approaches integrating cutting-edge microbiology, biochemistry, genetics and zoology research are needed.

  13. Signal Recognition Particle 54 kD Protein (SRP54 from the Marine Sponge Geodia cydonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Durajlija-Žinić

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the systematic search for phylogenetically conserved proteins in the simplest and most ancient extant metazoan phylum – Porifera, we have identified and analyzed a cDNA encoding the signal recognition particle 54 kD protein (SRP54 from the marine sponge Geodia cydonium (Demospongiae. The signal recognition particle (SRP is a universally conserved ribonucleoprotein complex of a very ancient origin, comprising SRP RNA and several proteins (six in mammals. The nucleotide sequence of the sponge cDNA predicts a protein of 499 amino acid residues with a calculated Mr of 55175. G. cydonium SRP54 displays unusually high overall similarity (90 % with human/mammalian SRP54 proteins, higher than with Drosophila melanogaster (88 %, or Caenorhabditis elegans (82 %. The same was found for the majority of known and phylogenetically conserved proteins from sponges, indicating that the molecular evolutionary rates in protein coding genes in Porifera as well as in highly developed mammals (vertebrates are slower, when compared with the rates in homologous genes from invertebrates (insects, nematodes. Therefore, genes/proteins from sponges might be the best candidates for the reconstruction of ancient structures of proteins and genome/proteome complexity in the ancestral organism, common to all multicellular animals.

  14. Marine Caves of the Mediterranean Sea: A Sponge Biodiversity Reservoir within a Biodiversity Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Marine caves are widely acknowledged for their unique biodiversity and constitute a typical feature of the Mediterranean coastline. Herein an attempt was made to evaluate the ecological significance of this particular ecosystem in the Mediterranean Sea, which is considered a biodiversity hotspot. This was accomplished by using Porifera, which dominate the rocky sublittoral substrata, as a reference group in a meta-analytical approach, combining primary research data from the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean) with data derived from the literature. In total 311 species from all poriferan classes were recorded, representing 45.7% of the Mediterranean Porifera. Demospongiae and Homoscleromorpha are highly represented in marine caves at the family (88%), generic (70%), and species level (47.5%), the latter being the most favored group along with Dictyoceratida and Lithistida. Several rare and cave-exclusive species were reported from only one or few caves, indicating the fragmentation and peculiarity of this unique ecosystem. Species richness and phylogenetic diversity varied among Mediterranean areas; the former was positively correlated with research effort, being higher in the northern Mediterranean, while the latter was generally higher in caves than in the overall sponge assemblages of each area. Resemblance analysis among areas revealed that cavernicolous sponge assemblages followed a pattern quite similar to that of the overall Mediterranean assemblages. The same pattern was exhibited by the zoogeographic affinities of cave sponges: species with Atlanto-Mediterranean distribution and Mediterranean endemics prevailed (more than 40% each), 70% of them having warm-water affinities, since most caves were studied in shallow waters. According to our findings, Mediterranean marine caves appear to be important sponge biodiversity reservoirs of high representativeness and great scientific interest, deserving further detailed study and protection. PMID:22808070

  15. Screening of marine sponge-associated bacteria from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ramakrishna

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... It was then confirmed by means of basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). From these results, it is confirmed that the ... using the effective compounds from marine sources has increased. Bioactive compounds from .... Methanol was used as the control, the plates were incubated for 24 h at 37°C (Li et al., ...

  16. Njaoaminiums A, B, and C: Cyclic 3-Alkylpyridinium Salts from the Marine Sponge Reniera sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Amade

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Three novel cyclic 3-alkylpyridinium salts, named njaoaminiums A, B, and C (1-3, were isolated from the marine sponge Reniera sp., collected off the coasts of Pemba Island, Tanzania. The structural determination of the compounds was based on 1D and 2D NMR studies and mass spectral determinations. Njaoaminiums B (2 and C (3 are the first examples of cyclic 3-alkylpyridinium salts bearing a methyl substituent on the alkyl chains. These compounds are assumed to be biosynthetic precursors of the njaoamines, previously isolated from the same sponge. The absolute configurations of the methyls of 2 and 3 were assigned by comparison between experimental and TDDFT calculated circular dichroism spectra on the most stable conformer. Compound 2 showed weak cytotoxicity against the three human tumor cell lines MDA-MB-231, A549, and HT29.

  17. Volatiles from the fungal microbiome of the marine sponge Callyspongia cf. flammea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Lena; Barac, Paul; König, Gabriele M; Crüsemann, Max; Dickschat, Jeroen S

    2017-09-13

    The volatiles emitted by five fungal strains previously isolated from the marine sponge Callyspongia cf. flammea were captured with a closed-loop stripping apparatus (CLSA) and analyzed by GC-MS. Besides several widespread compounds, a series of metabolites with interesting bioactivities were found, including the quorum sensing inhibitor protoanemonin, the fungal phytotoxin 3,4-dimethylpentan-4-olide, and the insect attractant 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene. In addition, the aromatic polyketides isotorquatone and chartabomone that are both known from Eucalyptus and a new O-desmethyl derivative were identified. The biosynthesis of isotorquatone was studied by feeding experiments with isotopically labeled precursors and its absolute configuration was determined by enantioselective synthesis of a reference compound. Bioactivity testings showed algicidal activity for some of the identified compounds, suggesting a potential ecological function in sponge defence.

  18. Development of cultures of the marine sponge Hymeniacidon perleve for genotoxicity assessment using the alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpiri, Rachael U; Konya, Roseline S; Hodges, Nikolas J

    2017-12-01

    Sponges are a potential alternative model species to bivalves in pollution biomonitoring and environmental risk assessment in the aquatic ecosystem. In the present study, a novel in vivo exposure sponge culture model was developed from field-collected and cryopreserved sponge (Hymeniacidon perleve) cells to investigate the genotoxic effects of environmentally relevant metals in the laboratory. Sponge cell aggregates were cultured and exposed to noncytotoxic concentrations (0-0.4 mg/L) of cadmium chloride, nickel chloride, and sodium dichromate as quantified by the reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and DNA-strand breaks assessed by the comet assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was quantified by oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate in sponge cell aggregates exposed to the same concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Ni. There was a statistically significant (p sponge cells and demonstrated that exposure to noncytotoxic concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Ni for 12 h results in a concentration-dependent increase in DNA damage and levels of ROS production. In conclusion, we have developed a novel in vivo model based on culture of cryopreserved sponge cells that is compatible with the alkaline comet assay. Genotoxicity in marine sponges measured by the comet assay technique may be a useful tool for biomonitoring research and risk assessment in aquatic ecosystems. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3314-3323. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  19. Biotechnological Applications of Marine Enzymes From Algae, Bacteria, Fungi, and Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parte, S; Sirisha, V L; D'Souza, J S

    Diversity is the hallmark of all life forms that inhabit the soil, air, water, and land. All these habitats pose their unique inherent challenges so as to breed the "fittest" creatures. Similarly, the biodiversity from the marine ecosystem has evolved unique properties due to challenging environment. These challenges include permafrost regions to hydrothermal vents, oceanic trenches to abyssal plains, fluctuating saline conditions, pH, temperature, light, atmospheric pressure, and the availability of nutrients. Oceans occupy 75% of the earth's surface and harbor most ancient and diverse forms of organisms (algae, bacteria, fungi, sponges, etc.), serving as an excellent source of natural bioactive molecules, novel therapeutic compounds, and enzymes. In this chapter, we introduce enzyme technology, its current state of the art, unique enzyme properties, and the biocatalytic potential of marine algal, bacterial, fungal, and sponge enzymes that have indeed boosted the Marine Biotechnology Industry. Researchers began exploring marine enzymes, and today they are preferred over the chemical catalysts for biotechnological applications and functions, encompassing various sectors, namely, domestic, industrial, commercial, and healthcare. Next, we summarize the plausible pros and cons: the challenges encountered in the process of discovery of the potent compounds and bioactive metabolites such as biocatalysts/enzymes of biomedical, therapeutic, biotechnological, and industrial significance. The field of Marine Enzyme Technology has recently assumed importance, and if it receives further boost, it could successfully substitute other chemical sources of enzymes useful for industrial and commercial purposes and may prove as a beneficial and ecofriendly option. With appropriate directions and encouragement, marine enzyme technology can sustain the rising demand for enzyme production while maintaining the ecological balance, provided any undesired exploitation of the marine

  20. Sulfated Steroid–Amino Acid Conjugates from the Irish Marine Sponge Polymastia boletiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vangelis Smyrniotopoulos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal bioactivity-guided fractionation of the organic extract of the sponge Polymastia boletiformis, collected from the west coast of Ireland, led to the isolation of two new sulfated steroid-amino acid conjugates (1 and 2. Extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses in combination with quantum mechanical calculations of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD spectra, optical rotation, and 13C chemical shifts were used to establish the chemical structures of 1 and 2. Both compounds exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum, while compound 2 was also active against Candida albicans. Marine natural products containing steroidal and amino acid constituents are extremely rare in nature.

  1. Sulfated steroid-amino acid conjugates from the Irish marine sponge Polymastia boletiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrniotopoulos, Vangelis; Rae, Margaret; Soldatou, Sylvia; Ding, Yuanqing; Wolff, Carsten W; McCormack, Grace; Coleman, Christina M; Ferreira, Daneel; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2015-03-24

    Antifungal bioactivity-guided fractionation of the organic extract of the sponge Polymastia boletiformis, collected from the west coast of Ireland, led to the isolation of two new sulfated steroid-amino acid conjugates (1 and 2). Extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses in combination with quantum mechanical calculations of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, optical rotation, and 13C chemical shifts were used to establish the chemical structures of 1 and 2. Both compounds exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum, while compound 2 was also active against Candida albicans. Marine natural products containing steroidal and amino acid constituents are extremely rare in nature.

  2. Bioactive Hydantoin Alkaloids from the Red Sea Marine Sponge Hemimycale arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaa T. A. Youssef

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the course of our continuing efforts to identify bioactive secondary metabolites from Red Sea marine invertebrates, we have investigated the sponge Hemimycale arabica. The antimicrobial fraction of an organic extract of the sponge afforded two new hydantoin alkaloids, hemimycalins A and B (2 and 3, together with the previously reported compound (Z-5-(4-hydroxybenzylideneimidazolidine-2,4-dione (1. The structures of the compounds were determined by extensive 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC studies and high-resolution mass spectral determinations. Hemimycalins A (2 and B (3 represent the first examples of the natural N-alkylated hydantoins from the sponge Hemimycale arabica. Compounds 1–3 displayed variable antimicrobial activities against E. coli, S. aureus, and C. albicans. In addition, compound 1 displayed moderate antiproliferative activity against the human cervical carcinoma (HeLa cell line. These findings provide further insight into the chemical diversity as well as the biological activity of this class of compounds.

  3. Bioactive Hydantoin Alkaloids from the Red Sea Marine Sponge Hemimycale arabica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Diaa T A; Shaala, Lamiaa A; Alshali, Khalid Z

    2015-10-28

    In the course of our continuing efforts to identify bioactive secondary metabolites from Red Sea marine invertebrates, we have investigated the sponge Hemimycale arabica. The antimicrobial fraction of an organic extract of the sponge afforded two new hydantoin alkaloids, hemimycalins A and B (2 and 3), together with the previously reported compound (Z)-5-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)imidazolidine-2,4-dione (1). The structures of the compounds were determined by extensive 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC) studies and high-resolution mass spectral determinations. Hemimycalins A (2) and B (3) represent the first examples of the natural N-alkylated hydantoins from the sponge Hemimycale arabica. Compounds 1-3 displayed variable antimicrobial activities against E. coli, S. aureus, and C. albicans. In addition, compound 1 displayed moderate antiproliferative activity against the human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cell line. These findings provide further insight into the chemical diversity as well as the biological activity of this class of compounds.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of heterotrophic bacterial communities from the marine sponge Erylus discophorus (Astrophorida, Geodiidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patrícia Graça

    Full Text Available Heterotrophic bacteria associated with two specimens of the marine sponge Erylus discophorus were screened for their capacity to produce bioactive compounds against a panel of human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus wild type and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus, fish pathogen (Aliivibrio fischeri and environmentally relevant bacteria (Vibrio harveyi. The sponges were collected in Berlengas Islands, Portugal. Of the 212 isolated heterotrophic bacteria belonging to Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, 31% produced antimicrobial metabolites. Bioactivity was found against both Gram positive and Gram negative and clinically and environmentally relevant target microorganisms. Bioactivity was found mainly against B. subtilis and some bioactivity against S. aureus MRSA, V. harveyi and A. fisheri. No antifungal activity was detected. The three most bioactive genera were Pseudovibrio (47.0%, Vibrio (22.7% and Bacillus (7.6%. Other less bioactive genera were Labrenzia, Acinetobacter, Microbulbifer, Pseudomonas, Gordonia, Microbacterium, Micrococcus and Mycobacterium, Paenibacillus and Staphylococcus. The search of polyketide I synthases (PKS-I and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs genes in 59 of the bioactive bacteria suggested the presence of PKS-I in 12 strains, NRPS in 3 strains and both genes in 3 strains. Our results show the potential of the bacterial community associated with Erylus discophorus sponges as producers of bioactive compounds.

  5. A SARS-coronovirus 3CL protease inhibitor isolated from the marine sponge Axinella cf. corrugata: structure elucidation and synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, Simone P. de; Seleghim, Mirna H.R.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.

    2007-01-01

    Two coumarin derivatives, esculetin-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (1) and esculetin-4- carboxylic acid ethyl ester (2), have been isolated from the marine sponge Axinella cf. corrugata. Structure determination included analysis of spectroscopic data and total synthesis of compound 2. These are the first coumarin derivatives isolated from a marine sponge. The ethyl ester 2 was found to be an in vitro inhibitor of SARS 3CL-protease and an effective inhibitor of SARS-CoV replication in Vero cells at non-cytotoxic concentrations. (author)

  6. Phylogenetic diversity, host-specificity and community profiling of sponge-associated bacteria in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Patrick M; Olson, Julie B; Thacker, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    Marine sponges can associate with abundant and diverse consortia of microbial symbionts. However, associated bacteria remain unexamined for the majority of host sponges and few studies use phylogenetic metrics to quantify symbiont community diversity. DNA fingerprinting techniques, such as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP), might provide rapid profiling of these communities, but have not been explicitly compared to traditional methods. We investigated the bacterial communities associated with the marine sponges Hymeniacidon heliophila and Haliclona tubifera, a sympatric tunicate, Didemnum sp., and ambient seawater from the northern Gulf of Mexico by combining replicated clone libraries with T-RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Clone libraries revealed that bacterial communities associated with the two sponges exhibited lower species richness and lower species diversity than seawater and tunicate assemblages, with differences in species composition among all four source groups. T-RFLP profiles clustered microbial communities by source; individual T-RFs were matched to the majority (80.6%) of clone library sequences, indicating that T-RFLP analysis can be used to rapidly profile these communities. Phylogenetic metrics of community diversity indicated that the two sponge-associated bacterial communities include dominant and host-specific bacterial lineages that are distinct from bacteria recovered from seawater, tunicates, and unrelated sponge hosts. In addition, a large proportion of the symbionts associated with H. heliophila were shared with distant, conspecific host populations in the southwestern Atlantic (Brazil). The low diversity and species-specific nature of bacterial communities associated with H. heliophila and H. tubifera represent a distinctly different pattern from other, reportedly universal, sponge-associated bacterial communities. Our replicated sampling strategy, which included samples that reflect the ambient

  7. Phylogenetic diversity, host-specificity and community profiling of sponge-associated bacteria in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Erwin

    Full Text Available Marine sponges can associate with abundant and diverse consortia of microbial symbionts. However, associated bacteria remain unexamined for the majority of host sponges and few studies use phylogenetic metrics to quantify symbiont community diversity. DNA fingerprinting techniques, such as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP, might provide rapid profiling of these communities, but have not been explicitly compared to traditional methods.We investigated the bacterial communities associated with the marine sponges Hymeniacidon heliophila and Haliclona tubifera, a sympatric tunicate, Didemnum sp., and ambient seawater from the northern Gulf of Mexico by combining replicated clone libraries with T-RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Clone libraries revealed that bacterial communities associated with the two sponges exhibited lower species richness and lower species diversity than seawater and tunicate assemblages, with differences in species composition among all four source groups. T-RFLP profiles clustered microbial communities by source; individual T-RFs were matched to the majority (80.6% of clone library sequences, indicating that T-RFLP analysis can be used to rapidly profile these communities. Phylogenetic metrics of community diversity indicated that the two sponge-associated bacterial communities include dominant and host-specific bacterial lineages that are distinct from bacteria recovered from seawater, tunicates, and unrelated sponge hosts. In addition, a large proportion of the symbionts associated with H. heliophila were shared with distant, conspecific host populations in the southwestern Atlantic (Brazil.The low diversity and species-specific nature of bacterial communities associated with H. heliophila and H. tubifera represent a distinctly different pattern from other, reportedly universal, sponge-associated bacterial communities. Our replicated sampling strategy, which included samples that reflect the

  8. Phylogeography of the Sponge Suberites diversicolor in Indonesia: Insights into the Evolution of Marine Lake Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becking, Leontine E.; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Peijnenburg, Katja T. C. A.; de Voogd, Nicole J.

    2013-01-01

    The existence of multiple independently derived populations in landlocked marine lakes provides an opportunity for fundamental research into the role of isolation in population divergence and speciation in marine taxa. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea and could be regarded as the marine equivalents of terrestrial islands. The sponge Suberites diversicolor (Porifera: Demospongiae: Suberitidae) is typical of marine lake habitats in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Four molecular markers (two mitochondrial and two nuclear) were employed to study genetic structure of populations within and between marine lakes in Indonesia and three coastal locations in Indonesia, Singapore and Australia. Within populations of S. diversicolor two strongly divergent lineages (A & B) (COI: p = 0.4% and ITS: p = 7.3%) were found, that may constitute cryptic species. Lineage A only occurred in Kakaban lake (East Kalimantan), while lineage B was present in all sampled populations. Within lineage B, we found low levels of genetic diversity in lakes, though there was spatial genetic population structuring. The Australian population is genetically differentiated from the Indonesian populations. Within Indonesia we did not record an East-West barrier, which has frequently been reported for other marine invertebrates. Kakaban lake is the largest and most isolated marine lake in Indonesia and contains the highest genetic diversity with genetic variants not observed elsewhere. Kakaban lake may be an area where multiple putative refugia populations have come into secondary contact, resulting in high levels of genetic diversity and a high number of endemic species. PMID:24098416

  9. Phylogeography of the sponge Suberites diversicolor in Indonesia: insights into the evolution of marine lake populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becking, Leontine E; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; de Voogd, Nicole J

    2013-01-01

    The existence of multiple independently derived populations in landlocked marine lakes provides an opportunity for fundamental research into the role of isolation in population divergence and speciation in marine taxa. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through narrow submarine connections to the sea and could be regarded as the marine equivalents of terrestrial islands. The sponge Suberites diversicolor (Porifera: Demospongiae: Suberitidae) is typical of marine lake habitats in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Four molecular markers (two mitochondrial and two nuclear) were employed to study genetic structure of populations within and between marine lakes in Indonesia and three coastal locations in Indonesia, Singapore and Australia. Within populations of S. diversicolor two strongly divergent lineages (A & B) (COI: p = 0.4% and ITS: p = 7.3%) were found, that may constitute cryptic species. Lineage A only occurred in Kakaban lake (East Kalimantan), while lineage B was present in all sampled populations. Within lineage B, we found low levels of genetic diversity in lakes, though there was spatial genetic population structuring. The Australian population is genetically differentiated from the Indonesian populations. Within Indonesia we did not record an East-West barrier, which has frequently been reported for other marine invertebrates. Kakaban lake is the largest and most isolated marine lake in Indonesia and contains the highest genetic diversity with genetic variants not observed elsewhere. Kakaban lake may be an area where multiple putative refugia populations have come into secondary contact, resulting in high levels of genetic diversity and a high number of endemic species.

  10. Recovery and phylogenetic diversity of culturable fungi associated with marine sponges Clathrina luteoculcitella and Holoxea sp. in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bo; Yin, Ying; Zhang, Fengli; Li, Zhiyong

    2011-08-01

    Sponge-associated fungi represent an important source of marine natural products, but little is known about the fungal diversity and the relationship of sponge-fungal association, especially no research on the fungal diversity in the South China Sea sponge has been reported. In this study, a total of 111 cultivable fungi strains were isolated from two South China Sea sponges Clathrina luteoculcitella and Holoxea sp. using eight different media. Thirty-two independent representatives were selected for analysis of phylogenetic diversity according to ARDRA and morphological characteristics. The culturable fungal communities consisted of at least 17 genera within ten taxonomic orders of two phyla (nine orders of the phylum Ascomycota and one order of the phylum Basidiomycota) including some potential novel marine fungi. Particularly, eight genera of Apiospora, Botryosphaeria, Davidiella, Didymocrea, Lentomitella, Marasmius, Pestalotiopsis, and Rhizomucor were isolated from sponge for the first time. Sponge C. luteoculcitella has greater culturable fungal diversity than sponge Holoxea sp. Five genera of Aspergillus, Davidiella, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, and Penicillium were isolated from both sponges, while 12 genera of Apiospora, Botryosphaeria, Candida, Marasmius, Cladosporium, Didymocrea, Hypocrea, Lentomitella, Nigrospora, Pestalotiopsis, Rhizomucor, and Scopulariopsis were isolated from sponge C. luteoculcitella only. Order Eurotiales especially genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and order Hypocreales represented the dominant culturable fungi in these two South China Sea sponges. Nigrospora oryzae strain PF18 isolated from sponge C. luteoculcitella showed a strong and broad spectrum antimicrobial activities suggesting the potential for antimicrobial compounds production.

  11. Pentacyclic ingamine-type alkaloids, a new antiplasmodial pharmacophore from the marine sponge petrosid Ng5 Sp5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new pentacyclic ingamine- type alkaloids, namely 22(S)-hydroxyingamine A (2) and dihydroingenamine D (3), together with the known ingamine A (1) have been isolated from marine sponge Petrosid Ng5 Sp5 (Family: Petrosiidae) obtained from the open repository of National Cancer Institute, USA. The s...

  12. Hamacanthins A and B, new antifungal bis indole alkaloids from the deep-water marine sponge, Hamacantha sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, S P; McCarthy, P J; Kelly-Borges, M

    1994-10-01

    Hamacanthin A [1] and hamacanthin B [2] are two bioactive dihydropyrazinonediylbis(indole) alkaloids isolated from a new species of deep-water marine sponge, Hamacantha sp. The hamacanthins are growth inhibitors of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Isolation and structure elucidation of 1 and 2 by nmr spectroscopy are described.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of untenospongin B, a metabolic from the marine sponge Hippospongia communis collected from the Atlantic coast of Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rifai, S.; Kijjoa, A.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    (-)-Untenospongin B isolated from the marine sponge Hippospongia communis has been tested for its antimicrobial activity against bacteria and human pathogenic fungi using agar disk method and was found to possess a broad and strong activity toward the test organisms. Its antifungal activity was

  14. Characterisation of Non-Autoinducing Tropodithietic Acid (TDA Production from Marine Sponge Pseudovibrio Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriona Harrington

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The search for new antimicrobial compounds has gained added momentum in recent years, paralleled by the exponential rise in resistance to most known classes of current antibiotics. While modifications of existing drugs have brought some limited clinical success, there remains a critical need for new classes of antimicrobial compound to which key clinical pathogens will be naive. This has provided the context and impetus to marine biodiscovery programmes that seek to isolate and characterize new activities from the aquatic ecosystem. One new antibiotic to emerge from these initiatives is the antibacterial compound tropodithietic acid (TDA. The aim of this study was to provide insight into the bioactivity of and the factors governing the production of TDA in marine Pseudovibrio isolates from a collection of marine sponges. The TDA produced by these Pseudovibrio isolates exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of clinical pathogens, while TDA tolerance was frequent in non-TDA producing marine isolates. Comparative genomics analysis suggested a high degree of conservation among the tda biosynthetic clusters while expression studies revealed coordinated regulation of TDA synthesis upon transition from log to stationary phase growth, which was not induced by TDA itself or by the presence of the C10-acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing signal molecule.

  15. Sponge assemblages on the deep Mediterranean continental shelf and slope (Menorca Channel, Western Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, Andreu; Grinyó, Jordi; Ambroso, Stefano; Uriz, Maria J.; Gori, Andrea; Dominguez-Carrió, Carlos; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2018-01-01

    Sponge assemblages on continental shelves and slopes around the world have been known about for centuries. However, due to limitations of the traditional sampling systems, data about individual sponge species rather than assemblages have been reported. This study characterizes sponge assemblages over a wide bathymetric range ( 50-350 m depth) and covering the entire continental shelf and the upper slope of the Menorca Channel, an area soon to be declared a Marine Protected Area (MPA) as part of the Natura 2000 Network. Quantitative analysis of 85 video-transects (a total linear distance of 75 km), together with representative collections to confirm species identifications, allowed us to discriminate six major assemblages. Differences in the assemblages mainly corresponded to differences in substrate type and depth. On the inner continental shelf, a semi-sciaphilous Axinellid assemblage dominated the rocky outcrops. Maërl beds on the inner continental shelf were dominated by Haliclona (Reniera) mediterranea, whereas the horny sponge Aplysina cavernicola and several other haliclonids mostly dominated maërl beds and rocky substrates of the outer shelf. Soft sediments on the shelf break hosted a monospecific Thenea muricata assemblage, whereas rocky substrates of the shelf break were characterized by a mixture of encrusting, columnar and fan-shaped sponges. Finally, the upper slope was dominated by Hamacantha (Vomerula) falcula and the hexactinellid Tretodictyum reiswigi. Overall, sponge diversity showed its highest values above the shelf break, plummeting severely on the upper slope. Despite this diversity decrease, we found very high densities (> 70 ind./m2) of sponges over vast areas of both the shelf break and the upper slope.

  16. Analysis of serine proteases from marine sponges by 2-D zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkesman, Jeff G; Schröder, Heinz C

    2007-02-01

    Proteolytic activities isolated from the marine demosponges Geodia cydonium and Suberites domuncula were analyzed by 2-D zymography, a technique that combines IEF and zymography. After purification, a 200 kDa proteolytically active protein band was obtained from G. cydonium when analyzed in gelatin copolymerized 1-D zymograms. The enzymatic activity was quantified using alpha-N-benzoyl-D-arginine p-nitroanilide (BAPNA) as a substrate and corresponded to a serine protease. The protease activity was resistant to urea and SDS. DTT and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) did not significantly change the protease activity, but induced a shift in molecular mass of the proteolytic band to lower M(r) values as detected by zymography. Under mild denaturing conditions, lower M(r) bands (zymography, the protease from G. cydonium revealed a pI of 8.0 and an M(r) shift from 200 to 66 kDa. To contrast these results, a cytosolic sample from S. domuncula was analyzed. The proteolytic activity of this sponge after 2-D zymography corresponded to an M(r) of 40 kDa and a pI of 4.0. The biological function of both sponge proteases is not yet known. This study demonstrates that mild denaturing conditions required for IEF may alter the interpretation of the 2-D zymography, and care must be taken during sample preparation.

  17. Strain-weakening rheology of marine sponges and its evolutionary implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Emily; Janmey, Paul; Sweeney, Alison; van Oosten, Anne

    Animal cells respond to mechanical stimuli as sensitively as they do to chemical stimuli. Further, cell proliferation is dependent on the viscoelasticity of the polymeric extracellular matrix (ECM) in which they are embedded. Biophysicists are therefore motivated to understand the biomechanics of the ECM itself. To date, this work has focused on the more familiar Bilateria, animals, including humans, with bilateral symmetry. The ECM of this group of animals is now understood to exhibit non-linear rheology that is typically strain- and compression-stiffening, and shear moduli that are frequency-dependent. These complex properties have been attributed to the semi-flexible nature of the underlying polymers. In contrast, we show that marine sponges are markedly strain-weakening under physiologically relevant conditions. Since sponges are a much earlier evolutionary branch than Bilateria, we interrogate the evolutionary potential and biochemical underpinnings of this novel complex rheology in filamentous networks, and cells ability to respond. Further, their life history strategy is uniquely dependent on flow and correlated shear stress, making them a model organism to study self-assembly algorithms organized around flow.

  18. Anti-bacterial compounds from the sponge Haliclona sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Kamat, S.Y.; Chandramohan, D.; Nair, S.; Das, B.

    located the active principles in petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions Further purification of these active fractions on silica gel columns and subsequently on HPLC yielded several active compounds two of which have been identified as demethyl...

  19. New 2-Methoxy Acetylenic Acids and Pyrazole Alkaloids from the Marine Sponge Cinachyrella sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mokhlesi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Three new 2-methoxy acetylenic acids (1–3 and a known derivative (4, in addition to three new natural pyrazole alkaloids (5–7 were isolated from an Indonesian marine sponge of the genus Cinachyrella. Compounds 5 and 6 have previously been reported as synthetic compounds. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy as well as by mass spectrometric data. The absolute configuration of the new acetylenic acid derivatives (1–3 was established by ECD spectroscopy. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Compounds 1–4 exhibited strong activity with an IC50 value of 0.3 µM. A plausible biosynthetic pathway for the pyrazole metabolites 5–7 is proposed.

  20. Marine sponge skeleton photosensitized by copper phthalocyanine: A catalyst for Rhodamine B degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a combined approach to photo-assisted degradation processes, in which a catalyst, H2O2 and UV irradiation are used together to enhance the oxidation of Rhodamine B (RB. The heterogeneous photocatalyst was made by the process of adsorption of copper phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (CuPC onto purified spongin-based Hippospongia communis marine sponge skeleton (HcS. The product obtained, CuPC-HcS, was investigated by a variety of spectroscopic (carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance 13C NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy EDS and microscopic techniques (scanning electron microscopy SEM, fluorescent and optical microscopy, as well as thermal analysis. The study confirms the stable combination of the adsorbent and adsorbate. For a 10 mg/L RB solution, the percentage degradation reached 95% using CuPC-HcS as a heterocatalyst. The mechanism of RB removal involves adsorption and photodegradation simultaneously.

  1. CTAB Zymography for the Analysis of Aspartic Proteases from Marine Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Oscar; Wilkesman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Electrophoresis under denaturing conditions in the presence of SDS is a standard method for the protein and enzyme scientist. Nevertheless, there are special situations where this method may originate nonoptimal results. SDS may cause protein aggregation or precipitation. Beyond this, depending on the type of protein, some just do not resolve well or migrate abnormally in SDS gels. SDS, an anionic detergent, may be however substituted by a cationic detergent, like CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide), in order to solubilize and electrophorize proteins. CTAB electrophoresis allows the separation of proteins based on molecular weight and can be carried out at neutral or acidic pH. Here, we describe the development of a CTAB zymography method to analyze aspartic proteases from marine sponges, which present an abnormal high R f value when run in SDS-PAGE. The special feature of using CTAB is that it binds proteins, making them positively charged and thus migrating in the opposite direction compared to SDS-PAGE.

  2. Cytotoxic macrolides from a new species of the deep-water marine sponge Leiodermatium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Joel S; Colin, Patrick L; Kelly, Michelle; Fenical, William

    2006-09-15

    Chemical investigation of a new species of the deep-water marine sponge Leiodermatium, collected by manned submersible at a depth of 740 feet in Palau, resulted in the isolation of two cytotoxic macrolides, leiodolides A (1) and B (2). The leiodolides represent the first members of a new class of 19-membered ring macrolides, incorporating several unique functional groups including a conjugated oxazole ring, a bromine substituent, and an alpha-hydroxy-alpha-methyl carboxylic acid side-chain terminus. The structures of these new metabolites were established by spectroscopic analysis, chemical modification, and degradation. The relative and absolute stereochemistries at most chiral centers were assigned on detailed interpretation of spectroscopic data, coupled with chemical degradation and application of the modified Mosher ester method. Leiodolide A showed significant cytotoxicity (average GI(50) = 2.0 microM) in the National Cancer Institute's 60 cell line panel with enhanced activity against HL-60 leukemia and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cell lines.

  3. Bioactive Indole Derivatives from the South Pacific Marine Sponges Rhopaloeides odorabile and Hyrtios sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Lise Bourguet-Kondracki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Indole derivatives including bromoindoles have been isolated from the South Pacific marine sponges Rhopaloeides odorabile and Hyrtios sp. Their structures were established through analysis of mass spectra and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. Their potential inhibitory phospholipase A2 (PLA2, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were evaluated. The new derivative 5,6-dibromo-l-hypaphorine (9 isolated from Hyrtios sp. revealed a weak bee venom PLA2 inhibition (IC50 0.2 mM and a significant antioxidant activity with an Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC value of 0.22. The sesquiterpene aureol (4, also isolated from Hyrtios sp., showed the most potent antioxidant activity with an ORAC value of 0.29.

  4. Six New Polyacetylenic Alcohols from the Marine Sponges Petrosia sp. and Halichondria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Adeyemi Francis; Li, Zhen; Kusuda, Ryouhei; Tanaka, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Tomofumi

    2015-01-01

    Six new polyacetylenic alcohols, termed strongylotriols A and B; pellynols J, K, and L; and isopellynol A, together with three known polyacetylenic alcohols, pellynols A, B, and C were isolated from the marine sponges Petrosia sp., and Halichondria sp. collected in Okinawa, Japan. Their planer structures were determined based on 2D-NMR and mass spectrometric analysis of the degraded products by RuCl3 oxidation. The absolute stereochemistry of isolates was examined by their Mosher's esters. The strongylotriols were found to be optically pure compounds, whereas the pellynols are diastereomeric mixtures at the C-6 position. Proliferation experiments using the HeLa and K562 cell lines suggested that the essential structural units for activity are the "hexa-2,4-diyn-1,6-diol" and "pent-1-en-4-yn-3-ol" on the termini.

  5. Inhibitory Activity of Marine Sponge-Derived Natural Products against Parasitic Protozoa

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    Deniz Tasdemir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, thirteen sponge-derived terpenoids, including five linear furanoterpenes: furospinulosin-1 (1, furospinulosin-2 (2, furospongin-1 (3, furospongin-4 (4, and demethylfurospongin-4 (5; four linear meroterpenes: 2-(hexaprenylmethyl-2-methylchromenol (6, 4-hydroxy-3-octaprenylbenzoic acid (7, 4-hydroxy-3-tetraprenyl-phenylacetic acid (8, and heptaprenyl-p-quinol (9; a linear triterpene, squalene (10; two spongian-type diterpenes dorisenone D (11 and 11β-acetoxyspongi-12-en-16-one (12; a scalarane-type sesterterpene; 12-epi-deoxoscalarin (13, as well as an indole alkaloid, tryptophol (14 were screened for their in vitro activity against four parasitic protozoa; Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani and Plasmodium falciparum. Cytotoxic potential of the compounds on mammalian cells was also assessed. All compounds were active against T. brucei rhodesiense, with compound 8 being the most potent (IC50 0.60 μg/mL, whereas 9 and 12 were the most active compounds against T. cruzi, with IC50 values around 4 μg/mL. Compound 12 showed the strongest leishmanicidal activity (IC50 0.75 µg/mL, which was comparable to that of miltefosine (IC50 0.20 µg/mL. The best antiplasmodial effect was exerted by compound 11 (IC50 0.43 µg/mL, followed by compounds 7, 10, and 12 with IC50 values around 1 µg/mL. Compounds 9, 11 and 12 exhibited, besides their antiprotozoal activity, also some cytotoxicity, whereas all other compounds had low or no cytotoxicity towards the mammalian cell line. This is the first report of antiprotozoal activity of marine metabolites 1–14, and points out the potential of marine sponges in discovery of new antiprotozoal lead compounds.

  6. Synthesis and Bioactivity of Secondary Metabolites from Marine Sponges Containing Dibrominated Indolic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Stefanucci

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges. (e.g., Hyrtios sp., Dragmacidin sp., Aglophenia pleuma, Aplidium cyaneum, Aplidium meridianum. produce bioactive secondary metabolites involved in their defence mechanisms. Recently it was demonstrated that several of those compounds show a large variety of biological activities against different human diseases with possible applications in medicinal chemistry and in pharmaceutical fields, especially related to the new drug development process. Researchers have focused their attention principally on secondary metabolites with anti-cancer and cytotoxic activities. A common target for these molecules is the cytoskeleton, which has a central role in cellular proliferation, motility, and profusion involved in the metastatic process associate with tumors. In particular, many substances containing brominated indolic rings such as 5,6-dibromotryptamine, 5,6-dibromo-N-methyltryptamine, 5,6-dibromo-N-methyltryptophan (dibromoabrine, 5,6-dibromo-N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5,6-dibromo-L-hypaphorine isolated from different marine sources, have shown anti-cancer activity, as well as antibiotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Considering the structural correlation between endogenous monoamine serotonin with marine indolic alkaloids 5,6-dibromoabrine and 5,6-dibromotryptamine, a potential use of some dibrominated indolic metabolites in the treatment of depression-related pathologies has also been hypothesized. Due to the potential applications in the treatment of various diseases and the increasing demand of these compounds for biological assays and the difficult of their isolation from marine sources, we report in this review a series of recent syntheses of marine dibrominated indole-containing products.

  7. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of a Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase from the Marine Sponge Chondrosia reniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzolini, Marina; Scarfì, Sonia; Mussino, Francesca; Ferrando, Sara; Gallus, Lorenzo; Giovine, Marco

    2015-08-01

    Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H) catalyzes the hydroxylation of proline residues in collagen. P4H has two functional subunits, α and β. Here, we report the cDNA cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of the α and β subunits of the P4H derived from the marine sponge Chondrosia reniformis. The amino acid sequence of the α subunit is 533 residues long with an M r of 59.14 kDa, while the β subunit counts 526 residues with an M r of 58.75 kDa. Phylogenetic analyses showed that αP4H and βP4H are more related to the mammalian sequences than to known invertebrate P4Hs. Western blot analysis of sponge lysate protein cross-linking revealed a band of 240 kDa corresponding to an α2β2 tetramer structure. This result suggests that P4H from marine sponges shares the same quaternary structure with vertebrate homologous enzymes. Gene expression analyses showed that αP4H transcript is higher in the choanosome than in the ectosome, while the study of factors affecting its expression in sponge fragmorphs revealed that soluble silicates had no effect on the αP4H levels, whereas ascorbic acid strongly upregulated the αP4H mRNA. Finally, treatment with two different tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha inhibitors determined a significant downregulation of αP4H gene expression in fragmorphs demonstrating, for the first time in Porifera, a positive involvement of TNF in sponge matrix biosynthesis. The molecular characterization of P4H genes involved in collagen hydroxylation, including the mechanisms that regulate their expression, is a key step for future recombinant sponge collagen production and may be pivotal to understand pathological mechanisms related to extracellular matrix deposition in higher organisms.

  8. The Role of Epibionts of Bacteria of the Genus Pseudoalteromonas and Cellular Proteasomes in the Adaptive Plasticity of Marine Cold-Water Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchuk, O I; Lavrov, A I; Finoshin, A D; Gornostaev, N G; Georgiev, A A; Abaturova, S B; Mikhailov, V S; Lyupina, Yu V

    2018-03-01

    It was found that cells of different color morphs of the cold-water marine sponges Halichondria panicea (Pallas, 1766) of the class Demospongiae differ in the content of epibionts of bacteria of the genus Pseudoalteromonas. The sponge cells with elevated levels of epibionts of bacteria of the genus Pseudoalteromonas showed an increased expression of Hsp70 proteins but had a reduced level of the proteasomal catalytic beta 5 subunit, which was accompanied by a change in their activity. Probably, epibionts of bacteria of the genus Pseudoalteromonas may affect the ubiquitin-proteasome system in the cells of cold-water marine sponges and, thereby, ensure their adaptive plasticity.

  9. Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from marine sponge Aplysina fulva (Pallas, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fábio Sérgio Paulino; Souza, Danilo Tosta; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Pansa, Camila Cristiane; de Figueiredo Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro; Crevelin, Eduardo José; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Melo, Itamar Soares

    2016-11-01

    The taxonomic position of a novel marine actinomycete isolated from a marine sponge, Aplysina fulva, which had been collected in the Archipelago of Saint Peter and Saint Paul (Equatorial Atlantic Ocean), was determined by using a polyphasic approach. The organism showed a combination of morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Streptomyces and forms a distinct branch within the Streptomyces somaliensis 16S rRNA gene tree subclade. It is closely related to Streptomyces violascens ISP 5183 T (97.27 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Streptomyces hydrogenans NBRC 13475 T (97.15 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The 16S rRNA gene similarities between the isolate and the remaining members of the subclade are lower than 96.77 %. The organism can be distinguished readily from other members of the S. violacens subclade using a combination of phenotypic properties. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that isolate 103 T (=NRRL B-65309 T  = CMAA 1378 T ) merits recognition as the type strain of a new Streptomyces species, namely Streptomyces atlanticus sp. nov.

  10. Evaluation, partial characterization and purification of acetylcholine esterase enzyme and antiangiogenic activity from marine sponges

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    Maushmi Shailesh Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test three marine sponges Halichondria glabrata Keller, 1891; Spirastrella pachyspira (S. pachyspira Levi, 1958 and Cliona lobata Hancock, 1849 for the presence of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE in both young and developed samples from western coastal area of India. S. pachyspira methanolic extract was selected for anti/pro angiogenic activity. Methods: They were evaluated for AChE activity using Ellman’s assay based on production of yellow colored 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoate. Purification of the enzyme was planned using ammonium sulphate precipitation and characterization by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Chorioallantoic membrane (ChAM assay model was used for angiogenic/ antiangiogenic testing. Results: All the three sponges showed good specific enzyme activity and S. pachyspira contained maximum specific enzyme activity. Sixty percent of ammonium sulphate precipitation of crude protein sample gave single band at 66 kDa corresponding to the true AChE. ChAM assay was performed at 62.5, 125.0 and 250.0 µg/mL. Dosage beyond 250 µg/mL extract showed toxic response with anti angiogenic activity at all the concentrations. Conclusions: AChE activity was detected in all samples. Extract showed good anti-angiogenic response at 62.5 µg/mL. Extract was highly toxic affecting microvasculature of ChAM as well as normal growth and development of the embryo at 500 µg/mL. With further characterization of bioactive compounds from the extract of S. pachyspira, the compounds can be developed for anti tumor activity.

  11. Recently confirmed apoptosis-inducing lead compounds isolated from marine sponge of potential relevance in cancer treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2011-09-20

    Despite intense efforts to develop non-cytotoxic anticancer treatments, effective agents are still not available. Therefore, novel apoptosis-inducing drug leads that may be developed into effective targeted cancer therapies are of interest to the cancer research community. Targeted cancer therapies affect specific aberrant apoptotic pathways that characterize different cancer types and, for this reason, it is a more desirable type of therapy than chemotherapy or radiotherapy, as it is less harmful to normal cells. In this regard, marine sponge derived metabolites that induce apoptosis continue to be a promising source of new drug leads for cancer treatments. A PubMed query from 01/01/2005 to 31/01/2011 combined with hand-curation of the retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 39 recently confirmed apoptosis-inducing anticancer lead compounds isolated from the marine sponge that are selectively discussed in this review. 2011 by the authors.

  12. Recently confirmed apoptosis-inducing lead compounds isolated from marine sponge of potential relevance in cancer treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Despite intense efforts to develop non-cytotoxic anticancer treatments, effective agents are still not available. Therefore, novel apoptosis-inducing drug leads that may be developed into effective targeted cancer therapies are of interest to the cancer research community. Targeted cancer therapies affect specific aberrant apoptotic pathways that characterize different cancer types and, for this reason, it is a more desirable type of therapy than chemotherapy or radiotherapy, as it is less harmful to normal cells. In this regard, marine sponge derived metabolites that induce apoptosis continue to be a promising source of new drug leads for cancer treatments. A PubMed query from 01/01/2005 to 31/01/2011 combined with hand-curation of the retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 39 recently confirmed apoptosis-inducing anticancer lead compounds isolated from the marine sponge that are selectively discussed in this review. 2011 by the authors.

  13. Diversity and biological activities of the bacterial community associated with the marine sponge Phorbas tenacior (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, S; Carré-Mlouka, A; Descarrega, F; Ereskovsky, A; Longeon, A; Mouray, E; Florent, I; Bourguet-Kondracki, M L

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the cultivable microbiota of the marine sponge Phorbas tenacior frequently found in the Mediterranean Sea was investigated, and its potential as a source of antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiplasmodial compounds was evaluated. The cultivable bacterial community was studied by isolation, cultivation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Twenty-three bacterial strains were isolated and identified in the Proteobacteria (α or γ classes) and Actinobacteria phyla. Furthermore, three different bacterial morphotypes localized extracellularly within the sponge tissues were revealed by microscopic observations. Bacterial strains were assigned to seven different genera, namely Vibrio, Photobacterium, Shewanella, Pseudomonas, Ruegeria, Pseudovibrio and Citricoccus. The strains affiliated to the same genus were differentiated according to their genetic dissimilarities using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. Eleven bacterial strains were selected for evaluation of their bioactivities. Three isolates Pseudovibrio P1Ma4, Vibrio P1MaNal1 and Citricoccus P1S7 revealed antimicrobial activity; Citricoccus P1S7 and Vibrio P1MaNal1 isolates also exhibited antiplasmodial activity, while two Vibrio isolates P1Ma8 and P1Ma5 displayed antioxidant activity. These data confirmed the importance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria associated with marine sponges as a reservoir of bioactive compounds. This study presents the first report on the diversity of the cultivable bacteria associated with the marine sponge Phorbas tenacior, frequently found in the Mediterranean Sea. Evaluation of the antiplasmodial, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the isolates has been investigated and allowed to select bacterial strains, confirming the importance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria as sources of bioactive compounds. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Sulfated Polysaccharides in Marine Sponges: Extraction Methods and Anti-HIV Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. S. Esteves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction, fractionation and HIV-1 inhibition potential of polysaccharides extracted from three species of marine sponges, Erylus discophorus, Cliona celata and Stelletta sp., collected in the Northeastern Atlantic, is presented in this work. The anti-HIV activity of 23 polysaccharide pellets and three crude extracts was tested. Crude extracts prepared from Erylus discophorus specimens were all highly active against HIV-1 (90 to 95% inhibition. Cliona celata pellets showed low polysaccharide content (bellow 38.5% and almost no anti-HIV activity (<10% inhibition. Stelletta sp. pellets, although quite rich in polysaccharide (up to 97.3%, showed only modest bioactivity (<36% HIV-1 inhibition. Erylus discophorus pellets were among the richest in terms of polysaccharide content (up to 98% and the most active against HIV-1 (up to 95% inhibition. Chromatographic fractionation of the polysaccharide pellet obtained from a specimen of Erylus discophorus (B161 yielded only modestly active fractions. However, we could infer that the active molecule is most probably a high molecular weight sulfated polysaccharide (>2000 kDa, whose mechanism is possibly preventing viral attachment and entry (fusion inhibitor.

  15. Tsukamurella spongiae sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from a deep-water marine sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Julie B; Harmody, Dedra K; Bej, Asim K; McCarthy, Peter J

    2007-07-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (strain K362(T)) was isolated from a deep-water marine sponge collected off the coast of Curaçao in the Netherlands Antilles. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, strain K362(T) was shown to belong to the genus Tsukamurella, being most closely related to Tsukamurella pulmonis (99.2 %), Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens (98.9 %), Tsukamurella strandjordii (98.8 %), Tsukamurella pseudospumae (98.8 %) and Tsukamurella spumae (98.8 %). A combination of the substrate utilization patterns, the fatty acid and mycolic acid profiles and the DNA-DNA hybridization results supported the affiliation of strain K362(T) to the genus Tsukamurella and enabled the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain K362(T) from the seven recognized Tsukamurella species. Strain K362(T) therefore represents a novel species of the genus Tsukamurella, for which the name Tsukamurella spongiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is K362(T) (=DSM 44990(T)=NRRL B-24467(T)).

  16. Comparison of the Biological Properties of Several Marine Sponge-Derived Sesquiterpenoid Quinones

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    Ping Yin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Eight naturally occurring marine-sponge derived sesquiterpenoid quinones wereevaluated as potential inhibitors of pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK, a C4 plantregulatory enzyme. Of these, the hydroxyquinones ilimaquinone, ethylsmenoquinone andsmenoquinone inhibited PPDK activity with IC50’s (reported with 95% confidenceintervals of 285.4 (256.4 – 317.7, 316.2 (279.2 – 358.1 and 556.0 (505.9 – 611.0 μM,respectively, as well as being phytotoxic to the C4 plant Digitaria ciliaris. The potentialanti-inflammatory activity of these compounds, using bee venom phospholipase A2(PLA2, was also evaluated. Ethylsmenoquinone, smenospongiarine, smenospongidine andilimaquinone inhibited PLA2 activity (% inhibition of 73.2 + 4.8 at 269 μM, 61.5 + 6.1 at242 μM, 41.0 + 0.6 at 224 μM and 36.4 + 8.2 at 279 μM, respectively. SAR analysesindicate that a hydroxyquinone functionality and a short, hydroxide/alkoxide side-chain atC-20 is preferred for inhibition of PPDK activity, and that a larger amine side-chain at C-20 is tolerated for PLA2 inhibitory activity.

  17. Pectenotoxin-2 from Marine Sponges: A Potential Anti-Cancer Agent—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wun-Jae Kim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2, which was first identified as a cytotoxic entity in marine sponges, has been reported to display significant cytotoxicity to human cancer cells where it inhibits mitotic separation and cytokinesis through the depolymerization of actin filaments. In the late stage of endoreduplication, the effects of PTX-2 on different cancer cells involves: (i down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 members and IAP family proteins; (ii up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL-receptor 1/receptor 2 (DR4/DR5; and (iii mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, PTX-2 induces apoptotic effects through suppression of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB signaling pathway in several cancer cells. Analysis of cell cycle regulatory proteins showed that PTX-2 increases phosphorylation of Cdc25c and decreases protein levels of Cdc2 and cyclin B1. Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk inhibitor p21 and Cdk2, which are associated with the induction of endoreduplication, were upregulated. Furthermore, it was found that PTX-2 suppressed telomerase activity through the transcriptional and post-translational suppression of hTERT. The purpose of this review was to provide an update regarding the anti-cancer mechanism of PTX-2, with a special focus on its effects on different cellular signaling cascades.

  18. Yakushinamides, Polyoxygenated Fatty Acid Amides That Inhibit HDACs and SIRTs, from the Marine Sponge Theonella swinhoei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Kentaro; Imae, Yasufumi; Ise, Yuji; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Ito, Akihiro; Okada, Shigeru; Yoshida, Minoru; Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2016-09-23

    Yakushinamides A (1) and B (2), prolyl amides of polyoxygenated fatty acids, have been isolated from the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei as inhibitors of HDACs and SIRTs. Their planar structures were determined by interpretation of the NMR data of the intact molecules and tandem FABMS data of the methanolysis products. For the assignment of the relative configurations of the three contiguous oxymethine carbons in 1 and 2, Kishi's universal NMR database was applied to the methanolysis products. During the assignments of relative configurations of the isolated 1-hydroxy-3-methyl moiety in 1 and the isolated 1-hydroxy-2-methyl moiety in 2, we found diagnostic NMR features to distinguish each pair of diastereomers. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were determined by a combination of the modified Mosher's method and Marfey's method. Although the modified Mosher's method was successfully applied to the methanolysis product of 1, this method gave an ambiguous result at C-20 when applied to the methanolysis product of 2, even after oxidative cleavage of the C-14 and C-15 bond.

  19. Antibacterial Activity Symbiotic Fungi of Marine Sponge Axinella sp., Aspergillus Sydowii on Four Growth Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyaningsih, S.; Trianto, A.; Radjasa, OK; Wittriansyah, K.

    2018-02-01

    Many infectious diseases caused by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus which turned into a resistant pathogen. A symbiotic fungi of marine sponge Axinella sp., Aspergillus sydowii from the waters of Riung, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia showed antibacterial activity, cultured on the four media, MEB (ST), Noni Juice Media (MG), avocado leaves media (AL), and Soursop leaves media (SR). The symbiotic fungi was cultured for 14 days on each media. The largest weight of symbiotic fungi biomass on ST media 138,95gr and at least 99,12gr of AL media. Purification of bioactive compound is carried out using separatory funnel, and column chromatography. The highest rendemen of extracts on SR media was 3,67%, while the lowest in ST media was 1,22%. The bioactive test used diffusion agar method. Fungi extracts from four mediums have bioactivity against, E. coli and S. aureus. The biggest inhibition zone obtained from the extract of MG KN-15-3-1-3, with inhibition zone 10.71mm and 10.98mm against E. coli and S. aureus.

  20. Principles of biofouling protection in marine sponges: a model for the design of novel biomimetic and bio-inspired coatings in the marine environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Werner E G; Wang, Xiaohong; Proksch, Peter; Perry, Carole C; Osinga, Ronald; Gardères, Johan; Schröder, Heinz C

    2013-08-01

    The process of biofouling of marine structures and substrates, such as platforms or ship hulls, proceeds in multiple steps. Soon after the formation of an initial conditioning film, formed via the adsorption of organic particles to natural or man-made substrates, a population of different bacterial taxa associates under the formation of a biofilm. These microorganisms communicate through a complex quorum sensing network. Macro-foulers, e.g., barnacles, then settle and form a fouling layer on the marine surfaces, a process that globally has severe impacts both on the economy and on the environment. Since the ban of tributyltin, an efficient replacement of this antifouling compound by next-generation antifouling coatings that are environmentally more acceptable and also showing longer half-lives has not yet been developed. The sponges, as sessile filter-feeder animals, have evolved antifouling strategies to protect themselves against micro- and subsequent macro-biofouling processes. Experimental data are summarized and suggest that coating of the sponge surface with bio-silica contributes to the inhibition of the formation of a conditioning film. A direct adsorption of the surfaces by microorganisms can be impaired through poisoning the organisms with direct-acting secondary metabolites or toxic peptides. In addition, first, compounds from sponges have been identified that interfere with the anti-quorum sensing network. Sponge secondary metabolites acting selectively on diatom colonization have not yet been identified. Finally, it is outlined that direct-acting secondary metabolites inhibiting the growth of macro-fouling animals and those that poison the multidrug resistance pump are available. It is concluded that rational screening programs for inhibitors of the complex and dynamic problem of biofilm production, based on multidisciplinary studies and using sponges as a model, are required in the future.

  1. Exploring microbial diversity of marine sponges by culture-dependent and molecular approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naim, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary

    Discovery of sponge-grade metazoans dated 650 million years ago proved that sponges have been around since the Precambrian era. Their resilience to ever-changing environmental conditions and their global distribution is one of the features attributed to the symbionts in

  2. Lobophorin C and D, New Kijanimicin Derivatives from a Marine Sponge-Associated Actinomycetal Strain AZS17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Cheng Lin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponge Hymeniacidon sp. was collected from coastal waters of the East China Sea to isolate symbiotic microorganisms. The resulting sponge-associated actinomycete, Streptomyces carnosus strain AZS17, was cultivated in a 20 L volume of medium for production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Bioassay-guided isolation and purification by varied chromatographic methods yielded two new compounds of kijanimicin derivatives, AS7-2 and AS9-12. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopy and comparison with literatures. Results showed these two compounds were structurally similar to the previously reported compounds lobophorin A and B, yet differed in specific bond forms, stereochemistry and optical activities. The two novel compounds were named lobophorin C and D. In vitro cytotoxicity investigation by MTT assay indicated their selective activities. Lobophorin C displayed potent cytotoxic activity against the human liver cancer cell line 7402, while lobophorin D showed significant inhibitory effect on human breast cancer cells MDA-MB 435.

  3. Diverse and Abundant Secondary Metabolism Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in the Genomes of Marine Sponge Derived Streptomyces spp. Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Jackson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The genus Streptomyces produces secondary metabolic compounds that are rich in biological activity. Many of these compounds are genetically encoded by large secondary metabolism biosynthetic gene clusters (smBGCs such as polyketide synthases (PKS and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS which are modular and can be highly repetitive. Due to the repeats, these gene clusters can be difficult to resolve using short read next generation datasets and are often quite poorly predicted using standard approaches. We have sequenced the genomes of 13 Streptomyces spp. strains isolated from shallow water and deep-sea sponges that display antimicrobial activities against a number of clinically relevant bacterial and yeast species. Draft genomes have been assembled and smBGCs have been identified using the antiSMASH (antibiotics and Secondary Metabolite Analysis Shell web platform. We have compared the smBGCs amongst strains in the search for novel sequences conferring the potential to produce novel bioactive secondary metabolites. The strains in this study recruit to four distinct clades within the genus Streptomyces. The marine strains host abundant smBGCs which encode polyketides, NRPS, siderophores, bacteriocins and lantipeptides. The deep-sea strains appear to be enriched with gene clusters encoding NRPS. Marine adaptations are evident in the sponge-derived strains which are enriched for genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of compatible solutes and for heat-shock proteins. Streptomyces spp. from marine environments are a promising source of novel bioactive secondary metabolites as the abundance and diversity of smBGCs show high degrees of novelty. Sponge derived Streptomyces spp. isolates appear to display genomic adaptations to marine living when compared to terrestrial strains.

  4. Purification, characterization and biological effect of lectin from the marine sponge Stylissa flexibilis (Lévi, 1961).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Le Dinh; Ly, Bui Minh; Hao, Vo Thi; Trung, Dinh Thanh; Trang, Vo Thi Dieu; Trinh, Phan Thi Hoai; Ngoc, Ngo Thi Duy; Quang, Thai Minh

    2018-02-01

    SFL, a lectin from the marine sponge Stylissa flexibilis was purified by cold ethanol precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE Sepharose column and Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration. SFL is a dimeric glycoprotein of 32kDa subunits linked by a disulfide bridge with a molecular mass of 64kDa by SDS-PAGE and 65kDa by Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration. SFL preferentially agglutinated enzyme treated human A erythrocytes. The activity of lectin was strongly inhibited by monosaccharide d-galactose and glycoproteins asialo-porcine stomach mucin and asialo-fetuin. The lectin was Ca 2+ dependent, stable over a range of pH from 5 to 8, and up to 60°C for 30min. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of SFL was also determined and a blast search on amino acid sequences revealed that the protein showed similarity only with lectins from the marine sponge Spheciospongia vesparia. SFL caused agglutination of Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus in a dose dependent manner and inhibited the growth rates of the virulent bacterial strains. Growth inhibition of V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus with SFL was not observed in the presence of d-galactose or asialo-porcine stomach mucin, suggesting that the lectin caused the agglutination through binding to the target receptor(s) on the surface of Vibrios. Thus, the marine sponge S. flexibilis could promise to be a good source of a lectin(s) that may be useful as a carbohydrate probe and an antibacterial reagent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Lactose-Binding Lectin from the Marine Sponge Cinachyrella Apion (Cal) Induces Cell Death in Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Luciana; Monteiro, Norberto; Serquiz, Raphael; Santos, Paula; Oliveira, Ruth; Oliveira, Adeliana; Rocha, Hugo; Morais, Ana Heloneida; Uchoa, Adriana; Santos, Elizeu

    2012-01-01

    Cancer represents a set of more than 100 diseases, including malignant tumors from different locations. Strategies inducing differentiation have had limited success in the treatment of established cancers. Marine sponges are a biological reservoir of bioactive molecules, especially lectins. Several animal and plant lectins were purified with antitumor activity, mitogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral, but there are few reports in the literature describing the mechanism of action of lectins purified from marine sponges to induce apoptosis in human tumor cells. In this work, a lectin purified from the marine sponge Cinachyrella apion (CaL) was evaluated with respect to its hemolytic, cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties, besides the ability to induce cell death in tumor cells. The antiproliferative activity of CaL was tested against HeLa, PC3 and 3T3 cell lines, with highest growth inhibition for HeLa, reducing cell growth at a dose dependent manner (0.5–10 µg/mL). Hemolytic activity and toxicity against peripheral blood cells were tested using the concentration of IC50 (10 µg/mL) for both trials and twice the IC50 for analysis in flow cytometry, indicating that CaL is not toxic to these cells. To assess the mechanism of cell death caused by CaL in HeLa cells, we performed flow cytometry and western blotting. Results showed that lectin probably induces cell death by apoptosis activation by pro-apoptotic protein Bax, promoting mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, cell cycle arrest in S phase and acting as both dependent and/or independent of caspases pathway. These results indicate the potential of CaL in studies of medicine for treating cancer. PMID:22690140

  6. A Lactose-Binding Lectin from the Marine Sponge Cinachyrella Apion (Cal Induces Cell Death in Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Uchoa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer represents a set of more than 100 diseases, including malignant tumors from different locations. Strategies inducing differentiation have had limited success in the treatment of established cancers. Marine sponges are a biological reservoir of bioactive molecules, especially lectins. Several animal and plant lectins were purified with antitumor activity, mitogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral, but there are few reports in the literature describing the mechanism of action of lectins purified from marine sponges to induce apoptosis in human tumor cells. In this work, a lectin purified from the marine sponge Cinachyrella apion (CaL was evaluated with respect to its hemolytic, cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties, besides the ability to induce cell death in tumor cells. The antiproliferative activity of CaL was tested against HeLa, PC3 and 3T3 cell lines, with highest growth inhibition for HeLa, reducing cell growth at a dose dependent manner (0.5–10 µg/mL. Hemolytic activity and toxicity against peripheral blood cells were tested using the concentration of IC50 (10 µg/mL for both trials and twice the IC50 for analysis in flow cytometry, indicating that CaL is not toxic to these cells. To assess the mechanism of cell death caused by CaL in HeLa cells, we performed flow cytometry and western blotting. Results showed that lectin probably induces cell death by apoptosis activation by pro-apoptotic protein Bax, promoting mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, cell cycle arrest in S phase and acting as both dependent and/or independent of caspases pathway. These results indicate the potential of CaL in studies of medicine for treating cancer.

  7. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations of Bacterial Communities Associated with Marine Sponges from San Juan Island, Washington

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, O. O.; Wong, Y. H.; Qian, P.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    This study attempted to assess whether conspecific or congeneric sponges around San Juan Island, Washington, harbor specific bacterial communities. We used a combination of culture-independent DNA fingerprinting techniques (terminal restriction

  8. Aurantoside K, a New Antifungal Tetramic Acid Glycoside from a Fijian Marine Sponge of the Genus Melophlus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohitesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new tetramic acid glycoside, aurantoside K, was isolated from a marine sponge belonging to the genus Melophlus. The structure of the compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis (1H NMR, 1H–1H COSY, HSQC, and HMBC, as well as high-resolution ESILCMS. Aurantoside K did not show any significant activity in antimalarial, antibacterial, or HCT-116 cytotoxicity assays, but exhibited a wide spectrum of antifungal activity against wild type Candida albicans, amphotericin-resistant C. albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Rhizopus sporangia and Sordaria sp.

  9. Further brominated bis- and tris-indole alkaloids from the deep-water New Caledonian marine sponge Orina Sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, G; Bruno, I; Riccio, R; Lavayre, J; Bourdy, G

    1995-08-01

    Two tris-indole alkaloids, (+/-) gelliusines A and B [1], have been isolated for the first time from a marine source, the New Caledonian sponge, Orina sp. (or Gellius sp.), along with five further indole constituents [2-6]. Compound 6 has been identified as 2,2-bis-(6'-bromo-3'-indolyl(-ethylamine, previously isolated from the tunicate Didemnum candidum, but the remaining four indoles [2-5] are novel compounds. These showed anti-serotonin activity and a strong affinity for somatostatin and neuropeptide Y receptors in receptor-binding assays.

  10. Silicon isotope fractionation by marine sponges and the reconstruction of the silicon isotope composition of ancient deep water

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Rocha, Christina L.

    2003-05-01

    The silicon isotope composition (δ30Si) of biogenic opal provides a view of the silica cycle at times in the past. Reconstructions require the knowledge of silicon isotope fractionation during opal biomineralization. The δ30Si of specimens of hexactinellid sponges and demosponges growing in the modern ocean ranged from -1.2‰ to -3.7‰ (n = 6), corresponding to the production of opal that has a δ30Si value 3.8‰ ± 0.8‰ more negative than seawater silicic acid and a fractionation factor (α) of 0.9964. This is three times the fractionation observed during opal formation by marine diatoms and terrestrial plants and is the largest fractionation of silicon isotopes observed for any natural process on Earth. The δ30Si values of sponge spicules across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary at Ocean Drilling Program Site 689 on Maud Rise range from -1.1‰ to -3.0‰, overlapping the range observed for sponges growing in modern seawater.

  11. Use of real-time qPCR to quantify members of the unculturable heterotrophic bacterial community in a deep sea marine sponge, Vetulina sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassler, M; Peterson, C L; Ledger, A; Pomponi, S A; Wright, A E; Winegar, R; McCarthy, P J; Lopez, J V

    2008-04-01

    In this report, real-time quantitative PCR (TaqMan qPCR) of the small subunit (SSU) 16S-like rRNA molecule, a universal phylogenetic marker, was used to quantify the relative abundance of individual bacterial members of a diverse, yet mostly unculturable, microbial community from a marine sponge. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of bacterial communities derived from Caribbean Lithistid sponges have shown a wide diversity of microbes that included at least six major subdivisions; however, very little overlap was observed between the culturable and unculturable microbial communities. Based on sequence data of three culture-independent Lithistid-derived representative bacteria, we designed probe/primer sets for TaqMan qPCR to quantitatively characterize selected microbial residents in a Lithistid sponge, Vetulina, metagenome. TaqMan assays included specificity testing, DNA limit of detection analysis, and quantification of specific microbial rRNA sequences such as Nitrospira-like microbes and Actinobacteria up to 172 million copies per microgram per Lithistid sponge metagenome. By contrast, qPCR amplification with probes designed for common previously cultured sponge-associated bacteria in the genera Rheinheimera and Marinomonas and a representative of the CFB group resulted in only minimal detection of the Rheiheimera in total DNA extracted from the sponge. These data verify that a large portion of the microbial community within Lithistid sponges may consist of currently unculturable microorganisms.

  12. Genomics of Sponge-Associated Streptomyces spp. Closely Related to Streptomyces albus J1074: Insights into Marine Adaptation and Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian, Elena; Malko, Dmitry B.; Sekurova, Olga N.; Bredholt, Harald; Rückert, Christian; Borisova, Marina E.; Albersmeier, Andreas; Kalinowski, Jörn; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Zotchev, Sergey B.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 74 actinomycete isolates were cultivated from two marine sponges, Geodia barretti and Phakellia ventilabrum collected at the same spot at the bottom of the Trondheim fjord (Norway). Phylogenetic analyses of sponge-associated actinomycetes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated the presence of species belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Rhodococcus, Pseudonocardia and Micromonospora. Most isolates required sea water for growth, suggesting them being adapted to the marine environment. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces spp. revealed two isolates that originated from different sponges and had 99.7% identity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicating that they represent very closely related strains. Sequencing, annotation, and analyses of the genomes of these Streptomyces isolates demonstrated that they are sister organisms closely related to terrestrial Streptomyces albus J1074. Unlike S. albus J1074, the two sponge streptomycetes grew and differentiated faster on the medium containing sea water. Comparative genomics revealed several genes presumably responsible for partial marine adaptation of these isolates. Genome mining targeted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters identified several of those, which were not present in S. albus J1074, and likely to have been retained from a common ancestor, or acquired from other actinomycetes. Certain genes and gene clusters were shown to be differentially acquired or lost, supporting the hypothesis of divergent evolution of the two Streptomyces species in different sponge hosts. PMID:24819608

  13. HPLC-ESI-IT-MS/MS Analysis and Biological Activity of Triterpene Glycosides from the Colombian Marine Sponge Ectyoplasia ferox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny Colorado-Ríos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The marine sponge Ectyoplasia ferox produces antipredatory and allelopathic triterpenoid glycosides as part of its chemical defense repertoire against predators, competitors, and fouling organisms. These molecules are responsible for the pharmacological potential found in the glycosides present in this species. In order to observe the glycochemical diversity present in E. ferox, a liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometry approach to analyse a complex polar fraction of this marine sponge was performed. This gave valuable information for about twenty-five compounds three of which have been previously reported and another three which were found to be composed of known aglycones. Furthermore, a group of four urabosides, sharing two uncommon substitutions with carboxyl groups at C-4 on the terpenoid core, were identified by a characteristic fragmentation pattern. The oxidized aglycones present in this group of saponins can promote instability, making the purification process difficult. Cytotoxicity, cell cycle modulation, a cell cloning efficiency assay, as well as its hemolytic activity were evaluated. The cytotoxic activity was about IC50 40 µg/mL on Jurkat and CHO-k1 cell lines without exhibiting hemolysis. Discussion on this bioactivity suggests the scanning of other biological models would be worthwhile.

  14. Secondary Metabolites from the Culture of the Marine Sponge-Associated Fungi Talaromyces tratensis and Sporidesmium circinophorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttachon, Suradet; May Zin, War War; Dethoup, Tida; Gales, Luís; Pereira, José A; Silva, Artur M S; Kijjoa, Anake

    2016-06-01

    Wortmin (1), meso-1,4-bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-2,3-butanediol (2), and a new isocoumarin derivative tratenopyrone (3) were isolated from the marine sponge-associated fungus Talaromyces tratensis KUFA 0091. A new diphenyl ether derivative, circinophoric acid (4), was isolated, together with the previously reported anthraquinones catenarin and physcion, the benzophenone monomethylsoluchrin, and β-ergosterol-5,8-endoperoxide, from the marine sponge-associated fungus Sporidesmium circinophorum KUFA 0043. The structures of the new compounds were established based on an extensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and, in the case of compounds 2-4, also by X-ray analysis. All of the isolated compounds were tested for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and multidrug-resistant isolates from the environment, as well as for their anti-quorum sensing based on the pigment production of Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 31523. None of the compounds exhibited either antibacterial (MIC > 256 µg/mL) or anti-quorum sensing activities. The compounds were also inactive in the antifungal (MIC > 512 µg/mL) and cancer cell line (GI50 > 150 µM) assays. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Marine natural products. XXXII. Absolute configurations of C-4 of the manoalide family, biologically active sesterterpenes from the marine sponge Hyrtios erecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Okamoto, T; Hayashi, K; Yokoyama, N; Sasaki, T; Kitagawa, I

    1994-02-01

    Cytotoxic sesterterpenes, manoalide 25-acetals (1a, 1b), seco-manoalide (2), (E)-neomanoalide (3), (Z)-neomanoalide (4), and heteronemin (6), were isolated from the marine sponge Hyrtios erecta (collected at Amami Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan) by bioassay-guided separation and the absolute configurations of these manoalide family members have been determined. Manoalide 25-acetals (1a, 1b) were shown to exhibit in vivo antitumor activity and to inhibit the DNA-relaxing activity of mouse DNA topoisomerase I and the DNA-unknotting activity of calf thymus DNA topoisomerase II.

  16. Growth and metabolism of sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, M.

    2009-01-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are multi cellular filter-feeding invertebrate animals living attached to a substratum in mostly marine but also in freshwater habitats. The interest in sponges has increased rapidly since the discovery of potential new pharmaceutical compounds produced by many sponges. An

  17. Sponge cell culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    Marine sponges are a rich source of bioactive compounds with pharmaceutical potential and are the most prolific source of newly discovered bioactive compounds with more than 7,000 novel molecules discovered in 40 years. Despite its enormous potential, only a few sponge-derived bioactive

  18. Neuritogenic activity-guided isolation of a free base form manzamine A from a marine sponge, Acanthostrongylophora aff. ingens (Thiele, 1899)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, B.; Miyamoto, T.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Two manzamine-class alkaloids, manzamine A (1) and 8-hydroxymanzamine (2) were isolated from a Japanese marine sponge Acanthostrongylophora aff. ingens, together with three known alkaloids manzamine E (3), manzamine F (4), and manzamine X (5). The spectral features of 1 and 2 were different from the

  19. An Aeroplysinin-1 Specific Nitrile Hydratase Isolated from the Marine Sponge Aplysina cavernicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Proksch

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A nitrile hydratase (NHase that specifically accepts the nitrile aeroplysinin-1 (1 as a substrate and converts it into the dienone amide verongiaquinol (7 was isolated, partially purified and characterized from the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina cavernicola; although it is currently not known whether the enzyme is of sponge origin or produced by its symbiotic microorganisms. The formation of aeroplysinin-1 and of the corresponding dienone amide is part of the chemical defence system of A. cavernicola. The latter two compounds that show strong antibiotic activity originate from brominated isoxazoline alkaloids that are thought to protect the sponges from invasion of bacterial pathogens. The sponge was shown to contain at least two NHases as two excised protein bands from a non denaturating Blue Native gel showed nitrile hydratase activity, which was not observed for control samples. The enzymes were shown to be manganese dependent, although cobalt and nickel ions were also able to recover the activity of the nitrile hydratases. The temperature and pH optimum of the studied enzymes were found at 41 °C and pH 7.8. The enzymes showed high substrate specificity towards the physiological substrate aeroplysinin-1 (1 since none of the substrate analogues that were prepared either by partial or by total synthesis were converted in an in vitro assay. Moreover de-novo sequencing by mass spectrometry was employed to obtain information about the primary structure of the studied NHases, which did not reveal any homology to known NHases.

  20. Structure Elucidation and Cytotoxic Evaluation of New Polyacetylenes from a Marine Sponge Petrosia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Shun Juan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The sponge Petrosia sp. yielded five polyacetylenic compounds (1–5, including two new polyacetylenes, petrosianynes A (1 and B (2. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with the physical and spectral data of related known analogues. Compounds 1–5 exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against a limited panel of cancer cell lines.

  1. Poecillastrin D: a new cytotoxin of the chondropsin class from marine sponge Jaspis serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Daisaku; Takekawa, Yoshihiko; Soest, Rob W M van; Fusetani, Nobuhiro; Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2007-11-01

    Poecillastrin D (2) was isolated together with poecillastrin C (1) from the deep sea sponge, Japsis serpentina. Its structure was elucidated to be that of a macrolide lactam by spectroscopic methods. These compounds showed potent cytotoxicity against various tumor cell lines.

  2. Antibacterial activity of the sponge Suberites domuncula and its primmorphs: Potential basis for epibacterial chemical defense

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thakur, N; Hentschel, U.; Krasko, A; Pabel, C; Anil, A.C; Mueller, W.E.G.

    The epibacterial chemical defense of the marine sponge Suberites domuncula was explored by screening sponge extract, sponge primmorph (3-D aggregates containing proliferating cells) extract and sponge-associated as well as primmorph...

  3. The sponge microbiome project

    KAUST Repository

    Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Nielsen, Shaun; Amir, Amnon; Gonzalez, Antonio; Ackermann, Gail L.; Cerrano, Carlo; Astudillo-Garcia, Carmen; Easson, Cole; Sipkema, Detmer; Liu, Fang; Steinert, Georg; Kotoulas, Giorgos; McCormack, Grace P.; Feng, Guofang; Bell, James J.; Vicente, Jan; Bjö rk, Johannes R.; Montoya, Jose M.; Olson, Julie B.; Reveillaud, Julie; Steindler, Laura; Pineda, Mari-Carmen; Marra, Maria V.; Ilan, Micha; Taylor, Michael W.; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Erwin, Patrick M.; Schupp, Peter J.; Simister, Rachel L.; Knight, Rob; Thacker, Robert W.; Costa, Rodrigo; Hill, Russell T.; Lopez-Legentil, Susanna; Dailianis, Thanos; Ravasi, Timothy; Hentschel, Ute; Li, Zhiyong; Webster, Nicole S.; Thomas, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse, phylogenetically deep-branching clade known for forming intimate partnerships with complex communities of microorganisms. To date, 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies have largely utilised different

  4. Phylogeography of the Sponge Suberites diversicolor in Indonesia: insights into the evolution of marine lake populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, L.E.; Erpenbeck, D.; Peijnenburg, K.T.C.A.; Voogd, de N.J.

    2013-01-01

    The existence of multiple independently derived populations in landlocked marine lakes provides an opportunity for fundamental research into the role of isolation in population divergence and speciation in marine taxa. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through

  5. Phylogeography of the Sponge Suberites diversicolor in Indonesia: Insights into the Evolution of Marine Lake Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, L.E.; Erpenbeck, D.; Peijnenburg, K.T.C.A.; Voogd, de N.J.

    2013-01-01

    The existence of multiple independently derived populations in landlocked marine lakes provides an opportunity for fundamental research into the role of isolation in population divergence and speciation in marine taxa. Marine lakes are landlocked water bodies that maintain a marine character through

  6. Bis(sulfato)-cyclosiphonodictyol A, a new disulfated sesquiterpene-hydroquinone from a deep water collection of the Marine sponge Siphonodictyon coralliphagum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killday, K B; Wright, A E; Jackson, R H; Sills, M A

    1995-06-01

    A new compound, bis(sulfato)-cyclosiphonodictyol A [1], which inhibits the binding of [3H]-LTB4 to intact human neutrophils with an IC50 value of 44 microM, was isolated from the sponge Siphonodictyon coralliphagum. The sponge was collected using the Johnson-Sea-Link manned submersible at a depth of 195 feet in the Bahamas. The compound was isolated via reversed-phase chromatography and its structure determined spectroscopically. To the best of our knowledge, 1 is the first marine-derived compound with two aromatic sulfate ester functionalities, and is also the first in the siphonodictyal series to contain an oxepane functionality.

  7. In vitro antiproliferative effect of fractions from the caribbean marine sponge Myrmekioderma gyroderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Márquez Fernández

    Full Text Available Introduction: studies performed to Myrmekioderma genus sponges show phospholipid fatty acids, volatile compounds, sterols, bioactive cyclic diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, lineal diterpenes and glycolipid ethers. Objetive: to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of seven fractions (F1-F7 obtained by flash column chromatography from the most bioactive extract of the sponge Myrmekioderma gyroderma, and to analyze the chemical composition of the most active fraction. Methods: samples of dried sponge were extracted with two different solvents: CH2Cl2 (2 x 50 mL, and CH3OH (2 x 50 mL. Each fraction was evaluated on tumor cell derived cell lines; and the cell growth, and viability were determined by a colorimeter assay using sulforhodamine B. Fatty acids structure of the most active fraction was possible by GC-MS analysis of the methyl ester, and pyrrolidine derivatives. Results: the fraction with higher activity on the assessed tumor cell lines is F4 due to it totally inhibited MDA-MB-231, and HT29 cell line growth to 5, and 25 µg/mL concentration (IC50< 1 µg/mL. Fatty acids identified in bioactive F4 fraction of the M. gyroderma sponge can be classified on the following groups: lineal chain saturated, branched-saturated, unsaturated, and a 3-hydroxy acid. Conclusions: 43 fatty acids among saturated, branched-saturated, and unsaturated were identified out of the F4 fraction with activity on the cell lines derived of breast cancer MDA-MB-231, colon carcinoma HT29, and lung carcinoma cells A-549. These results show the growth inhibitory effect shown by the fractions, on the tumor cell lines, depends on the dose.

  8. Heterofibrins: inhibitors of lipid droplet formation from a deep-water southern Australian marine sponge, Spongia (Heterofibria) sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Angela A; Rae, James; Fontaine, Frank; Conte, Melissa M; Khalil, Zeinab; Martin, Sally; Parton, Robert G; Capon, Robert J

    2010-07-21

    A bioassay-guided search for inhibitors of lipid droplet formation in a deep-water southern Australian marine sponge, Spongia (Heterofibria) sp., yielded six new compounds, fatty acids heterofibrins A1 (1) and B1 (4), along with related monolactyl and dilactyl esters, heterofibrins A2 (2), B2 (5), A3 (3) and B3 (6). Heterofibrin structures were assigned on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis, with comparison to chiral synthetic model compounds. All heterofibrins possess a diyne-ene moiety, while the monolactyl and dilactyl moiety featured in selected heterofibrins is unprecedented in the natural products literature. SAR by co-metabolite studies on the heterofibrins confirmed them to be non-cytotoxic, with the carboxylic acids 1 and 4 inhibiting lipid droplet formation in A431 fibroblast cell lines. Such inhibitors have potential application in the management of obesity, diabetes and atherosclerosis

  9. Culture of marine sponges with potential applications in Aquaculture and Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M F Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the sponges were collected from the sea bottom in the surrounding areas of Peniche (central western coast of Portugal, by scuba diving. They were sealed in plastic zip bags during transportation to the surface and laboratory, to avoid air contact, which they are not able to endure. They were maintained in a closed water circulation system, transplanted into artificial substrates of plastic and fed every two days, with a mixed solution of microalgae Nanochloropsis salina culture and faeces of gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata. As this species is susceptible to the light, half of the tanks of the culture system were protected with a black cloth and the other half were submitted to an acclimation process to this factor, in order for them to be used in aquariophilia. The sponges dimension and weight were assessed. The establishment of an efficient culture strategy will allow to use sponges as ornamental organism, as well as a diet for other interesting commercial species (also potentially as probiotics, or even as source of extracts for different biotechnology fields.

  10. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of the first Porifera tumor necrosis factor superfamily member and of its putative receptor in the marine sponge Chondrosia reniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzolini, Marina; Scarfì, Sonia; Ghignone, Stefano; Mussino, Francesca; Vezzulli, Luigi; Cerrano, Carlo; Giovine, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Here we report the molecular cloning and characterization of the first Tumor Necrosis Factor homologous and of its putative receptor in the marine sponge Chondrosia reniformis: chTNF and chTNFR, respectively. The deduced chTNF amino acid sequence is a type II transmembrane protein containing the typical TNFSF domain. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that chTNF is more related to Chordata TNFs rather than to other invertebrates. chTNF and chTNFR are constitutively expressed both in the ectosome and in the choanosome of the sponge, with higher levels in the ectosome. chTNF and chTNFR mRNAs were monitored in sponge fragmorphs treated with Gram(+) or Gram(-) bacteria. chTNF was significantly upregulated in Gram(+)-treated fragmorphs as compared to controls, while chTNFR was upregulated by both treatments. Finally, the possible chTNF fibrogenic role in sponge fragmorphs was studied by TNF inhibitor treatment measuring fibrillar and non fibrillar collagen gene expression; results indicate that the cytokine is involved in sponge collagen deposition and homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sponge-Associated Bacteria Produce Non-cytotoxic Melanin Which Protects Animal Cells from Photo-Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vijitha; Jasmin, Chekidhenkuzhiyil; Anas, Abdulaziz; Parakkaparambil Kuttan, Sreelakshmi; Vinothkumar, Saradavey; Perunninakulath Subrayan, Parameswaran; Nair, Shanta

    2017-09-01

    Melanin is a photo-protective polymer found in many organisms. Our research shows that the bacteria associated with darkly pigmented sponges (Haliclona pigmentifera, Sigmadocia pumila, Fasciospongia cavernosa, Spongia officinalis, and Callyspongia diffusa) secrete non-cytotoxic melanin, with antioxidant activity that protects animal cells from photo-toxicity. Out of 156 bacterial strains screened, 22 produced melanin and these melanin-producing bacteria (MPB) were identified as Vibrio spp., Providencia sp., Bacillus sp., Shewanella sp., Staphylococcus sp., Planococcus sp., Salinococcus sp., and Glutamicibacter sp. Maximum melanin production was exhibited by Vibrio alginolyticus Marine Microbial Reference Facility (MMRF) 534 (50 mg ml -1 ), followed by two isolates of Vibrio harveyi MMRF 535 (40 mg ml -1 ) and MMRF 546 (30 mg ml -1 ). Using pathway inhibition assay and FT-IR spectral analysis, we identified the melanin secreted into the culture medium of MPB as 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-melanin. The bacterial melanin was non-cytotoxic to mouse fibroblast L929 cells and brine shrimps up to a concentration of 200 and 500 ppm, respectively. Bacterial melanin showed antioxidant activity at very low concentration (IC 50 -9.0 ppm) and at 50 ppm, melanin protected L929 cells from UV-induced intracellular reactive oxygen stress. Our study proposes sponge-associated bacteria as a potential source of non-cytotoxic melanin with antioxidant potentials.

  12. Swinholide J, a Potent Cytotoxin from the Marine Sponge Theonella swinhoei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Zampella

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In our ongoing search for new pharmacologically active leads from Solomon organisms, we have examined the sponge Theonella swinhoei. Herein we report the isolation and structure elucidation of swinholide A (1 and one new macrolide, swinholide J (2. Swinholide J is an unprecedented asymmetric 44-membered dilactone with an epoxide functionality in half of the molecule. The structural determination was based on extensive interpretation of high-field NMR spectra and HRESIMS data. Swinholide J displayed potent in vitro cytotoxicity against KB cells (human nasopharynx cancer with an IC50 value of 6 nM.

  13. Sesquiterpene-derived metabolites from the deep water marine sponge Poecillastra sollasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killday, K B; Longley, R; McCarthy, P J; Pomponi, S A; Wright, A E; Neale, R F; Sills, M A

    1993-04-01

    Six sesquiterpene-derived compounds, 1-6, which we call sollasins a-f, have been isolated from a deep water specimen of the sponge Poecillastra sollasi. The structures were elucidated by comparison of spectral data to related metabolites and confirmed using spectroscopic methods. The compounds inhibit the growth of the pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans and the P-388 and A-549 tumor cell lines. Compounds 3 and 4 show weak inhibition of binding of [125I] angiotensin II to rat aorta smooth muscle cell membranes.

  14. New polyhydroxy sterols from the marine sponge Callyspongia fibrosa (Ridley & Dendly)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.S.P.; Sarma, N.S.; Murthy, Y.L.N.; Kantamreddi, V.S.S.N.; Wright, C.W.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    .5 kg) extracted with CH 3 OH at room temperature. The EtOAc soluble portion of the extract, a dark greenish gummy residue (40g) was subjected to column chromatography on silica gel (Acme, 100-200 mesh, 250g) by gradient elution with n-hexane (100... knowledge, the report of 4a from a sponge is a first time record. Compound 3, colourless needles from CHCl 3 (with traces of CH 3 OH) is C 30 H 50 O 3 derived from the combination of elemental analysis and molecular ion (M +. ) 458 in the EIMS. IR...

  15. Supplementary Material for: Hologenome analysis of two marine sponges with different microbiomes

    KAUST Repository

    Ryu, Tae Woo; Seridi, Loqmane; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Oates, Matthew; Liew, Yi; Mavromatis, Charalampos Harris; Wang, Xiaolei; Haywood, Annika; Lafi, Feras; Kupresanin, Marija; Sougrat, Rachid; Alzahrani, Majed A.; Giles, Emily; Ghosheh, Yanal; Schunter, Celia Marei; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Berumen, Michael; Gao, Xin; Aranda, Manuel; Foret, Sylvain; Gough, Julian; Voolstra, Christian; Hentschel, Ute; Ravasi, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Sponges (Porifera) harbor distinct microbial consortia within their mesohyl interior. We herein analysed the hologenomes of Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria, which notably differ in their microbiome content. Results Our analysis revealed that S. carteri has an expanded repertoire of immunological domains, specifically Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich (SRCR)-like domains, compared to X. testudinaria. On the microbial side, metatranscriptome analyses revealed an overrepresentation of potential symbiosis-related domains in X. testudinaria. Conclusions Our findings provide genomic insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying host-symbiont coevolution and may serve as a roadmap for future hologenome analyses.

  16. Characterization of deep coral and sponge communities in the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary: Rittenburg Bank, Cochrane Bank and the Farallon Escarpment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etnoyer, P.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Salgado, E.; Graiff, K.; Roletto, J.; Williams, G.J.; Reyna, K.; Hyland, J.

    2014-01-01

    Benthic surveys were conducted in the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) aboard R/V Fulmar, October 3-11, 2012 using the large observation-class remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Beagle. The purpose of the surveys was to groundtruth mapping data collected in 2011, and to characterize the seafloor biota, particularly corals and sponges, in order to support Essential Fish Habitat designations under Magnuson-Stevens Act (MSA) and other conservation and management goals under the National Marine Sanctuaries Act (NMSA). A total area of 25,416 sq. meters of sea floor was surveyed during 34 ROV transects. The overall research priorities were: (1) to locate and characterize DSC and sponge habitats in priority areas; (2) to collect information to help understand the value of DSCs and sponges as reservoirs of biodiversity, or habitat for associated species, including commercially important fishes and invertebrates; (3) to assess the condition of DSC/sponge assemblages in relation to potential anthropogenic or environmental disturbances; and (4) to make this information available to support fisheries and sanctuary management needs under MSA and NMSA requirements.

  17. Functional gene-based discovery of phenazines from the actinobacteria associated with marine sponges in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, Valliappan; Li, Yingxin; Sun, Wei; Feng, Guofang; Li, Zhiyong

    2015-07-01

    Phenazines represent a large group of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds produced by the diverse group of bacteria including actinobacteria. In this study, a total of 197 actinobacterial strains were isolated from seven different marine sponge species in the South China Sea using five different culture media. Eighty-seven morphologically different actinobacterial strains were selected and grouped into 13 genera, including Actinoalloteichus, Kocuria, Micrococcus, Micromonospora, Mycobacterium, Nocardiopsis, Prauserella, Rhodococcus, Saccharopolyspora, Salinispora, Serinicoccus, and Streptomyces by the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene. Based on the screening of phzE genes, ten strains, including five Streptomyces, two Nocardiopsis, one Salinispora, one Micrococcus, and one Serinicoccus were found to be potential for phenazine production. The level of phzE gene expression was highly expressed in Nocardiopsis sp. 13-33-15, 13-12-13, and Serinicoccus sp. 13-12-4 on the fifth day of fermentation. Finally, 1,6-dihydroxy phenazine (1) from Nocardiopsis sp. 13-33-15 and 13-12-13, and 1,6-dimethoxy phenazine (2) from Nocardiopsis sp. 13-33-15 were isolated and identified successfully based on ESI-MS and NMR analysis. The compounds 1 and 2 showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus mycoides SJ14, Staphylococcus aureus SJ51, Escherichia coli SJ42, and Micrococcus luteus SJ47. This study suggests that the integrated approach of gene screening and chemical analysis is an effective strategy to find the target compounds and lays the basis for the production of phenazine from the sponge-associated actinobacteria.

  18. New antibacterial xanthone from the marine sponge-derived Micrococcus sp. EG45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltamany, Enas E; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Ibrahim, Amany K; Hassanean, Hashim A; Hentschel, Ute; Ahmed, Safwat A

    2014-11-01

    Microluside A [4 (19-para-hydroxy benzoyloxy-O-β-D-cellobiosyl), 5 (30-para-hydroxy benzoyloxy-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl) xanthone (1)] is a unique O-glycosylated disubstituted xanthone isolated from the broth culture of Micrococcus sp. EG45 cultivated from the Red Sea sponge Spheciospongia vagabunda. The structure of microluside A was determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques as well as high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity evaluation showed that 1 exhibited antibacterial potential against Enterococcus faecalis JH212 and Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325 with MIC values of 10 and 13 μM, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Marine sponges: a potential source of eco-friendly antifouling compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagh, A.B.; Thakur, N.L.; Anil, A.C.; Venkat, K.

    biocides have environmental concerns. In view of this search for ecofriendly antifouling protocols gained momentum. Sourcing of such antifouling compounds has often been explored with marine organism. This paper reviews the efforts in this domain...

  20. Comparison of spiculogenesis in in vitro ADCP-primmorph and explants culture of marine sponge Hymeniacidon perleve with 3-TMOSPU supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xupeng; Yu, Xingju; Zhang, Wei

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to test the feasibility of introducing functional chemical groups into biogenic silica spicules by examining the effect of supplementing a silican coupler [3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]urea (3-TMOSPU) as silica source in the cultures of archaeocytes-dominant-cell-population (ADCP) primmorphs and explants of the marine sponge Hymeniacidon perleve. Analysis by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed that the organic group in 3-TMOSPU was introduced into silica spicules. By comparing ADCP-primmorph cultures when supplemented with Na2SiO3, 3-TMOSPU supplementation showed no notable effect on the primmorphs development and cell locomotion behaviors. A decline in silicatein expression quantified by real-time RT-PCR was, however, observed during spiculogenesis. The decline was slower for the 3-TMOSPU group whereas significantly fewer spicules were formed. When sponge papillae explants were cultured, 3-TMOSPU supplementation had no negative effect on sponge growth but inhibited the growth biofouling of the diatom Nitzschia closterium. By monitoring the detectable Si concentration, it seemed that 3-TMOSPU was converted by the sponge and its conversion was related to spiculogenesis. Analysis of spicule dimensional changes indicated that the inhibition of spiculogenesis by 3-TMOSPU supplementation was less in ADCP-primmorphs culture due to lower 3-TMOSPU/detectable Si ratio in the media.

  1. Pretreatment Hepatoprotective Effect of the Marine Fungus Derived from Sponge on Hepatic Toxicity Induced by Heavy Metals in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehad M. Abdel-Monem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the pretreatment hepatoprotective effect of the extract of marine-derived fungus Trichurus spiralis Hasselbr (TS isolated from Hippospongia communis sponge on hepatotoxicity. Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n=7. Group I served as −ve control, group II served as the induced group receiving subcutaneously for seven days 0.25 mg heavy metal mixtures, group III received (i.p. TS extract of dose 40 mg for seven days, and group IV served as the protected group pretreated with TS extract for seven days as a protection dose, and then treated with the heavy metal-mixture. The main pathological changes within the liver after heavy-metal mixtures administrations marked hepatic damage evidenced by foci of lobular necrosis with neutrophilic infiltration, adjacent to dysplastic hepatocytes. ALT and AST measurements show a significant increase in group II by 46.20% and 45.12%, respectively. Total protein, elevated by about 38.9% in induction group compared to the −ve control group, in contrast to albumin, decreased as a consequence of metal administration with significant elevation on bilirubin level. The results prove that TS extract possesses a hepatoprotective property due to its proven antioxidant and free-radical scavenging properties.

  2. Anti HSV-1 Activity of Halistanol Sulfate and Halistanol Sulfate C Isolated from Brazilian Marine Sponge Petromica citrina (Demospongiae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa Guimarães, Tatiana; Quiroz, Carlos Guillermo; Rigotto, Caroline; de Oliveira, Simone Quintana; Rojo de Almeida, Maria Tereza; Bianco, Éverson Miguel; Moritz, Maria Izabel Goulart; Carraro, João Luís; Palermo, Jorge Alejandro; Cabrera, Gabriela; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Oliveira Simões, Cláudia Maria

    2013-01-01

    The n-butanol fraction (BF) obtained from the crude extract of the marine sponge Petromica citrina, the halistanol-enriched fraction (TSH fraction), and the isolated compounds halistanol sulfate (1) and halistanol sulfate C (2), were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the replication of the Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1, KOS strain) by the viral plaque number reduction assay. The TSH fraction was the most effective against HSV-1 replication (SI = 15.33), whereas compounds 1 (SI = 2.46) and 2 (SI = 1.95) were less active. The most active fraction and these compounds were also assayed to determine the viral multiplication step(s) upon which they act as well as their potential synergistic effects. The anti-HSV-1 activity detected was mediated by the inhibition of virus attachment and by the penetration into Vero cells, the virucidal effect on virus particles, and by the impairment in levels of ICP27 and gD proteins of HSV-1. In summary, these results suggest that the anti-HSV-1 activity of TSH fraction detected is possibly related to the synergic effects of compounds 1 and 2. PMID:24172213

  3. HR-LC-MS based analysis of two antibacterial metabolites from a marine sponge symbiont Streptomyces pharmamarensis ICN40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Francis-Joseph Rosemary Sharmila; Iniyan, Appadurai Muthamil; Vincent, Samuel Gnana Prakash

    2017-10-01

    On the effort to screen antibiotics against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), an actinomycete strain which can produce bactericidal compound was isolated from a marine sponge of Kanyakumari Coast, India. Two anti-MRSA compounds (PVI401 and PVI402) were isolated from the fermentation plates of Streptomyces pharmamarensis ICN40. TLC bioautography analysis yielded two active spots with Rf value of 0.75 (PVI401) and 0.8 (PVI402) from the crude extract. Both the compounds were characterized by HR-LC-MS analysis. LC-MS based de-replication analysis found out the compound PVI401 with an exact mass of 376.09435 Da and PVI402 with an exact mass of 273.26795 Da were found to be unidentified. Antibacterial spectrum showed significant minimal inhibitory concentration as 0.5 μg/ml of PVI401 and 2 μg/ml of PVI402 against MRSA. The whole organism zebrafish safety evaluation exhibited the compound PVI402 is safe upto 1 mg/ml 40 μg/ml of PVI401 exhibited thrombosis in cardiac chamber and this compound exhibited 44 μg/ml of LC 50 against HepG2 hepatic carcinoma cell line. Both the compounds may be identified further for its structural novelty and clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The sponge microbiome project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Nielsen, Shaun; Amir, Amnon; Gonzalez, Antonio; Ackermann, Gail L; Cerrano, Carlo; Astudillo-Garcia, Carmen; Easson, Cole; Sipkema, Detmer; Liu, Fang; Steinert, Georg; Kotoulas, Giorgos; McCormack, Grace P; Feng, Guofang; Bell, James J; Vicente, Jan; Björk, Johannes R; Montoya, Jose M; Olson, Julie B; Reveillaud, Julie; Steindler, Laura; Pineda, Mari-Carmen; Marra, Maria V; Ilan, Micha; Taylor, Michael W; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Erwin, Patrick M; Schupp, Peter J; Simister, Rachel L; Knight, Rob; Thacker, Robert W; Costa, Rodrigo; Hill, Russell T; Lopez-Legentil, Susanna; Dailianis, Thanos; Ravasi, Timothy; Hentschel, Ute; Li, Zhiyong; Webster, Nicole S; Thomas, Torsten

    2017-10-01

    Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse, phylogenetically deep-branching clade known for forming intimate partnerships with complex communities of microorganisms. To date, 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies have largely utilised different extraction and amplification methodologies to target the microbial communities of a limited number of sponge species, severely limiting comparative analyses of sponge microbial diversity and structure. Here, we provide an extensive and standardised dataset that will facilitate sponge microbiome comparisons across large spatial, temporal, and environmental scales. Samples from marine sponges (n = 3569 specimens), seawater (n = 370), marine sediments (n = 65) and other environments (n = 29) were collected from different locations across the globe. This dataset incorporates at least 268 different sponge species, including several yet unidentified taxa. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced from extracted DNA using standardised procedures. Raw sequences (total of 1.1 billion sequences) were processed and clustered with (i) a standard protocol using QIIME closed-reference picking resulting in 39 543 operational taxonomic units (OTU) at 97% sequence identity, (ii) a de novo clustering using Mothur resulting in 518 246 OTUs, and (iii) a new high-resolution Deblur protocol resulting in 83 908 unique bacterial sequences. Abundance tables, representative sequences, taxonomic classifications, and metadata are provided. This dataset represents a comprehensive resource of sponge-associated microbial communities based on 16S rRNA gene sequences that can be used to address overarching hypotheses regarding host-associated prokaryotes, including host specificity, convergent evolution, environmental drivers of microbiome structure, and the sponge-associated rare biosphere. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. The sponge microbiome project

    KAUST Repository

    Moitinho-Silva, Lucas

    2017-08-16

    Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse, phylogenetically deep-branching clade known for forming intimate partnerships with complex communities of microorganisms. To date, 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies have largely utilised different extraction and amplification methodologies to target the microbial communities of a limited number of sponge species, severely limiting comparative analyses of sponge microbial diversity and structure. Here, we provide an extensive and standardised dataset that will facilitate sponge microbiome comparisons across large spatial, temporal, and environmental scales. Samples from marine sponges (n = 3569 specimens), seawater (n = 370), marine sediments (n = 65) and other environments (n = 29) were collected from different locations across the globe. This dataset incorporates at least 268 different sponge species, including several yet unidentified taxa. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced from extracted DNA using standardised procedures. Raw sequences (total of 1.1 billion sequences) were processed and clustered with (i) a standard protocol using QIIME closed-reference picking resulting in 39 543 operational taxonomic units (OTU) at 97% sequence identity, (ii) a de novo clustering using Mothur resulting in 518 246 OTUs, and (iii) a new high-resolution Deblur protocol resulting in 83 908 unique bacterial sequences. Abundance tables, representative sequences, taxonomic classifications, and metadata are provided. This dataset represents a comprehensive resource of sponge-associated microbial communities based on 16S rRNA gene sequences that can be used to address overarching hypotheses regarding host-associated prokaryotes, including host specificity, convergent evolution, environmental drivers of microbiome structure, and the sponge-associated rare biosphere.

  6. Bioleaching of electronic waste using bacteria isolated from the marine sponge Hymeniacidon heliophila (Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas, Enrique E; Mendes, Maria A; Nascimento, Claudio A O; Espinosa, Denise C R; Oliveira, Renato; Oliveira, Guilherme; Custodio, Marcio R

    2017-05-05

    The bacteria isolated from Hymeniacidon heliophila sponge cells showed bioleaching activity. The most active strain, Hyhel-1, identified as Bacillus sp., was selected for bioleaching tests under two different temperatures, 30°C and 40°C, showing rod-shaped cells and filamentous growth, respectively. At 30°C, the bacteria secreted substances which linked to the leached copper, and at 40°C metallic nanoparticles were produced inside the cells. In addition, infrared analysis detected COOH groups and linear peptides in the tested bacteria at both temperatures. The Hyhel-1 strain in presence of electronic waste (e-waste) induced the formation of crust, which could be observed due to bacteria growing on the e-waste fragment. SEM-EDS measurements showed that the bacterial net surface was composed mostly of iron (16.1% w/w), while a higher concentration of copper was observed in the supernatant (1.7% w/w) and in the precipitated (49.8% w/w). The substances linked to copper in the supernatant were sequenced by MALDI-TOF-ms/ms and identified as macrocyclic surfactin-like peptides, similar to the basic sequence of Iturin, a lipopeptide from Bacillus subtilis. Finally, the results showed that Hyhel-1 is a bioleaching bacteria and cooper nanoparticles producer and that this bacteria could be used as a copper recovery tool from electronic waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Surviving in a marine desert: The sponge loop retains resources within coral reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goeij, J.M.; van Oevelen, D.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Osinga , R.; Middelburg, J.J.; de Goeij, A.F.P.M.; Admiraal, W.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since Darwin’s early descriptions of coral reefs, scientists have debated how one of the world’s most productive and diverse ecosystems can thrive in the marine equivalent of a desert. It is an enigma how the flux of dissolved organic matter (DOM), the largest resource produced on reefs, is

  8. Surviving in a marine desert: the sponge loop retains resources within coral reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goei, J.M.; van Oevelen, D.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Osinga, R.; Middelburg, J.J.; de Goei, A.F.P.M.; Admiraal, W.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since Darwin’s early descriptions of coral reefs, scientists have debated how one of the world’s most productive and diverse ecosystems can thrive in the marine equivalent of a desert. It is an enigma how the flux of dissolved organic matter (DOM), the largest resource produced on reefs, is

  9. Surviving in a Marine Desert: The Sponge Loop Retains Resources Within Coral Reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goeij, J.M.; van Oevelen, D.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Osinga, R.; Middelburg, J.J.; de Goeij, A.F.P.M.; Admiraal, W.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since Darwin’s early descriptions of coral reefs, scientists have debated how one of the world’s most productive and diverse ecosystems can thrive in the marine equivalent of a desert. It is an enigma how the flux of dissolved organic matter (DOM), the largest resource produced on reefs, is

  10. Antitumour polyether macrolides: four new halichondrins from the New Zealand deep-water marine sponge Lissodendoryx sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickford, Sarah J H; Blunt, John W; Munro, Murray H G

    2009-03-15

    The isolation is reported of four new variants of the halichondrin B skeleton, very minor potently bioactive components from the Poecilosclerid sponge Lissodendoryx sp. These compounds were isolated in microgram quantities only from a collection of 1tonne of sponge. The structural elucidations relied heavily on the use of capillary NMR spectroscopy and the application of an HSQC-DEPT overlay technique.

  11. Marinobacter xestospongiae sp. nov., isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, O. O.

    2011-10-14

    A Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, non-sporulating, rod-shaped and slightly halophilic bacterial strain, designated UST090418-1611(T), was isolated from the marina sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. Phylogenetic trees based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain UST090418-1611(T) in the family Alteromonadaceae with the closest relationship to the genus Marinobacter. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the strain and the type strains of recognized Marinobacter species ranged from 92.9 to 98.3%. Although strain UST090418-1611(T) shared high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Marinobacter mobilis CN46(T), M. zhejiangensis CN74(T) and M. sediminum R65(T) (98.3, 97.4 and 97.3%, respectively), the relatedness of the strain to these three strains in DNA DNA hybridization was only 58, 56 and 33%, respectively, supporting the novelty of the strain. In contrast to most strains in the genus Marinobacter, strain UST090418-1611(T) tolerated only 6% (w/v) NaCl, and optimal growth occurred at 2.0% (w/v) NaCl, pH 7.0-8.0 and 28-36 degrees C. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C-12:0 3-OH, C-16:0, C-12:0 and summed feature 3 (C-16.1 omega 6c and/or C-16:1 omega 7c) The genomic DNA G+C content was 57.1 mol%. Based on the physiological, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics presented in this study, we suggest that the strain represents a novel species in the genus Marinobacter, for which the name Marinobacter xestospongiae sp. nov. is proposed, with UST090418-1611(T) (=JCM 17469(T) =NRRL B-59512(T)) as the type strain.

  12. Detection of marine neurotoxins and characterization of the presynaptic activity of iotrochotin from the sponge Iotrochota birotulata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.V.

    1987-01-01

    In order to detect novel presynaptic neurotoxins, a total of 766 extracts from marine organisms collected during expeditions of the research vessel Alpha Helix around the peninsula of Baja Mexico in 1974 and through the Caribbean in 1978 were tested for activity in a synaptosomal assay for the release of acetylcholine (ACh). To eliminate from consideration sample extracts which lysed the synaptosomal membrane, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was measured as a cytoplasmic marker. On the basis of the screening studies the extract of the sponge lotrochota birotulata was chosen for more detailed characterization. The active factor, iotrochotin (IOT), was sensitive to thermal inactivation, was partially activated by trypsin treatment and had a molecular weight of 12,000-13,000. The activity of IOT was found to be complete by one minute. The maximal release of radioactivity from synaptosomes preloaded with [ 3 H]choline was found to be dependent on the concentration of IOT irrespective of the time of further incubation. The concentration-response curve of IOT activity showed a sigmoid shape which did not fit the Hill equation. IOT caused release of both ACh and choline. Of the radioactivity released by IOT from synaptosomes preloaded with [ 3 H]choline, 50-60% was [ 3 H]ACh. IOT also released [ 3 H]GABA and [ 3 H]norepinephrine from synaptosomes preincubated with these labeled neurotransmitters. The activity of IOT was only minimally sensitive to reduction in Na + or Ca 2+ levels, and was not sensitive to tetrodotoxin. IOT did not dramatically change the fluorescence of synaptosomes incubated with a depolarization-indicating dye. However, depolarization of synaptosomes with high concentrations of K + was still detectable by this method in the presence of IOT

  13. Discovery that theonellasterol a marine sponge sterol is a highly selective FXR antagonist that protects against liver injury in cholestasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Renga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The farnesoid-x-receptor (FXR is a bile acid sensor expressed in the liver and gastrointestinal tract. Despite FXR ligands are under investigation for treatment of cholestasis, a biochemical condition occurring in a number of liver diseases for which available therapies are poorly effective, mice harboring a disrupted FXR are protected against liver injury caused by bile acid overload in rodent models of cholestasis. Theonellasterol is a 4-methylene-24-ethylsteroid isolated from the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei. Here, we have characterized the activity of this theonellasterol on FXR-regulated genes and biological functions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Interrogation of HepG2 cells, a human hepatocyte cell line, by microarray analysis and transactivation assay shows that theonellasterol is a selective FXR antagonist, devoid of any agonistic or antagonistic activity on a number of human nuclear receptors including the vitamin D receptor, PPARs, PXR, LXRs, progesterone, estrogen, glucorticoid and thyroid receptors, among others. Exposure of HepG2 cells to theonellasterol antagonizes the effect of natural and synthetic FXR agonists on FXR-regulated genes, including SHP, OSTα, BSEP and MRP4. A proof-of-concept study carried out to investigate whether FXR antagonism rescues mice from liver injury caused by the ligation of the common bile duct, a model of obstructive cholestasis, demonstrated that theonellasterol attenuates injury caused by bile duct ligation as measured by assessing serum alanine aminostrasferase levels and extent of liver necrosis at histopathology. Analysis of genes involved in bile acid uptake and excretion by hepatocytes revealed that theonellasterol increases the liver expression of MRP4, a basolateral transporter that is negatively regulated by FXR. Administering bile duct ligated mice with an FXR agonist failed to rescue from liver injury and downregulated the expression of MRP4. CONCLUSIONS: FXR antagonism in vivo

  14. Identifying the related compounds using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry: bromotyrosine alkaloids from marine sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; DeSouza, L.

    electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). This sponge has tremendous chemical diversity of bromotyrosine alkaloids. Here we have used the proteomics approach in identifying related bromotyrosine alkaloids based on the predicated mass...

  15. Antifouling effect of bioactive compounds from marine sponge Acanthella elongata and different species of bacterial film on larval attachment of Balanus amphitrite (cirripedia, crustacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswambaran Ganapiriya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antifouling activity of bioactive compounds from marine sponge Acanthella elongata (Dendy and five species of bacterial biofilm were studied. Larvae of Balanus amphitrite (Cyprids and nauplii were used to monitor the settlement inhibition and the extent to which inhibition was due to toxicity. The crude extract and partially purified fractions of A.elongata showed significant inhibition over the settlement individually, and with the interaction of bacterial species. No bacterial film stimulated the barnacle settlement. The high but variable levels of antifouling activity in combination with less amount of toxicity showed the potential of these metabolites in environmentally-friendly antifouling preparations.

  16. Marine sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae) from the Gulf of México, new records and redescription of Erylus trisphaerus (de Laubenfels, 1953).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugalde, Diana; Gómez, Patricia; Simões, Nuno

    2015-01-19

    Marine sponges usually constitute the most diverse group of the benthic community in coral reefs. Although they are reasonably well studied at the northern Gulf of Mexico (GMx), the southern GMx is poorly known and lacks records from many major reef systems that lie off the Mexican coast. The present taxonomic study is the first sponge account from Alacranes reef, the largest coral reef system in the GMx, and from the shallow reef banks of Sisal, both in the northwest Yucatan Peninsula. The 19 species herein described represent the first sponge fauna records from these reefs. Among these, seven species represent new record for GMx: Erylus formosus, Cliona flavifodina, Spirastrella aff. mollis, Strongylacidon bermuda, Topsentia bahamensis, Agelas tubulata and Chelonaplysilla aff. erecta. Twelve species are new records for the Southern GMx: Erylus trisphaerus, Cliona amplicavata, Chondrilla caribensis, Halichondria lutea, Hymeniacidon caerulea, Axinella corrugata, Dragmacidon reticulatum, Chalinula molitba, Amphimedon caribica, A. complanata, Hyatella cavernosa and Dysidea variabilis. Additionally, a redescription of Erylus trisphaerus is presented which had not been reviewed since its original description in 1953 off Western Florida, except that it was listed for north La Habana, Cuba. 

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Deep-Sea Alteromonas sp. Strain V450 Isolated from the Marine Sponge Leiodermatium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guojun; Barrett, Nolan H; McCarthy, Peter J

    2017-02-02

    The proteobacterium Alteromonas sp. strain V450 was isolated from the Atlantic deep-sea sponge Leiodermatium sp. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, with a genome size of approx. 4.39 Mb and a G+C content of 44.01%. The results will aid deep-sea microbial ecology, evolution, and sponge-microbe association studies. Copyright © 2017 Wang et al.

  18. The sponge microbiome project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Nielsen, Shaun; Amir, Amnon; Gonzalez, Antonio; Ackermann, Gail L.; Cerrano, Carlo; Astudillo-Garcia, Carmen; Easson, Cole; Sipkema, Detmer; Liu, Fang; Steinert, Georg; Kotoulas, Giorgos; McCormack, Grace P.; Feng, Guofang; Bell, James J.; Vicente, Jan; Björk, Johannes R.; Montoya, Jose M.; Olson, Julie B.; Reveillaud, Julie; Steindler, Laura; Pineda, Mari Carmen; Marra, Maria V.; Ilan, Micha; Taylor, Michael W.; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Erwin, Patrick M.; Schupp, Peter J.; Simister, Rachel L.; Knight, Rob; Thacker, Robert W.; Costa, Rodrigo; Hill, Russell T.; Lopez-Legentil, Susanna; Dailianis, Thanos; Ravasi, Timothy; Hentschel, Ute; Li, Zhiyong; Webster, Nicole S.; Thomas, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) are a diverse, phylogenetically deep-branching clade known for forming intimate partnerships with complex communities of microorganisms. To date, 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies have largely utilised different extraction and amplification methodologies to target the

  19. Cytotoxic and antibacterial substances against multi-drug resistant pathogens from marine sponge symbiont: Citrinin, a secondary metabolite of Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Ramesh; Kumar, Rohitesh; Prasad, Pritesh; Aalbersberg, William; Retheesh, S T

    2013-04-01

    To Isolate, purify, characterize, and evaluate the bioactive compounds from the sponge-derived fungus Penicillium sp. FF001 and to elucidate its structure. The fungal strain FF001 with an interesting bioactivity profile was isolated from a marine Fijian sponge Melophlus sp. Based on conidiophores aggregation, conidia development and mycelia morphological characteristics, the isolate FF001 was classically identified as a Penicillium sp. The bioactive compound was identified using various spectral analysis of UV, high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data. Further minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) assay and brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay were also carried out to evaluate the biological properties of the purified compound. Bioassay guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract of a static culture of this Penicillium sp. by different chromatographic methods led the isolation of an antibacterial, anticryptococcal and cytotoxic active compound, which was identified as citrinin (1). Further, citrinin (1) is reported for its potent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), rifampicin-resistant S. aureus, wild type S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium showed MICs of 3.90, 0.97, 1.95 and 7.81 µg/mL, respectively. Further citrinin (1) displayed significant activity against the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC 3.90 µg/mL), and exhibited cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae LD50 of 96 µg/mL. Citrinin (1) is reported from sponge associated Penicillium sp. from this study and for its strong antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant human pathogens including cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae, which indicated that sponge associated Penicillium spp. are promising sources of natural bioactive metabolites.

  20. Functional and molecular characterization of a lipopeptide surfactant from the marine sponge-associated eubacteria Bacillus licheniformis NIOT-AMKV06 of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrance, Anburajan; Balakrishnan, Meena; Joseph, Toms Cheriath; Sukumaran, Dheenan Palaiya; Valsalan, Vinithkumar Nambali; Gopal, Dharani; Ramalingam, Kirubagaran

    2014-05-15

    The production of a lipopeptide surfactant from the sponge-associated eubacteria Bacillus licheniformis NIOT-AMKV06 from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands was investigated. The highest production was attained with glucose and yeast extracts as the carbon and nitrogen sources (1.789 mg mL(-1)), respectively. The surfactant was highly stable over a pH range of 5.0-10 and a temperature range of 20-70°C with high NaCl concentrations. Excellent emulsification activity was exhibited by the purified surfactant with crude oil, kerosene, and diesel. A two-fold increase in surfactant production (3.0 mg mL(-1)) was observed using the newly formulated medium in this study. The surfactant biosynthesis gene cluster (sfp, sfpO, and srfA) from B. licheniformis NIOT-AMKV06 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the production was increased three-fold (11.78 g L(-1)) over the original strain. The results confirm the potential of the surfactant for use in bioremediation of hydrocarbons in a marine environment and for enhanced oil recovery. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the ability of a hydrocarbon degrading B. licheniformis from marine sponges for the biosynthesis of a potent lipopeptide surfactant possessing characteristics of maximum stability, outstanding surfactant activity, and exceptional emulsifying capability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A New Dihydrochromone Dimer and Other Secondary Metabolites from Cultures of the Marine Sponge-Associated Fungi Neosartorya fennelliae KUFA 0811 and Neosartorya tsunodae KUFC 9213

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decha Kumla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A previously unreported dihydrochromone dimer, paecilin E (1, was isolated, together with eleven known compounds: β-sitostenone, ergosta-4,6,8 (14, 22-tetraen-3-one, cyathisterone, byssochlamic acid, dehydromevalonic acid lactone, chevalone B, aszonalenin, dankasterone A (2, helvolic acid, secalonic acid A and fellutanine A, from the culture filtrate extract of the marine sponge-associated fungus Neosartorya fennelliae KUFA 0811. Nine previously reported metabolites, including a chromanol derivative (3, (3β, 5α, 22E, 3,5-dihydroxyergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (4, byssochlamic acid, hopan-3β,22-diol, chevalone C, sartorypyrone B, helvolic acid, lumichrome and the alkaloid harmane were isolated from the culture of the marine-sponge associated fungus Neosartorya tsunodae KUFC 9213. Paecilin E (1, dankasterone A (2, a chromanol derivative (3, (3β, 5α, 22E-3,5-dihydroxyergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (4, hopan-3β,22-diol (5, lumichrome (6, and harmane (7 were tested for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative reference and multidrug-resistant strains isolated from the environment. While paecilin E (1 was active against S. aureus ATCC 29213 and E. faecalis ATCC 29212, dankastetrone A (2 was only effective against E. faecalis ATCC 29212 and the multidrug-resistant VRE E. faecalis A5/102. Both compounds neither inhibit biofilm mass production in any of the strains at the concentrations tested nor exhibit synergistic association with antibiotics.

  2. Immunomodulatory N-acyl Dopamine Glycosides from the Icelandic Marine Sponge Myxilla incrustans Collected at a Hydrothermal Vent Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Eydis; Liu, Hong Bing; Freysdottir, Jona

    2016-01-01

    A chemical investigation of the sponge (Porifera) Myxilla incrustans collected from the unique submarine hydrothermal vent site Strytan, North of Iceland, revealed a novel family of closely related N-acyl dopamine glycosides. Three new compounds, myxillin A (1), B (2) and C (3), were isolated...

  3. Influence of spatial competitor on the growth and regeneration of the marine sponge Cinachyrella cf. cavernosa (Porifera, demospongiae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, A.; Thakur, N.L.

    of the competitor species, Z. sansibaricus. The protein synthesis ability (RNA to DNA ratio), which is an index for physiological activity was adversely affected by sponge size and competitor abundance. Results suggest that in a space-limited region, the presence...

  4. Estimating Surface Area of Sponges and Marine Gorgonians as Indicators of Habitat Availability on Caribbean Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface area and topographical complexity are fundamental attributes of shallow tropical coral reefs and can be used to estimate habitat for fish and invertebrates. This study presents empirical methods for estimating surface area provided by sponges and gorgonians in the Central...

  5. Phylogenetic diversity and community structure of sponge-associated bacteria from mangroves of the Caribbean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Jiangke

    2011-02-08

    To gain insight into the species richness and phylogeny of the microbial communities associated with sponges in mangroves, we performed an extensive phylogenetic analysis, based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiling and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences, of the 4 sponge species Aplysina fulva, Haliclona hogarthi, Tedania ignis and Ircinia strobilina as well as of ambient seawater. The sponge-associated bacterial communities contained 13 phyla, including Poribacteria and an unclassified group not found in the ambient seawater community, 98% of which comprised Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Although the sponges themselves were phylogenetically distant and bacterial community variation within the host species was observed, microbial phyla such as Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and the unclassified group were consistently observed as the dominant populations within the communities. The sponge-associated bacterial communities resident in the Caribbean Sea mangroves are phylogenetically similar but significantly distinct from communities found in other biogeographical sites such as the deep-water environments of the Caribbean Sea, the South China Sea and Australia. The interspecific variation within the host species and the distinct biogeographical characteristics that the sponge-associated bacteria exhibited indicate that the acquisition, establishment and formation of functional sponge-associated bacterial communities may initially be the product of both vertical and horizontal transmission, and is then shaped by the internal environment created by the sponge species and certain external environmental factors. © Inter-Research 2011.

  6. Renieramycins H and I, two novel alkaloids from the sponge Haliclona cribricutis Dendy

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Kamat, S.Y.; Pramanik, B.N.

    The known alkaloid, mimosamycin 1, along with its moon- and di hydroxy derivaties, 4-hydroxy mimosamycin 2 and 1, 4-dihydroxymimosamycin 3 and two new dimeric alkaloids: namely renieramycins H and I 4 and 5 have been isolated from the MeOH extract...

  7. Sporochartines A–E, A New Family of Natural Products from the Marine Fungus Hypoxylon monticulosum Isolated from a Sphaerocladina Sponge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Leman-Loubière

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Four new sporochartines B–E were isolated from the marine fungus Hypoxylon monticulosum CLL-205, isolated from a sponge belonging to the Sphaerocladina order and collected in Tahiti coast. Sporochartine A (1, the first representative of this family was previously isolated from the same fungus. The structures of sporochartines B–E were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS and IR data. Their configurations were established according to ROE correlations and comparison with the absolute configuration of sporochartine A (1 previously obtained from X-ray analysis. Sporochartines A–D (2–4 may be derived from endo Diels-Alderase type catalysis and sporochartine E (5 from an exo Diels-Alderase catalysis. The spatial conformation of sporochartines drastically influences the results of the cytotoxic bioassay against HCT-116, PC-3, and MCF-7 human cancer cell lines.

  8. Macrofauna Associated with the Sponge Neopetrosia exigua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 502, Tamil Nadu, India. Keywords: Neopetrosia exigua, sponge, associated-fauna, species richness,. Mauritius, Indian Ocean. Abstract — The macrofaunal community associated with the sponge Neopetrosia exigua (Kirkpatrick, 1900) was studied across a ...

  9. The Sponge Hologenome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A paradigm shift has recently transformed the field of biological science; molecular advances have revealed how fundamentally important microorganisms are to many aspects of a host’s phenotype and evolution. In the process, an era of “holobiont” research has emerged to investigate the intricate network of interactions between a host and its symbiotic microbial consortia. Marine sponges are early-diverging metazoa known for hosting dense, specific, and often highly diverse microbial communities. Here we synthesize current thoughts about the environmental and evolutionary forces that influence the diversity, specificity, and distribution of microbial symbionts within the sponge holobiont, explore the physiological pathways that contribute to holobiont function, and describe the molecular mechanisms that underpin the establishment and maintenance of these symbiotic partnerships. The collective genomes of the sponge holobiont form the sponge hologenome, and we highlight how the forces that define a sponge’s phenotype in fact act on the genomic interplay between the different components of the holobiont. PMID:27103626

  10. Identification and Biochemical Characterization of Halisulfate 3 and Suvanine as Novel Inhibitors of Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Helicase from a Marine Sponge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Furuta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is an important etiological agent that is responsible for the development of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3 helicase is a possible target for novel drug development due to its essential role in viral replication. In this study, we identified halisulfate 3 (hal3 and suvanine as novel NS3 helicase inhibitors, with IC50 values of 4 and 3 µM, respectively, from a marine sponge by screening extracts of marine organisms. Both hal3 and suvanine inhibited the ATPase, RNA binding, and serine protease activities of NS3 helicase with IC50 values of 8, 8, and 14 µM, and 7, 3, and 34 µM, respectively. However, the dengue virus (DENV NS3 helicase, which shares a catalytic core (consisting mainly of ATPase and RNA binding sites with HCV NS3 helicase, was not inhibited by hal3 and suvanine, even at concentrations of 100 µM. Therefore, we conclude that hal3 and suvanine specifically inhibit HCV NS3 helicase via an interaction with an allosteric site in NS3 rather than binding to the catalytic core. This led to the inhibition of all NS3 activities, presumably by inducing conformational changes.

  11. On the first polyarsenic organic compound from nature: arsenicin A from the New Caledonian marine sponge Echinochalina bargibanti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Ines; Guella, Graziano; Frostin, Maryvonne; Hnawia, Edouard; Laurent, Dominique; Debitus, Cecile; Pietra, Francesco

    2006-12-04

    Reported here is the first polyarsenic compound ever found in nature. Denominated arsenicin A, it was isolated along a bioassay-guided fractionation of the organic extract of the poecilosclerid sponge Echinochalina bargibanti collected from the north-eastern coast of New Caledonia. In defining an adamantine-type polyarsenic structure for this compound, deceptively simple NMR spectra were complemented by extensive mass spectral analysis. However, it was only the synthesis of a model compound that provided the basis to discriminate structure 4 from other spectrally compatible structures for arsenicin A; to this end, a comparative ab initio simulation of IR spectra for the natural and the synthetic compounds was decisive. Arsenicin A is endowed with potent bactericidal and fungicidal activities on human pathogenic strains. All this may revive pharmacological interest in arsenic compounds while prompting us to rethink the arsenic cycle in nature.

  12. Glassin, a histidine-rich protein from the siliceous skeletal system of the marine sponge Euplectella, directs silica polycondensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Katsuhiko; Amano, Taro; Bari, Md Rezaul; Weaver, James C; Arima, Jiro; Mori, Nobuhiro

    2015-09-15

    The hexactinellids are a diverse group of predominantly deep sea sponges that synthesize elaborate fibrous skeletal systems of amorphous hydrated silica. As a representative example, members of the genus Euplectella have proved to be useful model systems for investigating structure-function relationships in these hierarchically ordered siliceous network-like composites. Despite recent advances in understanding the mechanistic origins of damage tolerance in these complex skeletal systems, the details of their synthesis have remained largely unexplored. Here, we describe a previously unidentified protein, named "glassin," the main constituent in the water-soluble fraction of the demineralized skeletal elements of Euplectella. When combined with silicic acid solutions, glassin rapidly accelerates silica polycondensation over a pH range of 6-8. Glassin is characterized by high histidine content, and cDNA sequence analysis reveals that glassin shares no significant similarity with any other known proteins. The deduced amino acid sequence reveals that glassin consists of two similar histidine-rich domains and a connecting domain. Each of the histidine-rich domains is composed of three segments: an amino-terminal histidine and aspartic acid-rich sequence, a proline-rich sequence in the middle, and a histidine and threonine-rich sequence at the carboxyl terminus. Histidine always forms HX or HHX repeats, in which most of X positions are occupied by glycine, aspartic acid, or threonine. Recombinant glassin reproduces the silica precipitation activity observed in the native proteins. The highly modular composition of glassin, composed of imidazole, acidic, and hydroxyl residues, favors silica polycondensation and provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of skeletal formation in hexactinellid sponges.

  13. Sponge Hybridomas: Applications and Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomponi, S.A.; Jevitt, A.; Patel, J.; Diaz, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Many sponge-derived natural products with applications to human health have been discovered over the past three decades. In vitro production has been proposed as one biological alternative to ensure adequate supply of marine natural products for preclinical and clinical development of drugs.

  14. The marine sponge-derived polyketide endoperoxide plakortide F acid mediates its antifungal activity by interfering with calcium homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakortide F acid (PFA) is a marine-derived polyketide endoperoxide exhibiting strong inhibitory activity against several clinically important fungal pathogens. In the present study, transcriptional profiling coupled with mutant and biochemical analyses were conducted using the model organism Sacch...

  15. Contraceptive Sponge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause: Vaginal irritation or dryness Urinary tract or vaginal infection An increased risk of contracting STIs Toxic shock ... 24 hours to reduce the risk of an infection. Remove the contraceptive ... If your vaginal muscles are still holding the contraceptive sponge tightly, ...

  16. A New Ergosterol Analog, a New Bis-Anthraquinone and Anti-Obesity Activity of Anthraquinones from the Marine Sponge-Associated Fungus Talaromyces stipitatus KUFA 0207

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidapa Noinart

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new ergosterol analog, talarosterone (1 and a new bis-anthraquinone derivative (3 were isolated, together with ten known compounds including palmitic acid, ergosta-4,6,8(14,22-tetraen-3-one, ergosterol-5,8-endoperoxide, cyathisterone (2, emodin (4a, questinol (4b, citreorosein (4c, fallacinol (4d, rheoemodin (4e and secalonic acid A (5, from the ethyl acetate extract of the culture of the marine sponge-associated fungus Talaromyces stipitatus KUFA 0207. The structures of the new compounds were established based on extensive 1D and 2D spectral analysis, and in the case of talarosterone (1, the absolute configurations of its stereogenic carbons were determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The structure and stereochemistry of cyathisterone (2 was also confirmed by X-ray analysis. The anthraquinones 4a–e and secalonic acid A (5 were tested for their anti-obesity activity using the zebrafish Nile red assay. Only citreorosein (4c and questinol (4b exhibited significant anti-obesity activity, while emodin (4a and secalonic acid A (5 caused toxicity (death for all exposed zebrafish larvae after 24 h.

  17. MARINE SPONGE Aaptos suberitoides, IT’S POTENTIAL SOURCE OF NATURAL ANTIBACTERIAL FOR CONTROLLING Vibrio harveyi ON TIGER SHRIMP (Penaeus monodon CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmiati Rosmiati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to isolate and identify the natural antibacterial compounds potential from Aaptos suberitoides for Vibrio harveyi control on tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon culture. The agar diffusion method using paper discs was used to determine the antibacterial activity of extracts (diethyl ether (DEE, butanol (BUE and aqueous (HOE and compounds successfully isolated against Vibrio harveyi. Findings showed that the antibacterial activity was concentrated in BUE with the inhibition zone of 17.2±0.1 mm. Meanwhile, two other extracts (DEE and HOE did not exhibit any antibacterial activity against V. harveyi. From the active BUE, it was successfully isolated two compounds giving a strong anti-vibrio activity with the inhibition zone of 22±0.1 mm. The IR, 1H, 13C, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and MS spectrum analysis indicated that both active compounds identified as aaptamine (1 and 9-demethyloxyaaptamine (2. The study suggested that marine sponge A. suberitoides may have potential compounds source for controlling of V. harveyi on tiger shrimp culture.

  18. A New Ergosterol Analog, a New Bis-Anthraquinone and Anti-Obesity Activity of Anthraquinones from the Marine Sponge-Associated Fungus Talaromyces stipitatus KUFA 0207.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noinart, Jidapa; Buttachon, Suradet; Dethoup, Tida; Gales, Luís; Pereira, José A; Urbatzka, Ralph; Freitas, Sara; Lee, Michael; Silva, Artur M S; Pinto, Madalena M M; Vasconcelos, Vítor; Kijjoa, Anake

    2017-05-16

    A new ergosterol analog, talarosterone ( 1 ) and a new bis -anthraquinone derivative ( 3 ) were isolated, together with ten known compounds including palmitic acid, ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one, ergosterol-5,8-endoperoxide, cyathisterone ( 2 ), emodin ( 4a ), questinol ( 4b ), citreorosein ( 4c ), fallacinol ( 4d ), rheoemodin ( 4e ) and secalonic acid A ( 5 ), from the ethyl acetate extract of the culture of the marine sponge-associated fungus Talaromyces stipitatus KUFA 0207. The structures of the new compounds were established based on extensive 1D and 2D spectral analysis, and in the case of talarosterone ( 1 ), the absolute configurations of its stereogenic carbons were determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis. The structure and stereochemistry of cyathisterone ( 2 ) was also confirmed by X-ray analysis. The anthraquinones 4a - e and secalonic acid A ( 5 ) were tested for their anti-obesity activity using the zebrafish Nile red assay. Only citreorosein ( 4c ) and questinol ( 4b ) exhibited significant anti-obesity activity, while emodin ( 4a ) and secalonic acid A ( 5 ) caused toxicity (death) for all exposed zebrafish larvae after 24 h.

  19. Pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse and species-specific microbial communities in sponges from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Onon; Wang, Yong; Yang, Jiangke; Lafi, Feras Fawzi; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Qian, Peiyuan

    2010-01-01

    Marine sponges are associated with a remarkable array of microorganisms. Using a tag pyrosequencing technology, this study was the first to investigate in depth the microbial communities associated with three Red Sea sponges, Hyrtios erectus

  20. Vaginal sponge and spermicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counter; Contraceptives - over the counter; Family planning - vaginal sponge; Contraception - vaginal sponge ... Spermicides and vaginal sponges do not work as well at preventing pregnancy as some other forms of birth control. However, using a spermicide ...

  1. Validation and evaluation of an HPLC methodology for the quantification of the potent antimitotic compound (+)-discodermolide in the Caribbean marine sponge Discodermia dissoluta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Katherine; Castellanos, Leonardo; Zea, Sven

    2010-08-01

    The sponge Discodermia dissoluta is the source of the potent antimitotic compound (+)-discodermolide. The relatively abundant and shallow populations of this sponge in Santa Marta, Colombia, allow for studies to evaluate the natural and biotechnological supply options of (+)-discodermolide. In this work, an RP-HPLC-UV methodology for the quantification of (+)-discodermolide from sponge samples was tested and validated. Our protocol for extracting this compound from the sponge included lyophilization, exhaustive methanol extraction, partitioning using water and dichloromethane, purification of the organic fraction in RP-18 cartridges and then finally retrieving the (+)-discodermolide in the methanol-water (80:20 v/v) fraction. This fraction was injected into an HPLC system with an Xterra RP-18 column and a detection wavelength of 235 nm. The calibration curve was linear, making it possible to calculate the LODs and quantification in these experiments. The intra-day and inter-day precision showed relative standard deviations lower than 5%. The accuracy, determined as the percentage recovery, was 99.4%. Nine samples of the sponge from the Bahamas, Bonaire, Curaçao and Santa Marta had concentrations of (+)-discodermolide ranging from 5.3 to 29.3 microg/g(-1) of wet sponge. This methodology is quick and simple, allowing for the quantification in sponges from natural environments, in situ cultures or dissociated cells.

  2. Principles of Biofouling Protection in Marine Sponges: A Model for the Design of Novel Biomimetic and Bio-inspired Coatings in the Marine Environment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, W.E.G.; Wang, X.; Proksch, P.; Perry, C.C.; Osinga, R.; Gardères, J.; Schröder, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    The process of biofouling of marine structures and substrates, such as platforms or ship hulls, proceeds in multiple steps. Soon after the formation of an initial conditioning film, formed via the adsorption of organic particles to natural or manmade substrates, a population of different bacterial

  3. Fossil and modern sponge fauna of southern Australia and adjacent regions compared: interpretation, evolutionary and biogeographic significance of the late Eocene ‘soft’ sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Łukowiak, M.

    2016-01-01

    The late Eocene ‘soft’ sponge fauna of southern Australia is reconstructed based on disassociated spicules and is used to interpret the paleoecology and environmental context of shallow marine communities in this region. The reconstructed sponge association was compared with coeval sponge

  4. Pore forming polyalkylpyridinium salts from marine sponges versus synthetic lipofection systems: distinct tools for intracellular delivery of cDNA and siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaggan, Debra; Adjimatera, Noppadon; Sepcić, Kristina; Jaspars, Marcel; MacEwan, David J; Blagbrough, Ian S; Scott, Roderick H

    2006-01-16

    Haplosclerid marine sponges produce pore forming polyalkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS), which can be used to deliver macromolecules into cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the delivery of DNA, siRNA and lucifer yellow into cells mediated by poly-APS and its potential mechanisms as compared with other lipofection systems (lipofectamine and N4,N9-dioleoylspermine (LipoGen)). DNA condensation was evaluated and HEK 293 and HtTA HeLa cells were used to investigate pore formation and intracellular delivery of cDNA, siRNA and lucifer yellow. Poly-APS and LipoGen were both found to be highly efficient DNA condensing agents. Fura-2 calcium imaging was used to measure calcium transients indicative of cell membrane pore forming activity. Calcium transients were evoked by poly-APS but not LipoGen and lipofectamine. The increases in intracellular calcium produced by poly-APS showed temperature sensitivity with greater responses being observed at 12 degrees C compared to 21 degrees C. Similarly, delivery of lucifer yellow into cells with poly-APS was enhanced at lower temperatures. Transfection with cDNA encoding for the expression enhanced green fluorescent protein was also evaluated at 12 degrees C with poly-APS, lipofectamine and LipoGen. Intracellular delivery of siRNA was achieved with knockdown in beta-actin expression when lipofectamine and LipoGen were used as transfection reagents. However, intracellular delivery of siRNA was not achieved with poly-APS. Poly-APS mediated pore formation is critical to its activity as a transfection reagent, but lipofection systems utilise distinct mechanisms to enable delivery of DNA and siRNA into cells.

  5. Pore forming polyalkylpyridinium salts from marine sponges versus synthetic lipofection systems: distinct tools for intracellular delivery of cDNA and siRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagbrough Ian S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haplosclerid marine sponges produce pore forming polyalkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS, which can be used to deliver macromolecules into cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the delivery of DNA, siRNA and lucifer yellow into cells mediated by poly-APS and its potential mechanisms as compared with other lipofection systems (lipofectamine and N4,N9-dioleoylspermine (LipoGen. DNA condensation was evaluated and HEK 293 and HtTA HeLa cells were used to investigate pore formation and intracellular delivery of cDNA, siRNA and lucifer yellow. Results Poly-APS and LipoGen were both found to be highly efficient DNA condensing agents. Fura-2 calcium imaging was used to measure calcium transients indicative of cell membrane pore forming activity. Calcium transients were evoked by poly-APS but not LipoGen and lipofectamine. The increases in intracellular calcium produced by poly-APS showed temperature sensitivity with greater responses being observed at 12°C compared to 21°C. Similarly, delivery of lucifer yellow into cells with poly-APS was enhanced at lower temperatures. Transfection with cDNA encoding for the expression enhanced green fluorescent protein was also evaluated at 12°C with poly-APS, lipofectamine and LipoGen. Intracellular delivery of siRNA was achieved with knockdown in beta-actin expression when lipofectamine and LipoGen were used as transfection reagents. However, intracellular delivery of siRNA was not achieved with poly-APS. Conclusion Poly-APS mediated pore formation is critical to its activity as a transfection reagent, but lipofection systems utilise distinct mechanisms to enable delivery of DNA and siRNA into cells.

  6. Sponge cell reaggregation: Cellular structure and morphogenetic potencies of multicellular aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, Andrey I; Kosevich, Igor A

    2016-02-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are one of the most ancient extant multicellular animals and can provide valuable insights into origin and early evolution of Metazoa. High plasticity of cell differentiations and anatomical structure is characteristic feature of sponges. Present study deals with sponge cell reaggregation after dissociation as the most outstanding case of sponge plasticity. Dynamic of cell reaggregation and structure of multicellular aggregates of three demosponge species (Halichondria panicea (Pallas, 1766), Haliclona aquaeductus (Sсhmidt, 1862), and Halisarca dujardinii Johnston, 1842) were studied. Sponge tissue dissociation was performed mechanically. Resulting cell suspensions were cultured at 8-10°C for at least 5 days. Structure of multicellular aggregates was studied by light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Studied species share common stages of cell reaggregation-primary multicellular aggregates, early-stage primmorphs and primmorphs, but the rate of reaggregation varies considerably among species. Only cells of H. dujardinii are able to reconstruct functional and viable sponge after primmorphs formation. Sponge reconstruction in this species occurs due to active cell locomotion. Development of H. aquaeductus and H. panicea cells ceases at the stages of early primmorphs and primmorphs, respectively. Development of aggregates of these species is most likely arrested due to immobility of the majority of cells inside them. However, the inability of certain sponge species to reconstruct functional and viable individuals during cell reaggregation may be not a permanent species-specific characteristic, but depends on various factors, including the stage of the life cycle and experimental conditions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. GeoChip-based insights into the microbial functional gene repertoire of marine sponges (high microbial abundance, low microbial abundance) and seawater

    KAUST Repository

    Bayer, Kristina

    2015-01-08

    The GeoChip 4.2 gene array was employed to interrogate the microbial functional gene repertoire of sponges and seawater collected from the Red Sea and the Mediterranean. Complementary amplicon sequencing confirmed the microbial community composition characteristic of high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges. By use of GeoChip, altogether 20 273 probes encoding for 627 functional genes and representing 16 gene categories were identified. Minimum curvilinear embedding analyses revealed a clear separation between the samples. The HMA/LMA dichotomy was stronger than any possible geographic pattern, which is shown here for the first time on the level of functional genes. However, upon inspection of individual genes, very few specific differences were discernible. Differences were related to microbial ammonia oxidation, ammonification, and archaeal autotrophic carbon fixation (higher gene abundance in sponges over seawater) as well as denitrification and radiation-stress-related genes (lower gene abundance in sponges over seawater). Except for few documented specific differences the functional gene repertoire between the different sources appeared largely similar. This study expands previous reports in that functional gene convergence is not only reported between HMA and LMA sponges but also between sponges and seawater.

  8. GeoChip-based insights into the microbial functional gene repertoire of marine sponges (high microbial abundance, low microbial abundance) and seawater

    KAUST Repository

    Bayer, Kristina; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Brü mmer, Franz; Cannistraci, Carlo V.; Ravasi, Timothy; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    The GeoChip 4.2 gene array was employed to interrogate the microbial functional gene repertoire of sponges and seawater collected from the Red Sea and the Mediterranean. Complementary amplicon sequencing confirmed the microbial community composition characteristic of high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges. By use of GeoChip, altogether 20 273 probes encoding for 627 functional genes and representing 16 gene categories were identified. Minimum curvilinear embedding analyses revealed a clear separation between the samples. The HMA/LMA dichotomy was stronger than any possible geographic pattern, which is shown here for the first time on the level of functional genes. However, upon inspection of individual genes, very few specific differences were discernible. Differences were related to microbial ammonia oxidation, ammonification, and archaeal autotrophic carbon fixation (higher gene abundance in sponges over seawater) as well as denitrification and radiation-stress-related genes (lower gene abundance in sponges over seawater). Except for few documented specific differences the functional gene repertoire between the different sources appeared largely similar. This study expands previous reports in that functional gene convergence is not only reported between HMA and LMA sponges but also between sponges and seawater.

  9. Bioprospecting sponge-associated microbes for antimicrobial compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Indraningrat, Anak Agung Gede; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2016-01-01

    Sponges are the most prolific marine organisms with respect to their arsenal of bioactive compounds including antimicrobials. However, the majority of these substances are probably not produced by the sponge itself, but rather by bacteria or fungi that are associated with their host. This review

  10. Microbial and chemical transformation studies of the bioactive marine sesquiterpenes (S)-(+)-curcuphenol and -curcudiol isolated from a deep reef collection of the Jamaican sponge Didiscus oxeata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Khalid A; Yousaf, Muhammad; Hamann, Mark T; Avery, Mitchell A; Kelly, Michelle; Wipf, Peter

    2002-11-01

    Microbial and chemical transformation studies of the marine sesquiterpene phenols (S)-(+)-curcuphenol (1) and (S)-(+)-curcudiol (2), isolated from the Jamaican sponge Didiscus oxeata, were accomplished. Preparative-scale fermentation of 1 with Kluyveromyces marxianus var. lactis (ATCC 2628) has resulted in the isolation of six new metabolites: (S)-(+)-15-hydroxycurcuphenol (3), (S)-(+)-12-hydroxycurcuphenol (4), (S)-(+)-12,15-dihydroxycurcuphenol (5), (S)-(+)-15-hydroxycurcuphenol-12-al (6), (S)-(+)-12-carboxy-10,11-dihydrocurcuphenol (7), and (S)-(+)-12-hydroxy-10,11-dihydrocurcuphenol (8). Fourteen-days incubation of 1 with Aspergillus alliaceus (NRRL 315) afforded the new compounds (S)-(+)-10beta-hydroxycurcudiol (9), (S)-(+)-curcudiol-10-one (10), and (S)-(+)-4-[1-(2-hydroxy-4-methyl)phenyl)]pentanoic acid (11). Rhizopus arrhizus (ATCC 11145) and Rhodotorula glutinus (ATCC 15125) afforded (S)-curcuphenol-1alpha-D-glucopyranoside (12) and (S)-curcudiol-1alpha-D-glucopyranoside (13) when incubated for 6 and 8 days with 1 and 2, respectively. The absolute configuration of C(10) and C(11) of metabolites 7-9 was established by optical rotation computations. Reaction of 1 with NaNO(2) and HCl afforded (S)-(+)-4-nitrocurcuphenol (14) and (S)-(+)-2-nitrocurcuphenol (15) in a 2:1 ratio. Acylation of 1 and 2 with isonicotinoyl chloride afforded the expected esters (S)-(+)-curcuphenol-1-O-isonicotinate (16) and (S)-(+)-curcudiol-1-O-isonicotinate (17), respectively. Curcuphenol (1) shows potent antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and S. aureus with MIC and MFC/MBC ranges of 7.5-25 and 12.5-50 microg/mL, respectively. Compounds 1 and 3 also display in vitro antimalarial activity against Palsmodium falciparium (D6 clone) with MIC values of 3600 and 3800 ng/mL, respectively (selectivity index >1.3). Both compounds were also active against P. falciparium (W2 clone) with MIC values of 1800 (S

  11. Metabolic Profiling as a Screening Tool for Cytotoxic Compounds: Identification of 3-Alkyl Pyridine Alkaloids from Sponges Collected at a Shallow Water Hydrothermal Vent Site North of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eydis Einarsdottir

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight sponge specimens were collected at a shallow water hydrothermal vent site north of Iceland. Extracts were prepared and tested in vitro for cytotoxic activity, and eight of them were shown to be cytotoxic. A mass spectrometry (MS-based metabolomics approach was used to determine the chemical composition of the extracts. This analysis highlighted clear differences in the metabolomes of three sponge specimens, and all of them were identified as Haliclona (Rhizoniera rosea (Bowerbank, 1866. Therefore, these specimens were selected for further investigation. Haliclona rosea metabolomes contained a class of potential key compounds, the 3-alkyl pyridine alkaloids (3-APA responsible for the cytotoxic activity of the fractions. Several 3-APA compounds were tentatively identified including haliclamines, cyclostellettamines, viscosalines and viscosamines. Among these compounds, cyclostellettamine P was tentatively identified for the first time by using ion mobility MS in time-aligned parallel (TAP fragmentation mode. In this work, we show the potential of applying metabolomics strategies and in particular the utility of coupling ion mobility with MS for the molecular characterization of sponge specimens.

  12. Bioprospecting of Red Sea Sponges for Novel Antiviral Pharmacophores

    KAUST Repository

    O'Rourke, Aubrie

    2015-01-01

    the coast of Saudi Arabia serves as a newly accessible location, which provides the opportunity to bioprospect marine sponges with the purpose of identifying novel antiviral scaffolds. Antivirals are underrepresented in present day clinical trials, as well

  13. Distribution, abundance and ecology of the sponge Spheciospongia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science ... Journal Home > Vol 12, No 1 (2013) > ... Distribution, abundance and ecology of the sponge Spheciospongia vagabunda (Phylum: Porifera, Class: Demospongiae) in a shallow lagoon of ...

  14. Functional Insights into Sponge Microbiology by Single Cell Genomics

    KAUST Repository

    Hentschel, Ute

    2011-04-09

    Marine Sponges (Porifera) are known to harbor enormous amounts of microorganisms with members belonging to at least 30 different bacterial phyla including several candidate phyla and both archaeal lineages. Here, we applied single cell genomics to the mic

  15. Stereochemical determination and bioactivity assessment of {(S)}-(+)-curcuphenol dimers isolated from the marine sponge Didiscus aceratus and synthesized through laccase biocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Peter Rygaard

    2005-01-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry-guided isolation of extracts from Didiscus aceratus led to the discovery of several new derivatives of the bioactive bisabolene-type sponge metabolite (S)-(+)-curcuphenol (1). The compounds obtained by this method included a mixture of known (2) and new (3...

  16. Identification Sponges-Associated Fungi From Karimunjawa National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trianto, Agus; Sabdono, Agus; Rochaddi, Baskoro; Wulan Triningsih, Desy; Seswita Zilda, Dewi

    2018-02-01

    Marine sponges are rich sources of bioactive substances with various pharmacological activities. Previous studies have shown that most bioactive compounds were originally produced by associated-microorganisms. Fungi associated with the marine sponges collected off Karimunjawa National Park were isolated and identified by morphological characteristics and molecular level analyses based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. A total of 2 isolates which were characterized, the fungi Penicillium spinulosum and Trichoderma virens have been revealed.

  17. Effects of light attenuation on the sponge holobiont-implications for dredging management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Mari Carmen; Strehlow, Brian; Duckworth, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Dredging and natural sediment resuspension events can cause high levels of turbidity, reducing the amount of light available for photosynthetic benthic biota. To determine how marine sponges respond to light attenuation, five species were experimentally exposed to a range of light treatments......, indicating that light attenuation poses a risk to photosynthetic marine sponges. Examining benthic light levels over temporal scales would enable dredging proponents to be aware of conditions that could impact on sponge physiology....

  18. The marine sponge Agelas citrina as a source of the new pyrrole–imidazole alkaloids citrinamines A–D and N-methylagelongine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cychon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical investigation of the Caribbean sponge Agelas citrina revealed four new pyrrole–imidazole alkaloids (PIAs, the citrinamines A–D (1–4 and the bromopyrrole alkaloid N-methylagelongine (5. All citrinamines are dimers of hymenidin (6 which was also isolated from this sponge as the major metabolite. Citrinamines A (1 and B (2 are derivatives of the PIA dimer mauritiamine (7, whereas citrinamine C (3 is derived from the PIA dimer nagelamide B (8. Citrinamine D (4 shows an uncommon linkage between the imidazole rings of both monomeric units as it is only observed in the benzocyclobutane ring moiety of benzosceptrins A–C (9–11. Compound 5 is the N-methyl derivative of agelongine (12 which consist of a pyridinium ring and an ester linkage instead of the aminoimidazole moiety and the common amide bond in PIAs.

  19. (+/-)-Gelliusines A and B, two diastereomeric brominated tris-indole alkaloids from a deep water new caledonian marine sponge (Gellius or Orina sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, G; Bruno, I; Minale, L; Riccio, R; Calignano, A; Debitus, C

    1994-09-01

    Two new diastereomeric brominated tris-indole alkaloids occurring as enantiomeric pairs, (+/-)-gelliusines A [1] and B [2], have been isolated from a deep water New Caledonian sponge (Gellius or Orina sp.), whose crude extract exhibited cytotoxicity against KB cells. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including one- and two-dimensional nmr spectroscopy. The major compound, (+/-) gelliusine A [1], which showed very weak cytotoxicity, proved to be active at the serotonin receptor.

  20. Plakilactones G and H from a marine sponge. Stereochemical determination of highly flexible systems by quantitative NMR-derived interproton distances combined with quantum mechanical calculations of 13C chemical shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Di Micco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the stereostructural investigation of two new oxygenated polyketides, plakilactones G and H, isolated from the marine sponge Plakinastrella mamillaris collected at Fiji Islands, is reported. The stereostructural studies began on plakilactone H by applying an integrated approach of the NOE-based protocol and quantum mechanical calculations of 13C chemical shifts. In particular, plakilactone H was used as a template to extend the application of NMR-derived interproton distances to a highly flexible molecular system with simultaneous assignment of four non-contiguous stereocenters. Chemical derivatization and quantum mechanical calculations of 13C on plakilactone G along with a plausible biogenetic interconversion between plakilactone G and plakilactone H allowed us to determine the absolute configuration in this two new oxygenated polyketides.

  1. Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetric determination of Cd, Pb, and Cu in a hydrofluoric acid solution of siliceous spicules of marine sponges (from the Ligurian Sea, Italy, and the Ross Sea, Antarctica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truzzi, C.; Annibaldi, A.; Illuminati, S.; Bassotti, E.; Scarponi, G. [Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy). Department of Marine Science

    2008-09-15

    Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was set up and optimized for simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in siliceous spicules of marine sponges, directly in the hydrofluoric acid solution ({proportional_to}0.55 mol L{sup -1} HF, pH {proportional_to}1.9). A thin mercury-film electrode (TMFE) plated on to an HF-resistant epoxy-impregnated graphite rotating-disc support was used. The optimum experimental conditions, evaluated also in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio, were as follows: deposition potential -1100 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, KCl 3 mol L{sup -1}, deposition time 3-10 min, electrode rotation 3000 rpm, SW scan from -1100 mV to +100 mV, SW pulse amplitude 25 mV, frequency 100 Hz, {delta}E{sub step} 8 mV, t{sub step} 100 ms, t{sub wait} 60 ms, t{sub delay} 2 ms, t{sub meas} 3 ms. Under these conditions the metal peak potentials were Cd -654{+-}1 mV, Pb -458 {+-} 1 mV, Cu -198{+-}1 mV. The electrochemical behaviour was reversible for Pb, quasi-reversible for Cd, and kinetically controlled (possibly following chemical reaction) for Cu. The linearity of the response with concentration was verified up to {proportional_to}4 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cd and Pb and {proportional_to}20 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cu. The detection limits were 5.8 ng L{sup -1}, 3.6 ng L{sup -1}, and 4.3 ng L{sup -1} for Cd, Pb, and Cu, respectively, with t{sub d}=5 min. The method was applied for determination of the metals in spicules of two specimens of marine sponges (Demosponges) from the Portofino natural reserve (Ligurian Sea, Italy, Petrosia ficiformis) and Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica, Sphaerotylus antarcticus). The metal contents varied from tens of ng g{sup -1} to {proportional_to}1 {mu}g g{sup -1}, depending on the metal considered and with significant differences between the two sponge species. (orig.)

  2. Pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse and species-specific microbial communities in sponges from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Onon

    2010-11-18

    Marine sponges are associated with a remarkable array of microorganisms. Using a tag pyrosequencing technology, this study was the first to investigate in depth the microbial communities associated with three Red Sea sponges, Hyrtios erectus, Stylissa carteri and Xestospongia testudinaria. We revealed highly diverse sponge-associated bacterial communities with up to 1000 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and richness estimates of up to 2000 species. Altogether, 26 bacterial phyla were detected from the Red Sea sponges, 11 of which were absent from the surrounding sea water and 4 were recorded in sponges for the first time. Up to 100 OTUs with richness estimates of up to 300 archaeal species were revealed from a single sponge species. This is by far the highest archaeal diversity ever recorded for sponges. A non-negligible proportion of unclassified reads was observed in sponges. Our results demonstrated that the sponge-associated microbial communities remained highly consistent in the same sponge species from different locations, although they varied at different degrees among different sponge species. A significant proportion of the tag sequences from the sponges could be assigned to one of the sponge-specific clusters previously defined. In addition, the sponge-associated microbial communities were consistently divergent from those present in the surrounding sea water. Our results suggest that the Red Sea sponges possess highly sponge-specific or even sponge-species-specific microbial communities that are resistant to environmental disturbance, and much of their microbial diversity remains to be explored. © 2011 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved.

  3. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-08-28

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  4. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  5. Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvelier, Marie L.; Blake, Emily; Mulheron, Rebecca; McCarthy, Peter J.; Blackwelder, Patricia; Thurber, Rebecca L. Vega; Lopez, Jose V.

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges are vital components of benthic and coral reef ecosystems, providing shelter and nutrition for many organisms. In addition, sponges act as an essential carbon and nutrient link between the pelagic and benthic environment by filtering large quantities of seawater. Many sponge species harbor a diverse microbial community (including Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes), which can constitute up to 50% of the sponge biomass. Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing. Cinachyrella specimens and seawater samples were collected from the same South Florida reef at two different times of year. In total, 639 OTUs (12 archaeal and 627 bacterial) belonging to 2 archaeal and 21 bacterial phyla were detected in the sponges. Based on their microbiomes, the six sponge samples formed two distinct groups, namely sponge group 1 (SG1) with lower diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 3.73 ± 0.22) and SG2 with higher diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 5.95 ± 0.25). Hosts' 28S rRNA gene sequences further confirmed that the sponge specimens were composed of two taxa closely related to Cinachyrella kuekenthalli. Both sponge groups were dominated by Proteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria were significantly more abundant in SG1. SG2 harbored many bacterial phyla (>1% of sequences) present in low abundance or below detection limits (<0.07%) in SG1 including: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, PAUC34f, Poribacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Furthermore, SG1 and SG2 only had 95 OTUs in common, representing 30.5 and 22.4% of SG1 and SG2's total OTUs, respectively. These results suggest that the sponge host may exert a pivotal influence on the nature and structure of the microbial community and may only be marginally affected by external environment parameters. PMID:25408689

  6. Two distinct microbial communities revealed in the sponge Cinachyrella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Laure Cuvelier

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are vital components of benthic and coral reef ecosystems, providing shelter and nutrition for many organisms. In addition, sponges act as an essential carbon and nutrient link between the pelagic and benthic environment by filtering large quantities of seawater. Many sponge species harbor a diverse microbial community (including Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryotes, which can constitute up to 50% of the sponge biomass. Sponges of the genus Cinachyrella are common in Caribbean and Floridian reefs and their archaeal and bacterial microbiomes were explored here using 16S rDNA tag pyrosequencing. Cinachyrella specimens and seawater samples were collected from the same South Florida reef at two different times of year. In total, 639 OTUs (12 archaeal and 627 bacterial belonging to 2 archaeal and 21 bacterial phyla were detected in the sponges. Based on their microbiomes, the six sponge samples formed two distinct groups, namely sponge group 1 (SG1 with low diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 3.73 ± 0.22 and SG2 with higher diversity (Shannon-Weiner index: 5.95 ± 0.25. Hosts’ 28S rDNA sequences further confirmed that the sponge specimens were composed of two taxa closely related to Cinachyrella kuekenthalli. Both sponge groups were dominated by Proteobacteria, but Alphaproteobacteria were significantly more abundant in SG1. SG2 harbored many bacterial phyla (>1% of sequences present in low abundance or below detection limits (<0.07% in SG1 including: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, PAUC34f, Poribacteria and Verrucomicrobia. Furthermore, SG1 and SG2 only had 95 OTUs in common, representing 30.5% and 22.4% of SG1 and SG2’s total OTUs, respectively. These results suggest that the sponge host may exert a pivotal influence on the nature and structure of the microbial community and may only be marginally affected by external environment parameters.

  7. Sponge 'tree rings' : new indicators of ocean variability?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellwood, M.; Kelly, M.

    2003-01-01

    Certain marine sponges offer a unique approach to the problem of recording environmental change. These sponges and their spicules grow by putting on concentric layers of silica material on a seasonal basis, rather like tree rings. The concentrations of certain chemicals in the surrounding water, and the growth rate of the sponge itself, are archived in the silica deposited. The information in each layer of silica can be used to deduce environmental conditions on a range of scales; years, decades and centuries. (author). 7 figs

  8. Metagenomic Analysis of Genes Encoding Nutrient Cycling Pathways in the Microbiota of Deep-Sea and Shallow-Water Sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Yuezhu; Li, Jinlong; Liu, Fang; He, Liming; He, Ying; Wang, Shenyue

    2016-12-01

    Sponges host complex symbiotic communities, but to date, the whole picture of the metabolic potential of sponge microbiota remains unclear, particularly the difference between the shallow-water and deep-sea sponge holobionts. In this study, two completely different sponges, shallow-water sponge Theonella swinhoei from the South China Sea and deep-sea sponge Neamphius huxleyi from the Indian Ocean, were selected to compare their whole symbiotic communities and metabolic potential, particularly in element transformation. Phylogenetically diverse bacteria, archaea, fungi, and algae were detected in both shallow-water sponge T. swinhoei and deep-sea sponge N. huxleyi, and different microbial community structures were indicated between these two sponges. Metagenome-based gene abundance analysis indicated that, though the two sponge microbiota have similar core functions, they showed different potential strategies in detailed metabolic processes, e.g., in the transformation and utilization of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur by corresponding microbial symbionts. This study provides insight into the putative metabolic potentials of the microbiota associated with the shallow-water and deep-sea sponges at the whole community level, extending our knowledge of the sponge microbiota's functions, the association of sponge- microbes, as well as the adaption of sponge microbiota to the marine environment.

  9. Similar sponge-associated bacteria can be acquired via both vertical and horizontal transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sipkema, Detmer; de Caralt, Sònia; Morillo, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges host diverse communities of microorganisms that are often vertically transmitted from mother to oocyte or embryo. Horizontal transmission has often been proposed to co-occur in marine sponges, but the mechanism is poorly understood. To assess the impact of the mode of transmission...... on the microbial assemblages of sponges, we analysed the microbiota in sympatric sponges that have previously been reported to acquire bacteria via either vertical (Corticium candelabrum and Crambe crambe) or horizontal transmission (Petrosia ficiformis). The comparative study was performed by PCR......-DGGE and pyrosequencing of barcoded PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. We found that P. ficiformis and C. candelabrum each harbor their own species-specific bacteria, but they are similar to other high-microbial-abundance sponges, while the low-microbial-abundance sponge C. crambe hosts microbiota of a very different...

  10. Surgical sponges in small animal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeltzman, Phil; Downs, Myron

    2011-06-01

    Sponges are commonly used in veterinary practice. Uses for sponges in the operative arena include hemostasis, retraction, protection, dissection, and general wound management. Blood loss can be quantitated by counting blood-soaked sponges. Complications may arise when sponges are retained in the patient. Sponge retention is a risk whenever sponges are used during surgery, regardless of surgical procedure. This article reviews physical characteristics and proper uses of sponges, complications of sponge retention, and techniques to avoid retained sponges.

  11. Screening of Antibacterial MDR derived from Sponge Associated Fungus of Riung Water, Nusa Tenggara Timur

    OpenAIRE

    Khoeruddin Wittriansyah; Agus Trianto; Sekar Widyaningsih; Ocky Karna Radjasa; Rudhi Pribadi

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponge-associated fungi are the sources of bioactive compounds with various pharmacologicals potency. This study aimed to isolate the sponge-associated fungi as the producer of the MDR anti-bacterial compounds.  The associated fungi were isolated from the sponges collected from Riung water, Nusa Tenggara Timur. Five of the best isolates were cultured on MEA to obtain the methanolic extract for further studies.  The antagonistic test was conducted using overlay method towards the MDR St...

  12. Peniciadametizine A, a Dithiodiketopiperazine with a Unique Spiro[furan-2,7'-pyrazino[1,2-b][1,2]oxazine] Skeleton, and a Related Analogue, Peniciadametizine B, from the Marine Sponge-Derived Fungus Penicillium adametzioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peniciadametizine A (1; a new dithiodiketopiperazine derivative possessing a unique spiro[furan-2,7'-pyrazino[1,2-b][1,2]oxazine] skeleton, together with a highly oxygenated new analogue, peniciadametizine B (2; as well as two known compounds, brasiliamide A (3; and viridicatumtoxin (4, were isolated and identified from Penicillium adametzioides AS-53, a fungus obtained from an unidentified marine sponge. The unambiguous assignment of the relative and absolute configuration for the spiro center C-2 of compound 1 was solved by the combination of NMR and ECD measurements with Density-Functional Theory (DFT conformational analysis and Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory-Electronic Circular Dichroism (TDDFT-ECD calculations. The spiro[furan-2,7'-pyrazino[1,2-b][1,2]oxazine] skeleton of 1 has not been reported yet among natural products and the biosynthetic pathway for 1 and 2 was discussed. Compounds 1 and 2 showed inhibitory activity against the pathogenic fungus Alternaria brassicae.

  13. Evidence for selective bacterial community structuring in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, Rodrigo; Keller-Costa, Tina; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Nunes da Rocha, Ulisses; van Overbeek, Leo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    To understand the functioning of sponges, knowledge of the structure of their associated microbial communities is necessary. However, our perception of sponge-associated microbiomes remains mainly restricted to marine ecosystems. Here, we report on the molecular diversity and composition of bacteria

  14. Evidence for selective bacterial community structuring in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, R.; Keller-Costa, T.; Gomes, N.C.M.; Nunes da Rocha, U.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Elsas, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    To understand the functioning of sponges, knowledge of the structure of their associated microbial communities is necessary. However, our perception of sponge-associated microbiomes remains mainly restricted to marine ecosystems. Here, we report on the molecular diversity and composition of bacteria

  15. Bioprospecting Sponge-Associated Microbes for Antimicrobial Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indraningrat, Anak Agung Gede; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2016-05-02

    Sponges are the most prolific marine organisms with respect to their arsenal of bioactive compounds including antimicrobials. However, the majority of these substances are probably not produced by the sponge itself, but rather by bacteria or fungi that are associated with their host. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of antimicrobial compounds that are known to be produced by sponge-associated microbes. We discuss the current state-of-the-art by grouping the bioactive compounds produced by sponge-associated microorganisms in four categories: antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal compounds. Based on in vitro activity tests, identified targets of potent antimicrobial substances derived from sponge-associated microbes include: human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) (2-undecyl-4-quinolone, sorbicillactone A and chartarutine B); influenza A (H1N1) virus (truncateol M); nosocomial Gram positive bacteria (thiopeptide YM-266183, YM-266184, mayamycin and kocurin); Escherichia coli (sydonic acid), Chlamydia trachomatis (naphthacene glycoside SF2446A2); Plasmodium spp. (manzamine A and quinolone 1); Leishmania donovani (manzamine A and valinomycin); Trypanosoma brucei (valinomycin and staurosporine); Candida albicans and dermatophytic fungi (saadamycin, 5,7-dimethoxy-4-p-methoxylphenylcoumarin and YM-202204). Thirty-five bacterial and 12 fungal genera associated with sponges that produce antimicrobials were identified, with Streptomyces, Pseudovibrio, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Penicillium as the prominent producers of antimicrobial compounds. Furthemore culture-independent approaches to more comprehensively exploit the genetic richness of antimicrobial compound-producing pathways from sponge-associated bacteria are addressed.

  16. Preliminary assessment of sponge biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Thacker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and sponges. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A single member of the dive team conducted surveys of sponge biodiversity during eight dives at six locations, at depths ranging from 15 to 30 m. This preliminary assessment documented the presence of 45 species pooled across multiple locations. Rarefaction analysis estimated that only 48 to 84% of species diversity was sampled by this limited effort, clearly indicating a need for additional surveys. An analysis of historical collections from Saba and Saba Bank revealed an additional 36 species, yielding a total of 81 sponge species recorded from this area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This observed species composition is similar to that found on widespread Caribbean reefs, indicating that the sponge fauna of Saba Bank is broadly representative of the Caribbean as a whole. A robust population of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, appeared healthy with none of the signs of disease or bleaching reported from other Caribbean reefs; however, more recent reports of anchor chain damage to these sponges suggests that human activities can have dramatic impacts on these communities. Opportunities to protect this extremely large habitat should be pursued, as Saba Bank may serve as a significant reservoir of sponge species diversity.

  17. First report on chitinous holdfast in sponges (Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Hermann; Kaluzhnaya, Oksana V; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Tabachnick, Konstantin R; Ilan, Micha; Stelling, Allison; Galli, Roberta; Petrova, Olga V; Nekipelov, Serguei V; Sivkov, Victor N; Vyalikh, Denis; Born, René; Behm, Thomas; Ehrlich, Andre; Chernogor, Lubov I; Belikov, Sergei; Janussen, Dorte; Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Wörheide, Gert

    2013-07-07

    A holdfast is a root- or basal plate-like structure of principal importance that anchors aquatic sessile organisms, including sponges, to hard substrates. There is to date little information about the nature and origin of sponges' holdfasts in both marine and freshwater environments. This work, to our knowledge, demonstrates for the first time that chitin is an important structural component within holdfasts of the endemic freshwater demosponge Lubomirskia baicalensis. Using a variety of techniques (near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, Raman, electrospray ionization mas spectrometry, Morgan-Elson assay and Calcofluor White staining), we show that chitin from the sponge holdfast is much closer to α-chitin than to β-chitin. Most of the three-dimensional fibrous skeleton of this sponge consists of spicule-containing proteinaceous spongin. Intriguingly, the chitinous holdfast is not spongin-based, and is ontogenetically the oldest part of the sponge body. Sequencing revealed the presence of four previously undescribed genes encoding chitin synthases in the L. baicalensis sponge. This discovery of chitin within freshwater sponge holdfasts highlights the novel and specific functions of this biopolymer within these ancient sessile invertebrates.

  18. Biodiversity of Macrofauna Associated with Sponges across Ecological Gradients in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kandler, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Between 33 and 91 percent of marine species are currently undescribed, with the majority occurring in tropical and offshore environments. Sponges act as important microhabitats and promote biodiversity by harboring a wide variety of macrofauna

  19. Growth inhibition of periphytic diatoms by methanol extracts of sponges and holothurians

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mokashe, S.S.; Garg, A; Anil, A; Wagh, A

    Crude methanol extracts of a holothurian Holothuria leucospilota, and two sponges Craniella sp. and Ircinia ramosa were tested for their inhibitory effects on the growth of two marine diatoms, Navicula subinflata and N. crucicula, by diatom plating...

  20. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of twelve sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masteria Yunovilsa Putra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial activities in methanolic extracts of twelve sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia. Methods: The antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts was tested against two Grampositive bacteria, viz. Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, and two Gram-negative bacteria, viz. Eschericia coli (ATCC 25922 and Vibrio anguillarum (ATCC 19264 using the disk diffusion assay. The antifungal activity was similarly tested against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 and Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of promising sponges extracts were determined by the microdilution technique. Results: All the sponge species in this study showed antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test strains. Antibacterial activities were observed in 66.7% of the sponges extracts, while 30.0% of the extracts exhibited antifungal activities. Among them, the extracts of the sponges Stylissa massa and Axinyssa sp. were the most active against four tested bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans. The sponge Theonella swinhoei and two species of Xestospongia also displayed significant activities against two fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Conclusions: Antimicrobial activities were demonstrated in extracts from various marine sponges collected from the Anambas Islands, Indonesia. The most promising sponges among them were Stylissa massa and Axinyssa sp. This is the first report of antimicrobial activity in extracts of marine sponges from the Indonesian Anambas Islands.

  1. Sponge cell culture? A molecular identification method for sponge cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Osinga, R.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Dissociated sponge cells are easily confused with unicellular organisms. This has been an obstacle in the development of sponge-cell lines. We developed a molecular detection method to identify cells of the sponge Dysidea avara in dissociated cell cultures. The 18S ribosomal RNA gene from a Dysidea

  2. Field and laboratory investigations of budding in the tetillid sponge Cinachyrella cavernosa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, A.; Thakur, N.L.

    Author for correspondence. Email address: thakurn@nio.org 2 Marine invertebrates such as corals, sponges, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, sea anemones and barnacles can adopt different reproductive strategies (e.g., asexual and /or sexual... factors. Among various marine invertebrates, sponges are noteworthy because they have evolved different modes of propagation (both sexual and asexual) even though they lack specialized reproductive organs. Moreover, asexual reproduction can...

  3. First European record of Haliclona loosanoffi Hartman, 1958 (Porifera, Haplosclerida), a species hitherto known only from the New England coast (U.S.A.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1976-01-01

    An encrusting gemmuliferous haliclonid species is described from the Oosterschelde (S.W.- part of the Netherlands), which is demonstrated to be conspecific with Haliclona loosanoffi Hartman, 1958. This species was hitherto only known from the New England coast (U.S.A.). The species is compared with

  4. Lipophilic fractions from the marine sponge Halichondria sitiens decrease secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells and decrease their ability to induce a Th1 type response by allogeneic CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xiaxia; Oskarsson, Jon T; Omarsdottir, Sesselja; Freysdottir, Jona; Hardardottir, Ingibjorg

    2017-12-01

    Halichondria (Halichondriidae) marine sponges contain components possessing various biological activities, but immunomodulation is not among the ones reported. This study evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of fractions/compounds from Halichondria sitiens Schmidt. Crude dichloromethane/methanol extracts of H. sitiens were subjected to various chromatographic techniques to obtain fractions/compounds with immunomodulatory activity, using bioassay-guided isolation. The effects of the fractions/compounds were determined by measuring secretion of cytokines and expression of surface molecules by dendritic cells (DCs) and their ability to stimulate and modify cytokine secretion by allogeneic CD4 + T cells. The bioactive fractions were chemically analyzed to identify the immunomodulatory constituents by 1D, 2D NMR, and HRMS data. Several lipophilic fractions from H. sitiens at 10 μg/mL decreased secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12p40 and IL-6 by the DCs, with maximum inhibition being 64% and 25%, respectively. In addition, fractions B3b3F and B3b3J decreased the ability of DCs to induce T cell secretion of IFN-γ. Fraction B3b3 induced morphological changes in DCs, characterized by extreme elongation of dendrites and cell clustering. Chemical screening revealed the presence of glycerides and some minor unknown constituents in the biologically active fractions. One new glyceride, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl 2-methylhexadecanoate (1), was isolated from one fraction and two known compounds, 3-[(1-methoxyhexadecyl)oxy]propane-1,2-diol (2) and monoheptadecanoin (3), were identified in another, but none of them had immunomodulatory activity. These results demonstrate that several lipophilic fractions from H. sitiens have anti-inflammatory effects on DCs and decrease their ability to induce a Th1 type immune response.

  5. Retained surgical sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Masashi; Kurono, Kenji; Iida, Akihiko; Suzuki, Hirochika; Hara, Masaki; Mizutani, Hirokazu; Ohba, Satoru; Mizutani, Masaru; Nakajima, Yoichiro.

    1993-01-01

    The CT, US, and MRI findings of confirmed retained surgical sponges were reviewed. The CT examinations in eight lesions demonstrated round or oval masses with heterogeneous internal structures. The US examinations in 5 lesions demonstrated low echogenic masses with high echogenic internal structures, which suggested retained surgical sponges. MR imagings in three lesions showed slightly high intensity comparable to that of muscles on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, suggesting fluid collections of high protein concentration. (author)

  6. Generalized Morphology using Sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Gronde, Jasper J.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical morphology has traditionally been grounded in lattice theory. For non-scalar data lattices often prove too restrictive, however. In this paper we present a more general alternative, sponges, that still allows useful definitions of various properties and concepts from morphological

  7. Environmental impacts of air-gun surveys on glass sponges : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunnicliffe, V.; Yahel, G. [Victoria Univ., Victoria, BC (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Chapman, R.; Wilmut, M. [Victoria Univ., Victoria, BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    2008-09-15

    Air-gun surveys associated with the oil and gas exploration in the Queen Charlotte Basin will insonify the seafloor with broadband, high intensity noise, exposing the glass sponge reef systems of that area to acoustic impacts. Tissue integrity and behaviour of marine animals can be affected by the acoustic harassment of water propagated vibration. This paper examined the effects of acoustic noise on the behaviour of glass sponges. The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that the acoustic vibration produced by a small, surface operated air gun would not alter the normal pattern of sponge feeding activities. The paper described the methods, with particular reference to the study site; sponge pumping rate; and acoustic effects on sponge pumping. Results were presented for ambient conditions; air gun shots; sponge pumping responses to air gun shots; and correlation of sponge response and ambient current. The question of whether the sponge's excurrent flow responds to the pressure from a series of air-gun shots was addressed by a statistical analysis over all the excurrent data from the experiment. It was concluded that there is little or no evidence that the acoustic pressure from the shots influences the physiological functions of the sponge. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  8. Environmental impacts of air-gun surveys on glass sponges : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunnicliffe, V; Yahel, G [Victoria Univ., Victoria, BC (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Chapman, R; Wilmut, M [Victoria Univ., Victoria, BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    2008-09-15

    Air-gun surveys associated with the oil and gas exploration in the Queen Charlotte Basin will insonify the seafloor with broadband, high intensity noise, exposing the glass sponge reef systems of that area to acoustic impacts. Tissue integrity and behaviour of marine animals can be affected by the acoustic harassment of water propagated vibration. This paper examined the effects of acoustic noise on the behaviour of glass sponges. The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that the acoustic vibration produced by a small, surface operated air gun would not alter the normal pattern of sponge feeding activities. The paper described the methods, with particular reference to the study site; sponge pumping rate; and acoustic effects on sponge pumping. Results were presented for ambient conditions; air gun shots; sponge pumping responses to air gun shots; and correlation of sponge response and ambient current. The question of whether the sponge's excurrent flow responds to the pressure from a series of air-gun shots was addressed by a statistical analysis over all the excurrent data from the experiment. It was concluded that there is little or no evidence that the acoustic pressure from the shots influences the physiological functions of the sponge. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: white sponge nevus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions White sponge nevus White sponge nevus Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description White sponge nevus is a condition characterized by the formation ...

  10. Investigations on abundance and activity of microbial sponge symbionts using quantitative real - time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumala, Lars; Hentschel, Ute; Bayer, Kristina

    Marine sponges are hosts to dense and diverse microbial consortia that are likely to play a key role in the metabolic processes of the host sponge due to their enormous abundance. Common symbioses between nitrogen transforming microorganisms and sponges indicate complex nitrogen cycling within...... the host. Of particular interest is determining the community structure and function of microbial symbionts in order to gain deeper insight into host-symbiont interactions. We investigated the abundance and activity of microbial symbionts in two Mediterranean sponge species using quantitative real-time PCR....... An absolute quantification of functional genes and transcripts in archaeal and bacterial symbionts was conducted to determine their involvement in nitrification and denitrification, comparing the low microbial abundance (LMA) sponge Dysidea avara with the high microbial abundance (HMA) representative Aplysina...

  11. Quantification of bacterial and archaeal symbionts in high and low microbial abundance sponges using real-time PCR

    KAUST Repository

    Bayer, Kristina; Kamke, Janine; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-01-01

    In spite of considerable insights into the microbial diversity of marine sponges, quantitative information on microbial abundances and community composition remains scarce. Here, we established qPCR assays for the specific quantification of four

  12. Specificity and transcriptional activity of microbiota associated with low and high microbial abundance sponges from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Bayer, Kristina; Cannistraci, Carlo; Giles, Emily; Ryu, Tae Woo; Seridi, Loqmane; Ravasi, Timothy; Hentschel, Ute T E

    2013-01-01

    Marine sponges are generally classified as high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) species. Here, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was applied to investigate the diversity, specificity and transcriptional activity of microbes

  13. MORPHOLOGY AND CELL BIOMASS OF SPONGE Aaptos aaptos AND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meutia Samira Ismet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aaptos aaptos and Petrosia sp. sponges are known for their ability to produce potential marine bioactive compound. As a metazoan animal with simple body structure, the morphology and it association with symbiont-bacteria could influence their bioactive compound both type and activity, as much as their habitat adaptation. In order to determine morphology and its cell biomass of Aaptos aaptos dan Petrosia sp., samples were taken from the West Pari Island, at 7 m depth. Preserved samples (in 4% formaldehyde were examined using a histological mounting and centrifugation method to separate the cells fraction of sponge’s tissues. A. aaptos sponge has a soft body structure with 55.9% skeleton-forming fraction, 14.2% sponge cell fraction and 29.9% bacteria fraction. Meanwhile, Petrosia sp. sponge has a rigid body with dominant skeleton-forming fraction (68.6%, and lesser sponge cell and bacteria associated (19.7% and 11.7%, respectively.Keywords: A. aaptos, Petrosia sp, morphology, cell biomass

  14. Indirect effects of overfishing on Caribbean reefs: sponges overgrow reef-building corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tse-Lynn; McMurray, Steven E; Henkel, Timothy P; Vicente, Jan; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2015-01-01

    Consumer-mediated indirect effects at the community level are difficult to demonstrate empirically. Here, we show an explicit indirect effect of overfishing on competition between sponges and reef-building corals from surveys of 69 sites across the Caribbean. Leveraging the large-scale, long-term removal of sponge predators, we selected overfished sites where intensive methods, primarily fish-trapping, have been employed for decades or more, and compared them to sites in remote or marine protected areas (MPAs) with variable levels of enforcement. Sponge-eating fishes (angelfishes and parrotfishes) were counted at each site, and the benthos surveyed, with coral colonies scored for interaction with sponges. Overfished sites had >3 fold more overgrowth of corals by sponges, and mean coral contact with sponges was 25.6%, compared with 12.0% at less-fished sites. Greater contact with corals by sponges at overfished sites was mostly by sponge species palatable to sponge predators. Palatable species have faster rates of growth or reproduction than defended sponge species, which instead make metabolically expensive chemical defenses. These results validate the top-down conceptual model of sponge community ecology for Caribbean reefs, as well as provide an unambiguous justification for MPAs to protect threatened reef-building corals. An unanticipated outcome of the benthic survey component of this study was that overfished sites had lower mean macroalgal cover (23.1% vs. 38.1% for less-fished sites), a result that is contrary to prevailing assumptions about seaweed control by herbivorous fishes. Because we did not quantify herbivores for this study, we interpret this result with caution, but suggest that additional large-scale studies comparing intensively overfished and MPA sites are warranted to examine the relative impacts of herbivorous fishes and urchins on Caribbean reefs.

  15. Biodiversity of Macrofauna Associated with Sponges across Ecological Gradients in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kandler, Nora

    2015-12-01

    Between 33 and 91 percent of marine species are currently undescribed, with the majority occurring in tropical and offshore environments. Sponges act as important microhabitats and promote biodiversity by harboring a wide variety of macrofauna and microbiota, but little is known about the relationships between the sponges and their symbionts. This study uses DNA barcoding to examine the macrofaunal communities associated with sponges of the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea, a drastically understudied ecosystem with high biodiversity and endemism. In total, 185 epifaunal and infaunal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were distinguished from the 1399 successfully-sequenced macrofauna individuals from 129 sponges representing seven sponge species, one of which (Stylissa carteri) was intensively studied. A significant difference was found in the macrofaunal community composition of Stylissa carteri along a cross-shelf gradient using relative OTU abundance (Bray-Curtis diversity index). The abundance of S. carteri also follows a cross-shelf gradient, increasing with proximity to shore. The difference in macrofaunal communities of several species of sponges at one location was found to be significant as well, using OTU presence (binary Jaccard diversity index). Four of the seven sponge species collected were dominated by a single annelid OTU, each unique to one sponge species. A fifth was dominated by four arthropod OTUs, all species-specific as well. Region-based diversity differences may be attributed to environmental factors such as reef morphology, water flow, and sedimentation, whereas species-based differences may be caused by sponge morphology, microbial abundances, and chemical defenses. As climate change and ocean acidification continue to modify coral reef ecosystems, understanding the ecology of sponges and their role as microhabitats may become more important. This thesis also includes a supplemental document in the form of a spreadsheet showing the number of

  16. Chemical defenses and resource trade-offs structure sponge communities on Caribbean coral reefs

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, Tse-Lynn; Pawlik, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical defenses are known to protect some species from consumers, but it is often difficult to detect this advantage at the community or ecosystem levels because of the complexity of abiotic and biotic factors that influence species abundances. We surveyed the community of sponges and sponge predators (angelfishes and parrotfishes) on coral reefs across the Caribbean ranging from heavily overfished sites to protected marine reserves. High predator abundance correlated with high abundance of...

  17. Process for purifying zirconium sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abodishish, H.A.M.; Kimball, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a Kroll reduction process wherein a zirconium sponge contaminated with unreacted magnesium and by-product magnesium chloride is produced as a regulus, a process for purifying the zirconium sponge. It comprises: distilling magnesium and magnesium chloride from: a regulus containing a zirconium sponge and magnesium and magnesium chloride at a temperature above about 800 degrees C and at an absolute pressure less than about 10 mmHg in a distillation vessel to purify the zirconium sponge; condensing the magnesium and the magnesium chloride distilled from the zirconium sponge in a condenser; and then backfilling the vessel containing the zirconium sponge and the condenser containing the magnesium and the magnesium chloride with a gas; recirculating the gas between the vessel and the condenser to cool the zirconium sponge from above about 800 degrees C to below about 300 degrees C; and cooling the recirculating gas in the condenser containing the condensed magnesium and the condensed magnesium chloride as the gas cools the zirconium sponge to below about 300 degrees C

  18. Dinoflagellates associated with freshwater sponges from the ancient lake baikal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annenkova, Natalia V; Lavrov, Dennis V; Belikov, Sergey I

    2011-04-01

    Dinoflagellates are a diverse group of protists that are common in both marine and freshwater environments. While the biology of marine dinoflagellates has been the focus of several recent studies, their freshwater relatives remain little-investigated. In the present study we explore the diversity of dinoflagellates in Lake Baikal by identifying and analyzing dinoflagellate sequences for 18S rDNA and ITS-2 from total DNA extracted from three species of endemic Baikalian sponges (Baikalospongia intermedia,Baikalospongia rectaand Lubomirskia incrustans). Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences revealed extensive dinoflagellate diversity in Lake Baikal. We found two groups of sequences clustering within the order Suessiales, known for its symbiotic relationships with various invertebrates. Thus they may be regarded as potential symbionts of Baikalian sponges. In addition,Gyrodinium helveticum, representatives from the genus Gymnodinium, dinoflagellates close to the family Pfiesteriaceae, and a few dinoflagellates without definite affiliation were detected. No pronounced difference in the distribution of dinoflagellates among the studied sponges was found, except for the absence of the Piscinoodinium-like dinoflagellates inL. incrustans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the diversity of dinoflagellates in freshwater sponges, the first systematic investigation of dinoflagellate molecular diversity in Lake Baikal and the first finding of members of the order Suessiales as symbionts of freshwater invertebrates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Sponge microbiota are a reservoir of functional antibiotic resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Versluis

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Wide application of antibiotics has contributed to the evolution of multi-drug resistant human pathogens, resulting in poorer treatment outcomes for infections. In the marine environment, seawater samples have been investigated as a resistance reservoir; however, no studies have methodically examined sponges as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Sponges could be important in this respect because they often contain diverse microbial communities that have the capacity to produce bioactive metabolites. Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional resistance genes in the sponges Aplysina aerophoba, Petrosia ficiformis and Corticium candelabrum. We obtained 37 insert sequences facilitating resistance to D-cycloserine (n=6, gentamicin (n=1, amikacin (n=7, trimethoprim (n=17, chloramphenicol (n=1, rifampicin (n=2 and ampicillin (n=3. Fifteen of 37 inserts harboured resistance genes that shared <90% amino acid identity with known gene products, whereas on 13 inserts no resistance gene could be identified with high confidence, in which case we predicted resistance to be mainly mediated by antibiotic efflux. One marine-specific ampicillin-resistance-conferring β-lactamase was identified in the genus Pseudovibrio with 41% global amino acid identity to the closest β-lactamase with demonstrated functionality, and subsequently classified into a new family termed PSV. Taken together, our results show that sponge microbiota host diverse and novel resistance genes that may be harnessed by phylogenetically distinct bacteria.

  20. Lipid constituents of marine sponge Suberites carnosus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mishra, P.D.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Sterols (22E) - 24- methyl-cholest - 4, 8(9), 22(23) - triene - 3, 7 - diol (1) and (22E)-24-methyl-ergost-6, 22(23)-diene-5, 8-epidioxy-3-ol (2), a fatty acid nonadecanoic acid and a fatty ester methyl nonadecanoate have been isolated from...

  1. 21 CFR 886.4790 - Ophthalmic sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic sponge. 886.4790 Section 886.4790 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4790 Ophthalmic sponge. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic sponge is a device that is an absorbant sponge, pad, or spear made of folded gauze, cotton...

  2. Managing and sharing the escalating number of sponge "unknowns": the SpongeMaps project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, J N A; Hall, K A; Ekins, M; Erpenbeck, D; Wörheide, G; Jolley-Rogers, G

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary collections of sponges in the Indo-west Pacific have escalated substantially due to pharmaceutical discovery, national bioregional planning, and compliance with international conventions on the seabed and its marine genetic resources beyond national jurisdictions. These partially processed operational taxonomic unit (OTU) collections now vastly outweigh the expertise available to make them better "known" via complete taxonomy, yet for many bioregions they represent the most significant body of currently available knowledge. Increasing numbers of cryptic species, previously undetected morphologically, are now being discovered by molecular and chemical analyses. The uncoordinated and fragmented nature of many previous collections, however, means that knowledge and expertise gained from a particular project are often lost to future projects without a biodiversity informatics legacy. Integrating these diverse data (GIS; OTUs; images; molecular, chemical, and other datasets) required a two-way iterative process so far unavailable for sponges with existing biodiversity informatics tools. SpongeMaps arose from the initial need for online collaboration to integrate morphometric data with molecular barcodes, including the Porifera Tree of Life (PorTol) project. It provides interrogation of existing data to better process new collections; capacity to create new OTUs; publication of online pages for individual species, so as to interpret GIS and other data for online biodiversity databases and services; and automatic links to external datasets for taxonomic hierarchy, specimen GIS and mapping, DNA sequence data, chemical structures, and images.

  3. Sponge systematics facing new challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, P; Pérez, T; Boury-Esnault, N

    2012-01-01

    Systematics is nowadays facing new challenges with the introduction of new concepts and new techniques. Compared to most other phyla, phylogenetic relationships among sponges are still largely unresolved. In the past 10 years, the classical taxonomy has been completely overturned and a review of the state of the art appears necessary. The field of taxonomy remains a prominent discipline of sponge research and studies related to sponge systematics were in greater number in the Eighth World Sponge Conference (Girona, Spain, September 2010) than in any previous world sponge conferences. To understand the state of this rapidly growing field, this chapter proposes to review studies, mainly from the past decade, in sponge taxonomy, nomenclature and phylogeny. In a first part, we analyse the reasons of the current success of this field. In a second part, we establish the current sponge systematics theoretical framework, with the use of (1) cladistics, (2) different codes of nomenclature (PhyloCode vs. Linnaean system) and (3) integrative taxonomy. Sponges are infamous for their lack of characters. However, by listing and discussing in a third part all characters available to taxonomists, we show how diverse characters are and that new ones are being used and tested, while old ones should be revisited. We then review the systematics of the four main classes of sponges (Hexactinellida, Calcispongiae, Homoscleromorpha and Demospongiae), each time focusing on current issues and case studies. We present a review of the taxonomic changes since the publication of the Systema Porifera (2002), and point to problems a sponge taxonomist is still faced with nowadays. To conclude, we make a series of proposals for the future of sponge systematics. In the light of recent studies, we establish a series of taxonomic changes that the sponge community may be ready to accept. We also propose a series of sponge new names and definitions following the PhyloCode. The issue of phantom species

  4. Pyrosequencing of bacterial symbionts within Axinella corrugata sponges: diversity and seasonal variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R White

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marine sponge species are of significant interest to many scientific fields including marine ecology, conservation biology, genetics, host-microbe symbiosis and pharmacology. One of the most intriguing aspects of the sponge "holobiont" system is the unique physiology, interaction with microbes from the marine environment and the development of a complex commensal microbial community. However, intraspecific variability and temporal stability of sponge-associated bacterial symbionts remain relatively unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have characterized the bacterial symbiont community biodiversity of seven different individuals of the Caribbean reef sponge Axinella corrugata, from two different Florida reef locations during variable seasons using multiplex 454 pyrosequencing of 16 S rRNA amplicons. Over 265,512 high-quality 16 S rRNA sequences were generated and analyzed. Utilizing versatile bioinformatics methods and analytical software such as the QIIME and CloVR packages, we have identified 9,444 distinct bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs. Approximately 65,550 rRNA sequences (24% could not be matched to bacteria at the class level, and may therefore represent novel taxa. Differentially abundant classes between seasonal Axinella communities included Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Acidobacter and Nitrospira. Comparisons with a proximal outgroup sponge species (Amphimedon compressa, and the growing sponge symbiont literature, indicate that this study has identified approximately 330 A. corrugata-specific symbiotic OTUs, many of which are related to the sulfur-oxidizing Ectothiorhodospiraceae. This family appeared exclusively within A. corrugata, comprising >34.5% of all sequenced amplicons. Other A. corrugata symbionts such as Deltaproteobacteria, Bdellovibrio, and Thiocystis among many others are described. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Slight shifts in several bacterial taxa

  5. Efforts to develop a cultured sponge cell line: revisiting an intractable problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasela, James J; Pomponi, Shirley A; Rinkevich, Buki; Grima, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Residents of the marine environment, sponges (Porifera) have the ability to produce organic compounds known as secondary metabolites, which are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism. Because of their sessile nature, the production of these bioactive compounds has been interpreted as a functional adaptation to serve in an important survival role as a means to counter various environmental stress factors such as predation, overgrowth by fouling organisms, or competition for limited space. Regardless of the reasons for this adaptation, a variety of isolated compounds have already proven to demonstrate remarkable anticancer, fungicidal, and antibiotic properties. A major obstacle to the isolation and production of novel compounds from sponges is the lack of a large, reliable source of sponge material. Sponge collection from the sea would be environmentally detrimental to the already stressed and sparse sponge populations. Sponge production in an aquaculture setting might appear to be an ideal alternative but would also be cost-ineffective and sponge growth is extremely slow. A third approach involves the development of a sponge cell culture system capable of producing the necessary cell numbers to harvest for research purposes as well as for the eventual commercial-scale production of promising bioactive compounds. Unfortunately, little progress has been made in this direction other than the establishment of temporary cultures containing aggregates and fragments of cells. One impediment toward successful sponge cell culture might be ascribed to a lack of published knowledge of failed methodologies, and thus, time and effort is wasted on continued reinvention of the same methods and procedures. Consequently, we have undertaken here to chart some of our unsuccessful research efforts, our methodology, and results to provide the sponge research community with knowledge to assist them to better avoid taking the same failed

  6. Diversity and distribution patterns in high southern latitude sponges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel V Downey

    Full Text Available Sponges play a key role in Antarctic marine benthic community structure and dynamics and are often a dominant component of many Southern Ocean benthic communities. Understanding the drivers of sponge distribution in Antarctica enables us to understand many of general benthic biodiversity patterns in the region. The sponges of the Antarctic and neighbouring oceanographic regions were assessed for species richness and biogeographic patterns using over 8,800 distribution records. Species-rich regions include the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, South Georgia, Eastern Weddell Sea, Kerguelen Plateau, Falkland Islands and north New Zealand. Sampling intensity varied greatly within the study area, with sampling hotspots found at the Antarctic Peninsula, South Georgia, north New Zealand and Tierra del Fuego, with limited sampling in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas in the Southern Ocean. In contrast to previous studies we found that eurybathy and circumpolar distributions are important but not dominant characteristics in Antarctic sponges. Overall Antarctic sponge species endemism is ∼43%, with a higher level for the class Hexactinellida (68%. Endemism levels are lower than previous estimates, but still indicate the importance of the Polar Front in isolating the Southern Ocean fauna. Nineteen distinct sponge distribution patterns were found, ranging from regional endemics to cosmopolitan species. A single, distinct Antarctic demosponge fauna is found to encompass all areas within the Polar Front, and the sub-Antarctic regions of the Kerguelen Plateau and Macquarie Island. Biogeographical analyses indicate stronger faunal links between Antarctica and South America, with little evidence of links between Antarctica and South Africa, Southern Australia or New Zealand. We conclude that the biogeographic and species distribution patterns observed are largely driven by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the timing of past continent

  7. Survey report of NOAA Ship McArthur II cruises AR-04-04, AR-05-05 and AR-06-03: habitat classification of side scan sonar imagery in support of deep-sea coral/sponge explorations at the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intelmann, Steven S.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Bowlby, C. Edward; Brancato, Mary Sue; Hyland, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Habitat mapping and characterization has been defined as a high-priority management issue for the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary (OCNMS), especially for poorly known deep-sea habitats that may be sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance. As a result, a team of scientists from OCNMS, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS), and other partnering institutions initiated a series of surveys to assess the distribution of deep-sea coral/sponge assemblages within the sanctuary and to look for evidence of potential anthropogenic impacts in these critical habitats. Initial results indicated that remotely delineating areas of hard bottom substrate through acoustic sensing could be a useful tool to increase the efficiency and success of subsequent ROV-based surveys of the associated deep-sea fauna. Accordingly, side scan sonar surveys were conducted in May 2004, June 2005, and April 2006 aboard the NOAA Ship McArthur II to: (1) obtain additional imagery of the seafloor for broader habitat-mapping coverage of sanctuary waters, and (2) help delineate suitable deep-sea coral-sponge habitat, in areas of both high and low commercial-fishing activities, to serve as sites for surveying-in more detail using an ROV on subsequent cruises, Several regions of the sea floor throughout the OCNMS were surveyed and mosaicked at 1-meter pixel resolution. Imagery from the side scan sonar mapping efforts was integrated with other complementary data from a towed camera sled, ROVs, sedentary samples, and bathymetry records to describe geological and biological (where possible) aspects of habitat. Using a hierarchical deep-water marine benthic classification scheme (Greene et al. 1999), we created a preliminary map of various habitat polygon features for use in a geographical information system (GIS). This report provides a description of the mapping and groundtruthing efforts as well as results of the image classification procedure for each of the areas surveyed.

  8. Implementing sponge physiological and genomic information to enhance the diversity of its culturable associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavy, Adi; Keren, Ray; Haber, Markus; Schwartz, Inbar; Ilan, Micha

    2014-02-01

    In recent years new approaches have emerged for culturing marine environmental bacteria. They include the use of novel culture media, sometimes with very low-nutrient content, and a variety of growth conditions such as temperature, oxygen levels, and different atmospheric pressures. These approaches have largely been neglected when it came to the cultivation of sponge-associated bacteria. Here, we used physiological and environmental conditions to reflect the environment of sponge-associated bacteria along with genomic data of the prominent sponge symbiont Candidatus Poribacteria sp. WGA-4E, to cultivate bacteria from the Red Sea sponge Theonella swinhoei. Designing culturing conditions to fit the metabolic needs of major bacterial taxa present in the sponge, through a combined use of diverse culture media compositions with aerobic and microaerophilic states, and addition of antibiotics, yielded higher diversity of the cultured bacteria and led to the isolation of novel sponge-associated and sponge-specific bacteria. In this work, 59 OTUs of six phyla were isolated. Of these, 22 have no close type strains at the species level (< 97% similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequence), representing novel bacteria species, and some are probably new genera and even families. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Zooxanthellar symbionts shape host sponge trophic status through translocation of carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Jeremy B; Massaro, Andrew J; Ramsby, Blake D; Hill, Malcolm S

    2010-12-01

    Sponges belonging to the genus Cliona are common inhabitants of many coral reefs, and as bioeroders, they play an important role in the carbonate cycle of the reef. Several Cliona species maintain intracellular populations of dinoflagellate zooxanthellae (i.e., Symbiodinium spp.), which also form symbioses with a variety of other invertebrates and protists (e.g., corals, molluscs, foraminifera). Unlike the case of coral symbioses, however, almost nothing is known of the metabolic interaction between sponges and their zooxanthella symbionts. To assess this interaction, we performed a tracer experiment to follow C and N in the system, performed a reciprocal transplant experiment, and measured the stable carbon isotope ratio of Cliona spp. with and without zooxanthellae to study the influence of environment on the interaction. We found strong evidence of a transfer of C from zooxanthellae to their sponge hosts but no evidence of a transfer of N from sponge to zooxanthellae. We also saw significant influences of the environment on the metabolism of the sponges. Finally, we observed significant differences in carbon metabolism of sponge species with and without symbionts. These data strongly support hypotheses of metabolic integration between zooxanthellae and their sponge host and extend our understanding of basic aspects of benthic-pelagic coupling in shallow-water marine environments.

  10. Genomic analysis reveals versatile heterotrophic capacity of a potentially symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium in sponge

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Renmao

    2014-08-29

    Sulfur-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) play essential roles in marine sponges. However, the detailed characteristics and physiology of the bacteria are largely unknown. Here, we present and analyse the first genome of sponge-associated SOB using a recently developed metagenomic binning strategy. The loss of transposase and virulence-associated genes and the maintenance of the ancient polyphosphate glucokinase gene suggested a stabilized SOB genome that might have coevolved with the ancient host during establishment of their association. Exclusive distribution in sponge, bacterial detoxification for the host (sulfide oxidation) and the enrichment for symbiotic characteristics (genes-encoding ankyrin) in the SOB genome supported the bacterial role as an intercellular symbiont. Despite possessing complete autotrophic sulfur oxidation pathways, the bacterium developed a much more versatile capacity for carbohydrate uptake and metabolism, in comparison with its closest relatives (Thioalkalivibrio) and to other representative autotrophs from the same order (Chromatiales). The ability to perform both autotrophic and heterotrophic metabolism likely results from the unstable supply of reduced sulfur in the sponge and is considered critical for the sponge-SOB consortium. Our study provides insights into SOB of sponge-specific clade with thioautotrophic and versatile heterotrophic metabolism relevant to its roles in the micro-environment of the sponge body. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Deep sequencing reveals exceptional diversity and modes of transmission for bacterial sponge symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nicole S; Taylor, Michael W; Behnam, Faris; Lücker, Sebastian; Rattei, Thomas; Whalan, Stephen; Horn, Matthias; Wagner, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Marine sponges contain complex bacterial communities of considerable ecological and biotechnological importance, with many of these organisms postulated to be specific to sponge hosts. Testing this hypothesis in light of the recent discovery of the rare microbial biosphere, we investigated three Australian sponges by massively parallel 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing. Here we show bacterial diversity that is unparalleled in an invertebrate host, with more than 250,000 sponge-derived sequence tags being assigned to 23 bacterial phyla and revealing up to 2996 operational taxonomic units (95% sequence similarity) per sponge species. Of the 33 previously described 'sponge-specific' clusters that were detected in this study, 48% were found exclusively in adults and larvae - implying vertical transmission of these groups. The remaining taxa, including 'Poribacteria', were also found at very low abundance among the 135,000 tags retrieved from surrounding seawater. Thus, members of the rare seawater biosphere may serve as seed organisms for widely occurring symbiont populations in sponges and their host association might have evolved much more recently than previously thought. © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Sponge non-metastatic Group I Nme gene/protein - structure and function is conserved from sponges to humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Nucleoside diphosphate kinases NDPK are evolutionarily conserved enzymes present in Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya, with human Nme1 the most studied representative of the family and the first identified metastasis suppressor. Sponges (Porifera) are simple metazoans without tissues, closest to the common ancestor of all animals. They changed little during evolution and probably provide the best insight into the metazoan ancestor's genomic features. Recent studies show that sponges have a wide repertoire of genes many of which are involved in diseases in more complex metazoans. The original function of those genes and the way it has evolved in the animal lineage is largely unknown. Here we report new results on the metastasis suppressor gene/protein homolog from the marine sponge Suberites domuncula, NmeGp1Sd. The purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of the sponge Group I Nme gene and protein, and compare it to its human homolog in order to elucidate the evolution of the structure and function of Nme. Results We found that sponge genes coding for Group I Nme protein are intron-rich. Furthermore, we discovered that the sponge NmeGp1Sd protein has a similar level of kinase activity as its human homolog Nme1, does not cleave negatively supercoiled DNA and shows nonspecific DNA-binding activity. The sponge NmeGp1Sd forms a hexamer, like human Nme1, and all other eukaryotic Nme proteins. NmeGp1Sd interacts with human Nme1 in human cells and exhibits the same subcellular localization. Stable clones expressing sponge NmeGp1Sd inhibited the migratory potential of CAL 27 cells, as already reported for human Nme1, which suggests that Nme's function in migratory processes was engaged long before the composition of true tissues. Conclusions This study suggests that the ancestor of all animals possessed a NmeGp1 protein with properties and functions similar to evolutionarily recent versions of the protein, even before the appearance of true tissues

  13. Mitochondrial Cytochrome oxidase 1 phylogeny supports alternative taxonomic scheme for the marine Haplosclerida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raleigh, J.; Redmond, N.E.; Delahan, E.; Tropey, S.; van Soest, R.W.M.; Kelly, M.; McCormack, G.P.

    2007-01-01

    Recent molecular studies have shown that the sponge order Haploslcerida is polyphyletic as the freshwater sponges appear to be more closely related to other demosponges than they are to the marine haplosclerids. Within the marine haplosclerid clade relationships viewed via 18S and 28S rRNA gene

  14. Sponge-microbe associations survive high nutrients and temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Simister

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are under considerable pressure from global stressors such as elevated sea surface temperature and ocean acidification, as well as local factors including eutrophication and poor water quality. Marine sponges are diverse, abundant and ecologically important components of coral reefs in both coastal and offshore environments. Due to their exceptionally high filtration rates, sponges also form a crucial coupling point between benthic and pelagic habitats. Sponges harbor extensive microbial communities, with many microbial phylotypes found exclusively in sponges and thought to contribute to the health and survival of their hosts. Manipulative experiments were undertaken to ascertain the impact of elevated nutrients and seawater temperature on health and microbial community dynamics in the Great Barrier Reef sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile. R. odorabile exposed to elevated nutrient levels including 10 µmol/L total nitrogen at 31°C appeared visually similar to those maintained under ambient seawater conditions after 7 days. The symbiotic microbial community, analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrotag sequencing, was highly conserved for the duration of the experiment at both phylum and operational taxonomic unit (OTU (97% sequence similarity levels with 19 bacterial phyla and 1743 OTUs identified across all samples. Additionally, elevated nutrients and temperatures did not alter the archaeal associations in R. odorabile, with sequencing of 16S rRNA gene libraries revealing similar Thaumarchaeota diversity and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE revealing consistent amoA gene patterns, across all experimental treatments. A conserved eukaryotic community was also identified across all nutrient and temperature treatments by DGGE. The highly stable microbial associations indicate that R. odorabile symbionts are capable of withstanding short-term exposure to elevated nutrient concentrations and sub-lethal temperatures.

  15. Quantification of bacterial and archaeal symbionts in high and low microbial abundance sponges using real-time PCR

    KAUST Repository

    Bayer, Kristina

    2014-07-09

    In spite of considerable insights into the microbial diversity of marine sponges, quantitative information on microbial abundances and community composition remains scarce. Here, we established qPCR assays for the specific quantification of four bacterial phyla of representative sponge symbionts as well as the kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaea. We could show that the 16S rRNA gene numbers of Archaea, Chloroflexi, and the candidate phylum Poribacteria were 4-6 orders of magnitude higher in high microbial abundance (HMA) than in low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges and that actinobacterial 16S rRNA gene numbers were 1-2 orders higher in HMA over LMA sponges, while those for Cyanobacteria were stable between HMA and LMA sponges. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of Aplysina aerophoba tissue sections confirmed the numerical dominance of Chloroflexi, which was followed by Poribacteria. Archaeal and actinobacterial cells were detected in much lower numbers. By use of fluorescence-activated cell sorting as a primer- and probe-independent approach, the dominance of Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Poribacteria in A. aerophoba was confirmed. Our study provides new quantitative insights into the microbiology of sponges and contributes to a better understanding of the HMA/LMA dichotomy. The authors quantified sponge symbionts in eight sponge species from three different locations by real time PCR targetting 16S rRNA genes. Additionally, FISH was performed and diversity and abundance of singularized microbial symbionts from Aplysina aerophoba was determined for a comprehensive quantification work. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  16. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FORAGER™ SPONGE TECHNOLOGY - DYNAPHORE, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Forager™ Sponge is an open-celled cellulose sponge incorporating an amine-containing chelating polymer that has selective affinity for dissolved heavy metals in both cationic and anionic states. The Forager™ Sponge technology can be utilized to remove and concentrate heavy me...

  17. Status and perspective of sponge chemosystematics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erpenbeck, D.J.G.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to their pharmaceutical applications, sponges are an important source of compounds that are used to elucidate classification patterns and phylogenetic relationships. Here we present a review and outlook on chemosystematics in sponges in seven sections: Secondary metabolites in sponges;

  18. Sponges from Clipperton Island, East Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Kaiser, K.L.; van Syoc, R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented

  19. Unravelling host and symbiont phylogenies of halichondrid sponges (Demospongiae, Porifera) using a mitochondrial marker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erpenbeck, D.J.G.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.; van der Velde, H.C.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2002-01-01

    We present the first comparative phylogenetic analysis of a selected set of marine sponges and their bacterial associates. The Halichondrida for an important order in demosponge systematics and are of a particular interest due to the production of secondary metabolites. We sequenced a fragment of

  20. Effects of combined dredging-related stressors on sponges: a laboratory approach using realistic scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Mari-Carmen; Strehlow, Brian; Kamp, Jasmine; Duckworth, Alan; Jones, Ross; Webster, Nicole S

    2017-07-12

    Dredging can cause increased suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs), light attenuation and sedimentation in marine communities. In order to determine the combined effects of dredging-related pressures on adult sponges, three species spanning different nutritional modes and morphologies were exposed to 5 treatment levels representing realistic dredging scenarios. Most sponges survived under low to moderate turbidity scenarios (SSCs of ≤ 33 mg L -1 , and a daily light integral of ≥0.5 mol photons m -2 d -1 ) for up to 28 d. However, under the highest turbidity scenario (76 mg L -1 , 0.1 mol photons m -2 d -1 ) there was 20% and 90% mortality of the phototrophic sponges Cliona orientalis and Carteriospongia foliascens respectively, and tissue regression in the heterotrophic Ianthella basta. All three sponge species exhibited mechanisms to effectively tolerate dredging-related pressures in the short term (e.g. oscula closure, mucus production and tissue regression), although reduced lipids and deterioration of sponge health suggest that longer term exposure to similar conditions is likely to result in higher mortality. These results suggest that the combination of high SSCs and low light availability can accelerate mortality, increasing the probability of biological effects, although there is considerable interspecies variability in how adult sponges respond to dredging pressures.

  1. Temporal changes in the diazotrophic bacterial communities associated with Caribbean sponges Ircinia stroblina and Mycale laxissima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan eZhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sponges that harbor microalgal or cyanobacterial symbionts may benefit from photosynthetically derived carbohydrates, which are rich in carbon but devoid of nitrogen, and may therefore encounter nitrogen limitation. Diazotrophic communities associated with two Caribbean sponges, Ircinia strobilina and Mycale laxissima were studied in a time series during which three individuals of each sponge were collected in four time points (5:00 AM, 12:00 noon, 5:00 PM, 10:00 PM. nifH genes were successfully amplified from the corresponding gDNA and cDNA pools and sequenced by high throughput 454 amplicon sequencing. In both sponges, over half the nifH transcripts were classified as from cyanobacteria and the remainder from heterotrophic bacteria. We found various groups of bacteria actively expressing the nifH gene during the entire day-night cycle, an indication that the nitrogen fixation potential was fully exploited by different nitrogen fixing bacteria groups associated with their hosts. This study showed for the first time the dynamic changes in the activity of the diazotrophic bacterial communities in marine sponges. Our study expands understanding of the diazotrophic groups that contribute to the fixed nitrogen pool in the benthic community. Sponge bacterial community-associated diazotrophy may have an important impact on the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle in the coral reef ecosystem.

  2. Temporal changes in the diazotrophic bacterial communities associated with Caribbean sponges Ircinia stroblina and Mycale laxissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Vicente, Jan; Hill, Russell T

    2014-01-01

    Sponges that harbor microalgal or, cyanobacterial symbionts may benefit from photosynthetically derived carbohydrates, which are rich in carbon but devoid of nitrogen, and may therefore encounter nitrogen limitation. Diazotrophic communities associated with two Caribbean sponges, Ircinia strobilina and Mycale laxissima were studied in a time series during which three individuals of each sponge were collected in four time points (5:00 AM, 12:00 noon, 5:00 PM, 10:00 PM). nifH genes were successfully amplified from the corresponding gDNA and cDNA pools and sequenced by high throughput 454 amplicon sequencing. In both sponges, over half the nifH transcripts were classified as from cyanobacteria and the remainder from heterotrophic bacteria. We found various groups of bacteria actively expressing the nifH gene during the entire day-night cycle, an indication that the nitrogen fixation potential was fully exploited by different nitrogen fixing bacteria groups associated with their hosts. This study showed for the first time the dynamic changes in the activity of the diazotrophic bacterial communities in marine sponges. Our study expands understanding of the diazotrophic groups that contribute to the fixed nitrogen pool in the benthic community. Sponge bacterial community-associated diazotrophy may have an important impact on the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle in the coral reef ecosystem.

  3. Who's there? - First morphological and DNA barcoding catalogue of the shallow Hawai'ian sponge fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez Pons, Laura; Calcinai, Barbara; Gates, Ruth D

    2017-01-01

    The sponge fauna has been largely overlooked in the Archipelago of Hawai'i, notwithstanding the paramount role of this taxon in marine ecosystems. The lack of knowledge about Porifera populations inhabiting the Hawai'ian reefs limits the development of ecological studies aimed at understanding the functioning of these marine systems. Consequently, this project addresses this gap by describing the most representative sponge species in the shallow waters of the enigmatic bay of Kane'ohe Bay, in O'ahu Island. A total of 30 species (28 demosponges and two calcareous sponges) living associated to the reef structures are here reported. Six of these species are new records to the Hawai'ian Porifera catalogue and are suspected to be recent introductions to these islands. Morphological descriptions of the voucher specimens are provided, along with sequencing data of two partitions involving the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) marker and a fragment covering partial (18S and 28S) and full (ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2) nuclear ribosomal genes. Species delimitations based on genetic distances were calculated to valitate how taxonomic assignments from DNA barcoding aligned with morphological identifications. Of the 60 sequences submitted to GenBank ~88% are the first sequencing records for the corresponding species and genetic marker. This work compiles the first catalogue combining morphological characters with DNA barcoding of Hawai'ian sponges, and contributes to the repository of public databases through the Sponge Barcoding Project initiative.

  4. Who's there? - First morphological and DNA barcoding catalogue of the shallow Hawai'ian sponge fauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Núñez Pons

    Full Text Available The sponge fauna has been largely overlooked in the Archipelago of Hawai'i, notwithstanding the paramount role of this taxon in marine ecosystems. The lack of knowledge about Porifera populations inhabiting the Hawai'ian reefs limits the development of ecological studies aimed at understanding the functioning of these marine systems. Consequently, this project addresses this gap by describing the most representative sponge species in the shallow waters of the enigmatic bay of Kane'ohe Bay, in O'ahu Island. A total of 30 species (28 demosponges and two calcareous sponges living associated to the reef structures are here reported. Six of these species are new records to the Hawai'ian Porifera catalogue and are suspected to be recent introductions to these islands. Morphological descriptions of the voucher specimens are provided, along with sequencing data of two partitions involving the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI marker and a fragment covering partial (18S and 28S and full (ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2 nuclear ribosomal genes. Species delimitations based on genetic distances were calculated to valitate how taxonomic assignments from DNA barcoding aligned with morphological identifications. Of the 60 sequences submitted to GenBank ~88% are the first sequencing records for the corresponding species and genetic marker. This work compiles the first catalogue combining morphological characters with DNA barcoding of Hawai'ian sponges, and contributes to the repository of public databases through the Sponge Barcoding Project initiative.

  5. Barbabos Deep-Water Sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.; Stentoft, N.

    1988-01-01

    Deep-water sponges dredged up in two locations off the west coast of Barbados are systematically described. A total of 69 species is recorded, among which 16 are new to science, viz. Pachymatisma geodiformis, Asteropus syringiferus, Cinachyra arenosa, Theonella atlantica. Corallistes paratypus,

  6. Quorum sensing antagonism from marine organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skindersø, Mette Elena; Ettinger-Epstein, P.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg

    2008-01-01

    target for the control of infectious bacteria. We present the results of screening of 284 extracts of marine organisms from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, for their inhibition of QS. Of the 284 extracts, 64 (23%) were active in a general, LuxR-derived QS screen, and of these 36 (56%) were also active...... in a specific Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS screen. Extracts of the marine sponge Luffariella variabilis proved active in both systems. The secondary metabolites manoalide, manoalide monoacetate, and secomanoalide isolated from the sponge showed strong QS inhibition of a lasB::gfp(ASV) fusion, demonstrating...... the potential for further identification of specific QS antagonists from marine organisms....

  7. Wnt signaling and polarity in freshwater sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor Reid, Pamela J; Matveev, Eugueni; McClymont, Alexandra; Posfai, Dora; Hill, April L; Leys, Sally P

    2018-02-02

    The Wnt signaling pathway is uniquely metazoan and used in many processes during development, including the formation of polarity and body axes. In sponges, one of the earliest diverging animal groups, Wnt pathway genes have diverse expression patterns in different groups including along the anterior-posterior axis of two sponge larvae, and in the osculum and ostia of others. We studied the function of Wnt signaling and body polarity formation through expression, knockdown, and larval manipulation in several freshwater sponge species. Sponge Wnts fall into sponge-specific and sponge-class specific subfamilies of Wnt proteins. Notably Wnt genes were not found in transcriptomes of the glass sponge Aphrocallistes vastus. Wnt and its signaling genes were expressed in archaeocytes of the mesohyl throughout developing freshwater sponges. Osculum formation was enhanced by GSK3 knockdown, and Wnt antagonists inhibited both osculum development and regeneration. Using dye tracking we found that the posterior poles of freshwater sponge larvae give rise to tissue that will form the osculum following metamorphosis. Together the data indicate that while components of canonical Wnt signaling may be used in development and maintenance of osculum tissue, it is likely that Wnt signaling itself occurs between individual cells rather than whole tissues or structures in freshwater sponges.

  8. Bromopyrrole alkaloids from the Caribbean sponge Agelas cerebrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regalado, Erik L.; Laguna, Abilio; Mendiola, Judith; Thomas, Olivier P.; Nogueiras, Clara

    2011-01-01

    Bioguided fractionation of Agelas cerebrum crude extract resulted in isolation of four bromopyrrole and four bromopyrrole aminoimidazole alkaloids, identified as 5-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (1), 4-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (2), 3,4-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (3), 4,5-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (4), oroidin (5), bromoageliferin (6), dibromoageliferin (7) and dibromosceptrin (8) on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses (UV, IR, HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR) and comparison with literature data. This is the first report of compounds 2 and 3 in a marine sponge belonging to the Agelas genus and the first evidence of the presence of 1 from a natural source. (author)

  9. Bromopyrrole alkaloids from the Caribbean sponge Agelas cerebrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regalado, Erik L.; Laguna, Abilio, E-mail: erikluis18@gmail.co [Center of Marine Bioproducts, Havana (Cuba). Dept. of Chemistry; Mendiola, Judith [Institute of Tropical Medicine Pedro Kouri (IPK), Havana (Cuba). Dept. of Parasitology; Thomas, Olivier P. [Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis (France). Lab. de Chimie des Molecules Bioactives et des Aromes; Nogueiras, Clara [University of Havana, San Lazaro y L, Havana (Cuba). Faculty of Chemistry. Center of Natural Products

    2011-07-01

    Bioguided fractionation of Agelas cerebrum crude extract resulted in isolation of four bromopyrrole and four bromopyrrole aminoimidazole alkaloids, identified as 5-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (1), 4-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (2), 3,4-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (3), 4,5-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (4), oroidin (5), bromoageliferin (6), dibromoageliferin (7) and dibromosceptrin (8) on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses (UV, IR, HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR) and comparison with literature data. This is the first report of compounds 2 and 3 in a marine sponge belonging to the Agelas genus and the first evidence of the presence of 1 from a natural source. (author)

  10. Using a thermistor flowmeter with attached video camera for monitoring sponge excurrent speed and oscular behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strehlow, Brian W.; Jorgensen, Damien; Webster, Nicole S.

    2016-01-01

    A digital, four-channel thermistor flowmeter integrated with time-lapse cameras was developed as an experimental tool for measuring pumping rates in marine sponges, particularly those with small excurrent openings (oscula). Combining flowmeters with time-lapse imagery yielded valuable insights...... in pumping activity and osculum contraction were also observed, with sponges increasing their pumping activity to peak at midday and decreasing pumping and contracting oscula at night. Short-term elevation of the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) within the seawater initially decreased pumping rates...

  11. Metagenomic Analysis of the Sponge Discodermia Reveals the Production of the Cyanobacterial Natural Product Kasumigamide by 'Entotheonella'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yu; Egami, Yoko; Kimura, Miki; Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Abe, Ikuro

    2016-01-01

    Sponge metagenomes are a useful platform to mine cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters responsible for production of natural products involved in the sponge-microbe association. Since numerous sponge-derived bioactive metabolites are biosynthesized by the symbiotic bacteria, this strategy may concurrently reveal sponge-symbiont produced compounds. Accordingly, a metagenomic analysis of the Japanese marine sponge Discodermia calyx has resulted in the identification of a hybrid type I polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene (kas). Bioinformatic analysis of the gene product suggested its involvement in the biosynthesis of kasumigamide, a tetrapeptide originally isolated from freshwater free-living cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-87. Subsequent investigation of the sponge metabolic profile revealed the presence of kasumigamide in the sponge extract. The kasumigamide producing bacterium was identified as an 'Entotheonella' sp. Moreover, an in silico analysis of kas gene homologs uncovered the presence of kas family genes in two additional bacteria from different phyla. The production of kasumigamide by distantly related multiple bacterial strains implicates horizontal gene transfer and raises the potential for a wider distribution across other bacterial groups.

  12. Unusual Deep Water sponge assemblage in South China—Witness of the end-Ordovician mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixia; Feng, Hongzhen; Janussen, Dorte; Reitner, Joachim

    2015-11-01

    There are few sponges known from the end-Ordovician to early-Silurian strata all over the world, and no records of sponge fossils have been found yet in China during this interval. Here we report a unique sponge assemblage spanning the interval of the end-Ordovician mass extinction from the Kaochiapien Formation (Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian) in South China. This assemblage contains a variety of well-preserved siliceous sponges, including both Burgess Shale-type and modern type taxa. It is clear that this assemblage developed in deep water, low energy ecosystem with less competitors and more vacant niches. Its explosion may be related to the euxinic and anoxic condition as well as the noticeable transgression during the end-Ordovician mass extinction. The excellent preservation of this assemblage is probably due to the rapid burial by mud turbidites. This unusual sponge assemblage provides a link between the Burgess Shale-type deep water sponges and the modern forms. It gives an excellent insight into the deep sea palaeoecology and the macroevolution of Phanerozoic sponges, and opens a new window to investigate the marine ecosystem before and after the end-Ordovician mass extinction. It also offers potential to search for exceptional fossil biota across the Ordovician-Silurian boundary interval in China.

  13. Unusual Deep Water sponge assemblage in South China-Witness of the end-Ordovician mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixia; Feng, Hongzhen; Janussen, Dorte; Reitner, Joachim

    2015-11-05

    There are few sponges known from the end-Ordovician to early-Silurian strata all over the world, and no records of sponge fossils have been found yet in China during this interval. Here we report a unique sponge assemblage spanning the interval of the end-Ordovician mass extinction from the Kaochiapien Formation (Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian) in South China. This assemblage contains a variety of well-preserved siliceous sponges, including both Burgess Shale-type and modern type taxa. It is clear that this assemblage developed in deep water, low energy ecosystem with less competitors and more vacant niches. Its explosion may be related to the euxinic and anoxic condition as well as the noticeable transgression during the end-Ordovician mass extinction. The excellent preservation of this assemblage is probably due to the rapid burial by mud turbidites. This unusual sponge assemblage provides a link between the Burgess Shale-type deep water sponges and the modern forms. It gives an excellent insight into the deep sea palaeoecology and the macroevolution of Phanerozoic sponges, and opens a new window to investigate the marine ecosystem before and after the end-Ordovician mass extinction. It also offers potential to search for exceptional fossil biota across the Ordovician-Silurian boundary interval in China.

  14. Identification and first insights into the structure and biosynthesis of chitin from the freshwater sponge Spongilla lacustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Hermann; Kaluzhnaya, Oksana V; Brunner, Eike; Tsurkan, Mikhail V; Ereskovsky, Alexander; Ilan, Micha; Tabachnick, Konstantin R; Bazhenov, Vasilii V; Paasch, Silvia; Kammer, Martin; Born, René; Stelling, Allison; Galli, Roberta; Belikov, Sergei; Petrova, Olga V; Sivkov, Victor V; Vyalikh, Denis; Hunoldt, Sebastian; Wörheide, Gert

    2013-09-01

    This work demonstrates that chitin is an important structural component within the skeletal fibers of the freshwater sponge Spongilla lacustris. Using a variety of analytical techniques ((13)C solid state NMR, FT-IR, Raman, NEXAFS, ESI-MS, Morgan-Elson assay and Calcofluor White Staining); we show that this sponge chitin is much closer to α-chitin, known to be present in other animals, than to β-chitin. Genetic analysis confirmed the presence of chitin synthases, which are described for the first time in a sponge. The presence of chitin in both marine (demosponges and hexactinellids) and freshwater sponges indicates that this important structural biopolymer was already present in their common ancestor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Who Produces Ianthelline? The Arctic Sponge Stryphnus fortis or its Sponge Epibiont Hexadella dedritifera: a Probable Case of Sponge-Sponge Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Paco

    2016-04-01

    The bromotyrosine derivative ianthelline was isolated recently from the Atlantic boreo-arctic deep-sea sponge Stryphnus fortis, and shown to have clear antitumor and antifouling effects. However, chemosystematics, field observations, and targeted metabolic analyses (using UPLC-MS) suggest that ianthelline is not produced by S. fortis but by Hexadella dedritifera, a sponge that commonly grows on S. fortis. This case highlights the importance of combining taxonomic and ecological knowledge to the field of sponge natural products research.

  16. Sponges from Clipperton Island, East Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Kaiser, K.L.; van Syoc, R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented only by small thin patches insufficient for proper characterization and could be only determined to genus. The new species may not be necessarily endemic to the island, as several show similarities ...

  17. Screening of Antibacterial MDR derived from Sponge Associated Fungus of Riung Water, Nusa Tenggara Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoeruddin Wittriansyah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponge-associated fungi are the sources of bioactive compounds with various pharmacologicals potency. This study aimed to isolate the sponge-associated fungi as the producer of the MDR anti-bacterial compounds.  The associated fungi were isolated from the sponges collected from Riung water, Nusa Tenggara Timur. Five of the best isolates were cultured on MEA to obtain the methanolic extract for further studies.  The antagonistic test was conducted using overlay method towards the MDR Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. A total of 33 fungi were isolated from 19 sponge specimens. The antagonistic test showed that 19 isolates were active against both S. aureus and E. coli, and 13 of them were merely active against one of the bacteria. However, only five isolates have strong activity against one or both of the bacteria.  The KN-15-3 had the strongest activity against S. aureus (18.75±0.777mm and E. coli (15.10±0.141mm at the concentration of 400 μg.disc-1 so it can be developed further as a source of drug candicate.   Keywords: Fungi symbiont, Sponges, MDR Antibacterial, Staphylococcus aureus,  Escherichia coli.

  18. Patterns of Sponge Biodiversity in the Pilbara, Northwestern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Fromont

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the biodiversity of sponges within the Integrated Marine and Coastal Regionalisation for Australia (IMCRA bioregions of the Pilbara using datasets amalgamated from the Western Australian Museum and the Atlas of Living Australia. The Pilbara accounts for a total of 1164 Linnean and morphospecies. A high level of “apparent endemism” was recorded with 78% of species found in only one of six bioregions, with less than 10% confirmed as widely distributed. The Ningaloo, Pilbara Nearshore and Pilbara Offshore bioregions are biodiversity hotspots (>250 species and are recognised as having the highest conservation value, followed by North West Shelf containing 232 species. Species compositions differed between bioregions, with those that are less spatially separated sharing more species. Notably, the North West Province bioregion (110 species exhibited the most distinct species composition, highlighting it as a unique habitat within the Pilbara. While sponge biodiversity is apparently high, incomplete sampling effort for the region was identified, with only two sampling events recorded for the Central West Transition bioregion. Furthermore, only 15% of records in the dataset are presently described (Linnean species, highlighting the continuing need for taxonomic expertise for the conservation and management of marine biodiversity resources.

  19. Bioprospecting of Red Sea Sponges for Novel Antiviral Pharmacophores

    KAUST Repository

    O'Rourke, Aubrie

    2015-05-01

    Natural products offer many possibilities for the treatment of disease. More than 70% of the Earth’s surface is ocean, and recent exploration and access has allowed for new additions to this catalog of natural treasures. The Central Red Sea off the coast of Saudi Arabia serves as a newly accessible location, which provides the opportunity to bioprospect marine sponges with the purpose of identifying novel antiviral scaffolds. Antivirals are underrepresented in present day clinical trials, as well as in the academic screens of marine natural product libraries. Here a high-throughput pipeline was initiated by prefacing the antiviral screen with an Image-based High-Content Screening (HCS) technique in order to identify candidates with antiviral potential. Prospective candidates were tested in a biochemical or cell-based assay for the ability to inhibit the NS3 protease of the West Nile Virus (WNV NS protease) as well as replication and reverse transcription of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1). The analytical chemistry techniques of High-Performance Liquid Chromatograpy (HPLC), Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) where used in order to identify the compounds responsible for the characteristic antiviral activity of the selected sponge fractions. We have identified a 3-alkyl pyridinium from Amphimedon chloros as the causative agent of the observed WNV NS3 protease inhibition in vitro. Additionally, we identified debromohymenialdisine, hymenialdisine, and oroidin from Stylissa carteri as prospective scaffolds capable of HIV-1 inhibition.

  20. Novel fabrication of a robust superhydrophobic PU@ZnO@Fe3O4@SA sponge and its application in oil-water separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Viet-Ha Thi; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2017-12-13

    We report a novel superhydrophobic material based on commercially available polyurethane (PU) sponge with high porosity, low density and good elasticity. The fabrication of a superhydrophobic sponge capable of efficiently separating oil from water was achieved by imitating or mimicking nature's designs. The original PU sponge was coated with zinc oxide (ZnO), stearic acid (SA) and iron oxide particles (Fe 3 O 4 ) via a facile and environmentally friendly method. After each treatment, the properties of the modified sponge were characterized, and the changes in wettability were examined. Water contact angle (WCA) measurements confirmed the excellent superhydrophobicity of the material withhigh static WCA of 161° andlow dynamic WCA (sliding WCA of 7° and shedding WCA of 8°). The fabricated sponge showed high efficiency in separation (over 99%) of different oils from water. Additionally, the fabricated PU@ZnO@Fe 3 O 4 @SA sponge could be magnetically guided to quickly absorb oil floating on the water surface. Moreover, the fabricated sponge showed excellent stability and reusability in terms of superhydrophobicity and oil absorption capacity. The durable, magnetic and superhydrophobic properties of the fabricated sponge render it applicable to the cleanup of marine oil spills and other oil-water separation issues, with eco-friendly recovery of the oil by simple squeezing process.

  1. Characterization of lignocellulolytic activities from fungi isolated from the deep-sea sponge Stelletta normani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Alberto Batista-García

    Full Text Available Extreme habitats have usually been regarded as a source of microorganisms that possess robust proteins that help enable them to survive in such harsh conditions. The deep sea can be considered an extreme habitat due to low temperatures (<5°C and high pressure, however marine sponges survive in these habitats. While bacteria derived from deep-sea marine sponges have been studied, much less information is available on fungal biodiversity associated with these sponges. Following screening of fourteen fungi isolated from the deep-sea sponge Stelletta normani sampled at a depth of 751 metres, three halotolerant strains (TS2, TS11 and TS12 were identified which displayed high CMCase and xylanase activities. Molecular based taxonomic approaches identified these strains as Cadophora sp. TS2, Emericellopsis sp. TS11 and Pseudogymnoascus sp. TS 12. These three fungi displayed psychrotolerance and halotolerant growth on CMC and xylan as sole carbon sources, with optimal growth rates at 20°C. They produced CMCase and xylanase activities, which displayed optimal temperature and pH values of between 50-70°C and pH 5-8 respectively, together with good thermostability and halotolerance. In solid-state fermentations TS2, TS11 and TS12 produced CMCases, xylanases and peroxidase/phenol oxidases when grown on corn stover and wheat straw. This is the first time that CMCase, xylanase and peroxidase/phenol oxidase activities have been reported in these three fungal genera isolated from a marine sponge. Given the biochemical characteristics of these ligninolytic enzymes it is likely that they may prove useful in future biomass conversion strategies involving lignocellulosic materials.

  2. Characterization of lignocellulolytic activities from fungi isolated from the deep-sea sponge Stelletta normani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-García, Ramón Alberto; Sutton, Thomas; Jackson, Stephen A; Tovar-Herrera, Omar Eduardo; Balcázar-López, Edgar; Sánchez-Carbente, María Del Rayo; Sánchez-Reyes, Ayixon; Dobson, Alan D W; Folch-Mallol, Jorge Luis

    2017-01-01

    Extreme habitats have usually been regarded as a source of microorganisms that possess robust proteins that help enable them to survive in such harsh conditions. The deep sea can be considered an extreme habitat due to low temperatures (<5°C) and high pressure, however marine sponges survive in these habitats. While bacteria derived from deep-sea marine sponges have been studied, much less information is available on fungal biodiversity associated with these sponges. Following screening of fourteen fungi isolated from the deep-sea sponge Stelletta normani sampled at a depth of 751 metres, three halotolerant strains (TS2, TS11 and TS12) were identified which displayed high CMCase and xylanase activities. Molecular based taxonomic approaches identified these strains as Cadophora sp. TS2, Emericellopsis sp. TS11 and Pseudogymnoascus sp. TS 12. These three fungi displayed psychrotolerance and halotolerant growth on CMC and xylan as sole carbon sources, with optimal growth rates at 20°C. They produced CMCase and xylanase activities, which displayed optimal temperature and pH values of between 50-70°C and pH 5-8 respectively, together with good thermostability and halotolerance. In solid-state fermentations TS2, TS11 and TS12 produced CMCases, xylanases and peroxidase/phenol oxidases when grown on corn stover and wheat straw. This is the first time that CMCase, xylanase and peroxidase/phenol oxidase activities have been reported in these three fungal genera isolated from a marine sponge. Given the biochemical characteristics of these ligninolytic enzymes it is likely that they may prove useful in future biomass conversion strategies involving lignocellulosic materials.

  3. Renal acidification defects in medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1988-01-01

    Thirteen patients with medullary sponge kidney underwent a short ammonium chloride loading test to investigate their renal acidification capacity. All but 1 presented with a history of recurrent renal calculi and showed bilateral widespread renal medullary calcification on X-ray examination. Nine...... of renal calculi in medullary sponge kidney, have considerable therapeutic implications....

  4. Metal sponge for cryosorption pumping applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myneni, G.R.; Kneisel, P.

    1995-01-01

    A system has been developed for adsorbing gases at high vacuum in a closed area. The system utilizes large surface clean anodized metal surfaces at low temperatures to adsorb the gases. The large surface clean anodized metal is referred to as a metal sponge. The metal sponge generates or maintains the high vacuum by increasing the available active cryosorbing surface area. 4 figs

  5. Generation of miRNA sponge constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluiver, Joost; Slezak-Prochazka, Izabella; Smigielska-Czepiel, Katarzyna; Halsema, Nancy; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; van den Berg, Anke

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) sponges are RNA molecules with repeated miRNA antisense sequences that can sequester miRNAs from their endogenous targets and thus serve as a decoy. Stably expressed miRNA sponges are especially valuable for long-term loss-of-function studies and can be used in vitro and in vivo. We

  6. Cell culture from sponges: pluripotency and immortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caralt Bosch, de S.; Uriz, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    Sponges are a source of compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications. In this article, methods of sponge cell culture for production of these bioactive compounds are reviewed, and new approaches for overcoming the problem of metabolite supply are examined. The use of embryos is proposed as a

  7. Emerging biopharmaceuticals from marine actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Syed Shams Ul; Anjum, Komal; Abbas, Syed Qamar; Akhter, Najeeb; Shagufta, Bibi Ibtesam; Shah, Sayed Asmat Ali; Tasneem, Umber

    2017-01-01

    Actinobacteria are quotidian microorganisms in the marine world, playing a crucial ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical applications. Actinobacteria have been isolated from the huge area of marine organisms including sponges, tunicates, corals, mollusks, crabs, mangroves and seaweeds. Natural products investigation of the marine actinobacteria revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including alkaloids, polyketides, peptides, isoprenoids, phenazines, sterols, and others. These natural products have a potential to provide future drugs against crucial diseases like cancer, HIV, microbial and protozoal infections and severe inflammations. Therefore, marine actinobacteria portray as a pivotal resource for marine drugs. It is an upcoming field of research to probe a novel and pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites from marine actinobacteria. In this review, we attempt to summarize the present knowledge on the diversity, chemistry and mechanism of action of marine actinobacteria-derived secondary metabolites from 2007 to 2016. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 21 CFR 880.2740 - Surgical sponge scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical sponge scale. 880.2740 Section 880.2740... Devices § 880.2740 Surgical sponge scale. (a) Identification. A surgical sponge scale is a nonelectrically powered device used to weigh surgical sponges that have been used to absorb blood during surgery so that...

  9. Bacterial community profiles in low microbial abundance sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Giles, Emily

    2012-09-04

    It has long been recognized that sponges differ in the abundance of associated microorganisms, and they are therefore termed either \\'low microbial abundance\\' (LMA) or \\'high microbial abundance\\' (HMA) sponges. Many previous studies concentrated on the dense microbial communities in HMA sponges, whereas little is known about microorganisms in LMA sponges. Here, two LMA sponges from the Red Sea, two from the Caribbean and one from the South Pacific were investigated. With up to only five bacterial phyla per sponge, all LMA sponges showed lower phylum-level diversity than typical HMA sponges. Interestingly, each LMA sponge was dominated by a large clade within either Cyanobacteria or different classes of Proteobacteria. The overall similarity of bacterial communities among LMA sponges determined by operational taxonomic unit and UniFrac analysis was low. Also the number of sponge-specific clusters, which indicate bacteria specifically associated with sponges and which are numerous in HMA sponges, was low. A biogeographical or host-dependent distribution pattern was not observed. In conclusion, bacterial community profiles of LMA sponges are clearly different from profiles of HMA sponges and, remarkably, each LMA sponge seems to harbour its own unique bacterial community. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  10. Cytotoxicity and mode of action of aeroplysinin-1 and a related dienone from the sponge Aplysina aerophoba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulman, A; Proksch, P; Ebel, R; Beekman, AC; vanUden, W; Konings, AWT; Pedersen, JA; Pras, N; Woerdenbag, HJ

    Aeroplysinin-1 (1) and the structurally related dienone 2 were cytotoxic to Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells and HeLa tumor cells in the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) and clonogenic assays. Both compounds are bromotyrosine derivatives, isolated from the marine spong Aplysina aerophoba. As the

  11. Discorhabdins S, T, and U, new cytotoxic pyrroloiminoquinones from a deep-water Caribbean sponge of the genus Batzella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, Sarath P; Zuleta, Ignacio A; Longley, Ross E; Wright, Amy E; Pomponi, Shirley A

    2003-12-01

    Discorhabdins S, T, and U (1-3), three new discorhabdin analogues, have been isolated from a deep-water marine sponge of the genus Batzella. These discorhabdin analogues showed in vitro cytotoxicity against PANC-1, P-388, and A-549 cell lines. The isolation and structure elucidation of discorhabdins S, T, and U are described.

  12. Discorhabdin P, a new enzyme inhibitor from a deep-water Caribbean sponge of the genus Batzella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, S P; McCarthy, P J; Longley, R E; Pomponi, S A; Wright, A E; Lobkovsky, E; Clardy, J

    1999-01-01

    Discorhabdin P (1), a new discorhabdin analogue, has been isolated from a deep-water marine sponge of the genus Batzella. Discorhabdin P (1) inhibited the phosphatase activity of calcineurin and the peptidase activity of CPP32. It also showed in vitro cytotoxicity against P-388 and A-549 cell lines. The isolation and structure elucidation of discorhabdin P (1) are described.

  13. Antimicrobial activities of secondary metabolites and phylogenetic study of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria, Bacillus sp. at Agatti Island, Lakshadweep Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopi Mohan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one species of sponges were recorded under the class of Demospongiae and Calcareous sponges of which 19 species were new to Agatti reef. A total of 113 Sponge endosymbiotic bacterial strains were isolated from twenty-one species of sponges and screened for antimicrobial activity. Five bacterial strains of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria (SEB namely SEB32, SEB33, SEB36, SEB43 and SEB51 showed antimicrobial activity against virulent marine fish pathogens such as Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium sp., Edwardsiella sp., Proteus mirabilis and Citrobacter brackii. The secondary metabolites produced by SEB32 from sponge Dysidea fragilis (Montagu, 1818 [48] was selected with broad range of antibacterial activity and subjected for production, characterization by series of chromatography techniques and spectroscopic methods. Based on the results of FT-IR and mass spectrometry, the active molecule was tentatively predicted as “Pyrrol” and the structure is Pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro- with molecular formula of C7H10N2O2. The LC50 of active molecule was 31 μg/ml and molecular weight of the metabolites was 154. The potential strain SEB32 was identified by gene sequence (GenBank Accession number JX985748 and identified as Bacillus sp. from GenBank database.

  14. Who’s there? – First morphological and DNA barcoding catalogue of the shallow Hawai’ian sponge fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Ruth D.

    2017-01-01

    The sponge fauna has been largely overlooked in the Archipelago of Hawai’i, notwithstanding the paramount role of this taxon in marine ecosystems. The lack of knowledge about Porifera populations inhabiting the Hawai’ian reefs limits the development of ecological studies aimed at understanding the functioning of these marine systems. Consequently, this project addresses this gap by describing the most representative sponge species in the shallow waters of the enigmatic bay of Kane’ohe Bay, in O’ahu Island. A total of 30 species (28 demosponges and two calcareous sponges) living associated to the reef structures are here reported. Six of these species are new records to the Hawai’ian Porifera catalogue and are suspected to be recent introductions to these islands. Morphological descriptions of the voucher specimens are provided, along with sequencing data of two partitions involving the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) marker and a fragment covering partial (18S and 28S) and full (ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2) nuclear ribosomal genes. Species delimitations based on genetic distances were calculated to valitate how taxonomic assignments from DNA barcoding aligned with morphological identifications. Of the 60 sequences submitted to GenBank ~88% are the first sequencing records for the corresponding species and genetic marker. This work compiles the first catalogue combining morphological characters with DNA barcoding of Hawai’ian sponges, and contributes to the repository of public databases through the Sponge Barcoding Project initiative. PMID:29267311

  15. Community structure and ecological function of deep-water sponge grounds in the Traenadypet MPA—Northern Norwegian continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutti, Tina; Bannister, Raymond John; Fosså, Jan Helge

    2013-10-01

    Sponges within the 300 km2 Trænadypet coral MPA (Marine Protected Area) were mapped using photographic techniques. Three types of sponge communities were identified. The eastern side of the central circular depression was dominated by fan-shaped Phakellia ventilabrum sponges and further characterized by Mycale lingua and Oceanapia spp. sponges. Phakellia ventilabrum abundance (0.34 ind m-2) was positively correlated with the number of drop stones found. The western side of the depression was dominated by Geodia barretti, G. macandrewii and G. atlantica with an estimated average abundance of 0.40 ind m-2 and a biomass of 2.4 kg WW m-2. A third type of sponge community was found on both sides of the depression (in between the small scattered cold-water coral reefs constituting the MPA), which was characterized by Mycale lingua (0.20 ind m-2) and Oceanapia spp. (0.10 ind m-2), and which supported a high average Geodiidea biomass (1.6 kg WW m-2). The two last communities were both of the boreal ostur type and seemed to form continuous belts along the 2 km transects surveyed only interrupted by a few 15-30 m long empty patches. Within the MPA the average overall biomass of Geodiidea sponges was 1.8 kg WW m-2 and the overall sponge abundance was 1 ind m-2. Water pumping rates and respiration of Geodia barretti were measured, equating to 3000 l kg-1 DW day-1 and 1.5 μmol O2 g-1 DW h-1, respectively. Up-scaling this to the MPA as a whole suggests that the population of G. barretti alone could filter approximately 250 million m3 of water and consume 60 t of carbon daily. This demonstrates the important ecological function of sponges as nutrient vectors and points out the MPA as an ecologically significant area that should be carefully managed and monitored.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of the Antitrypanosomally Active Sponge-Associated Bacterium Actinokineospora sp. Strain EG49

    KAUST Repository

    Harjes, Janno; Ryu, Tae Woo; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Horn, Hannes; Ravasi, Timothy; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-01-01

    The marine sponge-associated bacterium Actinokineospora sp. strain EG49 produces the antitrypanosomal angucycline-like compound actinosporin A. The draft genome of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 has a size of 7.5 megabases and a GC content of 72.8% and contains 6,629 protein-coding sequences (CDS). antiSMASH predicted 996 genes residing in 36 secondary metabolite gene clusters.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of the Antitrypanosomally Active Sponge-Associated Bacterium Actinokineospora sp. Strain EG49

    KAUST Repository

    Harjes, Janno

    2014-03-06

    The marine sponge-associated bacterium Actinokineospora sp. strain EG49 produces the antitrypanosomal angucycline-like compound actinosporin A. The draft genome of Actinokineospora sp. EG49 has a size of 7.5 megabases and a GC content of 72.8% and contains 6,629 protein-coding sequences (CDS). antiSMASH predicted 996 genes residing in 36 secondary metabolite gene clusters.

  18. Structure elucidation of the new citharoxazole from the Mediterranean deep-sea sponge Latrunculia (Biannulata) citharistae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Francezon, Nellie; Puissant, Alexandre; Auberger, Patrick; Vacelet, Jean; Pérez, Thierry; Fontana, Angelo; Mourabit, Ali Al; Thomas, Olivier P

    2011-08-01

    Citharoxazole (1), a new batzelline derivative featuring a benzoxazole moiety, was isolated from the Mediterranean deep-sea sponge Latrunculia (Biannulata) citharistae Vacelet, 1969, together with the known batzelline C (2). This is the first chemical study of a Mediterranean Latrunculia species and the benzoxazole moiety is unprecedented for this family of marine natural products. The structure was mainly elucidated by the interpretation of NMR spectra and especially HMBC correlations. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Identification of okadaic acid binding protein 2 in reconstituted sponge cell clusters from Halichondria okadai and its contribution to the detoxification of okadaic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoki, Keiichi; Okada, Kayo; Kohama, Mami; Matsuura, Hiroki; Saito, Kaori; Cho, Yuko; Nishitani, Goh; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Fukuzawa, Seketsu; Tachibana, Kazuo; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2015-12-15

    Okadaic acid (OA) and OA binding protein 2 (OABP2) were previously isolated from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai. Because the amino acid sequence of OABP2 is completely different from that of protein phosphatase 2A, a well-known target of OA, we have been investigating the production and function of OABP2. In the present study, we hypothesized that OABP2 plays a role in the detoxification of OA in H. okadai and that the OA concentrations are in proportional to the OABP2 concentrations in the sponge specimens. Based on the OA concentrations and the OABP2 concentrations in the sponge specimens collected in various places and in different seasons, however, we could not determine a positive correlation between OA and OABP2. We then attempted to determine distribution of OA and OABP2 in the sponge specimen. When the mixture of dissociated sponge cells and symbiotic species were separated with various pore-sized nylon meshes, most of the OA and OABP2 was detected from the same 0-10 μm fraction. Next, when sponge cell clusters were prepared from a mixture of dissociated sponge cells and symbiotic species in the presence of penicillin and streptomycin, we identified the 18S rDNA of H. okadai and the gene of OABP2 in the analysis of genomic DNA but could not detect OA by LC-MS/MS. We thus concluded that the sponge cells express OABP2, and that OA was not apparently present in the sponge cells but could be colocalized with OABP2 in the sponge cells at a concentration less than the limit of detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. New and rare sponges from the deep shelf of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitjà, Cèlia; Maldonado, Manuel

    2014-01-31

    The sponge fauna from the deep shelf (70 to 200 m) of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean) was investigated using a combination of ROV surveys and collecting devices in the frame of the EC LIFE+ INDEMARES Grant aimed to designate marine areas of the Nature 2000 Network within Spanish territorial waters. From ROV surveys and 351 examined specimens, a total of 87 sponge species were identified, most belonging in the Class Demospongiae, and one belonging in the Class Hexactinellida. Twenty six (29%) species can be regarded as either taxonomically or faunistically relevant. Three of them were new to science (Axinella alborana nov. sp.; Axinella spatula nov. sp.; Endectyon filiformis nov. sp.) and 4 others were Atlantic species recorded for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea (Jaspis eudermis Lévi & Vacelet, 1958; Hemiasterella elongata Topsent, 1928; Axinella vellerea Topsent, 1904; Gelliodes fayalensis Topsent, 1892). Another outstanding finding was a complete specimen of Rhabdobaris implicata Pulitzer-Finali, 1983, a species only known from its holotype, which had entirely been dissolved for its description. Our second record of the species has allowed a neotype designation and a restitution of the recently abolished genus Rhabdobaris Pulitzer-Finally, 1983, also forcing a slight modification of the diagnosis of the family Bubaridae. Additionally, 12 species were recorded for the first time from the shelf of the Alboran Island, including a few individuals of the large hexactinellid Asconema setubalense Kent, 1877 that provided the second Mediterranean record of this "North Atlantic" hexactinellid. ROV explorations also revealed that sponges are an important component of the deep-shelf benthos, particularly on rocky bottoms, where they make peculiar sponge gardens characterized by a wide diversity of small, erect species forming a dense "undergrowth" among a scatter of large sponges and gorgonians. The great abundance and the taxonomic

  1. Transcriptional activity of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta Holobiont: Molecular Evidence for Metabolic Interchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara L Fiore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Compared to our understanding of the taxonomic composition of the symbiotic microbes in marine sponges, the functional diversity of these symbionts is largely unknown. Furthermore, the application of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic techniques to functional questions on sponge host-symbiont interactions is in its infancy. In this study, we generated a transcriptome for the host and a metatranscriptome of its microbial symbionts for the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, from the Caribbean. In combination with a gene-specific approach, our goals were to 1 characterize genetic evidence for nitrogen cycling in X. muta, an important limiting nutrient on coral reefs 2 identify which prokaryotic symbiont lineages are metabolically active and, 3 characterize the metabolic potential of the prokaryotic community. Xestospongia muta expresses genes from multiple nitrogen transformation pathways that when combined with the abundance of this sponge, and previous data on dissolved inorganic nitrogen fluxes, shows that this sponge is an important contributor to nitrogen cycling on coral reefs. Additionally, we observed significant differences in gene expression of the archaeal amoA gene, which is involved in ammonia oxidation, between coral reef locations consistent with differences in the fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen previously reported. In regards to symbiont metabolic potential, the genes in the biosynthetic pathways of several amino acids were present in the prokaryotic metatranscriptome dataset but in the host-derived transcripts only the catabolic reactions for these amino acids were present. A similar pattern was observed for the B vitamins (riboflavin, biotin, thiamin, cobalamin. These results expand our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in sponges, and the metabolic interchange highlighted here advances the field of symbiont physiology by elucidating specific metabolic pathways where there is high potential for host

  2. Some aspects of chemical ecology of the sponges of the Caribbean, Axinyssa ambrosia and Aplysina insularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puyana Monica; Petrichtcheva, Natalia; Morales, Alicia; Duque Carmenza

    2002-01-01

    Axinyssamine hydrochloride (compound 1) was recently found in the marine sponge Axinyssa ambrosia at concentrations in the order of 10 mg/ml. Lethality assays using compound 1 against the coral Madracis mirabilis allowed determining that the mentioned compound is lethal to coral polyps at the natural concentration present in the sponge. Additionally, by performing exudation experiments in aquaria and chemical detection by HRGC-MS (scan and sim modes) it was found that the compounds ll-formamide-7β-H-eudesm-5-ene (2) and 4 α-formamidogorgon-ll-ene (3) are continually exuded by Axinyssa ambrosia creating a protective chemical barrier around the sponge. Exudation rates increase 3.80 and 2.47 fold respectively for each compound, under stress conditions or aggression. These results suggest that the sponge Axinyssa ambrosia may use the above-mentioned three metabolites as chemical defenses. Other experiments were carried out with the sponge Aplysina insularis in situ, under ecologically relevant conditions, with the purpose of determining if the chemical composition (Brominated metabolites) changes over variable time periods after inflicting wounds on the sponge surface. Metabolites were detected and identified by LC-MS. No evidence of chemical transformation of high molecular weight compounds into the compounds Aeroplysinin-l (4) and/or the dibromo cyclohexadienone (5) was obtained as a consequence of tissue damage, both in short (2,5 minutes) and long duration experiments (120 minutes). These results suggest that the conversion of high molecular weight compounds into small, active forms does not take place in Aplysina insularis as a chemical defense mechanism

  3. Isolation, Phylogenetic Analysis and Antibiotic Activity Screening of Red Sea Sponge-Associated Actinobacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Chen

    2013-06-01

    Infectious disease has always been and will continue to be a heavy burden on human society worldwide. Terrestrial actinobacteria, notable as a source of antibiotics, have been well investigated in the past. In constrast, marine actinobacteria, especially sponge-associated species, have received much less attention and isolates are sparse. With the aim of studying and discovering novel marine actinobacteria, 11 different species of sponges were collected from the Central Red Sea in Saudi Arabia and cultured with three different types of media. 16S rRNA gene-sequencing revealed that among all 75 isolated bacterial strains 13 belonged to the order actinomycetales. These 13 actinomycetes fall into four different families and can be assigned to six different genera. Antibiotic activity tests using disc diffusion assay were performed against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus sp.), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli), fungi (Fusarium sp.) and West Nile virus NS3 protease. Nine strains presented different level of bioactivity against these pathogens. These findings provide evidence that actinomycetes are presented in marine sponges and that they have the potential to be good candidates in the search for new effective antibiotic, antifungal, and antiviral compounds.

  4. Modern Deep-sea Sponges as Recorders of Bottom Water Silicon Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, K. R.; Georg, R. B.; Rickaby, R. E.; Robinson, L. F.; Halliday, A. N.

    2008-12-01

    Major zones of opal accumulation in the world oceans have experienced geographical shifts during the Cenozoic coincident with times of transition in oceanic circulation and climate. The global marine silica cycle is likely to respond to various large-scale changes including the distillation of Si and other nutrients in ocean basins; weathering and continental inputs; and biological productivity in surface waters. These processes could potentially be distinguished by their impact on the isotopic composition of dissolved silica in the world oceans. Although diatoms dominate uptake of silica in surface waters, box-modelling (de la Rocha and Bickle, 2005) suggests that sponges spicules have a greater potential to reflect whole ocean changes in the silica cycle, by recording deep-water silicon isotopes. Here, we introduce a new calibration study of modern deep- sea sponges collected on a transect cruise across the Drake Passage, in the Southern Ocean, from a range of depths and seawater silicic acid concentrations. Sponges were collected by benthic trawling, and dried immediately. The spicules were later isolated from cellular material and cleaned for surface contaminants, before dissolution and analysis by NuPlasma HR MC-ICP-MS in medium resolution mode. We discuss our preliminary data, the extent to which inter and intraspecies variations reflect environmental conditions, and the implications for palaeoreconstructions of the marine silicon cycle. de la Rocha, C. and M. Bickle (2005). Sensitivity of silicon isotopes to whole-ocean changes in the silica cycle. Marine Geology 217, 267-282.

  5. Can a sponge fractionate isotopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B; Patel, S; Balani, M C

    1985-03-22

    The study has unequivocally demonstrated that siliceous sponges Spirastrella cuspidifera and Prostylyssa foetida from the same microecological niche exhibit a high degree of species specificity, while accumulating a host of heavy metal ions (Ni, Cr, Cd, Sn, Ti, Mo, Zr). S. cuspidifera accumulated, in addition, 60Co and 63Ni, showing discrimination against other radionuclides, 137Cs and 131I, present in the ambient waters receiving controlled low level waste discharges from a B.W.R. nuclear power station. P. foetida, on the other hand, accumulated only 131I and showed discrimination against other radionuclides including 60Co, although the stable iodine concentrations in both the sponges were the same. The specific activity of 60Co (in becquerels per gram of 59Co) in S. cuspidifera and 131I (in becquerels per gram of 127I) in P. foetida were at least two orders of magnitude greater than in the ambient sea water. That of 63Ni (in becquerels per gram of 62Ni) in S. cuspidifera, on the other hand, was lower by two orders of magnitude than in either abiotic matrices from the same environment. Thus, not only did both the species show bioaccumulation of a specific element, but also preferential uptake of isotopes of the same element, though they were equally available for intake. Such differential uptake of isotopes can possibly be explained in terms of two quite different mechanisms operating, each applicable in a particular case. One is that the xenobiotic isotope enters the environment in a physicochemical form or as a complex different from that of its natural counterpart. If equilibration with the latter is slow, so that the organism acquires the xenobiotic in an unfamiliar chemical context, it may treat it as a chemically distinct entity so that its concentration factor differs from that of stable isotope, thus changing the specific activity. Alternatively, if the xenobiotic is present in the same chemical form as the stable isotope, the only way in which specific

  6. Antimicrobial activity of marine organisms collected off the coast of South East India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rodrigues, E.; Tilvi, S.; Naik, C.G.

    In vitro antimicrobial screening of nine marine sponges (Porifera) and two seaweeds, collected from south east coast of India, against selected clinical isolates of bacteria and fungi was conducted in this study. Methanolic extracts of all...

  7. Structure of a tetrameric galectin from Cinachyrella sp. (ball sponge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freymann, Douglas M., E-mail: freymann@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Nakamura, Yuka [Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Minato-cho, Hakodate 041-8611 (Japan); Focia, Pamela J. [Northwestern University, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Sakai, Ryuichi [Hokkaido University, 3-1-1 Minato-cho, Hakodate 041-8611 (Japan); Swanson, Geoffrey T. [Northwestern University, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The structure of a tetrameric sponge galectin suggests a basis for glutamate receptor potentiation. The galectins are a family of proteins that bind with highest affinity to N-acetyllactosamine disaccharides, which are common constituents of asparagine-linked complex glycans. They play important and diverse physiological roles, particularly in the immune system, and are thought to be critical metastatic agents for many types of cancer cells, including gliomas. A recent bioactivity-based screen of marine sponge (Cinachyrella sp.) extract identified an ancestral member of the galectin family based on its unexpected ability to positively modulate mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptor function. To gain insight into the mechanistic basis of this activity, the 2.1 Å resolution X-ray structure of one member of the family, galectin CchG-1, is reported. While the protomer exhibited structural similarity to mammalian prototype galectin, CchG-1 adopts a novel tetrameric arrangement in which a rigid toroidal-shaped ‘donut’ is stabilized in part by the packing of pairs of vicinal disulfide bonds. Twofold symmetry between binding-site pairs provides a basis for a model for interaction with ionotropic glutamate receptors.

  8. Structure of a tetrameric galectin from Cinachyrella sp. (ball sponge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freymann, Douglas M.; Nakamura, Yuka; Focia, Pamela J.; Sakai, Ryuichi; Swanson, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of a tetrameric sponge galectin suggests a basis for glutamate receptor potentiation. The galectins are a family of proteins that bind with highest affinity to N-acetyllactosamine disaccharides, which are common constituents of asparagine-linked complex glycans. They play important and diverse physiological roles, particularly in the immune system, and are thought to be critical metastatic agents for many types of cancer cells, including gliomas. A recent bioactivity-based screen of marine sponge (Cinachyrella sp.) extract identified an ancestral member of the galectin family based on its unexpected ability to positively modulate mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptor function. To gain insight into the mechanistic basis of this activity, the 2.1 Å resolution X-ray structure of one member of the family, galectin CchG-1, is reported. While the protomer exhibited structural similarity to mammalian prototype galectin, CchG-1 adopts a novel tetrameric arrangement in which a rigid toroidal-shaped ‘donut’ is stabilized in part by the packing of pairs of vicinal disulfide bonds. Twofold symmetry between binding-site pairs provides a basis for a model for interaction with ionotropic glutamate receptors

  9. AFSC/ABL: Salisbury Sound sponge recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1995, an area of the seafloor near Salisbury Sound was trawled to identify immediate effects on large, erect sponges and sea whips. Video transects were made in...

  10. Abdominal retained surgical sponges: CT appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalovidouris, A.; Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Gouliamos, A.; Pentea, S.; Vlahos, L. [Department of Radiology, University of Athens (Greece)

    1999-09-01

    Retention of surgical sponges is rare. They cause either an aseptic reaction without significant symptoms or an exudative reaction which results in early but nonspecific symptoms. Computed tomography is very useful for recognition of retained sponges. The appearance of retained sponges is widely variable. Air trapping into a surgical sponge results in the spongiform pattern which is characteristic but unfortunately uncommon. A low-density, high-density, or complex mass is found in the majority of cases, but these patterns are not specific. Sometimes, a thin high-density capsule may be seen. Rim or internal calcification is a rare finding. Finally, a radiopaque marker is not a reliable sign. Differentiation from abscess and hematoma is sometimes difficult. (orig.) With 11 figs., 12 refs.

  11. Abdominal retained surgical sponges: CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalovidouris, A.; Kehagias, D.; Moulopoulos, L.; Gouliamos, A.; Pentea, S.; Vlahos, L.

    1999-01-01

    Retention of surgical sponges is rare. They cause either an aseptic reaction without significant symptoms or an exudative reaction which results in early but nonspecific symptoms. Computed tomography is very useful for recognition of retained sponges. The appearance of retained sponges is widely variable. Air trapping into a surgical sponge results in the spongiform pattern which is characteristic but unfortunately uncommon. A low-density, high-density, or complex mass is found in the majority of cases, but these patterns are not specific. Sometimes, a thin high-density capsule may be seen. Rim or internal calcification is a rare finding. Finally, a radiopaque marker is not a reliable sign. Differentiation from abscess and hematoma is sometimes difficult. (orig.)

  12. Chitosan: collagen sponges. In vitro mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Virginia da C.A.; Silva, Gustavo M.; Plepis, Ana Maria G.

    2011-01-01

    The regeneration of bone tissue is a problem that affects many people and scaffolds for bone tissue growth has been widely studied. The aim of this study was the in vitro mineralization of chitosan, chitosan:native collagen and chitosan:anionic collagen sponges. The sponges were obtained by lyophilization and mineralization was made by soaking the sponges in alternating solutions containing Ca 2+ and PO 4 3- . The mineralization was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction observing the formation of phosphate salts, possibly a carbonated hydroxyapatite since Ca/P=1.80. The degree of mineralization was obtained by thermogravimetry calculating the amount of residue at 750 deg C. The chitosan:anionic collagen sponge showed the highest degree of mineralization probably due to the fact that anionic collagen provides additional sites for interaction with the inorganic phase. (author)

  13. EFISIENSI PENGGUNAAN TELUR DALAM PEMBUATAN SPONGE CAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Ida Ayu Putu Hemy Ekayani

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat kue berpori (spong cake) dengan kualitas baik  dengan menggunakan jumlah telur minimal yang dibantu dengan penggunaan baking powder secara optimal untuk menurunkan biaya produksi yang disebabkan oleh mahalnya harga telur. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian laboratorium (eksperimen). Analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas sponge cake terbaik dihasilkan dari dua variasi rancangan variasi kadar baking powder ...

  14. Metabolite variability in Caribbean sponges of the genus Aplysina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Puyana

    Full Text Available Abstract Sponges of the genus Aplysina are among the most common benthic animals on reefs of the Caribbean, and display a wide diversity of morphologies and colors. Tissues of these sponges lack mineralized skeletal elements, but contain a dense spongin skeleton and an elaborate series of tyrosine-derived brominated alkaloid metabolites that function as chemical defenses against predatory fishes, but do not deter some molluscs. Among the earliest marine natural products to be isolated and identified, these metabolites remain the subject of intense interest for commercial applications because of their activities in various bioassays. In this study, crude organic extracts from 253 sponges from ten morphotypes among the species Aplysina archeri,Aplysina bathyphila,Aplysina cauliformis,Aplysina fistularis,Aplysina fulva,A. insularis, and Aplysina lacunosa were analyzed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS to characterize the pattern of intra- and interspecific variabilities of the twelve major secondary metabolites present therein. Patterns across Aplysina species ranged from the presence of mostly a single compound, fistularin-3, in A. cauliformis, to a mixture of metabolites present in the other species. These patterns did not support the biotransformation hypothesis for conversion of large molecular weight molecules to smaller ones for the purpose of enhanced defense. Discriminant analyses of the metabolite data revealed strong taxonomic patterns that support a close relationship between A. fistularis,A. fulva and A. insularis, while two morphotypes of A. cauliformis (lilac creeping vs. brown erect were very distinct. Two morphotypes of A. lacunosa, one with hard tissue consistency, the other soft and thought to belong to a separate genus (Suberea, had very similar chemical profiles. Of the twelve metabolites found among samples, variation in fistularin-3, dideoxyfistularin-3 and hydroxyaerothionin provided the most predictive

  15. The Marine Sponge-Derived Inorganic Polymers, Biosilica and Polyphosphate, as Morphogenetically Active Matrices/Scaffolds for the Differentiation of Human Multipotent Stromal Cells: Potential Application in 3D Printing and Distraction Osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The two marine inorganic polymers, biosilica (BS, enzymatically synthesized from ortho-silicate, and polyphosphate (polyP, a likewise enzymatically synthesized polymer consisting of 10 to >100 phosphate residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds, have previously been shown to display a morphogenetic effect on osteoblasts. In the present study, the effect of these polymers on the differential differentiation of human multipotent stromal cells (hMSC, mesenchymal stem cells, that had been encapsulated into beads of the biocompatible plant polymer alginate, was studied. The differentiation of the hMSCs in the alginate beads was directed either to the osteogenic cell lineage by exposure to an osteogenic medium (mineralization activation cocktail; differentiation into osteoblasts or to the chondrogenic cell lineage by incubating in chondrocyte differentiation medium (triggering chondrocyte maturation. Both biosilica and polyP, applied as Ca2+ salts, were found to induce an increased mineralization in osteogenic cells; these inorganic polymers display also morphogenetic potential. The effects were substantiated by gene expression studies, which revealed that biosilica and polyP strongly and significantly increase the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in osteogenic cells, which was significantly more pronounced in osteogenic versus chondrogenic cells. A differential effect of the two polymers was seen on the expression of the two collagen types, I and II. While collagen Type I is highly expressed in osteogenic cells, but not in chondrogenic cells after exposure to biosilica or polyP, the upregulation of the steady-state level of collagen Type II transcripts in chondrogenic cells is comparably stronger than in osteogenic cells. It is concluded that the two polymers, biosilica and polyP, are morphogenetically active additives for the otherwise biologically inert alginate polymer. It is proposed that

  16. The marine sponge-derived inorganic polymers, biosilica and polyphosphate, as morphogenetically active matrices/scaffolds for the differentiation of human multipotent stromal cells: potential application in 3D printing and distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Grebenjuk, Vladislav; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Mailänder, Volker; Steffen, Renate; Schloßmacher, Ute; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-02-21

    The two marine inorganic polymers, biosilica (BS), enzymatically synthesized from ortho-silicate, and polyphosphate (polyP), a likewise enzymatically synthesized polymer consisting of 10 to >100 phosphate residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds, have previously been shown to display a morphogenetic effect on osteoblasts. In the present study, the effect of these polymers on the differential differentiation of human multipotent stromal cells (hMSC), mesenchymal stem cells, that had been encapsulated into beads of the biocompatible plant polymer alginate, was studied. The differentiation of the hMSCs in the alginate beads was directed either to the osteogenic cell lineage by exposure to an osteogenic medium (mineralization activation cocktail; differentiation into osteoblasts) or to the chondrogenic cell lineage by incubating in chondrocyte differentiation medium (triggering chondrocyte maturation). Both biosilica and polyP, applied as Ca²⁺ salts, were found to induce an increased mineralization in osteogenic cells; these inorganic polymers display also morphogenetic potential. The effects were substantiated by gene expression studies, which revealed that biosilica and polyP strongly and significantly increase the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in osteogenic cells, which was significantly more pronounced in osteogenic versus chondrogenic cells. A differential effect of the two polymers was seen on the expression of the two collagen types, I and II. While collagen Type I is highly expressed in osteogenic cells, but not in chondrogenic cells after exposure to biosilica or polyP, the upregulation of the steady-state level of collagen Type II transcripts in chondrogenic cells is comparably stronger than in osteogenic cells. It is concluded that the two polymers, biosilica and polyP, are morphogenetically active additives for the otherwise biologically inert alginate polymer. It is proposed that alginate

  17. SILICEOUS SPONGE SPICULES FROM THE MIOCENE MEM MONIZ MARLS (PORTUGAL AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRZEJ PISERA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Miocene (middle Serravalian Mem Moniz marls from Algarve (Portugal contain a rich and well preserved assemblage of siliceous sponge spicules, which is described here for the first time. The assemblage indicates that the sponge fauna was dominated by Astrophorida, and in particular by Geodiidae. The presence of Eurylus sp. and probably Geodia sp. (both Astrophorida, Samus sp. (Spirophorida and Alectona wallichii (Hadromerida is also reported. Samus sp. and Alectona wallichii are reported from the fossil record for the first time. Additionally, the occurrence of lithistid demosponges (represented by Theonellidae and rhizomorinids, Hadromerida, Spirophorida and Hexactinellida is also shown. Ancorinidae, Pachastrellidae (and/or Cathropellidae, both Astrophorida, were also clearly recognized. Less certain is the occurrence, in the Mem Moniz marls, of Tethyidae (Hadromerida. Bathymetric reconstructions based on sponges are imprecise due to the fact that these organisms often have very wide bathymetric ranges. However, the studied sponge assemblage is clearly neither characteristic of very shallow nor very deep marine environments. The dominance of astrophorids and the presence of lithistids and hexactinellids suggest a depth of at least several tens to one hundred metres, or even more.

  18. Diversity of Marine Animals. Man and the Gulf of Mexico Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Bobby N., Comp.; And Others

    "Man and the Gulf of Mexico" (MGM) is a marine science curriculum series developed to meet the needs of 10th through 12th grade students in Mississippi and Alabama schools. This MGM unit on the diversity of marine animals is divided into 16 sections. These sections focus on: marine protozoans; sponges; coelenterates; ctenophores;…

  19. Deep-sea coral research and technology program: Alaska deep-sea coral and sponge initiative final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooper, Chris; Stone, Robert P.; Etnoyer, Peter; Conrath, Christina; Reynolds, Jennifer; Greene, H. Gary; Williams, Branwen; Salgado, Enrique; Morrison, Cheryl L.; Waller, Rhian G.; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.

    2017-01-01

    Deep-sea coral and sponge ecosystems are widespread throughout most of Alaska’s marine waters. In some places, such as the central and western Aleutian Islands, deep-sea coral and sponge resources can be extremely diverse and may rank among the most abundant deep-sea coral and sponge communities in the world. Many different species of fishes and invertebrates are associated with deep-sea coral and sponge communities in Alaska. Because of their biology, these benthic invertebrates are potentially impacted by climate change and ocean acidification. Deepsea coral and sponge ecosystems are also vulnerable to the effects of commercial fishing activities. Because of the size and scope of Alaska’s continental shelf and slope, the vast majority of the area has not been visually surveyed for deep-sea corals and sponges. NOAA’s Deep Sea Coral Research and Technology Program (DSCRTP) sponsored a field research program in the Alaska region between 2012–2015, referred to hereafter as the Alaska Initiative. The priorities for Alaska were derived from ongoing data needs and objectives identified by the DSCRTP, the North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC), and Essential Fish Habitat-Environmental Impact Statement (EFH-EIS) process.This report presents the results of 15 projects conducted using DSCRTP funds from 2012-2015. Three of the projects conducted as part of the Alaska deep-sea coral and sponge initiative included dedicated at-sea cruises and fieldwork spread across multiple years. These projects were the eastern Gulf of Alaska Primnoa pacifica study, the Aleutian Islands mapping study, and the Gulf of Alaska fish productivity study. In all, there were nine separate research cruises carried out with a total of 109 at-sea days conducting research. The remaining projects either used data and samples collected by the three major fieldwork projects or were piggy-backed onto existing research programs at the Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC).

  20. Specificity and transcriptional activity of microbiota associated with low and high microbial abundance sponges from the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Moitinho-Silva, Lucas

    2013-08-20

    Marine sponges are generally classified as high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) species. Here, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was applied to investigate the diversity, specificity and transcriptional activity of microbes associated with an LMA sponge (Stylissa carteri), an HMA sponge (Xestospongia testudinaria) and sea water collected from the central Saudi Arabia coast of the Red Sea. Altogether, 887 068 denoised sequences were obtained, of which 806 661 sequences remained after quality control. This resulted in 1477 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were assigned to 27 microbial phyla. The microbial composition of S. carteri was more similar to that of sea water than to that of X. testudinaria, which is consistent with the observation that the sequence data set of S. carteri contained many more possibly sea water sequences (~24%) than the X. testudinaria data set (~6%). The most abundant OTUs were shared between all three sources (S. carteri, X. testudinaria, sea water), while rare OTUs were unique to any given source. Despite this high degree of overlap, each sponge species contained its own specific microbiota. The X. testudinaria-specific bacterial taxa were similar to those already described for this species. A set of S. carteri-specific bacterial taxa related to Proteobacteria and Nitrospira was identified, which are likely permanently associated with S. carteri. The transcriptional activity of sponge-associated microorganisms correlated well with their abundance. Quantitative PCR revealed the presence of Poribacteria, representing typical sponge symbionts, in both sponge species and in sea water; however, low transcriptional activity in sea water suggested that Poribacteria are not active outside the host context. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Antimycobacterial Metabolites from Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daletos, Georgios; Ancheeva, Elena; Chaidir, Chaidir; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Proksch, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Marine organisms play an important role in natural product-based drug research due to accumulation of structurally unique and bioactive metabolites. The exploration of marine-derived compounds may significantly extend the scientific knowledge of potential scaffolds for antibiotic drug discovery. Development of novel antitubercular agents is especially significant as the emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains remains threateningly high. Marine invertebrates (i.e., sponges, corals, gorgonians) as a source of new chemical entities are the center of research for several scientific groups, and the wide spectrum of biological activities of marine-derived compounds encourages scientists to carry out investigations in the field of antibiotic research, including tuberculosis treatment. The present review covers published data on antitubercular natural products from marine invertebrates grouped according to their biogenetic origin. Studies on the structure-activity relationships of these important leads are highlighted as well. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. High energy density supercapacitors using macroporous kitchen sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    Macroporous, low-cost and recyclable kitchen sponges are explored as effective electrode platforms for supercapacitor devices. A simple and scalable process has been developed to fabricate MnO 2-carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge supercapacitor electrodes

  3. Primary hafnium metal sponge and other forms, approved standard 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    A specification is presented covering virgin hafnium metal commonly designated as sponge because of its porous, sponge-like texture; it may also be in other forms such as chunklets. The specification does not cover crystal bar

  4. High-performance nanostructured supercapacitors on a sponge

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Hu, Liangbing; Xie, Xing; Cui, Yi; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and scalable method has been developed to fabricate nanostructured MnO 2-carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge hybrid electrodes. A novel supercapacitor, henceforth referred to as "sponge supercapacitor", has been fabricated using these hybrid

  5. Bacterial community profiles in low microbial abundance sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Giles, Emily; Kamke, Janine; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Taylor, Michael W.; Hentschel, Ute T E; Ravasi, Timothy; Schmitt, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    It has long been recognized that sponges differ in the abundance of associated microorganisms, and they are therefore termed either 'low microbial abundance' (LMA) or 'high microbial abundance' (HMA) sponges. Many previous studies concentrated

  6. First records of sponge-associated Actinomycetes from two coastal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First records of sponge-associated Actinomycetes from two coastal sponges from Mauritius. Sandeep Shivram Beepat, Chandani Appadoo, Daniel Edgard Pierre Marie, Shamimtaz Bibi Sadally, Jose Pavao Mendes Paula, Kannan Sivakumar, Rashmi Ragothama Rao, Maryam Salah ...

  7. Contamination in sediments, bivalves and sponges of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negri, Andrew; Burns, Kathryn; Boyle, Steve; Brinkman, Diane; Webster, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the concentrations of total hydrocarbons (THC), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and trace metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg and As) in marine sediments off Scott Base (NZ) and compared them with sediments near the highly polluted McMurdo Station (US) as well as less impacted sites including Turtle Rock and Cape Evans. The Antarctic mollusc, Laternula elliptica and three common sponge species were also analysed for trace metals. The mean THC concentration in sediments from Scott Base was 3 fold higher than the pristine site, Turtle Rock, but 10 fold lower than samples from McMurdo Station. McMurdo Station sediments also contained the highest concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and the trace metals, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Hg. Copper was significantly higher in bivalves from McMurdo Station than other sites. Trace metal concentrations in sponges were generally consistent within sites but no spatial patterns were apparent. - Analyses of Antarctic marine sediments, bivalves and sponges revealed strong PAH, PCB and trace metal gradients in McMurdo Sound

  8. Contamination in sediments, bivalves and sponges of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, Andrew [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville, Qld (Australia)]. E-mail: a.negri@aims.gov.au; Burns, Kathryn [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville, Qld (Australia); Boyle, Steve [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville, Qld (Australia); Brinkman, Diane [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville, Qld (Australia); Webster, Nicole [Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3, Townsville, Qld (Australia); Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2006-10-15

    This study examined the concentrations of total hydrocarbons (THC), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and trace metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg and As) in marine sediments off Scott Base (NZ) and compared them with sediments near the highly polluted McMurdo Station (US) as well as less impacted sites including Turtle Rock and Cape Evans. The Antarctic mollusc, Laternula elliptica and three common sponge species were also analysed for trace metals. The mean THC concentration in sediments from Scott Base was 3 fold higher than the pristine site, Turtle Rock, but 10 fold lower than samples from McMurdo Station. McMurdo Station sediments also contained the highest concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and the trace metals, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Hg. Copper was significantly higher in bivalves from McMurdo Station than other sites. Trace metal concentrations in sponges were generally consistent within sites but no spatial patterns were apparent. - Analyses of Antarctic marine sediments, bivalves and sponges revealed strong PAH, PCB and trace metal gradients in McMurdo Sound.

  9. Property Assessment of Sponge Cake Added with Egg Replacer

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqiang He; Linlin Wang; Qian Lu

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg which is always used in sponge cake production is likely to deteriorate during storage or transportation. This weakness prevents the wide use of chicken egg in sponge cake making. In order to solve this problem, egg replacer has been developed. In this study, effect of egg replacer on the property of sponge cake was analyzed. The result indicated egg replacer could improve the yield rate and specific volume of sponge cake. However, high content of egg replacer would negatively imp...

  10. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of this...

  11. Merosesquiterpene Congeners from the Australian Sponge Hyrtios digitatus as Potential Drug Leads for Atherosclerosis Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda A. Wahab

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the chemical constituents from the Australian Sponge Hyrtios digitatus has provided a perspective on the connection between the chemistry and biology of the puupehenones, a unique and unusual class of merosesquiterpenes. In this study, a new tetracyclic merosesquiterpene, 19-methoxy-9,15-ene-puupehenol (1 was isolated from the marine sponge Hyrtios digitatus along with the known 20-methoxy-9,15-ene-puupehenol (2. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data (1H and 13C NMR in combination with experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD data. Compounds 1 and 2 are active at 1.78 μM and 3.05 μM, respectively, on Scavenger Receptor-Class B Type 1 HepG2 (SR-B1 HepG2 stable cell lines, targeting atherosclerosis disease.

  12. Think like a sponge: The genetic signal of sensory cells in sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Jasmine L; Leys, Sally P

    2017-11-01

    A complex genetic repertoire underlies the apparently simple body plan of sponges. Among the genes present in poriferans are those fundamental to the sensory and nervous systems of other animals. Sponges are dynamic and sensitive animals and it is intuitive to link these genes to behaviour. The proposal that ctenophores are the earliest diverging metazoan has led to the question of whether sponges possess a 'pre-nervous' system or have undergone nervous system loss. Both lines of thought generally assume that the last common ancestor of sponges and eumetazoans possessed the genetic modules that underlie sensory abilities. By corollary extant sponges may possess a sensory cell homologous to one present in the last common ancestor, a hypothesis that has been studied by gene expression. We have performed a meta-analysis of all gene expression studies published to date to explore whether gene expression is indicative of a feature's sensory function. In sponges we find that eumetazoan sensory-neural markers are not particularly expressed in structures with known sensory functions. Instead it is common for these genes to be expressed in cells with no known or uncharacterized sensory function. Indeed, many sensory-neural markers so far studied are expressed during development, perhaps because many are transcription factors. This suggests that the genetic signal of a sponge sensory cell is dissimilar enough to be unrecognizable when compared to a bilaterian sensory or neural cell. It is possible that sensory-neural markers have as yet unknown functions in sponge cells, such as assembling an immunological synapse in the larval globular cell. Furthermore, the expression of sensory-neural markers in non-sensory cells, such as adult and larval epithelial cells, suggest that these cells may have uncharacterized sensory functions. While this does not rule out the co-option of ancestral sensory modules in later evolving groups, a distinct genetic foundation may underlie the

  13. Association of marine archaea with the digestive tracts of two marine fish species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarel, Marc J.E.C. van der; Artz, Rebekka R.E.; Haanstra, Rene; Forney, Larry J.

    Recent studies have shown that archaea which were always thought to live under strict anoxic or extreme environmental conditions are also present in cold, oxygenated seawater, soils, the digestive tract of a holothurian deep-sea-deposit feeder, and a marine sponge, In this study we show, by using

  14. Diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brümmer Franz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photosynthetic sponges are important components of reef ecosystems around the world, but are poorly understood. It is often assumed that temperate regions have low diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges, but to date no studies have investigated this question. The aim of this study was to compare the percentages of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia (WA with previously published data on tropical regions, and to determine the abundance and diversity of these associations in a range of temperate environments. Results We sampled sponges on 5 m belt transects to determine the percentage of photosynthetic sponges and identified at least one representative of each group of symbionts using 16S rDNA sequencing together with microscopy techniques. Our results demonstrate that photosynthetic sponges are abundant in temperate WA, with an average of 63% of sponge individuals hosting high levels of photosynthetic symbionts and 11% with low to medium levels. These percentages of photosynthetic sponges are comparable to those found on tropical reefs and may have important implications for ecosystem function on temperate reefs in other areas of the world. A diverse range of symbionts sometimes occurred within a small geographic area, including the three "big" cyanobacterial clades, Oscillatoria spongeliae, "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" and Synechocystis species, and it appears that these clades all occur in a wide range of sponges. Additionally, spongin-permeating red algae occurred in at least 7 sponge species. This study provides the first investigation of the molecular phylogeny of rhodophyte symbionts in sponges. Conclusion Photosynthetic sponges are abundant and diverse in temperate WA, with comparable percentages of photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic sponges to tropical zones. It appears that there are three common generalist clades of cyanobacterial symbionts of sponges which occur in a wide

  15. Antibacterial Properties of Marine Sponges from Mauritius Waters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of crude and fractionated extracts of Biemna tubulosa and Stylissa spp. thriving in Trou aux Biches lagoon, North East Mauritius. Methods: Crude extracts (methanol: dichloromethane 1:1) and fractions of Biemna tubulosa and Stylissa spp (hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol) ...

  16. Antifungal cyclic peptides from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening natural product extracts from National Cancer Institute Open Repository for antifungal discovery afforded hits for bioassay-guided fractionation. Upon LC-MS analysis of column fractions with antifungal activities to generate information on chemical structure, two new cyclic hexapeptides, m...

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Marine Sponge Clathria indica (Dendy, 1889)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravichandran, S.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Anbuchezhian, R.M.

    in the literature [29] on the anti-tuberculosis activity displayed by microcionamides A and B against avirulent strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra with a MIC values of 5.7μM as compared to the positive control rifampicin (MIC values of 1.52µ... stream_size 28158 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Russian_J_Bioorg_Chem_37_428a.pdf.txt stream_source_info Russian_J_Bioorg_Chem_37_428a.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1...

  18. Marine drugs from sponge-microbe association - A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thomas, T.R.A; Kavlekar, D.P.; LokaBharathi, P.A

    . Besides, persistent production of bioactive compounds has also been encountered in highly specific host-symbiont associations. Though spatial and temporal variations are known to have a marked effect on the quality and quantity of bioactive compounds, only...

  19. Hologenome analysis of two marine sponges with different microbiomes

    KAUST Repository

    Ryu, Tae Woo; Seridi, Loqmane; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Oates, Matthew; Liew, Yi Jin; Mavromatis, Charalampos Harris; Wang, Xiaolei; Haywood, Annika; Lafi, Feras Fawzi; Kupresanin, Marija; Sougrat, Rachid; Alzahrani, Majed A.; Giles, Emily; Ghosheh, Yanal; Schunter, Celia Marei; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Berumen, Michael L.; Gao, Xin; Aranda, Manuel; Foret, Sylvain; Gough, Julian; Voolstra, Christian R.; Hentschel, Ute; Ravasi, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    analysis revealed that S. carteri has an expanded repertoire of immunological domains, specifically Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich (SRCR)-like domains, compared to X. testudinaria. On the microbial side, metatranscriptome analyses revealed

  20. Larvicidal and insecticidal properties of some marine sponges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... bioactive natural products, which produced several novel structures with unique biological properties, ... other invading organisms, which involve the production of secondary metabolites (Li Kam Wah et al., .... in a final volume of 250 ml water in 500 ml glass beaker with minimum of four replicates for each ...

  1. Secobatzellines A and B, two new enzyme inhibitors from a deep-water Caribbean sponge of the genus Batzella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, S P; McCarthy, P J; Longley, R E; Pomponi, S A; Wright, A E

    1999-08-01

    Secobatzelline A (1), a new batzelline natural analogue, and secobatzelline B (2), a likely artifact formed during the isolation procedure, have been isolated from a deep-water marine sponge of the genus Batzella. Secobatzellines A and B inhibited the phosphatase activity of calcineurin, and secobatzelline A inhibited the peptidase activity of CPP32. Both compounds showed in vitro cytotoxicity against P-388 and A-549 cell lines. The isolation and structure elucidation of secobatzellines A (1) and B (2) are described.

  2. Wool fibril sponges with perspective biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrucco, A.; Cristofaro, F.; Simionati, M.; Zoccola, M.; Bruni, G.; Fassina, L.; Visai, L.; Magenes, G.

    2016-01-01

    Sheep's wool was used as a natural source to prepare keratin microfibril sponges for scaffolding, by disruption of the histological structure of the fibres through mild alkali treatment, followed by ultrasonication, casting and salt-leaching. The wool sponges showed highly interconnected porosity (93%) and contain intrinsic sites of cellular recognition that mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM). They displayed good thermal and water stability due to the conversion of disulphide cystine bonds into shorter monosulphide lanthionine intermolecular bonds, but significantly swelled in water, because of the high hydrophilicity and porosity, with a volume increasing up to 38%. Nevertheless, sponges were stable in water without structural changes, with a neutral pH in aqueous media, and showed excellent resilience to repeated compression stresses. According to in vitro biocompatibility assays, wool fibril sponges showed a good cell adhesion and proliferation as proved by MTT, FDA assays and SEM observations. The unique structure of the cortical cell network made by wool keratin proteins with controlled-size macro-porosity suitable for cell guesting, and nutrient feeding, provides an excellent scaffold for future tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Scaffolds were prepared from wool exploiting the fibres' histology structure. • The scaffold showed high interconnected micro- and macro-porosity. • The microscopic structure is very similar to the extracellular bone matrix. • Scaffolds reversibly swell in water with high resilience to repeated compression. • Composites were cytocompatible and supported the growth of SAOS-2 cell line.

  3. Electron beam melting of sponge titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanayama, Hiroshi; Kusamichi, Tatsuhiko; Muraoka, Tetsuhiro; Onouye, Toshio; Nishimura, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    Fundamental investigations were done on electron beam (EB) melting of sponge titanium by using 80 kW EB melting furnace. Results obtained are as follows: (1) To increase the melting yield of titanium in EB melting of sponge titanium, it is important to recover splashed metal by installation of water-cooled copper wall around the hearth and to decrease evaporation loss of titanium by keeping the surface temperature of molten metal just above the melting temperature of titanium without local heating. (2) Specific power consumption of drip melting of pressed sponge titanium bar and hearth melting of sponge titanium are approximately 0.9 kWh/kg-Ti and 0.5-0.7 kWh/kg-Ti, respectively. (3) Ratios of the heat conducted to water-cooled mould in the drip melting and to water-cooled hearth in the hearth melting to the electron beam input power are 50-65% and 60-65%, respectively. (4) Surface defects of EB-melted ingots include rap which occurs when the EB output is excessively great, and transverse cracks when the EB output is excessively small. To prevent surface defects, the up-down withdrawal method is effective. (author)

  4. EFISIENSI PENGGUNAAN TELUR DALAM PEMBUATAN SPONGE CAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Putu Hemy Ekayani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat kue berpori (spong cake dengan kualitas baik  dengan menggunakan jumlah telur minimal yang dibantu dengan penggunaan baking powder secara optimal untuk menurunkan biaya produksi yang disebabkan oleh mahalnya harga telur. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian laboratorium (eksperimen. Analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas sponge cake terbaik dihasilkan dari dua variasi rancangan variasi kadar baking powder dan telur yakni resep pertama dengan formulasi tepung terigu 100 gram, baking powder 6 gram, telur 100 gram, lemak 75 gram, dan tanpa penambahaan air; dan resep ke dua dengan formulasi tepung terigu 100 gram, baking powder 2 gram, telur 80 gram, lemak 75 gram, dan air 16 gram. Jumlah telur yang digunakaan dalam kedua resep tersebut cukup jauh berkurang dari resep umum yang menggunakan 180 gram telur untuk 100 gram tepung terigu. Temuan penelitian ini akan berimplikasi pada sponge cake dengan harga yang lebih murah, tetapi dengan kualitas yang tetap relatif baik dapat dihadirkan ke pasar.   Kata-kata kunci: spong cake,  kualitas, baking powder, biaya produksi

  5. Wool fibril sponges with perspective biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrucco, A., E-mail: a.patrucco@bi.ismac.cnr.it [CNR-ISMAC, Italian National Research Council, Institute for Macromolecular Studies, Corso G. Pella 16, 13900, Biella (Italy); Cristofaro, F., E-mail: francesco.cristofaro01@universitadipavia.it [Department of Molecular Medicine, INSTM UdR of Pavia, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 3/B, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Centre for Health Technologies (CHT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Simionati, M., E-mail: m.simionati@bi.ismac.cnr.it [CNR-ISMAC, Italian National Research Council, Institute for Macromolecular Studies, Corso G. Pella 16, 13900, Biella (Italy); Zoccola, M., E-mail: m.zoccola@bi.ismac.cnr.it [CNR-ISMAC, Italian National Research Council, Institute for Macromolecular Studies, Corso G. Pella 16, 13900, Biella (Italy); Bruni, G., E-mail: giovanna.bruni@unipv.it [Department of Chemistry, — Physical-Chemistry Section, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 16, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Fassina, L., E-mail: lorenzo.fassina@unipv.it [Centre for Health Technologies (CHT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Department of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Visai, L., E-mail: livia.visai@unipv.it [Department of Molecular Medicine, INSTM UdR of Pavia, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 3/B, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Centre for Health Technologies (CHT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Department of Occupational Medicine, Toxicology and Environmental Risks, S. Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Via S. Boezio, 28, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Magenes, G., E-mail: giovanni.magenes@unipv.it [Centre for Health Technologies (CHT), University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Department of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia (Italy); and others

    2016-04-01

    Sheep's wool was used as a natural source to prepare keratin microfibril sponges for scaffolding, by disruption of the histological structure of the fibres through mild alkali treatment, followed by ultrasonication, casting and salt-leaching. The wool sponges showed highly interconnected porosity (93%) and contain intrinsic sites of cellular recognition that mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM). They displayed good thermal and water stability due to the conversion of disulphide cystine bonds into shorter monosulphide lanthionine intermolecular bonds, but significantly swelled in water, because of the high hydrophilicity and porosity, with a volume increasing up to 38%. Nevertheless, sponges were stable in water without structural changes, with a neutral pH in aqueous media, and showed excellent resilience to repeated compression stresses. According to in vitro biocompatibility assays, wool fibril sponges showed a good cell adhesion and proliferation as proved by MTT, FDA assays and SEM observations. The unique structure of the cortical cell network made by wool keratin proteins with controlled-size macro-porosity suitable for cell guesting, and nutrient feeding, provides an excellent scaffold for future tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Scaffolds were prepared from wool exploiting the fibres' histology structure. • The scaffold showed high interconnected micro- and macro-porosity. • The microscopic structure is very similar to the extracellular bone matrix. • Scaffolds reversibly swell in water with high resilience to repeated compression. • Composites were cytocompatible and supported the growth of SAOS-2 cell line.

  6. North Jamaican Deep Fore-Reef Sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehnert, Helmut; Soest, van R.W.M.

    1996-01-01

    An unexpectedly high amount of new species, revealed within only one hour of summarized bottom time, leads to the conclusion that the sponge fauna of the steep slopes of the deep fore-reef is still largely unknown. Four mixed gas dives at depths between 70 and 90 m, performed in May and June, 1993,

  7. Phylogenetic diversity and spatial distribution of the microbial community associated with the Caribbean deep-water sponge Polymastia cf. corticata by 16S rRNA, aprA, and amoA gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Birte; Kuever, Jan

    2008-08-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based analyses of 16S rRNA, aprA, and amoA genes demonstrated that a phylogenetically diverse and complex microbial community was associated with the Caribbean deep-water sponge Polymastia cf. corticata Ridley and Dendy, 1887. From the 38 archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA phylotypes identified, 53% branched into the sponge-specific, monophyletic sequence clusters determined by previous studies (considering predominantly shallow-water sponge species), whereas 26% appeared to be P. cf. corticata specifically associated microorganisms ("specialists"); 21% of the phylotypes were confirmed to represent seawater- and sediment-derived proteobacterial species ("contaminants") acquired by filtration processes from the host environment. Consistently, the aprA and amoA gene-based analyses indicated the presence of environmentally derived sulfur- and ammonia-oxidizers besides putative sponge-specific sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria and a sulfate-reducing archaeon. A sponge-specific, endosymbiotic sulfur cycle as described for marine oligochaetes is proposed to be also present in P. cf. corticata. Overall, the results of this work support the recent studies that demonstrated the sponge species specificity of the associated microbial community while the biogeography of the host collection site has only a minor influence on the composition. In P. cf. corticata, the specificity of the sponge-microbe associations is even extended to the spatial distribution of the microorganisms within the sponge body; distinct bacterial populations were associated with the different tissue sections, papillae, outer and inner cortex, and choanosome. The local distribution of a phylotype within P. cf. corticata correlated with its (1) phylogenetic affiliation, (2) classification as sponge-specific or nonspecifically associated microorganism, and (3) potential ecological role in the host sponge.

  8. A Novel Cold Active Esterase from a Deep Sea Sponge Stelletta normani Metagenomic Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Borchert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Esterases catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds in fatty acid esters with short-chain acyl groups. Due to the widespread applications of lipolytic enzymes in various industrial applications, there continues to be an interest in novel esterases with unique properties. Marine ecosystems have long been acknowledged as a significant reservoir of microbial biodiversity and in particular of bacterial enzymes with desirable characteristics for industrial use, such as for example cold adaptation and activity in the alkaline pH range. We employed a functional metagenomic approach to exploit the enzymatic potential of one particular marine ecosystem, namely the microbiome of the deep sea sponge Stelletta normani. Screening of a metagenomics library from this sponge resulted in the identification of a number of lipolytic active clones. One of these encoded a highly, cold-active esterase 7N9, and the recombinant esterase was subsequently heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The esterase was classified as a type IV lipolytic enzyme, belonging to the GDSAG subfamily of hormone sensitive lipases. Furthermore, the recombinant 7N9 esterase was biochemically characterized and was found to be most active at alkaline pH (8.0 and displays salt tolerance over a wide range of concentrations. In silico docking studies confirmed the enzyme's activity toward short-chain fatty acids while also highlighting the specificity toward certain inhibitors. Furthermore, structural differences to a closely related mesophilic E40 esterase isolated from a marine sediment metagenomics library are discussed.

  9. Characterizing the sponge grounds of Grays Canyon, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abby N.; Clarke, M. Elizabeth; Fruh, Erica; Chaytor, Jason; Reiswig, Henry M.; Whitmire, Curt E.

    2018-01-01

    Deep-sea sponge grounds are relatively understudied ecosystems that may provide key habitats for a large number of fish and invertebrates including commercial species. Glass sponge grounds have been discovered from the tropics to polar regions but there are only a few places with high densities of dictyonine sponges. Dictyonine glass sponges have a fused skeleton, which stays intact when they die and in some areas the accumulation of successive generations of sponges leads to the formation of reefs. In 2010 and 2016, we surveyed an area near Grays Canyon in Washington, USA, where dense aggregations of glass sponges and potential sponge reefs were discovered in 2007. Our primary aims were to make a preliminary assessment of whether the glass sponges form reefs at this location, characterize the sponge assemblage present at this site and examine associations between the sponges and commercially important species. Multibeam mapping and sub-bottom profiling indicate that the glass sponges at this site do not form reefs and are mostly attached to hard substrates. Analysis of photographs collected by an autonomous underwater vehicle and samples collected by a remotely operated vehicle guided by telepresence revealed the presence of two abundant dictyonine sponge species at this site, Heterochone calyx and Aphrocallistes vastus (mean densities = 1.43 ± 0.057 per 10 m2, max = 24 per 10 m2). We also observed a large number of non-reef-building glass sponges and various demosponges including a potentially new species in the genus Acarnus. A diverse fish assemblage was recorded at this site including eight species of rockfish. Rockfish abundance was positively related to sponge abundance. Spot prawns (Pandalus platyceros) were also abundant and were strongly associated with sponges. Despite not finding sponge reefs, this is an ecologically significant area. Further research is necessary to determine the environmental factors that give rise to the abundance of large

  10. Marine actinobacteria associated with marine organisms and their potentials in producing pharmaceutical natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliappan, Karuppiah; Sun, Wei; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-09-01

    Actinobacteria are ubiquitous in the marine environment, playing an important ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel natural products with pharmic applications. Actinobacteria have been detected or isolated from the marine creatures such as sponges, corals, mollusks, ascidians, seaweeds, and seagrass. Marine organism-associated actinobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, i.e., 3,003 sequences, deposited in the NCBI database clearly revealed enormous numbers of actinobacteria associated with marine organisms. For example, RDP classification of these sequences showed that 112 and 62 actinobacterial genera were associated with the sponges and corals, respectively. In most cases, it is expected that these actinobacteria protect the host against pathogens by producing bioactive compounds. Natural products investigation and functional gene screening of the actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including polyketides, isoprenoids, phenazines, peptides, indolocarbazoles, sterols, and others. These compounds showed anticancer, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, neurological, antioxidant, and anti-HIV activities. Therefore, marine organism-associated actinobacteria represent an important resource for marine drugs. It is an upcoming field of research to search for novel actinobacteria and pharmaceutical natural products from actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms. In this review, we attempt to summarize the present knowledge on the diversity and natural products production of actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms, based on the publications from 1991 to 2013.

  11. Habitat preference of Zoantharia genera depends on host sponge morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Acosta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies about sponge-zoanthid symbioses have been focused on understanding the specificity of the association, rather thantesting what are the characteristics that make the host suitable to be colonized. For the first time it is investigated whether the ZoanthariaParazoanthus and Epizoanthus preference is related to the host sponge morphology (shape and mechanical resistance. Materials andmethods. Sponges were categorized according to their shape and mechanical resistance. The presence/absence of zoanthids was recordedin 1,068 sponges at San Andres Island, and their habitat preference was evaluated using indices and confidence intervals. Results. 85Parazoanthus colonies (78% of the total associations and 24 Epizoanthus colonies (22% were associated to sponges (10.2% in total.Parazoanthus uses branched and compressible sponges although prefers encrusting and fragile sponges, while Epizoanthus showes theopposite pattern, it can inhabit encrusting and fragile sponges but prefers branched and compressible sponges. Conclusion. These resultsindicated that sponge morphology is an important trait in zoanthid habitat selection. On the other hand, the similarity in the habitat used byzoanthids suggests the possibility of inter-generic competition if common resources are limited in time and space, while the differentialhabitat preference allows the competitive coexistence of both genera.

  12. Epizoic zoanthids reduce pumping in two Caribbean vase sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, T. B.; Finelli, C. M.

    2015-03-01

    Sponges are common sessile benthic suspension feeders that play a critical role in carbon and nitrogen cycling within reef ecosystems via their filtration capabilities. Due to the contribution of sponges in benthic-pelagic coupling, it is critical to assess factors that may affect their role in the healthy function of coral reefs. Several factors can influence the rate at which an individual sponge pumps water, including body size, environmental conditions, mechanical blockage, and reduction of inhalant pores (ostia). Symbiotic zoanthid colonization is a common occurrence on Caribbean sponges, and the presence of zoanthids on the surface of a sponge may occlude or displace the inhalant ostia. We quantified pumping rates of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta ( N = 22 uncolonized, 37 colonized) and the common vase sponge, Niphates digitalis ( N = 21 uncolonized, 17 colonized), with and without zoanthid symbionts, Parazoanthus catenularis and Parazoanthus parasiticus, respectively. For X. muta, biovolume-normalized pumping rates of individuals colonized by zoanthids were approximately 75 % lower than those of uncolonized sponges. Moreover, colonization with zoanthids was related to a difference in morphology relative to uncolonized individuals: Colonized sponges exhibited an osculum area to biovolume ratio that was nearly 65 % less than uncolonized sponges. In contrast, the presence of zoanthids on N. digitalis resulted in only a marginal decrease in pumping rates and no detectable difference in morphology. The difference in zoanthid effects between X. muta and N. digitalis is likely due to the differences in wall thickness and architecture between the two species. The probable cause of reduced pumping in affected sponges is occupation of the sponge surface that leads to blockage or displacement of inhalant ostia. To partially test this hypothesis, zoanthid colonization on specimens of X. muta was simulated by wrapping sponges with plastic mesh of varying

  13. Jaspiferin A and B: Two New Secondary Metabolites from the South China Sea Sponge Jaspis stellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengan Tang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A chemical investigation of marine sponge Jaspis stellifera, collected from South China Sea, led to the isolation of two new compounds, Jaspiferin A and B (1-2, and six known compounds, gibepyrone F (3 , p- hydroxy benzaldehyde (4 , 3-Indole-3-aldehyde (5 , Thymine (6 , 24(28-dehydroaplysterol (7 , (25s-26- methylene-cholest-4-en-3-one (8. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis in association with physical and chemical properties, as well as comparison of their spectral data with these reported in literatures. The biogenetic transformation of compound 2 was also speculated.

  14. Recruitment, growth and mortality of an Antarctic hexactinellid sponge, Anoxycalyx joubini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K Dayton

    Full Text Available Polar ecosystems are sensitive to climate forcing, and we often lack baselines to evaluate changes. Here we report a nearly 50-year study in which a sudden shift in the population dynamics of an ecologically important, structure-forming hexactinellid sponge, Anoxycalyx joubini was observed. This is the largest Antarctic sponge, with individuals growing over two meters tall. In order to investigate life history characteristics of Antarctic marine invertebrates, artificial substrata were deployed at a number of sites in the southern portion of the Ross Sea between 1967 and 1975. Over a 22-year period, no growth or settlement was recorded for A. joubini on these substrata; however, in 2004 and 2010, A. joubini was observed to have settled and grown to large sizes on some but not all artificial substrata. This single settlement and growth event correlates with a region-wide shift in phytoplankton productivity driven by the calving of a massive iceberg. We also report almost complete mortality of large sponges followed over 40 years. Given our warming global climate, similar system-wide changes are expected in the future.

  15. Carbon Flux Through the Giant Barrel Sponge Xestospongia testudinaria in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Wooster, Michael K.

    2017-01-01

    Sponges have important ecological functions on coral reefs because they are regionally abundant, competitively dominant, and process large volumes of seawater. The sponge loop hypothesis proposes that sponges consume dissolved organic carbon (DOC

  16. Structure-forming corals and sponges and their use as fish habitat in Bering Sea submarine canyons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Miller

    Full Text Available Continental margins are dynamic, heterogeneous settings that can include canyons, seamounts, and banks. Two of the largest canyons in the world, Zhemchug and Pribilof, cut into the edge of the continental shelf in the southeastern Bering Sea. Here currents and upwelling interact to produce a highly productive area, termed the Green Belt, that supports an abundance of fishes and squids as well as birds and marine mammals. We show that in some areas the floor of these canyons harbors high densities of gorgonian and pennatulacean corals and sponges, likely due to enhanced surface productivity, benthic currents and seafloor topography. Rockfishes, including the commercially important Pacific ocean perch, Sebastes alutus, were associated with corals and sponges as well as with isolated boulders. Sculpins, poachers and pleuronectid flounders were also associated with corals in Pribilof Canyon, where corals were most abundant. Fishes likely use corals and sponges as sources of vertical relief, which may harbor prey as well as provide shelter from predators. Boulders may be equivalent habitat in this regard, but are sparse in the canyons, strongly suggesting that biogenic structure is important fish habitat. Evidence of disturbance to the benthos from fishing activities was observed in these remote canyons. Bottom trawling and other benthic fishing gear has been shown to damage corals and sponges that may be very slow to recover from such disturbance. Regulation of these destructive practices is key to conservation of benthic habitats in these canyons and the ecosystem services they provide.

  17. Structure-forming corals and sponges and their use as fish habitat in Bering Sea submarine canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert J; Hocevar, John; Stone, Robert P; Fedorov, Dmitry V

    2012-01-01

    Continental margins are dynamic, heterogeneous settings that can include canyons, seamounts, and banks. Two of the largest canyons in the world, Zhemchug and Pribilof, cut into the edge of the continental shelf in the southeastern Bering Sea. Here currents and upwelling interact to produce a highly productive area, termed the Green Belt, that supports an abundance of fishes and squids as well as birds and marine mammals. We show that in some areas the floor of these canyons harbors high densities of gorgonian and pennatulacean corals and sponges, likely due to enhanced surface productivity, benthic currents and seafloor topography. Rockfishes, including the commercially important Pacific ocean perch, Sebastes alutus, were associated with corals and sponges as well as with isolated boulders. Sculpins, poachers and pleuronectid flounders were also associated with corals in Pribilof Canyon, where corals were most abundant. Fishes likely use corals and sponges as sources of vertical relief, which may harbor prey as well as provide shelter from predators. Boulders may be equivalent habitat in this regard, but are sparse in the canyons, strongly suggesting that biogenic structure is important fish habitat. Evidence of disturbance to the benthos from fishing activities was observed in these remote canyons. Bottom trawling and other benthic fishing gear has been shown to damage corals and sponges that may be very slow to recover from such disturbance. Regulation of these destructive practices is key to conservation of benthic habitats in these canyons and the ecosystem services they provide.

  18. Ultraporous, Compressible, Wettable Polylactide/Polycaprolactone Sponges for Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Michael; Jérôme, Valérie; Freitag, Ruth; Agarwal, Seema; Greiner, Andreas

    2018-05-14

    Ultraporous, degradable sponges made of either polylactide or of blends of polylactide/poly(ε-caprolactone) are prepared by freeze-drying of dispersions of short electrospun fibers and subsequent thermal annealing. The sponges feature ultrahigh porosity (99.6%), a hierarchical cellular structure, and high reversible compressibility with fast recovery from deformation in the dry as well as in the wet state. The sponge properties depend on the fiber dispersion concentration and the annealing temperature. Sponge characteristics like fiber density (2.5-20 mg/cm 3 ), size, shape, crystallinity, mechanical strength, wetability, and structural integrity are user adjustable. Cell culture experiments were successfully performed with Jurkat cells with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and MTT staining showing rapid cell proliferation. Live/Dead staining demonstrated high viability of the seeded cells. The sponge characteristics and modifications investigated and presented here reveal that these sponges are highly promising for tissue engineering applications.

  19. Two Furanosesterterpenoids from the Sponge Luffariella variabilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peni Ahmadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new sesterterpenoids, 1 and 2, were isolated from the sponge Luffariella variabilis. Their planar structures were characterized with spectroscopic analyses. The sole chiral center of compound 1 was elucidated as 12R by comparing observed and calculated optical rotation values. The configurations of compound 2 were determined by NMR and electronic circular dichroism (ECD studies. Furthermore, compound 2 showed cytotoxicity at IC50 1.0 µM against NBT-T2 cells.

  20. Iron sponge installation clicks at Retlaw plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-06-21

    Iron sponge desulfurization, often ignored by plant designers in favor of the monoethanolamine process, may offer economic advantages in sweetening of small gas volumes with low hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide content. The process removes hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans by passing sour gas through vessels loosely packed with wood shavings impregnated by a hydrated form of iron oxide, which reacts with the hydrogen sulfide to form ferric sulfide. The disadvantages are that carbon dioxide is not removed, hydrate formation is a danger in cold weather, and gas sales may be lost when towers are down for servicing. Periodic regeneration of beds takes about a day, and sponges must be replaced occasionally. Despite these shortcomings, the process may prove economical, since a typical plant costs $110,000 as compared to $270,000 for an amine unit. The expense of operating the plant is $23,000 compared with $28,000 for the amine unit. Thus, economics clearly favor the iron sponge process.

  1. Optimization of biodegradable sponges as controlled release drug matrices. I. Effect of moisture level on chitosan sponge mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Nagwa H; El-laithy, Hanan M; Tadros, Mina I

    2004-04-01

    Cross-linked chitosan sponges as controlled release drug carrier systems were developed. Tramadol hydrochloride, a centrally acting analgesic, was used as a model drug. The sponges were prepared by freeze-drying 1.25% and 2.5% (w/w) high and low M.wt. chitosan solutions, respectively, using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. The hardness of the prepared sponges was a function of glutaraldehyde concentration and volume where the optimum concentration that offered accepted sponge consistency was 5%. Below or above 5%, very soft or very hard and brittle sponges were obtained, respectively. The determined drug content in the prepared sponges was uniform and did not deviate markedly from the calculated amount. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the internal structures of the sponges. The SEM photos revealed that cross-linked high M.wt. chitosan sponges have larger size surface pores that form connections (channels) with the interior of the sponge than cross-linked low M.wt. ones. Moreover, crystals of the incorporated Tramadol hydrochloride were detected on the lamellae and within pores in both chitosan sponges. Differences in pore size and dissolution medium uptake capacity were crucial factors for the more delayed drug release from cross-linked low M.wt. chitosan sponges over high M.wt. ones at pH 7.4. Kinetic analysis of the release data using linear regression followed the Higuchi diffusion model over 12 hours. Setting storage conditions at room temperature under 80-92% relative humidity resulted in soft, elastic, and compressible sponges.

  2. A NGS approach to the encrusting Mediterranean sponge Crella elegans (Porifera, Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida): transcriptome sequencing, characterization and overview of the gene expression along three life cycle stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Porro, A R; Navarro-Gómez, D; Uriz, M J; Giribet, G

    2013-05-01

    Sponges can be dominant organisms in many marine and freshwater habitats where they play essential ecological roles. They also represent a key group to address important questions in early metazoan evolution. Recent approaches for improving knowledge on sponge biological and ecological functions as well as on animal evolution have focused on the genetic toolkits involved in ecological responses to environmental changes (biotic and abiotic), development and reproduction. These approaches are possible thanks to newly available, massive sequencing technologies-such as the Illumina platform, which facilitate genome and transcriptome sequencing in a cost-effective manner. Here we present the first NGS (next-generation sequencing) approach to understanding the life cycle of an encrusting marine sponge. For this we sequenced libraries of three different life cycle stages of the Mediterranean sponge Crella elegans and generated de novo transcriptome assemblies. Three assemblies were based on sponge tissue of a particular life cycle stage, including non-reproductive tissue, tissue with sperm cysts and tissue with larvae. The fourth assembly pooled the data from all three stages. By aggregating data from all the different life cycle stages we obtained a higher total number of contigs, contigs with blast hit and annotated contigs than from one stage-based assemblies. In that multi-stage assembly we obtained a larger number of the developmental regulatory genes known for metazoans than in any other assembly. We also advance the differential expression of selected genes in the three life cycle stages to explore the potential of RNA-seq for improving knowledge on functional processes along the sponge life cycle. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Biofouling of inlet pipes affects water quality in running seawater aquaria and compromises sponge cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E. Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine organism are often kept, cultured, and experimented on in running seawater aquaria. However, surprisingly little attention is given to the nutrient composition of the water flowing through these systems, which is generally assumed to equal in situ conditions, but may change due to the presence of biofouling organisms. Significantly lower bacterial abundances and higher inorganic nitrogen species (nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium were measured in aquarium water when biofouling organisms were present within a 7-year old inlet pipe feeding a tropical reef running seawater aquaria system, compared with aquarium water fed by a new, biofouling-free inlet pipe. These water quality changes are indicative of the feeding activity and waste production of the suspension- and filter-feeding communities found in the old pipe, which included sponges, bivalves, barnacles, and ascidians. To illustrate the physiological consequences of these water quality changes on a model organism kept in the aquaria system, we investigated the influence of the presence and absence of the biofouling community on the functioning of the filter-feeding sponge Halisarca caerulea, by determining its choanocyte (filter cell proliferation rates. We found a 34% increase in choanocyte proliferation rates following the replacement of the inlet pipe (i.e., removal of the biofouling community. This indicates that the physiological functioning of the sponge was compromised due to suboptimal food conditions within the aquarium resulting from the presence of the biofouling organisms in the inlet pipe. This study has implications for the husbandry and performance of experiments with marine organisms in running seawater aquaria systems. Inlet pipes should be checked regularly, and replaced if necessary, in order to avoid excessive biofouling and to approach in situ water quality.

  4. Biofouling of inlet pipes affects water quality in running seawater aquaria and compromises sponge cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Brittany E; Mueller, Benjamin; Vermeij, Mark J A; van der Geest, Harm H G; de Goeij, Jasper M

    2015-01-01

    Marine organism are often kept, cultured, and experimented on in running seawater aquaria. However, surprisingly little attention is given to the nutrient composition of the water flowing through these systems, which is generally assumed to equal in situ conditions, but may change due to the presence of biofouling organisms. Significantly lower bacterial abundances and higher inorganic nitrogen species (nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium) were measured in aquarium water when biofouling organisms were present within a 7-year old inlet pipe feeding a tropical reef running seawater aquaria system, compared with aquarium water fed by a new, biofouling-free inlet pipe. These water quality changes are indicative of the feeding activity and waste production of the suspension- and filter-feeding communities found in the old pipe, which included sponges, bivalves, barnacles, and ascidians. To illustrate the physiological consequences of these water quality changes on a model organism kept in the aquaria system, we investigated the influence of the presence and absence of the biofouling community on the functioning of the filter-feeding sponge Halisarca caerulea, by determining its choanocyte (filter cell) proliferation rates. We found a 34% increase in choanocyte proliferation rates following the replacement of the inlet pipe (i.e., removal of the biofouling community). This indicates that the physiological functioning of the sponge was compromised due to suboptimal food conditions within the aquarium resulting from the presence of the biofouling organisms in the inlet pipe. This study has implications for the husbandry and performance of experiments with marine organisms in running seawater aquaria systems. Inlet pipes should be checked regularly, and replaced if necessary, in order to avoid excessive biofouling and to approach in situ water quality.

  5. The role of burrowing sponges in bioerosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rützler, Klaus

    1975-09-01

    Among the large number of limestone-eroding organisms, sponges, mainly of the family Clinonidae are of special interest because of their efficient means of substratum penetration by cellular etching and because they release characteristically shaped calcium carbonate chips which can be detected in the mud-size fraction of many sediments. Identifiable trace fossils and sediments are of great ecological and paleoecological significance.As new data on the excavating mechanism have become available, the questions of burrowing rates and sediment production have gained importance. Extrapolation from shortterm experiments (under 6 months) on substrate invasion are inconclusive because of high initial penetration rates resulting from mechanical stimulation and lack of competition. New experiments show that the rate curve flattens after 6 months and that optimum longterm erosion of CaCO 3 does not exceed 700 mg m -2 year -1 (Cliona lampa and C. aprica). Substrate limitations and competition will further reduce this rate.By monitoring the production of CaCO 3 chips by Cliona lampa, it was possible to link activity patterns to certain environmental factors. Mechanical stimuli, high light intensity, strong currents and, possibly, low temperature seem to accelerate the burrowing process. Sponge-generated chips can make up over 40% of coral mud when deposited in the current shadow of the reef framework.Using transect counts and sponge area-biomass conversion factors, the mean abundance of burrowing sponges on the Bermuda platform could be calculated. On suitable hard bottom substrates it averages 16 g dry weight per m 2 . From this value the burrowing potential of sponges can be estimated as 256 g CaCO 3 per m 2 substrate per year. Since 97-98% of the eroded limestone remains in particulate form, the contribution of fine sediments can amount to 250 g m -2 year -1 .Attention is called to the fact that erosion rates by burrowers can not directly be compared with those of borers or

  6. An analysis of the sponge Acanthostrongylophora igens’ microbiome yields an actinomycete that produces the natural product manzamine A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Leigh Waters

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sponges have generated significant interest as a source of bioactive and elaborate secondary metabolites that hold promise for the development of novel therapeutics for the control of an array of human diseases. However, research and development of marine natural products can often be hampered by the difficulty associated with obtaining a stable and sustainable production source. Herein we report the first successful characterization and utilization of the microbiome of a marine invertebrate to identify a sustainable production source for an important natural product scaffold. Through molecular-microbial community analysis, optimization of fermentation conditions and MALDI-MS imaging, we provide the first report of a sponge-associated bacterium (Micromonospora sp. that produces the manzamine class of antimalarials from the Indo-Pacific sponge Acanthostrongylophora ingens (Thiele, 1899 (Class Demospongiae, Order Haplosclerida, Family Petrosiidae. These findings suggest that a general strategy of analysis of the macroorganism’s microbiome could significantly transform the field of natural products drug discovery by gaining access to not only novel drug leads, but the potential for sustainable production sources and biosynthetic genes at the same time.

  7. Imidazole Alkaloids from the South China Sea Sponge Pericharax heteroraphis and Their Cytotoxic and Antiviral Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Kai Gong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges continue to serve as a rich source of alkaloids possessing interesting biological activities and often exhibiting unique structural frameworks. In the current study, chemical investigation on the marine sponge Pericharax heteroraphis collected from the South China Sea yielded one new imidazole alkaloid named naamidine J (1 along with four known ones (2–5. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic methods and comparison of their data with those of the related known compounds. All the isolates possessed a central 2-aminoimidazole ring, substituted by one or two functionalized benzyl groups in some combination of the C4 and C5 positions. The cytotoxicities against selected HL-60, HeLa, A549 and K562 tumor cell lines and anti-H1N1 (Influenza a virus (IAV activity for the isolates were evaluated. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited cytotoxicities against the K562 cell line with IC50 values of 11.3 and 9.4 μM, respectively. Compound 5 exhibited weak anti-H1N1 (influenza a virus, IAV activity with an inhibition ratio of 33%.

  8. Actinomycetes from red sea sponges: Sources for chemical and phylogenetic diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan

    2014-05-12

    The diversity of actinomycetes associated with marine sponges collected off Fsar Reef (Saudi Arabia) was investigated in the present study. Forty-seven actinomycetes were cultivated and phylogenetically identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were assigned to 10 different actinomycete genera. Eight putatively novel species belonging to genera Kocuria, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, and Rhodococcus were identified based on sequence similarity values below 98.2% to other 16S rRNA gene sequences available in the NCBI database. PCR-based screening for biosynthetic genes including type I and type II polyketide synthases (PKS-I, PKS-II) as well as nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) showed that 20 actinomycete isolates encoded each at least one type of biosynthetic gene. The organic extracts of nine isolates displayed bioactivity against at least one of the test pathogens, which were Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, human parasites, as well as in a West Nile Virus protease enzymatic assay. These results emphasize that marine sponges are a prolific resource for novel bioactive actinomycetes with potential for drug discovery. 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  9. Actinomycetes from red sea sponges: Sources for chemical and phylogenetic diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Yang, Chen; Horn, Hannes; Hajjar, Dina A.; Ravasi, Timothy; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of actinomycetes associated with marine sponges collected off Fsar Reef (Saudi Arabia) was investigated in the present study. Forty-seven actinomycetes were cultivated and phylogenetically identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were assigned to 10 different actinomycete genera. Eight putatively novel species belonging to genera Kocuria, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, and Rhodococcus were identified based on sequence similarity values below 98.2% to other 16S rRNA gene sequences available in the NCBI database. PCR-based screening for biosynthetic genes including type I and type II polyketide synthases (PKS-I, PKS-II) as well as nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) showed that 20 actinomycete isolates encoded each at least one type of biosynthetic gene. The organic extracts of nine isolates displayed bioactivity against at least one of the test pathogens, which were Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, human parasites, as well as in a West Nile Virus protease enzymatic assay. These results emphasize that marine sponges are a prolific resource for novel bioactive actinomycetes with potential for drug discovery. 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  10. Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelecom, Alphonse

    2002-03-01

    After 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. Since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. On the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. Studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. Although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. Nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. Among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.

  11. Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELECOM ALPHONSE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. Since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. On the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. Studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. Although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. Nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. Among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.

  12. Isolation and biological activities of secondary metabolites from the sponges monanchora aff. arbuscula, aplysina sp. petromica ciocalyptoides and topsentia ophiraphidies, from the ascidian didemnum ligulum and from the octocoral carijoa riisei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossuga, Miriam H.; Lira, Simone P. de; Nascimento, Andrea M.; Gambardella, Maria Teresa P.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.; Torres, Yohandra R.; Nascimento, Gislene G.F.; Pimenta, Eli F.; Silva, Marcio; Thiemann, Otavio H.; Oliva, Glaucius; Tempone, Andre G.; Melhem, Marcia S.C.; Souza, Ana O. de; Galetti, Fabio C.S.; Silva, Celio L.; Cavalcanti, Bruno; Pessoa, Claudia O.; Moraes, Manoel O.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Peixinho, Solange; Rocha, Rosana M.

    2007-01-01

    The investigation of extracts from six species of marine invertebrates yielded one new and several known natural products. Isoptilocaulin from the sponge Monanchora aff. arbuscula displayed antimicrobial activity at 1.3 mg/mL against an oxacillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Five inactive known dibromotyrosine derivatives, 2 6, were isolated from a new species of marine sponge, Aplysina sp. The sponges Petromica ciocalyptoides and Topsentia ophiraphidites yielded the known halistanol sulfate A (7) as an inhibitor of the antileishmanial target adenosine phosphoribosyl transferase. The ascidian Didemnum ligulum yielded asterubin (10) and the new N,N-dimethyl-O-methylethanolamine (11). The octocoral Carijoa riisei yielded the known 18-acetoxypregna-1,4,20-trien-3-one (12), which displayed cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines SF295, MDA-MB435, HCT8 and HL60. (author)

  13. The Sponge Pump: The Role of Current Induced Flow in the Design of the Sponge Body Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Sally P.; Yahel, Gitai; Reidenbach, Matthew A.; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Shavit, Uri; Reiswig, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    Sponges are suspension feeders that use flagellated collar-cells (choanocytes) to actively filter a volume of water equivalent to many times their body volume each hour. Flow through sponges is thought to be enhanced by ambient current, which induces a pressure gradient across the sponge wall, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Studies of sponge filtration have estimated the energetic cost of pumping to be sponge Aphrocallistes vastus at a 150 m deep reef in situ and in a flow flume; we also modeled the glass sponge filtration system from measurements of the aquiferous system. Excurrent flow from the sponge osculum measured in situ and in the flume were positively correlated (r>0.75) with the ambient current velocity. During short bursts of high ambient current the sponges filtered two-thirds of the total volume of water they processed daily. Our model indicates that the head loss across the sponge collar filter is 10 times higher than previously estimated. The difference is due to the resistance created by a fine protein mesh that lines the collar, which demosponges also have, but was so far overlooked. Applying our model to the in situ measurements indicates that even modest pumping rates require an energetic expenditure of at least 28% of the total in situ respiration. We suggest that due to the high cost of pumping, current-induced flow is highly beneficial but may occur only in thin walled sponges living in high flow environments. Our results call for a new look at the mechanisms underlying current-induced flow and for reevaluation of the cost of biological pumping and its evolutionary role, especially in sponges. PMID:22180779

  14. Natural antifouling compound production by microbes associated with marine macroorganisms — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathianeson Satheesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the marine environment, all hard surfaces including marine macroorganims are colonized by microorganisms mainly from the surrounding environment. The microorganisms associated with marine macroorganisms offer tremendous potential for exploitation of bioactive metabolites. Biofouling is a continuous problem in marine sectors which needs huge economy for control and cleaning processes. Biotechnological way for searching natural product antifouling compounds gained momentum in recent years because of the environmental pollution associated with the use of toxic chemicals to control biofouling. While, natural product based antifoulants from marine organisms particularly sponges and corals attained significance due to their activities in field assays, collection of larger amount of organisms from the sea is not a viable one. The microorganisms associated with sponges, corals, ascidians, seaweeds and seagrasses showed strong antimicrobial and also antifouling activities. This review highlights the advances in natural product antifoulants research from microbes associated with marine organisms.

  15. DYNAPHORE, INC. FORAGER™ SPONGE TECHNOLOGY - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Forager™ Sponge is an open-celled cellulose sponge incorporating an amine-containing chelating polymer that selectively absorbs dissolved heavy metals from aqueous waste streams. The Developer states that the technology can be utilized to remove and concentrate heavy metals f...

  16. The dimension of the pore space in sponges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L H F; Yamashita, M T

    2009-01-01

    A simple experiment to reveal the dimension of the pore space in sponges is proposed. This experiment is suitable for the first year of a physics or engineering course. The calculated dimension of the void space in a sponge of density 16 mg cm -3 was 2.948± 0.008

  17. Keratin sponge/hydrogel part 1. fabrication and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keratin sponge/hydrogel products formed by either the oxidation or reduction of U.S. domestic fine- or coarse-grade wool exhibited distinctively different topologies and molecular weights of 6- 8 kDa and 40-60 kDa, each with unique macro-porous structure and microstructural behaviors. The sponge/ ...

  18. Post-quantum security of the sponge construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, J.; Groot Bruinderink, L.; Hülsing, A.T.; Schaffner, C.; Unruh, D.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the post-quantum security of hash functions based on the sponge construction. A crucial property for hash functions in the post-quantum setting is the collapsing property (a strengthening of collision-resistance). We show that the sponge construction is collapsing (and in consequence

  19. Post-quantum security of the sponge construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, Jan; Groot Bruinderink, Leon; Hülsing, Andreas; Schaffner, Christian; Unruh, Dominique

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the post-quantum security of hash functions based on the sponge construction. A crucial property for hash functions in the post-quantum setting is the collapsing property (a strengthening of collision-resistance). We show that the sponge construction is collapsing (and in consequence

  20. Deep-sea sponge grounds: Reservoirs of biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogg, M.M.; Tendal, O.S.; Conway, K.W.; Pomponi, S.A.; van Soest, R.W.M.; Gutt, J.; Krautter, M.; Roberts, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This report draws together scientific understanding of deep-water sponge grounds alongside the threats they face and ways in which they can be conserved. Beginning with a summary of research approaches, sponge biology and biodiversity, the report also gives up-to-date case studies of particular

  1. The Life of a Sponge in a Sandy Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilan, M; Abelson, A

    1995-12-01

    Infaunal soft-bottom invertebrates benefit from the presence of sediment, but sedimentation is potentially harmful for hard-bottom dwellers. Most sponges live on hard bottom, but on coral reefs in the Red Sea, the species Biemna ehrenbergi (Keller, 1889) is found exclusively in soft-bottom lagoons, usually in the shallowest part. This location is a sink environment, which increases the deposition of particulate organic matter. Most of the sponge body is covered by sediment, but the chimney-like siphons protrude from the sediment surface. The sponge is attached to the buried beach-rock, which reduces the risk of dislodgment during storms. Dye injected above and into the sediment revealed, for the first time, a sponge pumping interstitial water (rich with particles and nutrients) into its aquiferous system. Visual examination of plastic replicas of the aquiferous system and electron microscopical analysis of sponge tissue revealed that the transcellular ostia are mostly located on the buried surface of the sponge. The oscula, however, are located on top of the siphons; their elevated position and their ability to close combine to prevent the filtering system outflow from clogging. The transcellular ostia presumably remain open due to cellular mobility. The sponge maintains a large population of bacteriocytes, which contains bacteria of several different species. Some of these bacteria disintegrate, and may be consumed by the sponge.

  2. Stimulatory activity of four green freshwater sponges on aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of green sponges on the abundance of aquatic mycotal species is caused by dissolved organic matter produced during photosynthesis by symbiotic zoochlorellae, a symbionts of green sponges and excreted into the water environment (S. fluviatilis excreted mean 12.8% of carbon fixation). Those excreted organic ...

  3. Mangrove-sponge associations: a possible role for tannins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunting, E.R.; van der Geest, H.G.; Krieg, A.J.; van Mierlo, M.B.L.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    A positive correlation between sponge coverage and tannin concentrations in prop roots of Rhizophora mangle L. has previously been reported. However, the ecological role of tannins within the mangrove sponge association remains speculative. This study investigated whether tannins play a role in

  4. Cultivation of sponge larvae: settlement, survival, and growth of juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caralt, de S.; Otjens, H.; Uriz, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to culture sponge juveniles from larvae. Starting from larvae we expected to enhance the survival and growth, and to decrease the variation in these parameters during the sponge cultures. First, settlement success, morphological changes during metamorphosis, and survival of

  5. Tetractinellid and hadromerid sponges of the Sultanate of Oman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.; Beglinger, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Sultanate of Oman harbours rich populations of sponges, especially in the four coral reef areas (Musandam Peninsula, Muscat coast & Daymaniyat islands, coasts of Masirah Island, and the Khuriya Muriya Islands). Up till now, apart from a few incidental samples, the sponges of Oman were known only

  6. Ecological interactions and the distribution, abundance, and diversity of sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Janie

    2012-01-01

    Although abiotic factors may be important first-order filters dictating which sponge species can thrive at a particular site, ecological interactions can play substantial roles influencing distribution and abundance, and thus diversity. Ecological interactions can modify the influences of abiotic factors both by further constraining distribution and abundance due to competitive or predatory interactions and by expanding habitat distribution or abundance due to beneficial interactions that ameliorate otherwise limiting circumstances. It is likely that the importance of ecological interactions has been greatly underestimated because they tend to only be revealed by experiments and time-series observations in the field. Experiments have revealed opportunistic predation to be a primary enforcer of sponge distribution boundaries that coincide with habitat boundaries in several systems. Within habitats, by contrast, dramatic effects of predators on sponge populations seem to occur primarily in cases of unusually high recruitment rates or unusually low mortality rates for the predators, which are often specialists on the sponge species affected. Competitive interactions have been demonstrated to diminish populations or exclude sponge species from a habitat in only a few cases. Cases in which competitive interactions have appeared obvious have often turned out to be neutral or even beneficial interactions when observed over time. Especially striking in this regard are sponge-sponge interactions in dense sponge-dominated communities, which may promote the continued coexistence of all participating species. Mutualistic symbioses of sponges with other animals, plants, or macroalgae have been demonstrated to increase abundance, habitat distribution, and diversity of all participants. Symbiotic microbes can enhance sponge distribution and abundance but also render their hosts more vulnerable to environmental changes. And while photosynthetic symbionts can boost growth and

  7. Oxygen dynamics and transport in the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, F.; Røy, Hans; Bayer, K.

    2008-01-01

    The Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba kept in aquaria or cultivation tanks can stop pumping for several hours or even days. To investigate changes in the chemical microenvironments, we measured oxygen profiles over the surface and into the tissue of pumping and non-pumping A. aerophoba...... specimens with Clark-type oxygen microelectrodes (tip diameters 18-30 μm). Total oxygen consumption rates of whole sponges were measured in closed chambers. These rates were used to back-calculate the oxygen distribution in a finite-element model. Combining direct measurements with calculations of diffusive...... flux and modeling revealed that the tissue of non-pumping sponges turns anoxic within 15 min, with the exception of a 1 mm surface layer where oxygen intrudes due to molecular diffusion over the sponge surface. Molecular diffusion is the only transport mechanism for oxygen into non-pumping sponges...

  8. Caribbean marine biodiversity as a source of new compounds of biomedical interest and others industrial applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nuñez, R.; Garateix, A.; Laguna, A.; Fernández, M.D.; Ortiz, E.; Llanio, M.; Valdés, O.; Rodríguez, A.; Menéndez, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Cuban marine flora and fauna is characterized by its richness in species that represents an extraordinary natural source of unexplored biomolecular diversity. Many of those biomolecules could represent important tools for industrial applications. For this reason, in our Centre the main aim was focused on the isolation, purification and characterization of bioactive compounds present in marine invertebrates with particular emphasis on sponges, cnidarians, seaweeds and marine...

  9. Recovery of the commercial sponges in the central and southeastern Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean after an outbreak of sponge disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. CASTRITSI-CATHARIOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and biometry of commercial sponges (Porifera in coastal areas of the central and southeastern Aegean Sea was investigated to estimate the recovery progress of the populations eight years after the first appearance of sponge disease. Signs of the disease were detected only in 1.6% of the harvested sponges. Multivariate analysis on the percentage abundance of sponges showed two distinct groups among the sixteen fishing grounds studied: the eight deep (50-110 m and the eight shallow ones (<40 m. The group from the deep depths consisted of Spongia officinalis adriatica, S. agaricina and S. zimocca. The infralittoral zone was characterized by the presence of Hippospongia communis, S. officinalis adriatica and S. officinalis mollissima. These bath sponges showed an enhanced abundance in the eastern Cretan Sea (S. Aegean Sea. In addition, their dimensions, particularly height, increased with increasing depth. It is indicated that the hydrographic conditions prevailing in the eastern Cretan Sea affected the repopulating processes of sponge banks. In each species, the biometric characteristics of the experimental specimens were similar to those of the sponges found in the market and harvested at respective depths prior to the appearance of sponge disease.

  10. The sponge pump: the role of current induced flow in the design of the sponge body plan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally P Leys

    Full Text Available Sponges are suspension feeders that use flagellated collar-cells (choanocytes to actively filter a volume of water equivalent to many times their body volume each hour. Flow through sponges is thought to be enhanced by ambient current, which induces a pressure gradient across the sponge wall, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Studies of sponge filtration have estimated the energetic cost of pumping to be 0.75 with the ambient current velocity. During short bursts of high ambient current the sponges filtered two-thirds of the total volume of water they processed daily. Our model indicates that the head loss across the sponge collar filter is 10 times higher than previously estimated. The difference is due to the resistance created by a fine protein mesh that lines the collar, which demosponges also have, but was so far overlooked. Applying our model to the in situ measurements indicates that even modest pumping rates require an energetic expenditure of at least 28% of the total in situ respiration. We suggest that due to the high cost of pumping, current-induced flow is highly beneficial but may occur only in thin walled sponges living in high flow environments. Our results call for a new look at the mechanisms underlying current-induced flow and for reevaluation of the cost of biological pumping and its evolutionary role, especially in sponges.

  11. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge... § 529.1003 Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. (a) Specifications. Each vaginal sponge... ewes during their normal breeding season. (2) Limitations. Using applicator provided, insert sponge...

  12. 21 CFR 878.4014 - Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use. 878... Nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use. (a) Identification. A nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use... include a nonresorbable gauze/sponge for external use that contains added drugs such as antimicrobial...

  13. SPONGE ROBOTIC HAND DESIGN FOR PROSTHESES

    OpenAIRE

    Mine Seçkin

    2016-01-01

    In this study robotic hands and fingers’ materials are investigated from past to present and a sponge robotic hand is designed for biomedical applications. Emergence and necessity of soft robotic technology are explained and description of soft robot is made. Because of the importance of hand in a person’s body, researchers have dealt with robotic hand prostheses for many centuries and developed many hand types. To mimic the best for the human limbs, softness of the hand is one of the importa...

  14. Effect of Melamine Sponge on Tooth Stain Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Takero; Kawata, Toshitsugu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the stain removal ability of melamine sponge before aesthetic tooth whitening in extracted teeth. Melamine sponge of thickness 40 mm was compressed and the destruction of the partition wall structure during the compression process was examined under a stereoscopic microscope. An extracted human tooth was cleaned by normal polishing or with melamine sponge for 90 s. To evaluate the stain level, the tooth surfaces were photographed under a stereoscopic microscope at 0, 30, 60 and 90 s. The residual stained region was traced in a high-magnification photograph, and the stain intensity was presented as a change, relative to the intensity before the experiment (0 s). Mechanical cleaning by toothbrushing produced polishing scratches on the tooth surface, whereas use of the melamine sponge resulted in only minimal scratches. As the compression level increased, the stain-removing effect tended to become stronger. Melamine sponge can remove stains from the tooth surface more effectively and less invasively compared to a conventional toothbrush. As no new scratches are made on the tooth surface when using a melamine sponge brush, the risk of re-staining is reduced. Cleaning using a melamine sponge brush can be easily and effectively performed at home and in a dental office.

  15. Globally intertwined evolutionary history of giant barrel sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierts, Thomas; Peijnenburg, Katja T. C. A.; de Leeuw, Christiaan A.; Breeuwer, Johannes A. J.; Cleary, Daniel F. R.; de Voogd, Nicole J.

    2017-09-01

    Three species of giant barrel sponge are currently recognized in two distinct geographic regions, the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific. In this study, we used molecular techniques to study populations of giant barrel sponges across the globe and assessed whether the genetic structure of these populations agreed with current taxonomic consensus or, in contrast, whether there was evidence of cryptic species. Using molecular data, we assessed whether giant barrel sponges in each oceanic realm represented separate monophyletic lineages. Giant barrel sponges from 17 coral reef systems across the globe were sequenced for mitochondrial (partial CO1 and ATP6 genes) and nuclear (ATPsβ intron) DNA markers. In total, we obtained 395 combined sequences of the mitochondrial CO1 and ATP6 markers, which resulted in 17 different haplotypes. We compared a phylogenetic tree constructed from 285 alleles of the nuclear intron ATPsβ to the 17 mitochondrial haplotypes. Congruent patterns between mitochondrial and nuclear gene trees of giant barrel sponges provided evidence for the existence of multiple reproductively isolated species, particularly where they occurred in sympatry. The species complexes in the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific, however, do not form separate monophyletic lineages. This rules out the scenario that one species of giant barrel sponge developed into separate species complexes following geographic separation and instead suggests that multiple species of giant barrel sponges already existed prior to the physical separation of the Indo-Pacific and tropical Atlantic.

  16. Evidence for marine microfossils from amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Vincent; Schmidt, Alexander R; Saint Martin, Simona; Struwe, Steffi; Perrichot, Vincent; Saint Martin, Jean-Paul; Grosheny, Danièle; Breton, Gérard; Néraudeau, Didier

    2008-11-11

    Amber usually contains inclusions of terrestrial and rarely limnetic organisms that were embedded in the places were they lived in the amber forests. Therefore, it has been supposed that amber could not have preserved marine organisms. Here, we report the discovery amber-preserved marine microfossils. Diverse marine diatoms as well as radiolarians, sponge spicules, a foraminifer, and a spine of a larval echinoderm were found in Late Albian and Early Cenomanian amber samples of southwestern France. The highly fossiliferous resin samples solidified approximately 100 million years ago on the floor of coastal mixed forests dominated by conifers. The amber forests of southwestern France grew directly along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean and were influenced by the nearby sea: shells and remnants of marine organisms were probably introduced by wind, spray, or high tide from the beach or the sea onto the resin flows.

  17. Biochemical trade-offs: evidence for ecologically linked secondary metabolism of the sponge Oscarella balibaloi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julijana Ivanisevic

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolite production is assumed to be costly and therefore the resource allocation to their production should be optimized with respect to primary biological functions such as growth or reproduction. Sponges are known to produce a great diversity of secondary metabolites with powerful biological activities that may explain their domination in some hard substrate communities both in terms of diversity and biomass. Oscarella balibaloi (Homoscleromorpha is a recently described, highly dynamic species, which often overgrows other sessile marine invertebrates. Bioactivity measurements (standardized Microtox assay and metabolic fingerprints were used as indicators of the baseline variations of the O. balibaloi secondary metabolism, and related to the sponge reproductive effort over two years. The bioactivity showed a significant seasonal variation with the lowest values at the end of spring and in early summer followed by the highest bioactivity in the late summer and autumn. An effect of the seawater temperature was detected, with a significantly higher bioactivity in warm conditions. There was also a tendency of a higher bioactivity when O. balibaloi was found overgrowing other sponge species. Metabolic fingerprints revealed the existence of three principal metabolic phenotypes: phenotype 1 exhibited by a majority of low bioactive, female individuals, whereas phenotypes 2 and 3 correspond to a majority of highly bioactive, non-reproductive individuals. The bioactivity was negatively correlated to the reproductive effort, minimal bioactivities coinciding with the period of embryogenesis and larval development. Our results fit the Optimal Defense Theory with an investment in the reproduction mainly shaping the secondary metabolism variability, and a less pronounced influence of other biotic (species interaction and abiotic (temperature factors.

  18. Biochemical trade-offs: evidence for ecologically linked secondary metabolism of the sponge Oscarella balibaloi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanisevic, Julijana; Thomas, Olivier P; Pedel, Laura; Pénez, Nicolas; Ereskovsky, Alexander V; Culioli, Gérald; Pérez, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Secondary metabolite production is assumed to be costly and therefore the resource allocation to their production should be optimized with respect to primary biological functions such as growth or reproduction. Sponges are known to produce a great diversity of secondary metabolites with powerful biological activities that may explain their domination in some hard substrate communities both in terms of diversity and biomass. Oscarella balibaloi (Homoscleromorpha) is a recently described, highly dynamic species, which often overgrows other sessile marine invertebrates. Bioactivity measurements (standardized Microtox assay) and metabolic fingerprints were used as indicators of the baseline variations of the O. balibaloi secondary metabolism, and related to the sponge reproductive effort over two years. The bioactivity showed a significant seasonal variation with the lowest values at the end of spring and in early summer followed by the highest bioactivity in the late summer and autumn. An effect of the seawater temperature was detected, with a significantly higher bioactivity in warm conditions. There was also a tendency of a higher bioactivity when O. balibaloi was found overgrowing other sponge species. Metabolic fingerprints revealed the existence of three principal metabolic phenotypes: phenotype 1 exhibited by a majority of low bioactive, female individuals, whereas phenotypes 2 and 3 correspond to a majority of highly bioactive, non-reproductive individuals. The bioactivity was negatively correlated to the reproductive effort, minimal bioactivities coinciding with the period of embryogenesis and larval development. Our results fit the Optimal Defense Theory with an investment in the reproduction mainly shaping the secondary metabolism variability, and a less pronounced influence of other biotic (species interaction) and abiotic (temperature) factors.

  19. Contemporary 14C radiocarbon levels of oxygenated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (O-PBDEs) isolated in sponge-cyanobacteria associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guitart, Carlos; Slattery, Marc; Ankisetty, Sridevi; Radwan, Mohamed; Ross, Samir J.; Letcher, Robert J.; Reddy, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → O-PBDEs in the marine environment could have both natural and anthropogenic origin. → Molecular-level 14 C is measured by accelerated mass spectrometry. → Industrial products, derived from fossil sources, are radiocarbon 14 C-free. → O-PBDEs compounds from marine sponges show modern levels of 14 C. → Some species could produce O-PBDEs rather than being biotransformation from industrial PBDEs. - Abstract: Considerable debate surrounds the sources of oxygenated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (O-PBDEs) in wildlife as to whether they are naturally produced or result from anthropogenic industrial activities. Natural radiocarbon ( 14 C) abundance has proven to be a powerful tool to address this problem as recently biosynthesized compounds contain contemporary (i.e. modern) amounts of atmospheric radiocarbon; whereas industrial chemicals, mostly produced from fossil fuels, contain no detectable 14 C. However, few compounds isolated from organisms have been analyzed for their radiocarbon content. To provide a baseline, we analyzed the 14 C content of four O-PBDEs. These compounds, 6-OH-BDE47, 2'-OH-BDE68, 2',6-diOH-BDE159, and a recently identified compound, 2'-MeO-6-OH-BDE120, were isolated from the tropical marine sponges Dysidea granulosa and Lendenfeldia dendyi. The modern radiocarbon content of their chemical structures (i.e. diphenyl ethers, C 12 H 22 O) indicates that they are naturally produced. This adds to a growing baseline on, at least, the sources of these unusual compounds.

  20. Environmental control measures in sponge iron industry with particular reference to Tata Sponge Iron Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarangi, B.M.; Kesav, B.; Sheshadri, M.K.

    2002-07-01

    Direct reduced iron or sponge iron technology was developed as an alternate route for steel making and is considered as a clean technology. The waste generation and gas emissions from this route of steel making are far less when compared to the conventional blast furnace route. The paper details the efforts of Tata Sponge Iron Limited to make the process a clean technology without affecting its surroundings and natural resources. The paper describes the system of bag filters made from filter glass fabric for collecting hot waste gases and for dedusting of product and raw material handling circuits. Design of the plant for waste gas cleaning by scrubbers and by electrostatic precipitators is described. Major pollution control equipment installed at Tata Sponge Iron Ltd., described in the article are: a wet gas cleaning plant (in 1986), a second gas cleaning plant with electrostatic precipitator (in 1998) and dust extraction and dust suppression systems. Water is sprayed around the plant to control fugitive dust and trees have been grown around it. 13 figs.

  1. Recent Advances in Drug Discovery from South African Marine Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Davies-Coleman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in marine drug discovery from three South African marine invertebrates, the tube worm Cephalodiscus gilchristi, the ascidian Lissoclinum sp. and the sponge Topsentia pachastrelloides, are presented. Recent reports of the bioactivity and synthesis of the anti-cancer secondary metabolites cephalostatin and mandelalides (from C. gilchristi and Lissoclinum sp., respectively and various analogues are presented. The threat of drug-resistant pathogens, e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, is assuming greater global significance, and medicinal chemistry strategies to exploit the potent MRSA PK inhibition, first revealed by two marine secondary metabolites, cis-3,4-dihydrohamacanthin B and bromodeoxytopsentin from T. pachastrelloides, are compared.

  2. Microbiome analysis shows enrichment for specific bacteria in separate anatomical regions of the deep-sea carnivorous sponge Chondrocladia grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Joost T P; Kavanagh, Alana N; Dufour, Suzanne C

    2017-01-01

    The Cladorhizidae is a unique family of carnivorous marine sponges characterised by either the absence or reduction of the aquiferous system and by the presence of specialised structures to trap and digest mesoplanktonic prey. Previous studies have postulated a key role of host-associated bacteria in enabling carnivory in this family of sponges. In this study, we employed high-throughput Illumina-based sequencing to identify the bacterial community associated with four individuals of the deep-sea sponge Chondrocladia grandis sampled in the Gulf of Maine. By characterising the V6 through V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene, we compared the bacterial community composition and diversity in three distinct anatomical regions with predicted involvement in prey capture (sphere), support (axis) and benthic substrate attachment (root). A high abundance of Tenacibaculum, a known siderophore producing bacterial genus, was present in all anatomical regions and specimens. The abundance of Colwellia and Roseobacter was greater in sphere and axis samples, and bacteria from the hydrocarbon-degrading Robiginitomaculum genus were most abundant in the root. This first description of the bacterial community associated with C. grandis provides novel insights into the contribution of bacteria to the carnivorous lifestyle while laying foundations for future cladorhizid symbiosis studies. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Fragmentation, Fusion, and Genetic Homogeneity in a Calcareous Sponge (Porifera, Calcarea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, André; Leocorny, Pedro; Custódio, Márcio Reis; Klautau, Michelle

    2016-06-01

    Sessile marine invertebrates living on hard substrata usually present strategies such as size variations, longer life spans, fragmentation and fusion to occupy and compete for space. Calcareous sponges are usually small and short-lived, and some species are known to undergo frequent fragmentation and fusion events. However, whether fusion occurs only between genetically identical individuals remains unclear. We investigated the occurrence of chimaeras in the calcareous sponge Clathrina aurea by following the dynamics of fragmentation and fusion of 66 individuals in the field for up to 18 months and determined size variations and the life span of each individual. Microsatellites were used to determine whether fusion events occur among genetically different individuals. Growth and shrinkage of individuals were frequently observed, showing that size cannot be associated with age in C. aurea. The life span of the species ranged from 1 to 16 months (mean: 4.7 months). Short life spans and variable growth rates have been observed in other species of the class Calcarea. Fragmentation and fusion events were observed, but fusion events always occurred between genetically identical individuals, as has been suggested by graft experiments in adult Demospongiae and other Calcarea. These results suggest that at least C. aurea adults may have some mechanism to avoid chimaerism. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effect of sponge ball cleaning on removing vernacles in condenser tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimura, Keisuke; Minamoto, Kenju; Kyohara, Shigeru

    1977-01-01

    Usually aluminum brass material is adopted for the condenser tubes in thermal and nuclear power stations today, and sea water is treated with chlorine for the purpose of smooth operation and maintenance, but recently, this treatment tends to be avoided in view of environment preservation. When the chlorine treatment is not carried out, vernacles and other marine living things adhere to the internal surfaces of condenser tubes, and the corrosion of the tubes and the lowering of heat transfer rate occur. In this study, sponge ball cleaning was selected as the method of mechanically removing the adhering living things in tubes. When the balls are used too frequently, the formation of protective film is hindered, and the corrosion of tubes is accelerated, therefore it is important to determine the optimal frequency. The model condenser test and the immersion test of aluminum brass and titanium tubes were carried out. The testing method, the operation record and the test results are reported. Vernacles are apt to adhere to titanium tubes rather than aluminum brass tubes, and in case of aluminum brass tubes, they adhere to those with iron hydroxide film rather than those as manufactured. Vernacles adhere more as the flow speed in tubes is lower and the number of larvae in water is more. It was confirmed that the sponge ball cleaning was extremely effective for removing vernacles. (Kako, I.)

  5. Effect of sponge ball cleaning on removing vernacles in condenser tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, K; Minamoto, K; Kyohara, S [Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan)

    1977-01-01

    Usually aluminum brass material is adopted for the condenser tubes in thermal and nuclear power stations today, and sea water is treated with chlorine for the purpose of smooth operation and maintenance, but recently, this treatment tends to be avoided in view of environment preservation. When the chlorine treatment is not carried out, vernacles and other marine living things adhere to the internal surfaces of condenser tubes, and the corrosion of the tubes and the lowering of heat transfer rate occur. In this study, sponge ball cleaning was selected as the method of mechanically removing the adhering living things in tubes. When the balls are used too frequently, the formation of protective film is hindered, and the corrosion of tubes is accelerated, therefore it is important to determine the optimal frequency. The model condenser test and the immersion test of aluminum brass and titanium tubes were carried out. The testing method, the operation record and the test results are reported. Vernacles are apt to adhere to titanium tubes rather than aluminum brass tubes, and in case of aluminum brass tubes, they adhere to those with iron hydroxide film rather than those as manufactured. Vernacles adhere more as the flow speed in tubes is lower and the number of larvae in water is more. It was confirmed that the sponge ball cleaning was extremely effective for removing vernacles.

  6. Fouling research and cleaning effect by sponge ball on condencer tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, S; Sano, A [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan); Minamoto, K; Mimura, K; Kyohara, S

    1978-07-01

    Systematic research has been performed to investigate the cleaning effect on condensers cooled by sea water. The test has been done for a year using the test condenser at the Kainan Power Station, Kansai Electric Power Company. The main purpose of this research was to see the effect of cleaning inner walls of condenser tubes with sponge balls on the prevention of adhesion of marine creatures such as barnacles and other shellfishes. As the test tubes, the aluminum-brass and titanium tubes with 25.4 mm diameter, 1.245 mm thickness and 170 mm length were used. Frequency of cleaning and flow rate were chosen as the variable parameters. The effect of seasons was also investigated. Major conclusions drawn from this research were as follows. (1) More adhesion of barnacles was observed at slower flow speed and in titanium tubes rather than aluminum brass tubes. (2) At the flow speed of 1 m/sec. cleaning frequency of more than twice a week was necessary to perfectly avoid the adhesion. (3) In summer, the adhesion was most intensive, whereas in winter, it was the least. (4) Barnacles were the most predominant organism. (5) Cleaning with sponge balls was effective.

  7. Fouling research and cleaning effect by sponge ball on condencer tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Seizo; Sano, Akira; Minamoto, Kenju; Mimura, Keisuke; Kyohara, Shigeru.

    1978-01-01

    Systematic research has been performed to investigate the cleaning effect on condensers cooled by sea water. The test has been done for a year using the test condenser at the Kainan Power Station, Kansai Electric Power Company. The main purpose of this research was to see the effect of cleaning inner walls of condenser tubes with sponge balls on the prevention of adhesion of marine creatures such as barnacles and other shellfishes. As the test tubes, the aluminum-brass and titanium tubes with 25.4 mm diameter, 1.245 mm thickness and 170 mm length were used. Frequency of cleaning and flow rate were chosen as the variable parameters. The effect of seasons was also investigated. Major conclusions drawn from this research were as follows. (1) More adhesion of barnacles was observed at slower flow speed and in titanium tubes rather than aluminum brass tubes. (2) At the flow speed of 1 m/sec. cleaning frequency of more than twice a week was necessary to perfectly avoid the adhesion. (3) In summer, the adhesion was most intensive, whereas in winter, it was the least. (4) Barnacles were the most predominant organism. (5) Cleaning with sponge balls was effective. (Aoki, K.)

  8. Preparation and evaluation of squid ink polysaccharide-chitosan as a wound-healing sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Na; Lin, Jiali; Li, Sidong; Deng, Yifeng; Kong, Songzhi; Hong, Pengzhi; Yang, Ping; Liao, Mingneng; Hu, Zhang

    2018-01-01

    A new type of wound healing agent was developed using two marine biomaterials (squid ink polysaccharide and chitosan) as carriers and calcium chloride as an initiator for coagulation. Based on central composite design-response surface methodology, comprehensive evaluation of appearance quality for composite sponges and water absorbency were used as evaluation indices to identify the optimized preparation conditions and further evaluate the performance of the squid ink polysaccharide-chitosan sponge (SIP-CS). The optimized formulation of SIP-CS was as follows: chitosan concentration, 2.29%; squid ink polysaccharide concentration, 0.55%; and calcium chloride concentration, 2.82%, at a volume ratio of 15:5:2. SIP-CS was conducive to sticking on the wound, characterized by the spongy property, strong absorptivity, and tackiness. Rabbit ear arterial, hepatic, and femoral artery hemorrhage experiments indicated that, compared with chitosan dressings and absorbable gelatin, the hemostatic times were shorter and the bleeding volume was smaller. Furthermore, SIP-CS absorbed a large amount of hemocytes, leading to rapid hemostasis. The healing areas and wound pathological sections in scalded New Zealand rabbits indicated that SIP-CS promoted wound healing more rapidly than chitosan and better than commercially available burn cream. Thus, SIP-CS is a good wound healing agent for rapid hemostasis, promoting burn/scalded skin healing, and protecting from wound infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of biotechnological potential of sponge-associated bacteria collected in Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, O C S; Soares, A R; Machado, F L S; Romanos, M T V; Muricy, G; Giambiagi-deMarval, M; Laport, M S

    2015-02-01

    Marine bacteria are a rich source of structurally unique natural compounds, several of which have shown a wide variety of biological activities. In this study, the metabolites present in the culture supernatants of the eight sponge-associated bacteria were extracted using ethyl acetate, and all extracts showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Subsequently, the extracts of the Pseudomonas fluorescens H40 and H41, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa H51 were subjected to solvent partitioning, and the active fractions were submitted to chromatographic separation. Three different active fractions were obtained, one of which was identified as diketopiperazine cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Pro). This substance was bactericidal for Staph. aureus and Ps. aeruginosa and showed cytotoxic activity against HEp-2 tumour cells. Putative gene fragments coding for the type I polyketide synthase (PKS-I) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) domains were PCR-amplified from five and three strains, respectively. The results suggest that sponge-associated bacteria analysed in this study may represent a potential source for production of antimicrobial substances against bacterial pathogens of medical importance. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Sub-lethal effects of water-based drilling muds on the deep-water sponge Geodia barretti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Katelyn J; Johnston, Emma L; Dafforn, Katherine A; Simpson, Stuart L; Kutti, Tina; Bannister, Raymond J

    2016-05-01

    Offshore oil and gas activities can result in the discharge of large amounts of drilling muds. While these materials have generally been regarded as non-toxic to marine organisms, recent studies have demonstrated negative impacts to suspension feeding organisms. We exposed the arctic-boreal sponge Geodia barretti to the primary particulate components of two water-based drilling muds; barite and bentonite. Sponges were exposed to barite, bentonite and a natural reference sediment at a range of total suspended solid concentrations (TSS = 0, 10, 50 or 100 mg/L) for 12 h after which we measured a suite of biomarker responses (lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation and glutathione). In addition, we compared biomarker responses, organic energy content and metal accumulation in sponges, which had been continuously or intermittently exposed to suspended barite and natural sediment for 14 d at relevant concentrations (10 and 30 mg TSS/L). Lysosomal membrane stability was reduced in the sponges exposed to barite at 50 and 100 mg TSS/L after just 12 h and at 30 mg TSS/L for both continuous and intermittent exposures over 14 d. Evidence of compromised cellular viability was accompanied by barite analysis revealing concentrations of Cu and Pb well above reference sediments and Norwegian sediment quality guidelines. Metal bioaccumulation in sponge tissues was low and the total organic energy content (determined by the elemental composition of organic tissue) was not affected. Intermittent exposures to barite resulted in less toxicity than continuous exposure to barite. Short term exposures to bentonite did not alter any biomarker responses. This is the first time that these biomarkers have been used to indicate contaminant exposure in an arctic-boreal sponge. Our results illustrate the potential toxicity of barite and the importance of assessments that reflect the ways in which these contaminants are delivered under environmentally realistic conditions

  11. DYNAPHORE, INC., FORAGER SPONGE TECHNOLOGY - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Forager Sponge is a volume reduction technology in which heavy metal contaminants from an aqueous medium are selectively concentrated into a smaller volume for facilitated disposal. he technology treats contaminated groundwater, surface voters and porous waters by absorbing d...

  12. Sponge Microbiota are a Reservoir of Functional Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versluis, Dennis; de Evgrafov, Mari Cristina Rodriguez; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2016-01-01

    examined sponges as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Sponges could be important in this respect because they often contain diverse microbial communities that have the capacity to produce bioactive metabolites. Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional...... resistance genes in the sponges Aplysina aerophoba, Petrosia ficiformis, and Corticium candelabrum. We obtained 37 insert sequences facilitating resistance to D-cycloserine (n = 6), gentamicin (n = 1), amikacin (n = 7), trimethoprim (n = 17), chloramphenicol (n = 1), rifampicin (n = 2) and ampicillin (n = 3......-resistance-conferring β-lactamase was identified in the genus Pseudovibrio with 41% global amino acid identity to the closest β-lactamase with demonstrated functionality, and subsequently classified into a new family termed PSV. Taken together, our results show that sponge microbiota host diverse and novel resistance...

  13. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: DYNAPHORE, INC., FORAGER SPONGE TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Forager Sponge is a volume reduction technology in which heavy metal contaminants from an aqueous medium are selectively concentrated into a smaller volume for facilitated disposal. he technology treats contaminated groundwater, surface waters and porous waters by absorbing d...

  14. Diversity, structure and convergent evolution of the global sponge microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Torsten; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Lurgi, Miguel; Björk, Johannes R.; Easson, Cole; Astudillo-García, Carmen; Olson, Julie B.; Erwin, Patrick M.; López-Legentil, Susanna; Luter, Heidi; Chaves-Fonnegra, Andia; Costa, Rodrigo; Schupp, Peter J.; Steindler, Laura; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Gilbert, Jack; Knight, Rob; Ackermann, Gail; Victor Lopez, Jose; Taylor, Michael W.; Thacker, Robert W.; Montoya, Jose M.; Hentschel, Ute; Webster, Nicole S.

    2016-01-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are early-diverging metazoa renowned for establishing complex microbial symbioses. Here we present a global Porifera microbiome survey, set out to establish the ecological and evolutionary drivers of these host–microbe interactions. We show that sponges are a reservoir of exceptional microbial diversity and major contributors to the total microbial diversity of the world's oceans. Little commonality in species composition or structure is evident across the phylum, although symbiont communities are characterized by specialists and generalists rather than opportunists. Core sponge microbiomes are stable and characterized by generalist symbionts exhibiting amensal and/or commensal interactions. Symbionts that are phylogenetically unique to sponges do not disproportionally contribute to the core microbiome, and host phylogeny impacts complexity rather than composition of the symbiont community. Our findings support a model of independent assembly and evolution in symbiont communities across the entire host phylum, with convergent forces resulting in analogous community organization and interactions. PMID:27306690

  15. Quinolizidines alkaloids: Petrosin and xestospongins from the sponge Oceanapia sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; Das, B.; Naik, C.G.

    having di-hetro atom rings, from the ethyl acetate extract of the sponge. The compounds exhibited moderate to high activities against some microorganisms and clinical isolates. The structures of the alkaloids were elucidated by NMR and ESIMS spectroscopic...

  16. Two bromotyrosine alkaloids from the sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.

    , antimicrobial properties etc. Herein is reported isolation and structure determination of two such alkaloids: 16-debromo aplysamine-4 1 and purpuramine 1 2 from the sponge @iP. purpurea@@ collected from Mandapam, Tamil Nadu, India. The structures...

  17. Call to protect deep-sea coral, sponge ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-03-01

    More than 1100 scientists are signatories to a 15 February consensus statement calling for the protection of deep sea coral and sponge ecosystems. The statement indicates that ``the greatest human threat'' to these ecosystems ``is commercial fishing, especially bottom trawling.''

  18. Transabdominal Migration of Retained Surgical Sponge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Guner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Retained surgical sponge (RSS is a rare surgical complication. The RSSs are mostly located intra-abdominally but they can also be left in the thorax, spine, extremity, cranium, and breast. RSS is often difficult to diagnose because of the nonspecific clinical symptoms and radiologic findings. Clinically, RSS may present as an exudative reaction in the early postoperative period or may also cause an aseptic fibrous tissue response. A foreign body may remain asymptomatically silent for a long time, and it may later present with obstruction, fistulization, or mass formation. In this report, we present a case in which an RSS has migrated through the abdominal wall and caused an anterior abdominal wall abscess.

  19. Medullary sponge kidney and isolated hemihyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Priyamvada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The term hemihyperplasia refers to an enlargement of body parts beyond the normal asymmetry. Hemihyperplasia can be isolated or associated with various well-described malformation syndromes. Medullary sponge kidney (MSK has been described with isolated and syndromic hemihyperplasia; the actual prevalence is not known The hemi hypertrophy can be so subtle that it may be easily overlooked. MSK need not be limited to the side of hemihyperplasia - most often it is bilateral. Around 33 cases has been reported from different parts of the world of which 15 cases are isolated hemi hyperplasia (IHH, the remaining occurring in the context of various malformation syndromes So far only one case has been reported from India. We report a case of IHH involving right side of the body, recurrent renal stones, incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis hypercalciuria and imaging showing bilateral MSKs.

  20. Arc melting in inert gas atmosphere of zirconium sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julio Junior, O.; Andrade, A.H.P. de

    1991-01-01

    The obtainment of metallic zirconium in laboratory scale with commercial and nuclear quality is the objective of the Metallurgy Department of IEN/CNEN - Brazil, so a melting procedure of zirconium sponge in laboratory scale using an arc furnace in inert atmosphere is developed. The effects of atmosphere operation, and the use of gas absorber and the sponge characteristics over the quality of button in as-cast reporting with hardness measures are described. (C.G.C.)

  1. Preparation and characterization of sponge film made from feathers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoqian [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Cao, Zhangjun [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Meihua [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Gao, Pin, E-mail: gaopin@mail.dhu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Feather wastes generated from poultry farms will pose a problem for disposal, but they are sustainable resources of keratin. Reduction is one of the commonly used methods to obtain soluble keratin from feather. However, the residues generated during feather reduction reaction were rarely investigated. In this study, the residues were transformed into a porous and flexible sponge film by freeze-drying without pretreatment or addition of cross-linking agents. Glycerol was used to alter the physical and chemical characteristics of the sponge film. The film was characterized with a fiber strong stretch instrument, a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, an elemental analyzer, a differential scanning calorimeter and an automatic air permeability apparatus. Tensile strength and melting point of the sponge film with the optimum glycerol content were 6.2 MPa and 170 °C respectively. Due to air permeability of 368 mm/s, the film can potentially be used in medicine, biology, textile, environmental technology, and so on. It is ecologically friendly and will produce additional benefits from the renewable materials. The film was utilized as adsorbents to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions and as a filtering material for air pollution. Its maximum Cr(VI) uptake capacity was about 148.8 mg/g and the removal rate of PM{sub 10} was 98.3%. - Graphical abstract: The reduction residues were made into a smooth, elastic, porous and flexible sponge film through freeze drying, no pretreatment and no cross-linking agent added. - Highlights: • The residue from feather waste reduction was turned into a sponge film. • A glycerol content of 5% produced a sponge with the optimum characteristics. • The sponge was uniform, stable up to 160 °C, and had an air permeability of 368 mm/s. • Feather-derived sponge film has potential applications in medicine and technology.

  2. Preparation and characterization of sponge film made from feathers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoqian; Cao, Zhangjun; Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Meihua; Gao, Pin

    2013-01-01

    Feather wastes generated from poultry farms will pose a problem for disposal, but they are sustainable resources of keratin. Reduction is one of the commonly used methods to obtain soluble keratin from feather. However, the residues generated during feather reduction reaction were rarely investigated. In this study, the residues were transformed into a porous and flexible sponge film by freeze-drying without pretreatment or addition of cross-linking agents. Glycerol was used to alter the physical and chemical characteristics of the sponge film. The film was characterized with a fiber strong stretch instrument, a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, an elemental analyzer, a differential scanning calorimeter and an automatic air permeability apparatus. Tensile strength and melting point of the sponge film with the optimum glycerol content were 6.2 MPa and 170 °C respectively. Due to air permeability of 368 mm/s, the film can potentially be used in medicine, biology, textile, environmental technology, and so on. It is ecologically friendly and will produce additional benefits from the renewable materials. The film was utilized as adsorbents to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions and as a filtering material for air pollution. Its maximum Cr(VI) uptake capacity was about 148.8 mg/g and the removal rate of PM 10 was 98.3%. - Graphical abstract: The reduction residues were made into a smooth, elastic, porous and flexible sponge film through freeze drying, no pretreatment and no cross-linking agent added. - Highlights: • The residue from feather waste reduction was turned into a sponge film. • A glycerol content of 5% produced a sponge with the optimum characteristics. • The sponge was uniform, stable up to 160 °C, and had an air permeability of 368 mm/s. • Feather-derived sponge film has potential applications in medicine and technology

  3. Marine Peptides and Their Anti-Infective Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Kyoung Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioresources are a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Numerous clinical trials evaluating novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from marine sources have revealed novel mechanisms of action. Recently, marine-derived bioactive peptides have attracted attention owing to their numerous beneficial effects. Moreover, several studies have reported that marine peptides exhibit various anti-infective activities, such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, anti-tuberculosis, and antiviral activities. In the last several decades, studies of marine plants, animals, and microbes have revealed tremendous number of structurally diverse and bioactive secondary metabolites. However, the treatments available for many infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses are limited. Thus, the identification of novel antimicrobial peptides should be continued, and all possible strategies should be explored. In this review, we will present the structures and anti-infective activity of peptides isolated from marine sources (sponges, algae, bacteria, fungi and fish from 2006 to the present.

  4. Pyrosequencing Reveals the Microbial Communities in the Red Sea Sponge Carteriospongia foliascens and Their Impressive Shifts in Abnormal Tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Zhaoming; Wang, Yong; Lee, Onon; Tian, Renmao; Wong, Yuehim; Bougouffa, Salim; Batang, Zenon B.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Lafi, Feras Fawzi; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Qian, Peiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Abnormality and disease in sponges have been widely reported, yet how sponge-associated microbes respond correspondingly remains inconclusive. Here, individuals of the sponge Carteriospongia foliascens under abnormal status were collected from

  5. Natural RNA circles function as efficient microRNA sponges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Birkballe; Jensen, Trine I; Clausen, Bettina Hjelm

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that act by direct base pairing to target sites within untranslated regions of messenger RNAs. Recently, miRNA activity has been shown to be affected by the presence of miRNA sponge transcripts, the so-called comp......MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that act by direct base pairing to target sites within untranslated regions of messenger RNAs. Recently, miRNA activity has been shown to be affected by the presence of miRNA sponge transcripts, the so......-called competing endogenous RNA in humans and target mimicry in plants. We previously identified a highly expressed circular RNA (circRNA) in human and mouse brain. Here we show that this circRNA acts as a miR-7 sponge; we term this circular transcript ciRS-7 (circular RNA sponge for miR-7). ciRS-7 contains more...... sponge, suggesting that miRNA sponge effects achieved by circRNA formation are a general phenomenon. This study serves as the first, to our knowledge, functional analysis of a naturally expressed circRNA....

  6. Intact collagen and atelocollagen sponges: Characterization and ESEM observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruozi, Barbara; Tosi, Giovanni; Leo, Eliana; Parma, Bruna; Vismara, Susanna; Forni, Flavio; Vandelli, Maria Angela

    2007-01-01

    In this study we have investigated the chemical-physical and morphological properties of intact and atelocollagen sponges used for tissue engineering. The porous sponges were prepared by lyophilization and their physico-chemical characteristics (water binding capacity, denaturing temperature, amino group content) were investigated. Considering the importance of the 'in vivo' interactions between these sponges and the tissue, our attention was addressed (a) to clarify the relationships between the morphology and the amount of water absorbed and (b) to evaluate the influence of pepsin-alkaline treatment on the reorganization of the atelocollagen fibres. Conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) were employed to study the morphology and wetting behaviour of the intact and atelocollagen sponges. The observations by SEM indicated remarkable differences both in the structure and dimension of the pores between intact and atelocollagen sponges. At the data are related to a different water binding capacity. However, the ESEM observations, achieved by changing the relative humidity in the operative chamber, demonstrated that the water adsorbed can be removed with major difficulty from atelocollagen sponges than from intact ones

  7. High-performance nanostructured supercapacitors on a sponge

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2011-12-14

    A simple and scalable method has been developed to fabricate nanostructured MnO 2-carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge hybrid electrodes. A novel supercapacitor, henceforth referred to as "sponge supercapacitor", has been fabricated using these hybrid electrodes with remarkable performance. A specific capacitance of 1230 F/g (based on the mass of MnO 2) can be reached. Capacitors based on CNT-sponge substrates (without MnO 2) can be operated even under a high scan rate of 200 V/s, and they exhibit outstanding cycle performance with only 2% degradation after 100000 cycles under a scan rate of 10 V/s. The MnO 2-CNT-sponge supercapacitors show only 4% of degradation after 10000 cycles at a charge-discharge specific current of 5 A/g. The specific power and energy of the MnO 2-CNT-sponge supercapacitors are high with values of 63 kW/kg and 31 Wh/kg, respectively. The attractive performances exhibited by these sponge supercapacitors make them potentially promising candidates for future energy storage systems. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. Cold-water coral reefs and adjacent sponge grounds: Hotspots of benthic respiration and organic carbon cycling in the deep sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile eCathalot

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cold-water coral reefs and adjacent sponge grounds are distributed widely in the deep ocean, where only a small fraction of the surface productivity reaches the seafloor as detritus. It remains elusive how these hotspots of biodiversity can thrive in such a food-limited environment, as data on energy flow and organic carbon utilization are critically lacking. Here we report in situ community respiration rates for cold-water coral and sponge ecosystems obtained by the non-invasive aquatic Eddy Correlation technique. Oxygen uptake rates over coral reefs and adjacent sponge grounds in the Træna Coral Field (Norway were 9-20 times higher than those of the surrounding soft sediments. These high respiration rates indicate strong organic matter consumption, and hence suggest a local focusing onto these ecosystems of the downward flux of organic matter that is exported from the surface ocean. Overall, our results show that coral reefs and adjacent sponge grounds are hotspots of carbon processing in the food-limited deep ocean, and that these deep-sea ecosystems play a more prominent role in marine biogeochemical cycles than previously recognized.

  9. Marilones A–C, phthalides from the sponge-derived fungus Stachylidium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Almeida

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The marine-derived fungus Stachylidium sp. was isolated from the sponge Callyspongia sp. cf. C. flammea. Culture on a biomalt medium supplemented with sea salt led to the isolation of three new phthalide derivatives, i.e., marilones A–C (1–3, and the known compound silvaticol (4. The skeleton of marilones A and B is most unusual, and its biosynthesis is suggested to require unique biochemical reactions considering fungal secondary metabolism. Marilone A (1 was found to have antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium berghei liver stages with an IC50 of 12.1 µM. Marilone B (2 showed selective antagonistic activity towards the serotonin receptor 5-HT2B with a Ki value of 7.7 µM.

  10. Antibacterial Bisabolane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Sponge-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp.

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dan

    2012-01-19

    Four new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids, aspergiterpenoid A (1), (-)-sydonol (2), (-)-sydonic acid (3), and (-)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(2′, 6′,6′-trimethyltetrahydro-2Hpyran-2-yl)phenol (4) together with one known fungal metabolite (5) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp., which was isolated from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the South China Sea. Four of them (1-4) are optically active compounds. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by using NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometric analysis, and by comparing their optical rotations with those related known analogues. Compounds 1-5 showed selective antibacterial activity against eight bacterial strains with the MIC (minimum inhibiting concentrations) values between 1.25 and 20.0 μM. The cytotoxic, antifouling, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of these compounds were also examined. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  11. Antibacterial Bisabolane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Sponge-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids, aspergiterpenoid A (1, (−-sydonol (2, (−-sydonic acid (3, and (−-5-(hydroxymethyl-2-(2′,6′,6′-trimethyltetrahydro-2H- pyran-2-ylphenol (4 together with one known fungal metabolite (5 were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp., which was isolated from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the South China Sea. Four of them (1–4 are optically active compounds. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by using NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometric analysis, and by comparing their optical rotations with those related known analogues. Compounds 1–5 showed selective antibacterial activity against eight bacterial strains with the MIC (minimum inhibiting concentrations values between 1.25 and 20.0 µM. The cytotoxic, antifouling, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of these compounds were also examined.

  12. Antibacterial Bisabolane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Sponge-Derived Fungus Aspergillus sp.

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dan; Xu, Ying; Shao, Chang-Lun; Yang, Rui-Yun; Zheng, Cai-Juan; Chen, Yi-Yan; Fu, Xiu-Mei; Qian, Pei-Yuan; She, Zhi-Gang; de Voogd, Nicole J.; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Four new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids, aspergiterpenoid A (1), (-)-sydonol (2), (-)-sydonic acid (3), and (-)-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(2′, 6′,6′-trimethyltetrahydro-2Hpyran-2-yl)phenol (4) together with one known fungal metabolite (5) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungus Aspergillus sp., which was isolated from the sponge Xestospongia testudinaria collected from the South China Sea. Four of them (1-4) are optically active compounds. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by using NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometric analysis, and by comparing their optical rotations with those related known analogues. Compounds 1-5 showed selective antibacterial activity against eight bacterial strains with the MIC (minimum inhibiting concentrations) values between 1.25 and 20.0 μM. The cytotoxic, antifouling, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of these compounds were also examined. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  13. Tulongicin, an Antibacterial Tri-Indole Alkaloid from a Deep-Water Topsentia sp. Sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Bing; Lauro, Gianluigi; O'Connor, Robert D; Lohith, Katheryn; Kelly, Michelle; Colin, Patrick; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Bewley, Carole A

    2017-09-22

    Antibacterial-guided fractionation of an extract of a deep-water Topsentia sp. marine sponge led to the isolation of two new indole alkaloids, tulongicin A (1) and dihydrospongotine C (2), along with two known analogues, spongotine C (3) and dibromodeoxytopsentin (4). Their planar structures were determined by NMR spectroscopy. Their absolute configurations were determined through a combination of experimental and computational analyses. Tulongicin (1) is the first natural product to contain a di(6-Br-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl group linked to an imidazole core. The coexistence of tri-indole 1 and bis-indole alcohol 2 suggests a possible route to 1. All of the compounds showed strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

  14. Neopetrosiquinones A and B, sesquiterpene benzoquinones isolated from the deep-water sponge Neopetrosia cf. proxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Priscilla L; Baker, Heather L; Linley, Patricia; Guzmán, Esther A; Pomponi, Shirley A; Diaz, M Cristina; Reed, John K; Wright, Amy E

    2011-11-15

    Two new marine-derived sesquiterpene benzoquinones which we designate as neopetrosiquinones A (1) and B (2), have been isolated from a deep-water sponge of the family Petrosiidae. The structures were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibit the in vitro proliferation of the DLD-1 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line with IC(50) values of 3.7 and 9.8 μM, respectively, and the PANC-1 human pancreatic carcinoma cell line with IC(50) values of 6.1 and 13.8 μM, respectively. Neopetrosiquinone A (1) also inhibited the in vitro proliferation of the AsPC-1 human pancreatic carcinoma cell line with an IC(50) value of 6.1 μM. The compounds are structurally related to alisiaquinone A, cyclozonarone, and xestoquinone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular characterization and bioactivity profile of the tropical sponge-associated bacterium Shewanella algae VCDB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachanamol, R. S.; Lipton, A. P.; Thankamani, V.; Sarika, A. R.; Selvin, J.

    2014-06-01

    The pigmented, rod-shaped, Gram-negative, motile bacteria isolated from marine sponge Callyspongia diffusa exhibiting bioactivity was characterized as Shewanella algae (GenBank: KC623651). The 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis showed its similarity with the member of Shewanella and placed in a separate cluster with the recognized bacteria S. algae (PSB-05 FJ86678) with which it showed 99.0 % sequence similarity. Growth of the strain was optimum at temperature 30 °C, pH 8.0 in the presence of 2.0-4.0 % of NaCl. High antibiotic activity against microbes such as Escherichia coli (MTCC 40), S. typhii (MTCC 98), P. vulgaris (MTCC 426), V. fluvialis, V. anguillarum, E. cloacae, and L. lactis was recorded. The growth of fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was effectively controlled.

  16. Experience of Sponge City Master Plan: A Case Study of Nanning City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wei; Wang Jiazhuo; Che Han; Wang Chen; Zhang Chunyang; Shi Lian; Fan Jin; Li Caige

    2017-01-01

    As a new urban development pattern, the construction of sponge cities has been deeply integrated into the new urbanization and water safety strategy. Nanning City, as one of the first batch of experimental sponge cities in China, has undertaken exploration and practice on sponge city planning, construction, and management. The sponge city master plan of Nanning City establishes an urban ecological spatial pattern in order to protect the security of the sponge base. The sponge city construction strategy has also proposed an overall construction strategy of a sponge city in line with urban development features. Through the systematic analysis and planning, a “23+10+202” pattern of sponge city construction has been formed. “23” represents 23 drainage basins, in which major sponge facilities such as storage facilities, waterfront buffer zones, wetland parks, ecological rainwater corridor and sponge parks are allocated. “10” represents 10 sponge functional zones, which provide important reference for the establishment of sponge city construction index system. “202” represents 202 management units, which decomposes the general objective and provides technical support not only for sponge city construction and management, but also for the implementation of general objectives in the regulatory plan as well.

  17. The role of sponge-bacteria interactions: the sponge Aplysilla rosea challenged by its associated bacterium Streptomyces ACT-52A in a controlled aquarium system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehbub, Mohammad F; Tanner, Jason E; Barnett, Stephen J; Franco, Christopher M M; Zhang, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Sponge-associated bacteria play a critical role in sponge biology, metabolism and ecology, but how they interact with their host sponges and the role of these interactions are poorly understood. This study investigated the role of the interaction between the sponge Aplysilla rosea and its associated actinobacterium, Streptomyces ACT-52A, in modifying sponge microbial diversity, metabolite profile and bioactivity. A recently developed experimental approach that exposes sponges to bacteria of interest in a controlled aquarium system was improved by including the capture and analysis of secreted metabolites by the addition of an absorbent resin in the seawater. In a series of controlled aquaria, A. rosea was exposed to Streptomyces ACT-52A at 10 6  cfu/ml and monitored for up to 360 h. Shifts in microbial communities associated with the sponges occurred within 24 to 48 h after bacterial exposure and continued until 360 h, as revealed by TRFLP. The metabolite profiles of sponge tissues also changed substantially as the microbial community shifted. Control sponges (without added bacteria) and Streptomyces ACT-52A-exposed sponges released different metabolites into the seawater that was captured by the resin. The antibacterial activity of compounds collected from the seawater increased at 96 and 360 h of exposure for the treated sponges compared to the control group due to new compounds being produced and released. Increased antibacterial activity of metabolites from treated sponge tissue was observed only at 360 h, whereas that of control sponge tissue remained unchanged. The results demonstrate that the interaction between sponges and their associated bacteria plays an important role in regulating secondary metabolite production.

  18. Preliminary study on the occurrence of brominated organic compounds in Dutch marine organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.J.J.; Veen, van der I.; Hesselingen, van J.M.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Osinga, R.; Boer, de J.

    2003-01-01

    The extracts of three marine organisms; the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, the brown seaweed Sargassum muticum and the sponge Halichondria panicea, all elicited a number of brominated compounds, some of which were tentatively identified. Tribromophenol was observed in all species. This compound, also

  19. Carbon nanotube-coated macroporous sponge for microbial fuel cell electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Xing; Ye, Meng; Hu, Liangbing; Liu, Nian; McDonough, James R.; Chen, Wei; Alshareef, Husam N.; Criddle, Craig S.; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The materials that are used to make electrodes and their internal structures significantly affect microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance. In this study, we describe a carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge composite prepared by coating a sponge with CNTs

  20. Response of the Mediterranean sponge Chondrosia reniformis Nardo to copper pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebrian, E.; Agell, G.; Marti, R.; Uriz, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of exposure to copper pollution on the Atlanto-Mediterranean sponge Chondrosia reniformis. We transplanted sponges from an unpolluted control area to a harbour with a moderately high concentration of copper and measured several biological sponge variables. No effect of this habitat was detected on sponge growth, shape, heat-shock protein expression or metal accumulation. However, a decrease in the clearance rate, an increase in the collagen/cell rate (due to a decrease in the cellular components) and a lower survival rate after 4 months of the sponges transplanted to the harbour was observed. We suggest that copper may alter the sponge physiology, by reducing pumping capacity, which may ultimately lead to sponge death. Consequently, copper pollution exerts strong negative effects on this organism. - Contrasting effects of copper pollution on the Atlanto-Mediterranean sponge Chondrosia reniformis