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Sample records for marine organisms mollusc

  1. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Concentration parameters for radionuclides by marine molluscs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu; Makamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Matsuba, Mitsue

    1994-01-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides from seawater and from food by marine molluscs was observed in the laboratory experiments to get bioconcentration parameters for the nuclides. The radionuclides investigated were 57 Co, 95m Tc, 103 Ru, 137 Cs, 65 Zn and 54 Mn. Several species of molluscs containing pelecypods, gastropods and cephalopod were used for the experimental organisms. For the uptake experiment from seawater, the organisms were kept for more than seven days in radioactive seawater containing those radionuclides together. Then the organisms were transferred into nonradioactive seawater to observe the loss of the nuclides from the organisms. Biphasic loss curves were observed for all of the nuclides. Bioconcentration parameters, such as uptake rate, excretion rate, biological half-life and concentration factor at steady state were estimated from the uptake and excretion curves of the nuclides by the organisms by applying an exponential model. In the uptake experiments from radioactive food, the phytoplankton (Tetraselmis tetrathele), the brown algae (Eisenia bicyclis) and the viscera of abalone (Haliotis discus) were fed to bivalves, herbivorous gastropods and carnivorous molluscs, respectively. After single feeding of the labelled food with the nuclides, retention of the nuclides in whole body of the organisms was followed for several weeks or more. The organisms showed relatively high retention of the nuclides in whole body, except 137 Cs and 54 Mn. Retention of 137 Cs and 54 Mn in the organisms one day after feeding of radioactive food was lower than 25% of the radioactivity dosed. (author)

  3. Concentration parameters for radionuclides by marine molluscs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahara, Motokazu; Makamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Matsuba, Mitsue [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Nakaminato, Ibaraki (Japan). Nakaminato Lab. Branch Office

    1994-03-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides from seawater and from food by marine molluscs was observed in the laboratory experiments to get bioconcentration parameters for the nuclides. The radionuclides investigated were {sup 57}Co, {sup 95m}Tc, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 65}Zn and {sup 54}Mn. Several species of molluscs containing pelecypods, gastropods and cephalopod were used for the experimental organisms. For the uptake experiment from seawater, the organisms were kept for more than seven days in radioactive seawater containing those radionuclides together. Then the organisms were transferred into nonradioactive seawater to observe the loss of the nuclides from the organisms. Biphasic loss curves were observed for all of the nuclides. Bioconcentration parameters, such as uptake rate, excretion rate, biological half-life and concentration factor at steady state were estimated from the uptake and excretion curves of the nuclides by the organisms by applying an exponential model. In the uptake experiments from radioactive food, the phytoplankton (Tetraselmis tetrathele), the brown algae (Eisenia bicyclis) and the viscera of abalone (Haliotis discus) were fed to bivalves, herbivorous gastropods and carnivorous molluscs, respectively. After single feeding of the labelled food with the nuclides, retention of the nuclides in whole body of the organisms was followed for several weeks or more. The organisms showed relatively high retention of the nuclides in whole body, except {sup 137}Cs and {sup 54}Mn. Retention of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 54}Mn in the organisms one day after feeding of radioactive food was lower than 25% of the radioactivity dosed. (author).

  4. Fossils mollusc asemblage found at Zagarzazu, marine Pleistocene, Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, A. . E mail: alejandra@fcien.edu.uy

    2004-01-01

    There are presented the results of the paleoecological analysis of the mollusc assemblage found at Zagarzazu, Colonia department. The fossils are well preserved, arranged in thin shell-beds with some specimens in life position. The assemblage is indicative of higher temperatures than present, and a strong marine influence. It is important to stress that new thermophilic molluscs for the marine Quaternary were found and that this locality represents a new Pleistocene marine record in Uruguay [es

  5. Ancient DNA analysis identifies marine mollusc shells as new metagenomic archives of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Pichereau, Vianney; Dupont, Catherine; Ilsøe, Peter C; Perrigault, Mickael; Butler, Paul; Chauvaud, Laurent; Eiríksson, Jón; Scourse, James; Paillard, Christine; Orlando, Ludovic

    2017-09-01

    Marine mollusc shells enclose a wealth of information on coastal organisms and their environment. Their life history traits as well as (palaeo-) environmental conditions, including temperature, food availability, salinity and pollution, can be traced through the analysis of their shell (micro-) structure and biogeochemical composition. Adding to this list, the DNA entrapped in shell carbonate biominerals potentially offers a novel and complementary proxy both for reconstructing palaeoenvironments and tracking mollusc evolutionary trajectories. Here, we assess this potential by applying DNA extraction, high-throughput shotgun DNA sequencing and metagenomic analyses to marine mollusc shells spanning the last ~7,000 years. We report successful DNA extraction from shells, including a variety of ancient specimens, and find that DNA recovery is highly dependent on their biomineral structure, carbonate layer preservation and disease state. We demonstrate positive taxonomic identification of mollusc species using a combination of mitochondrial DNA genomes, barcodes, genome-scale data and metagenomic approaches. We also find shell biominerals to contain a diversity of microbial DNA from the marine environment. Finally, we reconstruct genomic sequences of organisms closely related to the Vibrio tapetis bacteria from Manila clam shells previously diagnosed with Brown Ring Disease. Our results reveal marine mollusc shells as novel genetic archives of the past, which opens new perspectives in ancient DNA research, with the potential to reconstruct the evolutionary history of molluscs, microbial communities and pathogens in the face of environmental changes. Other future applications include conservation of endangered mollusc species and aquaculture management. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Ancient DNA analysis identifies marine mollusc shells as new metagenomic archives of the past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Pichereau, Vianney; Dupont, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Marine mollusc shells enclose a wealth of information on coastal organisms and their environment. Their life history traits as well as (palaeo-) environmental conditions, including temperature, food availability, salinity and pollution, can be traced through the analysis of their shell (micro...... extraction, high-throughput shotgun DNA sequencing and metagenomic analyses to marine mollusc shells spanning the last ~7,000 years. We report successful DNA extraction from shells, including a variety of ancient specimens, and find that DNA recovery is highly dependent on their biomineral structure......, carbonate layer preservation and disease state. We demonstrate positive taxonomic identification of mollusc species using a combination of mitochondrial DNA genomes, barcodes, genome-scale data and metagenomic approaches. We also find shell biominerals to contain a diversity of microbial DNA from the marine...

  7. Patterns of DNA barcode variation in Canadian marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Kara K S; Martel, André L; Hebert, Paul D N

    2014-01-01

    Molluscs are the most diverse marine phylum and this high diversity has resulted in considerable taxonomic problems. Because the number of species in Canadian oceans remains uncertain, there is a need to incorporate molecular methods into species identifications. A 648 base pair segment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene has proven useful for the identification and discovery of species in many animal lineages. While the utility of DNA barcoding in molluscs has been demonstrated in other studies, this is the first effort to construct a DNA barcode registry for marine molluscs across such a large geographic area. This study examines patterns of DNA barcode variation in 227 species of Canadian marine molluscs. Intraspecific sequence divergences ranged from 0-26.4% and a barcode gap existed for most taxa. Eleven cases of relatively deep (>2%) intraspecific divergence were detected, suggesting the possible presence of overlooked species. Structural variation was detected in COI with indels found in 37 species, mostly bivalves. Some indels were present in divergent lineages, primarily in the region of the first external loop, suggesting certain areas are hotspots for change. Lastly, mean GC content varied substantially among orders (24.5%-46.5%), and showed a significant positive correlation with nearest neighbour distances. DNA barcoding is an effective tool for the identification of Canadian marine molluscs and for revealing possible cases of overlooked species. Some species with deep intraspecific divergence showed a biogeographic partition between lineages on the Atlantic, Arctic and Pacific coasts, suggesting the role of Pleistocene glaciations in the subdivision of their populations. Indels were prevalent in the barcode region of the COI gene in bivalves and gastropods. This study highlights the efficacy of DNA barcoding for providing insights into sequence variation across a broad taxonomic group on a large geographic scale.

  8. Shell biofilm-associated nitrous oxide production in marine molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterkamp, I.M.; Schramm, Andreas; Larsen, Lone Heimann

    2013-01-01

    Emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) from freshwater and terrestrial invertebrates has exclusively been ascribed to N2O production by ingested denitrifying bacteria in the anoxic gut of the animals. Our study of marine molluscs now shows that also microbial biofilms on shell surfaces...... are important sites of N2O production. The shell biofilms of Mytilus edulis, Littorina littorea and Hinia reticulata contributed 18-94% to the total animal-associated N2O emission. Nitrification and denitrification were equally important sources of N2O in shell biofilms as revealed by 15N-stable isotope...... mollusc species. Ammonium excretion by the animals was found to be sufficient to sustain N2O production in the shell biofilm. Apparently, the animals provide a nutrient-enriched microenvironment that stimulates growth and N2O production of the shell biofilm. This animal-induced stimulation...

  9. Behaviour of molluscs in cantabrian biota with respect to the activity present in the marine medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesinos, M.; Santos, A.M. de los

    1981-01-01

    The behaviour of molluscs with regard to the activity present in the marine medium is studied. For this purpose three large groups are considered, with special reference to their ecology and their particular mode of incorporating activity. Determinations are made of the total alpha and beta activity, as well as that due to elements such as 90 Sr, 137 Cs and natural U, in the organisms in question and in their eco-environment. A comparison is likewise established between the biocoenoses inhabiting Cantabrian and Mediterranean biota. (author)

  10. Tributyltin accumulation and effects in marine molluscs from West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.; Asmund, G

    2003-05-01

    Tributyltin is accumulated in marine molluscs living in Greenland, with the highest levels found in harbour areas. - The levels of the antifouling agent tributyltin (TBT) and its breakdown products in bivalves were investigated in 1999-2000 at six areas along the west coast of Greenland with focus on locations inside and outside harbours. In addition female gastropods were examined for the development of TBT-induced masculine characteristics in form of imposex or intersex. The highest TBT concentration, 254 ng g{sup -1} ww, was found in the bivalve Mytilus edulis sampled inside Nuuk harbour, but significant TBT concentrations were also present in bivalves from the other harbour areas. Only low levels of TBT were detected in bivalves sampled outside the harbours and in several of the samples the TBT level was below the detection limit. The examination of neogastropods like Buccinum revealed that imposex development occurred in all the harbours. In contrast, imposex was not found in any neogastropods sampled outside the harbour areas. However, the value of marine neogastropods as indicators of TBT contamination in West Greenland seems limited, because of large species diversity and the difficulties in sampling enough specimens at least with the current sampling strategy. No effects, which could be related to TBT contamination, were found in the most abundant tidal gastropod in West Greenland, Littorina saxatilis.

  11. Tributyltin accumulation and effects in marine molluscs from West Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.; Asmund, G.

    2003-01-01

    Tributyltin is accumulated in marine molluscs living in Greenland, with the highest levels found in harbour areas. - The levels of the antifouling agent tributyltin (TBT) and its breakdown products in bivalves were investigated in 1999-2000 at six areas along the west coast of Greenland with focus on locations inside and outside harbours. In addition female gastropods were examined for the development of TBT-induced masculine characteristics in form of imposex or intersex. The highest TBT concentration, 254 ng g -1 ww, was found in the bivalve Mytilus edulis sampled inside Nuuk harbour, but significant TBT concentrations were also present in bivalves from the other harbour areas. Only low levels of TBT were detected in bivalves sampled outside the harbours and in several of the samples the TBT level was below the detection limit. The examination of neogastropods like Buccinum revealed that imposex development occurred in all the harbours. In contrast, imposex was not found in any neogastropods sampled outside the harbour areas. However, the value of marine neogastropods as indicators of TBT contamination in West Greenland seems limited, because of large species diversity and the difficulties in sampling enough specimens at least with the current sampling strategy. No effects, which could be related to TBT contamination, were found in the most abundant tidal gastropod in West Greenland, Littorina saxatilis

  12. EU Regulatory Risk Management of Marine Biotoxins in the Marine Bivalve Mollusc Food-Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheál O’Mahony

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Food safety risk assessment in the European Union (EU recognises consumer illness that arises from marine biotoxins as a risk associated with bivalve mollusc consumption. EU food regulations contain various general food safety obligations, which should contribute significantly to managing this risk. EU food regulations additionally impose various specific obligations on both Food Business Operators and Competent Authorities in order to manage the marine biotoxin food safety risk in the bivalve mollusc food-chain. These have a particular focus on the pre-harvest component of the food-chain. A central component of these specific systems is the requirement for ongoing monitoring of phytoplankton and biotoxin concentrations in water and molluscs, respectively. This monitoring explicitly brings a potential outcome of closing production areas delineated by classification to prohibit the harvest of bivalve molluscs as food from those areas when acceptable biotoxin concentrations are exceeded. This review considers the utility of these systems, at conceptual and practical levels, and explores their contribution to an effective regulatory risk management approach.

  13. EU Regulatory Risk Management of Marine Biotoxins in the Marine Bivalve Mollusc Food-Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Micheál

    2018-03-10

    Food safety risk assessment in the European Union (EU) recognises consumer illness that arises from marine biotoxins as a risk associated with bivalve mollusc consumption. EU food regulations contain various general food safety obligations, which should contribute significantly to managing this risk. EU food regulations additionally impose various specific obligations on both Food Business Operators and Competent Authorities in order to manage the marine biotoxin food safety risk in the bivalve mollusc food-chain. These have a particular focus on the pre-harvest component of the food-chain. A central component of these specific systems is the requirement for ongoing monitoring of phytoplankton and biotoxin concentrations in water and molluscs, respectively. This monitoring explicitly brings a potential outcome of closing production areas delineated by classification to prohibit the harvest of bivalve molluscs as food from those areas when acceptable biotoxin concentrations are exceeded. This review considers the utility of these systems, at conceptual and practical levels, and explores their contribution to an effective regulatory risk management approach.

  14. Marine 14C reservoir ages for 19th century whales and molluscs from the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangerud, Jan; Bondevik, Stein; Gulliksen, Steinar; Karin Hufthammer, Anne; Høisæter, Tore

    2006-12-01

    In order to compare radiocarbon dates on marine and terrestrial samples the former have to be corrected for a reservoir age. We present reservoir ages from dating 21 whales collected 1860-1901 and recalculating dates of 23 molluscs collected 1857-1926. Most of the whales were caught along the coast of Norway, but one is from France and one from Iceland. We assume the former mainly lived in the North and equatorial Atlantic and in the Norwegian Sea. Whales feed only on pelagic organisms and will provide the reservoir age for the open ocean surface water. However, they travel long distances and will integrate the reservoir ages of the different water masses along their way. Molluscs (dated from Norway, Spitsbergen and Arctic Canada) are stationary and monitor the sea water passing their dwelling site, but some also take up carbon from particulate food or sediment pore water. Coastal water also often contains some continental carbon. We present two different views on how to analyze and interpret the data. Mangerud recommends to use reservoir ages based on a combination of the whale and mollusc dates, i.e. 380±30 and 360±30 yr relative to Intcal04 and British oak, respectively, and a Δ R value of 20±30 for the surface water in the N-Atlantic and Norwegian Sea. Bondevik and Gulliksen maintain that the reservoir age—and Δ R—along the Norwegian coast is latitude dependant, with Δ R-values increasing from -3±22 in the South to 105±24 at Spitsbergen. Whales, reflecting North Atlantic open ocean surface water have lower Δ R (7±11) than most molluscs.

  15. Large-Scale Trade in Legally Protected Marine Mollusc Shells from Java and Bali, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Vincent; Spaan, Denise; Nekaris, K. Anne-Isola

    2015-01-01

    Background Tropical marine molluscs are traded globally. Larger species with slow life histories are under threat from over-exploitation. We report on the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in and from Java and Bali, Indonesia. Since 1987 twelve species of marine molluscs are protected under Indonesian law to shield them from overexploitation. Despite this protection they are traded openly in large volumes. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected data on species composition, origins, volumes and prices at two large open markets (2013), collected data from wholesale traders (2013), and compiled seizure data by the Indonesian authorities (2008–2013). All twelve protected species were observed in trade. Smaller species were traded for trade involves networks stretching hundreds of kilometres throughout Indonesia. Wholesale traders offer protected marine mollusc shells for the export market by the container or by the metric ton. Data from 20 confiscated shipments show an on-going trade in these molluscs. Over 42,000 shells were seized over a 5-year period, with a retail value of USD700,000 within Indonesia; horned helmet (Cassis cornuta) (>32,000 shells valued at USD500,000), chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius) (>3,000 shells, USD60,000) and giant clams (Tridacna spp.) (>2,000 shells, USD45,000) were traded in largest volumes. Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrated that the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in Indonesia is not controlled nor monitored, that it involves large volumes, and that networks of shell collectors, traders, middlemen and exporters span the globe. This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries. PMID:26717021

  16. Large-Scale Trade in Legally Protected Marine Mollusc Shells from Java and Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Vincent; Spaan, Denise; Nekaris, K Anne-Isola

    2015-01-01

    Tropical marine molluscs are traded globally. Larger species with slow life histories are under threat from over-exploitation. We report on the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in and from Java and Bali, Indonesia. Since 1987 twelve species of marine molluscs are protected under Indonesian law to shield them from overexploitation. Despite this protection they are traded openly in large volumes. We collected data on species composition, origins, volumes and prices at two large open markets (2013), collected data from wholesale traders (2013), and compiled seizure data by the Indonesian authorities (2008-2013). All twelve protected species were observed in trade. Smaller species were traded for Java and Bali, but the trade involves networks stretching hundreds of kilometres throughout Indonesia. Wholesale traders offer protected marine mollusc shells for the export market by the container or by the metric ton. Data from 20 confiscated shipments show an on-going trade in these molluscs. Over 42,000 shells were seized over a 5-year period, with a retail value of USD700,000 within Indonesia; horned helmet (Cassis cornuta) (>32,000 shells valued at USD500,000), chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius) (>3,000 shells, USD60,000) and giant clams (Tridacna spp.) (>2,000 shells, USD45,000) were traded in largest volumes. Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region. We demonstrated that the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in Indonesia is not controlled nor monitored, that it involves large volumes, and that networks of shell collectors, traders, middlemen and exporters span the globe. This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries.

  17. Contamination of raw bivalve molluscs available in Poland between 2009 and 2013 with marine biotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Mirosław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing consumption of shellfish is associated with an increased risk of food poisoning. The study was carried out on live bivalve molluscs available on the Polish market between 2009 and 2013. Material and Methods: ELISA was used for the determination of the following marine biotoxins: paralytic shellfish poison (PSP, amnaesic shellfish poison (ASP, and diarrhoeic shellfish poison (DSP. The molluscs, of which seven species were examined, were obtained from wholesale companies and markets. Results: Marine biotoxins were detected below the permitted levels in 67.6% of the samples. The maximum amounts of PSP and ASP biotoxins were found in great scallops (532.6 μg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg respectively and the peak for DSP was in blue mussels (107 μg/kg. Conclusion: The analysis of toxicological status of raw bivalve molluscs available on the market in Poland indicates that they are safe for consumers.

  18. Large-Scale Trade in Legally Protected Marine Mollusc Shells from Java and Bali, Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Nijman

    Full Text Available Tropical marine molluscs are traded globally. Larger species with slow life histories are under threat from over-exploitation. We report on the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in and from Java and Bali, Indonesia. Since 1987 twelve species of marine molluscs are protected under Indonesian law to shield them from overexploitation. Despite this protection they are traded openly in large volumes.We collected data on species composition, origins, volumes and prices at two large open markets (2013, collected data from wholesale traders (2013, and compiled seizure data by the Indonesian authorities (2008-2013. All twelve protected species were observed in trade. Smaller species were traded for 32,000 shells valued at USD500,000, chambered nautilus (Nautilus pompilius (>3,000 shells, USD60,000 and giant clams (Tridacna spp. (>2,000 shells, USD45,000 were traded in largest volumes. Two-thirds of this trade was destined for international markets, including in the USA and Asia-Pacific region.We demonstrated that the trade in protected marine mollusc shells in Indonesia is not controlled nor monitored, that it involves large volumes, and that networks of shell collectors, traders, middlemen and exporters span the globe. This impedes protection of these species on the ground and calls into question the effectiveness of protected species management in Indonesia; solutions are unlikely to be found only in Indonesia and must involve the cooperation of importing countries.

  19. Infectious diseases of marine molluscs and host responses as revealed by genomic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    More and more infectious diseases affect marine molluscs. Some diseases have impacted commercial species including MSX and Dermo of the eastern oyster, QPX of hard clams, withering syndrome of abalone and ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) infections of many molluscs. Although the exact transmission mechanisms are not well understood, human activities and associated environmental changes often correlate with increased disease prevalence. For instance, hatcheries and large-scale aquaculture create high host densities, which, along with increasing ocean temperature, might have contributed to OsHV-1 epizootics in scallops and oysters. A key to understanding linkages between the environment and disease is to understand how the environment affects the host immune system. Although we might be tempted to downplay the role of immunity in invertebrates, recent advances in genomics have provided insights into host and parasite genomes and revealed surprisingly sophisticated innate immune systems in molluscs. All major innate immune pathways are found in molluscs with many immune receptors, regulators and effectors expanded. The expanded gene families provide great diversity and complexity in innate immune response, which may be key to mollusc's defence against diverse pathogens in the absence of adaptive immunity. Further advances in host and parasite genomics should improve our understanding of genetic variation in parasite virulence and host disease resistance. PMID:26880838

  20. Toxicity of tributyltin in the marine mollusc Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Josephine A; Depledge, Michael H; Galloway, Tamara S

    2005-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that tributyltin (TBT) is genotoxic to the early life stages of marine mussels and worms. Here, the toxicity of TBT to adult organisms was determined using a suite of biomarkers designed to detect cytotoxic, immunotoxic and genotoxic effects. Exposure of adult mussels, Mytilus edulis, to environmentally realistic concentrations of TBTO for 7 days resulted in a statistically significant decrease in cell viability at concentrations of 0.5 microg/l and above. TBT had no effect on phagocytic activity or antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay). There was a statistically significant increase in DNA damage detected using the comet and micronucleus assays between the controls and 0.5, 1 and 5 microg/l of TBTO (P > 0.0005). Furthermore there was a strong correlation between DNA strand breaks (comet assay) and formation of micronuclei (P = 0.0005; R2 = 61.5%). Possible mechanisms by which TBT could damage DNA either directly or indirectly are discussed including the possibility that TBT is genotoxic due to its ability to disrupt calcium homeostasis.

  1. The ecology, evolution, impacts and management of host-parasite interactions of marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, Loren D; Bishop, Melanie J

    2015-10-01

    Molluscs are economically and ecologically important components of aquatic ecosystems. In addition to supporting valuable aquaculture and wild-harvest industries, their populations determine the structure of benthic communities, cycling of nutrients, serve as prey resources for higher trophic levels and, in some instances, stabilize shorelines and maintain water quality. This paper reviews existing knowledge of the ecology of host-parasite interactions involving marine molluscs, with a focus on gastropods and bivalves. It considers the ecological and evolutionary impacts of molluscan parasites on their hosts and vice versa, and on the communities and ecosystems in which they are a part, as well as disease management and its ecological impacts. An increasing number of case studies show that disease can have important effects on marine molluscs, their ecological interactions and ecosystem services, at spatial scales from centimeters to thousands of kilometers and timescales ranging from hours to years. In some instances the cascading indirect effects arising from parasitic infection of molluscs extend well beyond the temporal and spatial scales at which molluscs are affected by disease. In addition to the direct effects of molluscan disease, there can be large indirect impacts on marine environments resulting from strategies, such as introduction of non-native species and selective breeding for disease resistance, put in place to manage disease. Much of our understanding of impacts of molluscan diseases on the marine environment has been derived from just a handful of intensively studied marine parasite-host systems, namely gastropod-trematode, cockle-trematode, and oyster-protistan interactions. Understanding molluscan host-parasite dynamics is of growing importance because: (1) expanding aquaculture; (2) current and future climate change; (3) movement of non-native species; and (4) coastal development are modifying molluscan disease dynamics, ultimately leading to

  2. Shell biofilm-associated nitrous oxide production in marine molluscs: processes, precursors and relative importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterkamp, Ines M; Schramm, Andreas; Larsen, Lone H; Svenningsen, Nanna B; Lavik, Gaute; de Beer, Dirk; Stief, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2 O) from freshwater and terrestrial invertebrates has exclusively been ascribed to N2 O production by ingested denitrifying bacteria in the anoxic gut of the animals. Our study of marine molluscs now shows that also microbial biofilms on shell surfaces are important sites of N2 O production. The shell biofilms of Mytilus edulis, Littorina littorea and Hinia reticulata contributed 18-94% to the total animal-associated N2 O emission. Nitrification and denitrification were equally important sources of N2 O in shell biofilms as revealed by (15) N-stable isotope experiments with dissected shells. Microsensor measurements confirmed that both nitrification and denitrification can occur in shell biofilms due to a heterogeneous oxygen distribution. Accordingly, ammonium, nitrite and nitrate were important drivers of N2 O production in the shell biofilm of the three mollusc species. Ammonium excretion by the animals was found to be sufficient to sustain N2 O production in the shell biofilm. Apparently, the animals provide a nutrient-enriched microenvironment that stimulates growth and N2 O production of the shell biofilm. This animal-induced stimulation was demonstrated in a long-term microcosm experiment with the snail H. reticulata, where shell biofilms exhibited the highest N2 O emission rates when the animal was still living inside the shell. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Assessing the presence of marine toxins in bivalve molluscs from southwest India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew D; Dhanji-Rapkova, Monika; Rowland-Pilgrim, Stephanie; Turner, Lucy M; Rai, Ashwin; Venugopal, Moleyur N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Godhe, Anna

    2017-12-15

    The south west coast of India has been showing a steady increase in shellfish cultivation both for local consumption and fishery export, over recent years. Perna viridis and Crassostrea madrasensis are two species of bivalve molluscs which grow in some selected regions of southern Karnataka, close to the city of Mangalore. In the early 1980s, shellfish consumers in the region were affected by intoxication from Paralytic Shellfish Poison present in local bivalves (clams and oysters) resulting in hospitalisation of many, including one fatality. Since then, there have been no further reports of serious shellfish intoxication and there is little awareness of the risks from natural toxins and no routine monitoring programme in place to protect shellfish consumers. This study presents the findings from the first ever systematic assessment of the presence of marine toxins in mussels and oysters grown in four different shellfish harvesting areas in the region. Shellfish were collected and subjected to analysis for ASP, PSP and lipophilic toxins, as well as a suite of non-EU regulated toxins such as tetrodotoxin and selected cyclic imines. Results revealed the presence of low levels of PSP toxins in oysters throughout the study period. Overall, total toxicities reached a maximum of 10% of the EU regulatory limit of 800 μg STX eq/kg. Toxin profiles were similar to those reported from the 1980 outbreak. No evidence was found for significant levels of ASP and lipophilic toxins, although some cyclic imines were detected, including gymnodimine. The results indicated that the risk to shellfish consumers during this specific study period would have been low. However, with historical evidence for extremely high levels of PSP toxins in molluscs, there is a strong need for routine surveillance of shellfish production areas for marine toxins, in order to mitigate against human health impacts resulting from unexpected harmful algal blooms, with potentially devastating socio

  4. Characterization of elements in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Toshiaki

    1993-01-01

    Characterization of elements in marine organisms was carried out to estimate the behavior of radionuclides in marine ecosystem or to clarify the physiological roles of elements in marine organisms. The concentrations of 238 U in fifty-five species of marine organisms were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The concentrations of 238 U in soft tissues of marine animals ranged from 0.076 to 5000ng/g wet wt. Especially, the branchial heart of octopus vulgaris showed the specific accumulation of 238 U. The kidney granules of bivalve molluscs showed very high concentrations of Mn, Zn, 210 Pb, 210 Po etc. The XAFS study for the granules of Cyclosunetta menstrualis indicated that the chemical form of metals in the granules was phosphate (e. g. Mn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 · 4H 2 O). (author)

  5. Oxygen isotopes of marine mollusc shells record Eocene elevation change in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, Damien; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Emmanuel, Laurent

    2012-09-01

    Constraining paleoaltimetry of collisional orogens is critical to understand the dynamics of topographic evolution and climate/tectonics retroactions. Here, we use oxygen stable-isotope record on oyster shells, preserved in marine foreland deposits, to examine the past elevation of the Pyrenees during the Eocene. Our approach is based on the comparison with the Paris basin, an intracratonic basin not influenced by orogenic growth. The finding of a shift of 1.5‰ between 49 and 41 Ma, indicating more negative δ18Oc in the south Pyrenean foreland, is interpreted to reflect the inflow of river water sourced from higher elevation in the Pyrenees. To test this and provide paleoelevation estimate, we adopt a morphologic-hydrological model accounting for the hypsometry of drainage basin. Our best fitting model shows that the Pyrenees rose up to 2000 m. This indicates that the Pyrenees reached high elevation in the Eocene, thus providing new critical constraints on their long-term orogenic development. δ18O of marine mollusc shells are proved potentially attractive for paleoelevation studies, especially for mountain belts where elevated continental surfaces have not been preserved.

  6. Linking δ15N and histopathological effects in molluscs exposed in situ to effluents from land-based marine fish farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carballeira, C.; Espinosa, J.; Carballeira, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Land-based marine aquaculture effluents induce branchial exfoliation and phagocytic haemocytosis in exposed molluscs. ► Transplanted clams are more sensitive to aquaculture discharges than native mussels. ► δ 15 N in organisms is a cost-effective means of biomonitoring exposure to contamination from aquaculture. ► δ 15 N analysis may facilitate the evaluation of potential effects at the tissue level. - Abstract: Histopathological alterations can indicate time-integrated impacts on organisms stemming from alterations at lower biological organisation levels. Long-term (native mussels) and short-term (transplanted clams) changes in the tissues of molluscs exposed to the effluents from two land-based marine fish farms (LBMFFs) were determined. Histological alterations were related to the δ 15 N isotopic signal measured in mussels and macroalgae. Effluents from LBMFFs were found to cause severe and moderate gill filament exfoliation in clams and mussels, respectively. Some transplanted clams showed severe degrees of hemocytic phagocytosis in gonads and connective tissue. In an attempt to semi-quantitatively summarize the observed histopathological alterations, a weighted index of damage (WID) was calculated for each type of alteration, species and sampling site. The WID was clearly related to the δ 15 N descriptor of exposure. Further studies aimed at standardizing this relationship may establish critical thresholds of the descriptor for its implementation within environmental monitoring plans for LBMFFs.

  7. Characterization of elements in marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Toshiaki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Nakaminato, Ibaraki (Japan). Nakaminato Lab. Branch Office

    1994-03-01

    Characterization of elements was carried out to clarify the mechanisms of bioconcentration and the physiological roles of elements in marine organisms. The concentrations of {sup 238}U in fifty-five species of marine organisms were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The concentrations of {sup 238}U in soft tissues of marine animals ranged from 0.076 to 500ng/g wet wt. Especially, the branchial heart of cephalopod molluscs showed the specific accumulation of {sup 238}U. The concentration factor of the branchial heart of Octopus vulgaris, which indicated the highest value, was calculated to be about 10{sup 3} by comparing it with the concentration of {sup 238}U (3.2 {+-} 0.2ng/ml) in coastal seawater of Japan. The concentrations of {sup 238}U of twenty species of algae ranged from 10 to 3700ng/g dry wt. (author).

  8. Characterization of elements in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Toshiaki

    1994-01-01

    Characterization of elements was carried out to clarify the mechanisms of bioconcentration and the physiological roles of elements in marine organisms. The concentrations of 238 U in fifty-five species of marine organisms were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The concentrations of 238 U in soft tissues of marine animals ranged from 0.076 to 500ng/g wet wt. Especially, the branchial heart of cephalopod molluscs showed the specific accumulation of 238 U. The concentration factor of the branchial heart of Octopus vulgaris, which indicated the highest value, was calculated to be about 10 3 by comparing it with the concentration of 238 U (3.2 ± 0.2ng/ml) in coastal seawater of Japan. The concentrations of 238 U of twenty species of algae ranged from 10 to 3700ng/g dry wt. (author)

  9. Managing marine mollusc diseases in the context of regional and international commerce: policy issues and emerging concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, Ryan B.; Arzul, Isabelle; Bushek, David

    2016-01-01

    Marine mollusc production contributes to food and economic security worldwide and provides valuable ecological services, yet diseases threaten these industries and wild populations. Although the infrastructure for mollusc aquaculture health management is well characterized, its foundations are not without flaws. Use of notifiable pathogen lists can leave blind spots with regard to detection of unlisted and emerging pathogens. Increased reliance on molecular tools has come without similar attention to diagnostic validation, raising questions about assay performance, and has been accompanied by a reduced emphasis on microscopic diagnostic expertise that could weaken pathogen detection capabilities. Persistent questions concerning pathogen biology and ecology promote regulatory paralysis that impedes trade and which could weaken biosecurity by driving commerce to surreptitious channels. Solutions that might be pursued to improve shellfish aquaculture health management include the establishment of more broad-based surveillance programmes, wider training and use of general methods like histopathology to ensure alertness to emerging diseases, an increased focus on assay assessment and validation as fundamental to assay development, investment in basic research, and application of risk analyses to improve regulation. A continual sharpening of diagnostic tools and approaches and deepening of scientific knowledge is necessary to manage diseases and promote sustainable molluscan shellfish industries. PMID:26880834

  10. Histopathologic and biochemical responses in Arctic marine bivalve molluscs exposed to experimentally spilled oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neff, J.M.; Hillman, R.E.; Carr, R.S.; Buhl, R.L.; Lahey, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    Following two experimental spills of chemically dispersed and undispersed crude oil in shallow bays on the northwest coast of Baffin Island bivalve molluscs accumulated significant amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons in bay receiving dispersed oil and in those receiving crude oil alone. Specimens of Mya truncata and Macoma calcarea for histopathologic examination were collected immediately before, immediately after and one year after the experimental oil spills. Immediately after there was increased gill and digestive tract necrosis in Mya from the chemically dispersed oil. After one year a few clams had granulocytomas throughout the tissues. Three clams receiving oil alone collected one year after the spill had invasive neoplasias. There were few lesions in Macoma immediatelly after or one year after the spill; animals had a high incidence of vacuolization of the digestive tubule epithelium. The incidence of parasitism and hemocytic infiltration also was higher in Maccoma. Clams Mya truncata were collected for biochemical analysis before, after and two weeks after the simulated oil spills. Concentations in the clam tissues of glucose, glycogen, trehalose, total lipid, and free amino acids were measured; free amino acids in adductor muscles were the most useful indices of pollutant stress. The results of the biochemical analyses indicate that Mya were not severely stressed by either dispersed oil or oil alone. After two weeks, clams from the dispersed oil bays were nearly normal, while those from the bay receiving oil alone appeared stressed. These results seem to corroborate results that the acute effects of dispersed oil are greater than those of undispersed oil, but effects of undispersed oil on infaunal molluscs develop more slowly and persist longer than those from dispersed oil. 43 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. The concentrations of uranium in marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuba, Mitsue; Ishii, Toshiaki; Nakahara, Motokazu; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Watabe, Teruhisa; Hirano, Shigeki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan). Laboratory for Radioecology

    2000-07-01

    Determination of uranium in sixty-one species of marine organisms was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to obtain concentration factors and to estimate the internal radiation dose. The concentrations of uranium in soft tissues of marine animals were ranged from 0.077 to 5040 ng/g wet wt. Especially, the branchial heart of cephalopod molluscs showed the specific accumulation of uranium. The concentration factor of the branchial heart of Octopus vulgaris, which indicated the highest value, was calculated to be about 1.6 x 10{sup 3}, comparing with that (3.1 ng/ml) in coastal seawaters of Japan. The concentrations of uranium in hard tissues of marine invertebrates such as clam and sea urchin were similar to those in soft tissues. In contrast, hard tissues like bone, scale, fin, etc. of fishes showed much higher concentrations of uranium than soft tissues like muscle. The concentrations of uranium of twenty-two species of algae were ranged from 2 to 310 ng/g wet wt. Particularly, the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida showed the highest value of the uranium content in the algae and its concentration factor was calculated to be 10{sup 2}. (author)

  12. The concentrations of uranium in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuba, Mitsue; Ishii, Toshiaki; Nakahara, Motokazu; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Watabe, Teruhisa; Hirano, Shigeki

    2000-01-01

    Determination of uranium in sixty-one species of marine organisms was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to obtain concentration factors and to estimate the internal radiation dose. The concentrations of uranium in soft tissues of marine animals were ranged from 0.077 to 5040 ng/g wet wt. Especially, the branchial heart of cephalopod molluscs showed the specific accumulation of uranium. The concentration factor of the branchial heart of Octopus vulgaris, which indicated the highest value, was calculated to be about 1.6 x 10 3 , comparing with that (3.1 ng/ml) in coastal seawaters of Japan. The concentrations of uranium in hard tissues of marine invertebrates such as clam and sea urchin were similar to those in soft tissues. In contrast, hard tissues like bone, scale, fin, etc. of fishes showed much higher concentrations of uranium than soft tissues like muscle. The concentrations of uranium of twenty-two species of algae were ranged from 2 to 310 ng/g wet wt. Particularly, the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida showed the highest value of the uranium content in the algae and its concentration factor was calculated to be 10 2 . (author)

  13. Macrobenthic molluscs from a marine - lagoonal environmental transition in Lesvos Island (Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evagelopoulos, Athanasios; Koutsoubas, Drosos; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Katsiaras, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an occurence dataset, also including numerical abundance and biomass data, pertaining to the macrobenthic molluscan assemblages from a marine - lagoonal environmental transition. The study system was the soft-substrate benthoscape of the area of the Kalloni solar saltworks (Lesvos Island, Greece). Specifically, the study area extended from the infralittoral zone of the inner Kalloni Gulf (marine habitat) to the bottoms of the first two evaporation ponds of the Kalloni solar saltworks (lagoonal habitat). Bottom sediment samples (3 replicates) were collected with a Van Veen grab sampler (0.1 m 2 ) at four sampling sites, along a 1.5 km long line transect that spanned the marine - lagoonal environmental transition. A total of four surveys were carried out seasonally in 2004.  A total of 39,345 molluscan individuals were sorted out of the sediment samples and were identified to 71 species, belonging to the Gastropoda (36), Bivalvia (34) and Scaphopoda (1) classes. Numerical abundance and wet biomass (with shells) data are included in the dataset. The dataset described in the present paper partially fills a significant gap in the scientific literature: Because ecological research of coastal lagoons has seldom explicitly considered the marine - lagoonal habitats interface, there are no openly accessible datasets pertaining to the particular structural component of the transitional waters benthoscapes of the Mediterranean Sea. Such datasets could prove valuable in the research of the structure and functioning of transitional waters benthoscapes. The present dataset is available as a supplementary file (Suppl. material 1) and can also be accessed at http://ipt.medobis.eu/resource?r=kalloni_saltworks_phd.

  14. Genotoxic, cytotoxic, developmental and survival effects of tritiated water in the early life stages of the marine mollusc, Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagger, Josephine A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Atienzar, Franck A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Jha, Awadhesh N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ajha@plymouth.ac.uk

    2005-09-10

    Using an integrated approach linking different levels of biological organisation, the genotoxic, cytotoxic, developmental and survival impact of tritiated water (HTO) were investigated in the embryo-larvae of marine mollusc Mytilus edulis. One-hour-old embryos were exposed to a range of concentrations (0.37-370 kBq ml{sup -1}) of HTO, which delivered a dose between 0.02 and 21.41 mGy over the exposure period for different end points. Detrimental effects, if any, were monitored at different levels of biological organisation (i.e. DNA, chromosomal, cellular and individual). Genotoxic effects were assessed using molecular and cytogenetic approaches which included analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosomal aberrations (Cabs). Cytotoxic effects were evaluated by determining the proliferative rate index (PRI) of the embryo-larval cells. Developmental and survival effects were also monitored every 24 h up to 72 h. Results in general indicated that HTO significantly increased cytogenetic damage, cytotoxicity, developmental abnormalities and mortality of the embryo-larvae as a function of concentration or radiation dose. The analysis of RAPD profiles also revealed qualitative effects in the HTO exposed population compared to controls. However, while the embryo-larvae showed dose or concentration dependent effects for mortality, developmental abnormalities and induction of SCEs, the dose-dependent effects were not apparent for Cabs and PRI at higher doses. The study contributes to our limited understanding of the impact of environmentally relevant radionuclides on non-human biota and emphasises the need for further investigations to elucidate potentially long term damage induced by persistent, low levels of other radionuclides on commercially and ecologically important species, in order to protect human and ecosystem health.

  15. Radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki

    2001-01-01

    The concentration and accumulation of radionuclides in marine organisms were explained in this paper. Secular change of the radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs in seaweed in coastal area of Japan showed more than 5Bq/kg-fresh in the first half of 1960, but decreased less than 1 Bq/kg-fresh after then and attained to less than 0.1 Bq/kg-fresh in 1990s. However, the value increased a while in 1986, which indicated the effect of Chernobyl accident. The accident increased 137 Cs of shellfish near Japan. The concentration of 239+240 Pu was the lowest value in muscles of fish, but increased from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt in seaweed in 1999. 99 Tc concentration of seaweed showed from 100 to 1000 times as much as that of seawater. Radionuclides in the Irish Sea are originated from Sellafield reprocessing plant. The concentration factors of macro-algae and surface water fish (IAEA,1985) were shown. Analytical results of U in 61 kinds of marine organs showed that the concentration was different in the part of organ. The higher concentration of U was observed in hard tissue of fish. The concentration factor was different between chemical substances with the same radionuclides. (S.Y.)

  16. Concentration of radionuclides by marine organisms and their food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu

    1993-01-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides from seawater and from food by marine organisms was observed in the laboratory experiments to get bioconcentration parameters for the nuclides. The radionuclides investigated were 57 Co, 95m Tc, 103 Ru, 137 Cs, 65 Zn and 54 Mn. Several species of molluscs containing pelecypods, gastropods and cephalopod were used for the experimental organisms. For the uptake experiment from seawater, the organisms were kept for more than seven days in radioactive seawater containing those radionuclides together. Then the organisms were transferred into non-radioactive seawater to observe the loss of the nuclides from the organisms. Biphasic loss curves were observed for all of the nuclides. Bioconcentration parameters, such as uptake rate, excretion rate, biological half-life and concentration factor at steady state were estimated from the uptake and excretion curves of the nuclides by the organisms by applying an exponential model. In the uptake experiments from radioactive food, the phytoplankton (Tetraselmis tetrathele), the brown algae (Eisenia bicyclis) and the viscera of abalone were fed to bivalves, herbivorous gastropods and carnivorous molluscs, respectively. After single feeding of the labelled food with the nuclides, retention of the nuclides in whole body of the organisms was followed for several weeks or more. The organisms showed relatively high retention of the nuclides in whole body, except 137 Cs and 54 Mn. Retention of 137 Cs and 54 Mn in the organisms one day after feeding of radioactive food was lower than 25 % of the radioactivity dosed. (author)

  17. Mollusc shells as archival indicators of metal contamination in the Australian antarctic marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Although considered by many to be a pristine environment past activities in Antarctica have caused localised contamination. In particular, the practice of disposing of station waste in open tips adjacent to the seashore has caused heavy metals to migrate to the marine environment. Times have changed and these practices are no longer permitted. Under international agreements, such as the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty System, operators are now required to clean-up these sites so long as the act of clean-up does not cause greater environmental harm than leaving them where they are. The Australian Antarctic Division has embarked on a program to develop techniques for clean-up and remediation of disused waste disposal sites and is also developing techniques for monitoring the environment to ensure that clean-up does not cause greater environmental harm. The Antarctic clam, Laternula elliptica, is common in near shore sediments around the entire coast of Antarctica. It is a filter feeder that extracts suspended sediments from the water column and has been suggested as a candidate for mussel watch-type monitoring in Antarctica. Contaminants in waste disposal tips in Antarctica are likely to be mobilised in pulses caused by the seasonal flush of melting snow as it passes through the contaminated material. As a filter feeder Laternula will be exposed to the highest concentrations of contaminants while they remain in suspension. If contaminants are sequestered into the shells of the bivalve and if their levels in the shell can be analysed in relation to the annual growth rings then they may prove to be a useful archive of past environmental contamination. Specimens of Laternula were exposed to known concentrations of copper and cadmium under aquarium conditions in Antarctica to understand accumulation and depuration rates in the soft tissues. This information is used to assist interpretation of concentrations in animals collected

  18. Coral and mollusc resistance to ocean acidification adversely affected by warming

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo-Metalpa, R; Houlbrèque, F; Tambutté, E; Boisson, F; Baggini, C; Patti, FP; Jeffree, R; Fine, M; Foggo, A; Gattuso, JP; Hall-Spencer, JM

    2011-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) concentrations are expectedto decrease surface ocean pH by 0.3-0.5 units by 2100 (refs,), lowering the carbonate ion concentration of surfacewaters. This rapid acidification is predicted to dramatically decrease calcification in many marine organisms. Reduced skeletal growth under increased CO 2 levels has already been shown for corals, molluscs and many other marine organisms. The impact of acidification on the ability of individual species to cal...

  19. Contribution to the study of polonium-210 and lead-210 in marine organisms and their environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyraud, M.

    1982-06-01

    The following topics were emphasized: the role of 210 Po as a major source of natural radiation dose received by marin organisms; the contribution of 210 Po to the total α radioactivity in the hepatopancreas of crustaceans or mollusc cephalopods is more than 95%; in the euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica, the main source of 210 Po is the food they consume; the possible use of 210 Po as a natural biological tracer of the feeding of deep-sea mesopelagic animals; the 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio is a good indicator of the importance of biological processes in the marine environment [fr

  20. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on locomotion and the repeatability of lateralization in a keystone marine mollusc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenici, Paolo; Torres, Rodrigo; Manríquez, Patricio H

    2017-02-15

    Recent work has shown that the behaviour of marine organisms can be affected by elevated P CO 2 , although little is known about the effect of multiple stressors. We therefore investigated the effect of elevated P CO 2  and temperature on locomotion and behaviour during prey searching in the marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas , a predator characteristic of the southeastern Pacific coast. Movement duration, decision time, route finding and lateralization were measured using a T-maze tank with a prey positioned behind a barrier. Four treatments, representing present day and near-future scenarios of ocean acidification and warming were used in rearing the individuals for 6 months. Regardless of the treatment, no significant differences were found in relative and absolute lateralization before and after exposure for 6 months. However, relative lateralization was not repeatable for animals tested after 6 months at elevated P CO 2  at both experimental temperatures, whereas it was repeatable in individuals kept at the present day level of P CO 2 We suggest that these effects may be related to a behavioural malfunction caused by elevated P CO 2 Movement duration, decision time and route finding were not repeatable. However, movement duration and decision time increased and route finding decreased in elevated P CO 2  (at 15°C), suggesting that elevated P CO 2  has negative effects on the locomotor and sensory performance of C. concholepas in the presence of a prey odour, thereby decreasing their ability to forage efficiently. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Bioaccumulation of Iron and Lead in the soft tissue of some marine molluscs and associated sediment at labor Island,Aden,yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Anis Ahmed; Baharoon Aqil Abdulrahman

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this research work is to know the effect of the oil spill from the oil pipes that pass near the Labor Island, in addition the use of the Island as a station for gathering the old ships and boats that been prepared for re-exportation. For this purpose, a number of marine molluscs were used such as, A canthopleura haddoni (chitons), Ostrea cucullata (oysters), Turbo coronatus (sea snails). The were classified to their classes and sizes. Associated surfacial sediments were also used after sieving to <63 μm, in order to be analyzed by using the AAS. The results obtained showed high concentration in Fe and Pb in the soft tissue of the marine animals used and the associated sediment. These results indicate that these two heavy metals were bioaccumulated, and this accumulation may be returned to the oil spill from the oil pipes, or to the spill of drainage from the Iron mountain camp, or all the probabilities together. (author)

  2. Polonium-210 and lead-210 in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, M.; Kuwabara, J.; Komura, K.; Ueno, K.

    1994-01-01

    The concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb were determined in about 30 species of marine organisms collected mainly from the north-eastern region of Japan to know the levels and distributions of these radionuclides and to estimate their intake levels from marine foods. 210 Po and 210 Pb showed a wide range of concentration in species: 0.6-26 and 0.04-0.54 Bq/kg (wet wt) in fishes, 0.5-220 and 0.2-43 Bq/kg (wet wt) in molluscs, echinoderms and chordatas, and 2.8-4.3 and 0.4-1.3 Bq/kg (wet wt) in algae, respectively. Higher accumulation of 210 Po relative to 210 Pb was found in all of the samples analyzed. The intake levels of 210 Po and 210 Pb by marine foods consumption were roughly estimated to be 0.48-0.69 and 0.022-0.042 Bq/d per person, respectively, on the basis of the statistical data on the consumption of seafood and/or production rates of marine foods. (author) 16 refs.; 6 tabs

  3. Marine oil spill response organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, C.

    1997-01-01

    The obligations under the law relative to the prevention of marine oil spills and the type of emergency plans needed to mitigate any adverse effects caused by a marine oil spill were discussed. The organizational structure, spill response resources and operational management capabilities of Canada's newly created Response Organizations (ROs) were described. The overall range of oil spill response services that the RO provides to the domestic oil handling, oil transportation and the international shipping industries were reviewed. Amendments to the Canada Shipping Act which require that certain ships and oil handling facilities take oil spill preparedness and response measures, including having an arrangement with an RO certified by the Canadian Coast Guard, were outlined. Canadians now benefit from five ROs established to provide coast-to-coast oil spill response coverage. These include the Western Canada Marine Response Corporation, the Canadian Marine Response Management Corporation, the Great Lakes Response Corporation, the Eastern Canada Response Corporation and the Atlantic Emergency Response Team Ltd. ROs have the expertise necessary to organize and manage marine oil spill response services. They can provide equipment, personnel and operational management for the containment, recovery and cleanup of oil spilled on water

  4. Macroevolutionary consequences of profound climate change on niche evolution in marine molluscs over the past three million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saupe, E.E.; Hendricks, J.R.; Portell, R.W.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Haywood, A. M.; Hunter, S.J.; Lieberman, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    In order to predict the fate of biodiversity in a rapidly changing world, we must first understand how species adapt to new environmental conditions. The long-term evolutionary dynamics of species' physiological tolerances to differing climatic regimes remain obscure. Here, we unite palaeontological and neontological data to analyse whether species' environmental tolerances remain stable across 3 Myr of profound climatic changes using 10 phylogenetically, ecologically and developmentally diverse mollusc species from the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains, USA. We additionally investigate whether these species' upper and lower thermal tolerances are constrained across this interval. We find that these species' environmental preferences are stable across the duration of their lifetimes, even when faced with significant environmental perturbations. The results suggest that species will respond to current and future warming either by altering distributions to track suitable habitat or, if the pace of change is too rapid, by going extinct. Our findings also support methods that project species' present-day environmental requirements to future climatic landscapes to assess conservation risks.

  5. Antitumoral activity of marine organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Iglesias, O; Perez Gil, R; Colom, Y

    2010-01-01

    The study of the natural products from marine organism constitute a relatively recent scientific researcher field with high potentialities tanking in consideration that the oceans cover the three of the four parts of the earth. Poryphera and Bryozoans have been the Phylum more studied owning to the vulnerability, their soft body, their habitat on rocks, their slow movement and bright colors, for these reason these organisms are able to produce chemical substances as defense methods against depredators. Same mechanism is exhibit by the seaweeds with the production of secondary metabolites . In the present communication are exposed the main results obtained on the world a Cuba until the present in the looking for of substances with antitumor action from marine organism

  6. New marine science organization formed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, Warren S.

    A new international organization, the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) will be established to promote and coordinate marine scientific research in the northern North Pacific Ocean and the Berlin Sea. This was decided in Ottawa on December 12, 1990, when a draft convention was approved by representatives of Canada, China, Japan, the United States, and the Soviet Union. PICES will focus on research on the ocean environment and its interactions with land and atmosphere, its role and response to global weather and climate change, its flora, fauna and ecosystems, its uses and resources, and impacts upon it from human activities. Such studies relate not only to the effects of fishing and environmental change on fish stocks but also to such issues as the impacts of oil spills and other forms of pollution and the eventual consequences of climate change for uses of the ocean and its resources.

  7. Secondary ion mass spectrometry and environment. SIMS as applied to the detection of stable and radioactive isotopes in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassard-Bouchaud, C.; Escaig, F.; Hallegot, P.

    1984-01-01

    Several marine species of economical interest, Crustacea (crabs and prawns) and Molluscs (common mussels and oysters) were collected from coastal waters of France: English Channel, Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea and of Japan. Microanalyses which were performed at the tissue and cell levels, using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, revealed many contaminants; stable isotopes as well as radioactive actinids such as uranium were detected. Uptake, storage and excretion target organs were identified [fr

  8. Biomimetic and bio-inspired uses of mollusc shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J P; Wang, Y; Backeljau, T; Chapelle, G

    2016-06-01

    Climate change and ocean acidification are likely to have a profound effect on marine molluscs, which are of great ecological and economic importance. One process particularly sensitive to climate change is the formation of biominerals in mollusc shells. Fundamental research is broadening our understanding of the biomineralization process, as well as providing more informed predictions on the effects of climate change on marine molluscs. Such studies are important in their own right, but their value also extends to applied sciences. Biominerals, organic/inorganic hybrid materials with many remarkable physical and chemical properties, have been studied for decades, and the possibilities for future improved use of such materials for society are widely recognised. This article highlights the potential use of our understanding of the shell biomineralization process in novel bio-inspired and biomimetic applications. It also highlights the potential for the valorisation of shells produced as a by-product of the aquaculture industry. Studying shells and the formation of biominerals will inspire novel functional hybrid materials. It may also provide sustainable, ecologically- and economically-viable solutions to some of the problems created by current human resource exploitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Predicting the Response of Molluscs to the Impact of Ocean Acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Wright

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Elevations in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 are anticipated to acidify oceans because of fundamental changes in ocean chemistry created by CO2 absorption from the atmosphere. Over the next century, these elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 are expected to result in a reduction of the surface ocean waters from 8.1 to 7.7 units as well as a reduction in carbonate ion (CO32− concentration. The potential impact that this change in ocean chemistry will have on marine and estuarine organisms and ecosystems is a growing concern for scientists worldwide. While species-specific responses to ocean acidification are widespread across a number of marine taxa, molluscs are one animal phylum with many species which are particularly vulnerable across a number of life-history stages. Molluscs make up the second largest animal phylum on earth with 30,000 species and are a major producer of CaCO3. Molluscs also provide essential ecosystem services including habitat structure and food for benthic organisms (i.e., mussel and oyster beds, purification of water through filtration and are economically valuable. Even sub lethal impacts on molluscs due to climate changed oceans will have serious consequences for global protein sources and marine ecosystems.

  10. Predicting the Response of Molluscs to the Impact of Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Laura M.; Ross, Pauline M.; O’Connor, Wayne A.; Pörtner, Hans O.; Scanes, Elliot; Wright, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Elevations in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are anticipated to acidify oceans because of fundamental changes in ocean chemistry created by CO2 absorption from the atmosphere. Over the next century, these elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 are expected to result in a reduction of the surface ocean waters from 8.1 to 7.7 units as well as a reduction in carbonate ion (CO32−) concentration. The potential impact that this change in ocean chemistry will have on marine and estuarine organisms and ecosystems is a growing concern for scientists worldwide. While species-specific responses to ocean acidification are widespread across a number of marine taxa, molluscs are one animal phylum with many species which are particularly vulnerable across a number of life-history stages. Molluscs make up the second largest animal phylum on earth with 30,000 species and are a major producer of CaCO3. Molluscs also provide essential ecosystem services including habitat structure and food for benthic organisms (i.e., mussel and oyster beds), purification of water through filtration and are economically valuable. Even sub lethal impacts on molluscs due to climate changed oceans will have serious consequences for global protein sources and marine ecosystems. PMID:24832802

  11. Transcriptome of the Antarctic brooding gastropod mollusc Margarella antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melody S; Thorne, Michael A S

    2015-12-01

    454 RNA-Seq transcriptome data were generated from foot tissue of the Antarctic brooding gastropod mollusc Margarella antarctica. A total of 6195 contigs were assembled de novo, providing a useful resource for researchers with an interest in Antarctic marine species, phylogenetics and mollusc biology, especially shell production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Island biogeography of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  13. Monitoring radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, T.; Matsuba, M.; Kurosawa, M.; Koyanagi, T.

    1990-01-01

    Concentration of stable elements corresponding to important radionuclides was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for various marine organisms to find indicator organisms for environmental monitoring. Both analytical techniques indicated linearity over a range of concentrations covering 2-4 orders of magnitude. Detection limits of elements by ICP-MS were 10 or 100 times higher than those of ICP-AES, although the precision and accuracy of ICP-MS was slightly inferior to that of ICP-AES. For quantitative analysis of elements with medium mass numbers (chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, etc.), matrix interferences in ICP-MS were caused mainly by overlaps of spectra from coexisting elements in biological samples. The presence of background ions from atmosphere, water, and argon plasma interfered with determination of some isotopes. Most elements of high mass number could not be determined by ICP-AES because of its poor detection limits, whereas ICP-MS indicated high sensitivity and low background for elements of interest. We used ICP-MS analysis to determine the specific accumulation of certain elements in organs or tissues of 30 marine organisms

  14. New trends in important diseases affecting the culture of fish and molluscs in the ICES area 2002-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfjorden, Anders; Areskog, Marlene; Bruno, David

    The ICES Working Group on Pathology and Diseases of Marine Organisms (WGPDMO) provides annual reviews of national reports on the disease status of wild and farmed fish and molluscs in the ICES area. In 2004, the group published a first report collating this information from 1998-2002. This second...

  15. From sea water to marine organisms; transfer to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku

    1979-01-01

    As a study on transfer of radioiodine to marine organisms, accumulation and excretion of radioiodine by five species of marine fishes were observed by the aquarium experiments using Na 131 I as the tracer. Transfer of radioiodine to the fishes was examined on three different pathways, via seawater, sediment, and food. Concentration of radioiodine in organs of tissues of sea bass, Lateolabrax japonics, yellow tail, Seriola quinqueradiata, and rock fish, Sebastes nivosus, reared in labeled seawater reached maximum within five to ten days and decreased thereafter. Concentration factors calculated at the fifth day of breeding showed the highest value in gall-bladder followed by gut-content suggesting the secretion of bile into the intestine. Loss of radioactivity from the fishes showed two components elimination patterns and biological half-lives were calculated as 2.8 days and 53.5 days, respectively, in muscle of sea bass, for example. Sediment-bound radioiodine administered to benthic fish, right-eye flounder, Kareius bicoloratus, was lost rapidly after the administration but about ten per cent of the whole-body radioactivity were retained by the fishes after the excretion of sediment and eliminated with longer half-lives comparable to those taken up from seawater. Distribution of radioiodine among organs or tissues of the flounder was different between the fishes before and after the elimination experiment showing rapid loss from gill and slower elimination from liver or muscle. Radioiodine administered to sea bream, Pagrus major, as labeled anchovy was climinated also with two components loss processes and elimination rates were little higher than the fishes administered radioiodine as solution in gelatine capsules. Higher distribution of radioiodine in gill of the sea bream suggested the dominant excretion of radioiodine through gill of the fishes. (author)

  16. Terrestrial mollusc records from Xifeng and Luochuan L9 loess strata and their implications for paleoclimatic evolution in the Chinese Loess Plateau during marine Oxygen Isotope Stages 24-22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine Isotope Stages 24-22 is a key period of the Mid-Pleistocene Transition, however, its climate variability is still unclear. The coarse-grained loess unit L9, one of the most prominent units in the Chinese loess stratigraphy, yields a high potential terrestrial record of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental changes during this period. In this study, two high-resolution terrestrial mollusc records of L9 loess strata from the Xifeng and Luochuan sequences in the Chinese Loess Plateau were analysed. Our mollusc results show that the MIS 24, the early and late parts of MIS 22 were dominated by cold and dry climate. Relatively mild-humid climate occurred in MIS 23 and the middle part of MIS 22. The climatic conditions at Xifeng region were cooler and more unstable compared to Luochuan region. A comparison of mollusc species composition and other proxies of L9 strata (MIS 24-22 with those of L1 loess units (MIS 4-2 indicates that the L9 loess was not deposited under the most severe glacial conditions in Quaternary climate history as suggested in previous studies. Our study shows that climatic conditions in the Loess Plateau during the L9 loess forming period were similar to that of gentle glacials (MIS 24 and MIS 22 and interglacial (MIS 23, as suggested by the marine δ18O record. Three cooling fluctuations occurred at ~930 ka, 900 ka and 880 ka, which might hint to the global "900 ka cooling event". The "900-ka event" in the Loess Plateau does not seem to be a simple long glaciation, but rather several complex climatic fluctuations superposed on a general cooling trend. The uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the general cooling experienced by the Earth during this period may have resulted in abundant dust sources and increased dust transport capability, as indicated by increased grain size and the mass accumulation rate of L9 loess.

  17. Quorum sensing antagonism from marine organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skindersø, Mette Elena; Ettinger-Epstein, P.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg

    2008-01-01

    target for the control of infectious bacteria. We present the results of screening of 284 extracts of marine organisms from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, for their inhibition of QS. Of the 284 extracts, 64 (23%) were active in a general, LuxR-derived QS screen, and of these 36 (56%) were also active...... in a specific Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS screen. Extracts of the marine sponge Luffariella variabilis proved active in both systems. The secondary metabolites manoalide, manoalide monoacetate, and secomanoalide isolated from the sponge showed strong QS inhibition of a lasB::gfp(ASV) fusion, demonstrating...... the potential for further identification of specific QS antagonists from marine organisms....

  18. Concentration of radionuclides by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Ryoichi

    1995-01-01

    The Japanese, who have ever been confronted with atomic bombs, are said to be very sensitive to the nuclear power, radioactivity and so on. However, the peaceful uses of the nuclear power are closely related to our daily lives. Consequently, we should recognize correctly the nuclear power, radioactivity and so on, without refusing emotion-ally or admitting uncritically. Many marine organisms have abilities to accumulate radionuclides to very high concentrations. But, the levels of man-made radioactivity of marine organisms in the sea around Japan have been decreased in recent years compared with those in the past. So, the annual internal dose equivalent for Japanese from seafood (marine organisms) are originated mainly from the natural radionuclides like 210 Po, 210 Pb and 40 K. Nevertheless, study on the marine radioecology must be progressed against the inadvertent radioactive contamination of the surrounding sea, due to the increase of nuclear facilities and nuclear weapons. (author)

  19. Ambient radioactivity monitoring V: Marine environment, fish and marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedekind, C.; Kanisch, G.

    1996-01-01

    The sea, originally thought to have an almost unlimited capacity of uptake of pollutants due to its water volumes available for dilution, was shown by growing insight into the physical, chemical and ecologic interdependencies to be a sensitive ecosystem. Its limits to cope with growing pollution are increasingly becoming clear, and this is a particular reason to perform radioactivity monitoring of the sea water, as radioactivity is transferred to the marine organisms. Organisms selected for monitoring are fish and crustaceans. (orig.) [de

  20. Mercury in marine organisms of the Tay region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A M; Jones, Y; Stewart, W D.P.

    1972-07-21

    The problem of mercury pollution in the Tay region of the United Kingdom is discussed with emphasis on mercury concentration within marine algae and invertebrates. High levels of Hg were found in Broughty Ferry algae while there was no detectable mercury in any of the samples collected from north of Arbroath. Most was found in the thallose algae, Ulva lactuca and Porphyra umbilicalis, and in Ceramium rubrum. In studies carried out on molluscs, high levels were found in the lamellibranch, Mytilus edulis and in the gastropods Littorina littoralis and Nucella lapillus. 12 references, 3 tables.

  1. Metabolic transformation of radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku

    1987-01-01

    Physico-chemical form of radionuclides is one of the important factors governing the concentration by marine organisms, whereas biological activities affect the existing states of radionuclides especially in coastal waters. Radioiodine in the form of iodate which is predominant species in seawater is reduced to iodide ion by biological activities and concentration factor of iodide is an order of magnitude higher than those of iodate. Extremely high accumulation of transition elements, actinides, or natural radionuclides in branchial heart of octopus is explained by the fuction of adenochrome, a glandular pigment in the organ as a natural complexing agent, and similar metal-binding proteins with relatively low molecular weight have been found in various marine invertebrates. High accumulation of some elements also found in mollusk kidney is considered to be caused by the intracellular concretions composed of calcium phosphate. All these biological processes suggest the significance of further investigations on metabolic transformation of radionuclides in marine organisms. (author)

  2. Concentration of trace elements in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Takaaki; Suzuki, Hamaji; Iimura, Mitsue; Koyanagi, Taku

    1976-01-01

    Information on the quality and quantity of stable trace elements in marine environments is frequently required to analyze the radioecological behavior of radionuclides released from nuclear facilities into the sea. In the present work, special attention was concentrated in determination of stable Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb and Cs in marine organisms to estimate the concentration factors for these elements and corresponding radionuclides. Marine organisms (fishes, marine invertebrates and seaweeds) were collected at the seashore of Ibaragi prefecture and provided for chemical analysis after dry-ashing and wet-ashing. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry and neutron activation analysis were applied to determine the concentration of elements. The concentration of stable elements in fish muscle was independent on species of the fishes though slightly higher trends were observed in ''Usumebaru'', Sebastes nivosus for Cs, ''Ishimochi'', Nibea mitsukurii for Zn and Fe compared with other species. The concentration of Co, Zn and Fe in muscle of marine invertebrates was one order of magnitude higher than fish muscles especially in shellfishes for Co. Seaweeds showed peculiar species specificity for the concentration of stable trace elements and remarkable differences was observed between the species even among the same genus. (auth.)

  3. Role of marine algae in organic farming

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pereira, N.; Verlecar, X.N.

    Division of Publication and Information, Indian Council of Medical Research, V. Ramalingaswami Bhawan, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, India e - mail: encejain@yahoo.co.in Role of marine algae in organic far m ing As rightly outlined.... The Indi an Ocean, including its adjacent seas, extends over an area of about 73.44 ? 10 6 km 2 and the potential harvest of seaweeds from the Indian Ocean is about 870 thousand tonnes (wet weight) 3 . India could draw benefits from this marine...

  4. Concentration of technetium by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakamura, R.; Nakahara, M.

    1990-01-01

    Accumulation and excretion of technetium by marine organisms were observed in radioisotope tracer experiments to determine concentration factors for estimating radiation dose to humans from radioactive pollution of marine environments. Marine fish, crustaceans, mollusks, echinoderms, and seaweeds were reared in sea water labeled with 95m Tc to observe uptake from sea water. The organisms were then transferred into unlabeled sea water for depuration experiments. Concentration factors were calculated from uptake and excretion rates. Also considered was the contribution of food-chain transfer of technetium, observed by administering labeled seaweeds to mollusks or echinoderms. Low accumulations were shown by fish, crustaceans, pelecypods and cephalopods, whereas high concentration factors were observed in gastropods and seaweeds. Species specificity or specific accumulation in special organs or tissues was not evident except in seaweed, where the difference was clearly species-associated. Relatively high rates of technetium retention were observed in the organisms administered labeled seaweed. The higher concentrations observed in gastropods, compared to those in pelecypods, were thought to result from different feed habits. The adaptability of some species as indicator organisms for monitoring 99 Tc in sea water was recognized, but the contribution of technetium to radiation dose was considered insignificant

  5. Modulation of pumping rate by two species of marine bivalve molluscs in response to neurotransmitters: Comparison of in vitro and in vivo results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Dana M; Deaton, Lewis; Shumway, Sandra E; Holohan, Bridget A; Ward, J Evan

    2015-07-01

    Most studies regarding the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of molluscan ctenidia have focused on isolated ctenidial tissue preparations. This study investigated how bivalve molluscs modulate their feeding rates by examining the effects of a variety of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine, and the dopamine agonist apomorphine on both isolated ctenidial tissue and in intact members of two commercially important bivalve species: the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis; and the bay scallop Argopecten irradians. In particular, we examined the effect of changes in: 1) beat of the lateral cilia (in vitro), 2) distance between ctenidial filaments and/or plicae (in vivo), and 3) diameter of the siphonal openings (in vivo) on alteration of bulk water flow through the mantle cavity. Important differences were found between isolated tissue and whole animals, and between species. Drugs that stimulated ciliary beat in vitro did not increase water processing rate in vivo. None of the treatments increased water flow through the mantle cavity of intact animals. Results suggest that A. irradians was primarily modulating lateral ciliary activity, while M. edulis appeared to have a number of ways to control water processing activity, signifying that the two species may have different compensatory and regulatory mechanisms controlling feeding activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of 238U in marine organisms by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Toshiaki; Nakahara, Motokazu; Matsuba, Mitsue; Ishikawa, Masafumi

    1991-01-01

    Determination of 238 U in fifty-five species of marine organisms was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry which showed some advantages such as high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and small interferences from matrices for the analysis of high mass elements. The concentrations of 238 U in soft tissues of marine animals ranged from 0.076 to 5000 ng/g wet wt. Especially, the branchial heart of cephalopod molluscs showed the specific accumulation of 238 U. The concentration factor of the branchial heart of Octopus vulgaris, which indicated the highest value, was calculated to be about 10 3 by comparing it with the concentration of 238 U (3.2±0.2 ng/ml) in coastal seawaters of Japan. The concentrations of 238 U in hard tissues of marine invertebrates were similar to those in soft tissues. In contrast, hard tissues like bone, scale, fin, etc. of fishes showed much higher concentrations of 238 U than soft tissues like muscle and liver. The concentrations of 238 U of twenty species of algae ranged from 10 to 3700 ng/g dry wt. (author)

  7. A biomonitoring study: trace metals in algae and molluscs from Tyrrhenian coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, M.E.; Cecchetti, Gaetano

    2003-01-01

    Marine organisms were evaluated as possible biomonitors of heavy metal contamination in marine coastal areas. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in the green algae Ulva lactuca L., the brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy, the bivalve mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, and the two gastropod molluscs Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella cerulea L. collected at six coastal stations in the area of the Gulf of Gaeta (Tyrrhenian Sea, central Italy). The coastal area of the Regional Park of Gianola and Monte di Scauri (a 'Protected Sea Park' area) was chosen as a control site. Seawater samples were also collected in each site to assess soluble and total metal concentrations and to gain additional information on both the environmental conditions of the area and possible bioaccumulation patterns. Metal concentrations detected in algae and molluscs did not show significant differences among all stations studied. Moreover, statistical analyses (ANOVA, multiple comparison tests, cluster analysis) showed that the Sea Park station was not significantly different from the others. The hypothesis that the Protected Sea Park would be cleaner than the others must therefore be reconsidered. Data from this study were also compared with those previously obtained from uncontaminated sites in the Sicilian Sea, Italy. The results show clearly differences between these two marine ecosystems. The species examined showed great accumulations of metals, with concentration factors (CFs) higher than 10,000 with respect to the concentrations (soluble fractions) in marine waters. Metal concentrations recorded in this area may be used for background levels for intraspecific comparison within the Tyrrhenian area, a body of water about which information is still very scarce

  8. [NADPH-diaphorase activity in digestive system of gastropod molluscs Achatina fulica and Littorina littorea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V; Markosova, T G

    2009-01-01

    Localization and peculiarities of NO-ergic elements were studied for he first time throughout the entire length of digestive tract of the marine gastropod mollusc Achatina fulica (Prosobranchia) and the terrestrial molusc Littorina littorea (Pulmonata) by using histochemical method of detection of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd). NO-ergic cells and fibers were revealed in all parts of the mollusc digestive tract beginning from pharynx. An intensive NADPHd activity was found in many intraepithelial cells of the open type and in their processes in intra- and subepithelial nerve plexuses, single subepithelial neurons, granular connective tissue cells, and numerous nerve fibers among muscle elements of he digestive tract wall as well as in nerves innervating the tract. NADPHd was also present in receptor cells of he oral area and in the central A. fulica ganglia participating in innervation of the digestive tract. The digestive tract NO-ergic system ofA. fulica has a more complex organization that that of L. littorea. In the A. fulica pharynx, stomach, and midgut, directly beneath epithelium, there is revealed a complex system of glomerular structures formed by thin NADPHd-positive nerve fibers coming from the side of epithelium. More superficially under the main groups of muscle elements, small agglomerations of NADPHd-positive neurons are seen, which could be considered as primitive, non-formed microganglia. Peculiarities of distribution and a possible functional role of NO-ergic elements in the digestive tract of molluscs are discussed as compared with other invertebrate and vertebrate animals.

  9. Coral and mollusc resistance to ocean acidification adversely affected by warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolfo-Metalpa, R.; Houlbrèque, F.; Tambutté, É.; Boisson, F.; Baggini, C.; Patti, F. P.; Jeffree, R.; Fine, M.; Foggo, A.; Gattuso, J.-P.; Hall-Spencer, J. M.

    2011-09-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are expectedto decrease surface ocean pH by 0.3-0.5 units by 2100 (refs , ), lowering the carbonate ion concentration of surfacewaters. This rapid acidification is predicted to dramatically decrease calcification in many marine organisms. Reduced skeletal growth under increased CO2 levels has already been shown for corals, molluscs and many other marine organisms. The impact of acidification on the ability of individual species to calcify has remained elusive, however, as measuring net calcification fails to disentangle the relative contributions of gross calcification and dissolution rates on growth. Here, we show that corals and molluscs transplanted along gradients of carbonate saturation state at Mediterranean CO2 vents are able to calcify and grow at even faster than normal rates when exposed to the high CO2 levels projected for the next 300 years. Calcifiers remain at risk, however, owing to the dissolution of exposed shells and skeletons that occurs as pH levels fall. Our results show that tissues and external organic layers play a major role in protecting shells and skeletons from corrosive sea water, limiting dissolution and allowing organisms to calcify. Our combined field and laboratory results demonstrate that the adverse effects of global warming are exacerbated when high temperatures coincide with acidification.

  10. Principles and application of transgenic technology in marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine organisms into which a foreign gene or noncoding DNA fragment is artificially introduced and stably integrated in their genomes are termed transgenic marine organisms. Since the first report in 1985, a wide range of transgenic fish and marine bivalve mollusks have been produced by microinjec...

  11. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to marine organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijerick, D.G.; Regoli, L.; Stubblefield, W.

    2012-01-01

    A scientific research program was initiated by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) which addressed identified gaps in the environmental toxicity data for the molybdate ion (MoO 4 2− ). These gaps were previously identified during the preparation of EU-REACH-dossiers for different molybdenum compounds (European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances; EC, 2006). Evaluation of the open literature identified few reliable marine ecotoxicological data that could be used for deriving a Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) for the marine environment. Rather than calculating a PNEC marine using the assessment factor methodology on a combined freshwater/marine dataset, IMOA decided to generate sufficient reliable marine chronic data to permit derivation of a PNEC by means of the more scientifically robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Nine test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na 2 MoO 4 ·2H 2 O) according to published standard testing guidelines that are acceptable for a broad range of regulatory purposes. The selected test organisms were representative for typical marine trophic levels: micro-algae/diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta), macro-alga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mysids (Americamysis bahia), copepod (Acartia tonsa), fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), echinoderms (Dendraster exentricus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and molluscs (Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas). Available NOEC/EC 10 levels ranged between 4.4 mg Mo/L (blue mussel M. edulis) and 1174 mg Mo/L (oyster C. gigas). Using all available reliable marine chronic effects data that are currently available, a HC 5,50% (median hazardous concentration affecting 5% of the species) of 5.74 (mg Mo)/L was derived with the statistical extrapolation approach, a value that can be used for national and

  12. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to marine organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijerick, D.G., E-mail: Dagobert.heijerick@arche-consulting.be [ARCHE - Assessing Risks of Chemicals, Stapelplein 70 Bus 104, Gent (Belgium); Regoli, L. [International Molybdenum Association, 4 Heathfield Terrace, London, W4 4JE (United Kingdom); Stubblefield, W. [Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 421 Weniger Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    A scientific research program was initiated by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) which addressed identified gaps in the environmental toxicity data for the molybdate ion (MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). These gaps were previously identified during the preparation of EU-REACH-dossiers for different molybdenum compounds (European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances; EC, 2006). Evaluation of the open literature identified few reliable marine ecotoxicological data that could be used for deriving a Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) for the marine environment. Rather than calculating a PNEC{sub marine} using the assessment factor methodology on a combined freshwater/marine dataset, IMOA decided to generate sufficient reliable marine chronic data to permit derivation of a PNEC by means of the more scientifically robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Nine test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O) according to published standard testing guidelines that are acceptable for a broad range of regulatory purposes. The selected test organisms were representative for typical marine trophic levels: micro-algae/diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta), macro-alga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mysids (Americamysis bahia), copepod (Acartia tonsa), fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), echinoderms (Dendraster exentricus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and molluscs (Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas). Available NOEC/EC{sub 10} levels ranged between 4.4 mg Mo/L (blue mussel M. edulis) and 1174 mg Mo/L (oyster C. gigas). Using all available reliable marine chronic effects data that are currently available, a HC{sub 5,50%} (median hazardous concentration affecting 5% of the species) of 5.74 (mg Mo)/L was derived with the statistical extrapolation approach, a

  13. Effects of drilling fluids on marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, P.R.; Duke, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on drilling fluids, also called drilling muds, which are essential to drilling processes in the exploration and production of oil and gas from the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). These fluids are usually discharged from drilling platforms into surrounding waters of the OCS and are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In a program carried out by the EPA Environmental research Laboratory at Gulf Breeze, Florida, diverse marine species as well as microbiotic and macrobiotic communities were studied. Drilling fluids were toxic to marine organisms in certain concentrations and exposure regimes. Furthermore, the fluids adversely affected the benthos physically by burying them or by altering the substrates. Toxicity of the drilling-fluid components, used drilling fluids from active Gulf of Mexico sites, and laboratory-prepared drilling fluids varied considerably. for example 96-h LC 50 s were from 25 μ liter -1 to > 1500 μl liter -1 for clams, larval lobsters, mysids, and grass shrimp. In most instances, mortality was significantly (α = 0.05) correlated with the diesel-oil content of the fluids collected from the Gulf of Mexico. Data and model simulations suggest a rapid dilution of drilling fluids released into OCS waters, resulting in concentrations below the acute-effect concentration for the water column organisms tested

  14. Ministry of Health Circular No. 36 on the physical requirements for marine waters intended for mollusc culture (Section 12 of Act No. 192 of 2 May 1977 and Section 5 of Ministerial Decree of 27 April 1978)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This Circular by the Minister of Health follows up a Ministerial Decree of 27 April 1978 made in implementation of the 1977 Act on health protection standards for the production of and trade in molluscs. It fixes the microbiological, biological, chemical and physical quality requirements for waters intended for molluscs culture and production. These include radionuclide concentrations which must not exceed the limits laid down by Presidential Decree No. 185 of 13 February 1964 on radiation protection. (NEA) [fr

  15. Accumulation of radioactive iron in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateda, Yuzuru

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation and excretion of radioactive iron in some marine organisms was investigated by radio-tracer experiments. The concentration factor, biological half-life, distribution in body, and combining form in some organs, are compared and discussed between mollusks and fishes. The results obtained are: 1) The concentration factor of seaweed was higher than those of worm and fish in uptake from seawater. Abalone showed a higher concentration factor than fish. 2) The first component of excretion curve was small in case of a longer period of uptake from seawater. 3) Abalone and octopus showed a higher radioactivity retention than flounder and black-fish. 4) The fish fed labelled seaweed showed a lower radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled worm. 5) The fish fed radioisotopes with prey showed a higher radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled prey. 6) Biological half-lives were longer in abalone and octopus than in fishes. The biological half-lives of radioactive iron in fishes varied according to the uptake modes. 7) The distribution ratio of radioactive iron in organisms were large in the liver and degestive tract. 8) The GFC profile of 59 Fe in some organs of organisms showed combining form of same molecular weight of proteinous matter. (author)

  16. Toxicity of common ions to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillard, D.A.; DuFresne, D.L.; Evans, J.

    1995-01-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and these may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due to osmotic imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnetsium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that the salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to the produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in a produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant

  17. Microbial bioavailability regulates organic matter preservation in marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koho, K. A.; Nierop, K. G. J.; Moodley, L.; Middelburg, J. J.; Pozzato, L.; Soetaert, K.; van der Plicht, J.; Reichart, G-J.; Herndl, G.

    2013-01-01

    Burial of organic matter (OM) plays an important role in marine sediments, linking the short-term, biological carbon cycle with the long-term, geological subsurface cycle. It is well established that low-oxygen conditions promote organic carbon burial in marine sediments. However, the mechanism

  18. Marine actinobacteria associated with marine organisms and their potentials in producing pharmaceutical natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliappan, Karuppiah; Sun, Wei; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-09-01

    Actinobacteria are ubiquitous in the marine environment, playing an important ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel natural products with pharmic applications. Actinobacteria have been detected or isolated from the marine creatures such as sponges, corals, mollusks, ascidians, seaweeds, and seagrass. Marine organism-associated actinobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, i.e., 3,003 sequences, deposited in the NCBI database clearly revealed enormous numbers of actinobacteria associated with marine organisms. For example, RDP classification of these sequences showed that 112 and 62 actinobacterial genera were associated with the sponges and corals, respectively. In most cases, it is expected that these actinobacteria protect the host against pathogens by producing bioactive compounds. Natural products investigation and functional gene screening of the actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including polyketides, isoprenoids, phenazines, peptides, indolocarbazoles, sterols, and others. These compounds showed anticancer, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, neurological, antioxidant, and anti-HIV activities. Therefore, marine organism-associated actinobacteria represent an important resource for marine drugs. It is an upcoming field of research to search for novel actinobacteria and pharmaceutical natural products from actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms. In this review, we attempt to summarize the present knowledge on the diversity and natural products production of actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms, based on the publications from 1991 to 2013.

  19. An overview on genome organization of marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Maria

    2015-12-01

    In this review we will concentrate on some general genome features of marine organisms and their evolution, ranging from vertebrate to invertebrates until unicellular organisms. Before genome sequencing, the ultracentrifugation in CsCl led to high resolution of mammalian DNA (without seeing at the sequence). The analytical profile of human DNA showed that the vertebrate genome is a mosaic of isochores, typically megabase-size DNA segments that belong in a small number of families characterized by different GC levels. The recent availability of a number of fully sequenced genomes allowed mapping very precisely the isochores, based on DNA sequences. Since isochores are tightly linked to biological properties such as gene density, replication timing and recombination, the new level of detail provided by the isochore map helped the understanding of genome structure, function and evolution. This led the current level of knowledge and to further insights. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. W Photoprotection in Tropical Marine Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Roy A.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the earth's surface which results from stratospheric ozone depletions could have serious implications for terrestrial plants and for aquatic organisms within the euphotic zone. A documented 9% decline in ozone at mid-latitudes is considered to produce a 12% increase in harmful UV radiation. The biologically damaging effects of higher UV levels, particularly W-B (280-320 rim), could manifest earlier in the tropics because of the relative thinness of the earth's equatorial ozone layer. Tropical marine organisms are also living close to their upper tolerance levels of water temperature, However, despite the large potential effects on plants and animals, little is known about UV effects on tropical ecosystems. Long-term ecological studies are needed to quantify the effects of increased UV radiation on terrestrial and marine ecosystems and to produce reliable data for prediction. Plants have developed several mechanisms to protect themselves from harmful UV radiation, one of which is the production of secondary leaf pigments that absorb W-B radiation (screening pigments). A higher concentration of screening pigments (e.g. flavonoids) in leaves may be interpreted as a natural response to increased W radiation. If higher concentrations of flavonoids filter out the excessive W radiation, no damage will occur, as suggested by Caldwell et al. (1989) and Tevini (1993). Failure to screen all W-B may result in deleterious effects on photosynthesis, plant genetic material, and plant and leaf morphology and growth. Eventually this will have an impact on ecosystem processes, structure, species composition, and productivity. This paper describes an ongoing project that is assessing the responses of mangroves, seagrasses and corals to W radiation by studying pigment concentrations, biophysical parameters, and variations in spectral reflectance in the field and in W-reduction experiments. Preliminary results on the distribution

  1. Toxicity, Bioaccumulation and Biotransformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Marine Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The toxicity, bioaccumulation and biotransformation of citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) capped silver nanoparticles (NPs) (AgNP-citrate and AgNP-PVP) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs in marine organisms via marine sediment exposure were investigated. Results from 7-d sedimen...

  2. INVENTORY AND DISTRIBUTION OF MOLLUSC IN CORAL REEF OF BACAN ISLAND WATERS, NORTH MALUKU PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik A.W. Cappenberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacan Island waters of North Maluku Province consisted of three main tropical ecosystems, namely mangrove, seagrass, and coral reef with the highest marine biodiversity. Mollusc is a group of marine fauna that most of them associated with coral reef.  However, little is known about their information in the Bacan Island due to lack of study conducted there. The purpose of this study is to observe the diversity and distribution of mollusc fauna in the coral reef flat of Bacan Island. Mollusc inventory was done using Rapid Reef Resource Assessment (RRA method by snorkling in the reefs of east coast (25 sites and west coast (10 sites of Bacan Island. The molluscs found were directly identified into species level and recorded.  Results of inventory show that there are 47 species belong to 19 families with the family of Muricidae is the highest diversity (6 species, while the lowest are Buccinidae, Bursidae, Haliotidae, Olividae, Cardiidae, Isognomonidae and Spondylidae, respectively with only 1 species in each of those families. The highest species number of mollusc was distributed along the east coast of the island (40 species, and the lowest one was in the west coast (37 species. Some species such as Tridacna spp., Pinctada margaritifera and Pteria penguin are important species, because they have economical values. Keywords:       biodiversity, molluscs, coral reef, Bacan Island, North Maluku

  3. Bioactivity of marine organisms. 4. Screening of some marine animals from the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, C.G.; Kamat, S.Y.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Das, B.; Battacharya, J.; Ramani, P.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Jain, S.; Srimal, R.C.

    Of twenty eight alcoholic extracts of marine organisms screened for a wide range of pharmacological activities, 15 showed biological activity. Of these two were anti implantation, 3 CNS stimulant, 2 hypotensive, 4 diuretic, 4 hypoglycaemic, 2...

  4. Bioactivity of marine organisms. Part 5. Screening of some marine fauna from the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, C.G.; Kamat, S.Y.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Das, B.; Patel, J.; Ramani, P.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Jain, S.; Srimal, R.C.

    (December), 1990, pp. 153-157 BIOACTIVITY OF MARINE ORGANISMS PART V : SCREENING OF SOME MARINE FAUNA FROM THE INDIAN COAST , CG. NAIK, S.Y. KAMAT, P.S. PARAMESHWARAN, B. DAS, JIVEXA PATEL, PRITA RAMANI, D.S. BHAKUNI", A.K. GOEL", SUDHA JAIN" AND R.c. SRIMAL... of Oceanography, Goa, in collaboration with the Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow for the screening of extracts ofmarine organisms for a wide range of biological activities. The programme consists of collection, identification and extraction of marine flora...

  5. Marine Genomics: A clearing-house for genomic and transcriptomic data of marine organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trent Harold F

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Marine Genomics project is a functional genomics initiative developed to provide a pipeline for the curation of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs and gene expression microarray data for marine organisms. It provides a unique clearing-house for marine specific EST and microarray data and is currently available at http://www.marinegenomics.org. Description The Marine Genomics pipeline automates the processing, maintenance, storage and analysis of EST and microarray data for an increasing number of marine species. It currently contains 19 species databases (over 46,000 EST sequences that are maintained by registered users from local and remote locations in Europe and South America in addition to the USA. A collection of analysis tools are implemented. These include a pipeline upload tool for EST FASTA file, sequence trace file and microarray data, an annotative text search, automated sequence trimming, sequence quality control (QA/QC editing, sequence BLAST capabilities and a tool for interactive submission to GenBank. Another feature of this resource is the integration with a scientific computing analysis environment implemented by MATLAB. Conclusion The conglomeration of multiple marine organisms with integrated analysis tools enables users to focus on the comprehensive descriptions of transcriptomic responses to typical marine stresses. This cross species data comparison and integration enables users to contain their research within a marine-oriented data management and analysis environment.

  6. Bio screening of marine organisms from the coasts of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.; Ameen, M.; Naz, S.; Noureen, S.

    2012-01-01

    This review article covers the literature on bio screening of crude extracts, fractions and pure compounds isolated from various marine organisms including seaweeds, mangroves, invertebrates and bacteria collected from the coasts of Karachi (Pakistan) published during the period 1984-2010. Recent studies showed that a number of novel compounds have been isolated from marine organisms possessing interesting biological activities. Various research groups from Pakistan have conducted the extensive bioassay-guided investigation of chemical constituents of marine organisms which showed anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, nematicidal, anti-inflammatory, anti-leishmanial, anti-coagulation, cytotoxicity, enzyme inhibition, inhibition of edema, anti-cancer, brine shrimp lethality, Lemna minor bioassay, phyto toxicity, spasmolytic, analgesic and hypolipidaemic activities. More than 70 marine organisms have been reported with reference to their biological studies and about 100 pure compounds were isolated from these organisms but only 18 compounds and 5 synthetic analogues of compound 1 were found active. This review article is particularly focused only on the reported bioactive compounds and crude extracts of marine organisms. (author)

  7. Matrix effects on organic pollutants analysis in marine sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azis, M. Y.; Asia, L.; Piram, A.; Buchari, B.; Doumenq, P.; Setiyanto, H.

    2018-05-01

    Interference from the matrix sample can influence of the accurate analytical method. Accelerated Solvent Extraction and their purification methods were tried to separate the organic micropollutants respectively in marine sediment. Those matrix were as organic pollutants evaluation in marine environment. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are two examples organic pollutant in environment which are carcinogenic and mutagenic. Marine sediments are important matrices of information regarding the human activities in coastal areas as well as the fate and behavior of organic pollutants, which are persistent in long-term. This research purpose to evaluate the matrice effect and the recovery from marine sediment spiking with several standar solution and deuterium of molecular target from organic pollutants in not polluted sample of sediment. Matrice samples was tested from indicate in unpolluted location. The methods were evaluated with standard calibration curve (linearity LOQ). Recovery (YE) relative, Matrice Effect (ME) relative correction with deuteriated standar were evaluated the interference the matrix. Interference effect for OCPs compounds were higher than PCBs in marine sediment.

  8. Metals in molluscs and algae: a north-south Tyrrhenian Sea baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2010-09-15

    We develop a 800 km long relative baseline of metal pollution for the Tyrrhenian Sea, from the north of Naples to south of Sicily (Italy), based on spatio-temporal (1997-2004) concentrations of trace metals in marine organisms and on the bioaccumulative properties of those organisms. The study concerns sites in the gulf of Gaeta-Formia, near Naples, and three islands north, west, and south of Sicily: Ustica, Favignana and Linosa. The five metals are: cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc; the species include: Monodonta turbinata (n=161), Patella caerulea (n=244) and the algae Padina pavonica (n=84). We use Johnson's (1949) [15] probabilistic method to determine the type of distribution that accounts for our data. It is a system of frequency curves that represents the transformation of the standard normal curves. We find an N-S pollution gradient in molluscs considered: the lowest metal pollution occurs around the Sicilian islands. Our method can accurately characterize marine pollution by contributing to: policy-making, coastal resources management, the assessments of environmental damages from marine accidents and other events. The method here presented is a useful tool for pollution comparisons purposes among ecosystems (i.e., risk monitoring) and it is an ideal starting point for its application on a global scale. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Metals in molluscs and algae: A north-south Tyrrhenian Sea baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2010-01-01

    We develop a 800 km long relative baseline of metal pollution for the Tyrrhenian Sea, from the north of Naples to south of Sicily (Italy), based on spatio-temporal (1997-2004) concentrations of trace metals in marine organisms and on the bioaccumulative properties of those organisms. The study concerns sites in the gulf of Gaeta-Formia, near Naples, and three islands north, west, and south of Sicily: Ustica, Favignana and Linosa. The five metals are: cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc; the species include: Monodonta turbinata (n = 161), Patella caerulea (n = 244) and the algae Padina pavonica (n = 84). We use Johnson's (1949) probabilistic method to determine the type of distribution that accounts for our data. It is a system of frequency curves that represents the transformation of the standard normal curves. We find an N-S pollution gradient in molluscs considered: the lowest metal pollution occurs around the Sicilian islands. Our method can accurately characterize marine pollution by contributing to: policy-making, coastal resources management, the assessments of environmental damages from marine accidents and other events. The method here presented is a useful tool for pollution comparisons purposes among ecosystems (i.e., risk monitoring) and it is an ideal starting point for its application on a global scale.

  10. Noise in the Sea and Its Impacts on Marine Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Xinguo; Liu, Guangxu

    2015-01-01

    With the growing utilization and exploration of the ocean, anthropogenic noise increases significantly and gives rise to a new kind of pollution: noise pollution. In this review, the source and the characteristics of noise in the sea, the significance of sound to marine organisms, and the impacts of noise on marine organisms are summarized. In general, the studies about the impact of noise on marine organisms are mainly on adult fish and mammals, which account for more than 50% and 20% of all the cases reported. Studies showed that anthropogenic noise can cause auditory masking, leading to cochlear damage, changes in individual and social behavior, altered metabolisms, hampered population recruitment, and can subsequently affect the health and service functions of marine ecosystems. However, since different sampling methodologies and unstandarized measurements were used and the effects of noise on marine organisms are dependent on the characteristics of the species and noise investigated, it is difficult to compare the reported results. Moreover, the scarcity of studies carried out with other species and with larval or juvenile individuals severely constrains the present understanding of noise pollution. In addition, further studies are needed to reveal in detail the causes for the detected impacts. PMID:26437424

  11. Effects of Pollution on Marine Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearns, Alan J; Reish, Donald J; Oshida, Philip S; Morrison, Ann Michelle; Rempel-Hester, Mary Ann; Arthur, Courtney; Rutherford, Nicolle; Pryor, Rachel

    2017-10-01

    This review covers selected 2016 articles on the biological effects of pollutants and human physical disturbances on marine and estuarine plants, animals, ecosystems and habitats. The review, based largely on journal articles, covers field and laboratory measurement activities (bioaccumulation of contaminants, field assessment surveys, toxicity testing and biomarkers) as well as pollution issues of current interest including endocrine disrupters, emerging contaminants, wastewater discharges, dredging and disposal etc. Special emphasis is placed on effects of oil spills and marine debris due largely to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. Several topical areas reviewed in the past (ballast water and ocean acidification) were dropped this year. The focus of this review is on effects, not pollutant fate and transport. There is considerable overlap across subject areas (e.g.some bioaccumulation papers may be cited in other topical categories). Please use keyword searching of the text to locate related but distributed papers. Use this review only as a guide and please consult the original papers before citing them.

  12. Assessing toxicity of varying major ion concentrations to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, D.R.; Quast, W.

    1993-01-01

    Recent regulatory developments have required that produced waters discharged in the Gulf of Mexico be monitored for toxicity to marine organisms. While produced water may contain a variety of indigenous and introduced chemicals, virtually all have moderate to high concentrations of major ions. Although seawater is also rich in these ions, excessive salinity can cause toxicity to marine organisms. Perhaps more importantly, toxicity to marine organisms can be caused by deviations from normal ion ratios even if the total salinity is within organism tolerances. To provide a better understanding of marine organism responses to variations in major ion concentrations, the authors conducted a series of laboratory experiments to quantify the responses of mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) to modifications of normal seawater chemistry. Acute testing included both increasing and decreasing the concentrations of individual ions relative to seawater, as well as altering total salinity. Results show these organisms can be adversely affected by this altered chemistry and their sensitivity is dependent upon the individual ions that are manipulated. Results from these studies are being incorporated into an overall strategy for evaluating the influence of major ion chemistry on produced water toxicity tests

  13. Review of intersex in gastropods and other molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob

    Various studies have demonstrated that the presence of imposex, i.e. an imposition of a penis and/or a vas deferens in addition to the normal reproductive tracts in females of gonochoristics prosobranch gastropod species, is a common phenomenon in the marine environment today. However, also other....... This includes examples like transformation of the reproductive and genital tracts in gastropods and cephalopods, spermatogenesis in the female ovary and oocyte development in male testis (ovo-testis).  ......Various studies have demonstrated that the presence of imposex, i.e. an imposition of a penis and/or a vas deferens in addition to the normal reproductive tracts in females of gonochoristics prosobranch gastropod species, is a common phenomenon in the marine environment today. However, also other...... signs of endocrine disruption causing sex reversal, characterized as intersex, have been reported for marine molluscs. Intersex can more generally be defined as disturbance of the phenotypic sex characters and different types of intersex have been recorded for both female and male molluscs...

  14. Effect of different combining patterns of radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakamura, R.; Nakahara, M.

    1981-01-01

    Information on the environmental factors (level of radioactivity in sea water, salinity, temperature, etc.), the biological factors (growth stage, species of organism, etc.), and the metabolism of radionuclides in marine organisms should be taken into account so as to understand the mechanism of radioactive contamination of marine organisms. From this viewpoint, the combining of radionuclides with constituents in marine organisms was studied, indicating the differences as follows: (a) Different appearances of radioactive cobalt in the liver of the abalone due to chemical forms: From the gel filtration profiles on Sephadex it was observed that 57 Co accumulated in the liver of the abalone from sea water labelled by complexed 57 Co combines with a constituent in the liver that has a molecular weight of about 40,000. However, 60 Co taken up from sea water containing ionic 60 Co combines with other constituents in the liver. (b) Appearance of radionuclides in fish due to pathways (sea water and food): In fish liver, most 137 Cs from both sea water and food combines with only one constituent substance; the molecular weight of this substance was estimated at 1100-1300. Cobalt-60 from both sea water and food associates with two different molecular weight constituents, but 65 Zn made a considerable difference in the gel filtration profiles between sea water and food. These results indicate that the metabolism of radionuclides in marine organisms may possibly be varied by the chemical forms of radionuclides in sea water and the pathways of radionuclides. (author)

  15. THE MEDICALLY IMPORTANT MOLLUSCS OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machfudz Djajasasmita

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At present in Indonesia 32 species of non-marine molluscs which belong to IS families have been known to be potentially of medicalor veterinary importance, since they are suspected to be capable in transmitting human and animal diseases. The brackish water family Potamididae comprises of 1 species; whereas the freshwater snails are : Viviparidae (3 sp., Ampullariidae (3 sp., Bythiniidae (1 sp.. Pomatiopsidae (1 sp., Thiaridae (7 sp., Lymnaeidae(l sp. and Planorbidae (5 sp.; freshwater bivalve are: Corbiculidae (4 sp.; land snails are: Subulinidae (2 sp., Achatinidae (1 sp. and Bradybaenidae (1 sp.; land slug: Veronicelidae (2 sp. Philomycidae (1 sp. and Limacidae (1 sp.. All are common species which can be found in the vicinity of human habitation (ponds, rice-field, ditches, gardens etc. The parasitological studies on these molluscs are rather limited, only 9 species have been studied and confirmed to be the intermediate host of parasitic nematodes and nematodes; i.e. Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, the intermediate host of the blood fluke Schistosoma japonica in Central Sulawesi: Pila suctata, Achatina fulica and Laevicaulis alte from several places in Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi and Flores have been found to be harbouring the larvae of the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the causative agent of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis; Bellamy a rudipelis, Gyraulus sarasinorum and Corbicula lindoensis were recorded as the intermediate host of the intestinal fluke Echinostoma lindoensis in Central Sulawesi; Lymnaea rubiginosa plays an important role in the life-cycle of the cattle liver fluke Fasciola gigantica and F.hepatica, which may reduce the national meat production; and Digoniostoma truncatum from Bali has been recorded naturally infected with radiae and cercariae of Paramphistoma sp., the causative agent of the fatal paramphistomiasis of cattle. Gyraulus convexiusculus is considered to be the most likely first intermediate host of

  16. Leaching of plastic additives to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelmans, Albert A.; Besseling, Ellen; Foekema, Edwin M.

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that ingestion of microplastics by aquatic species leads to increased exposure to plastic additives. However, experimental data or model based evidence is lacking. Here we assess the potential of leaching of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the intestinal tracts of Arenicola marina (lugworm) and Gadus morhua (North Sea cod). We use a biodynamic model that allows calculations of the relative contribution of plastic ingestion to total exposure of aquatic species to chemicals residing in the ingested plastic. Uncertainty in the most crucial parameters is accounted for by probabilistic modeling. Our conservative analysis shows that plastic ingestion by the lugworm yields NP and BPA concentrations that stay below the lower ends of global NP and BPA concentration ranges, and therefore are not likely to constitute a relevant exposure pathway. For cod, plastic ingestion appears to be a negligible pathway for exposure to NP and BPA. - Highlights: • Uptake of plastic additives after plastic ingestion was modeled for worms and fish. • This was done for bisphenol A and nonylphenol. • Uncertainty was accounted for by Monte Carlo simulations. • It appeared that exposure by plastic ingestion was negligible for fish. • Plastic ingestion may occasionally be relevant for marine worms. - Leaching of nonylphenol and bisphenol A from ingested microplastic may be relevant for the lugworm, but is irrelevant for fish like cod

  17. Impacts of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles on marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Tony J.; Tyler, Charles R.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing use of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles [Me(O)NPs] in products means many will inevitably find their way into marine systems. Their likely fate here is sedimentation following hetero-aggregation with natural organic matter and/or free anions, putting benthic, sediment-dwelling and filter feeding organisms most at risk. In marine systems, Me(O)NPs can absorb to micro-organisms with potential for trophic transfer following consumption. Filter feeders, especially bivalves, accumulate Me(O)NPs through trapping them in mucus prior to ingestion. Benthic in-fauna may directly ingest sedimented Me(O)NPs. In fish, uptake is principally via the gut following drinking, whilst Me(O)NPs caught in gill mucus may affect respiratory processes and ion transport. Currently, environmentally-realistic Me(O)NP concentrations are unlikely to cause significant adverse acute health problems, however sub-lethal effects e.g. oxidative stresses have been noted in many organisms, often deriving from dissolution of Ag, Cu or Zn ions, and this could result in chronic health impacts. -- Highlights: • Nanoparticle (NP) use increasing, and NPs ultimately discharged to marine systems. • Metal ion dissolution from NPs causes oxidative stress at relevant concentrations. • Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of NPs likely at all levels of marine food webs. • Biofilms and filter feeders are major NP accumulators, but many Classes lack study. • Current release levels unlikely to cause chronic damage, but may be a future issue. -- Exposure to metal (oxide) nanoparticles causes sub-lethal effects in marine organisms, the extent of which is related principally to the organisms' feeding regime, habitat and lifestyle

  18. Biology, genome organization and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of parvoviruses are now know to infect marine shrimp, and these viruses alone or in combination with other viruses have the potential to cause major losses in shrimp aquaculture globally. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biology, genome organization, gene expression, and...

  19. Carotenoids from Marine Organisms: Biological Functions and Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Galasso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As is the case for terrestrial organisms, carotenoids represent the most common group of pigments in marine environments. They are generally biosynthesized by all autotrophic marine organisms, such as bacteria and archaea, algae and fungi. Some heterotrophic organisms also contain carotenoids probably accumulated from food or partly modified through metabolic reactions. These natural pigments are divided into two chemical classes: carotenes (such as lycopene and α- and β-carotene that are composed of hydrogen and carbon; xanthophylls (such as astaxanthin, fucoxanthin and lutein, which are constituted by hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. Carotenoids, as antioxidant compounds, assume a key role in the protection of cells. In fact, quenching of singlet oxygen, light capture and photosynthesis protection are the most relevant biological functions of carotenoids. The present review aims at describing (i the biological functions of carotenoids and their benefits for human health, (ii the most common carotenoids from marine organisms and (iii carotenoids having large success in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmeceutical industries, highlighting the scientific progress in marine species cultivation for natural pigments production.

  20. Accumulation of trace metals in coastal marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, A.W. van; Raaphorst, J.G. van

    1980-01-01

    ECN at Petten carries out a survey on the occurrence of trace metals in coastal marine organisms. The survey is aimed to provide an estimate of concentration factors in local marine organisms for neutron activation products released as low-level liquid radioactive waste into the North Sea. The organisms studied are red and brown seaweed, edible mussels ans shrimp. A summary of the results of analyses of iron, cobalt, zinc, silver and antimony in these organisms is presented. Concentration factors derived from mean stable-element concentrations range from about 50 for Sb in red seaweed and shrimp to about 10 4 for Fe in red seaweed and mussels. The largest variation is shown for zinc in seaweed, which variation is seasonal and most pronounced in brown seaweed. A discussion of the data is presented in relation to data from other West-European coastal areas and to data used for the radiological assessment of deep sea disposal of radioactive waste

  1. The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Stephanie L.; Thompson, Richard C.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2013-01-01

    Plastic debris at the micro-, and potentially also the nano-scale, are widespread in the environment. Microplastics have accumulated in oceans and sediments worldwide in recent years, with maximum concentrations reaching 100 000 particles m 3 . Due to their small size, microplastics may be ingested by low trophic fauna, with uncertain consequences for the health of the organism. This review focuses on marine invertebrates and their susceptibility to the physical impacts of microplastic uptake. Some of the main points discussed are (1) an evaluation of the factors contributing to the bioavailability of microplastics including size and density; (2) an assessment of the relative susceptibility of different feeding guilds; (3) an overview of the factors most likely to influence the physical impacts of microplastics such as accumulation and translocation; and (4) the trophic transfer of microplastics. These findings are important in guiding future marine litter research and management strategies. -- Highlights: •Accumulation of plastic waste in the oceans has become a pressing issue. •Here we review the susceptibility of marine invertebrates to microplastic uptake. •Size, shape and abundance influence uptake; microfibres are considered most harmful. •Colonisation of microplastics could have population-level impacts. •Results will inform future marine litter research and management strategies. -- Here we review microplastic uptake in marine organisms and assess individual, population and community level effects, highlighting the most susceptible species

  2. Radiocarbon in marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clercq, M. le; Plicht, J. van der; Meijer, H.A.J.; Baar, H.J.W. de

    Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) plays an important role in the ecology and carbon cycle in the ocean. Analytical problems with concentration and isotope ratio measurements have hindered its study. We have constructed a new analytical method based on supercritical oxidation for the determination of

  3. Inventory of organisms interfering with transmission of a marine trematode

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, J.E.; van der Meer, J.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2014-01-01

    It has increasingly been recognized that organisms can interfere with parasitic free-living stages, preventing them from infecting their specified host and thus reducing infection levels. This common phenomenon in freshwater and terrestrial systems has been termed the ‘dilution effect’ and, so far, is poorly studied in marine systems. Ten common intertidal organisms found in the Dutch Wadden Sea (North Sea) were tested to establish their effects on the free-living cercarial stages of the trem...

  4. Contribution to the study of radioactivity in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Gouvea, R. de C. dos; Santos, P.L. dos

    1986-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of natural radionuclides in marine organisms along the Rio de Janeiro coast was studied. Significant levels of 210 Po were found in the edible bivalve Perna perna linnaeus, 1758. The level of 210 Po in the soft tissue of bivalves collected along the Ponta Negra rock there was three times higher than that of similar organisms collected near Boa Viagem. (M.A.C.) [pt

  5. Bioavailability of sediment-bound contaminants to marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)]|[Colby Coll., Waterville, ME (United States); Neff, J. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)]|[Battelle Ocean Sciences, Duxbury, MA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The bioavailability of sediment-bound contaminants to marine organisms indicates that there exists a potential for transfer of these contaminants through marine food webs to commercial fisheries products consumed by humans. However, there has been relatively little effort to combine and synthesize data on chemical/biological interactions between benthic animals and seagrasses and the sediments in which they reside on the one hand, and on the chemistry of bioaccumulation on the other. This report provides a conceptual basis for an approach to bioavailability and biomagnification of sediment-bound contaminants that reviews biological and chemical approaches.

  6. Interactions Between Prokaryotes and Dissolved Organic Matter in Marine Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, Sachia Jo

    organic bound carbon equal in size to atmospheric carbon dioxide. Prokaryotes mediate the fate of a large part of marine DOM, which is their principal source of energy and substrate. However, a large fraction is also left behind in the water column persisting for millennia, and prokaryotes may hold...... the key to understanding the mechanisms controlling the cycling of DOM within marine waters. In the thesis presented here, the aim was to investigate the activity and composition of prokaryotes to determine their functional role in DOM utilization. The thesis incorporates a range of study systems...

  7. Adaptive Observatories for Observing Moving Marine Organisms (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingham, J. G.; Scholin, C.; Zhang, Y.; Godin, M. A.; Hobson, B.; Frolov, S.

    2010-12-01

    The ability to characterize the response of small marine organisms to each other, and to their environment, is a demanding observational challenge. Small organisms live in a water reference frame, while existing cable or mooring-based observatories operate in an Earth reference frame. Thus repeated observations from a fixed system observe different populations as currents sweep organisms by the sensors. In contrast, mobile systems are typically optimized for spatial coverage rather than repeated observations of the same water volume. Lagrangian drifters track water mass, but are unable to find or reposition themselves relative to ocean features. We are developing a system capable of finding, following and observing discrete populations of marine organisms over time, leveraging a decade and a half investment in the Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network (AOSN) program. AOSN undertook the development of platforms to enable multi-platform coordinated measurement of ocean properties in the late 1990s, leading to the development of a variety of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and associated technologies, notably several glider systems, now in common use. Efforts by a number of research groups have focused on methods to employ these networked systems to observe and predict dynamic physical ocean phenomena. For example, periodic large scale field programs in Monterey Bay have progressively integrated these systems with data systems, predictive models, and web-based collaborative portals. We are adapting these approaches to follow and observe the dynamics of marine organisms. Compared to physical processes, the temporal and spatial variability of small marine organisms, particularly micro-organisms, is typical greater. Consequently, while multi-platform observations of physical processes can be coordinated via intermittent communications links from shore, biological observations require a higher degree of adaptability of the observation system in situ. This talk will

  8. Latitudinal gradients in degradation of marine dissolved organic carbon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Arnosti

    Full Text Available Heterotrophic microbial communities cycle nearly half of net primary productivity in the ocean, and play a particularly important role in transformations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC. The specific means by which these communities mediate the transformations of organic carbon are largely unknown, since the vast majority of marine bacteria have not been isolated in culture, and most measurements of DOC degradation rates have focused on uptake and metabolism of either bulk DOC or of simple model compounds (e.g. specific amino acids or sugars. Genomic investigations provide information about the potential capabilities of organisms and communities but not the extent to which such potential is expressed. We tested directly the capabilities of heterotrophic microbial communities in surface ocean waters at 32 stations spanning latitudes from 76°S to 79°N to hydrolyze a range of high molecular weight organic substrates and thereby initiate organic matter degradation. These data demonstrate the existence of a latitudinal gradient in the range of complex substrates available to heterotrophic microbial communities, paralleling the global gradient in bacterial species richness. As changing climate increasingly affects the marine environment, changes in the spectrum of substrates accessible by microbial communities may lead to shifts in the location and rate at which marine DOC is respired. Since the inventory of DOC in the ocean is comparable in magnitude to the atmospheric CO(2 reservoir, such a change could profoundly affect the global carbon cycle.

  9. Assessment of the impact of xenobiotic pollutants on the marine organisms: Molecular biomarker approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    of the organisms to xenobiotic compounds being transformed into reactive oxygen species. Most importantly, the occurrence of DNA strand breaks in marine organisms leading to the loss of DNA integrity is a significant biomarker of marine pollution. The measurement...

  10. Transfer factors of trace elements and radionuclides in the marine environment of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, M.V.M.; Pulhani, Vandana; Padmanabhan, Hemalatha

    1998-11-01

    The document presents the data base on Bioaccumulation Factor, B p and Distribution Coefficient, K d values generated in the eastern and western coastal marine waters of India with a view to develop site-specific or species-specific values. Comparison with the IAEA default values from Safety Series No. 57 and Technical Report Series No. 247 values is made. Generally, the B p values for trace elements do not vary by more than a factor of 3 except for some specific cases like Fe in molluscs, crustaceans and fish, Ni in molluscs and Zn in sea weeds and molluscs. The same is true for the B p values of fission nuclides viz., 137 Cs and 90 Sr in molluscs, crustaceans and sea weeds except for the B p of 137 Cs in fish which is significantly lower in the Indian context. The fission nuclide 144 Ce shows distinctly higher accumulation factors in all organisms. The B p values of natural radionuclides such as 210 Pb , 210 Po, Ra and U are close to the IAEA default values except for the high value of U in fish. Similarly, B p values of Pu in fish and crustaceans are significantly higher than that of the IAEA default values. The report presents B p values for Cu and Cd in different marine organisms and K d values in marine sediments. K d values for suspended particles are also presented. B p values for plankton and porifera are also given. (author)

  11. Investigating organic aerosol loading in the remote marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lapina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol loading in the marine environment is investigated using aerosol composition measurements from several research ship campaigns (ICEALOT, MAP, RHaMBLe, VOCALS and OOMPH, observations of total AOD column from satellite (MODIS and ship-based instruments (Maritime Aerosol Network, MAN, and a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem. This work represents the most comprehensive evaluation of oceanic OM emission inventories to date, by employing aerosol composition measurements obtained from campaigns with wide spatial and temporal coverage. The model underestimates AOD over the remote ocean on average by 0.02 (21 %, compared to satellite observations, but provides an unbiased simulation of ground-based Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN observations. Comparison with cruise data demonstrates that the GEOS-Chem simulation of marine sulfate, with the mean observed values ranging between 0.22 μg m−3 and 1.34 μg m−3, is generally unbiased, however surface organic matter (OM concentrations, with the mean observed concentrations between 0.07 μg m−3 and 0.77 μg m−3, are underestimated by a factor of 2–5 for the standard model run. Addition of a sub-micron marine OM source of approximately 9 TgC yr−1 brings the model into agreement with the ship-based measurements, however this additional OM source does not explain the model underestimate of marine AOD. The model underestimate of marine AOD is therefore likely the result of a combination of satellite retrieval bias and a missing marine aerosol source (which exhibits a different spatial pattern than existing aerosol in the model.

  12. Marine Vibrio Species Produce the Volatile Organic Compound Acetone

    OpenAIRE

    Nemecek-Marshall, M.; Wojciechowski, C.; Kuzma, J.; Silver, G. M.; Fall, R.

    1995-01-01

    While screening aerobic, heterotrophic marine bacteria for production of volatile organic compounds, we found that a group of isolates produced substantial amounts of acetone. Acetone production was confirmed by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The major acetone producers were identified as nonclinical Vibrio species. Acetone production was maximal in the stationary phase of growth and was stimulated by addition of l-leucine...

  13. Concentration factors of radionuclides in the marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    Parameters related to the bioconcentration of radionuclides in the marine were shown by 'Assessment and guideline to the target value of dose in the environment of the power light water reactor facilities' (Nuclear Safety Commission), but the guideline data did not contain Ru and Ce relating to the reprocessing plant. So that more new data than these of 'Technical Reports Series No. 247' (published by IAEA in 1985) were mainly collected. Especially the data of nuclides with poor data of concentration factors (CF) and natural radionuclides (Po-210, Pb-210) were gathered. These data were pigeonholed and many tables (element, kinds of organisms, experimental methods) were made by separating the general remarks from the original experimental reports. The contents of this report are given as under, history of concentration factor (CF), determination method of CF, CF calculation method, calculation models related to CF, tables of metabolic parameters, tables of CF, the present conditions of studies for uptake of radionuclides with long half-life into the marine organisms, CF abstract tables and trial calculation of human exposure by eating the marine organisms. (S.Y.)

  14. Studies on radioactivity monitoring proceedure for marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku; Hirano, Shigeki

    1978-01-01

    Suitability of several species of mollusca and seaweeds as indicator organisms for radioactivity monitoring of marine environment was examined by radioisotope tracer experiments or stable elements analyses from the standpoints of the affinities for radionuclides, the sampling procedures, and the distribution of radioactive and stable elements in the body of these organisms. Extremely high concentration factor of 54 Mn was shown by kidney of scallop suggesting the suitability for the efficient monitoring of the nuclide though the contribution of kidney to the weight of scallop was very small. Higher concentration of 54 Mn in midgut gland rather than kidney was observed in the case of other species of shellfishes but distribution of the nuclide among organs or tissues of the organisms varied during the period of intake and excretion. Ununiform distribution of radioactive and stable elements among the species of seaweeds and in the body of seaweeds observed by the tracer experiments and stable element analyses suggested the necessity of careful selection of the samples for monitoring of these nuclides. From the results of tracer experiments carried out in order to elucidate the relation between existing state of radionuclides in seawater and uptake by marine organisms, it was supposed that the complexed forms with inorganic or organic ligands in seawater were predominant species of radioactive cerium in seawater. (author)

  15. Mollusc and brachiopod skeletal hardparts: Problematic archives of past seawater properties (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immenhauser, A.; Schone, B. R.; Hoffmann, R.; Niedermayr, A.

    2013-12-01

    Biomineralized exo- or endoskeletons of fossil marine invertebrates are widespread and diverse components of the Phanerozoic rock record of Earth's past and present oceans. Exoskeletons serve as protection against environmental pressure or predators, whilst endoskeletons may act as support or serves as an attachment for muscles and ligaments and hence as a mechanism for transmitting muscular forces. Biogenic hardparts represent sophisticated products resulting from the hierarchical interaction of inorganic minerals (95%) and macromolecular organic matrix, forming commonly less than 5%. The significance of biogenic carbonate archives lies in the time-resolved growth-increments and their respective multi-proxy geochemical signatures that have been widely used to assess past oceanic seawater properties. We here compile and review published work dealing with crystallization pathways of skeletal hardparts secreted by molluscs (i.e., bivalves and cephalopods) as well as brachiopods as widely used archives of ancient neritic epeiric settings. Bivalves and cephalopods (e.g., extinct ammonoids and belemnites and extant Sepia, Nautilus and Spirula) all form accretionary calcitic, aragonitic or vateritic skeletal hardparts. Despite the fact that molluscs and brachiopods form part of very different branches of the animal phylogenetic tree, their biomineralization strategies are surprisingly similar. Our main focus lies in a critical assessment of the complex pathways of ions and aquo-complexes from their source (seawater) to the final product (biomineral). We do this as an attempt to critically test the commonly held hypothesis that many fossil shell hardparts precipitated, under favourable conditions and pending subsequent diagenetic alteration, in equilibrium with seawater. Two main observations stand out: (1) the present knowledge on pathways and mechanisms (e.g., ion channel trans-membrane or endocytosis and vesicle transport, precursor mineralogies etc.) is surprisingly

  16. Cadmium-handling strategies in two chronically exposed indigenous freshwater organisms-the yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and the floater mollusc (Pyganodon grandis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Peter G.C.; Giguere, Anik; Bonneris, Emmanuelle; Hare, Landis

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on a variety of aquatic organisms suggest that metallothionein-like proteins (MT) play an important role in the regulation of essential metals, and in the sequestration and detoxification of non-essential metals (e.g., Cd). However, the importance of metallothionein production relative to alternative strategies of metal detoxification, and its effectiveness in metal detoxification, remain largely unexplored in field situations. In the present study we explored metal-handling strategies in an adult benthic bivalve (Pyganodon grandis) and in juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens), exposed to Cd in their natural habitat. The two biomonitor species were collected from lakes located along a Cd concentration gradient. Ambient dissolved Cd concentrations were determined by in situ dialysis as a measure of metal exposure. Sub-cellular Cd partitioning was determined in target tissues (bivalve gills and digestive gland; perch liver) by differential centrifugation, and metallothionein was measured independently by a mercury-saturation assay in the bivalve tissues. Malondialdehyde concentrations were measured as a potential indicator of oxidative stress. Ambient dissolved Cd concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 0.57 nM in the nine lakes from which bivalves were collected, and from max /[Cd] min ratios for the various tissues decreased in the order: bivalve gill Cd (28) > bivalve digestive gland Cd (18) > perch hepatic Cd (14). In the two lakes that were common to both the bivalve and perch studies, i.e. lakes Opasatica and Vaudray, accumulated Cd concentrations were consistently higher in the bivalve than in the perch. Cadmium-handling strategies were similar in the bivalve digestive gland and perch liver, in that Cd was mainly associated with the heat-stable protein (HSP) fraction. Furthermore, in these organs the contributions from the 'mitochondria' and 'lysosomes + microsomes' fractions were consistently higher than in the gill tissue. In the bivalve

  17. Concentration of 60Co by marine organisms through sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu; Koyanagi, Taku; Saiki, Masamichi

    1976-01-01

    Uptake of 60 Co absorbed on sea sands by benthic marine organisms was observed in laboratory experiments, since the radioactive cobalt released from nuclear power plants or other establishments into coastal seawater trends to be absorbed on sea sediments and also various kinds of marine organisms live in bottom sediments. Few kinds of flatfishes (Limanda spp.) and shrimp (Trachypenaeus curvirostris) were reared in aquariums contained seawater and sea sands which were highly contaminated with 60 Co previously, and whole body retention and distribution of radioactivity were measured on the organisms taken up from the aquariums occasionally by a scintillation counter. Uptake of 60 Co from ingested sea sands was also observed on the flatfishes administrating the contaminated sands orally. Concentration of 60 Co by the flatfishes reared in the sands was not significant while the shrimp showed high retention of the radioactivity. The food habit of shrimp which usually feeds on organic detritus with other small benthic organisms is different from that of flatfishes, one of the carnivorous, and considered to bring the difference on the pathway of radionuclides concentration. Assimilation of 60 Co via the digestive tract of flatfishes through the sands was estimated as about 10 per cent of the administrated radioactivity. (auth.)

  18. Studies on uptake and loss of radionuclides by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku; Suzuki, Hamaji; Hirano, Shigeki; Nakahara, Motokazu; Ishii, Toshiaki

    1978-01-01

    Uptake and loss of 137 Cs, 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 59 fe by marine fishes were observed by the radio-isotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors and biological half-lives for these radionuclides by the fishes were estimated. Concentration factors of 137 Cs by fish muscles calculated at 200th day as 17.5 - 27.5 were lower than the values obtained by the field survey on stable or radioactive cesium suggesting slow turnover in fish muscles and contribution of food to the accumulation of the nuclide. Transfer of radionuclides associated with sediment to marine benthic organisms was examined by rearing the organisms in contaminated sediment or administering the sediment orally to the organisms. The transfer ratios of the nuclides from sediment to organisms were less than the concentration factors based on seawater by the factors ranging from around 100 to about 5,000 depending on the species of organisms or radionuclides. Accumulation of radionuclides through food chain in marine ecosystem was studied by feeding shellfishes with labelled phytoplankton and seaweeds by feeding fishes with assorted feeds labelled by radioisotopes. Absorption of 60 Co by abalones was affected by the species of the seaweeds as food and 47% of the administered dose was retained through Laminaria japonica, whereas 31% through Undaria and 26% through Eisenia. Absorption of the radionuclides by the fishes fed with labelled feeds was most significant in the case of 137 Cs and 65 Zn and transfer rate showed the maximum values at 48 hours after feeding as 100 and 24%, respectively. About 45% of the former distributed in muscle and 52% of the latter in digestive tract and blood of the fishes. (author)

  19. Anti-photoaging and Photoprotective Compounds Derived from Marine Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramjee Pallela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms form a prominent component of the oceanic population, which significantly contribute in the production of cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical molecules with biologically efficient moieties. In addition to the molecules of various biological activities like anti-bacterial, anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative etc., these organisms also produce potential photoprotective or anti-photoaging agents, which are attracting present day researchers. Continuous exposure to UV irradiation (both UV-A and UV-B leads to the skin cancer and other photoaging complications, which are typically mediated by the reactive oxygen species (ROS, generated in the oxidative pathways. Many of the anti-oxidative and anti-photoaging compounds have been identified previously, which work efficiently against photodamage of the skin. Recently, marine originated photoprotective or anti-photoaging behavior was observed in the methanol extracts of Corallina pilulifera (CPM. These extracts were found to exert potent antioxidant activity and protective effect on UV-A-induced oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblast (HDF cells by protecting DNA and also by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, a key component in photoaging of the skin due to exposure to UV-A. The present review depicts various other photoprotective compounds from algae and other marine sources for further elaborative research and their probable use in cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical industries.

  20. Reticulate Evolution and Marine Organisms: The Final Frontier?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Arnold

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The role that reticulate evolution (i.e., via lateral transfer, viral recombination and/or introgressive hybridization has played in the origin and adaptation of individual taxa and even entire clades continues to be tested for all domains of life. Though falsified for some groups, the hypothesis of divergence in the face of gene flow is becoming accepted as a major facilitator of evolutionary change for many microorganisms, plants and animals. Yet, the effect of reticulate evolutionary change in certain assemblages has been doubted, either due to an actual dearth of genetic exchange among the lineages belonging to these clades or because of a lack of appropriate data to test alternative hypotheses. Marine organisms represent such an assemblage. In the past half-century, some evolutionary biologists interested in the origin and trajectory of marine organisms, particularly animals, have posited that horizontal transfer, introgression and hybrid speciation have been rare. In this review, we provide examples of such genetic exchange that have come to light largely as a result of analyses of molecular markers. Comparisons among these markers and between these loci and morphological characters have provided numerous examples of marine microorganisms, plants and animals that possess the signature of mosaic genomes.

  1. The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L; Thompson, Richard C; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-07-01

    Plastic debris at the micro-, and potentially also the nano-scale, are widespread in the environment. Microplastics have accumulated in oceans and sediments worldwide in recent years, with maximum concentrations reaching 100 000 particles m(3). Due to their small size, microplastics may be ingested by low trophic fauna, with uncertain consequences for the health of the organism. This review focuses on marine invertebrates and their susceptibility to the physical impacts of microplastic uptake. Some of the main points discussed are (1) an evaluation of the factors contributing to the bioavailability of microplastics including size and density; (2) an assessment of the relative susceptibility of different feeding guilds; (3) an overview of the factors most likely to influence the physical impacts of microplastics such as accumulation and translocation; and (4) the trophic transfer of microplastics. These findings are important in guiding future marine litter research and management strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Extreme accumulations of natural polonium-210 in certain marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folsom, T.R.; Wong, K.M.; Hodge, V.F.

    1972-01-01

    Concentration levels of polonium-210 reported for sea water are reviewed, and activities accumulated by various marine plant and animal species are discussed. Special mention is made of detailed studies of one giant algae upon whose outer surfaces intense accumulations of polonium have been discovered recently. Some concentrations found in two organisms intimate with algae, the abalones and the sea hares, are reported. Concentrations are listed pertaining to organisms selected from the open ocean in order to show that intense polonium concentrations are not restricted to organisms living near the continents where precursors of polonium originate. A brief discussion of conditions on one of the marine mammals, the dolphin, next is made. Then comments are made upon a benthic species (the sable fish) that prefers to live close to the deep sea floor, presumably so as to eat detritus. They also eat many of the smaller organisms that compete for the natural deep sea fallout of food, and many of these live in close contact with the muds and clays of the sea floor that are rich in radium. Some of the behavior and anatomical features and polonium-210 distribution in one of the most interesting and valuable of fishes, the North Pacific albacore (Thunnus alalunga) is described. This species has been used previously to tell us something about nuclear fallout distributions in the North Pacific Ocean during the past decade and repeatedly has directed attention to features of this ocean that might hardly be detected otherwise. (U.S.)

  3. Marine organisms and their adaption - Adaptions solve the challenges of existence in the sea.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Das, A.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    in the upper ocean; the size of marine organisms decrease with depth (1) Marine adption includes symbiosis, camouflage, size, contact, communication, defensive and reproductive strategies besides, adaptions to environmental conditions like temperature, light...

  4. Latitudinal gradients in degradation of marine dissolved organic carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnosti, Carol; Steen, Andrew; Ziervogel, Kai

    2011-01-01

    unknown, since the vast majority of marine bacteria have not been isolated in culture, and most measurements of DOC degradation rates have focused on uptake and metabolism of either bulk DOC or of simple model compounds (e.g. specific amino acids or sugars). Genomic investigations provide information......Heterotrophic microbial communities cycle nearly half of net primary productivity in the ocean, and play a particularly important role in transformations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The specific means by which these communities mediate the transformations of organic carbon are largely...... about the potential capabilities of organisms and communities but not the extent to which such potential is expressed. We tested directly the capabilities of heterotrophic microbial communities in surface ocean waters at 32 stations spanning latitudes from 76 ºS to 79 ºN to hydrolyze a range of high...

  5. Effects of triclosan on marine benthic and epibenthic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Monique M; Ho, Kay T; Cantwell, Mark G; Burgess, Robert M; Pelletier, Marguerite C

    2012-08-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial compound that has been widely used in consumer products such as toothpaste, deodorant, and shampoo. Because of its widespread use, triclosan has been detected in various environmental media, including wastewater, sewage sludge, surface waters, and sediments. Triclosan is acutely toxic to numerous aquatic organisms, but very few studies have been performed on estuarine and marine benthic organisms. For whole sediment toxicity tests, the sediment-dwelling estuarine amphipod, Ampelisca abdita, and the epibenthic mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia, are commonly used organisms. In the present study, median lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained for both of these organisms using water-only and whole sediment exposures. Acute 96-h water-only toxicity tests resulted in LC50 values of 73.4 and 74.3 µg/L for the amphipod and mysid, respectively. For the 7-d whole sediment toxicity test, LC50 values were 303 and 257 mg/kg (dry wt) for the amphipod and mysid, respectively. Using equilibrium partitioning theory, these whole sediment values are equivalent to interstitial water LC50 values of 230 and 190 µg/L for the amphipod and mysid, respectively, which are within a threefold difference of the observed 96-h LC50 water-only values. Triclosan was found to accumulate in polychaete tissue in a 28-d bioaccumulation study with a biota-sediment accumulation factor of 0.23 kg organic carbon/kg lipid. These data provide some of the first toxicity data for triclosan with marine benthic and epibenthic species while also indicating a need to better understand the effects of other forms of sediment carbon, triclosan ionization, and organism metabolism of triclosan on the chemical's behavior and toxicity in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  6. Need for organic reference materials in marine science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.E.

    1988-12-01

    The reference materials (RMs) available for organic trace analysis (OTA) and the development programmes of the RM producers are reviewed. The need for a wider range of determinants, matrices and classes of RMs, particularly the more widespread use of laboratory RMs (LRMs) is discussed. Additional certified RMs should include phenolic surfactant degradation products, chlorophenolics from the wood and paper industries, and organobromines from fire retardants. RMs as molecular markers of geogenic, pyrogenic and biogenic sources; chlorophylls and xanthophylls as a measure of marine productivity and natural shellfish toxins are proposed.

  7. Preliminary study on the occurrence of brominated organic compounds in Dutch marine organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.J.J.; Veen, van der I.; Hesselingen, van J.M.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Osinga, R.; Boer, de J.

    2003-01-01

    The extracts of three marine organisms; the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, the brown seaweed Sargassum muticum and the sponge Halichondria panicea, all elicited a number of brominated compounds, some of which were tentatively identified. Tribromophenol was observed in all species. This compound, also

  8. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in eight mollusc species along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasingam, S; Venkatachalapathy, R; Sudhakar, S; Raja, P; Rajeswari, V

    2011-01-01

    Eight mollusc species and sediment samples collected from three different stations along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India were analysed for the levels of petroleum hydrocarbons to elucidate the status of the petroleum residues in mollusc meant for human consumption. The concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments along Tamilnadu coast varied from 5.04-25.5 microg/g dw (dry weight). High concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediment of Uppanar estuary (25.5 +/- 1.45 microg/g dw) was perhaps land and marine based anthropogenic sources of this region. The petroleum hydrocarbon residues in eight mollusc species collected from Uppanar, Vellar and Coleroon estuaries varied between 2.44-6.04 microg/g ww (wet weight). Although the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment of the Uppanar region was markedly higher than the background, the petroleum hydrocarbon residues in mollusc collected from Uppanar estuary did not suggest bioaccumulation. The results signified that industrial growth has affected the aquatic environments and regular monitoring will help to adopt stringent pollution control measures for better management of the aquatic region.

  9. Antiviral Activity of Natural Products Extracted from Marine Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobia Tabassum

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Many epidemics have broken out over the centuries. Hundreds and thousands of humans have died over a disease. Available treatments for infectious diseases have always been limited. Some infections are more deadly than the others, especially viral pathogens. These pathogens have continuously resisted all kinds of medical treatment, due to a need for new treatments to be developed. Drugs are present in nature and are also synthesized in vitro and they help in combating diseases and restoring health. Synthesizing drugs is a hard and time consuming task, which requires a lot of man power and financial aid. However, the natural compounds are just lying around on the earth, may it be land or water. Over a thousand novel compounds isolated from marine organisms are used as antiviral agents. Others are being pharmacologically tested. Today, over forty antiviral compounds are present in the pharmacological market. Some of these compounds are undergoing clinical and pre-clinical stages. Marine compounds are paving the way for a new trend in modern medicine.

  10. Isolation of living Algae growing in the shells of Molluscs and Barnacles with EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.; Hoek, van den C.

    1966-01-01

    Several decalcifying mixtures or aqueous solutions of inorganic or organic acids are generally used for releasing algae growing in the shells of molluscs and barnacles, for instance dilute hydrochloric, nitric, citric, or acetic acid (4), a mixture of nitric acid, chromic acid and alcolhol (1),

  11. Vanadium levels in marine organisms of Onagawa Bay in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Suzuki, H.; Saito, K.; Chatt, A.

    2009-01-01

    Vanadium in marine organisms from Onagawa Bay in Miyagi, Japan, was determined by an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method using anticoincidence gamma-ray spectrometry at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) facility in Canada. Seaweeds, cultivated oysters, plankton, and four different species of sea squirt were collected from Onagawa Bay during 2005-2008. Vanadium levels around 20 μg g -1 (dry weight) were found in Japanese tangle and hijiki seaweeds. One species of sea squirt (Ciona savignyi) contained 160-500 ppm of V and it was highest among the four species of sea squirts studied. Protein-bound V species were separated by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and the element determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). (author)

  12. Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Sensory Function in Marine Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashur, Molly M; Johnston, Nicole K; Dixson, Danielle L

    2017-07-01

    Ocean acidification has been identified as a major contributor to ocean ecosystem decline, impacting the calcification, survival, and behavior of marine organisms. Numerous studies have observed altered sensory perception of chemical, auditory, and visual cues after exposure to elevated CO2. Sensory systems enable the observation of the external environment and therefore play a critical role in survival, communication, and behavior of marine organisms. This review seeks to (1) summarize the current knowledge of sensory impairment caused by ocean acidification, (2) discuss potential mechanisms behind this disruption, and (3) analyze the expected taxa differences in sensitivities to elevated CO2 conditions. Although a lack of standardized methodology makes cross-study comparisons challenging, trends and biases arise from this synthesis including a substantial focus on vertebrates, larvae or juveniles, the reef ecosystem, and chemosensory perception. Future studies must broaden the scope of the field by diversifying the taxa and ecosystems studied, incorporating ontogenetic comparisons, and focusing on cryptic sensory systems such as electroreception, magnetic sense, and the lateral line system. A discussion of possible mechanisms reveals GABAA receptor reversal as the conspicuous physiological mechanism. However, the potential remains for alternative disruption through structure or cue changes. Finally, a taxonomic comparison of physiological complexity reveals few trends in sensory sensitivities to lowered pH, but we hypothesize potential correlations relating to habitat, life history or relative use of sensory systems. Elevated CO2, in concordance with other global and local stressors, has the potential to drastically shift community composition and structure. Therefore research addressing the extent of sensory impairment, the underlying mechanisms, and the differences between taxa is vital for improved predictions of organismal response to ocean acidification.

  13. Marine organisms: an alternative source of potentially valuable natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonse Kelecom

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper recalls the outcoming of marine natural products research and reviews a selection of marirne bioactive metabolites in current use together with promising trends in marine pharmacology.

  14. Trace Elements in Marine Sediment and Organisms in the Gulf of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worakhunpiset, Suwalee

    2018-01-01

    This review summarizes the findings from studies of trace element levels in marine sediment and organisms in the Gulf of Thailand. Spatial and temporal variations in trace element concentrations were observed. Although trace element contamination levels were low, the increased urbanization and agricultural and industrial activities may adversely affect ecosystems and human health. The periodic monitoring of marine environments is recommended in order to minimize human health risks from the consumption of contaminated marine organisms. PMID:29677146

  15. Neuro-endocrine disruption in molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bech Sanderhoff, Lene; Waller, Stine P.

    The Mollusca phylum is the second largest animal phylum with around 85,000 registered mollusc species and increasing attention to effects of chemicals on the molluscan endocrine system have been given during the last years. This includes initiation of the development of OECD test guidelines (TG...... efficient and fast in vivo system using embryos of the freshwater pulmonate gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (the great pond snail). It is known that serotonin and dopamine are involved in many reproductive processes in molluscs Incl. egg maturation and spawning and that pedal ciliary activity causing L....... stagnalis embryos to rotate in the eggs is serotonin/dopamine regulated. We have developed a system to quantify embryo rotation and present results of exposure to serotonin, dopamine and different anti-depressive pharmaceuticals (e.g. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRI´s) using the L. stagnalis...

  16. Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K.; Fileman, Elaine S.; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2014-01-01

    Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m−3. The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota. PMID:24681661

  17. Contrasting Responses of Marine and Freshwater Photosynthetic Organisms to UVB Radiation: A Meta-Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng; Duarte, Carlos M.; Agusti, Susana

    2017-01-01

    artificial lamps. We found that marine photosynthetic organisms tend to be more sensitive than freshwater photosynthetic organisms to UVB radiation; responses to either decreased or increased UVB radiation vary among taxa; the mortality rate is the most

  18. Organic carbon burial in fjords: Terrestrial versus marine inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xingqian; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Savage, Candida; Smith, Richard W.

    2016-10-01

    Fjords have been identified as sites of enhanced organic carbon (OC) burial and may play an important role in regulating climate change on glacial-interglacial timescales. Understanding sediment processes and sources of sedimentary OC are necessary to better constrain OC burial in fjords. In this study, we use Fiordland, New Zealand, as a case study and present data on surface sediments, sediment down-cores and terrestrial end-members to examine dynamics of sediments and the sources of OC in fjord sediments. Sediment cores showed evidence of multiple particle sources, frequent bioturbation and mass-wasting events. A multi-proxy approach (stable isotopes, lignin-phenols and fatty acids) allowed for separation of marine, soil and vascular plant OC in surface sediments. The relationship between mass accumulation rate (MAR) and OC contents in fjord surface sediments suggested that mineral dilution is important in controlling OC content on a global scale, but is less important for specific regions (e.g., New Zealand). The inconsistency of OC budgets calculated by using MAR weighted %OC and OC accumulation rates (AR; 6 vs 21-31 Tg OC yr-1) suggested that sediment flux in fjords was likely underestimated. By using end-member models, we propose that 55% to 62% of total OC buried in fjords is terrestrially derived, and accounts for 17 ± 12% of the OCterr buried in all marine sediments. The strong correlation between MAR and OC AR indicated that OC flux will likely decrease in fjords in the future with global warming due to decrease in sediment flux caused by glacier denudation.

  19. Determination of sup 238 U in marine organisms by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Yudo ketsugo plasma shitsuryo bunsekiho ni yoru kaiyo seibutsuchu no sup 238 U no teiryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, T.; Nakahara, M; Matsuda, M.; Ishikawa, M. (National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1991-05-25

    Since the {sup 238} U concentration in seawater is about 3ng/ml at the element level and the activity concentration is 40 {mu} Bq/ml which are considerably higher that those of other {alpha} radioactive materials, it is necessary to study the concentration levels of many marine organisms. After confirming that the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry as a new high sensitive analysis for multi-elements is effective to analyze heavy elements such as rare earth elements or uranium, etc., this method was applied to determine {sup 238} U in 55 species of marine organism. The {sup 238} U concentration in soft tissues of marine animal ranged from 0.076 to 5000ng/g wet weight and large difference of concentration was observed depending on the kind of animal and the tissue. Especially, the branchial heart of cephalopod molluscs showed the specific accumulation of {sup 238} U. The concentration factor of branchial heart of Octopus vulgaris which showed the highest value was calculated to be about 10 {sup 3} by comparing it with the concentration of {sup 238} U in Japanese coastal waterseas. The concentration of {sup 238} U in 20 species of algae ranged from 10 to 3700ng/g dry weight. 11 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Bivalves Molluscs of Apulian Region: a 3-years control activity of a EU Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miedico O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The bivalve molluscs represent an important matrix to be studied for several reasons. Their nutritional properties make them valuable to the consumers, so that their consumption and commercial value has risen worldwide. Simultaneously, their significant water-filtering capability and their persistence in the same place make them good bio-indicators of marine ecosystems. The presence of the heavy metal contaminants, as Cd, Pb and Hg, was investigated in bivalve molluscs such as mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis, clams (Venus gallina and oysters (Ostrea edulis. In the present study, a survey was carried out on 334 samples addressed to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale – Puglia e Basilicata, Foggia (ITALY between 2009-2011, and collected by official authorities along the coasts of Apulia Region. The conformity of heavy metal content in bivalve molluscs was verified, in according to EC Reg. 1881/2006. The compliance was found for the total amount of samples. The obtained data on heavy metals concentration in bivalve molluscs were compared with data found in monitoring studies on the incidence of heavy metals in 1981 in North-Western Mediterranean Sea, in 2003 in Tyrrhenian Sea and in 2010 in Pacific Ocean (Chile, reported in literature. The information obtained from this work offer an essential database, not only for the authorities involved in food control, but also for the official institutions responsible of a constant control of the marine ecosystem pollution.

  1. A new physically-based quantification of marine isoprene and primary organic aerosol emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Meskhidze

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The global marine sources of organic carbon (OC are estimated here using a physically-based parameterization for the emission of marine isoprene and primary organic matter. The marine isoprene emission model incorporates new physical parameters such as light sensitivity of phytoplankton isoprene production and dynamic euphotic depth to simulate hourly marine isoprene emissions totaling 0.92 Tg C yr−1. Sensitivity studies using different schemes for the euphotic zone depth and ocean phytoplankton speciation produce the upper and the lower range of marine-isoprene emissions of 0.31 to 1.09 Tg C yr−1, respectively. Established relationships between sea spray fractionation of water-insoluble organic carbon (WIOC and chlorophyll-a concentration are used to estimate the total primary sources of marine sub- and super-micron OC of 2.9 and 19.4 Tg C yr−1, respectively. The consistent spatial and temporal resolution of the two emission types allow us, for the first time, to explore the relative contributions of sub- and super-micron organic matter and marine isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA to the total OC fraction of marine aerosol. Using a fixed 3% mass yield for the conversion of isoprene to SOA, our emission simulations show minor (<0.2% contribution of marine isoprene to the total marine source of OC on a global scale. However, our model calculations also indicate that over the tropical oceanic regions (30° S to 30° N, marine isoprene SOA may contribute over 30% of the total monthly-averaged sub-micron OC fraction of marine aerosol. The estimated contribution of marine isoprene SOA to hourly-averaged sub-micron marine OC emission is even higher, approaching 50% over the vast regions of the oceans during the midday hours when isoprene emissions are highest. As it is widely believed that sub-micron OC has the potential to influence the cloud droplet activation of marine aerosols, our

  2. Biosynthesis of polybrominated aromatic organic compounds by marine bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vinayak; El Gamal, Abrahim A.; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Poth, Dennis; Kersten, Roland D.; Schorn, Michelle; Allen, Eric E.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated bipyrroles are natural products that bioaccumulate in the marine food chain. PBDEs have attracted widespread attention due to their persistence in the environment and potential toxicity to humans. However, the natural origins of PBDE biosynthesis are not known. Here we report marine bacteria as producers of PBDEs and establish a genetic and molecular foundation for their production that unifies paradigms for the elaboration of bromophenols and bromopyrroles abundant in marine biota. We provide biochemical evidence of marine brominase enzymes revealing decarboxylative-halogenation enzymology previously unknown among halogenating enzymes. Biosynthetic motifs discovered in our study were used to mine sequence databases to discover unrealized marine bacterial producers of organobromine compounds. PMID:24974229

  3. Microlayer source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the summertime marine Arctic boundary layer

    OpenAIRE

    Mungall, Emma L.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Wentzell, Jeremy J. B.; Lee, Alex K. Y.; Thomas, Jennie L.; Blais, Marjolaine; Gosselin, Michel; Miller, Lisa A.; Papakyriakou, Tim; Willis, Megan D.; Liggio, John

    2017-01-01

    A biogeochemical connection between the atmosphere and the ocean is demonstrated whereby a marine source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds is identified. Compounds of this type are involved in the formation of secondary organic aerosol, which remains one of the most poorly understood components of Earth’s climate system due in part to the diverse sources of its volatile organic compound precursors. This is especially the case for marine environments, where there are more oxygenated vol...

  4. The evolution of mollusc shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Carmel; Degnan, Bernard M

    2018-05-01

    Molluscan shells are externally fabricated by specialized epithelial cells on the dorsal mantle. Although a conserved set of regulatory genes appears to underlie specification of mantle progenitor cells, the genes that contribute to the formation of the mature shell are incredibly diverse. Recent comparative analyses of mantle transcriptomes and shell proteomes of gastropods and bivalves are consistent with shell diversity being underpinned by a rapidly evolving mantle secretome (suite of genes expressed in the mantle that encode secreted proteins) that is the product of (a) high rates of gene co-option into and loss from the mantle gene regulatory network, and (b) the rapid evolution of coding sequences, particular those encoding repetitive low complexity domains. Outside a few conserved genes, such as carbonic anhydrase, a so-called "biomineralization toolkit" has yet to be discovered. Despite this, a common suite of protein domains, which are often associated with the extracellular matrix and immunity, appear to have been independently and often uniquely co-opted into the mantle secretomes of different species. The evolvability of the mantle secretome provides a molecular explanation for the evolution and diversity of molluscan shells. These genomic processes are likely to underlie the evolution of other animal biominerals, including coral and echinoderm skeletons. This article is categorized under: Comparative Development and Evolution > Regulation of Organ Diversity Comparative Development and Evolution > Evolutionary Novelties. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Antimicrobial peptides in marine invertebrate health and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Rosa, Rafael Diego; Schmitt, Paulina; Barreto, Cairé; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Mitta, Guillaume; Gueguen, Yannick; Bachère, Evelyne

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture contributes more than one-third of the animal protein from marine sources worldwide. A significant proportion of aquaculture products are derived from marine protostomes that are commonly referred to as ‘marine invertebrates’. Among them, penaeid shrimp (Ecdysozosoa, Arthropoda) and bivalve molluscs (Lophotrochozoa, Mollusca) are economically important. Mass rearing of arthropods and molluscs causes problems with pathogens in aquatic ecosystems that are exploited by humans. Remark...

  6. An investigation of green iridescence on the mollusc Patella granatina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, D J; Berg, N G van der [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2005-01-21

    In this paper we investigate the relatively rare phenomenon of iridescence on the outer surface of seashells (not the well known pearly inner surfaces). Using reflection spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy we show that rows of iridescent green spots on the mollusc Patella granatina are caused by a thin-film stack buried about 100 {mu}m below the rough outer surface of the shell. The high-density layers in the stack seem to be made of crystalline aragonite, but according to Raman spectroscopy and ellipsometry measurements the low-density layers as well as the bulk of the shell wall are a mixture of porous aragonite and organic materials such as carotenoids.

  7. Polonium ({sup 210}Po) and lead ({sup 210}Pb) in marine organisms and their transfer in marine food chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P., E-mail: carvalho@itn.p [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    The determination of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb was performed in marine organisms from the seashore to abyssal depths, encompassing a plethora of species from the microscopic plankton to the sperm whale. Concentrations of those radionuclides ranged from low values of about 5 x 10{sup -1} Bq kg{sup -1} (wet wt.) in jellyfish, to very high values of about of 3 x 10{sup 4} Bq kg{sup -1} (wet wt.) in the gut walls of sardines, with a common pattern of {sup 210}Po > {sup 210}Pb.These radionuclides are primarily absorbed from water and concentrated by phyto- and microzooplankton, and then are transferred to the next trophic level along marine food chains. Investigation in epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic and abyssobenthic organisms revealed that {sup 210}Po is transferred in the marine food webs with transfer factors ranging from 0.1 to 0.7, and numerically similar to those of the energy transfer in the marine food chains. As {sup 210}Po preferentially binds to amino acids and proteins, its transfer in food chains likely traces protein transfer and, thus, {sup 210}Po transfer factors are similar to ecotrophic coefficients. {sup 210}Pb is transferred less efficiently in marine food chains and this contributes to increased {sup 210}Po:{sup 210}Pb activity ratios in some trophic levels.

  8. Polonium (210Po) and lead (210Pb) in marine organisms and their transfer in marine food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P

    2011-05-01

    The determination of (210)Po and (210)Pb was performed in marine organisms from the seashore to abyssal depths, encompassing a plethora of species from the microscopic plankton to the sperm whale. Concentrations of those radionuclides ranged from low values of about 5 × 10(-1) Bq kg(-1) (wet wt.) in jellyfish, to very high values of about of 3 × 10(4) Bq kg(-1) (wet wt.) in the gut walls of sardines, with a common pattern of (210)Po > (210)Pb.These radionuclides are primarily absorbed from water and concentrated by phyto- and microzooplankton, and then are transferred to the next trophic level along marine food chains. Investigation in epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic and abyssobenthic organisms revealed that (210)Po is transferred in the marine food webs with transfer factors ranging from 0.1 to 0.7, and numerically similar to those of the energy transfer in the marine food chains. As (210)Po preferentially binds to amino acids and proteins, its transfer in food chains likely traces protein transfer and, thus, (210)Po transfer factors are similar to ecotrophic coefficients. (210)Pb is transferred less efficiently in marine food chains and this contributes to increased (210)Po:(210)Pb activity ratios in some trophic levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Polonium (210Po) and lead (210Pb) in marine organisms and their transfer in marine food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of 210 Po and 210 Pb was performed in marine organisms from the seashore to abyssal depths, encompassing a plethora of species from the microscopic plankton to the sperm whale. Concentrations of those radionuclides ranged from low values of about 5 x 10 -1 Bq kg -1 (wet wt.) in jellyfish, to very high values of about of 3 x 10 4 Bq kg -1 (wet wt.) in the gut walls of sardines, with a common pattern of 210 Po > 210 Pb.These radionuclides are primarily absorbed from water and concentrated by phyto- and microzooplankton, and then are transferred to the next trophic level along marine food chains. Investigation in epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic and abyssobenthic organisms revealed that 210 Po is transferred in the marine food webs with transfer factors ranging from 0.1 to 0.7, and numerically similar to those of the energy transfer in the marine food chains. As 210 Po preferentially binds to amino acids and proteins, its transfer in food chains likely traces protein transfer and, thus, 210 Po transfer factors are similar to ecotrophic coefficients. 210 Pb is transferred less efficiently in marine food chains and this contributes to increased 210 Po: 210 Pb activity ratios in some trophic levels.

  10. Predicting the effects of ocean acidification on predator-prey interactions: a conceptual framework based on coastal molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Kristy J; Sanford, Eric; Jellison, Brittany M; Gaylord, Brian

    2014-06-01

    The influence of environmental change on species interactions will affect population dynamics and community structure in the future, but our current understanding of the outcomes of species interactions in a high-CO2 world is limited. Here, we draw upon emerging experimental research examining the effects of ocean acidification on coastal molluscs to provide hypotheses of the potential impacts of high-CO2 on predator-prey interactions. Coastal molluscs, such as oysters, mussels, and snails, allocate energy among defenses, growth, and reproduction. Ocean acidification increases the energetic costs of physiological processes such as acid-base regulation and calcification. Impacted molluscs can display complex and divergent patterns of energy allocation to defenses and growth that may influence predator-prey interactions; these include changes in shell properties, body size, tissue mass, immune function, or reproductive output. Ocean acidification has also been shown to induce complex changes in chemoreception, behavior, and inducible defenses, including altered cue detection and predator avoidance behaviors. Each of these responses may ultimately alter the susceptibility of coastal molluscs to predation through effects on predator handling time, satiation, and search time. While many of these effects may manifest as increases in per capita predation rates on coastal molluscs, the ultimate outcome of predator-prey interactions will also depend on how ocean acidification affects the specified predators, which also exhibit complex responses to ocean acidification. Changes in predator-prey interactions could have profound and unexplored consequences for the population dynamics of coastal molluscs in a high-CO2 ocean. © 2014 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  11. Burrowing and avoidance behaviour in marine organisms exposed to pesticide-contaminated sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhlenberg, Flemming; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Behavioural effects of marine sediment contaminated with pesticides (6000 ppm parathion, 200 ppm methyl parathion, 200 ppm malathion) were studied in a number of marine organisms in laboratory tests and in situ. The burrowing behaviour in Macoma baltica, Cerastoderma edule, Abra alba, Nereis...

  12. [Distribution of acetylcholinesterase activity in the digestive system of the gastropod molluscs Littorina littorea and Achatina fulica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V

    2008-01-01

    With the use of the histochemical procedure for the demonstration of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, the distribution cholinergic regulatory elements was studied in the esophagus, the pharynx, the stomach, the liver (the digestive gland) and the intestine in sea and terrestrial gastropod molluscs that differed in their general organization level, lifestyle, habitat and feeding type. In both molluscs, all the parts of the digestive tract contained the significant amount of intraepithelial AchE-positive cells of the open type, single subepithelial neurons and the nervous fibers localized among the muscle cells of the wall of the organs. The basal processes of the AchE-positive intraepithelial cells were shown to form the intraepithelial nerve plexus and to pass under the epithelium. The peculiarities and common principles in the distribution of the nervous elements detected, their possible function and the regulatory role in the digestion in gastropod molluscs and other animals are discussed.

  13. Bioactivity of marine organisms. Part 3. Screening of marine algae of Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.; Jayasree, V.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.

    Ethanolic extracts from Indian marine algae have been tested for anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-fertility, hypoglycaemic and a wide range of pharmacological activities. Of 34 species investigated 17 appeared biologically active. Six...

  14. Bioactivity of marine organisms. 6. Antiviral evaluation of marine algal extracts from the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Naik, C.G.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.

    Ethanolic extracts of Indian marine algae belonging to the Rhodophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Chlorophyceae were tested for anti-semiliki Forest (SFV), Ranikhet Disease (RDV) and Vaccinia (VV) viruses. In the primary screening of 31 seaweeds, 17...

  15. Occurrence and effects of plastic additives on marine environments and organisms: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermabessiere, Ludovic; Dehaut, Alexandre; Paul-Pont, Ika; Lacroix, Camille; Jezequel, Ronan; Soudant, Philippe; Duflos, Guillaume

    2017-09-01

    Plastics debris, especially microplastics, have been found worldwide in all marine compartments. Much research has been carried out on adsorbed pollutants on plastic pieces and hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) associated with microplastics. However, only a few studies have focused on plastic additives. These chemicals are incorporated into plastics from which they can leach out as most of them are not chemically bound. As a consequence of plastic accumulation and fragmentation in oceans, plastic additives could represent an increasing ecotoxicological risk for marine organisms. The present work reviewed the main class of plastic additives identified in the literature, their occurrence in the marine environment, as well as their effects on and transfers to marine organisms. This work identified polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), phthalates, nonylphenols (NP), bisphenol A (BPA) and antioxidants as the most common plastic additives found in marine environments. Moreover, transfer of these plastic additives to marine organisms has been demonstrated both in laboratory and field studies. Upcoming research focusing on the toxicity of microplastics should include these plastic additives as potential hazards for marine organisms, and a greater focus on the transport and fate of plastic additives is now required considering that these chemicals may easily leach out from plastics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Variations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in various marine organisms from Western English Channel: contribution of {sup 210}Po to the radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connan, O. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratoire de Radioecologie de Cherbourg-Octeville, IRSN/DEI/SECRE/LRC, Rue Max Pol Fouchet, 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France)], E-mail: olivier.connan@irsn.fr; Germain, P.; Solier, L.; Gouret, G. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratoire de Radioecologie de Cherbourg-Octeville, IRSN/DEI/SECRE/LRC, Rue Max Pol Fouchet, 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France)

    2007-10-15

    Measurements of {sup 210}Po were carried out in various marine matrices (mussels, oysters, seaweed, fish, and abalones) and in seawater at several points along the French coast, over a period of 2 years (2003-2005). These measurements contribute to a better knowledge of this element, since few recent data exist for the French coast. Marked seasonal variations have been revealed in some species and there are differences according to the way of life of these species. Activities in mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) are similar and varying between 90 and 600 Bq kg{sup -1} (d.w.). Activities in macroalgae (Fucus serratus) are lowest, between 4 and 16 Bq kg{sup -1} (d.w.). In oyster, abalone (Haliotis tuberculata) and fish (Solea solea, Sparus sp.), the strongest activities are measured in the digestive glands, the gills and the gonads. {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb ratios in all cases have values of more than one for all species. From a significant number of measurements, CFs were calculated for seaweed (between 4.6 x 10{sup 3} and 5.0 x 10{sup 3}) and for molluscs, with highest CFs (>10{sup 5}) found for the digestive gland and gills of the oysters, the digestive gland of the abalones and the liver of fish. Finally, the activities measured have made it possible to estimate the internal dose from chronic exposure due to {sup 210}Po received by the marine organisms (0.05 {mu}G h{sup -1} for macroalgae, between 0.70 and 1.5 {mu}G h{sup -1} for mussels and oyster), and the contribution of seafood to the dose received by humans (46-129 {mu}Sv y{sup -1})

  17. Variations of 210Po and 210Pb in various marine organisms from Western English Channel: contribution of 210Po to the radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connan, O.; Germain, P.; Solier, L.; Gouret, G.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of 210 Po were carried out in various marine matrices (mussels, oysters, seaweed, fish, and abalones) and in seawater at several points along the French coast, over a period of 2 years (2003-2005). These measurements contribute to a better knowledge of this element, since few recent data exist for the French coast. Marked seasonal variations have been revealed in some species and there are differences according to the way of life of these species. Activities in mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) are similar and varying between 90 and 600 Bq kg -1 (d.w.). Activities in macroalgae (Fucus serratus) are lowest, between 4 and 16 Bq kg -1 (d.w.). In oyster, abalone (Haliotis tuberculata) and fish (Solea solea, Sparus sp.), the strongest activities are measured in the digestive glands, the gills and the gonads. 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratios in all cases have values of more than one for all species. From a significant number of measurements, CFs were calculated for seaweed (between 4.6 x 10 3 and 5.0 x 10 3 ) and for molluscs, with highest CFs (>10 5 ) found for the digestive gland and gills of the oysters, the digestive gland of the abalones and the liver of fish. Finally, the activities measured have made it possible to estimate the internal dose from chronic exposure due to 210 Po received by the marine organisms (0.05 μG h -1 for macroalgae, between 0.70 and 1.5 μG h -1 for mussels and oyster), and the contribution of seafood to the dose received by humans (46-129 μSv y -1 )

  18. Butenolide inhibits marine fouling by altering the primary metabolism of three target organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yifan; Zhang, Huoming; He, Lisheng; Liu, Changdong; Xü , Ying; Qian, Peiyuan

    2012-01-01

    Butenolide is a very promising antifouling compound that inhibits ship hull fouling by a variety of marine organisms, but its antifouling mechanism was previously unknown. Here we report the first study of butenolides molecular targets in three

  19. The levels of certain heavy metals in marine organisms from Aguada Bay (Goa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singbal, S.Y.S.; George, M.D.; Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.

    The levels of manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc and mercury have been measured in marine organisms from Aguada Bay which is one of the major fishing zones in Goa, India. The concentration of metals varied from species to species...

  20. Antifungal activity of some marine organisms from India, against food spoilage Aspergillus strains

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosale, S.H.; Jagtap, T.G.; Naik, C.G.

    Crude aqueous methanol extracts obtained from 31 species of various marine organisms (including floral and faunal), were screened for their antifungal activity against food poisoning strains of Aspergillus. Seventeen species exhibited mild (+ = zone...

  1. Coastal Benthic Optical Properties (CoBOP): Optical Properties of Benthic Marine Organisms and Substrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mazel, Charles

    2002-01-01

    ...). The long-term objective of our research is to gain an understanding of the nature and significance of fluorescence and reflectance characteristics of benthic marine organisms in general, and coral...

  2. Antifouling potential of some marine organisms from India against species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosale, S.H; Nagle, V.L.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Potential of Some Marine Organisms from India Against Species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas S.H. Bhosale, V.L. Nagle, and T.G. Jagtap* National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403004, India Abstract: Crude methanolic extracts of 37 marine organisms.... The discs were placed in Zobell marine agar (pH 7.3) plates seeded with different strains of bacteria selected for studies. The cultures were incubated for 24 to 48 hours at room temperature, to obtain maximum growth in the culture media. The zones of inhi...

  3. Physiological and ecological implications of ocean deoxygenation for vision in marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Lillian R.; Levin, Lisa A.

    2017-08-01

    Climate change has induced ocean deoxygenation and exacerbated eutrophication-driven hypoxia in recent decades, affecting the physiology, behaviour and ecology of marine organisms. The high oxygen demand of visual tissues and the known inhibitory effects of hypoxia on human vision raise the questions if and how ocean deoxygenation alters vision in marine organisms. This is particularly important given the rapid loss of oxygen and strong vertical gradients in oxygen concentration in many areas of the ocean. This review evaluates the potential effects of low oxygen (hypoxia) on visual function in marine animals and their implications for marine biota under current and future ocean deoxygenation based on evidence from terrestrial and a few marine organisms. Evolutionary history shows radiation of eye designs during a period of increasing ocean oxygenation. Physiological effects of hypoxia on photoreceptor function and light sensitivity, in combination with morphological changes that may occur throughout ontogeny, have the potential to alter visual behaviour and, subsequently, the ecology of marine organisms, particularly for fish, cephalopods and arthropods with `fast' vision. Visual responses to hypoxia, including greater light requirements, offer an alternative hypothesis for observed habitat compression and shoaling vertical distributions in visual marine species subject to ocean deoxygenation, which merits further investigation. This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'.

  4. Biomarkers of metabolism disturbance in bivalve molluscs induced by environmental pollution with processed by-products of oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sukharenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Processed by-products of oil are the most common pollutants in all river and sea water. The increase in oxidative stress in bivalve molluscs was studied in both tissues of the hepatopancreas and the gill. The model for artificial treatment with processed by-products of oil was performed in a laboratory experiment with the river mollusc Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771. The exposure of the molluscs over 28 days to mazut 50 mg/l induced significant increase of both final product of lipid peroxidation (LPO and antioxidant enzime activity. A significant increase in LPO was observed in the hepatopancreas and gill of D. polymorpha treated with mazut compared to the control group. Antioxidant enzyme activity of cartalase, supeoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a greater increase (by almost 1.5 times in the hepatopancreas than in the gill of D. polymorpha. A similar LPO growth and modulation of antioxidant enzyme activity were determined in the hepatopancreas and gill of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1879 collected in an area polluted with resins, hydrocarbons and asphaltenes, Donuzlav lake in the Kerch gulf. Varied cellular reactivation of the antioxidant enzyme system in the hepatopancreas rather than the gill was observed in both kinds of mollusc Dreissena and Mytilus. The obtained results are evidence of the higher sensitivity of the hepatopancreas cells of bivalve molluscs to organic pollutants compared to the gill cells.

  5. Specimen banking of marine organisms in the United States: Current status and long-term prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, P.R.; Wise, S.A.; Thorsteinson, L.; Koster, B.J.; Rowles, T.

    1997-01-01

    A major part of the activities conducted over the last decade by the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB) has involved the archival of marine specimens collected by ongoing environmental monitoring programs. These archived specimens include bivalves, marine sediments, and fish tissues collected by the National Status and Trends and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Damage Assessment programs, and marine mammal tissues collected by the Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program and the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project. In addition to supporting these programs, the specimens have been used to investigate circumpolar patterns of chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations, genetic separation of marine animal stocks, baseline levels of essential and nonessential elements in marine mammals, and the potential risk to human consumers in the Arctic from anthropogenic contaminants found in local subsistence foods. The NBSB specimens represent a resource that has the potential for addressing future issues of marine environmental quality and ecosystem changes through retrospective analysis; however, an ecosystem-based food web approach would maximize this potential. The current status of the NBSB activities related to the banking of marine organisms is presented and discussed, the long-term prospective of these activities is presented, and the importance of an ecosystem-based food web monitoring approach to the value of specimen banking is discussed.

  6. Organization of marine phenology data in support of planning and conservation in ocean and coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Fornwall, Mark D.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Griffis, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    Among the many effects of climate change is its influence on the phenology of biota. In marine and coastal ecosystems, phenological shifts have been documented for multiple life forms; however, biological data related to marine species' phenology remain difficult to access and is under-used. We conducted an assessment of potential sources of biological data for marine species and their availability for use in phenological analyses and assessments. Our evaluations showed that data potentially related to understanding marine species' phenology are available through online resources of governmental, academic, and non-governmental organizations, but appropriate datasets are often difficult to discover and access, presenting opportunities for scientific infrastructure improvement. The developing Federal Marine Data Architecture when fully implemented will improve data flow and standardization for marine data within major federal repositories and provide an archival repository for collaborating academic and public data contributors. Another opportunity, largely untapped, is the engagement of citizen scientists in standardized collection of marine phenology data and contribution of these data to established data flows. Use of metadata with marine phenology related keywords could improve discovery and access to appropriate datasets. When data originators choose to self-publish, publication of research datasets with a digital object identifier, linked to metadata, will also improve subsequent discovery and access. Phenological changes in the marine environment will affect human economics, food systems, and recreation. No one source of data will be sufficient to understand these changes. The collective attention of marine data collectors is needed—whether with an agency, an educational institution, or a citizen scientist group—toward adopting the data management processes and standards needed to ensure availability of sufficient and useable marine data to understand

  7. Effect of phytoplackton-derived organic matter on the behavior of marine aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, E.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G.; Green, D.

    2009-04-01

    The presence of significant concentrations of organic material in marine aerosols has been appreciated for several decades; however, only recently has significant progress been made towards demonstrating that this organic content is biogenically formed. Biogenic organics of placktonic life origin are incorporated in marine aerosol composition as a result of bubble bursting/breaking waves mechanisms that occur at the ocean surface. The presence of organic surfactants in the marine aerosol composition might have a significant impact on the properties of the generated aerosols by affecting the particles surface tension and solution balance properties. Nevertheless, it remains uncertain the role of such organics on the physical-chemical behavior of marine aerosols. In this work an experimental study was performed in order to determine the influence of biogenic marine organic compounds on the size distribution, hygroscopicity and cloud-nucleating properties of marine aerosols. For the experimental study a laboratory water recirculation system (bubble tank), designed for the simulation of bubble-burst aerosol formation, was used as marine aerosol generator. The bubble spectra produced by such system was characterized by means of an optical bubble measuring device (BMS) and it was found to be consistent with oceanic bubble spectra properties. Seawater proxy solutions were prepared from laboratory biologically-synthesized exudates produced by oceanic representative algal species and introduced in the tank for the generation of marine aerosol by bubble bursting. Two experimental methods were employed for seawater proxies preparation: the formation of surface monolayers from the biogenic surfactants extracted by a solid phase extraction technique (monolayer method) and the mixing of the exudates in the sea salt water bulk (bulk mixing method). Particle size distribution, hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei experiments for different monolayers, and exudate mixtures

  8. Marine-Based Nutraceuticals: An Innovative Trend in the Food and Supplement Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Osborne, Simone; Masci, Paul; Gobe, Glenda

    2015-10-14

    Recent trends in functional foods and supplements have demonstrated that bioactive molecules play a major therapeutic role in human disease. Nutritionists and biomedical and food scientists are working together to discover new bioactive molecules that have increased potency and therapeutic benefits. Marine life constitutes almost 80% of the world biota with thousands of bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites derived from marine invertebrates such as tunicates, sponges, molluscs, bryozoans, sea slugs and many other marine organisms. These bioactive molecules and secondary metabolites possess antibiotic, antiparasitic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic and anticancer activities. They are also inhibitors or activators of critical enzymes and transcription factors, competitors of transporters and sequestrants that modulate various physiological pathways. The current review summaries the widely available marine-based nutraceuticals and recent research carried out for the purposes of isolation, identification and characterization of marine-derived bioactive compounds with various therapeutic potentials.

  9. Marine-Based Nutraceuticals: An Innovative Trend in the Food and Supplement Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent trends in functional foods and supplements have demonstrated that bioactive molecules play a major therapeutic role in human disease. Nutritionists and biomedical and food scientists are working together to discover new bioactive molecules that have increased potency and therapeutic benefits. Marine life constitutes almost 80% of the world biota with thousands of bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites derived from marine invertebrates such as tunicates, sponges, molluscs, bryozoans, sea slugs and many other marine organisms. These bioactive molecules and secondary metabolites possess antibiotic, antiparasitic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic and anticancer activities. They are also inhibitors or activators of critical enzymes and transcription factors, competitors of transporters and sequestrants that modulate various physiological pathways. The current review summaries the widely available marine-based nutraceuticals and recent research carried out for the purposes of isolation, identification and characterization of marine-derived bioactive compounds with various therapeutic potentials.

  10. Seasonal variation of marine organic aerosols in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, P.; Kawamura, K.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols were collected in the marine boundary layer during five marine cruises in the northern Pacific Ocean from October 1996 to July 1997. Organic molecular compositions of the marine aerosols were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Higher concentrations of levoglucosan and its isomers, the biomass-burning tracers, were observed in the coastal regions than those in the central north Pacific. Seasonal trends of biomass burning tracers were found to be higher in fall-winter-spring than in summer, suggesting an enhanced influence of continental aerosols to the marine atmosphere during cold seasons when the westerlies prevail. However, the atmospheric levels of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers from the photooxidation of isoprene and monoterpenes were higher in warm seasons than cold seasons, which are in accordance with the enhanced emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in summer. Stable C isotope ratios of total carbon (δ13CTC) in the marine aerosols ranged from -28.5‰ to -23.6‰ (mean -26.4‰), suggesting an important input of terrestrial/continental aerosol particles. Stable N isotope ratios (2.6‰ to 12.9‰, mean 7.1‰) were found to be higher in the coastal regions than those in the open oceans, suggesting an enhanced emission of marine aerosols in the open oceans. The fluorescence properties of the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in the marine aerosols conform the importance of marine emitted organics in the open ocean, especially during the high biological activity periods.

  11. Joint Program on Molecular Biology of Marine Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-20

    and lateral flagella formation in a marine vibrio (Belas and Colwell, 1982). Upon contact with a surface, the polar flagella of Vibrio ... parahemolyticus ceased to function. Shortl’ thereafter, lateral flagella formed around the cells, apparently mediating the "irreversible" attachment process. Pilus...Colwell. 1982. Adsorption kinetics of 18 Slaterally and polarly flagellated Vibrio . J. Bacteriol. 151:1568-1580. S-- Brown, C.M., D.C. Ellwood, and

  12. Biological sampling for marine radioactivity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Strategies and methodologies for using marine organisms to monitor radioactivity in marine waters are presented. When the criteria for monitoring radioactivity is to determine routes of radionuclide transfer to man, the ''critical pathway'' approach is often applied. Alternatively, where information on ambient radionuclide levels and distributions is sought, the approach of selecting marine organisms as ''bioindicators'' of radioactivity is generally used. Whichever approach is applied, a great deal of knowledge is required about the physiology and ecology of the specific organism chosen. In addition, several criteria for qualifying as a bioindicator species are discussed; e.g., it must be a sedentary species which reflects the ambient radionuclide concentration at a given site, sufficiently long-lived to allow long-term temporal sampling, widely distributed to allow spatial comparisons, able to bioconcentrate the radionuclide to a relatively high degree, while showing a simple correlation between radionuclide content in its tissues with that in the surrounding waters. Useful hints on the appropriate species to use and the best way to collect and prepare organisms for radioanalysis are also given. It is concluded that benthic algae and bivalve molluscs generally offer the greatest potential for use as a ''bioindicator'' species in radionuclide biomonitoring programmes. Where knowledge on contribution to radiological dose is required, specific edible marine species should be the organisms of choice; however, both purposes can be served when the edible species chosen through critical pathway analysis is also an excellent bioaccumulator of the radionuclide of interest. (author)

  13. Spilt oil mineralization and influence upon marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    Several months have elapsed since the end of the Gulf War, and in spite of the efforts of specialists and workers, several hundreds oil fields are still burning, and coasts are smeared with oil. The effect that oil field fires exerted to the atmosphere and global environment is set aside, and in this report, the decomposition of oil spilled into the sea and its effect exerted to living things are discussed. The oil quantity flowed out from the valve for loading tankers was difficult to estimate, but it seemed 3 or 4 million barrels. Spilled durable oil impairs the amenity. The process of oil decomposition, the presence of the bacteria decomposing hydrocarbon in the sea, the factors affecting the microorganism decomposition, the capability of oil decomposition in Japanese coastal areas, and the final products of oil decomposition are reported. The effects that spilled oil exerted to marine plants, animals, the drowning of sea birds, the disturbance of information transmission and the ecosystem that does not recover are described. When useful marine living things are restored to the original state, marine product industry can declare the end of pollution, but on the ecosystem, the declaration of end does not exist. (K.I.)

  14. Global distribution and climate forcing of marine organic aerosol: 1. Model improvements and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Meskhidze

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine organic aerosol emissions have been implemented and evaluated within the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR's Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5 with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's 7-mode Modal Aerosol Module (MAM-7. Emissions of marine primary organic aerosols (POA, phytoplankton-produced isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA and methane sulfonate (MS are shown to affect surface concentrations of organic aerosols in remote marine regions. Global emissions of submicron marine POA is estimated to be 7.9 and 9.4 Tg yr−1, for the Gantt et al. (2011 and Vignati et al. (2010 emission parameterizations, respectively. Marine sources of SOA and particulate MS (containing both sulfur and carbon atoms contribute an additional 0.2 and 5.1 Tg yr−1, respectively. Widespread areas over productive waters of the Northern Atlantic, Northern Pacific, and the Southern Ocean show marine-source submicron organic aerosol surface concentrations of 100 ng m−3, with values up to 400 ng m−3 over biologically productive areas. Comparison of long-term surface observations of water insoluble organic matter (WIOM with POA concentrations from the two emission parameterizations shows that despite revealed discrepancies (often more than a factor of 2, both Gantt et al. (2011 and Vignati et al. (2010 formulations are able to capture the magnitude of marine organic aerosol concentrations, with the Gantt et al. (2011 parameterization attaining better seasonality. Model simulations show that the mixing state of the marine POA can impact the surface number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. The largest increases (up to 20% in CCN (at a supersaturation (S of 0.2% number concentration are obtained over biologically productive ocean waters when marine organic aerosol is assumed to be externally mixed with sea-salt. Assuming

  15. Effects of organic pollution on biological communities of marine biofilm on hard substrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Lázaro, C.; Fodelianakis, S.; Guerrero-Meseguer, L.; Marín, A.; Karakassis, I.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of organic enrichment on diatom and bacterial assemblages of marine epilithic biofilms on two locations in the Mediterranean, one situated in Spain and the other in Greece. Total organic carbon, total organic nitrogen, stable isotopes (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) and chlorophyll a indicated significant incorporation of organic wastes, increased primary production and trophic niche modifications on the biofilms close to the organic enrichment source. In Spain, where the organic load was higher than in Greece, diatom and, to some extent, bacterial assemblages varied following the organic enrichment gradient. The taxonomic richness of diatom and bacterial communities was not influenced by organic enrichment. Classical community parameters showed consistent patterns to organic pollution in both locations, whereas community assemblages were only influenced when organic pollution was greatest. The successional patterns of these communities were similar to other epilithic communities. The modification of community assemblages induced by organic pollution may affect ecological functions. - Highlights: • We examined the effect of organic enrichment on assemblages of marine biofilms. • Classical community parameters showed consistent patterns to organic pollution. • Diatom and bacterial assemblages were affected under high level of organic enrichment. • Successional patterns were similar to other communities inhabiting hard substrata. • Assemblage modifications induced by organic pollution may affect ecological functions. - Organic pollution modifies the assemblages of biofilm communities which may affect important ecological functions

  16. Contaminant monitoring programmes using marine organisms: Quality assurance and good laboratory practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This publication provides guidelines for obtaining reliable and relevant data during monitoring programmes in which contaminants are measured in marine organisms. It describes the precautions to be taken in each of the procedural steps from planning and sampling to the publication of data reports. The purpose of this document is to provide general guidance on quality assurance and to outline the approach that could be taken by laboratories to achieve the specific aims(s) for each marine pollution monitoring programme. Since most laboratories are currently focussing on programmes involving marine organisms, this document will be confined to this aspect. Four main aims can be identified for programmes involving the collection and analysis of marine organisms for the three main groups of contaminants (metals, organochlorine compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons), these are: (i) The measurement of contaminant levels in edible marine organisms in relation to public health; (ii) The identification of heavily contaminated areas of the sea (''hot spots'') where levels of contaminants are at least an order of magnitude higher than levels in clean or uncontaminated areas; (iii) The establishment of present levels of contaminants in marine organisms (i.e., a ''baseline''); (iv) The assessment of changes in concentrations of contaminants in organisms over a period of time (trends). The selection of organisms will be dictated by the eating patterns of the population. These can be identified by a survey of the species sold at the market, by obtaining information from colleagues in government departments who deal with such matters or in the absence of such information, by distributing a questionnaire to a representative section of the general public. 9 refs, 4 figs

  17. Ecological roulette: the global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariton, J T; Geller, J B

    1993-07-02

    Ocean-going ships carry, as ballast, seawater that is taken on in port and released at subsequent ports of call. Plankton samples from Japanese ballast water released in Oregon contained 367 taxa. Most taxa with a planktonic phase in their life cycle were found in ballast water, as were all major marine habitat and trophic groups. Transport of entire coastal planktonic assemblages across oceanic barriers to similar habitats renders bays, estuaries, and inland waters among the most threatened ecosystems in the world. Presence of taxonomically difficult or inconspicuous taxa in these samples suggests that ballast water invasions are already pervasive.

  18. DNA Extraction Protocols for Whole-Genome Sequencing in Marine Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova, Marina; Aronsson, Henrik; Cameron, R Andrew; Dahl, Peter; Godhe, Anna; Lind, Ulrika; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Pereyra, Ricardo; Tesson, Sylvie V M; Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Blomberg, Anders; Johannesson, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment harbors a large proportion of the total biodiversity on this planet, including the majority of the earths' different phyla and classes. Studying the genomes of marine organisms can bring interesting insights into genome evolution. Today, almost all marine organismal groups are understudied with respect to their genomes. One potential reason is that extraction of high-quality DNA in sufficient amounts is challenging for many marine species. This is due to high polysaccharide content, polyphenols and other secondary metabolites that will inhibit downstream DNA library preparations. Consequently, protocols developed for vertebrates and plants do not always perform well for invertebrates and algae. In addition, many marine species have large population sizes and, as a consequence, highly variable genomes. Thus, to facilitate the sequence read assembly process during genome sequencing, it is desirable to obtain enough DNA from a single individual, which is a challenge in many species of invertebrates and algae. Here, we present DNA extraction protocols for seven marine species (four invertebrates, two algae, and a marine yeast), optimized to provide sufficient DNA quality and yield for de novo genome sequencing projects.

  19. Exploring the Contribution of Primary Marine Organic Matter to the Arctic Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, D. B.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Boyer, M.; Abbatt, J.

    2016-12-01

    The ocean is a significant source of aerosol to the atmosphere, and contributes significantly to the aerosol population especially in remote locations. Both primary and secondary processes connect the ocean to ambient aerosol loadings, but the extent to which the ocean is a source of organic material to the atmosphere is a current topic of scientific debate. The contribution of primary marine aerosol to atmospheric organic matter may have an influence on the water uptake properties and chemical reactivity of primary marine aerosol particles, influencing their climate-relevant properties. In this study, we characterize the contribution of primary marine aerosol to the arctic marine boundary layer using coincident quantitative measurements of freshly-produced sea spray aerosol and ambient marine aerosol to the arctic boundary layer during an expedition aboard the CCGS Amundsen. Sea spray production experiments were conducted during the cruise using a tank fitted with a plunging waterfall apparatus, a technique which has been recently shown to closely mimic the aerosol production behavior of controlled breaking waves. Comparison of the chemical composition of sea spray particles generated from water samples in various locations throughout the Canadian Archipelago will be presented. A tracer analysis of specific compounds known to be important contributors to primary marine organic material are tracked using GC/MS, along with those known to be tracers of biological aerosol and other organic matter sources. Size-segregated trends in tracer concentrations and ratios with inorganic components will be discussed in the context of understanding the contribution of primary organics to the Arctic atmosphere and in comparison with other sources of organic material observed during the ship-board campaign.

  20. Microlayer source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the summertime marine Arctic boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungall, Emma L.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Wentzell, Jeremy J. B.; Lee, Alex K. Y.; Thomas, Jennie L.; Blais, Marjolaine; Gosselin, Michel; Miller, Lisa A.; Papakyriakou, Tim; Willis, Megan D.; Liggio, John

    2017-06-01

    Summertime Arctic shipboard observations of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) such as organic acids, key precursors of climatically active secondary organic aerosol (SOA), are consistent with a novel source of OVOCs to the marine boundary layer via chemistry at the sea surface microlayer. Although this source has been studied in a laboratory setting, organic acid emissions from the sea surface microlayer have not previously been observed in ambient marine environments. Correlations between measurements of OVOCs, including high levels of formic acid, in the atmosphere (measured by an online high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer) and dissolved organic matter in the ocean point to a marine source for the measured OVOCs. That this source is photomediated is indicated by correlations between the diurnal cycles of the OVOC measurements and solar radiation. In contrast, the OVOCs do not correlate with levels of isoprene, monoterpenes, or dimethyl sulfide. Results from box model calculations are consistent with heterogeneous chemistry as the source of the measured OVOCs. As sea ice retreats and dissolved organic carbon inputs to the Arctic increase, the impact of this source on the summer Arctic atmosphere is likely to increase. Globally, this source should be assessed in other marine environments to quantify its impact on OVOC and SOA burdens in the atmosphere, and ultimately on climate.

  1. Microlayer source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the summertime marine Arctic boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungall, Emma L; Abbatt, Jonathan P D; Wentzell, Jeremy J B; Lee, Alex K Y; Thomas, Jennie L; Blais, Marjolaine; Gosselin, Michel; Miller, Lisa A; Papakyriakou, Tim; Willis, Megan D; Liggio, John

    2017-06-13

    Summertime Arctic shipboard observations of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) such as organic acids, key precursors of climatically active secondary organic aerosol (SOA), are consistent with a novel source of OVOCs to the marine boundary layer via chemistry at the sea surface microlayer. Although this source has been studied in a laboratory setting, organic acid emissions from the sea surface microlayer have not previously been observed in ambient marine environments. Correlations between measurements of OVOCs, including high levels of formic acid, in the atmosphere (measured by an online high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer) and dissolved organic matter in the ocean point to a marine source for the measured OVOCs. That this source is photomediated is indicated by correlations between the diurnal cycles of the OVOC measurements and solar radiation. In contrast, the OVOCs do not correlate with levels of isoprene, monoterpenes, or dimethyl sulfide. Results from box model calculations are consistent with heterogeneous chemistry as the source of the measured OVOCs. As sea ice retreats and dissolved organic carbon inputs to the Arctic increase, the impact of this source on the summer Arctic atmosphere is likely to increase. Globally, this source should be assessed in other marine environments to quantify its impact on OVOC and SOA burdens in the atmosphere, and ultimately on climate.

  2. The Hygroscopicity Parameter of Marine Organics in Sea Spray Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, M.; Chang, R. Y. W.

    2015-12-01

    The effects of aerosols on climate are poorly understood, specifically with respect to their influence on cloud properties. Since oceans cover >70% of Earth's surface, sea spray aerosols (SSA), which act efficiently as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), may have important implications on Earth's radiation budget. Surface active organic species readily accumulate in the sea surface microlayer (SML), located at the ocean-atmosphere interface, and transfer onto nascent SSA. While it is understood that SSA are commonly enriched with organics, the resulting effect of the organic content on CCN activation remains unresolved. The hygroscopicity parameter, kappa (k), allows for the cloud nucleating properties of individual components to be predicted in particles of mixed composition; however, most studies typically infer k from ambient measurements without assessing the contribution of the individual components to the overall k. In this study, a method for quantifying the cloud nucleating properties of the organic species in surface seawater using k-Kohler theory is proposed. Ambient SML and bulk water samples will be collected and atomized to generate particles such that the overall k can be inferred from CCN measurements. The inorganic and organic components will be quantified, and the organic component will be separated so that the hygroscopicity of only the organic constituents can be determined. By comparing the inferred k values for the samples before and after removal of the inorganic component, the hygroscopicity of the organic constituents alone can be calculated, providing insight on the effect of organic species on CCN activation in SSA.

  3. Partitioning of organic production in marine plankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conan, P.; Søndergaard, Morten; Kragh, T.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the partitioning of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus between particulate and dissolved production using 11-m(3) marine mesocosms (bags) in a Norwegian fjord with a salinity of 28.3, a chlorophyll concentration of 0.6 mu g L-1, an even biomass among five algal groups, and nitrogen...... between 17 and 58 in the P-replete bags. The C: P ratio of new DOM in the +Si bags was about 300 at all dosing regimes. Consequently, the range in N: P ratios was also large, with values from below 1 to about 30. Carbon-rich DOM in oceans and coastal waters is not necessarily a function of a slow...

  4. Contrasting Responses of Marine and Freshwater Photosynthetic Organisms to UVB Radiation: A Meta-Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng

    2017-03-14

    Ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation is a global stressor that has profound impacts on freshwater and marine ecosystems. However, an analysis of the patterns of sensitivity to UVB radiation across aquatic photosynthetic organisms has not yet been published. Here, we performed a meta-analysis on results reported in 214 studies compiled from the published literature to quantify and compare the magnitude of responses of aquatic photosynthetic organisms to changes in UVB radiation. The meta-analysis was conducted on observations of marine (n = 893) and freshwater macroalgae (n = 126) and of marine (n = 1,087) and freshwater (n = 2,889) microalgae (total n = 4,995). Most of these studies (85%) analyzed the performance of organisms exposed to natural solar radiation when UVB was partially or totally reduced compared with the organismal performance under the full solar radiation spectrum, whereas the remaining 15% of the studies examined the responses of organisms to elevated UVB radiation mostly using artificial lamps. We found that marine photosynthetic organisms tend to be more sensitive than freshwater photosynthetic organisms to UVB radiation; responses to either decreased or increased UVB radiation vary among taxa; the mortality rate is the most sensitive of the trait responses to elevated UVB radiation, followed by changes in cellular and molecular traits; the sensitivity of microalgae to UVB radiation is dependent on size, with small-celled microalgae more sensitive than large-celled microalgae to UVB radiation. Thick macroalgae morphotypes were the less sensitive to UVB, but this effect could not be separated from phylogenetic differences. The high sensitivity of marine species, particularly the smallest photosynthetic organisms, to increased UVB radiation suggests that the oligotrophic ocean, a habitat comprising 70% of the world\\'s oceans with high UVB penetration and dominated by picoautotrophs, is extremely vulnerable to changes in UVB radiation.

  5. A study of radionuclide transfer between invertebrates and their marine sedimentary environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiard-Triquet, Claude.

    1975-11-01

    Exchanges between sediment and marine organisms were studied in some benthic marine invertebrates, especially Arenicola marina L. (an Annelid). Experiments were carried out on the transfer of 60 Co, 137 Cs and accessorily 59 Fe and 144 Ce. Water was the chief vector for benthic marine invertebrates. These invertebrates seemed to act mainly in sedimentary areas on the redistribution of adsorbed radionuclides within the sediment. Radioactive contamination of the invertebrates was affected by various physiological or ecological factors. Benthic marine invertebrates were then studied as links in food chains. The transfer of 60 Co was studied in three food chains or fractions of food chains. The procedure allowed interesting observations from the health protection point of view and more fundamental investigations on cobalt metabolism (regulation, excretion) in a mollusc, a crustacea and a teleost [fr

  6. Mumbai harbour, India: Gateway for introduction of marine organisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaonkar, C.; Sawant, S.S.; Anil, A; Venkat, K.; Harkantra, S.N.

    Ships have been identified as one of the important vectors in the translocation of organisms from one bioregion to another leading to bioinvasion. In this context, harbours serve as a gateway for the introduction of alien species. Surveys were...

  7. Biomonitoring of Heavy metals using the bivalve molluscs in sunderban mangrove wetland, Northeast Coast of Bay of bengal (india): possible risks to Human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Henrique; Cardoso, Ines [Departamento de Biologia Animal/Instituto de Oceanografia, Campo Grande, Lisboa (Portugal); Chatterjee, Mousumi; Kumar Bhattacharya, Asok; Aftab Alam, Mohammad [Department of Marine Science, University of Calcutta, Calcutta (India); Kanta Satpathy, Kamala [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Environmental and Industrial Safety Section, Safety Group, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Kumar Sarkar, Santosh

    2008-02-15

    The suitability of using four bivalve molluscs (Sanguinolaria acuminata, Anadara granosa, Meretrix meretrix, and Pelecyora trigona) in biomonitoring of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Hg) collected from intertidal regions of the Sunderban mangrove wetland, northeastern part of the Bay of Bengal, were evaluated. Both speciesdependent variability and temporal variations were pronounced. A high degree of organ specificity was evident in the bivalves where gill and mantle exhibited higher metal accumulation due to ion exchange property of the mucous layer covering these organs while shells represent very poor accumulation. Elevated values of Zn and Cu reflect high potential for biomagnification through marine food chain. Metal concentrations in different body size groups of the bivalves do not follow uniform trend. Correlation coefficient between different metal couplings as tested statistically revealed significant coupling for Pb-Zn, Pb-Cu, Zn-Cu, and Hg-Cu. Concentrations of all the metals in specific organs (visceral mass, mantle and gill) of the bivalves exceeded the safe levels according to the international standards for metals compiled by Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations and would be of great risk for human consumption. It is concluded that the mussel and clam are suitable biomonitors to employ in programs designed to assess changes in metal pollution in the Sunderban mangrove wetland. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Chemical and isotopic composition of marine organic matter as indicators of its origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malej, A.

    1989-07-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the relative importance of marine and terrestrial sources of Particulate Organic Matter (POM) in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Samples of POM were obtained from the water column at 14 stations using Niskin bottles at 4 depths and sediment traps (placed near the sea floor). Additional samples were obtained of likely source organic matter: sewage, river POM, phytoplankton bloom material, zooplankton, jelly-fish and bethic macrophytes. All samples were analyzed for total carbon and nitrogen and the delta C-13/C-12 ratio (by mass spectrometry). Marine and terrestrial sources of POM were clearly distinguished by their isotopic ratios. A linear model was set up to evaluate the relative importance of these sources at each sampling station. Except in the immediate vicinity of river sources, the marine component appears to dominate. 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  9. Bridging Organizations Drive Effective Governance Outcomes for Conservation of Indonesia's Marine Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdej, Samantha M; Armitage, Derek R

    2016-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the influence of bridging organizations on governance outcomes for marine conservation in Indonesia. Conservation challenges require ways of governing that are collaborative and adaptive across boundaries, and where conservation actions are better coordinated, information flows improved, and knowledge better integrated and mobilized. We combine quantitative social network analysis and qualitative data to analyze bridging organizations and their networks, and to understand their contributions and constraints in two case studies in Bali, Indonesia. The analysis shows 1) bridging organizations help to navigate the 'messiness' inherent in conservation settings by compensating for sparse linkages, 2) the particular structure and function of bridging organizations influence governing processes (i.e., collaboration, knowledge sharing) and subsequent conservation outcomes, 3) 'bridging' is accomplished using different strategies and platforms for collaboration and social learning, and 4) bridging organizations enhance flexibility to adjust to changing marine conservation contexts and needs. Understanding the organizations that occupy bridging positions, and how they utilize their positionality in a governance network is emerging as an important determinant of successful conservation outcomes. Our findings contribute to a relatively new body of literature on bridging organizations in marine conservation contexts, and add needed empirical investigation into their value to governance and conservation in Coral Triangle nations and beyond.

  10. Bridging Organizations Drive Effective Governance Outcomes for Conservation of Indonesia’s Marine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdej, Samantha M.; Armitage, Derek R.

    2016-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the influence of bridging organizations on governance outcomes for marine conservation in Indonesia. Conservation challenges require ways of governing that are collaborative and adaptive across boundaries, and where conservation actions are better coordinated, information flows improved, and knowledge better integrated and mobilized. We combine quantitative social network analysis and qualitative data to analyze bridging organizations and their networks, and to understand their contributions and constraints in two case studies in Bali, Indonesia. The analysis shows 1) bridging organizations help to navigate the ‘messiness’ inherent in conservation settings by compensating for sparse linkages, 2) the particular structure and function of bridging organizations influence governing processes (i.e., collaboration, knowledge sharing) and subsequent conservation outcomes, 3) ‘bridging’ is accomplished using different strategies and platforms for collaboration and social learning, and 4) bridging organizations enhance flexibility to adjust to changing marine conservation contexts and needs. Understanding the organizations that occupy bridging positions, and how they utilize their positionality in a governance network is emerging as an important determinant of successful conservation outcomes. Our findings contribute to a relatively new body of literature on bridging organizations in marine conservation contexts, and add needed empirical investigation into their value to governance and conservation in Coral Triangle nations and beyond. PMID:26794003

  11. Studies on rare earth elements in seawater and uptake by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.; Koyanagi, T.; Saiki, M.

    1975-01-01

    The contents of rare earth elements in marine environmental samples were determined by neutron activation analysis to examine the existing state in coastal seawater and the concentration by marine organisms of the elements. Seawater was filtered through a Millipore filter GS (pore size 0.22 μm), before the analysis. Some of the seawater was treated with HC1 solution before filtration and some after filtration. Certain marine organisms were also analysed for determination of rare earth elements. These were: flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus); yellowtails (Seriola quinqueradiata); immature anchovy (Engraulis japonica); clams (Meretrix lusoria); green algae (Ulva pertusa); brown algae (Hizikia fusiforme, Sargassum fulvellum, Undaria pinnatifida). In the seawater without HC1 treatment before filtration, considerable amounts of the elements existed in residue on the filter, whereas in the seawater treated with HC1 before filtration, the greater part remained in the dissolved state. Concentration factors calculated from the contents of stable elements, therefore, are affected remarkably by the existing state of the elements in seawater. If only the dissolved state is assumed available for marine organisms, values one order higher are attained compared with the case where total amounts of the elements were used for the calculation. However, the contribution of the insoluble state seems to be not negligible with some organisms. The higher concentration factors for immature anchovy and clams observed in this study were considered to be caused by surface adsorption of elements in particulate form and also ingested sediment with high element concentration. (author)

  12. Mass spectrometry based approach for identification and characterisation of fluorescent proteins from marine organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wojdyla, Katarzyna Iwona; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    We present here a new analytical strategy for identification and characterisation of fluorescent proteins from marine organisms. By applying basic proteomics tools it is possible to screen large sample collections for fluorescent proteins of desired characteristics prior to gene cloning. Our...

  13. Fulvic acid-like organic compounds control nucleation of marine calcite under suboxic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuweiler, F.; D'Orazio, M.; Immenhauser, A.M.; Geipel, G.; Heise, K.H.; Cocozza, C.; Miano, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Intracrystalline organic compounds, enclosed within in situprecipitated marine microcrystalline calcite (automicrite), might represent either an inclusion or the catalyst of such precipitation. We use evidence from a Lower Cretaceous deep-water carbonate mound to show (1) the original source, (2)

  14. Demonstrating the Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Organisms to Support Climate Change Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Amanda L.; Hanson, Paul R.; Kelley, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification, a product of CO[subscript 2] absorption by the world's oceans, is largely driven by the anthropogenic combustion of fossil fuels and has already lowered the pH of marine ecosystems. Organisms with calcium carbonate shells and skeletons are especially susceptible to increasing environmental acidity due to reduction in the…

  15. Quantifying the degradation of organic matter in marine sediments: A review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Sandra; Jørgensen, B. B.; LaRowe, D. E.; Middelburg, J. J.; Pancost, R. D.; Regnier, P.

    2013-08-01

    Quantifying the rates of biogeochemical processes in marine sediments is essential for understanding global element cycles and climate change. Because organic matter degradation is the engine behind benthic dynamics, deciphering the impact that various forces have on this process is central to determining the evolution of the Earth system. Therefore, recent developments in the quantitative modeling of organic matter degradation in marine sediments are critically reviewed. The first part of the review synthesizes the main chemical, biological and physical factors that control organic matter degradation in sediments while the second part provides a general review of the mathematical formulations used to model these processes and the third part evaluates their application over different spatial and temporal scales. Key transport mechanisms in sedimentary environments are summarized and the mathematical formulation of the organic matter degradation rate law is described in detail. The roles of enzyme kinetics, bioenergetics, temperature and biomass growth in particular are highlighted. Alternative model approaches that quantify the degradation rate constant are also critically compared. In the third part of the review, the capability of different model approaches to extrapolate organic matter degradation rates over a broad range of temporal and spatial scales is assessed. In addition, the structure, functions and parameterization of more than 250 published models of organic matter degradation in marine sediments are analyzed. The large range of published model parameters illustrates the complex nature of organic matter dynamics, and, thus, the limited transferability of these parameters from one site to another. Compiled model parameters do not reveal a statistically significant correlation with single environmental characteristics such as water depth, deposition rate or organic matter flux. The lack of a generic framework that allows for model parameters to be

  16. Marine Biotoxins: Occurrence, Toxicity, Regulatory Limits and Reference Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierina Visciano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms are natural phenomena caused by the massive growth of phytoplankton that may contain highly toxic chemicals, the so-called marine biotoxins causing illness and even death to both aquatic organisms and humans. Their occurrence has been increased in frequency and severity, suggesting a worldwide public health risk. Marine biotoxins can accumulate in bivalve molluscs and regulatory limits have been set for some classes according to European Union legislation. These compounds can be distinguished in water- and fat-soluble molecules. The first group involves those of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning, whereas the toxins soluble in fat can cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning. Due to the lack of long-term toxicity studies, establishing tolerable daily intakes for any of these marine biotoxins was not possible, but an acute reference dose can be considered more appropriate, because these molecules show an acute toxicity. Dietary exposure assessment is linked both to the levels of marine biotoxins present in bivalve molluscs and the portion that could be eaten by consumers. Symptoms may vary from a severe gastrointestinal intoxication with diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps to neurological disorders such as ataxia, dizziness, partial paralysis, and respiratory distress. The official method for the detection of marine biotoxins is the mouse bioassay (MBA showing some limits due to ethical restrictions and insufficient specificity. For this reason, the liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method has replaced MBA as the reference technique. However, the monitoring of algal blooms producing marine biotoxins should be regularly assessed in order to obtain more reliable, accurate estimates of bloom toxicity and their potential impacts.

  17. Inventory of organisms interfering with transmission of a marine trematode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welsh, J.E.; van der Meer, J.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2014-01-01

    It has increasingly been recognized that organisms can interfere with parasitic free-living stages, preventing them from infecting their specified host and thus reducing infection levels. This common phenomenon in freshwater and terrestrial systems has been termed the ‘dilution effect’ and, so far,

  18. Inventory of organisms interfering with transmission of a marine trematode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welsh, J.E.; van der Meer, J.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2014-01-01

    It has increasingly been recognized that organisms can interfere with parasitic free-living stages, preventing them from infecting their specified host and thus reducing infection levels. This common phenomenon in freshwater and terrestrial systems has been termed the 'dilution effect' and, so far,

  19. Experimental Evidence for Abiotic Sulfurization of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika M. Pohlabeln

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic sulfur (DOS is the largest pool of organic sulfur in the oceans, and as such it is an important component of the global sulfur cycle. DOS in the ocean is resistant against microbial degradation and turns over on a millennium time scale. However, sources and mechanisms behind its stability are largely unknown. Here, we hypothesize that in sulfate-reducing sediments sulfur is abiotically incorporated into dissolved organic matter (DOM and released to the ocean. We exposed natural seawater and the filtrate of a plankton culture to sulfidic conditions. Already after 1-h at 20°C, DOS concentrations had increased 4-fold in these experiments, and 14-fold after 4 weeks at 50°C, indicating that organic matter does not need long residence times in natural sulfidic environments to be affected by sulfurization. Molecular analysis via ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry showed that sulfur was covalently and unselectively bound to DOM. Experimentally produced and natural DOS from sediments were highly similar on a molecular and structural level. By combining our data with published benthic DOC fluxes we estimate that 30–200 Tg DOS are annually transported from anaerobic and sulfate reducing sediments to the oceans. Uncertainties in this first speculative assessment are large. However, this first attempt illustrates that benthic DOS flux is potentially one order of magnitude larger than that via rivers indicating that this could balance the estimated global net removal of refractory DOS.

  20. Evaluation of the toxicity of organic matter in marine sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    The inhibitory effects of the organics from the sediment along the east coast of India on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in-vitro were evaluated. Sediment samples collected from the surface layers at various depths were extracted. Each of the extracts...

  1. Environmental occurrence and ecological risk assessment of organic UV filters in marine organisms from Hong Kong coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ziye; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2016-10-01

    Organic UV filters, now considered to be emerging contaminants in aquatic ecosystems, are being intensively tracked in environmental waters worldwide. However, their environmental fate and impact of these contaminants on marine organisms remains largely unknown, especially in Asia. This work elucidates the occurrence and the ecological risks of seven UV filters detected in farmed fish, wild mussels and some other wild organisms collected from local mariculture farms in Hong Kong. For all of the organisms, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoic acid (OD-PABA) were the predominant contaminants with the highest concentrations up to 51.3 and 24.1ng/g (dw), respectively; lower levels were found for benzophenone-8 (BP-8), octocrylene (OC) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) from marine aquatic environment was carried out. The risk quotient (RQ) values of EHMC and BP-3 were calculated as 3.29 and 2.60, respectively, indicating these two UV filters may pose significant risks to the marine aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Are the Traditional Medical Uses of Muricidae Molluscs Substantiated by Their Pharmacological Properties and Bioactive Compounds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Benkendorff

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine molluscs from the family Muricidae hold great potential for development as a source of therapeutically useful compounds. Traditionally known for the production of the ancient dye Tyrian purple, these molluscs also form the basis of some rare traditional medicines that have been used for thousands of years. Whilst these traditional and alternative medicines have not been chemically analysed or tested for efficacy in controlled clinical trials, a significant amount of independent research has documented the biological activity of extracts and compounds from these snails. In particular, Muricidae produce a suite of brominated indoles with anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and steroidogenic activity, as well as choline esters with muscle-relaxing and pain relieving properties. These compounds could explain some of the traditional uses in wound healing, stomach pain and menstrual problems. However, the principle source of bioactive compounds is from the hypobranchial gland, whilst the shell and operculum are the main source used in most traditional remedies. Thus further research is required to understand this discrepancy and to optimise a quality controlled natural medicine from Muricidae.

  3. Source rock evaluation and organic geochemistry of Belayim Marine Oil Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abu Al-Atta

    2014-09-01

    In general, TOC analyses showed that the Nubia-A and B formation sediments are fairly immature compared to good source rocks with very high Hydrogen Index indicative of kerogen type II. The geochemical investigations of two oil samples indicate that the Upper Rudeis oil of Belayim Marine was derived from a marine carbonate rich source, which is relatively rich in algal organic matter and has moderate sulfur content. The maturity of the analyzed oils (about 0.75% R0 falls short from the stage of peak hydrocarbon generation which is known to be reached at about 0.85% R0.

  4. Effects of heavy metals (other than mercury) on marine and estuarine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, G W

    1971-01-01

    Heavy metals such as copper, zinc and lead are normal constituents of marine and estuarine environments. When additional quantities are introduced from industrial wastes or sewage they enter the biogeochemical cycle and, as a result of being potentially toxic, may interfere with the ecology of a particular environment. In different marine organisms, the behavior of heavy metals is described in terms of their absorption, storage, excretion and regulation when different concentrations are available in the environment. At higher concentrations, the detrimental effects of heavy metals become apparent and their different toxic effects and factors affecting them are also described. 78 references, 9 figures, 4 tables.

  5. The natural radiation environment of marine organisms and aspects of the human food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhed, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    This article is based on a paper presented at the SRP meeting on the Natural Radiation Environment, March 1982. The concentrations of some of the natural radionuclides in various components of the marine environment are described and the contributions which these make to the radiation exposure of both marine organisms and man are discussed. It is indicated that radium-226 is a useful tracer of oceanic processes and a potential means of verifying the models being developed to predict the radiological consequences of the disposal of radioactive wastes into the deep ocean. (author)

  6. Postglacial floodings of the Marmara Sea: molluscs and sediments tell the story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükmeriç, Yeşim

    2016-08-01

    The early Holocene marine flooding of the Black Sea has been the subject of intense scientific debate since the "Noah's Flood" hypothesis was proposed in the late 1990s. The chronology of the flooding is not straightforward because the connection between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea involves the intermediate Marmara Sea Basin via two sills (Dardanelles and Bosphorus). This study explores the chronology of late Pleistocene-Holocene flooding by examining sedimentary facies and molluscs from 24 gravity cores spanning shelf to slope settings in the southern Marmara Sea Basin. A late Pleistocene Ponto-Caspian (Neoeuxinian) mollusc association is found in 12 of the cores, comprising 14 mollusc species and dominated by brackish (oligohaline-lower mesohaline) endemic taxa (dreissenids, hydrobiids). The Neoeuxinian association is replaced by a Turritella- Corbula association at the onset of the Holocene. The latter is dominated by marine species, several of which are known to thrive under dysoxic conditions in muddy bottoms. This association is common in early Holocene intervals as well as sapropel intervals in younger Holocene strata. It is an indicator of low-salinity outflows from the Black Sea into the Marmara Sea that drive stratification. A marine Mediterranean association (87 species) represents both soft bottom and hard substrate faunas that lived in well-ventilated conditions and upper mesohaline-polyhaline salinities (ca. 25 psu). Shallower areas were occupied by hard substrate taxa and phytopdetritic communities, whereas deeper areas had soft bottom faunas. The middle shelf part of the northern Gemlik Gulf has intervals with irregular and discontinuous sedimentary structures admixed with worn Neoeuxinian and euryhaline Mediterranean faunas. These intervals represent reworking events (slumping) likely related to seismic activity rooted in the North Anatolian Fault system. The core data and faunas indicate an oscillating postglacial sea-level rise and

  7. Mollusc reproductive toxicity tests - Development and validation of test guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund

    . Draft standard operating procedures (SOPs) have been designed based upon literature and expert knowledge from project partners. Pre-validation studies have been implemented to validate the proposed test conditions and identify issues in performing the SOPs and analyzing test results. Pre-validation work......The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development is promoting the development and validation of mollusc toxicity tests within its test guidelines programme, eventually aiming for the standardization of mollusc apical toxicity tests. Through collaborative work between academia, industry...... and stakeholders, this study aims to develop innovative partial life-cycle tests on the reproduction of the freshwater gastropods Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Lymnaea stagnalis, which are relevant candidate species for the standardization of mollusc apical toxicity tests assessing reprotoxic effects of chemicals...

  8. Biologically-transformed zinc and its availability for bioaccumulation by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Heyraud, M.

    1980-01-01

    Zinc which occurs in sea water as a trace element exists in several different stable or meta-stable forms in the aquatic environment. One of them is ''complexed'' form which is relatively stable. Radiotracer studies were carried out to investigate the mode of formation of the complexed zinc fraction and to find whether this fraction once formed by biological means is available for accumulation by marine biota. Sea water solutions used in the experiments were filtered through double 0.45 μm Millipore filters. Chelex-100 resin which quantitatively removes zinc from sea water was used to measure the relative degree of binding of different species of 65 Zn formed by association with marine organisms. 65 Zn in exometabolites from living animals represented in this case by shrimp (Lymata seticaudata), influence of organic detritus represented in this case by dead shrimp on the conversion of different forms of zinc and bioavailability of biologically processed 65 Zn were studied. It was observed that: (1) living and dead marine animals can produce a soluble species of complexed, possibly organically bound, zinc, (2) uptake of this species is reduced relative to that of the ionic form indicating that zinc which has passed through biological cycles may be less available for bioaccumulation than zinc which has been directly introduced into the marine environment in inorganic forms. (M.G.B.)

  9. Bioavailability of autochthonous dissolved organic nitrogen in marine plankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Helle; Markager, Svend Stiig; Søndergaard, Morten

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) produced during a phytoplankton bloom. The experiments were conducted with natural plankton communities as batch growth experiments over approximately 30 days with nitrogen limitation. Five to six...... times during the exponential and stationary phases of each experimental bloom the bioavailability of DON was measured over 60 days together with DOC and oxygen consumption. The overall aim was to quantify remineralization of the added nitrate. The results showed that maximum 33 % of the added nitrate...

  10. Comparison of influences of sediments and sea water on accumulation of radionuclides by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Taiji; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    1978-01-01

    The concentration factors of 106 Ru- 106 Rh and 137 Cs for a marine bivalve and a alga were investigated. Furthermore, the transfer ratio ([cpm/g of organism]/[cpm/g of sediment]) of these nuclides from contaminated sediments to organisms was examined. Then the concentration factors were compared with the transfer ratio to know the relative influence of sea water and sediments on the contamination of marine organisms. The obtained figures, we call the biological factor of the sediments (BFS), were 70 and 160 for red alga and bivalve on 137 Cs, and 5400 and 2900 for them in case of 106 Ru- 106 Rh, respectively. These figures were comparable to those for annelid worm, 40 on 137 Cs and 1000 on 106 Ru- 106 Rh. (auth.)

  11. Intellectual Organization in the New Model of the Russian Marine Industry Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Kostrikova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of intellectual organizations in the formation of professional competence, social adaptability and volitional qualities of workers of marine industry is actual in terms of growth of natural and man-made emergency situations, unstable socio-economic environment. In the marine industry, except for the education system and research, such organizations have prospects of development as the most competitive in the shipbuilding, fishing industry, port management, the logistics of fishing in the ocean and coastal fisheries, transport and storage prior to further processing. In this article is proposed a holistic resource approach to the formation of intellectual organization as a major maritime educational complex that integrates all stages of maritime specialist training, from a seaman to a master of a large ship including active research and intense maritime practice.

  12. Antitumoral activity of marine organism; Actividad antitumoral de los organismos marinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Iglesias, O [Centro de Bioproductos Marinos, La Habana (Cuba); Perez Gil, R; Colom, Y [Instituno Nacional de Oncologia y Radiobiologia (INOR), La Habana (Cuba)

    2010-07-01

    The study of the natural products from marine organism constitute a relatively recent scientific researcher field with high potentialities tanking in consideration that the oceans cover the three of the four parts of the earth. Poryphera and Bryozoans have been the Phylum more studied owning to the vulnerability, their soft body, their habitat on rocks, their slow movement and bright colors, for these reason these organisms are able to produce chemical substances as defense methods against depredators. Same mechanism is exhibit by the seaweeds with the production of secondary metabolites . In the present communication are exposed the main results obtained on the world a Cuba until the present in the looking for of substances with antitumor action from marine organism.

  13. Metal–organic complexation in the marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witter Amy

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the voltammetric methods that are used to assess metal–organic complexation in seawater. These consist of titration methods using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV and cathodic stripping voltammetry competitive ligand experiments (CSV-CLE. These approaches and a kinetic approach using CSV-CLE give similar information on the amount of excess ligand to metal in a sample and the conditional metal ligand stability constant for the excess ligand bound to the metal. CSV-CLE data using different ligands to measure Fe(III organic complexes are similar. All these methods give conditional stability constants for which the side reaction coefficient for the metal can be corrected but not that for the ligand. Another approach, pseudovoltammetry, provides information on the actual metal–ligand complex(es in a sample by doing ASV experiments where the deposition potential is varied more negatively in order to destroy the metal–ligand complex. This latter approach gives concentration information on each actual ligand bound to the metal as well as the thermodynamic stability constant of each complex in solution when compared to known metal–ligand complexes. In this case the side reaction coefficients for the metal and ligand are corrected. Thus, this method may not give identical information to the titration methods because the excess ligand in the sample may not be identical to some of the actual ligands binding the metal in the sample.

  14. Studies on concentration of radionuclides by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    Materials used were more than 20 kinds of fishes. 85 Sr chiefly localized in the hard tissue, such as the scale, bone, and gill, 60 Co in the liver, 65 Zn in the digestive organs, such as the liver, stomach, and intestine, 144 Ce in the gill, scale and liver, 106 Ru in the liver and intestine, and 131 I in the digestive organs, especially in the gallbladder. However, all these nuclides showed only slight localization in the edible parts of fish bodies. The concentration of radionuclides in immature anchovy was examined using 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 144 Ce and so on, as tracers. The concentration factor of 137 Cs was 10 times that of 85 Sr, though, the loss of 137 Cs was very rapid compared to that of 85 Sr. 144 Ce pollution of immature anchovy was chiefly by adsorption to the surface of fish bodies. As to shells radionuclides were remarkably taken up in the mid-gut gland, among them, 144 Ce taken up in shell bodies was not excreated but accumulated in the bodies. In algae, 85 Sr, 106 Ru, and 59 Fe seemed to pollute algae physico-chemically by adsorption, and 131 I, 137 Cs, and 60 Co seemed to be taken up through inorganic metabolism showing their concentration factor 100 times that in fishes. (JPN)

  15. Speciation and Distribution of Trace Metals and Organic Matter in Marine Lake as In Situ Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, M.; Fiket, Ž.; Cuculić, V.; Cukrov, N.; Geček, S.

    2016-02-01

    Marine lakes are unique, isolated marine systems, also recognized as in situ "laboratories" in which geochemical processes on a different scale compared to the open sea, can be observed. Impact of organic matter cycling on distribution of trace metals in the marine lake Mir, located on Dugi Otok Island, in the central part of the eastern Adriatic Sea, was investigated. Intense spatial and seasonal variations of physico-chemical parameters and organic matter concentrations in the water column of the Lake are governed predominantly by natural processes. Enhanced oxygen consumption in the Lake during summer season, high organic carbon concentrations and low redox potential result in occasional occurrence of anoxic conditions in the bottom layers. Speciation modelling showed that dissolved trace metals Cu, Pb and Zn, are mostly bound to organic matter, while Cd, Co and Ni are present predominantly as free ions and inorganic complexes. Trace metals removal from the water column and their retention in the sediment was found to depend on the nature of the relationship between specific metal and high proportion of organic matter (up to 9%) and inorganic phases, Fe-oxyhydroxydes or biogenic calcite. Surrounding karstic background, with occasional occurrences of red soil characterize deposited sediments as coarse grained and carbonate rich, whose elemental composition is affected by bathymetry of the basin and overall biological production.

  16. A Biogeotechnical approach to Stabilize Soft Marine Soil with a Microbial Organic Material called Biopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, I.; Cho, G. C.; Kwon, Y. M.; Im, J.

    2017-12-01

    The importance and demands of offshore and coastal area development are increasing due to shortage of usable land and to have access to valuable marine resources. However, most coastal soils are soft sediments, mainly composed with fines (silt and clay) and having high water and organic contents, which induce complicated mechanical- and geochemical- behaviors and even be insufficient in Geotechnical engineering aspects. At least, soil stabilization procedures are required for those soft sediments, regardless of the purpose of usage on the site. One of the most common soft soil stabilization method is using ordinary cement as a soil strengthening binder. However, the use of cement in marine environments is reported to occur environmental concerns such as pH increase and accompanying marine ecosystem disturbance. Therefore, a new environmentally-friendly treatment material for coastal and offshore soils. In this study, a biopolymer material produced by microbes is introduced to enhance the physical behavior of a soft tidal flat sediment by considering the biopolymer rheology, soil mineralogy, and chemical properties of marine water. Biopolymer material used in this study forms inter-particle bonds between particles which is promoted through cation-bridges where the cations are provided from marine water. Moreover, biopolymer treatment renders unique stress-strain relationship of soft soils. The mechanical stiffness (M) instantly increase with the presence of biopolymer, while time-dependent settlement behavior (consolidation) shows a big delay due to the viscous biopolymer hydrogels in pore spaces.

  17. Sensitization pattern of crustacean-allergic individuals can indicate allergy to molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, C; Bartolomé, B; Rodríguez, V

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the sensitization pattern of crustacean-allergic patients according to tolerance to molluscs. Thirty-one patients with anaphylaxis to crustaceans (14 with mollusc allergy and 17 with mollusc tolerance) were studied using skin prick tests (SPTs), specific IgEs (sIgEs) and SDS-PAGE...

  18. Molluscs associated with the macroalgae of the genus Gracilaria (Rhodophyta): importance of algal fronds as microhabitat in a hypersaline mangrove in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, R N M; Dias, T L P

    2014-08-01

    The fronds of marine macroalgae play an important role in coastal ecosystems because the algae banks are utilized as a microhabitat by different taxa, including molluscs, one of the most abundant and diverse animals of marine ecosystems. In this study, we characterized the malacofauna associated with the macroalgae Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing) Sonder ex Dickie 1874 and Gracilaria cuneata Areschoug 1854 of a hypersaline mangrove on the northern coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil. The first alga dominates in the rainy season and it is substituted by second one in the dry period. A total of 1,490 molluscs were surveyed, representing 56 species in 29 families: 1,081 were associated with G. domingensis and 409 with G. cuneata, the latter showing the greater diversity (H'=1.25). Columbellidae, Neritidae, Pyramidellidae and Cerithiidae were among the most representative families in the number of species and individuals. The micromolluscs were dominant in the algal microhabitat, constituting 74.63% of the malacofauna recorded. The columbellid Parvanachis obesa (C. B. Adams, 1845) was the dominant species followed by the neritid Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758) in both algae. In spite of the annual alternated succession of the algae species, at least 15 mollusc species are common for these algae. Furthermore, juveniles of P. obesa were recorded in both seasons, indicating a continuous reproduction. Possible reasons for difference in abundance, diversity and dominance of molluscs living on these algae are discussed. Both species of substrate-algae represent an important microhabitat for refuge, feeding and the reproduction of small-sized mollusc species during rainy and dry seasons.

  19. Molluscs associated with the macroalgae of the genus Gracilaria (Rhodophyta: importance of algal fronds as microhabitat in a hypersaline mangrove in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RNM Queiroz

    Full Text Available The fronds of marine macroalgae play an important role in coastal ecosystems because the algae banks are utilized as a microhabitat by different taxa, including molluscs, one of the most abundant and diverse animals of marine ecosystems. In this study, we characterized the malacofauna associated with the macroalgae Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing Sonder ex Dickie 1874 and Gracilaria cuneata Areschoug 1854 of a hypersaline mangrove on the northern coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil. The first alga dominates in the rainy season and it is substituted by second one in the dry period. A total of 1,490 molluscs were surveyed, representing 56 species in 29 families: 1,081 were associated with G. domingensis and 409 with G. cuneata, the latter showing the greater diversity (H′=1.25. Columbellidae, Neritidae, Pyramidellidae and Cerithiidae were among the most representative families in the number of species and individuals. The micromolluscs were dominant in the algal microhabitat, constituting 74.63% of the malacofauna recorded. The columbellid Parvanachis obesa(C. B. Adams, 1845 was the dominant species followed by the neritid Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758 in both algae. In spite of the annual alternated succession of the algae species, at least 15 mollusc species are common for these algae. Furthermore, juveniles of P. obesa were recorded in both seasons, indicating a continuous reproduction. Possible reasons for difference in abundance, diversity and dominance of molluscs living on these algae are discussed. Both species of substrate-algae represent an important microhabitat for refuge, feeding and the reproduction of small-sized mollusc species during rainy and dry seasons.

  20. Effect of water pollution on marine organisms; Sekiyu osen no kaiyo seibutsu eno eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, M. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan); Fujisawa, K. [Okayama Prefectural Fisheries Experiment Station, Okayama (Japan)

    1997-10-10

    Toxicity of petroleum component to aquatic organisms appears as a result of its deposition onto living organisms followed by its migration into bodies of the organisms, and emergence of toxicity from the migrated component. Effect evaluation processes standing on this viewpoint may include the exposure monitoring or migration monitoring, in which the petroleum component migrated into marine organisms is analyzed and the state of the component concentrated in these organisms is measured, or effect monitoring, in which actions of the petroleum component in the organisms are investigated. The effects of petroleum on aquatic organisms would include the following occurrence: direct fatal toxicity acting on cells and membranes, quasi-fatal toxicity causing death indirectly through feeding actions and abnormal actions, direct coating of oil on surface of organisms, which prevents movability and feeding actions of the organisms and reduces hydrophilicity of plumes and hairs, pollution of living organisms due to migration of carcinogenic aromatic compounds into bodies of the living organisms, and change in species compositions and geographic distribution of living organisms due to change in physico-chemical environment. This paper explains cases of detection and identification of organic sulfur compounds, aromatic compounds, polycyclic aromatic compounds, paraffins, olefins and heavy metals in parametric compounds of petroleum. 20 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Effects of organism preparation in metallothionein and metal analysis in marine invertebrates for biomonitoring marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaten, J F P; Hudson, M D; Jensen, A C; Williams, I D

    2015-06-15

    Metallothionein (MT) is established as a potentially useful biomarker for monitoring aquatic pollution. This paper addresses widespread inconsistencies in storage conditions, tissue type selection and pre-treatment of samples before MT and metal analysis in biomarker studies. This variation hampers comparability and so the widespread implementation of this monitoring approach. Actively sampled Mytilus edulis in Southampton Water, UK were exposed to different storage temperatures, a variety of tissue types were analysed, and various pre-treatments of transportation on ice, transportation in seawater, depuration, and rapid dissection in the field were examined. Storage temperatures of -20 °C were found to be adequate for periods of at least ten weeks, as MT was not reduced by protein degradation compared with samples kept at -80 °C. Whole tissue and digestive gland concentrations of MT and metals were significantly positively correlated and directly relatable. MT in the digestive gland appeared to be more responsive to metals than in whole tissue, where it may be diluted, masking MT responses. However, longer study periods may suffer the effects of mass changes to the digestive gland, which alters MT concentration, and it may therefore be advisable to measure whole tissue. Depuration and transportation in seawater reduced both MT and metal concentrations in the digestive gland, and few correlations between MT and metals were identified for these treatments. It is therefore recommended that: i) samples are transported to the laboratory on ice and dissected as soon as possible thereafter, ii) depuration should not be used when examining MT response to metal exposure until further research clarifying its utility is reported, iii) either whole tissue or the digestive gland can be used to measure MT, though whole tissue may be preferable on long-term studies, and iv) organisms can be stored at -20 °C before analysis for up to ten weeks. These practices can be applied

  2. Marine Biotoxins: Occurrence, Toxicity, and Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, M.

    2017-04-01

    This review summarizes the role of marine organisms as vectors of marine biotoxins, and discusses the need for surveillance to protect public health and ensure the quality of seafood. I Paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) and PSP-bearing organisms-PSP is produced by toxic dinoflagellates species belonging to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium, and Pyrodinium. Traditionally, PSP monitoring programs have only considered filter-feeding molluscs that concentrate these toxic algae, however, increasing attention is now being paid to higher-order predators that carry PSP, such as carnivorous gastropods and crustaceans. II. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and TTX-bearing organisms - TTX is the most common natural marine toxin that causes food poisonings in Japan, and poses a serious public health risk. TTX was long believed to be present only in pufferfish. However, TTX was detected in the eggs of California newt Taricha torosa in 1964, and since then it has been detected in a wide variety of species belonging to several different phyla. In this study, the main toxic components in the highly toxic ribbon worm Cephalothrix simula and the greater blue-ringed octopus Hapalochlaena lunulata from Japan were purified and analysed.

  3. Modeling the role of microplastics in Bioaccumulation of organic chemicals to marine aquatic organisms. Critical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that ingestion of microplastics may increase bioaccumulation of organic chemicals by aquatic organisms. This paper critically reviews the literature on the effects of plastic ingestion on the bioaccumulation of organic chemicals, emphasizing quantitative approaches and mechanistic

  4. Hygroscopic properties of smoke-generated organic aerosol particles emitted in the marine atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wonaschütz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available During the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE, a plume of organic aerosol was produced by a smoke generator and emitted into the marine atmosphere from aboard the R/V Point Sur. In this study, the hygroscopic properties and the chemical composition of the plume were studied at plume ages between 0 and 4 h in different meteorological conditions. In sunny conditions, the plume particles had very low hygroscopic growth factors (GFs: between 1.05 and 1.09 for 30 nm and between 1.02 and 1.1 for 150 nm dry size at a relative humidity (RH of 92%, contrasted by an average marine background GF of 1.6. New particles were produced in large quantities (several 10 000 cm−3, which lead to substantially increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations at supersaturations between 0.07 and 0.88%. Ratios of oxygen to carbon (O : C and water-soluble organic mass (WSOM increased with plume age: from −3, respectively, while organic mass fractions decreased slightly (~ 0.97 to ~ 0.94. High-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS spectra show that the organic fragment m/z 43 was dominated by C2H3O+ in the small, new particle mode and by C3H7+ in the large particle mode. In the marine background aerosol, GFs for 150 nm particles at 40% RH were found to be enhanced at higher organic mass fractions: an average GF of 1.06 was observed for aerosols with an organic mass fraction of 0.53, and a GF of 1.04 for an organic mass fraction of 0.35.

  5. Marine chemistry, fish / shell-fish surveys, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data from current meter and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from 1993-01-26 to 1994-06-13 (NODC Accession 9500088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine chemistry, fish / shell-fish surveys, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data were collected using current meter and other...

  6. Primary and Secondary Organic Marine Aerosol and Oceanic Biological Activity: Recent Results and New Perspectives for Future Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Rinaldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important natural aerosol systems at the global level is marine aerosol that comprises both organic and inorganic components of primary and secondary origin. The present paper reviews some new results on primary and secondary organic marine aerosol, achieved during the EU project MAP (Marine Aerosol Production, comparing them with those reported in the recent literature. Marine aerosol samples collected at the coastal site of Mace Head, Ireland, show a chemical composition trend that is influenced by the oceanic biological activity cycle, in agreement with other observations. Laboratory experiments show that sea-spray aerosol from biologically active sea water can be highly enriched in organics, and the authors highlight the need for further studies on the atmospheric fate of such primary organics. With regard to the secondary fraction of organic aerosol, the average chemical composition and molecular tracer (methanesulfonic-acid, amines distribution could be successfully characterized by adopting a multitechnique analytical approach.

  7. Phosphorus sorption on marine carbonate sediment: phosphonate as model organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Jia-Zhong

    2011-11-01

    Organophosphonate, characterized by the presence of a stable, covalent, carbon to phosphorus (C-P) bond, is a group of synthetic or biogenic organophosphorus compounds. The fate of these organic phosphorus compounds in the environment is not well studied. This study presents the first investigation on the sorption of phosphorus (P) in the presence of two model phosphonate compounds, 2-aminothylphosphonoic acid (2-AEP) and phosphonoformic acid (PFA), on marine carbonate sediments. In contrast to other organic P compounds, no significant inorganic phosphate exchange was observed in seawater. P was found to adsorb on the sediment only in the presence of PFA, not 2-AEP. This indicated that sorption of P from phosphonate on marine sediment was compound specific. Compared with inorganic phosphate sorption on the same sediments, P sorption from organic phosphorus is much less in the marine environment. Further study is needed to understand the potential role of the organophosphonate compounds in biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus in the environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytology of pollutant metals in marine invertebrates: A review of microanalytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nott, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    x-ray microanalysis (XRMA) is customized for investigations of the metabolic and detoxification strategies of heavy metals taken by marine organisms from polluted environments. Sites of uptake, intracellular accumulation, transport and excretion are visualized, analysed and quantified. Cryopreparation techniques are required to prevent the translocation or loss from specimens of soluble metal species. In marine invertebrates, metals are detoxified by systems of chemical binding and intracellular compartmentalization. XRMA investigations have concentrated on marine molluscs and crustaceans and even within these restricted groups there are marked inter-species differences in the biochemical and cytological processes which reduce metal bioavailability. Some detoxification systems also protect the carnivores which ingest the metal-laden tissues of the prey. This results in the bioreduction of metals along a food chain. These processes are investigated by XRMA which can be tuned to observe the complex interactions which operate at all levels within and between the biota and polluted environments. 90 refs

  9. Choose Your Weaponry: Selective Storage of a Single Toxic Compound, Latrunculin A, by Closely Related Nudibranch Molluscs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Cheney

    Full Text Available Natural products play an invaluable role as a starting point in the drug discovery process, and plants and animals use many interesting biologically active natural products as a chemical defense mechanism against predators. Among marine organisms, many nudibranch gastropods are known to derive defensive metabolites from the sponges they eat. Here we investigated the putative sequestration of the toxic compound latrunculin A--a 16-membered macrolide that prevents actin polymerization within cellular processes--which has been identified from sponge sources, by five closely related nudibranch molluscs of the genus Chromodoris. Only latrunculin A was present in the rim of the mantle of these species, where storage reservoirs containing secondary metabolites are located, whilst a variety of secondary metabolites were found in their viscera. The species studied thus selectively accumulate latrunculin A in the part of the mantle that is more exposed to potential predators. This study also demonstrates that latrunculin-containing sponges are not their sole food source. Latrunculin A was found to be several times more potent than other compounds present in these species of nudibranchs when tested by in vitro and in vivo toxicity assays. Anti-feedant assays also indicated that latrunculin A was unpalatable to rock pool shrimps, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings led us to propose that this group of nudibranchs has evolved means both to protect themselves from the toxicity of latrunculin A, and to accumulate this compound in the mantle rim for defensive purposes. The precise mechanism by which the nudibranchs sequester such a potent compound from sponges without disrupting their own key physiological processes is unclear, but this work paves the way for future studies in this direction. Finally, the possible occurrence of both visual and chemosensory Müllerian mimicry in the studied species is discussed.

  10. Effects of organic pollution on biological communities of marine biofilm on hard substrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Lázaro, C; Fodelianakis, S; Guerrero-Meseguer, L; Marín, A; Karakassis, I

    2015-06-01

    We examined the effect of organic enrichment on diatom and bacterial assemblages of marine epilithic biofilms on two locations in the Mediterranean, one situated in Spain and the other in Greece. Total organic carbon, total organic nitrogen, stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and chlorophyll a indicated significant incorporation of organic wastes, increased primary production and trophic niche modifications on the biofilms close to the organic enrichment source. In Spain, where the organic load was higher than in Greece, diatom and, to some extent, bacterial assemblages varied following the organic enrichment gradient. The taxonomic richness of diatom and bacterial communities was not influenced by organic enrichment. Classical community parameters showed consistent patterns to organic pollution in both locations, whereas community assemblages were only influenced when organic pollution was greatest. The successional patterns of these communities were similar to other epilithic communities. The modification of community assemblages induced by organic pollution may affect ecological functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamics of radiation exposure to marine biota in the area of the Fukushima NPP in March–May 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.; Kryshev, A.I.; Sazykina, T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of radiation dose rates are presented for marine biota in March–May 2011 in the coastal zone near Fukushima NPP, and in the open sea. Calculations of fish contamination were made using two methods: a concentration factor approach, and a dynamic model. For representative marine organisms (fish and molluscs) the radiation dose rates did not exceed the reference level of 10 mGy/day. At a distance 30 km from the NPP, in the open sea the radiation doses for marine biota were much lower than those in the coastal zone near the NPP. Comparative estimates are presented for radiation doses to aquatic organisms in the exclusion zones of the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trail, and the Chernobyl NPP.

  12. Estimation of the toxicity of pollutants to marine phytoplanktonic and zooplanktonic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    One of the basic components of the action plans sponsored by UNEP in the framework of the Regional Seas Programme is the assessment of the state of the marine environment and of its resources, and of the sources and trends of the pollution, and the impact of pollution on human health, marine ecosystems, and amenities. In order to ensure that the data obtained through this assessment can be compared on a world-wide basis and thus contribute to the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) of UNEP, a set of Reference Methods and Guidelines for marine pollution studies are being developed as part of a programme of comprehensive technical support which includes the provision of expert advice, reference methods and materials, training and data quality assurance. This reference method describes procedures for estimating the toxicity of pollutants to marine phytoplankton and zooplankton. Procedures are given for estimating the media effective concentrations (EC50) of toxicants to phytoplankton, and the minimum algistatic concentration (MAC-5). For zooplankton, procedures are given for determining median lethal concentrations. Organisms are exposed to each of a range of concentrations of the test substance. For phytoplankton, the median effective concentration (EC50) is estimated in terms of the number of individuals surviving, the biomass of individuals surviving, or the chlorophyll content of the individuals surviving. For zooplankton, the media lethal concentration (LC50) is estimated by conventional log-probit analysis of the mortality data

  13. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    importance of intertidal molluscs, Kaullysing et al. document the density and diversity of the benthic molluscs ... Natural hormonal compounds or artificial chemicals. Abstract ... lagoon area when compared with that in the reef and beach areas.

  14. Macromolecular composition of terrestrial and marine organic matter in sediments across the East Siberian Arctic Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, Robert B.; Doğrul Selver, Ayça; Gustafsson, Örjan; Semiletov, Igor P.; Haghipour, Negar; Wacker, Lukas; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Talbot, Helen M.; van Dongen, Bart E.

    2016-10-01

    Mobilisation of terrestrial organic carbon (terrOC) from permafrost environments in eastern Siberia has the potential to deliver significant amounts of carbon to the Arctic Ocean, via both fluvial and coastal erosion. Eroded terrOC can be degraded during offshore transport or deposited across the wide East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS). Most studies of terrOC on the ESAS have concentrated on solvent-extractable organic matter, but this represents only a small proportion of the total terrOC load. In this study we have used pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-GCMS) to study all major groups of macromolecular components of the terrOC; this is the first time that this technique has been applied to the ESAS. This has shown that there is a strong offshore trend from terrestrial phenols, aromatics and cyclopentenones to marine pyridines. There is good agreement between proportion phenols measured using py-GCMS and independent quantification of lignin phenol concentrations (r2 = 0.67, p radiocarbon data for bulk OC (14COC) which, when coupled with previous measurements, allows us to produce the most comprehensive 14COC map of the ESAS to date. Combining the 14COC and py-GCMS data suggests that the aromatics group of compounds is likely sourced from old, aged terrOC, in contrast to the phenols group, which is likely sourced from modern woody material. We propose that an index of the relative proportions of phenols and pyridines can be used as a novel terrestrial vs. marine proxy measurement for macromolecular organic matter. Principal component analysis found that various terrestrial vs. marine proxies show different patterns across the ESAS, and it shows that multiple river-ocean transects of surface sediments transition from river-dominated to coastal-erosion-dominated to marine-dominated signatures.

  15. The use of potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution as a suitable approach to isolate plastics ingested by marine organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühn, Susanne; Werven, Van Bernike; Oyen, Van Albert; Meijboom, André; Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa L.; Franeker, Van Jan A.

    2017-01-01

    In studies of plastic ingestion by marine wildlife, visual separation of plastic particles from gastrointestinal tracts or their dietary content can be challenging. Earlier studies have used solutions to dissolve organic materials leaving synthetic particles unaffected. However, insufficient tests

  16. Decomposition of 14C-labeled organic substances in marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The depth variation of total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter composition and porewater composition in marine sediments suggest that different components of the organic matter undergo decomposition at widely different rates. The decomposition of 14 C-labeled organic substances was followed in sediment microcosms in the laboratory. The substances used were chosen to simulate a portion of material settling to the sediment-water interface (a marine diatom) or hypothesized components of refractory sediment organic matter (melanoidins and a bacterial polymer). The microcosms were found to be good models of the sediment-water interface in terms of how well they mimicked sediment decomposition rates and processes. The decomposition of the labeled material and the natural sediment TOC were monitored over 1 month: the water overlying the sediment remained oxic, and net consumption of nitrate was small. There was no detectable sulfate reduction. The algae and the bacterial polymer were decomposed on average 9x faster than the melanoidins and 90x faster than the natural sediment TOC. The soluble fraction of the algae was decomposed more rapidly than the particulate material

  17. Macromolecular composition of terrestrial and marine organic matter in sediments across the East Siberian Arctic Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Sparkes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobilisation of terrestrial organic carbon (terrOC from permafrost environments in eastern Siberia has the potential to deliver significant amounts of carbon to the Arctic Ocean, via both fluvial and coastal erosion. Eroded terrOC can be degraded during offshore transport or deposited across the wide East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS. Most studies of terrOC on the ESAS have concentrated on solvent-extractable organic matter, but this represents only a small proportion of the total terrOC load. In this study we have used pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (py-GCMS to study all major groups of macromolecular components of the terrOC; this is the first time that this technique has been applied to the ESAS. This has shown that there is a strong offshore trend from terrestrial phenols, aromatics and cyclopentenones to marine pyridines. There is good agreement between proportion phenols measured using py-GCMS and independent quantification of lignin phenol concentrations (r2 = 0.67, p < 0.01, n = 24. Furfurals, thought to represent carbohydrates, show no offshore trend and are likely found in both marine and terrestrial organic matter. We have also collected new radiocarbon data for bulk OC (14COC which, when coupled with previous measurements, allows us to produce the most comprehensive 14COC map of the ESAS to date. Combining the 14COC and py-GCMS data suggests that the aromatics group of compounds is likely sourced from old, aged terrOC, in contrast to the phenols group, which is likely sourced from modern woody material. We propose that an index of the relative proportions of phenols and pyridines can be used as a novel terrestrial vs. marine proxy measurement for macromolecular organic matter. Principal component analysis found that various terrestrial vs. marine proxies show different patterns across the ESAS, and it shows that multiple river–ocean transects of surface sediments transition from river-dominated to

  18. A new laboratory radio frequency identification (RFID) system for behavioural tracking of marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Sbragaglia, Valerio; Sarriá, David; García, José Antonio; Costa, Corrado; del Río, Joaquín; Mànuel, Antoni; Menesatti, Paolo; Sardà, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) devices are currently used to quantify several traits of animal behaviour with potential applications for the study of marine organisms. To date, behavioural studies with marine organisms are rare because of the technical difficulty of propagating radio waves within the saltwater medium. We present a novel RFID tracking system to study the burrowing behaviour of a valuable fishery resource, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus L.). The system consists of a network of six controllers, each handling a group of seven antennas. That network was placed below a microcosm tank that recreated important features typical of Nephrops' grounds, such as the presence of multiple burrows. The animals carried a passive transponder attached to their telson, operating at 13.56 MHz. The tracking system was implemented to concurrently report the behaviour of up to three individuals, in terms of their travelled distances in a specified unit of time and their preferential positioning within the antenna network. To do so, the controllers worked in parallel to send the antenna data to a computer via a USB connection. The tracking accuracy of the system was evaluated by concurrently recording the animals' behaviour with automated video imaging. During the two experiments, each lasting approximately one week, two different groups of three animals each showed a variable burrow occupancy and a nocturnal displacement under a standard photoperiod regime (12 h light:12 h dark), measured using the RFID method. Similar results were obtained with the video imaging. Our implemented RFID system was therefore capable of efficiently tracking the tested organisms and has a good potential for use on a wide variety of other marine organisms of commercial, aquaculture, and ecological interest.

  19. A New Laboratory Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) System for Behavioural Tracking of Marine Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Sbragaglia, Valerio; Sarriá, David; García, José Antonio; Costa, Corrado; del Río, Joaquín; Mànuel, Antoni; Menesatti, Paolo; Sardà, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) devices are currently used to quantify several traits of animal behaviour with potential applications for the study of marine organisms. To date, behavioural studies with marine organisms are rare because of the technical difficulty of propagating radio waves within the saltwater medium. We present a novel RFID tracking system to study the burrowing behaviour of a valuable fishery resource, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus L.). The system consists of a network of six controllers, each handling a group of seven antennas. That network was placed below a microcosm tank that recreated important features typical of Nephrops’ grounds, such as the presence of multiple burrows. The animals carried a passive transponder attached to their telson, operating at 13.56 MHz. The tracking system was implemented to concurrently report the behaviour of up to three individuals, in terms of their travelled distances in a specified unit of time and their preferential positioning within the antenna network. To do so, the controllers worked in parallel to send the antenna data to a computer via a USB connection. The tracking accuracy of the system was evaluated by concurrently recording the animals’ behaviour with automated video imaging. During the two experiments, each lasting approximately one week, two different groups of three animals each showed a variable burrow occupancy and a nocturnal displacement under a standard photoperiod regime (12 h light:12 h dark), measured using the RFID method. Similar results were obtained with the video imaging. Our implemented RFID system was therefore capable of efficiently tracking the tested organisms and has a good potential for use on a wide variety of other marine organisms of commercial, aquaculture, and ecological interest. PMID:22163710

  20. A New Laboratory Radio Frequency Identification (RFID System for Behavioural Tracking of Marine Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Sardà

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency identification (RFID devices are currently used to quantify several traits of animal behaviour with potential applications for the study of marine organisms. To date, behavioural studies with marine organisms are rare because of the technical difficulty of propagating radio waves within the saltwater medium. We present a novel RFID tracking system to study the burrowing behaviour of a valuable fishery resource, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus L.. The system consists of a network of six controllers, each handling a group of seven antennas. That network was placed below a microcosm tank that recreated important features typical of Nephrops’ grounds, such as the presence of multiple burrows. The animals carried a passive transponder attached to their telson, operating at 13.56 MHz. The tracking system was implemented to concurrently report the behaviour of up to three individuals, in terms of their travelled distances in a specified unit of time and their preferential positioning within the antenna network. To do so, the controllers worked in parallel to send the antenna data to a computer via a USB connection. The tracking accuracy of the system was evaluated by concurrently recording the animals’ behaviour with automated video imaging. During the two experiments, each lasting approximately one week, two different groups of three animals each showed a variable burrow occupancy and a nocturnal displacement under a standard photoperiod regime (12 h light:12 h dark, measured using the RFID method. Similar results were obtained with the video imaging. Our implemented RFID system was therefore capable of efficiently tracking the tested organisms and has a good potential for use on a wide variety of other marine organisms of commercial, aquaculture, and ecological interest.

  1. Reconstruction of late Quaternary marine and terrestrial environmental conditions of Northwest Africa and Southeast Australia : a multiple organic proxy study using marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfama Lopes dos Santos, R.

    2012-01-01

    NW Africa and SE Australia are regions which are particularly vulnerable to climate change. In this thesis, organic proxies are used from marine sediment cores to reconstruct past environmental conditions from these areas. In sediments from NW Africa, the UK'37 showed an efficient proxy for sea

  2. Lipids from the nacreous and prismatic layers of two Pteriomorpha Mollusc shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farre, B.; Dauphin, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Mollusc shells are the best-known Ca-carbonate biominerals. They are commonly described as a mineralized two layered structure: an outer layer composed of calcite prismatic units, and an internal layer composed of tablets of aragonite: the nacreous layer. An external organic layer (periostracum) is present in most taxa. However, the most common structure in the Mollusc shell is the aragonite crossed lamellar layer, but aragonite prisms, calcite foliated layers and homogeneous layers have been also described by Boggild (1930) in all the Mollusc orders. Since, more detailed descriptions of Bivalve shells have been done (Taylor et al., 1969, 1973). Despite the nacroprismatic arrangement is rare, calcite prismatic and aragonite nacreous layers are the best studied because of their simple 3D structure and large units. Among these Molluscs, some Bivalve species composed of these two layers are of commercial interest, such as the pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera, cultivated in French Polynesia to produce black pearls. It is well established that Mollusc shells are composite structures of organic and inorganic components (Hatchett, 1799; Grégoire et al., 1955; Beedham, 1958; Simkiss, 1965; Mutvei, 1969; Cuif et al., 1980; Berman et al., 1993; Kobayashi and Samata, 2006). Numerous studies are concerned with the organic matrix of the shell. Organic components are commonly obtained after a strong or mild decalcification process. They are said to consist of both a soluble and insoluble fraction. The main part of studies is dedicated to the soluble components, and among them, proteins (Grégoire et al., 1955; Grégoire, 1961; Krampitz et al., 1976; Samata et al., 1980, 2004; Weiner, 1983; Miyamoto et al., 2006). Despite the pioneering work of Wada (1980) sugars are usually neglected despite their role in biomineralization. The third component of the organic matrix of calcareous biominerals is lipids. To date, there is a paucity of information concerning the presence

  3. The copepod Tigriopus: A promising marine model organism for ecotoxicology and environmental genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisuddin, Sheikh [Department of Chemistry and the National Research Lab of Marine Molecular and Environmental Bioscience, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kwok, Kevin W.H. [Swire Institute of Marine Science, Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Leung, Kenneth M.Y. [Swire Institute of Marine Science, Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Schlenk, Daniel [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Lee, Jae-Seong [Department of Chemistry and the National Research Lab of Marine Molecular and Environmental Bioscience, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jslee2@hanyang.ac.kr

    2007-07-20

    There is an increasing body of evidence to support the significant role of invertebrates in assessing impacts of environmental contaminants on marine ecosystems. Therefore, in recent years massive efforts have been directed to identify viable and ecologically relevant invertebrate toxicity testing models. Tigriopus, a harpacticoid copepod has a number of promising characteristics which make it a candidate worth consideration in such efforts. Tigriopus and other copepods are widely distributed and ecologically important organisms. Their position in marine food chains is very prominent, especially with regard to the transfer of energy. Copepods also play an important role in the transportation of aquatic pollutants across the food chains. In recent years there has been a phenomenal increase in the knowledge base of Tigriopus spp., particularly in the areas of their ecology, geophylogeny, genomics and their behavioural, biochemical and molecular responses following exposure to environmental stressors and chemicals. Sequences of a number of important marker genes have been studied in various Tigriopus spp., notably T. californicus and T. japonicus. These genes belong to normal biophysiological functions (e.g. electron transport system enzymes) as well as stress and toxic chemical exposure responses (heat shock protein 20, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase). Recently, 40,740 expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) from T. japonicus, have been sequenced and of them, 5673 ESTs showed significant hits (E-value, >1.0E-05) to the red flour beetle Tribolium genome database. Metals and organic pollutants such as antifouling agents, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychrlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have shown reproducible biological responses when tested in Tigriopus spp. Promising results have been obtained when Tigriopus was used for assessment of risk associated with exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Application of environmental

  4. The copepod Tigriopus: A promising marine model organism for ecotoxicology and environmental genomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisuddin, Sheikh; Kwok, Kevin W.H.; Leung, Kenneth M.Y.; Schlenk, Daniel; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2007-01-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence to support the significant role of invertebrates in assessing impacts of environmental contaminants on marine ecosystems. Therefore, in recent years massive efforts have been directed to identify viable and ecologically relevant invertebrate toxicity testing models. Tigriopus, a harpacticoid copepod has a number of promising characteristics which make it a candidate worth consideration in such efforts. Tigriopus and other copepods are widely distributed and ecologically important organisms. Their position in marine food chains is very prominent, especially with regard to the transfer of energy. Copepods also play an important role in the transportation of aquatic pollutants across the food chains. In recent years there has been a phenomenal increase in the knowledge base of Tigriopus spp., particularly in the areas of their ecology, geophylogeny, genomics and their behavioural, biochemical and molecular responses following exposure to environmental stressors and chemicals. Sequences of a number of important marker genes have been studied in various Tigriopus spp., notably T. californicus and T. japonicus. These genes belong to normal biophysiological functions (e.g. electron transport system enzymes) as well as stress and toxic chemical exposure responses (heat shock protein 20, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase). Recently, 40,740 expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) from T. japonicus, have been sequenced and of them, 5673 ESTs showed significant hits (E-value, >1.0E-05) to the red flour beetle Tribolium genome database. Metals and organic pollutants such as antifouling agents, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychrlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have shown reproducible biological responses when tested in Tigriopus spp. Promising results have been obtained when Tigriopus was used for assessment of risk associated with exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Application of environmental

  5. Elucidating Microbial Species-Specific Effects on Organic Matter Transformation in Marine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, N.; Enke, T. N.; Beaupre, S. R.; Teske, A.; Cordero, O. X.; Pearson, A.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial transformation and decomposition of organic matter in sediments constitutes one of the largest fluxes of carbon in marine environments. Mineralization of sedimentary organic matter by microorganisms results in selective degradation such that bioavailable or accessible compounds are rapidly metabolized while more recalcitrant, complex compounds are preserved and buried in sediment. Recent studies have found that the ability to use different carbon sources appears to vary among microorganisms, suggesting that the availability of certain pools of carbon can be specific to the taxa that utilize the pool. This implies that organic matter mineralization in marine environments may depend on the metabolic potential of the microbial populations that are present and active. The goal of our study was to investigate the extent to which organic matter availability and transformation may be species-specific using sediment from Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California). We carried out time-series incubations using bacterial isolates and sterilized sediment in the IsoCaRB system which allowed us to measure the production rates and natural isotopic signatures (δ13C and Δ14C) of microbially-respired CO2. Separate incubations using two different marine bacterial isolates (Vibrio sp. and Pseudoalteromonas sp.) and sterilized Guaymas Basin sediment under oxic conditions showed that the rate and total quantity of organic matter metabolized by these two species differs. Approximately twice as much CO2 was collected during the Vibrio sp. incubation compared to the Pseudoalteromonas sp. incubation. Moreover, the rate at which organic matter was metabolized by the Vibrio sp. was much higher than the Pseudoalteromonas sp. indicating the intrinsic availability of organic matter in sediments may depend on the species that is present and active. Isotopic analyses of microbially respired CO2 will be used to constrain the type and age of organic matter that is accessible to each species

  6. Marine ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

  7. Detecting marine hazardous substances and organisms: sensors for pollutants, toxins, and pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zielinski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments are influenced by a wide diversity of anthropogenic and natural substances and organisms that may have adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. Real-time measurements of pollutants, toxins, and pathogens across a range of spatial scales are required to adequately monitor these hazards, manage the consequences, and to understand the processes governing their magnitude and distribution. Significant technological advancements have been made in recent years for the detection and analysis of such marine hazards. In particular, sensors deployed on a variety of mobile and fixed-point observing platforms provide a valuable means to assess hazards. In this review, we present state-of-the-art of sensor technology for the detection of harmful substances and organisms in the ocean. Sensors are classified by their adaptability to various platforms, addressing large, intermediate, or small areal scales. Current gaps and future demands are identified with an indication of the urgent need for new sensors to detect marine hazards at all scales in autonomous real-time mode. Progress in sensor technology is expected to depend on the development of small-scale sensor technologies with a high sensitivity and specificity towards target analytes or organisms. However, deployable systems must comply with platform requirements as these interconnect the three areal scales. Future developments will include the integration of existing methods into complex and operational sensing systems for a comprehensive strategy for long-term monitoring. The combination of sensor techniques on all scales will remain crucial for the demand of large spatial and temporal coverage.

  8. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter across a Marine Distributed Biological Observatory in the Pacific Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, S. L.; Frey, K. E.; Shake, K. L.; Cooper, L. W.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in marine ecosystems as both a carbon source for the microbial food web (and thus a source of CO2 to the atmosphere) and as a light inhibitor in marine environments. The presence of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM; the optically active portion of total DOM) can have significant controlling effects on transmittance of sunlight through the water column and therefore on primary production as well as the heat balance of the upper ocean. However, CDOM is also susceptible to photochemical degradation, which decreases the flux of solar radiation that is absorbed. Knowledge of the current spatial and temporal distribution of CDOM in marine environments is thus critical for understanding how ongoing and future changes in climate may impact these biological, biogeochemical, and physical processes. We describe the quantity and quality of CDOM along five key productive transects across a developing Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) in the Pacific Arctic region. The samples were collected onboard the CCGS Sir Wilfred Laurier in July 2013 and 2014. Monitoring of the variability of CDOM along transects of high productivity can provide important insights into biological and biogeochemical cycling across the region. Our analyses include overall concentrations of CDOM, as well as proxy information such as molecular weight, lability, and source (i.e., autochthonous vs. allochthonous) of organic matter. We utilize these field observations to compare with satellite-derived CDOM concentrations determined from the Aqua MODIS satellite platform, which ultimately provides a spatially and temporally continuous synoptic view of CDOM concentrations throughout the region. Examining the current relationships among CDOM, sea ice variability, biological productivity, and biogeochemical cycling in the Pacific Arctic region will likely provide key insights for how ecosystems throughout the region will respond in future

  9. Dissolved organic matter in sea spray: a transfer study from marine surface water to aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Liger-Belair, G.; Koch, B. P.; Flerus, R.; Kattner, G.; Harir, M.; Kanawati, B.; Lucio, M.; Tziotis, D.; Hertkorn, N.; Gebefügi, I.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols impose direct and indirect effects on the climate system, for example, by absorption of radiation in relation to cloud droplets size, on chemical and organic composition and cloud dynamics. The first step in the formation of Organic primary aerosols, i.e. the transfer of dissolved organic matter from the marine surface into the atmosphere, was studied. We present a molecular level description of this phenomenon using the high resolution analytical tools of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Our experiments confirm the chemoselective transfer of natural organic molecules, especially of aliphatic compounds from the surface water into the atmosphere via bubble bursting processes. Transfer from marine surface water to the atmosphere involves a chemical gradient governed by the physicochemical properties of the involved molecules when comparing elemental compositions and differentiating CHO, CHNO, CHOS and CHNOS bearing compounds. Typical chemical fingerprints of compounds enriched in the aerosol phase were CHO and CHOS molecular series, smaller molecules of higher aliphaticity and lower oxygen content, and typical surfactants. A non-targeted metabolomics analysis demonstrated that many of these molecules corresponded to homologous series of oxo-, hydroxy-, methoxy-, branched fatty acids and mono-, di- and tricarboxylic acids as well as monoterpenes and sugars. These surface active biomolecules were preferentially transferred from surface water into the atmosphere via bubble bursting processes to form a significant fraction of primary organic aerosols. This way of sea spray production leaves a selective biological signature of the surface water in the corresponding aerosol that may be transported into higher altitudes up to the lower atmosphere, thus contributing to the formation of secondary organic aerosol on a global scale or transported laterally with

  10. Recreational Diver Behavior and Contacts with Benthic Organisms in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Vinicius J.; Luiz, Osmar J.; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    In the last two decades, coral reefs have become popular among recreational divers, especially inside marine protected areas. However, the impact caused by divers on benthic organisms may be contributing to the degradation of coral reefs. We analyzed the behavior of 142 scuba divers in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil. We tested the effect of diver profile, reef type, use of additional equipment, timing, and group size on diver behavior and their contacts with benthic organisms. Eighty-eight percent of divers contacted benthic organism at least once, with an average of eight touches and one damage per dive. No significant differences in contacts were verified among gender, group size, or experience level. Artificial reef received a higher rate of contact than pinnacle and fringe reefs. Specialist photographers and sidemount users had the highest rates, while non-users of additional equipment and mini camera users had the lowest contact rates. The majority of contacts were incidental and the highest rates occurred in the beginning of a dive. Our findings highlight the need of management actions, such as the provision of pre-dive briefing including ecological aspects of corals and beginning dives over sand bottoms or places with low coral abundance. Gathering data on diver behavior provides managers with information that can be used for tourism management.

  11. Butenolide inhibits marine fouling by altering the primary metabolism of three target organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yifan

    2012-06-15

    Butenolide is a very promising antifouling compound that inhibits ship hull fouling by a variety of marine organisms, but its antifouling mechanism was previously unknown. Here we report the first study of butenolides molecular targets in three representative fouling organisms. In the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite, butenolide bound to acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1), which is involved in ketone body metabolism. Both the substrate and the product of ACAT1 increased larval settlement under butenolide treatment, suggesting its functional involvement. In the bryozoan Bugula neritina, butenolide bound to very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADVL), actin, and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). ACADVL is the first enzyme in the very long chain fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. The inhibition of this primary pathway for energy production in larvae by butenolide was supported by the finding that alternative energy sources (acetoacetate and pyruvate) increased larval attachment under butenolide treatment. In marine bacterium Vibrio sp. UST020129-010, butenolide bound to succinyl-CoA synthetase β subunit (SCSβ) and inhibited bacterial growth. ACAT1, ACADVL, and SCSβ are all involved in primary metabolism for energy production. These findings suggest that butenolide inhibits fouling by influencing the primary metabolism of target organisms. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms: quantifying sensitivities and interaction with warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Kristy J; Kordas, Rebecca L; Crim, Ryan; Hendriks, Iris E; Ramajo, Laura; Singh, Gerald S; Duarte, Carlos M; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Ocean acidification represents a threat to marine species worldwide, and forecasting the ecological impacts of acidification is a high priority for science, management, and policy. As research on the topic expands at an exponential rate, a comprehensive understanding of the variability in organisms' responses and corresponding levels of certainty is necessary to forecast the ecological effects. Here, we perform the most comprehensive meta-analysis to date by synthesizing the results of 228 studies examining biological responses to ocean acidification. The results reveal decreased survival, calcification, growth, development and abundance in response to acidification when the broad range of marine organisms is pooled together. However, the magnitude of these responses varies among taxonomic groups, suggesting there is some predictable trait-based variation in sensitivity, despite the investigation of approximately 100 new species in recent research. The results also reveal an enhanced sensitivity of mollusk larvae, but suggest that an enhanced sensitivity of early life history stages is not universal across all taxonomic groups. In addition, the variability in species' responses is enhanced when they are exposed to acidification in multi-species assemblages, suggesting that it is important to consider indirect effects and exercise caution when forecasting abundance patterns from single-species laboratory experiments. Furthermore, the results suggest that other factors, such as nutritional status or source population, could cause substantial variation in organisms' responses. Last, the results highlight a trend towards enhanced sensitivity to acidification when taxa are concurrently exposed to elevated seawater temperature. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. PCBs and PCDD/Fs distribution in tissues and organs of marine animals in Russian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirova, Z.; Kruglov, E.; Loshkina, E.; Khalilov, R. [Environmental Research and Protection Centre, Ufa (Russian Federation); Melnikov, S.; Vlasov, S. [Regional Centre Monitoring of the Arctic, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2004-09-15

    Studies of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Russian Arctic were conducted recently by a Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) project. This project developed new data on the POPs pollution levels in the environment and biosphere, including PCBs and PCDD/Fs, in arctic regions of Russia. Transboundary transport and biomagnification within food chains in arctic regions result in POPs accumulation in tissues of fish and marine animals. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of indicator PCBs, co-planar PCBs and PCDD/Fs in different tissues and organs of seals, walruses and whales caught near the seashore of Chukotski Peninsula (settlement of Lavrenty), Russia, to determine the background level of arctic biota pollution and to study distribution of toxicants in organisms of marine animals. Sampling was made in the course of the 1{sup st} and the 2{sup nd} stages of the 4{sup th} phase of Raipon/AMAP/GEF project ''Persistent Toxic Substances (PTS), Food Security and Indigenous Peoples of the Russian North'' in 2002 by researchers of the Regional Center for Monitoring of the Arctic (RCMA), St. Petersburg, Russia.

  14. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms: quantifying sensitivities and interaction with warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Kristy J; Kordas, Rebecca L; Crim, Ryan; Hendriks, Iris E; Ramajo, Laura; Singh, Gerald S; Duarte, Carlos M; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification represents a threat to marine species worldwide, and forecasting the ecological impacts of acidification is a high priority for science, management, and policy. As research on the topic expands at an exponential rate, a comprehensive understanding of the variability in organisms' responses and corresponding levels of certainty is necessary to forecast the ecological effects. Here, we perform the most comprehensive meta-analysis to date by synthesizing the results of 228 studies examining biological responses to ocean acidification. The results reveal decreased survival, calcification, growth, development and abundance in response to acidification when the broad range of marine organisms is pooled together. However, the magnitude of these responses varies among taxonomic groups, suggesting there is some predictable trait-based variation in sensitivity, despite the investigation of approximately 100 new species in recent research. The results also reveal an enhanced sensitivity of mollusk larvae, but suggest that an enhanced sensitivity of early life history stages is not universal across all taxonomic groups. In addition, the variability in species' responses is enhanced when they are exposed to acidification in multi-species assemblages, suggesting that it is important to consider indirect effects and exercise caution when forecasting abundance patterns from single-species laboratory experiments. Furthermore, the results suggest that other factors, such as nutritional status or source population, could cause substantial variation in organisms' responses. Last, the results highlight a trend towards enhanced sensitivity to acidification when taxa are concurrently exposed to elevated seawater temperature. PMID:23505245

  15. Polonium-210 and lead-210 in marine organisms: allometric relationships and their significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, R.D.; Heyraud, M.

    1991-01-01

    Allometric relationships which indicate that Po-210 concentrations in marine organisms decrease with increasing organism mass have been reported previously in a few taxa. We report here the results of a study of nearly 400 data covering nine taxa of marine organisms. The data for each taxon are fitted to the allometric equation log Q = log a + b log M, where Q is the Po-210 concentration (mBq/g dry mass) and M is the dry mass per individual (g). The weighted mean of the nine Po-210 slopes is -0.24 ± 0.05, and of the eight Pb-210 slopes is -0.22 ± 0.05. These values are close to the slope of -0.25 frequently found in mass-specific allometric relationships in biology; an association between radionuclide concentration and food ingestion rate is indicated. The intertaxon variations in the intercept log a are large, nearly two orders of magnitude for Po-210, a fact which almost certainly reflects intertaxon differences in diet and/or assimilation. Within taxa, sub-groupings of the Po-210 data are found; these are discussed and an attempt is made to classify them statistically for the data as a whole. (Author)

  16. Functional Molecular Diversity of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter Is Reduced during Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mentges

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic matter (DOM is a highly diverse mixture of compounds, accounting for one of the world's largest active carbon pools. The surprising recalcitrance of some DOM compounds to bacterial degradation has recently been associated with its diversity. However, little is known about large-scale patterns of marine DOM diversity and its change through degradation, in particular considering the functional diversity of DOM. Here, we analyze the development of marine DOM diversity during degradation in two data sets comprising DOM of very different ages: a three-year mesocosm experiment and highly-resolved field samples from the Atlantic and Southern Ocean. The DOM molecular composition was determined using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. We quantify DOM diversity using three conceptually different diversity measures, namely richness of molecular formulas, abundance-based diversity, and functional molecular diversity. Using these measures we find stable molecular richness of DOM with age >1 year, systematic changes in the molecules' abundance distribution with degradation state, and increasing homogeneity with respect to chemical properties for more degraded DOM. Coinciding with differences in sea water density, the spatial field data separated clearly into regions of high and low diversity. The joint application of different diversity measures yields a comprehensive overview on temporal and spatial patterns of molecular diversity, valuable for general conclusions on drivers and consequences of marine DOM diversity.

  17. Using latent effects to determine the ecological importance of dissolved organic matter to marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Dean E; Johnson, Collin H

    2006-10-01

    The uptake and utilization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by marine invertebrates is a field that has received significant attention over the past 100 years. Although it is well established that DOM is taken up by marine invertebrates, the extent to which it contributes to an animal's survival, growth, and reproduction (that is, the ecological benefits) remains largely unknown. Previous work seeking to demonstrate the putative ecological benefits of DOM uptake have examined them within a single life stage of an animal. Moreover, most of the benefits are demonstrated through indirect approaches by examining (1) mass balance, or (2) making comparisons of oxyenthalpic conversions of transport rates to metabolic rate as judged by oxygen consumption. We suggest that directly examining delayed metamorphosis or the latent effects associated with nutritional stress of larvae is a better model for investigating the ecological importance of DOM to marine invertebrates. We also provide direct evidence that availability of DOM enhances survival and growth of the bryozoan Bugula neritina. That DOM offsets latent effects in B. neritina suggests that the underlying mechanisms are at least in part energetic.

  18. Sources and composition of submicron organic mass in marine aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott M.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2014-11-01

    The sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMA) have been investigated with a range of physical and chemical measurements from open-ocean research cruises. This study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) of aMA from five ocean regions to show the following: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMA that can be identified as mainly atmospheric primary marine (ocean derived) aerosol particles (aPMA) is 65 ± 12% hydroxyl, 21 ± 9% alkane, 6 ± 6% amine, and 7 ± 8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemical reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal or continental emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model-generated primary marine aerosol particles from bubbled seawater (gPMA, which has 55 ± 14% hydroxyl, 32 ± 14% alkane, and 13 ± 3% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied and the ratio of organic carbon to sodium (OC/Na+) in the gPMA remained nearly constant over a broad range of chlorophyll a concentrations, the gPMA alkane group fraction appeared to increase with chlorophyll a concentrations (r = 0.66). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (42 ± 9%) compared to gPMA from nonproductive seawater (22 ± 10%), perhaps due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of

  19. Fundamental study on magnetic separation of aquatic organisms for preservation of marine ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, destruction and disturbance of marine ecosystem have been caused by changes in global environment and transplants of farmed fishes and shellfishes. To solve the problems, water treatment techniques to kill or to remove aquatic organisms are necessary. In this study, application of magnetic separation for removal of the aquatic organisms was examined in order to establish the process with high-speed, compact device and low environmental load. Techniques of magnetic seeding and magnetic separation using superconducting magnet are important for high-speed processing of aquatic organisms. Magnetic seeding is to adhere separating object to the surface of ferromagnetic particles, and magnetic separation is to remove aquatic organisms with magnetic force. First, we confirmed the possibility of magnetic seeding of aquatic organisms, and then interaction between aquatic organisms and ferromagnetic particles was examined. Next, for practical application of magnetic separation system using superconducting magnet for removal of aquatic organisms, particle trajectories were simulated and magnetic separation experiment using superconducting magnet was performed in order to design magnetic separation system to achieve high separation efficiency.

  20. A fish-feeding laboratory bioassay to assess the antipredatory activity of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Micah J; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2015-01-11

    Marine chemical ecology is a young discipline, having emerged from the collaboration of natural products chemists and marine ecologists in the 1980s with the goal of examining the ecological functions of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms. The result has been a progression of protocols that have increasingly refined the ecological relevance of the experimental approach. Here we present the most up-to-date version of a fish-feeding laboratory bioassay that enables investigators to assess the antipredatory activity of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms. Organic metabolites of all polarities are exhaustively extracted from the tissue of the target organism and reconstituted at natural concentrations in a nutritionally appropriate food matrix. Experimental food pellets are presented to a generalist predator in laboratory feeding assays to assess the antipredatory activity of the extract. The procedure described herein uses the bluehead, Thalassoma bifasciatum, to test the palatability of Caribbean marine invertebrates; however, the design may be readily adapted to other systems. Results obtained using this laboratory assay are an important prelude to field experiments that rely on the feeding responses of a full complement of potential predators. Additionally, this bioassay can be used to direct the isolation of feeding-deterrent metabolites through bioassay-guided fractionation. This feeding bioassay has advanced our understanding of the factors that control the distribution and abundance of marine invertebrates on Caribbean coral reefs and may inform investigations in diverse fields of inquiry, including pharmacology, biotechnology, and evolutionary ecology.

  1. A GCM study of organic matter in marine aerosol and its potential contribution to cloud drop activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Roelofs

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available With the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM we investigate the potential influence of organic aerosol originating from the ocean on aerosol mass and chemical composition and the droplet concentration and size of marine clouds. We present sensitivity simulations in which the uptake of organic matter in the marine aerosol is prescribed for each aerosol mode with varying organic mass and mixing state, and with a geographical distribution and seasonality similar to the oceanic emission of dimethyl sulfide. Measurements of aerosol mass, aerosol chemical composition and cloud drop effective radius are used to assess the representativity of the model initializations. Good agreement with the measurements is obtained when organic matter is added to the Aitken, accumulation and coarse modes simultaneously. Representing marine organics in the model leads to higher cloud drop number concentrations and thus smaller cloud drop effective radii, and this improves the agreement with measurements. The mixing state of the organics and the other aerosol matter, i.e. internal or external depending on the formation process of aerosol organics, is an important factor for this. We estimate that globally about 75 Tg C yr−1 of organic matter from marine origin enters the aerosol phase, with comparable contributions from primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation.

  2. Evaluation of yolk protein as biomarkers for endocrine disruption in molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Jane Ebsen; Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund

    is also regulated by estrogens in molluscs even though it still remains unknown if and where vertebrate steroids are synthesized in molluscs and regulation of the endocrine system in molluscs is also unknown. By using our newly developed ELISA the present work investigates if yolk protein is a suitable......During recent years invertebrates and especially molluscs have received increasing attention in the field of endocrine disruption and development of OECD test guidelines to assess the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in molluscs is under development. The development of standardized...... tests to detect effects of EDCs in molluscs has proved cumbersome due to lack of specific biomarkers and endpoints for endocrine effects. Intersex (presence of oocytes in the testis) and induction of vitellogenin (the yolk protein precursor in oviparous vertebrates) have been used as biomarkers for EDCs...

  3. The composition of nucleation and Aitken modes particles during coastal nucleation events: evidence for marine secondary organic contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vaattovaara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly-formed nanometer-sized particles have been observed at coastal and marine environments world wide. Organic species have so far not been detected in those newly-formed nucleation mode particles. In this study, we applied the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer method to study the possible existence of an organic fraction in recently formed coastal nucleation mode particles (d<20 nm at the Mace Head research station. Furthermore, effects of those nucleation events on potential cloud condensation nuclei were studied. The coastal events were typical for the Mace Head region and they occurred at low tide conditions during efficient solar radiation and enhanced biological activity in spring 2002. Additionally, a pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter technique was used to study the composition of newly-formed particles formed in low tide conditions during a lower biological activity in October 2002. The overall results of the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer and the pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter measurements indicate that those coastally/marinely formed nucleation mode particles include a remarkable fraction of secondary organic products, beside iodine oxides, which are likely to be responsible for the nucleation. During clean marine air mass conditions, the origin of those secondary organic oxidation compounds can be related to marine coast and open ocean biota and thus a major fraction of the organics may originate from biosynthetic production of alkenes such as isoprene and their oxidation driven by iodine radicals, hydroxyl radicals, acid catalysis, and ozone during efficient solar radiation. During modified marine conditions, also anthropogenic secondary organic compounds may contribute to the nucleation mode organic mass, in addition to biogenic secondary organic compounds. Thus, the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer

  4. A Model Compound Study: The ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants with a battery of marine bioassays

    OpenAIRE

    Macken, A.; Giltrap, M.; Foley, B.; McGovern, E.; McHugh, B.; Davoren, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants frequently detected in marine sediments (tributyltin, triphenyltin, benzo[a]pyrene, fluoranthene, and PCB 153) using three marine species (Vibrio fischeri, Tetraselmis suecica, and Tisbe battagliai). The sensitivity of each species varied for all compounds. The triorganotins were consistently the most toxic to all species. The applicability of each test system to assess the acute toxicity of environmental contam...

  5. A GCM study of organic matter in marine aerosol and its potential contribution to cloud drop activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, G.J.H.

    2007-01-01

    With the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM we investigate the potential influence of organic aerosol originating from the ocean on aerosol mass and chemical composition and the droplet concentration and size of marine clouds. We present sensitivity simulations in which the uptake of organic

  6. /sup 210/Po in marine organisms: a wide range of natural radiation dose domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F P

    1988-01-01

    Marine biota is able to concentrate /sup 210/Po to high levels, as 10/sup 3/-10/sup 5/ relative to sea water concentration. /sup 210/Po concentrations in mixed zooplankton reaches 34-51 Bq.kg/sup -1/ (fresh wt), special groups such as copepods reaching even higher concentrations /similar to/ 90 Bq.kg/sup -1/, whereas gelatinous zooplankton display /similar to/ 1 Bq.kg/sup -1/. Epipelagic teleosts feeding on plankton displayed the highest concentrations found in fish muscle, 2-21 Bq.kg/sup -1/. Contrasting with this, demersal teleosts and elasmobranchs display lower /sup 210/Po concentrations, in the ranges 0.5-7 Bq.kg/sup -1/ and 0.2-1.7 Bq.kg/sup -1/, respectively. Much higher concentrations can, however, be measured in fish liver, gonad, bone and piloric caecca, and small mesopelagic fish can reach /similar to/ 800 Bq.kg/sup -1/ on a whole-body basis. Due to these /sup 210/Po activity concentrations, dose equivalent rates delivered to biological tissues in marine organisms can vary widely, from 0.4 mSv.y/sup -1/ in gelatinous plankton up to 5.6 x 10/sup 3/ mSv.y/sup -1/ in the gut wall of sardines. It is concluded that in organisms living in the same ocean layer a wide range of internal radiation doses exists and it is essentially sustained by /sup 210/Po food-chain transfer. (author).

  7. The trace metals accumulation in marine organisms of the southeastern Adriatic coast, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimovic Danijela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration and accumulation of trace metals (Co, Ni, As, Cd, Pb and Hg were measured in sea water, sediments and marine organisms in the coastline of the Montenegro. The obtained results of trace metals in seagrass and mussels were compared with those found in the water column and sediment. Sampling was performed in the fall of 2005 at five locations in the Montenegrin coastline, Sveta Stasija, Herceg Novi, Zanjice, Budva and Bar, which present different levels and sources of human impact. The heavy metals analyses in seawater, sediment, P. oceanica and M. galloprovincialis identified the harbor of Bar as the most Hg-contaminated site, Zanjice as the most As contaminated and Sveta Stasija as the most Pb-contaminated areas of the Montenegrin coastal area. This study showed that P. oceanica may have a greater bioaccumulation capacity than M. galloprovincialis for the considered metals, except for As and Hg, and both organisms may reflect contamination in the water column and in the sediment. For the first time, seagrass P. oceanica and M. galloprovincialis were employed as metal bioindicators for the southeastern Adriatic. The results of this study could serve as a baseline in the future for the assessment of anthropogenic effects in this marine ecosystem.

  8. Thermophilic anaerobes in arctic marine sediments induced to mineralize complex organic matter at high temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubert, Casey; Arnosti, Carol; Brüchert, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Marine sediments harbour diverse populations of dormant thermophilic bacterial spores that become active in sediment incubation experiments at much higher than in situ temperature. This response was investigated in the presence of natural complex organic matter in sediments of two Arctic fjords......, as well as with the addition of freeze-dried Spirulina or individual high-molecular-weight polysaccharides. During 50°C incubation experiments, Arctic thermophiles catalysed extensive mineralization of the organic matter via extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation and sulfate reduction. This high...... reactivity determined the extent of the thermophilic response. Fjord sediments with higher in situ SRR also supported higher SRR at 50°C. Amendment with Spirulina significantly increased volatile fatty acids production and SRR relative to unamended sediment in 50°C incubations. Spirulina amendment also...

  9. Organic carbon degradation in arctic marine sediments, Svalbard: A comparison of initial and terminal steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnosti, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    2006-01-01

    carbohydrate concentrations were comparable to those measured in more temperate sediments, and likely comprise a considerable fraction of porewater dissolved organic carbon. A comparison of dissolved carbohydrate inventories with hydrolysis and sulfate reduction rates suggests that the turnover of carbon......Degradation of marine organic matter under anoxic conditions involves microbial communities working in concert to remineralize complex substrates to CO2. In order to investigate the coupling between the initial and terminal steps of this sequence in permanently cold sediments, rates...... of extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis and sulfate reduction were measured in parallel cores collected from 5 fjords on the west and northwest coast of Svalbard, in the high Arctic. Inventories of total dissolved carbohydrates were also measured in order to evaluate their potential role in carbon turnover...

  10. Some structures of marine natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer-Moore, J.S.

    1979-07-01

    Applications of x-ray crystallographic methods to marine chemistry are discussed. Results of research on a biosynthetic problem: diterpenes from Dictyotaceae are discussed under the following section headings: history of the problem; dictyoxepin; dictyodial; and dictyolactone. Studies on marine ecology are reported under the following headings: symbiosis and antibiosis; metabolites from opisthobranch molluscs, including, dolabelladiene, 9-isocyanopupukeanane and 2-isocyanopupukeanane, and crispatone; metabolites of goronians and soft corals, including zooxanthellae and the metabolism of coelenterates, ophirin, sinularene, and erectene. (JGB)

  11. Origin of particulate organic carbon in the marine atmosphere as indicated by it stable carbon isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesselet, R.; Fontugne, M.; Buat-Menard, P.; Ezat, U.; Lambert, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Organic carbon concentration and isotopic composition were determined in samples of atmospheric particulate matter collected in 1979 at remote marine locations (Enewetak atoll, Sargasso Sea) during the SEAREX (Sea-Air Exchange) program field experiments. Atmospheric Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) concentrations were found to be in the range of 0.3 to 1.2 mg. m -3 , in agreement with previous literature data. The major mass of POC was found on the smallest particles (r 13 C/ 12 C of the small particles is close to the one expected (d 13 C = 26 +- 2 0 //sub infinity/) for atmospheric POC of continental origin. For all the samples analysed so far, it appears that more than 80% of atmospheric POC over remote marine areas is of continental origin. This can be explained either by long-range transport of small sized continental organic aserosols or by the production of POC in the marine atmosphere from a vapor phase organic carbon pool of continental origin. The POC in the large size fraction of marine aerosols ( 13 C = -21 +- 2 0 / 00 ) for POC associated with sea-salt droplets transported to the marine atmosphere

  12. Organic molecular composition of marine aerosols over the Arctic Ocean in summer: contributions of primary emission and secondary aerosol formation

    OpenAIRE

    P. Q. Fu; K. Kawamura; J. Chen; B. Charrière; R. Sempéré

    2013-01-01

    Organic molecular composition of marine aerosol samples collected during the MALINA cruise in the Arctic Ocean was investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. More than 110 individual organic compounds were determined in the samples and were grouped into different compound classes based on the functionality and sources. The concentrations of total quantified organics ranged from 7.3 to 185 ng m−3 (mean 47.6 ng m−3), accounting ...

  13. Rodriguesic acids, modified diketopiperazines from the gastropod mollusc Pleurobranchus areolatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Fabio R.; Santos, Mario F.C.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S., E-mail: rgsberlinck@iqsc.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Williams, David E.; Andersen, Raymond J. [Departments of Chemistry and Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Padula, Vinicius [SNSB-Zoologische Staatssammlung München, München, Germany and Department Biology II and GeoBio-Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, (Germany); Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2014-04-15

    In the present investigation, two specimens of the nudipleuran mollusc Pleurobranchus areolatus have shown to accumulate oxidized rodriguesin A derivatives. Rodriguesic acid presents a carboxylic acid replacing the terminal methyl group of the alkyl chain of rodriguesin A. A hydroxamate group was also present on the diketopiperazine moiety of a rodriguesic acid derivative. The structures of both rodriguesic acid and of rodriguesic acid hydroxamate have been established by analysis of spectroscopic data, including their absolute configuration. Two methyl esters of the rodriguesic acids have been isolated as major compounds, but were considered to be isolation artifacts. (author)

  14. Rodriguesic acids, modified diketopiperazines from the gastropod mollusc Pleurobranchus areolatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Fabio R.; Santos, Mario F.C.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.; Padula, Vinicius; Ferreira, Antonio G.

    2014-01-01

    In the present investigation, two specimens of the nudipleuran mollusc Pleurobranchus areolatus have shown to accumulate oxidized rodriguesin A derivatives. Rodriguesic acid presents a carboxylic acid replacing the terminal methyl group of the alkyl chain of rodriguesin A. A hydroxamate group was also present on the diketopiperazine moiety of a rodriguesic acid derivative. The structures of both rodriguesic acid and of rodriguesic acid hydroxamate have been established by analysis of spectroscopic data, including their absolute configuration. Two methyl esters of the rodriguesic acids have been isolated as major compounds, but were considered to be isolation artifacts. (author)

  15. Comparative toxicity test of water-accommodated fractions of oils and oil dispersants to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This reference method describes a simple procedure for comparing the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants, and mixtures thereof, to marine animals. It allows the toxicity of different dispersants to be rapidly compared to that of oil, or of a mixture of oil an oil dispersant. It is designed for routine monitoring and screening purposes and is not appropriate as a research method. The physical and chemical properties of oil dispersants create many difficulties in the measurements of their toxicity to marine organisms. Strictly speaking, their toxicity can only be accurately estimated using complex procedures and apparatus. (A relatively simple apparatus for preparing oil/water or oil/water/oil dispersant emulsions is described in Appendix B). Simpler methods can provide useful information, provided their limitations are clearly understood and taken into consideration in the assessment and application of their results. Some of the special considerations relating to the measurement of the toxicity of oil and oil dispersants are described in Appendix A. The Appendix also explains the rationale and limitations of the method described here. 3 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

  17. On the accumulation of radioactive materials in marine organisms along the coast of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, K.R.; Pak, C.K.

    1975-01-01

    In order to clarify the accumulation of radioactive materials in marine organisms of Korea, the present investigation is carried out with 54 samples of edible seaweeds collected from eight sampling sites along the coast of Korea during September, 1973 and April 1974. In this paper, ash contents, gross alpha acitvities and gross beta activities are detected. The ash content is 7.54-15.95% in the species investigated. Among the algal phyla it is about 13.13% in green algae, 12.77% in the species investigated. Among the algal phyla it is about 13.13%in green algae, in turn. The activities in a single species collected at the same season increase from eastern to western and southern coasts of Korea, in turn. Gross beta activities, however, fluctuate from 2.40 nCi/Kg-fresh material experimented, to red and brown algae, in turn. The gross beta acitivites are specially higher in Sargassum thunbergii, 22.14 nCi/Kg. It is expected that this plant could be an indicator to detect the activities in the marine algae along the coast of Korea. (author)

  18. [Dynamics of 95Zr in simulated marine water-sediment-organisms system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlin; Shi, Jianjun; Sun, Pingyue; Li, Mingyun

    2003-06-01

    To provide scientific evidence to evaluate the behavior of 95Zr in ocean ecosystem, the dynamic model of the transference, accumulation and disappearance of 95Zr among the simulated marine water, sediment and organisms was investigated using Nassarius semiplicatus and Boleophthalums pectinirostris as experimental stuffs. The result showed that 95Zr(Bq.g-1 or Bq.ml-1) in the marine water was decreased more than 90% in the first 4 h, and then descended gradually. 95Zr in sediment was increased in the peak in 48 h and then declined. The radioactivity percent of 95Zr in the shell and muslce of Nassarius semiplicatus was 68.7% and 31.30% respectively, while the radioactivity percent was 22.80%, 12.64%, 34.82%, 10.31%, 4.48%, 11.55% and 3.71%, respectively in the fill, fin, viscera, skull, skin, vertebra and muscle of Boleophthalmus pectinirostris. Nassarius semiplicatus had a greater concentrating capability of 95Zr than Boleophthalmus pectinirostris. The order of the 95Zr concentration was found to be sediment > Nassarius semiplicatus > water > Boleophthalmus pectinirostris. A dynamic model of closed four-compartment was constructed with exponent function.

  19. Adsorption of marine phycotoxin okadaic acid on a covalent organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Laura M; Pinela, Sara R; Fernandes, Soraia P S; Louçano, João; Carbó-Argibay, Enrique; Sarriá, Marisa P; Rodríguez-Abreu, Carlos; Peixoto, João; Espiña, Begoña

    2017-11-24

    Phycotoxins, compounds produced by some marine microalgal species, can reach high concentrations in the sea when a massive proliferation occurs, the so-called harmful algal bloom. These compounds are especially dangerous to human health when concentrated in the digestive glands of seafood. In order to generate an early warning system to alert for approaching toxic outbreaks, it is very important to improve monitoring methods of phycotoxins in aquatic ecosystems. Solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking devices reported thus far based on polymeric resins have not been able to provide an efficient harmful algal bloom prediction system due to their low adsorption capabilities. In this work, a water-stable covalent organic framework (COF) was evaluated as adsorbent for the hydrophobic toxin okadaic acid, one of the most relevant marine toxins and the parental compound of the most common group of toxins responsible for the diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. Adsorption kinetics of okadaic acid onto the COF in seawater showed that equilibrium concentration was reached in only 60min, with a maximum experimental adsorption of 61mgg -1 . Desorption of okadaic acid from the COF was successful with both 70% ethanol and acetonitrile as solvent, and the COF material could be reused with minor losses in adsorption capacity for three cycles. The results demonstrate that COF materials are promising candidates for solid-phase adsorption in water monitoring devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Speciation and bioaccumulation in a model organism of U, Np and Am in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloubier, Melody

    2015-01-01

    The fate of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment remains a major concern in our modern nuclearized societies. Among the environmental compartments, the hydrosphere is ubiquitous and can transport compounds or elements over very long distances. The recent event of Fukushima demonstrated that the marine environment could be directly affected and this raises both scientific and societal questions. Moreover, some studies have already shown that radionuclides present in seawater can be strongly accumulated by marine organisms although their speciation is most of the time unknown. Yet this knowledge is essential to better understand the transfer mechanisms from the hydrosphere to the biosphere and to evaluate their global impact on humans. In this work, we chose to experimentally determine the speciation of three actinides in doped seawater: uranium(VI), neptunium(V) and americium(III) (and the chemical surrogate europium(III)) by coupling speciation modeling with spectroscopic tools among which Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF) and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Then, we have studied the accumulation process in the sponge A. cavernicola, chosen here because it is considered as a bio-monitor of heavy metal pollution. The accumulation of europium(III), americium(III) and uranium(VI) in A. cavernicola were investigated at trace and ultra-trace levels. Besides, for europium, X-ray and electronic imaging permit to localize the accumulated element in the sponge and to specify its speciation [fr

  1. The use of potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution as a suitable approach to isolate plastics ingested by marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Susanne; van Werven, Bernike; van Oyen, Albert; Meijboom, André; Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa L; van Franeker, Jan A

    2017-02-15

    In studies of plastic ingestion by marine wildlife, visual separation of plastic particles from gastrointestinal tracts or their dietary content can be challenging. Earlier studies have used solutions to dissolve organic materials leaving synthetic particles unaffected. However, insufficient tests have been conducted to ensure that different categories of consumer products partly degraded in the environment and/or in gastrointestinal tracts were not affected. In this study 63 synthetic materials and 11 other dietary items and non-plastic marine debris were tested. Irrespective of shape or preceding environmental history, most polymers resisted potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution, with the exceptions of cellulose acetate from cigarette filters, some biodegradable plastics and a single polyethylene sheet. Exposure of hard diet components and other marine debris showed variable results. In conclusion, the results confirm that usage of KOH solutions can be a useful approach in general quantitative studies of plastic ingestion by marine wildlife. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Butyltin compounds in sediment and molluscs from the shipping strait between Denmark and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, Jakob; Jacobsen, Jens A.; Pedersen, Britta; Granmo, Aake

    2003-01-01

    The deposit feeding bivalve Nuculana pernula is a suitable for monitoring bioavailability of TBT in sediment along a major shipping route. - The distribution of tributyltin (TBT) contamination in the subtidal zone of the waters between Denmark and Sweden was investigated in relation to major international shipping lanes. Sediment and different benthic molluscs were sampled in transects along and perpendicularly to the shipping lanes in the Sound (Oresund) and the Kattegat/Skagerrak region. The samples were analysed for TBT and its degradation products, dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT), using GC-PFPD. In sediments, the TBT concentration ranged from -1 dry weight (dw) with a strong correlation between the TBT concentration and the organic fraction in sediment (r 2 =0.90) in the samples collected in the Sound, where the highest concentrations were found. This relationship was not observed in the samples from the Kattegat because the TBT concentration in most sediment samples was below the limit of detection. In the molluscs, TBT and its degradation products were detected in all samples from the entire area with concentrations ranging from 8.1 ng g -1 dw in Buccinum undatum to 1316 ng g -1 dw in Nuculana pernula. The deposit-feeding bivalve N. pernula was found to have a particularly high accumulation potential for TBT. In addition, a strong correlation between TBT concentrations in sediment and N. pernula was found. Therefore this species seems to be an ideal organism for monitoring sediment contamination. The TBT concentration in N. pernula was found to decrease gradually along the shipping lanes from the Sound, through the Kattegat and into the Skagerrak

  3. Microplastics contamination in molluscs from the northern part of the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Nuri, Marzieh; Vethaak, A Dick

    2018-04-01

    Microplastics (MPs) are well-known emerging contaminants in the marine environment. A key route by which MPs can directly affect marine life is through ingestion. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of MPs in marine life and seafood for human consumption in the Persian Gulf. We conducted a whole body analysis of MP (between 10 and 5000 μm in diameter) abundance in five species of molluscs with different feeding strategies, including both gastropods and bivalves from the littoral zone of the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf. The mean number of total encountered MPs in all species ranged from 0.2 to 21.0 particles per g of soft tissue (wet weight) and from 3.7 to 17.7 particles per individual. Overall, microfibres followed by fragments were the most common type of MP isolated in each species (respectively > 50% and ≈26%). Film (≈14%) and pellets (≈2%) were less commonly observed. The observed MPs were classified into three size groups (ca. 10-25 μm, 25-250 μm and 250-5000 μm), and 37-58% of MPs fell into the smallest size group. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis confirmed the presence of polyethylene (PE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and nylon (PA). Our results indicated that molluscan shellfish from the Persian Gulf contain MPs, with higher concentrations in a predatory species, suggesting trophic transfer of MPs in the food web. The consumption of edible species may be a source of human microplastic intake. We compared our results with those previously reported for other regions of the world and identified the need for further studies in the Persian Gulf. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of terrestrial and marine organic matters on deposition of dechlorane plus (DP) in marine sediments from the Southern Yellow Sea, China: Evidence from multiple biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guoguang; Peng, Jialin; Hao, Ting; Feng, Lijuan; Liu, Qiaoling; Li, Xianguo

    2017-01-01

    As an emerging halogenated organic contaminant, Dechlorane Plus (DP) was scarcely reported in marine environments, especially in China. In this work, 35 surface sediments and a sediment core were collected across the Southern Yellow Sea (SYS) to comprehensively explore the spatio-temporal distribution and possible migration pathway of DP. DP concentrations ranged from 14.3 to 245.5 pg/g dry weight in the surface sediments, displaying a seaward increasing trend with the high levels in the central mud zone. This spatial distribution pattern was ascribed to that fine particles with the elevated DP levels were preferentially transported to the central mud zone under hydrodynamic forcing and/or via long-range atmospheric transportation and deposition. DP concentrations in sediment core gradually increased from the mid-1950s to present, which corresponded well with the historical production and usage of DP, as well as the economic development in China. Significantly positive correlation between DP and total organic carbon (TOC) in both surface sediments and sediment core indicated TOC-dependent natural deposition of DP in the SYS. We used multiple biomarkers, for the first time, to explore the potential effects of terrestrial and marine organic matters (TOM and MOM) on DP deposition. The results showed that competition may occur between TOM and MOM for DP adsorption, and MOM was the predominant contributor in controlling DP deposition in the marine sediments from the SYS. - Highlights: • Effects of TOM and MOM on DP deposition were first explored by multi-biomarkers. • Hydrodynamic forcing and atmospheric deposition were responsible for DP in the SYS. • MOM was the predominant contributor in controlling DP deposition to sediments in the SYS. • Competition may occur between TOM and MOM for DP adsorption. - This study was the first attempt to comprehensively explore the effects of TOM and MOM on DP deposition in marine sediments from the SYS.

  5. The fate of fixed nitrogen in marine sediments with low organic loading: an in situ study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonaglia, Stefano; Hylén, Astrid; Rattray, Jane E.

    2017-01-01

    Given the increasing impacts of human activities on global nitrogen (N) cycle, investigations on N transformation processes in the marine environment have drastically increased in the last years. Benthic N cycling has mainly been studied in anthropogenically impacted estuaries and coasts, while its...... sediments worldwide (range 34–344 µmol N m−2 d−1). Anammox accounted for 18–26 % of the total N2 production. Absence of free hydrogen sulfide and low concentrations of dissolved iron in sediment pore waters suggested that denitrification and DNRA were driven by organic matter oxidation rather than...... chemolithotrophy. DNRA was as important as denitrification at a shallow, coastal station situated in the northern Bothnian Bay. At this pristine and fully oxygenated site, ammonium regeneration through DNRA contributed more than one third to the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) diffusing from the sediment...

  6. Some lower food web organisms in the nutrition of marine harpacticoid copepods: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieper, Marianna

    1985-12-01

    Some lower food web organisms from the marine littoral environment were studied as food for harpacticoid copepods. In laboratory experiments, it could be shown that, among the ciliates, the slow-moving Uronema sp. was taken up while the fast-moving Euplotes sp. was not. Asterionella glacialis, a pennate diatom with spiny projections, was unsuitable as food. The centric diatom Skeletonema costatum was ingested by all harpacticoid species tested, including Tisbe holothuriae, Paramphiascella vararensis, Amphiascoides debilis and Dactylopodia vulgaris. All are epibenthic and phytal species occurring in the shallow waters of Helgoland (North Sea). The amount of ciliate and algal carbon taken up was less than that provided by bacteria under laboratory conditions. However, some diatom food may be essential for the development of D. vulgaris.

  7. Novel synthetic organic compounds inspired from antifeedant marine alkaloids as potent bacterial biofilm inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Rajesh A; Karpoormath, Rajshekhar; Naphade, Shital S; Bangalore, Pavankumar; Shaikh, Mahamadhanif; Hampannavar, Girish

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we have reported seventeen novel synthetic organic compounds derived from marine bromopyrrole alkaloids, exhibiting potential inhibition of biofilm produced by Gram-positive bacteria. Compound 5f with minimumbiofilm inhibitory concentration(MBIC) of 0.39, 0.78 and 3.125 μg/mL against MSSA, MRSA and SE respectively, emerged as promising anti-biofilm lead compounds. In addition, compounds 5b, 5c, 5d, 5e, 5f, 5h, 5i and 5j revealed equal potency as that of the standard drug Vancomycin (MBIC = 3.125 μg/mL) against Streptococcus epidermidis. Notably, most of the synthesized compounds displayed better potency than Vancomycin indicating their potential as inhibitors of bacterial biofilm. The cell viability assay for the most active hybrid confirms its anti-virulence properties which need to be further researched. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Arsenic speciation in marine organisms: from the analytical methodology to the constitution of reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Moll, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Minerale et Analytique, URA 405 du CNRS, E. H. I. C. S., 1 rue Blaise Pascal, F-67008 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Heimburger, R. [Laboratoire de Chimie Minerale et Analytique, URA 405 du CNRS, E. H. I. C. S., 1 rue Blaise Pascal, F-67008 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Lagarde, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie Minerale et Analytique, URA 405 du CNRS, E. H. I. C. S., 1 rue Blaise Pascal, F-67008 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Leroy, M.J.F. [Laboratoire de Chimie Minerale et Analytique, URA 405 du CNRS, E. H. I. C. S., 1 rue Blaise Pascal, F-67008 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Maier, E. [Commission of the European Communities, Measurements and Testing Programme (BCR), 75 rue Montoyer, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium)

    1996-03-01

    An analytical procedure for total arsenic and arsenic species quantification in marine organisms has been developed. Fresh materials are freeze-dried and reduced to powders before analysis. Arsenic is determined either by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) directly or by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES) after microwave digestion. Arsenic speciation is performed on the extracted sample using liquid chromatography coupled to ICP/OES for arsenobetaine and arsenocholine determination and to the hydride generation-quartz furnace atomic absorption spectrometric technique for arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic and dimethylarsinic acids quantification. Special precautions are taken to avoid losses or contaminations as well as to prevent analytical errors during the quantification stage. Other methods are applied and the corresponding results compared for each step of the procedure. The method is finally validated by means of intercomparison studies within the Measurements and Testing Programme of the European Community (formely BCR). (orig.). With 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Anthropogenic Forcing of Carbonate and Organic Carbon Preservation in Marine Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Richard

    2017-01-03

    Carbon preservation in marine sediments, supplemented by that in large lakes, is the primary mechanism that moves carbon from the active surficial carbon cycle to the slower geologic carbon cycle. Preservation rates are low relative to the rates at which carbon moves between surface pools, which has led to the preservation term largely being ignored when evaluating anthropogenic forcing of the global carbon cycle. However, a variety of anthropogenic drivers-including ocean warming, deoxygenation, and acidification, as well as human-induced changes in sediment delivery to the ocean and mixing and irrigation of continental margin sediments-all work to decrease the already small carbon preservation term. These drivers affect the cycling of both carbonate and organic carbon in the ocean. The overall effect of anthropogenic forcing in the modern ocean is to decrease delivery of carbon to sediments, increase sedimentary dissolution and remineralization, and subsequently decrease overall carbon preservation.

  10. The use of yolk protein as biomarkers for endocrine disruption in molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund; Bjerregaard, Poul

    Invertebrates and especially molluscs have received increasing attention in relation to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs) during the last few years and the development of OECD test guidelines to assess the effect of EDs with molluscs are in progress. One of the main problems with the development...

  11. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the cephalopod mollusc, Idiosepius notoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, Tim; Loesel, R.; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    For more than a century, cephalopod molluscs have been the subject of extensive studies with respect to their complex neuroanatomy and behavior. In comparison to gastropod molluscs surprisingly little work has been carried out on the characterization of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS...

  12. Detecting the presence of infectious hepatitis A virus in molluscs positive to RT-nested-PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medici, de D.; Croci, L.; Pasquale, di S.; Fiore, A.; Toti, L.

    2001-01-01

    Aims: The objective of this study was to det. the presence of infectious hepatitis A virus (HAV) in molluscs naturally contaminated with viral HAV-RNA. Methods and Results: One hundred and forty-two mollusc samples were analyzed for the presence of viral HAV-RNA using RT-nested-PCR; pos. samples

  13. The accumulation of radiocesium in coarse marine sediment: Effects of mineralogy and organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeongkyoo; Kim, Kangjoo; Kang, Hee-Dong; Kim, Wan; Doh, Si-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Kim, Byoung-Ki

    2007-01-01

    The controlling factors affecting the accumulation of 137 Cs in marine sediment have not been investigated in detail, especially in coarse grained sediment. Eighty eight coarse marine sediment samples near Wuljin, Korea, were characterized by quantitative X-ray-diffraction (XRD), gamma-ray, and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Those factors were then compared. The grain size was in the range of -0.48 to 3.6 Mdφ corresponding to sand grains. TOC content was in the range of 0.06-1.75%, and the concentration of 137 Cs was 137 Cs activity, which was first reported here, probably due to the weathered frayed edge site of biotite produced by a release of K. The samples with low TOC contents showed even better correlation between biotite content and 137 Cs activity. For the entire samples, however, the TOC content showed better correlation with 137 Cs activity than other single factors, indicating that biotite and organic carbon are the most important factors controlling 137 Cs fixation. The combined effect of biotite and TOC for 137 Cs fixation was also confirmed by multiple regression analysis ( 137 Cs activity = 1.712 . TOC (wt%) + 0.202 . biotite (wt%) - 0.097; R 2 = 0.819). The regressed slopes indicated that the 137 Cs-adsorption capacity of TOC was about 8.5 times higher than that of biotite. However, the amount of 137 Cs adsorbed onto biotite was 30% more than that adsorbed onto TOC due to much greater biotite content in the sediment. The role of biotite in fixing 137 Cs becomes more important in sediment with coarser grains, containing little TOC

  14. Microbial decomposition of marine dissolved organic matter in cool oceanic crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah Walter, Sunita R.; Jaekel, Ulrike; Osterholz, Helena; Fisher, Andrew T.; Huber, Julie A.; Pearson, Ann; Dittmar, Thorsten; Girguis, Peter R.

    2018-05-01

    Marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is one of the largest active reservoirs of reduced carbon on Earth. In the deep ocean, DOC has been described as biologically recalcitrant and has a radiocarbon age of 4,000 to 6,000 years, which far exceeds the timescale of ocean overturning. However, abiotic removal mechanisms cannot account for the full magnitude of deep-ocean DOC loss. Deep-ocean water circulates at low temperatures through volcanic crust on ridge flanks, but little is known about the associated biogeochemical processes and carbon cycling. Here we present analyses of DOC in fluids from two borehole observatories installed in crustal rocks west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and show that deep-ocean DOC is removed from these cool circulating fluids. The removal mechanism is isotopically selective and causes a shift in specific features of molecular composition, consistent with microbe-mediated oxidation. We suggest organic molecules with an average radiocarbon age of 3,200 years are bioavailable to crustal microbes, and that this removal mechanism may account for at least 5% of the global loss of DOC in the deep ocean. Cool crustal circulation probably contributes to maintaining the deep ocean as a reservoir of `aged' and refractory DOC by discharging the surviving organic carbon constituents that are molecularly degraded and depleted in 14C and 13C into the deep ocean.

  15. Development and validation of OECD test guidelines on mollusc reproductive toxicity tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagadic, Laurent; Holbech, Henrik; hutchinson, tom

    the comparison of endpoints relevant for reproduction in invertebrates often shows a much higher sensitivity in molluscs vs. e.g. daphnids. The OECD test guideline programme has thus been extended to cover reproduction effects of chemicals in molluscs. Existing mollusc toxicity test protocols have been reviewed...... in an OECD Detailed Review Paper that identifies two relevant candidate species for developing freshwater tests: Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Lymnaea stagnalis. However, this review did not clarify which toxicity test design/conditions are the most appropriate for chemicals assessment. Therefore, a mollusc...... reproduction test guideline will be developed describing partial- and full- life-cycle test protocols in these species, so as to propose a balanced suite of apical mollusc toxicity tests applicable for the assessment of any type of chemical, including endocrine disruptors, as level 4 and 5 assays of the EDTA...

  16. Molecular insights into the microbial formation of marine dissolved organic matter: recalcitrant or labile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, B. P.; Kattner, G.; Witt, M.; Passow, U.

    2014-08-01

    The degradation of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important control variable in the global carbon cycle. For our understanding of the kinetics of organic matter cycling in the ocean, it is crucial to achieve a mechanistic and molecular understanding of its transformation processes. A long-term microbial experiment was performed to follow the production of non-labile DOM by marine bacteria. Two different glucose concentrations and dissolved algal exudates were used as substrates. We monitored the bacterial abundance, concentrations of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), nutrients, amino acids and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) for 2 years. The molecular characterization of extracted DOM was performed by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) after 70 days and after ∼2 years of incubation. Although glucose quickly degraded, a non-labile DOC background (5-9% of the initial DOC) was generated in the glucose incubations. Only 20% of the organic carbon from the algal exudate degraded within the 2 years of incubation. The degradation rates for the non-labile DOC background in the different treatments varied between 1 and 11 μmol DOC L-1 year-1. Transparent exopolymer particles, which are released by microorganisms, were produced during glucose degradation but decreased back to half of the maximum concentration within less than 3 weeks (degradation rate: 25 μg xanthan gum equivalents L-1 d-1) and were below detection in all treatments after 2 years. Additional glucose was added after 2 years to test whether labile substrate can promote the degradation of background DOC (co-metabolism; priming effect). A priming effect was not observed but the glucose addition led to a slight increase of background DOC. The molecular analysis demonstrated that DOM generated during glucose degradation differed appreciably from DOM transformed during the degradation of the algal exudates. Our

  17. An improved method for quantitatively measuring the sequences of total organic carbon and black carbon in marine sediment cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Zhu, Qing; Zhou, Qianzhi; Liu, Jinzhong; Yuan, Jianping; Wang, Jianghai

    2018-01-01

    Understanding global carbon cycle is critical to uncover the mechanisms of global warming and remediate its adverse effects on human activities. Organic carbon in marine sediments is an indispensable part of the global carbon reservoir in global carbon cycling. Evaluating such a reservoir calls for quantitative studies of marine carbon burial, which closely depend on quantifying total organic carbon and black carbon in marine sediment cores and subsequently on obtaining their high-resolution temporal sequences. However, the conventional methods for detecting the contents of total organic carbon or black carbon cannot resolve the following specific difficulties, i.e., (1) a very limited amount of each subsample versus the diverse analytical items, (2) a low and fluctuating recovery rate of total organic carbon or black carbon versus the reproducibility of carbon data, and (3) a large number of subsamples versus the rapid batch measurements. In this work, (i) adopting the customized disposable ceramic crucibles with the microporecontrolled ability, (ii) developing self-made or customized facilities for the procedures of acidification and chemothermal oxidization, and (iii) optimizing procedures and carbon-sulfur analyzer, we have built a novel Wang-Xu-Yuan method (the WXY method) for measuring the contents of total organic carbon or black carbon in marine sediment cores, which includes the procedures of pretreatment, weighing, acidification, chemothermal oxidation and quantification; and can fully meet the requirements of establishing their highresolution temporal sequences, whatever in the recovery, experimental efficiency, accuracy and reliability of the measurements, and homogeneity of samples. In particular, the usage of disposable ceramic crucibles leads to evidently simplify the experimental scenario, which further results in the very high recovery rates for total organic carbon and black carbon. This new technique may provide a significant support for

  18. The role of low-temperature organic matter diagenesis in carbonate precipitation within a marine deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Kazuya; Ishii, Eiichi; Hirota, Akinari; Komatsu, Daisuke D.; Ikeya, Kosuke; Tsunogai, Urumu

    2017-01-01

    degradation of organic matter has proceeded too far for any more CO_2 to be produced. Thus, carbonate precipitation is initiated when pH rises due to microbial CO_2 reduction. The contrast between the occurrence of carbonate veins in the Koetoi and Wakkanai formations can be explained by our results, which can also be applied to general carbonate behavior in marine sedimentary rocks. - Highlights: • δ"1"3C – δD systematics of coexisting CH_4 and CO_2. • Extreme-"1"3C enrichment caused by microbial CO_2 reduction in a closed system. • Organic matter diagenesis plays an important role in carbonate precipitation.

  19. Relating biomarkers to whole-organism effects using species sensitivity distributions : A pilot study for marine species exposed to oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.G.D.; Bechmann, R.K.; Hendriks, A.J.; Skadsheim, A.; Larsen, B.K.; Baussant, T.; Bamber, S.; Sannei, S.

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers are widely used to measure environmental impacts on marine species. For many biomarkers, it is not clear how the signal levels relate to effects on the whole organism. This paper shows how species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) can be applied to evaluate multiple biomarker responses in

  20. Marine lake as in situ laboratory for studies of organic matter influence on speciation and distribution of trace metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, Marina; Fiket, Željka; Geček, Sunčana; Cukrov, Neven; Cuculić, Vlado

    2015-07-01

    Karst marine lakes are unique marine systems, also recognized as in situ "laboratories" in which geochemical processes on a different scale compared to the open sea, can be observed. In this study, organic matter cycle and its impact on distribution of trace metals in the marine lake Mir, located on Dugi Otok Island, in the central part of the eastern Adriatic Sea, was investigated for the first time. Studied marine lake is small, isolated, shallow basin, with limited communication with the open sea. Intense spatial and seasonal variations of organic matter, dissolved and particulate (DOC, POC), and dissolved trace metals concentrations in the water column of the Lake are governed predominantly by natural processes. Enhanced oxygen consumption in the Lake during summer season, high DOC and POC concentrations and low redox potential result in occasional occurrence of anoxic conditions in the bottom layers with appearance of sulfur species. Speciation modeling showed that dissolved trace metals Cu, Pb and Zn, are mostly bound to organic matter, while Cd, Co and Ni are present predominantly as free ions and inorganic complexes. Trace metals removal from the water column and their retention in the sediment was found to depend on the nature of the relationship between specific metal and organic or inorganic phases, sulfides, Fe-oxyhydroxydes or biogenic calcite. The above is reflected in the composition of the sediments, which are, in addition to influence of karstic background and bathymetry of the basin, significantly affected by accumulation of detritus at the bottom of the Lake.

  1. Bioaccumulation and Toxicity of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes to Benthic Organisms at the Base of the Marine Food Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) increases over time, so does the potential for environmental release. This research aimed to determine the toxicity, bioavailability, and bioaccumulation of SWNTs in marine benthic organisms at the base of the food chain. The t...

  2. Molecular formulae of marine and terrigenous dissolved organic matter detected by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Boris P.; Witt, Matthias; Engbrodt, Ralph; Dittmar, Thorsten; Kattner, Gerhard

    2005-07-01

    The chemical structure of refractory marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is still largely unknown. Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS) was used to resolve the complex mixtures of DOM and provide valuable information on elemental compositions on a molecular scale. We characterized and compared DOM from two sharply contrasting aquatic environments, algal-derived DOM from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica) and terrigenous DOM from pore water of a tropical mangrove area in northern Brazil. Several thousand molecular formulas in the mass range of 300-600 Da were identified and reproduced in element ratio plots. On the basis of molecular elemental composition and double-bond equivalents (DBE) we calculated an average composition for marine DOM. O/C ratios in the marine samples were lower (0.36 ± 0.01) than in the mangrove pore-water sample (0.42). A small proportion of chemical formulas with higher molecular mass in the marine samples were characterized by very low O/C and H/C ratios probably reflecting amphiphilic properties. The average number of unsaturations in the marine samples was surprisingly high (DBE = 9.9; mangrove pore water: DBE = 9.4) most likely due to a significant contribution of carbonyl carbon. There was no significant difference in elemental composition between surface and deep-water DOM in the Weddell Sea. Although there were some molecules with unique marine elemental composition, there was a conspicuous degree of similarity between the terrigenous and algal-derived end members. Approximately one third of the molecular formulas were present in all marine as well as in the mangrove samples. We infer that different forms of microbial degradation ultimately lead to similar structural features that are intrinsically refractory, independent of the source of the organic matter and the environmental conditions where degradation took place.

  3. Organic molecular composition of marine aerosols over the Arctic Ocean in summer: contributions of primary emission and secondary aerosol formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Q. Fu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic molecular composition of marine aerosol samples collected during the MALINA cruise in the Arctic Ocean was investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. More than 110 individual organic compounds were determined in the samples and were grouped into different compound classes based on the functionality and sources. The concentrations of total quantified organics ranged from 7.3 to 185 ng m−3 (mean 47.6 ng m−3, accounting for 1.8–11.0% (4.8% of organic carbon in the marine aerosols. Primary saccharides were found to be dominant organic compound class, followed by secondary organic aerosol (SOA tracers formed from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs such as isoprene, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene. Mannitol, the specific tracer for airborne fungal spores, was detected as the most abundant organic species in the samples with a concentration range of 0.052–53.3 ng m−3 (9.2 ng m−3, followed by glucose, arabitol, and the isoprene oxidation products of 2-methyltetrols. Biomass burning tracers such as levoglucosan are evident in all samples with trace levels. On the basis of the tracer-based method for the estimation of fungal-spore OC and biogenic secondary organic carbon (SOC, we estimate that an average of 10.7% (up to 26.2% of the OC in the marine aerosols was due to the contribution of fungal spores, followed by the contribution of isoprene SOC (mean 3.8% and α-pinene SOC (2.9%. In contrast, only 0.19% of the OC was due to the photooxidation of β-caryophyllene. This study indicates that primary organic aerosols from biogenic emissions, both from long-range transport of mid-latitude aerosols and from sea-to-air emission of marine organics, as well as secondary organic aerosols formed from the photooxidation of biogenic VOCs are important factors controlling the organic chemical composition of marine aerosols in the Arctic Ocean.

  4. Marine biotoxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ... (ciguatera fish poisoning). It discusses in detail the causative toxins produced by marine organisms, chemical structures and analytical methods, habitat and occurrence of the toxin-producing organisms, case studies and existing regulations...

  5. Thallium isotope evidence for a permanent increase in marine organic carbon export in the early Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S.G.; Mar-Gerrison, S.; Gannoun, A.; LaRowe, D.; Klemm, V.; Halliday, A.N.; Burton, K.W.; Hein, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The first high resolution thallium (Tl) isotope records in two ferromanganese crusts (Fe-Mn crusts), CD29 and D11 from the Pacific Ocean are presented. The crusts record pronounced but systematic changes in 205Tl/203Tl that are unlikely to reflect diagenetic overprinting or changes in isotope fractionation between seawater and Fe-Mn crusts. It appears more likely that the Fe-Mn crusts track the Tl isotope composition of seawater over time. The present-day oceanic residence time of Tl is estimated to be about 20,000??yr, such that the isotopic composition should reflect ocean-wide events. New and published Os isotope data are used to construct age models for these crusts that are consistent with each other and significantly different from previous age models. Application of these age models reveals that the Tl isotope composition of seawater changed systematically between ~ 55??Ma and ~ 45??Ma. Using a simple box model it is shown that the present day Tl isotope composition of seawater depends almost exclusively on the ratio between the two principal output fluxes of marine Tl. These fluxes are the rate of removal of Tl from seawater via scavenging by authigenic Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide precipitation and the uptake rate of Tl during low temperature alteration of oceanic crust. It is highly unlikely that the latter has changed greatly. Therefore, assuming that the marine Tl budget has also not changed significantly during the Cenozoic, the low 205Tl/203Tl during the Paleocene is best explained by a more than four-fold higher sequestration of Tl by Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides compared with at the present day. The calculated Cenozoic Tl isotopic seawater curve displays a striking similarity to that of S, providing evidence that both systems may have responded to the same change in the marine environment. A plausible explanation is a marked and permanent increase in organic carbon export from ~ 55??Ma to ~ 45??Ma, which led to higher pyrite burial rates and a significantly reduced

  6. Toxic effect of a marine bacterium on aquatic organisms and its algicidal substances against Phaeocystis globosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuchan Yang

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms have caused enormous damage to the marine ecosystem and the coastal economy in China. In this paper, a bacterial strain B1, which had strong algicidal activity against Phaeocystis globosa, was isolated from the coastal waters of Zhuhai in China. The strain B1 was identified as Bacillus sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence and morphological characteristics. To evaluate the ecological safety of the algicidal substances produced by strain B1, their toxic effects on marine organisms were tested. Results showed that there were no adverse effects observed in the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, Chaetoceros muelleri, and Isochrystis galbana after exposure to the algicidal substances at a concentration of 1.0% (v/v for 96 h. The 48h LC50 values for Brachionus plicatilis, Moina mongolica Daday and Paralichthys olivaceus were 5.7, 9.0 and 12.1% (v/v, respectively. Subsequently, the algicidal substances from strain B1 culture were isolated and purified by silica gel column, Sephadex G-15 column and high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and PeakView Software, the purified substances were identified as prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine. Algicidal mechanism indicated that prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine inhibited the growth of P. globosa by disrupting the antioxidant systems. In the acute toxicity assessment using M. mongolica, 24h LC50 values of prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine were 7.0 and 13.8 g/L, respectively. The active substances produced by strain B1 can be considered as ecologically and environmentally biological agents for controlling harmful algal blooms.

  7. Screening for unicellular algae as possible bioassay organisms for monitoring marine water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán de Kuhn, Rosmary; Streb, Christine; Breiter, Roman; Richter, Peter; Neesse, Thomas; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2006-08-01

    ECOTOX is an automatic early warning system to monitor potential pollution of freshwater, municipal or industrial waste waters or aquatic ecosystems. It is based on a real time image analysis of the motility and orientation parameters of the unicellular, photosynthetic flagellate Euglena gracilis. In order to widen the use of the device to marine habitats and saline waters nine marine flagellates were evaluated as putative bioassay organisms, viz. Dunaliella salina, Dunaliella viridis, Dunaliella bardawil, Prorocentrum minimum Kattegat, P. minimum Lissabon, Tetraselmis suecica, Heterocapsa triquetra, Gyrodinium dorsum and Cryptomonas maculata. Because of their slow growth the last three strains were excluded from further evaluation. Selection criteria were ease of culture, density of cell suspension, stability of motility and gravitactic orientation. The sensitivity toward toxins was tested using copper(II) ions. The instrument allows the user to automatically determine effect-concentration (EC) curves from which the EC(50) values can be calculated. For the interpretation of the EC curves a sigmoid logistic model was proposed which proved to be satisfactory for all tested strains. The inhibition of the motility was considered as the most appropriate movement parameter as an endpoint. The Dunaliella species had the lowest sensitivity to copper with EC(50) values of 220, 198 and 176 mg/L for D. salina, D. bardawil and D. viridis, respectively, followed by T. suecica with an EC(50) value of 40 mg/L. The Prorocentrum species were found to be the most sensitive with an EC(50) value of 13.5 mg/L for P. minimum Lissabon and 7.5 mg/L for P. minimum Kattegat.

  8. Organic pollution and its effects in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in Eastern Mediterranean coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Emmanouil, Christina; Anastasiadou, Pelagia; Papadi-Psyllou, Asimina; Papadopoulos, Antonis; Okay, Oya; Machera, Kyriaki

    2015-01-01

    Persistent chemicals and emerging pollutants are continuously detected in marine waters and biota. Out of these, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCs) are significant contaminants with decades of presence in the marine environment. The Mediterranean Sea is an ecosystem directly affected by a variety of anthropogenic activities including industry, municipal, touristic, commercial and agricultural. The Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) is a filter feeder, which presents wide distribution. In this regard, the specific organism was used as a biological indicator for the monitoring and evaluation of pollution in the studied areas with focus on the mentioned chemical groups. Pristine Turkish sites with minimum effect from anthropogenic activities, in contrast with Greek sites which were subjected to heavy industrial and shipping activity, were selected. A gas chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric method (GC-MS/MS) was developed and validated to monitor 34 compounds (16 EPA priority PAHs and 18 OCs). Analyses of mussel samples in 2011 from sites with the limited anthropogenic pollution shores have shown the occurrence of 11 pollutants (6 PAHs, 5 OCs), while in the samples from sites with intensive activity and expected pollution, 12 PAHs and 6 OCs were detected. Biochemical and biological responses studied only in mussels samples from the sites with the highest contamination showed a situation that was under strong seasonal influence. The intensity of the response was also influenced by deployment duration. Noteworthy correlations were detected among biochemical/biological effects and between mussel body burden and these effects. Continuous monitoring of priority pollutants of East Mediterranean Sea is vital both for ecological and human risk assessment purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Advanced characterization of dissolved organic matter released by bloom-forming marine algae

    KAUST Repository

    Rehman, Zahid Ur

    2017-06-01

    Algal organic matter (AOM), produced by marine phytoplankton during bloom periods, may adversely affect the performance of membrane processes in seawater desalination. The polysaccharide fraction of AOM has been related to (bio)fouling in micro-filtration and ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis membranes. However, so far, the chemical structure of the polysaccharides released by bloom-forming algae is not well understood. In this study, dissolved fraction of AOM produced by three algal species (Chaetoceros affinis, Nitzschia epithemoides and Hymenomonas spp.) was characterized using liquid chromatography–organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescence spectroscopy. Chemical structure of polysaccharides isolated from the AOM solutions at stationary phase was analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR). The results showed that production and composition of dissolved AOM varied depending on algal species and their growth stage. AOM was mainly composed of biopolymers (BP; i.e., polysaccharides and proteins [PN]), but some refractory substances were also present.H-NMR spectra confirmed the predominance of carbohydrates in all samples. Furthermore, similar fingerprints were observed for polysaccharides of two diatom species, which differed considerably from that of coccolithophores. Based on the findings of this study,H-NMR could be used as a method for analyzing chemical profiles of algal polysaccharides to enhance the understanding of their impact on membrane fouling.

  10. Screening of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in marine organisms from the Caribbean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Fabio; Amaya-García, Fabián; Tello, Edisson; Ramos, Freddy Alejandro; Umaña, Adriana; Puyana, Mónica; Resende, Jackson A L C; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2018-06-04

    The acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of 89 organic extracts from marine organisms was evaluated through a TLC bioautography methodology. Extracts from soft corals (Eunicea and Plexaura) were the most active compared with extracts from sponges. The bioguided chemical study of the most active extract, obtained from Pseudoplexaura porosa, led to the isolation of a diterpene with spectroscopic properties consistent to those published to the cembrane Steylolide. However, further analysis by X-ray diffraction indicated that the compound was the 14-acetoxycrassine (1), correcting the structure reported to the Styelolide. Additionally, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of fourteen cembranoids (2-15) isolated from soft corals Eunicea knighti and Pseudoplexaura flagellosa was evaluated. Cembranoids 2, 3 and 4 were the most active compounds in the TLC bioassay. Then, the most promising cembranoids, 14-acetoxycrassine (1) and asperdiol (2), were tested quantitatively and they exhibited IC 50 values of 1.40 ± 0.113 and 0.358 ± 0.130 μM, respectively.

  11. Selective accumulation of organically bound tritium in the marine unicellular algae Dunaliella bioculata and Acetabularia mediterranea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strack, S.; Kirchmann, R.; Luettke, A.; Bonotto, S.

    1983-01-01

    The marine unicellular algae Dunaliella bioculata and Acetabularia mediterranea have been used to assess the importance of the radioactive contamination by 3 H bound to different organic molecules. We have studied the uptake of 10 different tritiated substances, which are precursors for the cells' main macromolecules: thymidine-methyl- 3 H, adenine-2- 3 H, uridine-5- 3 H, L-leucine-4- 3 H, glycine-2- 3 H, L-arginine-3.4- 3 H, L-aspartic acid-2.3- 3 H, L-phenylalanine-2.3- 3 H, D-glucose-2- 3 H and D-glucose-6- 3 H. Under our experimental conditions, all the tritiated organic molecules are taken up by both algal species. Their intracellular concentration may reach that of the external medium. However, some molecules are selectively accumulated: adenine and leucine in Dunaliella, adenine, arginine and glucose in Acetabularia. Increasing concentrations of adenine and leucine, supplied to the cultures of Dunaliella seem to be without effect on the growth of the algae. (author)

  12. Competitive sorption of persistent organic pollutants onto microplastics in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J.; Thompson, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Organic pollutants are present as complex mixtures in the marine environment. ► The competitive sorption of phenanthrene and DDT in a bi-solute system was investigated onto PVC and PE. ► DDT outcompeted phenanthrene for sorption onto plastic. ► DDT also appeared to have a negative effect on the sorption of phenanthrene onto plastic when added at high concentration. - Abstract: Plastics are known to sorb persistent organic pollutants from seawater. However, studies to quantify sorption rates have only considered the affinity of chemicals in isolation, unlike the conditions in the environment where contaminants are present as complex mixtures. Here we examine whether phenanthrene and 4,4′-DDT, in a mixture, compete for sorption sites onto PVC with no added additives (unplasticised PVC or uPVC) and Ultra-High Molecular Weight polyethylene. Interactions were investigated by exposing particles of uPVC and UHMW PE to mixtures of 3H and 14C radiolabelled Phe and DDT. Changes in sorption capacity were modelled by applying a Freundlich binding sorption isotherms. An Extended Langmuir Model and an Interaction Factor Model were also applied to predict equilibrium concentrations of pollutants onto plastic. This study showed that in a bi-solute system, DDT exhibited no significantly different sorption behaviour than in single solute systems. However, DDT did appear to interfere with the sorption of Phe onto plastic, indicating an antagonistic effect.

  13. Validation of a an analysis method of Marine Bio toxins Type Saxitoxin based on test coupled receptor (RBA) with Radiochemical Detection with liquid scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selmi, Zied

    2009-01-01

    The saxitoxin s are bio toxins belonging to the family of toxins of the type PSP. They are paralysing toxins secreted by marine micro-organisms, phytoplankton, called Alexandrium. They constitute a risk for the human health in the event of their consumption in contaminated food. The acceptable maximum limit of these bio toxins in molluscs and shellfish is fixed to 800 μg /kg of meat of molluscs or shellfish. It proves, thus, that it is essential to develop and validate analytical methods for the level monitoring of contamination of the marine resources by these species in order to found a program of their monitoring and to guarantee an acceptable level of the food safety of the products available on the national and international markets. The present work allowed the validation of the quantification method of these toxins which is based on the use of the Receptor Binding Assay (RBA) with liquid scintillation nuclear technique detection using tritium as radiotracer and while proceeding by the different statistical tests of validation (Standard Nf XP T 90-210). The field of linearity ranged from 0 to 20 n M and the limit of detection was found to be 1 n M. The validation of this method will allow the reinforcement of the analytical means of analysis of marine bi toxins type SXT and to set up, in the near future, a monitoring and surveillance routine program for these bio toxins at the national, regional and African scales. (Author)

  14. The role of rivers in transporting organic contaminants in the marine environment of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2013-04-01

    The study of trace organic contaminants in coastal marine environments and especially in estuarine systems is of great importance, since these areas, being biologically productive and receiving considerable pollutant inputs from land-based sources via river runoff, act as a transit zone in which contaminants are transported to the sea. The aim of this work is to identify the significance of estuarine export of organic pollution in the marine environment of Greece. For this reason, the distribution, composition and sources of hydrocarbon mixtures were investigated in sediments collected from eight major Greek estuarine systems, by using a molecular marker approach and several diagnostic criteria and indices. Surface sediment samples were collected from the estuaries of five rivers in Northern Greece flowing into Aegean sea (Axios, Aliakmonas, Strymon, Nestos, Evros), one river in Central Greece (Asopos) also flowing into Aegean Sea and two rivers in Western Greece flowing into Ionian sea (Acheloos, Acherontas). The highest aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations (>100 μg/g), indicative of petroleum pollution, were recorded in Asopos estruaries, followed by Aliakmonas, Axios, Strymon and Evros estuaries (50-100 μg/g). On the contrary, in Nestos delta, as well as in Acheloos and Acherontas estuaries, hydrocarbon values were found low and similar to those measured in open sea (marine environment. The unresolved complex mixture (UCM) was the main component of the aliphatic fraction in most cases demonstrating some petroleum inputs in all areas, but high values of the ratio unresolved to resolved compounds (U/R), which are clearly indicative of petroleum residues, were measured only in Asopos, Axios and Evros estuary (U/R: 5.1-10.4). The n-alkane distribution was generally similar with that of total aliphatics. The high molecular weight n-alkanes (>C23) predominated in most cases, showing an important odd/even carbon number preference (mean CPI values above 5) which is

  15. δ11B as monitor of calcification site pH in divergent marine calcifying organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jill N.; Liu, Yi-Wei; Ries, Justin B.; Guillermic, Maxence; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Eagle, Robert A.

    2018-03-01

    The boron isotope composition (δ11B) of marine biogenic carbonates has been predominantly studied as a proxy for monitoring past changes in seawater pH and carbonate chemistry. However, a number of assumptions regarding chemical kinetics and thermodynamic isotope exchange reactions are required to derive seawater pH from δ11B biogenic carbonates. It is also probable that δ11B of biogenic carbonate reflects seawater pH at the organism's site of calcification, which may or may not reflect seawater pH. Here, we report the development of methodology for measuring the δ11B of biogenic carbonate samples at the multi-collector inductively coupled mass spectrometry facility at Ifremer (Plouzané, France) and the evaluation of δ11BCaCO3 in a diverse range of marine calcifying organisms reared for 60 days in isothermal seawater (25 °C) equilibrated with an atmospheric pCO2 of ca. 409 µatm. Average δ11BCaCO3 composition for all species evaluated in this study range from 16.27 to 35.09 ‰, including, in decreasing order, coralline red alga Neogoniolithion sp. (35.89 ± 3.71 ‰), temperate coral Oculina arbuscula (24.12 ± 0.19 ‰), serpulid worm Hydroides crucigera (19.26 ± 0.16 ‰), tropical urchin Eucidaris tribuloides (18.71 ± 0.26 ‰), temperate urchin Arbacia punctulata (16.28 ± 0.86 ‰), and temperate oyster Crassostrea virginica (16.03 ‰). These results are discussed in the context of each species' proposed mechanism of biocalcification and other factors that could influence skeletal and shell δ11B, including calcifying site pH, the proposed direct incorporation of isotopically enriched boric acid (instead of borate) into biogenic calcium carbonate, and differences in shell/skeleton polymorph mineralogy. We conclude that the large inter-species variability in δ11BCaCO3 (ca. 20 ‰) and significant discrepancies between measured δ11BCaCO3 and δ11BCaCO3 expected from established relationships between abiogenic δ11BCaCO3 and seawater pH arise

  16. Heavy metal distribution in organic and siliceous marine sponge tissues measured by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, S; Annibaldi, A; Truzzi, C; Scarponi, G

    2016-10-15

    May sponge spicules represent a "tank" to accumulate heavy metals? In this study we test this hypothesis determining the distribution of Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations between organic and siliceous tissues in Antarctic Demospongia (Sphaerotylus antarcticus, Kirkpatrikia coulmani and Haliclona sp.) and in the Mediterranean species Petrosia ficiformis. Results show that although, in these sponges, spicules represent about 80% of the mass content, the accumulation of pollutant is lower in the spicules than in the corresponding organic fraction. The contribution of tissues to the total sponge content of Cd, Pb and Cu is respectively 99%, 82% and 97% for Antarctic sponges and 96%, 95% and 96% for P. ficiformis, similar in polar and temperate organisms. These results pave the way to a better understanding of the role of marine sponges in uptaking heavy metals and to their possible use as monitor of marine ecosystems, recommend by the Water Framework Directive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) to detect irradiated molluscs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchesani, G.; Chiaravalle, A.E.; Chiesa, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In contrast to thermally processed foods, irradiation is a cold treatment both to reduce microbiological contamination and to increase the shelf-life of raw seafood. According to the list of States' authorizations molluscs can be irradiated in a range of 0.5 / 3 kGy only in authorized countries (e.g. UK, Belgium and Czech Republic). Therefore the aim of this study is to identify, at different dose levels (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 kGy), irradiated oysters, clams and mussels using luminescence materials from different sites (shells and pulps) and to determine sample sensitivity for previous screening result confirmation. A total number of 10 samples for each species were analyzed by both procedures: screening and calibrated PSL. Samples were irradiated using a low energy X-ray irradiator (RS-2400, Radsource Inc.) with the following operational settings: 150 kV and 45 mA. Whole pulps were simply dispensed into a clean Petri-dish whereas shells powder required to be fixed as a thick layer with silicone grease. Results obtained showed that screening analysis can be used to identify correctly all irradiated and non irradiated samples. Particularly untreated sample exhibited a sensitivity index from 2 to 4 order of magnitude greater than the exposed sample one, while for exposed specimen calibrated PSL signals, after re-irradiation at defined dose, were of the same order of the first measurement (initial PSL counts). In conclusion mineral debris contaminating pulps and biocarbonates from shells can be considered reliable radioinduced markers and PSL techniques can be easily applied for rapid and simple analysis to identify irradiated molluscs in official controls.

  18. MOSAIC: An organic geochemical and sedimentological database for marine surface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavagna, Maria Luisa; Usman, Muhammed; De Avelar, Silvania; Eglinton, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Modern ocean sediments serve as the interface between the biosphere and the geosphere, play a key role in biogeochemical cycles and provide a window on how contemporary processes are written into the sedimentary record. Research over past decades has resulted in a wealth of information on the content and composition of organic matter in marine sediments, with ever-more sophisticated techniques continuing to yield information of greater detail and as an accelerating pace. However, there has been no attempt to synthesize this wealth of information. We are establishing a new database that incorporates information relevant to local, regional and global-scale assessment of the content, source and fate of organic materials accumulating in contemporary marine sediments. In the MOSAIC (Modern Ocean Sediment Archive and Inventory of Carbon) database, particular emphasis is placed on molecular and isotopic information, coupled with relevant contextual information (e.g., sedimentological properties) relevant to elucidating factors that influence the efficiency and nature of organic matter burial. The main features of MOSAIC include: (i) Emphasis on continental margin sediments as major loci of carbon burial, and as the interface between terrestrial and oceanic realms; (ii) Bulk to molecular-level organic geochemical properties and parameters, including concentration and isotopic compositions; (iii) Inclusion of extensive contextual data regarding the depositional setting, in particular with respect to sedimentological and redox characteristics. The ultimate goal is to create an open-access instrument, available on the web, to be utilized for research and education by the international community who can both contribute to, and interrogate the database. The submission will be accomplished by means of a pre-configured table available on the MOSAIC webpage. The information on the filled tables will be checked and eventually imported, via the Structural Query Language (SQL), into

  19. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  20. Ceramic membrane as a pretreatment for reverse osmosis: Interaction between marine organic matter and metal oxides

    KAUST Repository

    Dramas, Laure

    2013-02-01

    Scaling and (bio)fouling phenomena can severely alter the performance of the reverse osmosis process during desalination of seawater. Pretreatments must be applied to efficiently remove particles, colloids, and also precursors of the organic fouling and biofouling. Ceramic membranes offer a lot of advantages for micro and ultrafiltration pretreatments because their initial properties can be recovered using more severe cleaning procedure. The study focuses on the interaction between metal oxides and marine organic matter. Experiments were performed at laboratory scale. The first series of experiments focus on the filtration of different fractions of natural organic matter and model compounds solutions on flat disk ceramic membranes (47 mm of diameter) characterized with different pore size and composition. Direct filtration experiments were conducted at 0.7 bar or 2 bars and at room temperature (20 ± 0.5 °C). The efficiency of backflush and alkaline cleaning were eval, and titanium oxides. Each metal oxide corresponds to a specific pore size for the disk ceramic membranes: 80, 60, and 30 nm. Different sizes of metal oxide particles are used to measure the impact of the surface area on the adsorption of the organic matter. Seawaters from the Arabian Gulf and from the Red Sea were collected during algal blooms. Cultures of algae were also performed in the laboratory and in cooperation with woods hole oceanographic institute. Solutions of algal exudates were obtained after a couple of weeks of cultivation followed by sonication. Solutions were successively filtered through GFF (0.7 lm) and 0.45 lm membrane filters before use. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration of final solution was between 1 and 4 mg/L and showed strong hydrophilic character. These various solutions were prepared with the objective to mimic the dissolved organic matter composition of seawater subjected to algal bloom. Characterization of the solutions of filtration experiments (feed

  1. Quick, portable toxicity testing of marine or terrigenous fluids, sediments, or chemicals with bioluminescent organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabate, R.W.; Stiffey, A.V.; Dewailly, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    A hand-held, battery-operated instrument, which measures bioluminescence inhibition of the microscopic marine dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula, is capable of field-testing substances for toxicity. The organism is sensitive to ppb of strong toxicants. It tolerates some solvents in concentrations necessary for testing lipophylic samples. A test consumes only micrograms of sample. This method requires no adjustments for salinity, pH, color, or turbidity. It has been used successfully to test oil-well drilling fluids, brines produced with oil, waters and sediments from streams and lakes and petroleum-plant effluents containing contaminants such as benzene. The test is non-specific; however, if the substance is known, the end-point effects a direct measurement of its concentration. One-hour toxicity screening tests in the field produce results comparable to the standard four-hour laboratory test. Keeping the sample in the dark during incubation and testing, together with shortness of the overall procedure, eliminates anomalies from light-sensitive substances. Day-to-day variation, as well as among test replicates, is less than 10%. This quick method yields results comparable with a quick test that uses Photobacterium phosphoria, and with 96-hour tests that use Mysidopsis bahia, Artemia salina, Gonyaulax polyedra, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Cyprinodon variegatus

  2. The Impact of Ocean Acidification on Reproduction, Early Development and Settlement of Marine Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Bailey

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the impact of warming and acidifying on oceans on the early development life history stages of invertebrates although difficult, is essential in order to anticipate the severity and consequences of future climate change. This review summarises the current literature and meta-analyses on the early life-history stages of invertebrates including fertilisation, larval development and the implications for dispersal and settlement of populations. Although fertilisation appears robust to near future predictions of ocean acidification, larval development is much more vulnerable and across invertebrate groups, evidence indicates that the impacts may be severe. This is especially for those many marine organisms which start to calcify in their larval and/or juvenile stages. Species-specificity and variability in responses and current gaps in the literature are highlighted, including the need for studies to investigate the total effects of climate change including the synergistic impact of temperature, and the need for long-term multigenerational experiments to determine whether vulnerable invertebrate species have the capacity to adapt to elevations in atmospheric CO2 over the next century.

  3. Assessment of Marine Pollution in İzmir Bay: Heavy Metal and Organic Compound Concentrations in Surficial Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    AKSU, Ali Engin

    2014-01-01

    The extent of marine pollution in İzmir Bay is investigated using inorganic and organic geochemical data from surface sediments. The concentrations of 42 elements in 84 samples established that surface sediments in Inner İzmir Bay display significant enrichments in Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, P, Pb, Sb, Sn, V, and Zn, associated with notably high concentrations of total organic carbon and sulphur. Organic geochemical data in 14 samples from Inner İzmir Bay showed that these sediments...

  4. Feasibility study for application of the marine coral powder as a novel adsorbent for Volatile Organic Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mashkoori

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine coral has a porous outer surface and it has served in the processes such as water treatment systems, removal of carbon dioxide and adsorption of arsenic. Based on the need for cheap and efficient adsorbents, in sampling, the aim of this study, comparison of the efficiency of marine coral powder and activated charcoal in adsorption of volatile organic hydrocarbons was considered. In this experimental research, a certain concentrations of 8 volatile organic hydrocarbons: (para-Xylene, Chloroform, Carbon tetrachloride, tert-Butanol, Pyridine, Acetone, Ethyl acetate and Diethyl ether was injected into dynamic atmospheric chamber in the NTP (Normal Temperature and Pressure conditions. Air sampling was performed with the tube containing marine coral powder as well as the tube of activated charcoal, based on the standard method of NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and in the same laboratory conditions. Then samples were injected into the gas Chromatograph apparatus and analytical comparison has been done between the amount of adsorption of hydrocarbons by activated charcoal and coral powder-test and Mann-Whitney were done with SPSS V.20.Findings showed that there was a significant difference between the amount of adsorption of Para-Xylene, carbon tetrachloride, tert-Butanol, Pyridine, acetone and Ethyl acetate hydrocarbons by activated charcoal and coral powder (P<0.05(. The amount of hydrocarbons adsorption by activated charcoal was, more than coral powder significantly (P<0.001. Based on the present research, in sampling of used hydrocarbons, the marine coral powder was less efficient than the activated charcoal, and it is recommended that more works be designed about other techniques such as coating of the marine coral powder in order to the improvement of adsorption capacity for volatile organic hydrocarbons.

  5. Persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from Yongxing Island, South China Sea: levels, composition profiles and human dietary exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Xin; Hao, Qing; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Shuai-Long; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-03-01

    Little data is available on the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in marine organisms from South China Sea (SCS). Five marine fish species were collected from Yongxing Island, SCS to investigate the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs concentrations ranged from 2.0-117, 6.3-199, and 9.7-5831 ng g(-1) lw, respectively. In general, contaminants measured in this study were at the lower end of the global range. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were significantly correlated in fish samples, implying that PBDEs are as prevalent as PCBs in Yongxing Island. Among the five fish species studied, yellow striped goatfish had the highest concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs, probably attributed to its different living and feeding habits. The contaminant distribution pattern indicated that agrochemical source is more important than industrial source in Yongxing Island, SCS. The average estimated daily intakes of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs via fish consumption by local residents in the coastal areas of South China ranged from 1.42-5.91, 3.20-13.3, and 8.08-33.6 ng d(-1), which were lower than those in previous studies, suggesting that consumption of marine fish in Yongxing Island, SCS, might not subject local residents to significant health risk as far as POPs are concerned. This is the first study to report the occurrence of POPs in marine biota from SCS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A model compound study: The ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants employing a battery of marine bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macken, Ailbhe [Radiation and Environmental Science Centre, Focas Institute, DIT, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland)], E-mail: ailbhe.macken@dit.ie; Giltrap, Michelle [Radiation and Environmental Science Centre, Focas Institute, DIT, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Marine Institute, Rinville, Oranmore, Co. Galway (Ireland)], E-mail: michelle.giltrap@marine.ie; Foley, Barry [School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, DIT, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland)], E-mail: barry.foley@dit.ie; McGovern, Evin [Marine Institute, Rinville, Oranmore, Co. Galway (Ireland)], E-mail: evin.mcgovern@marine.ie; McHugh, Brendan [Marine Institute, Rinville, Oranmore, Co. Galway (Ireland)], E-mail: brendan.mchugh@marine.ie; Davoren, Maria [Radiation and Environmental Science Centre, Focas Institute, DIT, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland)], E-mail: maria.davoren@dit.ie

    2008-06-15

    This paper describes the ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants frequently detected in marine sediments (tributyltin, triphenyltin, benzo[a]pyrene, fluoranthene, and PCB 153) using three marine species (Vibrio fischeri, Tetraselmis suecica, and Tisbe battagliai). The sensitivity of each species varied for all compounds. The triorganotins were consistently the most toxic to all species. The applicability of each test system to assess the acute toxicity of environmental contaminants and their use in Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) is discussed. Suitability of the Microtox and T. battagliai tests for employment in TIE studies were further assessed through spiking experiments with tributyltin. Results demonstrated that the most effective treatment to remove organotin toxicity from the sample was the C{sub 18} resin. The results of this study have important implications for risk assessment in estuarine and coastal waters in Ireland, where, at present the monitoring of sediment and water quality is predominantly reliant on chemical analysis alone. - Ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic marine sediment contaminants was conducted and the suitability of the test species for marine porewater TIE discussed.

  7. Influence of trophic level, and calcification on the uptake of plutonium observed, in situ, in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guary, J.C.; Fraizier, A.

    1977-01-01

    A study has been made of the transport mechanisms of plutonium in the marine environment. This work has shown that a relationship exists between the concentration of plutonium in marine plant and animal species and the trophic level of these organisms; this relation is evidenced by a decrease in the concentration of the radioelement as the trophic level of the species increases. Three modes of transport - via water, sediment and food - have been studied. Direct contact between sea water and organisms, the principal mode of transfer to marine species belonging to lower trophic levels (the primary producers and consumers), seems to play an important role in the uptake of plutonium. On the other hand, the sediment in contact with which certain species live does not appear to constitute an important transfer vector. The trophic relations between animal species lead one to assume that plutonium is transported also via the food-chain without necessarily implying that there is a concentration of the radioelement along the whole chain leading from the primary producers to the tertiary consumers. In addition, it has been possible to establish that there is a relation between the rate of plutonium uptake and the calcified structures of certain marine species comparable to that which exists in the bone tissue of terrestrial mammals. (author)

  8. A model compound study: The ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants employing a battery of marine bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macken, Ailbhe; Giltrap, Michelle; Foley, Barry; McGovern, Evin; McHugh, Brendan; Davoren, Maria

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants frequently detected in marine sediments (tributyltin, triphenyltin, benzo[a]pyrene, fluoranthene, and PCB 153) using three marine species (Vibrio fischeri, Tetraselmis suecica, and Tisbe battagliai). The sensitivity of each species varied for all compounds. The triorganotins were consistently the most toxic to all species. The applicability of each test system to assess the acute toxicity of environmental contaminants and their use in Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) is discussed. Suitability of the Microtox and T. battagliai tests for employment in TIE studies were further assessed through spiking experiments with tributyltin. Results demonstrated that the most effective treatment to remove organotin toxicity from the sample was the C 18 resin. The results of this study have important implications for risk assessment in estuarine and coastal waters in Ireland, where, at present the monitoring of sediment and water quality is predominantly reliant on chemical analysis alone. - Ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic marine sediment contaminants was conducted and the suitability of the test species for marine porewater TIE discussed

  9. Biogeochemical studies of technetium in marine and estuarine ecosystems. Progress report, 1 July 1979-30 June 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in research dealing with the biogeochemical behavior of technetium in marine and estuarine ecosystems. Studies were planned to elaborate the biokinetic behavior of Tc as TcO 4 - in selected marine and estuarine organisms and to determine the affinity of TcO 4 - for different marine sediments under oxygenated conditions. It is concluded that concentration factors for TcO 4 - in bivalve molluscs (oysters and mussels) do not exceed 2 when calculated for whole animals and when uptake is directly from water. Direct uptake from water by limpets (archeogastropod) are very much lower than have been reported for red abalone (archeogastropod). Whole body concentration factors for TcO 4 - in the plaice, Pleuronectes platessa, where uptake is directly from labeled seawater, do not exceed 10 at equilibrium. Both the lobster, Homarus gammaris and the polychaete, Nereis diversicolor appear to concentrate Tc efficiently from water labelled intially with TcO 4 - . Both plaice and rays (Raja clavata) fed /sup 95m/Tc labeled Nereis show an initial rapid loss of the isotope for approximately five days. Thereafter, loss is much reduced. Shrimp (Palaemon elegans), Cragnon sp.) and Crab (Cancer pagurus) show concentration factors similar to plaice (C.F. is less than 10). Isopods, however, have concentration factors of only 3 following four weeks exposure to labeled seawater. Uptake of TcO 4 - by phytoplankton is extremely low, which precludes experiments in which TcO 4 - labeled phytoplankton can be fed to either bivalve molluscs or microzooplankton. Sediment distribution coefficients for TcO 4 - are essentially zero and are independent of sediment type in well oxygenated seawater. Experiments to date have shown that it is not possible to make generalizations concerning the bioavailability of TcO 4 - to marine organisms

  10. Sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds to plastics in marine environments: Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endo, S.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastics have shown to contain various environmental chemicals. For evaluating the potential of plastics to influence regional and global dynamics of these chemicals and to serve as a vector to marine biota, understanding of sorption and desorption of chemicals by plastics is important. In

  11. Seasonal variation in accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in an Arctic marine benthic food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenset, A., E-mail: anita.evenset@akvaplan.niva.no [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø (Norway); Hallanger, I.G. [University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø (Norway); Tessmann, M. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Research, University of Hamburg (Germany); Warner, N. [Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Ruus, A. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Borgå, K. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Department of Biosciences, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern 0316, Oslo (Norway); Gabrielsen, G.W. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Christensen, G. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Renaud, P.E. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); University Centre in Svalbard, Longyearbyen (Norway)

    2016-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as well as food-web biomagnification, in an Arctic, benthic marine community. Macrozoobenthos, demersal fish and common eiders were collected both inside and outside of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May, July and October 2007. The samples were analysed for a selection of legacy chlorinated POPs. Overall, low levels of POPs were measured in all samples. Although POP levels and accumulation patterns showed some seasonal variation, the magnitude and direction of change was not consistent among species. Overall, seasonality in bioaccumulation in benthic biota was less pronounced than in the pelagic system in Kongsfjorden. In addition, the results indicate that δ{sup 15}N is not a good predictor for POP-levels in benthic food chains. Other factors, such as feeding strategy (omnivory, necrophagy versus herbivory), degree of contact with the sediment, and a high dependence on particulate organic matter (POM), with low POP-levels and high δ{sup 15}N-values (due to bacterial isotope enrichment), seem to govern the uptake of the different POPs and result in loads deviating from what would be expected consulting the trophic position alone. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation in POP biomagnification was investigated in a benthic food web. • Levels of POPs are generally low in benthic species from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. • POP-concentrations varied with season, but direction of change varied among taxa. • No POP-biomagnification, except for cis-nonachlor, was detected in this study. • δ{sup 15}N-values does not seem to be a good proxy for trophic level in macrozoobenthos.

  12. Seasonal variation in accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in an Arctic marine benthic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenset, A.; Hallanger, I.G.; Tessmann, M.; Warner, N.; Ruus, A.; Borgå, K.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Christensen, G.; Renaud, P.E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as well as food-web biomagnification, in an Arctic, benthic marine community. Macrozoobenthos, demersal fish and common eiders were collected both inside and outside of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May, July and October 2007. The samples were analysed for a selection of legacy chlorinated POPs. Overall, low levels of POPs were measured in all samples. Although POP levels and accumulation patterns showed some seasonal variation, the magnitude and direction of change was not consistent among species. Overall, seasonality in bioaccumulation in benthic biota was less pronounced than in the pelagic system in Kongsfjorden. In addition, the results indicate that δ"1"5N is not a good predictor for POP-levels in benthic food chains. Other factors, such as feeding strategy (omnivory, necrophagy versus herbivory), degree of contact with the sediment, and a high dependence on particulate organic matter (POM), with low POP-levels and high δ"1"5N-values (due to bacterial isotope enrichment), seem to govern the uptake of the different POPs and result in loads deviating from what would be expected consulting the trophic position alone. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation in POP biomagnification was investigated in a benthic food web. • Levels of POPs are generally low in benthic species from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. • POP-concentrations varied with season, but direction of change varied among taxa. • No POP-biomagnification, except for cis-nonachlor, was detected in this study. • δ"1"5N-values does not seem to be a good proxy for trophic level in macrozoobenthos.

  13. The Effectivity of Marine Bio-activator and Surimi Liquid Waste Addition of Characteristics Liquid Organic Fertilizer from Sargassum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Wening Ratrinia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOrganic fertilizer is highly recommended for soil and plant because it can improve the productivity and repair physical, chemical, and biological of soil. Sargassum sp. and surimi liquid wastes contain organic matter and nutrient needed by plants and soils. The addition of marine bio-activator which contains bacterial isolates from litter mangrove serves to accelerate the composting time and increases the activity of microorganisms in the decomposition process. The purpose of this study was to determine optimum time and the best formulation of decomposition process organic fertilizer. Raw materials used a waste of seaweed Sargassum sp., marine bio-activator and surimi liquid waste from catfish (Clarias sp.. The research was conducted six treatments control, Sargassum sp. + marine bio-activator, surimi liquid waste , Sargassum sp. + marine bio-activator + surimi liquid waste 80%, 90%, 100%. All treatments were fermented for 9 days and analysed the C-organic, total N, C/N ratio, P2O5, K2O on days 0, 3, 6 and 9. The results showed the optimum fermentation period was on the 6th day. The most optimum concentration of surimi liquid waste added was at a concentration of 90%, with characteristics of the products was C-organic 0.803±0.0115%, total N 740.063±0.0862 ppm, C/N ratio 10.855±0.1562, P2O5 425.603±0.2329 ppm, K2O 2738.627±0.2836 ppm.

  14. The Effectivity of Marine Bio-activator and Surimi Liquid Waste Addition of Characteristics Liquid Organic Fertilizer from Sargassum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Wening Ratrinia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic fertilizer is highly recommended for soil and plant because it can improve the productivity and repair physical, chemical, and biological of soil. Sargassum sp. and surimi liquid wastes contain organic matter and nutrient needed by plants and soils. The addition of marine bio-activator which contains bacterial isolates from litter mangrove serves to accelerate the composting time and increases the activity of microorganisms in the decomposition process. The purpose of this study was to determine optimum time and the best formulation of decomposition process organic fertilizer. Raw materials used a waste of seaweed Sargassum sp., marine bio-activator and surimi liquid waste from catfish (Clarias sp.. The research was conducted six treatments control, Sargassum sp. + marine bio-activator, surimi liquid waste , Sargassum sp. + marine bio-activator + surimi liquid waste 80%, 90%, 100%. All treatments were fermented for 9 days and analysed the C-organic, total N, C/N ratio, P2 O5 , K2 O on days 0, 3, 6 and 9. The results showed the optimum fermentation period was on the 6th day. The most optimum concentration of surimi liquid waste added was at a concentration of 90%, with characteristics of the products was C-organic 0.803 ± 0.0115 %, total N 740.063 ± 0.0862 ppm, C/N ratio 10.855 ± 0.1562, P2 O5 425.603 ± 0.2329 ppm, K2 O 2738.627 ± 0.2836 ppm.

  15. Validation of ATR FT-IR to identify polymers of plastic marine debris, including those ingested by marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Melissa R.; Horgen, F. David; Orski, Sara V.; Rodriguez, Viviana; Beers, Kathryn L.; Balazs, George H.; Jones, T. Todd; Work, Thierry M.; Brignac, Kayla C.; Royer, Sarah-Jeanne; Hyrenbach, David K.; Jensen, Brenda A.; Lynch, Jennifer M.

    2018-01-01

    Polymer identification of plastic marine debris can help identify its sources, degradation, and fate. We optimized and validated a fast, simple, and accessible technique, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR), to identify polymers contained in plastic ingested by sea turtles. Spectra of consumer good items with known resin identification codes #1–6 and several #7 plastics were compared to standard and raw manufactured polymers. High temperature size exclusion chromatography measurements confirmed ATR FT-IR could differentiate these polymers. High-density (HDPE) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) discrimination is challenging but a clear step-by-step guide is provided that identified 78% of ingested PE samples. The optimal cleaning methods consisted of wiping ingested pieces with water or cutting. Of 828 ingested plastics pieces from 50 Pacific sea turtles, 96% were identified by ATR FT-IR as HDPE, LDPE, unknown PE, polypropylene (PP), PE and PP mixtures, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, and nylon.

  16. Laboratory experiments on the transfer dynamics of plutonium from marine sediments to sea water and to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, T.; Lowman, F.G.

    1975-01-01

    The leachability of 239 240 Pu from a fine contaminated calcareous sediment to aerated open sea water and to anoxic sea water was measured. The distribution coefficient for 239 240 Pu from sediment to sea water was 6.1 x 10 -5 for aerated water and 2.6 x 10 -6 for anoxic water. Experiments on the uptake of 239 240 Pu by the clams Donax denticulatus, and Lucina pectinata, were done in aquaria containing kilogram quantities of sediment from the Bravo Crater at Bikini Atoll. The concentration factor for 239 240 Pu by the soft parts of these clams was about 200. All the plutonium taken up in the soft parts was associated with the gill, mantle and siphon. No plutonium was detected in the adductor muscles or hepatopancreas. The smooth surfaces of the shells of the Donax did not show any detectable plutonium, but the rough shell surfaces of the Lucina concentrated plutonium by a factor of 1.10 x 10 4 over that in the sea water. Marine periphyton cultured on glass plates in an aquarium concentrated 239 240 Pu by a factor of about 7 x 10 3 over that in the sea water. (U.S.)

  17. Applied radiotracer techniques for studying pollutant bioaccumulation in selected marine organisms (jellyfish, crabs and sea stars)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Teyssie, J.-L.; Cotret, O.; Danis, B.; Warnau, M.; Rouleau, C.

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining specific information on contaminant biokinetics in marine biota is often necessary for properly interpreting monitoring data on trace contaminant levels in bioindicator species living under varying environmental conditions. Radiotracers have been employed in laboratory experiments to assess the uptake, distribution and retention of selected heavy metals and PCB congeners in three potential marine bioindicators occupying different ecological niches in the coastal zone. Pelagic and benthic jellyfish readily accumulated Co, Ag, Zn, Cd, 137 Cs and 241 Am from both water and food and retained them with biological half-lives (Tb1/2) ranging from a few days to several weeks. Zinc and silver were accumulated to the greatest degree (CF ∼ 4 · 10 2 ), with benthic jellyfish having a greater affinity for metals than the pelagic species. Results from light-dark experiments indicate that the enhanced metal uptake in the benthic jellyfish is due to the presence of endosymbiotic photosynthetic zooxanthellae situated in the arms of organisms. Shore crabs ingesting Ag, a sewage-related contaminant, readily accumulated the metal with male crabs assimilating some 71% and female crabs 51% of the Ag from their food. Moreover, the assimilated fraction of Ag remained virtually immobile in their tissues as evidenced by an extremely long Tb1/2 for depuration of 7.3 years. Sea stars exposed to 14 C-labelled PCB congener no. 153 in sea water accumulated the congener mainly in the body wall and podia reaching lipid weight CFs that ranged between approximately 2 · 10 5 to 4 · 10 5 . In contrast, following exposure in radiolabelled sediments, the corresponding PCB transfer factors in the same tissues were much lower, viz., 3 · 10 2 to 5 · 10 2 . Nevertheless, regardless of the exposure mode, CFs of PCB in the other tissues (digestive system, gonads, pyloric and rectal caeca) were consistently one to two orders of magnitude lower, an observation which suggests that sea star body

  18. Molecular characterization of water soluble organic nitrogen in marine rainwater by ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Altieri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric water soluble organic nitrogen (WSON is a subset of the complex organic matter in aerosols and rainwater, which impacts cloud condensation processes and aerosol chemical and optical properties and may play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle of N. However, its sources, composition, connections to inorganic N, and variability are largely unknown. Rainwater samples were collected on the island of Bermuda (32.27° N, 64.87° W, which experiences both anthropogenic and marine influenced air masses. Samples were analyzed by ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to chemically characterize the WSON. Elemental compositions of 2281 N containing compounds were determined over the mass range m/z+ 50 to 500. The five compound classes with the largest number of elemental formulas identified, in order from the highest number of formulas to the lowest, contained carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen (CHON+, CHON compounds that contained sulfur (CHONS+, CHON compounds that contained phosphorus (CHONP+, CHON compounds that contained both sulfur and phosphorus (CHONSP+, and compounds that contained only carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN+. Compared to rainwater collected in the continental USA, average O:C ratios of all N containing compound classes were lower in the marine samples whereas double bond equivalent values were higher, suggesting a reduced role of secondary formation mechanisms. Despite their prevalence in continental rainwater, no organonitrates or nitrooxy-organosulfates were detected, but there was an increased presence of organic S and organic P containing compounds in the marine rainwater. Cluster analysis showed a clear chemical distinction between samples collected during the cold season (October to March which have anthropogenic air mass origins and samples collected during the warm season (April to September with remote

  19. Marine organic geochemistry in industrially affected coastal areas in Greece: Hydrocarbons in surface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant components of the organic material in coastal zones. Their sources are mainly anthropogenic, but several natural ones have also been recognized. Among hydrocarbons, the polycyclic aromatic ones (PAHs) have received special attention since they considered as hazardous environmental chemicals and are included in priority pollutant lists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution, sources and transport pathways of hydrocarbons in marine areas in Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone by using a molecular marker approach, characteristic compositional patterns and related indices and also to evaluate their potential toxicity. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three marine areas: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, affected from the operation of an alumina and production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos, affected from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, affected from a cement production plant. In all the studied areas aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. High aliphatic hydrocarbon (AHC) concentrations (~500 μg/g), indicating significant petroleum related inputs, were measured only in Antikyra bay. In all the other samples, AHC values were below 100 μg/g. N-alkanes were the most prominent resolved components (R) with an elevated odd to even carbon number preference, revealing the high importance of terrestrial inputs in the study areas. The unresolved complex mixture (UCM) was the major component of the aliphatic fraction (UCM/R > 4), indicating a chronic oil pollution. A series of hopanes were also identified, with patterns characteristic of oil-derived hydrocarbons, further confirming the presence of pollutant inputs from fossil fuel products. Extremely high PAH concentrations (> 100,000 ng/g) were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production

  20. Concentration peculiarities of radionuclides by freshwater molluscs of Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkov, D.I.; Kuz'menko, M.I.; Nazarov, A.B.; Derevets, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    The results of radionuclides 90 Sr and 137 Cs content in molluscs tissue of water objects within Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone has been analysed. The age dynamics of radionuclides content in some species of Gastropoda was studied

  1. Transfer of organic carbon through marine water columns to sediments – insights from stable and radiocarbon isotopes of lipid biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    S. G. Wakeham; A. P. McNichol

    2014-01-01

    Compound-specific 13C and 14C compositions of diverse lipid biomarkers (fatty acids, alkenones, hydrocarbons, sterols and fatty alcohols) were measured in sinking particulate matter collected in sediment traps and from underlying surface sediments in the Black Sea, the Arabian Sea and the Ross Sea. The goal was to develop a multiparameter approach to constrain relative inputs of organic carbon (OC) from marine biomass, terrigenous vascular-plant and relict-kerogen sources. U...

  2. Marine Heat Waves Hazard 3D Maps and the Risk for Low Motility Organisms in a Warming Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Galli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Frequency and severity of heat waves is expected to increase as a consequence of climate change with important impacts on human and ecosystems health. However, while many studies explored the projected occurrence of hot extremes on terrestrial systems, few studies dealt with marine systems, so that both the expected change in marine heat waves occurrence and the effects on marine organisms and ecosystems remain less understood and surprisingly poorly quantified. Here we: (i assess how much more frequent, severe, and depth-penetrating marine heat waves will be in the Mediterranean area in the next decades by post-processing the output of an ocean general circulation model; and (ii show that heat waves increase will impact on many species that live in shallow waters and have reduced motility, and related economic activities. This information is made available also as a dataset of temperature threshold exceedance indexes that can be used in combination with biological information to produce risk assessment maps for target species or biomes across the whole Mediterranean Sea. As case studies we compared projected heat waves occurrence with thermotolerance thresholds of low motility organisms. Results suggest a deepening of the survival horizon for red coral (Corallium rubrum, a commercially exploited benthic species already subjected to heat-related mass mortality events and coralligenous reefs as well as a reduction of suitable farming sites for the mussel Mythilus galloprovincialis. In recent years Mediterranean circalittoral ecosystems (coralligenous have been severely and repeatedly impacted by marine heat waves. Our results support that equally deleterious events are expected in the near future also for other ecologically important habitats (e.g., seagrass meadows and aquaculture activities (bivalvae, and point at the need for mitigation strategies.

  3. δ11B as monitor of calcification site pH in divergent marine calcifying organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Sutton

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The boron isotope composition (δ11B of marine biogenic carbonates has been predominantly studied as a proxy for monitoring past changes in seawater pH and carbonate chemistry. However, a number of assumptions regarding chemical kinetics and thermodynamic isotope exchange reactions are required to derive seawater pH from δ11B biogenic carbonates. It is also probable that δ11B of biogenic carbonate reflects seawater pH at the organism's site of calcification, which may or may not reflect seawater pH. Here, we report the development of methodology for measuring the δ11B of biogenic carbonate samples at the multi-collector inductively coupled mass spectrometry facility at Ifremer (Plouzané, France and the evaluation of δ11BCaCO3 in a diverse range of marine calcifying organisms reared for 60 days in isothermal seawater (25 °C equilibrated with an atmospheric pCO2 of ca. 409 µatm. Average δ11BCaCO3 composition for all species evaluated in this study range from 16.27 to 35.09 ‰, including, in decreasing order, coralline red alga Neogoniolithion sp. (35.89 ± 3.71 ‰, temperate coral Oculina arbuscula (24.12 ± 0.19 ‰, serpulid worm Hydroides crucigera (19.26 ± 0.16 ‰, tropical urchin Eucidaris tribuloides (18.71 ± 0.26 ‰, temperate urchin Arbacia punctulata (16.28 ± 0.86 ‰, and temperate oyster Crassostrea virginica (16.03 ‰. These results are discussed in the context of each species' proposed mechanism of biocalcification and other factors that could influence skeletal and shell δ11B, including calcifying site pH, the proposed direct incorporation of isotopically enriched boric acid (instead of borate into biogenic calcium carbonate, and differences in shell/skeleton polymorph mineralogy. We conclude that the large inter-species variability in δ11BCaCO3 (ca. 20 ‰ and significant discrepancies between measured δ11BCaCO3 and δ11BCaCO3 expected from established relationships

  4. The importance of terrestrial carbon in supporting molluscs in the wetlands of Poyang Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Yu, Xiubo; Wang, Yuyu; Xu, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Allochthonous organic matter plays an important role in nutrient cycling and energy mobilization in freshwater ecosystems. However, the subsidies of this carbon source in floodplain ecosystems have not yet well understood. We used a Bayesian mixing model and stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) of primary food resources and dominant molluscs species, to estimate the relative importance of allochthonous carbon sources for consumers in a representative sub-lake of Poyang Lake during a prolonged dry season. Our study inferred that terrestrial-derived carbon from Carex spp. could be the primary contributor to snails and mussels in Dahuchi Lake. The mean percentage of allochthonous food resources accounted for 35%-50% of the C incorporated by these consumers. Seston was another important energy sources for benthic consumers. However, during the winter and low water-level period, benthic algae and submerged vegetation contributed less carbon to benthic consumers. Our data highlighted the importance of terrestrial organic carbon to benthic consumers in the wetlands of Poyang Lake during the prolonged dry period. Further, our results provided a perspective that linkages between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems might be facilitated by wintering geese via their droppings.

  5. Phenotypic plasticity or speciation? A case from a clonal marine organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshioka Paul M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clonal marine organisms exhibit high levels of morphological variation. Morphological differences may be a response to environmental factors but also they can be attributed to accumulated genetic differences due to disruption of gene flow among populations. In this study, we examined the extensive morphological variation (of 14 characters in natural populations observed in the gorgonian Eunicea flexuosa, a widely distributed Caribbean octocoral. Eco-phenotypic and genetic effects were evaluated by reciprocal transplants of colonies inhabiting opposite ends of the depth gradient and analysis of population genetics of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, respectively. Results Significant differences (P 17 m. A discriminant function analysis based on a priori univariate and multivariate analyses (which separated the colonies in morphotypes correctly classified 93% of the colonies for each environment. Light, water motion and sediment transport might influence the distribution of the two morphotypes. Reaction norms of morphological characters of colonies reciprocally transplanted showed gradual significant changes through the 15 months of transplantation. Sclerites of shallow water colonies became larger when transplanted to deeper environments and vice versa, but neither of the two transplanted groups overlapped with the residents' morphology. Genetic analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear genes suggested that such discrete morphology and non-overlapping phenotypic plasticity is correlated with the presence of two independent evolutionary lineages. The distribution of the lineages is non-random and may be related to adaptational responses of each lineage to the environmental demands of each habitat. Conclusion The extensive distribution and ample morphological variation of Eunicea flexuosa corresponds to two distinct genetic lineages with narrower distributions and more rigid phenotypic plasticity than the original description. The

  6. Antimicrobial activity of marine organisms collected off the coast of South East India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rodrigues, E.; Tilvi, S.; Naik, C.G.

    In vitro antimicrobial screening of nine marine sponges (Porifera) and two seaweeds, collected from south east coast of India, against selected clinical isolates of bacteria and fungi was conducted in this study. Methanolic extracts of all...

  7. US annual report to the ICES working group on introductions and transfers of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides annual update on new introductions to the US, new regulations, and major research/management efforts in the US related to marine invasive species, with focus on activities in the North Atlantic

  8. Bioactivity of marine organisms: Part 7- Effect of seaweed extract on central nervous system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Naik, C.G.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Jain, S.; Goel, A.K.; Srimal, R.C.

    Alcohol extracts of marine algae (Rhodophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Chlorophyceae) was screened for their effect on central nervous system. Of 69 species investigated 8 appeared biologically active, 6 being CNS stimulant, sites and dates of collection...

  9. Technetium-99 content in some marine organisms collected near La Hague, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, L.; Patti, F.; Cappellini, L.; Masson, M.; Germain, P.

    1981-01-01

    Analyses for 99 Tc in some marine biological samples taken near the outlet of the low level radioactive effluent pipeline of the nuclear reprocessing plant of La Hague, France, gave positive results. From 500 to 3500 pCi kg -1 wet weight of 99 Tc were observed in brown algae; Fucus sp. appeared to be a good indicator of this long-lived radionuclide in a marine environment. (author)

  10. Marine mammal blubber reference and control materials for use in the determination of halogenated organic compounds and fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucklick, John R.; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Becker, Paul R. [Hollings Marine Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Charleston, SC (United States); Schantz, Michele M.; Porter, Barbara J.; Poster, Dianne L.; Leigh, Stefan; Wise, Stephen A. [NIST, Analytical Chemistry Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Rowles, Teri K. [National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a diverse collection of control materials derived from marine mammal blubber, fat, and serum. Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1945 Organics in Whale Blubber was recertified for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners. SRM 1945 has also been assigned mass fraction values for compounds not frequently determined in marine samples including toxaphene congeners, coplanar PCBs, and methoxylated PBDE congeners which are natural products. NIST also has assigned mass fraction values, as a result of interlaboratory comparison exercises, for PCB congeners, organochlorine pesticides, PBDE congeners, and fatty acids in six homogenate materials produced from marine mammal blubber or serum. The materials are available from NIST upon request; however, the supply is very limited for some of the materials. The materials include those obtained from pilot whale blubber (Homogenates III and IV), Blainville's beaked whale blubber (Homogenate VII), polar bear fat (Homogenate VI), and California sea lion serum (Marine Mammal Control Material-1 Serum) and blubber (Homogenate V). (orig.)

  11. Bio-prospecting of Plants and Marine Organisms in Saudi Arabia for New Potential Bioactivity

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjar, Dina A.

    2016-12-08

    demonstrates the efficiency of the newly developed pipeline using cell-based phenotypic screening. Anti-cancer potential activity was detected in Juniperus phoenicea. Bioactive potential against the reverse transcriptase enzyme of HIV virus was confirmed in Avicennia marina leaves. The organic extracts of Actinomycetes bacterial isolates were found active against West Nile Virus NS3 Protease. Here, promising starting point for the potential of drug discovery of plants and marine organism of Saudi Arabia.

  12. High summertime aerosol organic functional group concentrations from marine and seabird sources at Ross Island, Antarctica, during AWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Observations of the organic components of the natural aerosol are scarce in Antarctica, which limits our understanding of natural aerosols and their connection to seasonal and spatial patterns of cloud albedo in the region. From November 2015 to December 2016, the ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE measured submicron aerosol properties near McMurdo Station at the southern tip of Ross Island. Submicron organic mass (OM, particle number, and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations were higher in summer than other seasons. The measurements included a range of compositions and concentrations that likely reflected both local anthropogenic emissions and natural background sources. We isolated the natural organic components by separating a natural factor and a local combustion factor. The natural OM was 150 times higher in summer than in winter. The local anthropogenic emissions were not hygroscopic and had little contribution to the CCN concentrations. Natural sources that included marine sea spray and seabird emissions contributed 56 % OM in summer but only 3 % in winter. The natural OM had high hydroxyl group fraction (55 %, 6 % alkane, and 6 % amine group mass, consistent with marine organic composition. In addition, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra showed the natural sources of organic aerosol were characterized by amide group absorption, which may be from seabird populations. Carboxylic acid group contributions were high in summer and associated with natural sources, likely forming by secondary reactions.

  13. A Guide to the Principal Marine Fouling Organisms, with Particular Reference to Cockburn Sound, W.A.,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    and crowned with long, feathery tentacles ( branchial filaments) which are used to draw food and oxygen from the water. The end of one filament is... branchial filaments. Tubes can reach 50 mm long and 0.5 mm diameter. Filograna can reproduce asexually with new individuals budded off parent worms and...the branchial crown of feeding tentacles seen in serpulids. Bivalves are the most significant of the fouling molluscs. The animal is laterally

  14. From fresh to marine waters: characterization and fate of dissolved organic matter in the Lena River delta region, Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael eGonçalves-Araujo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Connectivity between the terrestrial and marine environment in the Artic is changing as a result of climate change, influencing both freshwater budgets and the supply of carbon to the sea. This study characterizes the optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM within the Lena Delta region and evaluates the behavior of DOM across the fresh water-marine gradient. Six fluorescent components (four humic-like; one marine humic-like; one protein-like were identified by Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC with a clear dominance of allochthonous humic-like signals. Colored DOM (CDOM and dissolved organic carbon (DOC were highly correlated and had their distribution coupled with hydrographical conditions. Higher DOM concentration and degree of humification were associated with the low salinity waters of the Lena River. Values decreased towards the higher salinity Laptev Sea shelf waters. Results demonstrate different responses of DOM mixing in relation to the vertical structure of the water column, as reflecting the hydrographical dynamics in the region. Two mixing curves for DOM were apparent. In surface waters above the pycnocline there was a sharper decrease in DOM concentration in relation to salinity indicating removal. In the bottom water layer the DOM decrease within salinity was less. We propose there is a removal of DOM occurring primarily at the surface layer, which is likely driven by photodegradation and flocculation.

  15. Effects of ocean acidification on marine dissolved organic matter are not detectable over the succession of phytoplankton blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zark, Maren; Riebesell, Ulf; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2015-10-01

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the largest active organic carbon reservoirs on Earth, and changes in its pool size or composition could have a major impact on the global carbon cycle. Ocean acidification is a potential driver for these changes because it influences marine primary production and heterotrophic respiration. We simulated ocean acidification as expected for a "business-as-usual" emission scenario in the year 2100 in an unprecedented long-term mesocosm study. The large-scale experiments (50 m(3) each) covered a full seasonal cycle of marine production in a Swedish Fjord. Five mesocosms were artificially enriched in CO2 to the partial pressure expected in the year 2100 (900 μatm), and five more served as controls (400 μatm). We applied ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry to monitor the succession of 7360 distinct DOM formulae over the course of the experiment. Plankton blooms had a clear effect on DOM concentration and molecular composition. This succession was reproducible across all 10 mesocosms, independent of CO2 treatment. In contrast to the temporal trend, there were no significant differences in DOM concentration and composition between present-day and year 2100 CO2 levels at any time point of the experiment. On the basis of our results, ocean acidification alone is unlikely to affect the seasonal accumulation of DOM in productive coastal environments.

  16. Shaping mechanisms of metal specificity in a family of metazoan metallothioneins: evolutionary differentiation of mollusc metallothioneins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atrian Sílvia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree of metal binding specificity in metalloproteins such as metallothioneins (MTs can be crucial for their functional accuracy. Unlike most other animal species, pulmonate molluscs possess homometallic MT isoforms loaded with Cu+ or Cd2+. They have, so far, been obtained as native metal-MT complexes from snail tissues, where they are involved in the metabolism of the metal ion species bound to the respective isoform. However, it has not as yet been discerned if their specific metal occupation is the result of a rigid control of metal availability, or isoform expression programming in the hosting tissues or of structural differences of the respective peptides determining the coordinative options for the different metal ions. In this study, the Roman snail (Helix pomatia Cu-loaded and Cd-loaded isoforms (HpCuMT and HpCdMT were used as model molecules in order to elucidate the biochemical and evolutionary mechanisms permitting pulmonate MTs to achieve specificity for their cognate metal ion. Results HpCuMT and HpCdMT were recombinantly synthesized in the presence of Cd2+, Zn2+ or Cu2+ and corresponding metal complexes analysed by electrospray mass spectrometry and circular dichroism (CD and ultra violet-visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Both MT isoforms were only able to form unique, homometallic and stable complexes (Cd6-HpCdMT and Cu12-HpCuMT with their cognate metal ions. Yeast complementation assays demonstrated that the two isoforms assumed metal-specific functions, in agreement with their binding preferences, in heterologous eukaryotic environments. In the snail organism, the functional metal specificity of HpCdMT and HpCuMT was contributed by metal-specific transcription programming and cell-specific expression. Sequence elucidation and phylogenetic analysis of MT isoforms from a number of snail species revealed that they possess an unspecific and two metal-specific MT isoforms, whose metal specificity was

  17. Size exclusion and anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography for characterizing metals bound to marine dissolved organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Otero, Natalia; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fractionation methods for assessing metals bound to marine DOM were developed. ► SEC and AEC with UV detection and hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry were used. ► SEC-UV showed marine DOM of molecular weights from 16 to 1 kDa. ► Cobalt, manganese, strontium and zinc are bound to marine DOM. - Abstract: Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) followed by anion exchange chromatography (AEC) hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied for fractionating metals bound to marine dissolved organic matter (DOM). Surface seawater samples (100 L) were subjected to tangential flow ultrafiltration (10,000 Da cut off) for isolating and pre-concentrating dissolved large molecules. The isolated fraction (retentate) consisted of 1 L, which was further freeze-dried and re-dissolved to 250 mL with ultrapure water. After HI Trap desalting of the re-dissolved retentate, SEC with UV detection showed marine DOM ranging from 6.5 kDa (lower than the permeable volume of the SEC column) to 16 kDa. A further characterization of this fraction by AEC with UV detection revealed the existence of four groups of macromolecules exhibiting retention times of 2.3, 2.8, 4.5 and 14.0 min. AEC hyphenated with ICP-MS showed the presence of strontium and zinc in the first AE fraction isolated from the SEC fraction; while manganese was found to be bound to the second AE fraction. Cobalt was found to be bound to molecules comprising the third AE fraction.

  18. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Ivan, E-mail: ivanmuno@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Martinez Bueno, Maria J., E-mail: mjbueno@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Agueera, Ana, E-mail: aaguera@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R., E-mail: amadeo@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. - Exposure and effects of twelve organic micro-pollutants are evaluated at a Spanish fish farm.

  19. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Ivan; Martinez Bueno, Maria J.; Agueera, Ana; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. - Exposure and effects of twelve organic micro-pollutants are evaluated at a Spanish fish farm.

  20. Production of heterotrophic bacteria inhabiting macroscopic organic aggregates (marine snow) from surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alldredge, A.L.; Cole, J.J.; Caron, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Macroscopic detrital aggregates, known as marine snow, are a ubiquitous and abundant component of the marine pelagic zone. Descriptions of microbial communities occurring at densities 2-5 orders of magnitude higher on these particles than in the surrounding seawater have led to the suggestion that marine snow may be a site of intense heterotrophic activity. The authors tested this hypothesis using incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into macromolecules as a measure of bacterial growth occurring on marine snow from oceanic waters in the North Atlantic and from neritic waters off southern California. Abundances of marine snow ranged from 0.1 to 4.3 aggregates per liter. However, only 0.1-4% ration per cell on aggregates was generally equal to or lower than that of bacteria found free-living in the surrounding seawater, indicating that attached bacteria were not growing more rapidly than free-living bacteria. Bacteria inhabiting aggregates were up to 25 times larger than free-living forms

  1. Microbial colonization and degradation of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic bags in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauendorf, Alice; Krause, Stefan; Bigalke, Nikolaus K; Gorb, Elena V; Gorb, Stanislav N; Haeckel, Matthias; Wahl, Martin; Treude, Tina

    2016-02-15

    To date, the longevity of plastic litter at the sea floor is poorly constrained. The present study compares colonization and biodegradation of plastic bags by aerobic and anaerobic benthic microbes in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic carrier bags were incubated in natural oxic and anoxic sediments from Eckernförde Bay (Western Baltic Sea) for 98 days. Analyses included (1) microbial colonization rates on the bags, (2) examination of the surface structure, wettability, and chemistry, and (3) mass loss of the samples during incubation. On average, biodegradable plastic bags were colonized five times higher by aerobic and eight times higher by anaerobic microbes than polyethylene bags. Both types of bags showed no sign of biodegradation during this study. Therefore, marine sediment in temperate coastal zones may represent a long-term sink for plastic litter and also supposedly compostable material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A model compound study: the ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants employing a battery of marine bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, Ailbhe; Giltrap, Michelle; Foley, Barry; McGovern, Evin; McHugh, Brendan; Davoren, Maria

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants frequently detected in marine sediments (tributyltin, triphenyltin, benzo[a]pyrene, fluoranthene, and PCB 153) using three marine species (Vibrio fischeri, Tetraselmis suecica, and Tisbe battagliai). The sensitivity of each species varied for all compounds. The triorganotins were consistently the most toxic to all species. The applicability of each test system to assess the acute toxicity of environmental contaminants and their use in Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) is discussed. Suitability of the Microtox and T. battagliai tests for employment in TIE studies were further assessed through spiking experiments with tributyltin. Results demonstrated that the most effective treatment to remove organotin toxicity from the sample was the C18 resin. The results of this study have important implications for risk assessment in estuarine and coastal waters in Ireland, where, at present the monitoring of sediment and water quality is predominantly reliant on chemical analysis alone.

  3. Some trace elements in the waters, marine organisms and sediments of the Adriatic by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosta, L.; Ravnik, V.; Byrne, A.R.; Dermelj, M.; Stirn, J.

    1978-01-01

    A number of investigations of trace elements in the waters, organisms and sediments of the Adriatic, using neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separations are reported. These include studies of Hg in mussels from the Northern Adriatic, of Hg and Se in edible animals from the Rijeka region, and of seven elements (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Se and Zn) in marine invertebrates from the Slovene coast. Additionally, plankton, sediment cores and water samples were taken from a grid of stations covering the whole Adriatic and analyzed for 6 to 11 of the trace elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Sb and Zn (Hg only in water). Generally, levels found were not indicative of pollution as compared with oceanic samples, but some evidence of locally increased levels was found, especially for Hg. The levels of eleven trace elements in three marine Intercomparison samples prepared by the IAEA Monaco Laboratory are also presented. (T.G.)

  4. A study on the 210Po distribution in marine organisms around the coastal waters of Mumbai Harbour Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemalatha, P.; Preetha, J.; Madhuparna, D.; Narayani, K.; Vandana, P.; Ravi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The near-shore environment and the surface oceans are very reactive zones with heavy geochemical and biological activity. Among the natural radionuclide, Po assumes importance as it is a good representative isotope of naturally occurring radionuclide present in the sea water which is particle reactive and high-energy alpha emitter. The source of Po is mainly from the diffusion of 222 Rn gas from its parent 238 U decay product 226 Ra. 210 Po gets accumulated in very high level in organisms and thus becomes responsible for the internal radiation dose to human. The main path for entry of the activity into human-is through consumption of marine food. This paper presents the results on the study conducted to investigate the 210 Po accumulation in the marine organism around Mumbai. The results were compared with 210 Po activity in representative marine organisms from eastern and western coastal India. Twelve different varieties of marine organisms (Fish, Crab, Prawns) consumed by the local population were collected from the catch at the shore and from the local fish markets. 210 Po was estimate in the organisms and in the sea water by standard radiochemical analysis. The edible portion of the organism were separated, freeze dried, acid digested at controlled temperature of 90℃ and the residue was extracted in 0.5M HCI. 210 Po in sea water was concentrated using Fe(OH) 3 scavenging followed by extraction by 0.5M HCI. Po was further separated from the acid extract by spontaneous deposition on to a Ag disk at 80℃. Alpha activity in the deposited sample was estimated using Alpha spectrometry. 208 Po and 209 Po tracers were used as yield monitor. 210 Po was observed to be in the range of <0.008-8.39 Bq.kg -1 in fish varieties. In prawns, activity was in the range of <0.008-1.41 Bq.kg -1 . Bioaccumulation factor was calculated and the values were compared with the IAEA reported values and discussed. (author)

  5. Comparison of marine dispersion model predictions with environmental radionuclide concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.E.; McKay, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    The comparison of marine dispersion model results with measurements is an essential part of model development and testing. The results from two residual flow models are compared with seawater concentrations, and in one case with concentrations measured in marine molluscs. For areas with short turnover times, seawater concentrations respond rapidly to variations in discharge rate and marine currents. These variations are difficult to model, and comparison with concentrations in marine animals provides an alternative and complementary technique for model validation with the advantages that the measurements reflect the mean conditions and frequently form a useful time series. (author)

  6. Influence of continental organic aerosols to the marine atmosphere over the East China Sea: Insights from lipids, PAHs and phthalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mingjie; Yang, Fan; Ren, Hong; Zhao, Wanyu; Zhao, Ye; Li, Linjie; Yan, Yu; Zhang, Yingjie; Lai, Senchao; Zhang, Yingyi; Yang, Yang; Wang, Zifa; Sun, Yele; Fu, Pingqing

    2017-12-31

    Total suspended particle (TSP) samples were collected during a marine cruise in the East China Sea from May 18 to June 12, 2014. They were analyzed for solvent extractable organic compounds (lipid compounds, PAHs and phthalates) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to better understand the sources and source apportionment of aerosol pollution in the western North Pacific. Higher concentrations were observed in the terrestrially influenced aerosol samples on the basis of five-day backward air mass trajectories, especially for aerosols collected near coastal areas. Phthalates were found to be the dominant species among these measured compound classes (707±401ngm -3 for daytime and 313±155ngm -3 for nighttime), followed by fatty acids, fatty alcohols, n-alkanes and PAHs. In general, the daytime abundances for these compounds are higher than nighttime, possibly attributable to more intensive anthropogenic activities during the daytime. The factor analysis indicates that biomass burning, fungal activities and fossil fuel combustion maybe the main emission sources for organic aerosols over the East China Sea. This study demonstrates that the East Asian continent can be a natural emitter of biogenic and anthropogenic organics to the marine atmosphere through long-range transport, which controls the chemical composition and concentration of organic aerosols over the East China Sea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Variation in bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants based on octanol-air partitioning: Influence of respiratory elimination in marine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Sara K; Harley, John R; Lieske, Camilla L; Muir, Derek C G; Whiting, Alex V; O'Hara, Todd M

    2015-11-15

    Risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are often based on octanol-water (KOW) partitioning dynamics and may not adequately reflect bioaccumulation in air-breathing organisms. It has been suggested that compounds with low KOW and high octanol-air partitioning (KOA) coefficients have the potential to bioaccumulate in air-breathing organisms, including marine mammals. Here we evaluate differences in concentrations of POPs for two trophically matched Arctic species, spotted seal (Phoca largha) and sheefish (Stenodus leucichthys). We compared concentrations of 108 POPs in matched tissues (liver and muscle) across three ranges of KOW. We found a significant positive correlation between POP concentration and log KOA in spotted seal tissues for low log KOW compounds (log KOW <5.5, p<0.05). This provides further evidence for empirical models and observed bioaccumulation patterns in air-breathing organisms, and highlights the potential for bioaccumulation of these compounds in Arctic marine mammals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Simulated coal spill causes mortality and growth inhibition in tropical marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kathryn L E; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P

    2016-05-13

    Coal is a principal fossil fuel driving economic and social development, and increases in global coal shipments have paralleled expansion of the industry. To identify the potential harm associated with chronic marine coal contamination, three taxa abundant in tropical marine ecosystems (the coral Acropora tenuis, the reef fish Acanthochromis polyacanthus and the seagrass Halodule uninervis) were exposed to five concentrations (0-275 mg coal l(-1)) of suspended coal dust (coal exposure can cause considerable lethal effects on corals, and reductions in seagrass and fish growth rates. Coral survivorship and seagrass growth rates were inversely related to increasing coal concentrations (≥38 mg coal l(-1)) and effects increased between 14 and 28 d, whereas fish growth rates were similarly depressed at all coal concentrations tested. This investigation provides novel insights into direct coal impacts on key tropical taxa for application in the assessment of risks posed by increasing coal shipments in globally threatened marine ecosystems.

  9. Butyltin compounds in biofilm and marine organisms from the Dona Paula Bay, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.

    waters of California, USA (Stephenson 1991). In the C. gigas collected from the Gulf of Mexico, the TBT levels varied from 49 to 3559 ng/g (Wade, Garcia-Romero, and Brooks 1991). TBT concentrations re corded during this study suggest that TBT compounds... Indian waters Marine Environmental Research 48:123-130 Wade T L, Garcia-Romero B, and Brooks J M. 1991 Oysters as bio-monitors of butyltins in the Gulf of Mexico Marine Environmental Research 32: 233-241 ...

  10. Geochemical imprint of depositional conditions on organic matter in laminated-Bioturbated interbeds from fine-grained marine sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, L.M.; Claypool, G.E.; King, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Laminated organic-rich shales are interbedded at a scale of centimeters to a few meters with bioturbated organic-poor mudstones or limestones in some fine-grained marine sequences. We have analyzed the organic matter in pairs of laminated/bioturbated interbeds from Cretaceous and Devonian rocks deposited in epicontinental and oceanic settings for the purpose of studying the influence of depositional and early diagenetic environment on the organic geochemical properties of marine shales. Results of these analyses indicate that for rocks that are still in a diagenetic stage of thermal alteration, the relative abundance of biomarker compounds and specific biomarker indices can be useful indicators of depositional and early diagenetic conditions. Pristane/phytane ratios are generally highest for laminated rocks from epicontinental basins and appear to reflect the input of isoprenoid precursors more than oxygenated versus anoxic depositional conditions. The thermally immature laminated rocks are characterized by relatively high contents of 17??(H), 21??(H)-hopanes, hopenes, sterenes and diasterenes, and by strong predominance of the 22R over 22S homohopane isomers. Thermally immature bioturbated samples are characterized by absence of the ??,??-hopanes, by low contents of both saturated and unsaturated polycyclic hydrocarbons, and by slight or no predominance of the 22R over 22S homohopane isomers. There are less obvious compositional differences between the saturated hydrocarbons in the laminated and bioturbated units from the thermally mature sequences. For both the thermally mature and immature laminated samples, the degree of isomerization at the 22C position for hopanes and at the 20C position for steranes is generally consistent with the degree of thermal maturity interpreted from other properties of the organic matter. The bioturbated samples, however, exhibit inconsistent and anomalously high degrees of isomerization for the homohopanes, resulting either from

  11. CTD, marine invertebrate pathology, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data collected using CTD casts and other instruments from SEA TRANSPORTER and other platforms in Gulf of Mexico from 1978-05-20 to 1979-01-15 (NODC Accession 8000022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, marine invertebrate pathology, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data were collected using CTD, net casts, and other instruments...

  12. Study of some modern carbonated marine organisms, using U234/U238 activities and its uranium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregnolatto, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Several types of alive carbonated organisms of marine fluvial or mixed environment origin were analized in its concentrations of Uranium and about its activity ratio U 234 /U 238 . In the same way measurements were made from the water of these three types of environments. The results indicate that the mollusks shells show a very low concentration compared with corals. Its concentration varies from 0.04 to 0.33 ppm. Inside the limit of errors we can say that the several types of carbonated organisms show the same disequilibrium U 234 /U 238 which was found in associated waters. An analysis of a piece of wood from long time immersed in the sea water was made. The result indicates that there was a marked high in concentration of Uranium due to chelatation with organic matter. (C.D.G.) [pt

  13. Flow enhances photosynthesis in marine benthic autotrophs by increasing the efflux of oxygen from the organism to the water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, Tali; Genin, Amatzia; Shavit, Uri; Grinstein, Mor; Tchernov, Dan

    2010-02-09

    Worldwide, many marine coastal habitats are facing rapid deterioration due in part to human-driven changes in habitat characteristics, including changes in flow patterns, a factor known to greatly affect primary production in corals, algae, and seagrasses. The effect of flow traditionally is attributed to enhanced influx of nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) across the benthic boundary layer from the water to the organism however, here we report that the organism's photosynthetic response to changes in the flow is nearly instantaneous, and that neither nutrients nor DIC limits this rapid response. Using microelectrodes, dual-pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry, particle image velocimetry, and real time mass-spectrometry with the common scleractinian coral Favia veroni, the alga Gracilaria cornea, and the seagrass Halophila stipulacea, we show that this augmented photosynthesis is due to flow-driven enhancement of oxygen efflux from the organism to the water, which increases the affinity of the RuBisCO to CO(2). No augmentation of photosynthesis was found in the absence of flow or when flow occurred, but the ambient concentration of oxygen was artificially elevated. We suggest that water motion should be considered a fundamental factor, equivalent to light and nutrients, in determining photosynthesis rates in marine benthic autotrophs.

  14. A new marine sediment certified reference material (CRM) for the determination of persistent organic contaminants: IAEA-459.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, Imma; Cassi, Roberto; Huertas, David

    2018-04-11

    A new marine sediment certified reference material (IAEA 459) with very low concentrations (μg kg -1 ) for a variety of persistent organic contaminants (POPs) listed by the Stockholm Convention, as well as other POPs and priority substances (PSs) listed in many environmental monitoring programs was developed by the IAEA. The sediment material was collected from the Ham River estuary in South Korea, and the assigned final values were derived from robust statistics on the results provided by selected laboratories which demonstrated technical and quality competence, following the guidance given in ISO Guide 35. The robust mean of the laboratory means was assigned as certified values, for those compounds where the assigned value was derived from at least five datasets and its relative expanded uncertainty was less than 40% of the assigned value (most of the values ranging from 8 to 20%). All the datasets were derived from at least two different analytical techniques which have allowed the assignment of certified concentrations for 22 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 6 organochlorinated (OC) pesticides, 5 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs). Mass fractions of compounds that did not fulfill the criteria of certification are considered information values, which include 29 PAHs, 11 PCBs, 16 OC pesticides, and 5 PBDEs. The extensive characterization and associated uncertainties at concentration levels close to the marine sediment quality guidelines will make CRM 459 a valuable matrix reference material for use in marine environmental monitoring programs.

  15. Effect of Terrestrial and Marine Organic Aerosol on Regional and Global Climate: Model Development, Application, and Verification with Satellite Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Zhang, Yang; Kamykowski, Daniel

    2012-03-28

    In this DOE project the improvements to parameterization of marine primary organic matter (POM) emissions, hygroscopic properties of marine POM, marine isoprene derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) emissions, surfactant effects, new cloud droplet activation parameterization have been implemented into Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 5.0), with a seven mode aerosol module from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)'s Modal Aerosol Model (MAM7). The effects of marine aerosols derived from sea spray and ocean emitted biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) on microphysical properties of clouds were explored by conducting 10 year CAM5.0-MAM7 model simulations at a grid resolution 1.9° by 2.5° with 30 vertical layers. Model-predicted relationship between ocean physical and biological systems and the abundance of CCN in remote marine atmosphere was compared to data from the A-Train satellites (MODIS, CALIPSO, AMSR-E). Model simulations show that on average, primary and secondary organic aerosol emissions from the ocean can yield up to 20% increase in Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) at 0.2% Supersaturation, and up to 5% increases in droplet number concentration of global maritime shallow clouds. Marine organics were treated as internally or externally mixed with sea salt. Changes associated with cloud properties reduced (absolute value) the model-predicted short wave cloud forcing from -1.35 Wm-2 to -0.25 Wm-2. By using different emission scenarios, and droplet activation parameterizations, this study suggests that addition of marine primary aerosols and biologically generated reactive gases makes an important difference in radiative forcing assessments. All baseline and sensitivity simulations for 2001 and 2050 using global-through-urban WRF/Chem (GU-WRF) were completed. The main objective of these simulations was to evaluate the capability of GU-WRF for an accurate representation of the global atmosphere by exploring the most accurate

  16. Labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Meloni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present survey was to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community rules on the labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013. A total of 1500 packages and labels for live bivalve and gastropod molluscs were considered. A total of 375 labels (25% presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name and additional wrong or missing information. The highest percentage of anomalous labels has been detected in small-scale retail shops (35% and open-air markets (25% compared with the big retailing chains (20%. The 5% of packages were not in compliance with the European Community rules on packaging of bivalve and gastropod molluscs. The high percentage of non-compliance with the European regulations on labelling results is a strong limitation for the consumers and highlights the need to improve the control system about labelling of seafood products.

  17. Labelling and Marketing of Bivalve and Gastropod Molluscs Retailed in Sardinia, Italy Between 2009 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Domenico

    2015-05-28

    The aim of the present survey was to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community rules on the labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013. A total of 1500 packages and labels for live bivalve and gastropod molluscs were considered. A total of 375 labels (25%) presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name and additional wrong or missing information. The highest percentage of anomalous labels has been detected in small-scale retail shops (35%) and open-air markets (25%) compared with the big retailing chains (20%). The 5% of packages were not in compliance with the European Community rules on packaging of bivalve and gastropod molluscs. The high percentage of non-compliance with the European regulations on labelling results is a strong limitation for the consumers and highlights the need to improve the control system about labelling of seafood products.

  18. Trace metal concentrations in marine organisms from the Eastern Aegean, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucuksezgin, F.

    1999-01-01

    Monitoring of mercury, cadmium and lead levels in striped mullet (Mullus barbatus) was conducted in the Eastern Aegean over 3 year period and in some other species during 1996 in the framework of a National Marine Measurement Program and MED-POL II Project for the Aegean Sea. Of all the research on the concentrations of trace metals in the Aegean environment only a little has been carried out in that part of the Eastern Aegean

  19. Simulated coal spill causes mortality and growth inhibition in tropical marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kathryn L. E.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P.

    2016-05-01

    Coal is a principal fossil fuel driving economic and social development, and increases in global coal shipments have paralleled expansion of the industry. To identify the potential harm associated with chronic marine coal contamination, three taxa abundant in tropical marine ecosystems (the coral Acropora tenuis, the reef fish Acanthochromis polyacanthus and the seagrass Halodule uninervis) were exposed to five concentrations (0-275 mg coal l-1) of suspended coal dust (<63 μm) over 28 d. Results demonstrate that chronic coal exposure can cause considerable lethal effects on corals, and reductions in seagrass and fish growth rates. Coral survivorship and seagrass growth rates were inversely related to increasing coal concentrations (≥38 mg coal l-1) and effects increased between 14 and 28 d, whereas fish growth rates were similarly depressed at all coal concentrations tested. This investigation provides novel insights into direct coal impacts on key tropical taxa for application in the assessment of risks posed by increasing coal shipments in globally threatened marine ecosystems.

  20. Occurrence of persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from the Natuna Island, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qing; Sun, Yu-Xin; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Yao, Zi-Wei; Wang, You-Shao; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-08-15

    Five marine fish species were collected from the Natuna Island, South China Sea to investigate the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). Concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs in marine fish ranged from 2.85 to 7.82, 14.3 to 48.1, and 7.99 to 40.3 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Higher concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs were observed in Snakefish (Trachinocephalus myops), which might be attributed to their different feeding and living habits. PCBs were the predominant POPs in all marine fish, followed by DDTs and PBDEs. BDE 47 and PCB 153 were the predominant congener of PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. Compositional distribution of DDTs indicated the possible presence of fresh input sources around the Natuna Island. The ratios of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT being less than 1 in fish samples suggested that DDT contributions from dicofol seemed considerably low. New input sources of DDT in South China Sea are worth further research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural Proline-Rich Cyclopolypeptides from Marine Organisms: Chemistry, Synthetic Methodologies and Biological Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wan-Yin; Dahiya, Rajiv; Qin, Hua-Li; Mourya, Rita; Maharaj, Sandeep

    2016-10-26

    Peptides have gained increased interest as therapeutics during recent years. More than 60 peptide drugs have reached the market for the benefit of patients and several hundreds of novel therapeutic peptides are in preclinical and clinical development. The key contributor to this success is the potent and specific, yet safe, mode of action of peptides. Among the wide range of biologically-active peptides, naturally-occurring marine-derived cyclopolypeptides exhibit a broad range of unusual and potent pharmacological activities. Because of their size and complexity, proline-rich cyclic peptides (PRCPs) occupy a crucial chemical space in drug discovery that may provide useful scaffolds for modulating more challenging biological targets, such as protein-protein interactions and allosteric binding sites. Diverse pharmacological activities of natural cyclic peptides from marine sponges, tunicates and cyanobacteria have encouraged efforts to develop cyclic peptides with well-known synthetic methods, including solid-phase and solution-phase techniques of peptide synthesis. The present review highlights the natural resources, unique structural features and the most relevant biological properties of proline-rich peptides of marine-origin, focusing on the potential therapeutic role that the PRCPs may play as a promising source of new peptide-based novel drugs.

  2. Identification of candidate structured RNAs in the marine organism 'Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwalbach Michael S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metagenomic sequence data are proving to be a vast resource for the discovery of biological components. Yet analysis of this data to identify functional RNAs lags behind efforts to characterize protein diversity. The genome of 'Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique' HTCC 1062 is the closest match for approximately 20% of marine metagenomic sequence reads. It is also small, contains little non-coding DNA, and has strikingly low GC content. Results To aid the discovery of RNA motifs within the marine metagenome we exploited the genomic properties of 'Cand. P. ubique' by targeting our search to long intergenic regions (IGRs with relatively high GC content. Analysis of known RNAs (rRNA, tRNA, riboswitches etc. shows that structured RNAs are significantly enriched in such IGRs. To identify additional candidate structured RNAs, we examined other IGRs with similar characteristics from 'Cand. P. ubique' using comparative genomics approaches in conjunction with marine metagenomic data. Employing this strategy, we discovered four candidate structured RNAs including a new riboswitch class as well as three additional likely cis-regulatory elements that precede genes encoding ribosomal proteins S2 and S12, and the cytoplasmic protein component of the signal recognition particle. We also describe four additional potential RNA motifs with few or no examples occurring outside the metagenomic data. Conclusion This work begins the process of identifying functional RNA motifs present in the metagenomic data and illustrates how existing completed genomes may be used to aid in this task.

  3. Warming and organic matter sources impact the proportion of dissolved to total activities in marine extracellular enzymatic rates

    KAUST Repository

    Baltar, Federico

    2017-04-19

    Extracellular enzymatic activities (EEAs) are the rate-limiting step in the degradation of organic matter. Extracellular enzymes can be found associated to cells or dissolved in the surrounding water. The proportion of cell-free EEA constitutes in many marine environments more than half of the total activity. This high proportion causes an uncoupling between hydrolysis rates and the actual bacterial activity. However, we do not know what factors control the proportion of dissolved relative to total EEA, nor how this may change in the future ocean. To resolve this, we performed laboratory experiments with water from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) to study the effects of temperature and dissolved organic matter sources on EEA and the proportion of dissolved EEA. We found that warming increases the rates of organic matter hydrolysis and reduces the proportion of dissolved relative to total EEA. This suggests a potential increase of the coupling between organic matter hydrolysis and heterotrophic activities with increasing ocean temperatures, although strongly dependent on the organic matter substrates available. Our study suggests that local differences in the organic matter composition in tropical coastal ecosystems will strongly affect the proportion of dissolved EEA in response to ocean warming.

  4. Phototoxic potential of undispersed and dispersed fresh and weathered Macondo crude oils to Gulf of Mexico Marine Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Bryson E; Marzooghi, Solmaz; Di Toro, Dominic M; Stubblefield, William A

    2017-10-01

    Crude oils contain a mixture of hydrocarbons, including phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that have the ability to absorb ultraviolet (UV) light. Absorption of UV light by PAHs can substantially increase their toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of the present study was to examine the potential for phototoxicity of fresh and naturally weathered Macondo crude oils alone and in combination with the dispersant Corexit 9500 to mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia), inland silverside (Menidia beryllina), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis). Acute toxicity tests were conducted using combinations of natural or artificial sunlight and low-energy water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of fresh and weathered Macondo crude oils collected from the Gulf of Mexico. Studies were also conducted to compare the phototoxicity resulting from natural and artificial sunlight. Fresh Macondo crude oil was more phototoxic than weathered crude oils, both in the presence and in the absence of UV light. Differences in toxicity between fresh and weathered crude oils were likely attributed to lighter-ringed PAHs in fresh crude oils. Phototoxic PAHs were relatively resistant to weathering compared with lighter-ringed PAHs. The addition of Corexit 9500 to crude oil increased toxicity compared with tests with crude oil alone, by increasing phototoxic PAH concentrations in WAFs. Macondo crude oils had the potential to be phototoxic to Gulf of Mexico marine organisms if specific light conditions and PAH concentrations were present during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2640-2650. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  5. Perspective on the Use of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Organisms as a Source of New Antithrombotic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. S. Mourão

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Thromboembolic diseases are increasing worldwide and always require anticoagulant therapy. We still need safer and more secure antithrombotic drugs than those presently available. Sulfated polysaccharides from marine organisms may constitute a new source for the development of such drugs. Investigation of these compounds usually attempts to reproduce the therapeutic effects of heparin. However, we may need to follow different routes, focusing particularly in the following aspects: (1 defining precisely the specific structures required for interaction of these sulfated polysaccharides with proteins of the coagulation system; (2 looking for alternative mechanisms of action, distinct from those of heparin; (3 identifying side effects (mostly pro-coagulant action and hypotension rather than bleeding and preparing derivatives that retain the desired antithrombotic action but are devoid of side effects; (4 considering that sulfated polysaccharides with low anticoagulant action on in vitro assays may display potent effects on animal models of experimental thrombosis; and finally (5 investigating the antithrombotic effect of these sulfated polysaccharides after oral administration or preparing derivatives that may achieve this effect. If these aspects are successfully addressed, sulfated polysaccharides from marine organisms may conquer the frontier of antithrombotic therapy and open new avenues for treatment or prevention of thromboembolic diseases.

  6. Analytical approaches for the determination of personal care products and evaluation of their occurrence in marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesdeoca-Esponda, Sarah; Checchini, Leonardo; Del Bubba, Massimo; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodriguez, José Juan

    2018-03-23

    Contamination of the aquatic environment caused by multiple human activities may exert a negative impact on all living organisms. Several contaminants of emerging concern such as personal care products (PCPs) are continuously released into the aquatic environment where they are biologically active and persistent. This work reviews the current knowledge, provided by papers published after 2010 and indexed by SciFinder, Scopus, and Google search engines, about the determination and occurrence of PCPs in marine biota. Analytical methodologies have been critically reviewed, emphasizing the importance of green and high-throughput approaches and focusing the discussion on the complexity of the solute-matrix interaction in the extraction step, as well as the matrix effect in the instrumental determination. Finally, the worldwide distribution of PCPs is surveyed, taking into account the concentrations found in the same organism in different marine environments. Differences among various world areas have been highlighted, evidencing some critical aspects from an environmental point of view. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fauna of gastropod molluscs in the Curonian Lagoon littoral biotopes (Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad region, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Filippenko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the gastropod mollusc fauna in the coastal waters of the southern part of the Curonian Lagoon (Kaliningrad region, Russia were carried out. Study revealed 34 aquatic gastropods representing 30% of Prosobranchia and 70% of Pulmonata. Obtained data showed higher mollusc diversity in the littoral biotopes in comparison with open areas of the Lagoon. The fauna is represented by a typical Central European species complex of freshwater gastropods. The reed zone along the coastline in the Lagoon functions as a barrier and provides shallow water habitats with slow moving and warmer water, where maximum gastropod species concentrate.

  8. Retention of radioactive particles and associated effects in the filter-feeding marine mollusc Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, B.C., E-mail: Ben.Jaeschke@gmail.com [Department of Ecology Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Lind, O.C. [CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Bradshaw, C. [Department of Ecology Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Salbu, B. [CERAD CoE, Department of Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway)

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive particles are aggregates of radioactive atoms that may contain significant activity concentrations. They have been released into the environment from nuclear weapons tests, and from accidents and effluents associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. Aquatic filter-feeders can capture and potentially retain radioactive particles, which could then provide concentrated doses to nearby tissues. This study experimentally investigated the retention and effects of radioactive particles in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Spent fuel particles originating from the Dounreay nuclear establishment, and collected in the field, comprised a U and Al alloy containing fission products such as {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y. Particles were introduced into mussels in suspension with plankton-food or through implantation in the extrapallial cavity. Of the particles introduced with food, 37% were retained for 70 h, and were found on the siphon or gills, with the notable exception of one particle that was ingested and found in the stomach. Particles not retained seemed to have been actively rejected and expelled by the mussels. The largest and most radioactive particle (estimated dose rate 3.18 ± 0.06 Gy h{sup −1}) induced a significant increase in Comet tail-DNA %. In one case this particle caused a large white mark (suggesting necrosis) in the mantle tissue with a simultaneous increase in micronucleus frequency observed in the haemolymph collected from the muscle, implying that non-targeted effects of radiation were induced by radiation from the retained particle. White marks found in the tissue were attributed to ionising radiation and physical irritation. The results indicate that current methods used for risk assessment, based upon the absorbed dose equivalent limit and estimating the “no-effect dose” are inadequate for radioactive particle exposures. Knowledge is lacking about the ecological implications of radioactive particles released into the environment, for example potential recycling within a population, or trophic transfer in the food chain. - Highlights: • Highly radioactive particles were experimentally introduced into blue mussels. • Over one third of particles introduced were retained, potentially permanently. • Physiological and toxicological effects were observed in tissues and haemolymph.

  9. Heavy metal concentrations in marine molluscs from the Moroccan coastal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maanan, Mohamed [Geolittomer, UMR 6554 LETG - CNRS, Universite de Nantes, BP 81227, 44312 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: mohamed.maanan@univ-nantes.fr

    2008-05-15

    Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), clams (Venerupis decussatus) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were sampled seasonally during 2004-2005, from different coastal environments of Morocco in order to measure their accumulated heavy metal concentrations. The concentrations of Hg and Pb were determined by AFS and ICP-MS methods, respectively, whilst the remaining metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Zn and Ni) were quantified by AAS. The soft tissue concentrations of the mussels were on average 7.2 mg kg{sup -1} (Cd), 9.6 mg kg{sup -1} (Pb), 0.6 mg kg{sup -1} (Hg), 26.8 mg kg{sup -1} (Cu), 8.8 mg kg{sup -1} (Cr), 292 mg kg{sup -1} (Zn), 20.8 mg kg{sup -1} (Mn) and 32.8 mg kg{sup -1} (Ni). The highest tissue heavy metal concentrations were recorded in the south from the industrial area of Jorf Lasfar. The relationships between metal concentration and season in each species showed very similar annual profiles with a peak observed around spring-summer. Statistical analysis indicated that different species showed different bioaccumulation of metals depending on study site and season. - The accumulated metal concentrations in bivalves from the clean stations may be considered as useful Atlantic coast reference background levels for future comparison.

  10. Gynogenetic induction in marine bivalve molluscs for improvement of stocks: Standardization of some important factors

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, U.

    Experiments conducted for standardizing sperm density for artificial insemination of Chlamys mobilis prior to inducing gynogenesis by ultra-violet rays irradiated sperms showed that 10:1 ratio of sperms to eggs should be maintained for getting...

  11. Retention of radioactive particles and associated effects in the filter-feeding marine mollusc Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeschke, B.C.; Lind, O.C.; Bradshaw, C.; Salbu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive particles are aggregates of radioactive atoms that may contain significant activity concentrations. They have been released into the environment from nuclear weapons tests, and from accidents and effluents associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. Aquatic filter-feeders can capture and potentially retain radioactive particles, which could then provide concentrated doses to nearby tissues. This study experimentally investigated the retention and effects of radioactive particles in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Spent fuel particles originating from the Dounreay nuclear establishment, and collected in the field, comprised a U and Al alloy containing fission products such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr/ 90 Y. Particles were introduced into mussels in suspension with plankton-food or through implantation in the extrapallial cavity. Of the particles introduced with food, 37% were retained for 70 h, and were found on the siphon or gills, with the notable exception of one particle that was ingested and found in the stomach. Particles not retained seemed to have been actively rejected and expelled by the mussels. The largest and most radioactive particle (estimated dose rate 3.18 ± 0.06 Gy h −1 ) induced a significant increase in Comet tail-DNA %. In one case this particle caused a large white mark (suggesting necrosis) in the mantle tissue with a simultaneous increase in micronucleus frequency observed in the haemolymph collected from the muscle, implying that non-targeted effects of radiation were induced by radiation from the retained particle. White marks found in the tissue were attributed to ionising radiation and physical irritation. The results indicate that current methods used for risk assessment, based upon the absorbed dose equivalent limit and estimating the “no-effect dose” are inadequate for radioactive particle exposures. Knowledge is lacking about the ecological implications of radioactive particles released into the environment, for example potential recycling within a population, or trophic transfer in the food chain. - Highlights: • Highly radioactive particles were experimentally introduced into blue mussels. • Over one third of particles introduced were retained, potentially permanently. • Physiological and toxicological effects were observed in tissues and haemolymph

  12. Effect of cadmium on protein synthesis in gill tissue of marine mollusc Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuizen-Tsoerkan, M.B.; Mast, C.A. van der; Zandee, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    Mussels have a high capacity to accumulate cadmium and other heavy metals without notable toxic effects. However, they have recently found that cadmium is toxic to M. edulis at a relatively low concentration, as anoxic survival time of the animals was significantly shortened after two weeks of exposure to 50 ppb Cd. Based on this finding, a research was started to study the toxic effects of cadmium at a macromolecular level (proteins, RNA). Mussels were exposed to 250 ppb Cd for short periods. Then excised gills were incubated with 35 s-methionine for 4 hours. In the gill tissue of 7 and 15 days Cd-exposed animals, a significantly decrease in the incorporation rate of the introduced label was found of 30 and 37%, respectively. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the de novo synthesized gill tissue proteins

  13. Organic matter compounds as source indicators and tracers for marine pollution in a western Mediterranean coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorri, Jalila; Geffroy-Rodier, Claude; Boufahja, Fehmi; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Aïssa, Patricia; Ksibi, Mohamed; Amblès, André

    2011-11-01

    Complex organic compounds found in oil and sediments linked with a particular source (such as algae, bacteria or vascular plants) are defined as biomarkers and are useful dating indicators in organic geochemistry. This paper presents the composition of the organic matter (OM) on marine surface sediments from a degraded Tunisian coast analysed by pyrolysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). High total OM contents (0.3-4.2%) were detected with high levels of saturated linear hydrocarbons. The aliphatic lipids had contributed with up to 11.7% of the total OM, and their distribution had consisted of resolved compounds (n-alkanes and fatty acid (FAs)) and an unresolved complex mixture. Hydrocarbons, primarily n-alkanes, were ranged from 368 to 3,886 μg g(-1). The FAs (674-2,568 μg g(-1)) were dominated by derived primary production, and the short chain FAs (C16 and C18) were the most abundant throughout. The ubiquitous presence of petroleum contamination, mainly from offshore oil exploration, discharge of pollutants from rivers, shipping activities and atmospheric deposition was found in all samples. The Gabès littoral seems to be quite to very polluted near the industrial zone of Ghannouch. The C/H ratio (generally around 5.9), the thermal analysis and GC-MS of n-alkanes and FAs showed that the OM in the studied area was composed of anthropogenic/petrogenic, marine and continental sources. Our study represents an innovative approach to assessing environmental pollution. The evaluation of organic matter by examination of sterols, alkanes and fatty acids allows the identification of source, both anthropogenic and natural.

  14. Biological responses of two marine organisms of ecological relevance to on-going ocean acidification and global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomiero, A; Bellerby, R G J; Manca Zeichen, M; Babbini, L; Viarengo, A

    2018-05-01

    Recently, there has been a growing concern that climate change may rapidly and extensively alter global ecosystems with unknown consequences for terrestrial and aquatic life. While considerable emphasis has been placed on terrestrial ecology consequences, aquatic environments have received relatively little attention. Limited knowledge is available on the biological effects of increments of seawater temperature and pH decrements on key ecological species, i.e., primary producers and/or organisms representative of the basis of the trophic web. In the present study, we addressed the biological effects of global warming and ocean acidification on two model organisms, the microbenthic marine ciliate Euplotes crassus and the green alga Dunaliella tertiocleta using a suite of high level ecological endpoint tests and sub-lethal stress measures. Organisms were exposed to combinations of pH and temperature (TR1: 7.9 [pH], 25.5 °C and TR2: 7.8 [pH], 27,0 °C) simulating two possible environmental scenarios predicted to occur in the habitats of the selected species before the end of this century. The outcomes of the present study showed that the tested scenarios did not induce a significant increment of mortality on protozoa. Under the most severe exposure conditions, sub-lethal stress indices show that pH homeostatic mechanisms have energetic costs that divert energy from essential cellular processes and functions. The marine protozoan exhibited significant impairment of the lysosomal compartment and early signs of oxidative stress under these conditions. Similarly, significant impairment of photosynthetic efficiency and an increment in lipid peroxidation were observed in the autotroph model organism held under the most extreme exposure condition tested. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  16. Threatened freshwater and terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia of Santa Catarina State, Southern Brazil: check list and evaluation of regional threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of nineteen continental native mollusc species are confirmed for the Santa Catarina State (SC(organized in ten Genera and seven Families, one aquatic Prosobranchia/Caenogastropoda (Ampullariidae,six Pulmonata terrestrial gastropods (one Ellobiidae, three Megalobulimidae and two micro-snails –Charopidae and Streptaxidae and twelve freshwater mussels (eight Mycetopodidae and four Hyriidae. Thesespecies are designated by the International Union for Conservation of the Nature – IUCN as follows: seven as"Vulnerable", six "In Danger" and six “Without Category Established”. The general regional threats that thesespecies are subjected to are briefly analyzed.

  17. Microplastics as vectors for bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic chemicals in the marine environment: A state-of-the-science review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziccardi, Linda M; Edgington, Aaron; Hentz, Karyn; Kulacki, Konrad J; Kane Driscoll, Susan

    2016-07-01

    A state-of-the-science review was conducted to examine the potential for microplastics to sorb hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) from the marine environment, for aquatic organisms to take up these HOCs from the microplastics, and for this exposure to result in adverse effects to ecological and human health. Despite concentrations of HOCs associated with microplastics that can be orders of magnitude greater than surrounding seawater, the relative importance of microplastics as a route of exposure is difficult to quantify because aquatic organisms are typically exposed to HOCs from various compartments, including water, sediment, and food. Results of laboratory experiments and modeling studies indicate that HOCs can partition from microplastics to organisms or from organisms to microplastics, depending on experimental conditions. Very little information is available to evaluate ecological or human health effects from this exposure. Most of the available studies measured biomarkers that are more indicative of exposure than effects, and no studies showed effects to ecologically relevant endpoints. Therefore, evidence is weak to support the occurrence of ecologically significant adverse effects on aquatic life as a result of exposure to HOCs sorbed to microplastics or to wildlife populations and humans from secondary exposure via the food chain. More data are needed to fully understand the relative importance of exposure to HOCs from microplastics compared with other exposure pathways. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1667-1676. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. Ceramic membrane as a pretreatment for reverse osmosis: Interaction between marine organic matter and metal oxides

    KAUST Repository

    Dramas, Laure; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    (raw solution and supernatant solutions) included fluorescence, UV, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and Liquid Chromatography - Organic Carbon Detection measurements. In comparison to seawater under normal condition, seawa- ters collected during

  19. Phospholipid studies of marine organisms: 14. Ether lipids of the sponge Tethya aurantia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.M.; Djerassi, C.

    1987-01-01

    The novel unesterified alkyl glycerol monoethers, (2S)-1-(hexadecyloxy)-2,3-propanediol (1), (2S)-1-(16-methylheptadecyloxy)-2,3-propanediol (2) and (2S)-1-(15-methylheptadecyloxy)-2,3-propanediol (3) were isolated from the marine sponge Tethya aurantia and were characterized by spectroscopic methods. These three saturated ethers as well as a series of alk-1'-enyl glycerol monoethers were also encountered in the phospholipids of the same sponge after reduction with LiAlH4. Incorporation experiments with dissociated cells of T. aurantia indicated that [1- 14 C]-hexadecanol was incorporated into the unesterified alkyl glycerol monoethers

  20. Procedure for studying population genetic aspects of marine organisms using biochemical techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.

    ~d~raJnlngonTa.~ono"",~n~llcsand(dn~Banking ~fC(J4S,alandMann~Blo,"sources, ClFE, MumOOI --- vacuum is applied to eliminate air bubbles and this hot solution is then poured into a plastic trough on a 3 mm glass plate. Then the gel is covered with a plastic wrap and cooled to room temperature... then placed firmly together as before cutting. 187 NBDBlDBT Sponsored Training on Taxonomy, Omelia and Gene Banking o/Coastal and Marine Bloresources, ClFE, Mumbal - Electrode tray containing 300 ml of buffer in each side was used T\\. . lne starch-gel block...

  1. Cytogenetic studies of marine organisms in the areas with higher contents of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytsugina, V.G.; Floru, Kh.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Chalulu, K.; Gorbenko, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations in cells of marine crustaceans and worms have been studied at sites with a high natural radioactivity level (the Black Sea coast at the mountain Karadag in the Crimea and the Ikaria Island in the Aegean Sea, an area around the hydrothermal spa) as well as at sites with the normal natural radiation level. Higher level of chromosome mutagenesis was found in cells of Melita palmata embryos and in germ and somatic cells of Lycastopsis sp. juveniles in the area around the spa. Probably, chromosome aberrations were induced by higher concentrations of natural radionuclides and their radiation in the environment

  2. The comet assay in Environmental Risk Assessment of marine pollutants: applications, assets and handicaps of surveying genotoxicity in non-model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marta; Costa, Pedro M

    2015-01-01

    Determining the genotoxic effects of pollutants has long been a priority in Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) for coastal ecosystems, especially of complex areas such as estuaries and other confined waterbodies. The acknowledged link between DNA damage, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity to the exposure to certain toxicants has been responsible to the growing interest in determining the genotoxic effects of xenobiotics to wildlife as a measure of environmental risk. The comet assay, although widely employed in in vivo and in vitro toxicology, still holds many constraints in ERA, in large part owing to difficulties in obtaining conclusive cause-effect relationships from complex environments. Nevertheless, these challenges do not hinder the attempts to apply the alkaline comet assay on sentinel organisms, wild or subjected to bioassays in or ex situ (from fish to molluscs) as well to standardise protocols and establish general guidelines to the interpretation of findings. Fish have been regarded as an appealing subject due to the ease of performing the comet assay in whole blood. However, the application of the comet assay is becoming increasingly common in invertebrates (e.g. in molluscan haemocytes and solid tissues such as gills). Virtually all sorts of results have been obtained from the application of the comet assay in ERA (null, positive and inconclusive). However, it has become clear that interpreting DNA damage data from wild organisms is particularly challenging due to their ability to adapt to continuous environmental stressors, including toxicants. Also, the comet assay in non-model organisms for the purpose of ERA implies different constraints, assumptions and interpretation of findings, compared with the in vitro procedures from which most guidelines have been derived. This paper critically reviews the application of the comet assay in ERA, focusing on target organisms and tissues; protocol developments, case studies plus data handling and

  3. Volatile and bioactive compounds in opercula from Muricidae molluscs supports their use in ceremonial incense and traditional medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongmaithem, Bijayalakshmi Devi; Mouatt, Peter; Smith, Joshua; Rudd, David; Russell, Michael; Sullivan, Caroline; Benkendorff, Kirsten

    2017-12-12

    Muricidae molluscs are the source of a valuable purple dye that was traded as a luxury item in the Mediterranean region and by the late Byzantine was reserved for royalty and priests. Less well known is the use of muricid opercula in sacred incense and traditional medicines, although they are still used as rare ingredients today. This study provides the first chemical assessment of opercula from Muricidae, based on several traditional preparation procedures. Chemical analysis of opercula smoke revealed aromatic phenols, which act as fragrance stabilisers and produce a "medicinal" odour. Analysis of lipid extracts revealed pharmaceutically active compounds, including brominated indoles, choline esters and adenosine, consistent with their traditional medical applications. Depending on the preparation procedures, toxic pyridine was also detected. ICP-MS analysis of muricid opercula shows the presence of essential macro and microelements, as well as metals, some of which exceed the recommended safe levels for human use. Nevertheless, these findings support the Muricidae as an historically important marine resource, providing Biblical dyes, medicines and perfume. The opercula contains biologically active compounds and produces smoke containing volatile scent compounds, consistent with their identification as the most likely source of onycha, a controversial ingredient in sacred incense.

  4. Non-polar organic compounds in marine aerosols over the northern South China Sea: Influence of continental outflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Yingyi; Fu, Pingqing; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ho, Kin Fai; Liu, Fobang; Zou, Shichun; Wang, Shan; Lai, Senchao

    2016-06-01

    Filter samples of total suspended particle (TSP) collected during a cruise campaign over the northern South China Sea (SCS) from September to October 2013 were analyzed for non-polar organic compounds (NPOCs) as well as organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble ions. A total of 115 NPOCs species in groups of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), iso-/antiso-alkanes, hopanes, steranes, methylalkanes, branched alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes and phthalates were detected. The characteristics of NPOCs in marine TSP samples were investigated to understand the sources from the Asian continent and other regions. The concentrations of total NPOCs ranged from 19.8 to 288.2 ng/m(3) with an average of 87.9 ng/m(3), which accounted for 0.8-1.7% (average 1.0%) of organic matter (OM). n-Alkanes was the predominant group, accounting for 43.1-79.5%, followed by PAHs (5.5-44.4%) and hopanes (1.6-11.4%). We found that primary combustion (biomass burning/fossil fuel combustion) was the dominant source for the majority of NPOCs (89.1%). Biomass burning in southern/southeastern China via long-range transport was proposed to be a major contributor of NPOCs in marine aerosols over the northern SCS, suggested by the significant correlations between nss-K(+) and NPOCs groups as well as the analysis of air mass back-trajectory and fire spots. For the samples with strong continental influence, the strong enhancement in concentrations of n-alkanes, PAHs, hopanes and steranes were attributed to fossil fuel (coal/petroleum) combustion. In addition, terrestrial plants waxes were another contributor to NPOCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antifouling coatings: recent developments in the design of surfaces that prevent fouling by proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Indrani; Pangule, Ravindra C.; Kane, Ravi S. [Howard P. Isermann Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Ricketts Building, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2011-02-08

    The major strategies for designing surfaces that prevent fouling due to proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms are reviewed. Biofouling is of great concern in numerous applications ranging from biosensors to biomedical implants and devices, and from food packaging to industrial and marine equipment. The two major approaches to combat surface fouling are based on either preventing biofoulants from attaching or degrading them. One of the key strategies for imparting adhesion resistance involves the functionalization of surfaces with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or oligo(ethylene glycol). Several alternatives to PEG-based coatings have also been designed over the past decade. While protein-resistant coatings may also resist bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation, in order to overcome the fouling-mediated risk of bacterial infection it is highly desirable to design coatings that are bactericidal. Traditional techniques involve the design of coatings that release biocidal agents, including antibiotics, quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), and silver, into the surrounding aqueous environment. However, the emergence of antibiotic- and silver-resistant pathogenic strains has necessitated the development of alternative strategies. Therefore, other techniques based on the use of polycations, enzymes, nanomaterials, and photoactive agents are being investigated. With regard to marine antifouling coatings, restrictions on the use of biocide-releasing coatings have made the generation of nontoxic antifouling surfaces more important. While considerable progress has been made in the design of antifouling coatings, ongoing research in this area should result in the development of even better antifouling materials in the future. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Investigating Marine Dissolved Organic Matter Fluorescence Transformations with Organic Geochemical Proxies in a Growth and Degradation Experiment using Amino Acids, Amino Sugars, and Phenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, M. R.; Bianchi, T. S.; Osburn, C. L.; Kinsey, J. D.; Ziervogel, K.; Schnetzer, A.

    2017-12-01

    The origin and mechanisms driving the formation of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in the open ocean remain unclear. Although recent studies have attempted to deconvolve the chemical composition and source of marine FDOM, these studies have been qualitative in nature. Here, we investigate these transformations using a more quantitative biomarker approach in a controlled growth and degradation experiment. In this experiment, a natural assemblage of phytoplankton was collected off the coast of North Carolina and incubated within roller bottles containing 0.2 µm-filtered North Atlantic surface water amended with f/2 nutrients. Samples were collected at the beginning (day 0), during exponential growth (day 13), stationary (day 20), and degradation (day 62) phases of the phytoplankton incubation. Amino acids, amino sugars, and phenolic compounds of the dissolved (DOM) were measured in conjunction with enzyme assays and bacterial counts to track shifts in OM quality as FDOM formed and was then transformed throughout the experiment. The results from the chemical analyses showed that the OM composition changed significantly from the initial and exponential phases to the stationary and degradation phases of the experiment. The percentage of aromatic amino acids to the total amino acid pool increased significantly during the exponential phase of phytoplankton growth, but then decreased significantly during the stationary and degradation phases. This increase was positively correlated to the fractional contribution of the protein-like peak in fluorescence to the total FDOM fluorescence. An increase in the concentration of amino acid degradation products during the stationary and degradation phases suggests that compositional changes in OM were driven by microbial transformation. This was further supported by a concurrent increase in total enzyme activity and increase in "humic-like" components of the FDOM. These findings link the properties and formation of FDOM

  7. Tracking the long-distance dispersal of marine organisms: sensitivity to ocean model resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Putman, Nathan F.; He, Ruoying

    2013-01-01

    Ocean circulation models are widely used to simulate organism transport in the open sea, where challenges of directly tracking organisms across vast spatial and temporal scales are daunting. Many recent studies tout the use of ‘high-resolution’ models, which are forced with atmospheric data on the scale of several hours and integrated with a time step of several minutes or seconds. However, in many cases, the model's outputs that are used to simulate organism movement have been averaged to co...

  8. Eye structure and vision in the freshwater pulmonate mollusc Planorbarius corneus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhukov, VV; Bobkova, MB; Vakolyuk, IA

    2002-01-01

    The structure of the mollusc Planorbarius corneus eye was studied using light and electron microscopy. The eye consists of the cornea, eye lens of non-spherical shape, and the vitreous body tightly bound to it, as well as of a monolayer non-inverted retina composed of photoreceptor and supporting

  9. Persistent organic pollutants in marine biota of São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Patrick S; Cipro, Caio V Z; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2013-09-15

    Remote islands, such as the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago (SPSPA), Brazil, are pristine areas. However, these locations are not exempt from the arrival of anthropogenic agents, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The present study aimed to determine the occurrence and distribution of POPs in the marine biota of the SPSPA. Sample extractions were performed using a microwave-assisted method. The predominant compounds were PCBs and DDTs, which respectively had mean wet weight concentrations of 62.23 and 9.23 ng g(-1) in the tropical two-wing flying fish (Exocoetus volitans), 78.66 and 6.81 ng g(-1) in the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) and 43.40 and 3.03 ng g(-1) in the red rock crab (Grapsus grapsus). Low levels of contaminants suggest a relative degree of isolation. Occurrence and distribution profiles of PCBs support long-range atmospheric transport as the main source of contamination and demonstrate the ubiquity of these pollutants in the marine environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermodynamic analysis and performance optimization of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) waste heat recovery system for marine diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Song, Yin; Gu, Chun-wei

    2015-01-01

    Escalating fuel prices and imposition of carbon dioxide emission limits are creating renewed interest in methods to increase the thermal efficiency of marine diesel engines. One viable means to achieve such improved thermal efficiency is the conversion of engine waste heat to a more useful form of energy, either mechanical or electrical. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been demonstrated to be a promising technology to recover waste heat. This paper examines waste heat recovery of a marine diesel engine using ORC technology. Two separated ORC apparatuses for the waste heat from both the jacket cooling water and the engine exhaust gas are designed as the traditional recovery system. The maximum net power output is chosen as the evaluation criterion to select the suitable working fluid and define the optimal system parameters. To simplify the waste heat recovery, an optimized system using the jacket cooling water as the preheating medium and the engine exhaust gas for evaporation is presented. The influence of preheating temperature on the system performance is evaluated to define the optimal operating condition. Economic and off-design analysis of the optimized system is conducted. The simulation results reveal that the optimized system is technically feasible and economically attractive. - Highlights: • ORC is used to recover waste heat from both exhaust gas and jacket cooling water. • Comparative study is conducted for different ORC systems. • Thermal performance, system structure and economic feasibility are considered. • Optimal preheating temperature of the system is selected

  11. Temporal variations of 137Cs concentrations in the surface seawater and marine organisms collected from the Japanese coast during the 1980's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, M.; Nagaya, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The surface seawater and marine organisms were collected on the Japanese coast and analyzed for their 137 Cs concentrations during the 1980's. The 137 Cs concentrations in surface seawater decreased almost exponentially with time and the 137 Cs removal rate constant was estimated to be 0.0445 y -1 . The 137 Cs concentrations in marine organisms also decreased almost exponentially with time. The environmental half-lives of 137 Cs in muscle and viscera of fish, crustacea, and seaweed were estimated from the measured decreases of 137 Cs concentrations. (author)

  12. Study of environmental and biological factors that affect larval survival in sessile coastal marine organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Viladrich Canudas, Núria; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals

    2015-01-01

    La reproducció sexual és un procés biològic fonamental per a la majoria de les espècies vives, sent essencial per a la perpetuació de les espècies i assegurar-ne la diversitat genètica. En invertebrats sèssils marins, com corals i gorgònies, aquest tipus de reproducció, a més, permet la dispersió dels individus, el que facilita la colonització de noves àrees i assegurar el flux de gens entre poblacions. En general, la reproducció sexual es caracteritza per un alt cost energètic, la qual cosa ...

  13. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Invertebrates: Recent Advances in Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R.; Navarro, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Virtually all polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) originate from primary producers but can be modified by bioconversions as they pass up the food chain in a process termed trophic upgrading. Therefore, although the main primary producers of PUFA in the marine environment are microalgae, higher trophic levels have metabolic pathways that can produce novel and unique PUFA. However, little is known about the pathways of PUFA biosynthesis and metabolism in the levels between primary producers and fish that are largely filled by invertebrates. It has become increasingly apparent that, in addition to trophic upgrading, de novo synthesis of PUFA is possible in some lower animals. The unequivocal identification of PUFA biosynthetic pathways in many invertebrates is complicated by the presence of other organisms within them. These organisms include bacteria and algae with PUFA biosynthesis pathways, and range from intestinal flora to symbiotic relationships that can involve PUFA translocation to host organisms. This emphasizes the importance of studying biosynthetic pathways at a molecular level, and the continual expansion of genomic resources and advances in molecular analysis is facilitating this. The present paper highlights recent research into the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of PUFA biosynthesis in marine invertebrates, particularly focusing on cephalopod molluscs. PMID:24152561

  14. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart II of... - Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP) Limits for Marine Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP) Limits... (Surface Coating) Pt. 63, Subpt. II, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart II of Part 63—Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP...) through (4). b VOC (including exempt compounds listed as HAP) shall be used as a surrogate for VOHAP for...

  15. Archaeal remains dominate marine organic matter from the early Albian oceanic anoxic event 1b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuypers, M.M.M.; Blokker, P.; Hopmans, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    The sources for both soluble and insoluble organic matter of the early Albian (∼112 Myr) oceanic anoxic event (OAE) 1b black shales of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) site 1049C (North Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Florida) and the Ravel section of the Southeast France Basin (SEFB) were...... in C/C ratios was used to estimate that up to ∼40% of the organic matter of the SEFB and up to ∼80% of the organic matter of ODP site 1049C preserved in the black shales is derived from archaea. Furthermore, it is shown that, even though there are apparent similarities (high organic carbon (OC) content......, distinct lamination, C-enrichment of OC) between the black shales of OAE1b and the Cenomanian/Turonian (∼94 Myr) OAE, the origin of the organic matter (archaeal versus phytoplanktonic) and causes for C-enrichment of OC are completely different....

  16. An application of nitrogen microwave-induced plasma mass spectrometry to isotope dilution analysis of selenium in marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirasaki, Toshihiro [Hitachi Instruments Engineering Co. Ltd., Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan); Yoshinaga, Jun; Morita, Masatoshi; Okumoto, Toyoharu; Oishi, Konosuke

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen microwave-induced plasma mass spectrometry was studied for its applicability to the isotope dilution analysis of selenium in biological samples. Spectroscopic interference by calcium, which is present in high concentrations in biological samples, was investigated. No detectable background spectrum was observed for the major selenium isotopes of {sup 78}Se and {sup 80}Se. No detectable interferences by sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus on the isotope ratio {sup 80}Se/{sup 78}Se were observed up to concentration of 200 mg/ml. The method was applied to the analysis of selenium in biological reference materials of marine organisms. The results showed good agreement between the certified and found values. (author).

  17. Plant indicator values as a tool for land mollusc autecology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsák, Michal; Hájek, Michal; Tichý, Lubomír; Juřičková, Lucie

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to utilize Ellenberg's plant indicator system for assessing mollusc autecology and to highlight possibilities and advantages of that approach in the case of fen mollusc communities. Molluscs and plants from 137 fen sites in the Western Carpathian Mountains were recorded quantitatively from homogeneous areas of 16 m 2. Water conductivity and pH were measured in the field. Values of Ellenberg's "light, temperature, continentality, moisture, soil reaction, and nutrients" were estimated for each site. The whole data set was processed using ordinations (PCA, DCA, and CCA) and generalized additive models (GAMs). We observed a strong correlation between water pH and Ellenberg soil reaction estimated by plant indicator values ( r = 0.72, P < 0.001). Ellenberg soil reaction was found to be the best predictor of mollusc species composition, which expressed the main mineral-richness gradient. We found the existence of a second important gradient, the gradient of "light", expressing site and canopy openness. A tight correspondence between the results of species response curve modelling based on water conductivity and Ellenberg soil reaction confirmed that "soil reaction" does not express merely pH, but rather the total amount of calcium. We conclude that the Ellenberg's indicator system can be used to study the ecology of land molluscs, an important group of invertebrates in bioindication and nature conservation. Our data and approach could help design appropriate conservation management regimes for threatened snail species. We propose that our approach will be useful also in ecological studies of other animal groups.

  18. Microplastics as Vehicles of Environmental PAHs to Marine Organisms: Combined Chemical and Physical Hazards to the Mediterranean Mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Pittura

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous occurrence of microplastics (MPs in the marine environment is raising concern for interactions with marine organisms. These particles efficiently adsorb persistent organic pollutants from surrounding environment and, due to the small size, they are easily available for ingestion at all trophic levels. Once ingested, MPs can induce mechanical damage, sub-lethal effects, and various cellular responses, further modulated by possible release of adsorbed chemicals or additives. In this study, ecotoxicological effects of MPs and their interactions with benzo(apyrene (BaP, chosen as a model compound for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were investigated in Mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Organisms were exposed for 4 weeks to 10 mg/L of low-density polyethylene (LDPE microparticles (2.34 * 107 particles/L, size range 20–25 μm, both virgin and pre-contaminated with BaP (15 μg/g. Organisms were also exposed for comparison to BaP dosed alone at 150 ng/L, corresponding to the amount adsorbed on microplastics. Tissue localization of microplastics was histologically evaluated; chemical analyses and a wide battery of biomarkers covering molecular, biochemical and cellular levels allowed to evaluate BaP bioaccumulation, alterations of immune system, antioxidant defenses, onset of oxidative stress, peroxisomal proliferation, genotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. Obtained data were elaborated within a quantitative weight of evidence (WOE model which, using weighted criteria, provided synthetic hazard indices, for both chemical and cellular results, before their integration in a combined index. Microplastics were localized in hemolymph, gills, and especially digestive tissues where a potential transfer of BaP from MPs was also observed. Significant alterations were measured on the immune system, while more limited effects occurred on the oxidative status, neurotoxicity, and genotoxicity, with a different susceptibility of

  19. Brominated flame retardants in aquatic organisms from the North Sea in comparison with biota from the high Arctic marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørmo, Eugen G; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Lie, Elisabeth; Skaare, Janneche U

    2009-10-01

    The extent of trophic transfer of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and seven polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were examined in pelagic and benthic aquatic animals (invertebrates and fish) in a near-shore estuary environment of the southeastern North Sea (Norway; 59 degrees N). Whole-body burdens of HBCD and several of the most abundant PBDEs biomagnified with increasing trophic position in the food web. Biomagnification of HBCD was particularly strong, resulting in whole-body burdens of this compound comparable to those of total PBDEs in the higher-trophic-level species. Body burdens of PBDEs were higher in pelagic than in benthic aquatic organisms. This was particularly evident for the lesser-brominated and volatile PBDE congeners. Atmospheric gas-water-phytoplankton exchange of these volatile compounds over the water surface may account for this observation. The PBDE burdens in pelagic zooplankton from the North Sea were more than 60-fold greater than those in corresponding pelagic zooplankton from the colder high Arctic latitudes (>78 degrees N) of Norway (Svalbard). This great difference may relate to reduced chemical gas-water exchange over open waters at the colder Arctic latitudes. However, previously measured whole-body burdens of BFRs in other aquatic marine organisms from the high Arctic were comparable or even exceeded those in the North Sea samples of the present study. These include sympagic (sea ice-associated) invertebrates and fish accumulating high burdens of particle-associated BFRs. The present study provides new insight regarding the distribution of BFRs in ecologically different compartments of marine ecosystems, essential information for understanding the food-web transfer and geographical dispersal of these compounds.

  20. The precipitation, growth and stability of mercury sulfide nanoparticles formed in the presence of marine dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazrui, Nashaat M; Seelen, Emily; King'ondu, Cecil K; Thota, Sravan; Awino, Joseph; Rouge, Jessica; Zhao, Jing; Mason, Robert P

    2018-04-25

    The methylation of mercury is known to depend on the chemical forms of mercury (Hg) present in the environment and the methylating bacterial activity. In sulfidic sediments, under conditions of supersaturation with respect to metacinnabar, recent research has shown that mercury precipitates as β-HgS(s) nanoparticles (β-HgS(s)nano). Few studies have examined the precipitation of β-HgS(s)nano in the presence of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM). In this work, we used dynamic light scattering (DLS) coupled with UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the formation and fate of β-HgS(s)nano formed in association with marine DOM extracted from the east and west of Long Island Sound, and at the shelf break of the North Atlantic Ocean, as well as with low molecular weight thiols. We found that while the β-HgS(s)nano formed in the presence of oceanic DOM doubled in size after 5 weeks, those forming in solutions with coastal DOM did not grow over time. In addition, when the HgII : DOM ratio was varied, β-HgS(s)nano only rapidly aggregated at high ratios (>41 μmol HgII per mg C) where the concentration of thiol groups was determined to be substantially low relative to HgII. This suggests that functional groups other than thiols could be involved in the stabilization of β-HgS(s)nano. Furthermore, we showed that β-HgS(s)nano forming under anoxic conditions remained stable and could therefore persist in the environment sufficiently to impact the methylation potential. Exposure of β-HgS(s)nano to sunlit and oxic environments, however, caused rapid aggregation and sedimentation of the nanoparticles, suggesting that photo-induced changes or oxidation of organic matter adsorbed on the surface of β-HgS(s)nano affected their stability in surface waters.

  1. Last interglacial marine environments in the White Sea region, northern Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøsfjeld, Kari; Funder, Svend; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig

    2006-01-01

    Marine sediments from river sections in the Mezen River drainage, northwest Russia, have been analysed for dinoflagellate cysts, foraminifers and molluscs. The sediments were dated by pollen analysis and by reference to the local sea-level history, and are Late Saalian to late Eemian (c. 133 to 119...... water was stronger and probably penetrated further eastwards than at present. The molluscs, dinoflagellate cysts and foraminifers reflect the warmer than present conditions and that the optimum temperature occurred at the time of the early Eemian global sea-level rise. Around 128 kyr BP, the eustatic...

  2. Review of the RNA Interference Pathway in Molluscs Including Some Possibilities for Use in Bivalves in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Owens

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Generalised reviews of RNA interference (RNAi in invertebrates, and for use in aquaculture, have taken for granted that RNAi pathways operate in molluscs, but inspection of such reviews show little specific evidence of such activity in molluscs. This review was to understand what specific research had been conducted on RNAi in molluscs, particularly with regard to aquaculture. There were questions of whether RNAi in molluscs functions similarly to the paradigm established for most eukaryotes or, alternatively, was it more similar to the ecdozoa and how RNAi may relate to disease control in aquaculture? RNAi in molluscs appears to have been only investigated in about 14 species, mostly as a gene silencing phenomenon. We can infer that microRNAs including let-7 are functional in molluscs. The genes/proteins involved in the actual RNAi pathways have only been rudimentarily investigated, so how homologous the genes and proteins are to other metazoa is unknown. Furthermore, how many different genes for each activity in the RNAi pathway are also unknown? The cephalopods have been greatly overlooked with only a single RNAi gene-silencing study found. The long dsRNA-linked interferon pathways seem to be present in molluscs, unlike some other invertebrates and could be used to reduce disease states in aquaculture. In particular, interferon regulatory factor genes have been found in molluscs of aquacultural importance such as Crassostrea, Mytilus, Pinctada and Haliotis. Two possible aquaculture scenarios are discussed, zoonotic norovirus and ostreid herpesvirus 1 to illustrate the possibilities. The entire field of RNAi in molluscs looks ripe for scientific exploitation and practical application.

  3. Hunt for Palytoxins in a Wide Variety of Marine Organisms Harvested in 2010 on the French Mediterranean Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronel Biré

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the summer of 2010, 31 species including fish, echinoderms, gastropods, crustaceans, cephalopods and sponges were sampled in the Bay of Villefranche on the French Mediterranean coast and screened for the presence of PLTX-group toxins using the haemolytic assay. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was used for confirmatory purposes and to determine the toxin profile. The mean toxin concentration in the whole flesh of all sampled marine organisms, determined using the lower- (LB and upper-bound (UB approach was 4.3 and 5.1 µg·kg−1, respectively, with less than 1% of the results exceeding the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA threshold of 30 µg·kg−1and the highest values being reported for sea urchins (107.6 and 108.0 µg·kg−1. Toxins accumulated almost exclusively in the digestive tube of the tested species, with the exception of octopus, in which there were detectable toxin amounts in the remaining tissues (RT. The mean toxin concentration in the RT of the sampled organisms (fishes, echinoderms and cephalopods was 0.7 and 1.7 µg·kg−1 (LB and UB, respectively, with a maximum value of 19.9 µg·kg−1 for octopus RT. The herbivorous and omnivorous organisms were the most contaminated species, indicating that diet influences the contamination process, and the LC-MS/MS revealed that ovatoxin-a was the only toxin detected.

  4. Foraminiferal assemblages and organic carbon relationship in benthic marine ecosystem of Western Indian Continental Shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Nigam, R.

    that Ammobaculites agglutinans (d'Orbigny) and Ammonia spp have positive (direct) tendency towards organic carbon while miliolids (Quinqueloqulina spp, Spiroloculina spp and Triloculina spp Florilus-Nonion and Nonionella spp have negative (inverse) tendency...

  5. Isotopic Constraints on the Sources and Associations of Organic Compounds in Marine Sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Helen K

    2006-01-01

    .... The main objective has been to determine the significance of these associations, and to assess how they affect the transport, bioavailability, preservation and residence times of organic compounds in the environment...

  6. Characterisation of algal organic matter produced by bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.; Ekowati, Yuli; Neu, Thomas R.; Kleijn, J. Mieke; Winters, Harvey; Amy, Gary L.; Schippers, Jan Cornelis; Kennedy, Maria Dolores

    2015-01-01

    , such as liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, alcian blue staining and lectin staining coupled with laser scanning microscopy to indentify its composition and force measurement using

  7. Toxicity of natural mixtures of organic pollutants in temperate and polar marine phytoplankton

    KAUST Repository

    Echeveste, Pedro; Galbá n-Malagó n, Cristó bal; Dachs, Jordi; Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Agusti, Susana

    2016-01-01

    concentrations, viability of the cells, and growth and decay constants were monitored in response to addition of a range of concentrations of mixtures of organic pollutants obtained from seawater extracts. Almost all of the phytoplankton groups were significantly

  8. Chemical fingerprinting applied to the evaluation of marine oil pollution in the coasts of Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Méndez, E M; Astorga-España, M S; García-Montelongo, F J

    2001-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting approach to environmental assessment is illustrated in the evaluation of marine oil pollution in the coasts using two limpet species as bioindicator organisms, and based on profiles and concentrations of n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons in their tissues. Accidental and chronic releases of hydrocarbons can contaminate the marine environment of the Canary Islands not only because of their geographical situation but also because of the very dense tanker traffic around. This situation affects coastal areas, fishing activities, tourism resort, etc. Concentrations of n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and methyl-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the soft tissues of the marine intertidal and subtidal limpets, Patella crenata and Patella ullysiponensis aspera, were evaluated. Limpet samples were collected at monthly intervals, at three locations on the southeast coast of Tenerife over a 3-year period (1991-93). Levels of hydrocarbons found in limpets are similar to concentrations found in unpolluted areas around the world. From application of principal component analysis, the interpretation of variable loading plots gives information on variable correlation and can be used to distinguish among potential sources of pollution and the ability of studied molluscs to be used as bioindicator organisms.

  9. Chemical fingerprinting applied to the evaluation of marine oil pollution in the coasts of Canary Islands (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena-Mendez, E.Ma.; Garcia-Montelongo, F.J.; Astorga-Espana, Ma.S.

    2001-01-01

    Chemical fingerprinting approach to environmental assessment is illustrated in the evaluation of marine oil pollution in the coasts using two limpet species as bioindicator organisms, and based on profiles and concentrations of n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons in their tissues. Accidental and chronic releases of hydrocarbons can contaminate the marine environment of the Canary Islands not only because of their geographical situation but also because of the very dense tank traffic around. This situation affects coastal areas, fishing activities, tourism resort, etc. Concentrations of n-alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and methyl-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the soft tissues of the marine intertidal and subtidal limpets, Patella crenata and Patella ullysiponensis aspera, were evaluated. Limpet samples were collected at monthly intervals, at three locations on the southeast coast of Tenerife over a 3-year period (1991-93). Levels of hydrocarbons found in limpets are similar to concentrations found in unpolluted areas around the world. From application of principal component analysis, the interpretation of variable loading plots gives information on variable correlation and can be used to distinguish among potential sources of pollution and the ability of studied molluscs to be used as bioindicator organisms. (Author)

  10. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its impact on the aquatic environment (marine and freshwater)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The impact of the Chernobyl reactor accident of 1986 on the freshwater and marine environment of the British Isles is discussed. Particular reference is made to the monitoring of radionuclide concentrations in foodstuffs such as shellfish, molluscs, trout, watercress and laverbread and the possible restrictions on their consumption by the public. Attention is drawn to the effects of the accident on the marine environment in a wider context. (U.K.)

  11. Decadal climate variation recorded in modern global carbonate archives (brachiopods, molluscs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanin, Marco; Zaki, Amir H.; Davis, Alyssa; Shaver, Kristen; Wang, Lisha; Aleksandra Bitner, Maria; Capraro, Luca; Preto, Nereo; Brand, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    The progress of the Earth's warming trend has rapidly accelerated in the last few decades due to the increase in emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. The exchange of heat between the atmosphere and seawater has consequently elevated the rate of temperature buildup in the low and high latitude ocean. Records of the variation in seawater temperature in response to local and global changes in climate are preserved within the carbonate structures of marine biogenic archives. Investigating the isotopic composition of the archives' growth increments documents the magnitude of sea surface temperature (SST) change. A long-term (1956-2012) record of temperature change in sub-tropical seawater was acquired from the giant clam Tridacna maxima collected from the Red Sea in conjunction with published results of the oyster Hyotissa hyotis (Titschack et al., 2010). Variation in polar-subpolar SST was obtained from the brachiopod Magellania venosa recovered from the coastal area of southern Chile, and from the proxy record of Hemithiris psittacea of Hudson Bay (Brand et al., 2014). The former reveals a long-term (1961-2012) time-series of Antarctic-induced oceanographic change in the southern hemisphere, while the latter represents a trend of Hudson Bay seawater SST in the northern hemisphere. Evaluation of the isotopic compositions confirms the equilibrium incorporation of oxygen isotopes with respect to ambient seawater in brachiopods and some bivalves. A general trend of decreasing δ18O values in the Red Sea molluscs is observed, indicating an increase in tropical seawater temperature of about 0.79°C since 1988. The δ18O values of the polar-subpolar brachiopods display similar depletion slopes but of larger magnitudes than that of the Red Sea archives. This signifies a rise in seawater temperature of about 1.47°C in Hudson Bay since 1991, and about 2.08°C in southern Chile since 1988. The 2013 IPCC report suggests an increase in SST of +0.094°C per decade (average

  12. Marine polar steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonik, Valentin A

    2001-01-01

    Structures, taxonomic distribution and biological activities of polar steroids isolated from various marine organisms over the last 8-10 years are considered. The peculiarities of steroid biogenesis in the marine biota and their possible biological functions are discussed. Syntheses of some highly active marine polar steroids are described. The bibliography includes 254 references.

  13. A Deg-protease family protein in marine Synechococcus is involved in outer membrane protein organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhona Kayra Stuart

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Deg-family proteases are a periplasm-associated group of proteins that are known to be involved in envelope stress responses and are found in most microorganisms. Orthologous genes SYNW2176 (in strain WH8102 and sync_2523 (strain CC9311 are predicted members of the Deg-protease family and are among the few genes induced by copper stress in both open ocean and coastal marine Synechococcus strains. In contrast to the lack of a phenotype in a similar knockout in Synechocystis PCC6803, a SYNW2176 knockout mutant in strain WH8102 was much more resistant to copper than the wild-type. The mutant also exhibited a significantly altered outer membrane protein composition which may contribute to copper resistance, longer lag phase after transfer, low-level consistent alkaline phosphatase activity, and an inability to induce high alkaline phosphatase activity in response to phosphate stress. This phenotype suggests a protein-quality-control role for SYNW2176, the absence of which leads to a constitutively activated stress response. Deg-protease family proteins in this ecologically important cyanobacterial group thus help to determine outer membrane responses to both nutrients and toxins.

  14. Radioactivity in Norwegian Waters: Distribution in seawater and sediments, and uptake in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise

    2001-01-01

    Prior to the detonation of the first thermonuclear bomb, small amounts of radioactivity, for example in mineral water, were considered to be health enriching. Negative experiences related to thermonuclear bombs and several nuclear accidents have, however, changed people's attitude towards radioactivity during the past 40-50 years. Today, there is a common concern for regular and potential accidental releases of radioactivity from sources such as Sellafield. Although this is important, incorrect assessments of the effects of these releases (e.g. created by uncritical journalism) have the potential to harm the country's fisheries and economy. Therefore, it is of major importance to document up-to-date levels of radioactive contamination of the marine environment, and be able to place these into the proper perspectives. The main topics of the thesis may be summarised as follows: (1) Distribution of Caesium-137, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239,240 and Americium-241 in sediments with emphasis on the Spitsbergen-Bear Island area, (2) Uptake of Caesium-137 in phytoplankton representative for the Barents and Norwegian Seas phytoplankton communities (laboratory experiments), (3) Bioaccumulation of Caesium-137 in food webs in the Barents and Norwegian Seas, (4) Geographical variations of Caesium-137 in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) along the Norwegian coast, (5) Transport times for Technetium-99 from Sellafield to various locations along the Norwegian coast and the Arctic Ocean

  15. Radioactivity in Norwegian Waters: Distribution in seawater and sediments, and uptake in marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise

    2001-07-01

    Prior to the detonation of the first thermonuclear bomb, small amounts of radioactivity, for example in mineral water, were considered to be health enriching. Negative experiences related to thermonuclear bombs and several nuclear accidents have, however, changed people's attitude towards radioactivity during the past 40-50 years. Today, there is a common concern for regular and potential accidental releases of radioactivity from sources such as Sellafield. Although this is important, incorrect assessments of the effects of these releases (e.g. created by uncritical journalism) have the potential to harm the country's fisheries and economy. Therefore, it is of major importance to document up-to-date levels of radioactive contamination of the marine environment, and be able to place these into the proper perspectives. The main topics of the thesis may be summarised as follows: (1) Distribution of Caesium-137, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239,240 and Americium-241 in sediments with emphasis on the Spitsbergen-Bear Island area, (2) Uptake of Caesium-137 in phytoplankton representative for the Barents and Norwegian Seas phytoplankton communities (laboratory experiments), (3) Bioaccumulation of Caesium-137 in food webs in the Barents and Norwegian Seas, (4) Geographical variations of Caesium-137 in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) along the Norwegian coast, (5) Transport times for Technetium-99 from Sellafield to various locations along the Norwegian coast and the Arctic Ocean.

  16. Contribution of transformation products towards the total herbicide toxicity to tropical marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Eaglesham, Geoff; Parks, Stephen; Kenway, Matt; Beltran, Victor; Flores, Florita; Mueller, Jochen F; Negri, Andrew P

    2018-03-19

    The toxicity of herbicide degradation (transformation) products is rarely taken into account, even though these are commonly detected in the marine environment, sometimes at concentrations higher than the parent compounds. Here we assessed the potential contribution of toxicity by transformation products of five photosystem II herbicides to coral symbionts (Symbiodinium sp.), the green algae Dunaliella sp., and prawn (Penaeus monodon) larvae. Concentration-dependent inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency (∆F/F m ') was observed for all herbicides in both microalgal species. The toxicity of solutions of aged diuron solutions containing transformation products to Symbiodinium sp. and Dunaliella sp. was greater than could be explained by the concentrations of diuron measured, indicating transformation products contributed to the inhibition of ∆F/F m '. However, the toxicity of aged atrazine, simazine, hexazinone, and ametryn solutions could be explained by the concentration of parent herbicide, indicating no contribution by transformation products. Prawn larval metamorphosis was not sensitive to the herbicides, but preliminary results indicated some toxicity of the transformation products of atrazine and diuron. Risk assessments should take into account the contribution of herbicide transformation products; however, further studies are clearly needed to test the toxicity of a far wider range of transformation products to a representative diversity of relevant taxa.

  17. Radioactivity in Norwegian Waters: Distribution in seawater and sediments, and uptake in marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise

    2001-07-01

    Prior to the detonation of the first thermonuclear bomb, small amounts of radioactivity, for example in mineral water, were considered to be health enriching. Negative experiences related to thermonuclear bombs and several nuclear accidents have, however, changed people's attitude towards radioactivity during the past 40-50 years. Today, there is a common concern for regular and potential accidental releases of radioactivity from sources such as Sellafield. Although this is important, incorrect assessments of the effects of these releases (e.g. created by uncritical journalism) have the potential to harm the country's fisheries and economy. Therefore, it is of major importance to document up-to-date levels of radioactive contamination of the marine environment, and be able to place these into the proper perspectives. The main topics of the thesis may be summarised as follows: (1) Distribution of Caesium-137, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239,240 and Americium-241 in sediments with emphasis on the Spitsbergen-Bear Island area, (2) Uptake of Caesium-137 in phytoplankton representative for the Barents and Norwegian Seas phytoplankton communities (laboratory experiments), (3) Bioaccumulation of Caesium-137 in food webs in the Barents and Norwegian Seas, (4) Geographical variations of Caesium-137 in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) along the Norwegian coast, (5) Transport times for Technetium-99 from Sellafield to various locations along the Norwegian coast and the Arctic Ocean.

  18. Toxicity of natural mixtures of organic pollutants in temperate and polar marine phytoplankton

    KAUST Repository

    Echeveste, Pedro

    2016-07-26

    Semivolatile and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) undergo atmospheric transport before being deposited to the oceans, where they partition to phytoplankton organic matter. The goal of this study was to determine the toxicity of naturally occurring complex mixtures of organic pollutants to temperate and polar phytoplankton communities from the Mediterranean Sea, the North East (NE) Atlantic, and Southern Oceans. The cell abundance of the different phytoplankton groups, chlorophyll a concentrations, viability of the cells, and growth and decay constants were monitored in response to addition of a range of concentrations of mixtures of organic pollutants obtained from seawater extracts. Almost all of the phytoplankton groups were significantly affected by the complex mixtures of non-polar and polar organic pollutants, with toxicity being greater for these mixtures than for single POPs or simple POP mixtures. Cocktails\\' toxicity arose at concentrations as low as tenfold the field oceanic levels, probably due to a higher chemical activity of the mixture than of simple POPs mixtures. Overall, smaller cells were the most affected, although Mediterranean picophytoplankton was significantly more tolerant to non-polar POPs than picophytoplankton from the Atlantic Ocean or the Bellingshausen Sea microphytoplankton. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Impacts of springtime biomass burning in the northern Southeast Asia on marine organic aerosols over the Gulf of Tonkin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lishan; Yang, Xiaoyang; Lai, Senchao; Ren, Hong; Yue, Siyao; Zhang, Yingyi; Huang, Xin; Gao, Yuanguan; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Fu, Pingqing

    2018-06-01

    Fine particles (PM 2.5 ) samples, collected at Weizhou Island over the Gulf of Tonkin on a daytime and nighttime basis in the spring of 2015, were analyzed for primary and secondary organic tracers, together with organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and stable carbon isotopic composition (δ 13 C) of total carbon (TC). Five organic compound classes, including saccharides, lignin/resin products, fatty acids, biogenic SOA tracers and phthalic acids, were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Levoglucosan was the most abundant organic species, indicating that the sampling site was under strong influence of biomass burning. Based on the tracer-based methods, the biomass-burning-derived fraction was estimated to be the dominant contributor to aerosol OC, accounting for 15.7% ± 11.1% and 22.2% ± 17.4% of OC in daytime and nighttime samples, respectively. In two episodes E1 and E2, organic aerosols characterized by elevated concentrations of levoglucosan as well as its isomers, sugar compounds, lignin products, high molecular weight (HMW) fatty acids and β-caryophyllinic acid, were attributed to the influence of intensive biomass burning in the northern Southeast Asia (SEA). However, the discrepancies in the ratios of levoglucosan to mannosan (L/M) and OC (L/OC) as well as the δ 13 C values suggest the type of biomass burning and the sources of organic aerosols in E1 and E2 were different. Hardwood and/or C 4 plants were the major burning materials in E1, while burning of softwood and/or C 3 plants played important role in E2. Furthermore, more complex sources and enhanced secondary contribution were found to play a part in organic aerosols in E2. This study highlights the significant influence of springtime biomass burning in the northern SEA to the organic molecular compositions of marine aerosols over the Gulf of Tonkin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Toxicity of Bioactive and Probiotic Marine Bacteria and Their Secondary Metabolites in Artemia sp. and Caenorhabditis elegans as Eukaryotic Model Organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neu, Anna; Månsson, Maria; Gram, Lone

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported that some strains belonging to the marine Actinobacteria class, the Pseudoalteromonas genus, the Roseobacter clade, and the Photobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families produce both antibacterial and antivirulence compounds, and these organisms are interesting from......-producing Roseobacter bacteria as a promising group to be used as probiotics in aquaculture, whereas Actinobacteria, Pseudoalteromonas, Photobacteriaceae, and Vibrionaceae should be used with caution....

  1. Persistent organic pollutants and mercury in marine biota of the Canadian Arctic: an overview of spatial and temporal trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braune, B M; Outridge, P M; Fisk, A T; Muir, D C G; Helm, P A; Hobbs, K; Hoekstra, P F; Kuzyk, Z A; Kwan, M; Letcher, R J; Lockhart, W L; Norstrom, R J; Stern, G A; Stirling, I

    2005-12-01

    This review summarizes and synthesizes the significant amount of data which was generated on mercury (Hg) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Canadian Arctic marine biota since the first Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report (CACAR) was published in 1997. This recent body of work has led to a better understanding of the current levels and spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in biota, including the marine food species that northern peoples traditionally consume. Compared to other circumpolar countries, concentrations of many organochlorines (OCs) in Canadian Arctic marine biota are generally lower than in the European Arctic and eastern Greenland but are higher than in Alaska, whereas Hg concentrations are substantially higher in Canada than elsewhere. Spatial coverage of OCs in ringed seals, beluga and seabirds remains a strength of the Arctic contaminant data set for Canada. Concentrations of OCs in marine mammals and seabirds remain fairly consistent across the Canadian Arctic although subtle differences from west to east and south to north are found in the proportions of various chemicals. The most significant development since 1997 is improvement in the temporal trend data sets, thanks to the use of archived tissue samples from the 1970s and 1980s, long-term studies using archeological material, as well as the continuation of sampling. These data cover a range of species and chemicals and also include retrospective studies on new chemicals such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers. There is solid evidence in a few species (beluga, polar bear, blue mussels) that Hg at some locations has significantly increased from pre-industrial times to the present; however, the temporal trends of Hg over the past 20-30 years are inconsistent. Some animal populations exhibited significant increases in Hg whereas others did not. Therefore, it is currently not possible to determine if anthropogenic Hg is generally increasing in Canadian Arctic biota. It is

  2. Biomagnification of organic pollutants in benthic and pelagic marine food chains from the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nfon, Erick; Cousins, Ian T.; Broman, Dag

    2008-01-01

    The trophic transfer of organic pollutants with varying physical chemical properties was determined in both a pelagic and benthic food chain using δ 15 N as a continuous variable for assessing trophic levels. The trophic transfer of organic pollutants through the entire food chain in terms of food chain magnification factors (FCMFs) was quantified from the slope of the regression between ln [concentration] and δ 15 N. Organic pollutants with statistically significant FCMFs > 1 were considered to biomagnify within the food chain, whereas those with FCMFs 1 were found for PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the Baltic food chains whereas statistically significant FCMFs 15 N method suggested a food chain structure which was not consistent with the known dietary patterns of the species. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were additionally calculated as the ratio of the lipid normalized concentrations in the predator and prey species with adjustment for trophic level and were generally consistent with the FCMFs with BMF > 1 for PCBs and organochlorines

  3. CCN Properties of Organic Aerosol Collected Below and within Marine Stratocumulus Clouds near Monterey, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akua Asa-Awuku

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The composition of aerosol from cloud droplets differs from that below cloud. Its implications for the Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN activity are the focus of this study. Water-soluble organic matter from below cloud, and cloud droplet residuals off the coast of Monterey, California were collected; offline chemical composition, CCN activity and surface tension measurements coupled with Köhler Theory Analysis are used to infer the molar volume and surfactant characteristics of organics in both samples. Based on the surface tension depression of the samples, it is unlikely that the aerosol contains strong surfactants. The activation kinetics for all samples examined are consistent with rapid (NH42SO4 calibration aerosol. This is consistent with our current understanding of droplet kinetics for ambient CCN. However, the carbonaceous material in cloud drop residuals is far more hygroscopic than in sub-cloud aerosol, suggestive of the impact of cloud chemistry on the hygroscopic properties of organic matter.

  4. PBDE and PCB accumulation in benthos near marine wastewater outfalls: The role of sediment organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinn, Pamela M.; Johannessen, Sophia C.; Ross, Peter S.; Macdonald, Robie W.; Whiticar, Michael J.; Lowe, Christopher J.; Roodselaar, Albert van

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in sediments and benthic invertebrates near submarine municipal outfalls in Victoria and Vancouver, B.C., Canada, two areas with contrasting receiving environments. PBDE concentrations in wastewater exceeded those of the legacy PCBs by eight times at Vancouver and 35 times at Victoria. Total PBDE concentrations in benthic invertebrates were higher near Vancouver than Victoria, despite lower concentrations in sediments, and correlated with organic carbon-normalized concentrations in sediment. Principal Components Analysis indicated uptake of individual PBDE congeners was determined by sediment properties (organic carbon, grain size), while PCB congener uptake was governed by physico-chemical properties (octanol-water partitioning coefficient). Results suggest the utility of sediment quality guidelines for PBDEs and likely PCBs benefit if based on organic carbon-normalized concentrations. Also, where enhanced wastewater treatment increases the PBDEs to particulate organic carbon ratio in effluent, nearfield benthic invertebrates may face increased PBDE accumulation. - Highlights: ► Physical receiving environment affects PBDE bioaccumulation by benthic invertebrates. ► PBDE uptake is correlated with organic-carbon normalized sediment concentrations. ► PBDE and PCB congener uptake are governed by different properties. ► PBDE sediment quality guidelines may benefit by using organic carbon-normalized data. ► Enhanced wastewater treatment may mean increased benthic invertebrate PBDE bioaccumulation. - The physical receiving environment affects the accumulation of PBDEs by benthic invertebrates near submarine municipal outfalls, and uptake of PBDE congeners is governed by different properties than for PCB congeners.

  5. Toxicity of seven priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) to marine organisms: Current status, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Galhano, Victor; Ferreira, Marta; Guimarães, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Shipping industry and seaborne trade have rapidly increased over the last fifty years, mainly due to the continuous increasing demand for chemicals and fuels. Consequently, despite current regulations, the occurrence of accidental spills poses an important risk. Hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) have been raising major concern among environmental managers and scientific community for their heterogeneity, hazardous potential towards aquatic organisms and associated social-economic impacts. A literature review on ecotoxicological hazards to aquatic organisms was conducted for seven HNSs: acrylonitrile, n-butyl acrylate, cyclohexylbenzene, hexane, isononanol, trichloroethylene and xylene. Information on the mechanisms of action of the selected HNS was also reviewed. The main purpose was to identify: i) knowledge gaps in need of being addressed in future research; and ii) a set of possible biomarkers suitable for ecotoxicological assessment and monitoring in both estuarine and marine systems. Main gaps found concern the scarcity of information available on ecotoxicological effects of HNS towards marine species and their poorly understood mode of action in wildlife. Differences were found between the sensitivity of freshwater and seawater organisms, so endpoints produced in the former may not be straightforwardly employed in evaluations for the marine environment. The relationship between sub-individual effects and higher level detrimental alterations (e.g. behavioural, morphological, reproductive effects and mortality) are not fully understood. In this context, a set of biomarkers associated to neurotoxicity, detoxification and anti-oxidant defences is suggested as potential indicators of toxic exposure/effects of HNS in marine organisms. Overall, to support the development of contingency plans and the establishment of environmental safety thresholds, it will be necessary to undertake targeted research on HNS ecotoxicity in the marine environment. Research should

  6. Toxicity of seven priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) to marine organisms: Current status, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S., E-mail: cristinasrocha@gmail.com; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Galhano, Victor; Ferreira, Marta, E-mail: marta.ferreira@usp.ac.fj; Guimarães, Laura

    2016-01-15

    Shipping industry and seaborne trade have rapidly increased over the last fifty years, mainly due to the continuous increasing demand for chemicals and fuels. Consequently, despite current regulations, the occurrence of accidental spills poses an important risk. Hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) have been raising major concern among environmental managers and scientific community for their heterogeneity, hazardous potential towards aquatic organisms and associated social-economic impacts. A literature review on ecotoxicological hazards to aquatic organisms was conducted for seven HNSs: acrylonitrile, n-butyl acrylate, cyclohexylbenzene, hexane, isononanol, trichloroethylene and xylene. Information on the mechanisms of action of the selected HNS was also reviewed. The main purpose was to identify: i) knowledge gaps in need of being addressed in future research; and ii) a set of possible biomarkers suitable for ecotoxicological assessment and monitoring in both estuarine and marine systems. Main gaps found concern the scarcity of information available on ecotoxicological effects of HNS towards marine species and their poorly understood mode of action in wildlife. Differences were found between the sensitivity of freshwater and seawater organisms, so endpoints produced in the former may not be straightforwardly employed in evaluations for the marine environment. The relationship between sub-individual effects and higher level detrimental alterations (e.g. behavioural, morphological, reproductive effects and mortality) are not fully understood. In this context, a set of biomarkers associated to neurotoxicity, detoxification and anti-oxidant defences is suggested as potential indicators of toxic exposure/effects of HNS in marine organisms. Overall, to support the development of contingency plans and the establishment of environmental safety thresholds, it will be necessary to undertake targeted research on HNS ecotoxicity in the marine environment. Research should

  7. Spatial modelling of marine organisms in Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Including calculation of physical predictor variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlen, Ida; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Isaeus, Martin (AquaBiota Water Research, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-06-15

    GIS grids (maps) of marine parameters were created using point data from previous site investigations in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The proportion of global radiation reaching the sea bottom in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated in ArcView, using Secchi depth measurements and the digital elevation models for the respective area. The number of days per year when the incoming light exceeds 5 MJ/m2 at the bottom was then calculated using the result of the previous calculations together with measured global radiation. Existing modelled grid-point data on bottom and pelagic temperature for Forsmark were interpolated to create surface covering grids. Bottom and pelagic temperature grids for Oskarshamn were calculated using point measurements to achieve yearly averages for a few points and then using regressions with existing grids to create new maps. Phytoplankton primary production in Forsmark was calculated using point measurements of chlorophyll and irradiance, and a regression with a modelled grid of Secchi depth. Distribution of biomass of macrophyte communities in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated using spatial modelling in GRASP, based on field data from previous surveys. Physical parameters such as those described above were used as predictor variables. Distribution of biomass of different functional groups of fish in Forsmark was calculated using spatial modelling based on previous surveys and with predictor variables such as physical parameters and results from macrophyte modelling. All results are presented as maps in the report. The quality of the modelled predictions varies as a consequence of the quality and amount of the input data, the ecology and knowledge of the predicted phenomena, and by the modelling technique used. A substantial part of the variation is not described by the models, which should be expected for biological modelling. Therefore, the resulting grids should be used with caution and with this uncertainty kept in mind. All

  8. Bromination of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter following Full Scale Electrochemical Ballast Water Disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsior, Michael; Mitchelmore, Carys; Heyes, Andrew; Harir, Mourad; Richardson, Susan D; Petty, William Tyler; Wright, David A; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-08-04

    An extensively diverse array of brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were generated following electrochemical disinfection of natural coastal/estuarine water, which is one of the main treatment methods currently under consideration for ballast water treatment. Ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed 462 distinct brominated DBPs at a relative abundance in the mass spectra of more than 1%. A brominated DBP with a relative abundance of almost 22% was identified as 2,2,4-tribromo-5-hydroxy-4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione, which is an analogue to several previously described 2,2,4-trihalo-5-hydroxy-4-cyclopentene-1,3-diones in drinking water. Several other brominated molecular formulas matched those of other known brominated DBPs, such as dibromomethane, which could be generated by decarboxylation of dibromoacetic acid during ionization, dibromophenol, dibromopropanoic acid, dibromobutanoic acid, bromohydroxybenzoic acid, bromophenylacetic acid, bromooxopentenoic acid, and dibromopentenedioic acid. Via comparison to previously described chlorine-containing analogues, bromophenylacetic acid, dibromooxopentenoic acid, and dibromopentenedioic acid were also identified. A novel compound at a 4% relative abundance was identified as tribromoethenesulfonate. This compound has not been previously described as a DBP, and its core structure of tribromoethene has been demonstrated to show toxicological implications. Here we show that electrochemical disinfection, suggested as a candidate for successful ballast water treatment, caused considerable production of some previously characterized DBPs in addition to novel brominated DBPs, although several hundred compounds remain structurally uncharacterized. Our results clearly demonstrate that electrochemical and potentially direct chlorination of ballast water in estuarine and marine systems should be approached with caution and the concentrations, fate, and toxicity of DBP need to be further characterized.

  9. Spatial modelling of marine organisms in Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Including calculation of physical predictor variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlen, Ida; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Isaeus, Martin

    2007-06-01

    GIS grids (maps) of marine parameters were created using point data from previous site investigations in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The proportion of global radiation reaching the sea bottom in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated in ArcView, using Secchi depth measurements and the digital elevation models for the respective area. The number of days per year when the incoming light exceeds 5 MJ/m2 at the bottom was then calculated using the result of the previous calculations together with measured global radiation. Existing modelled grid-point data on bottom and pelagic temperature for Forsmark were interpolated to create surface covering grids. Bottom and pelagic temperature grids for Oskarshamn were calculated using point measurements to achieve yearly averages for a few points and then using regressions with existing grids to create new maps. Phytoplankton primary production in Forsmark was calculated using point measurements of chlorophyll and irradiance, and a regression with a modelled grid of Secchi depth. Distribution of biomass of macrophyte communities in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated using spatial modelling in GRASP, based on field data from previous surveys. Physical parameters such as those described above were used as predictor variables. Distribution of biomass of different functional groups of fish in Forsmark was calculated using spatial modelling based on previous surveys and with predictor variables such as physical parameters and results from macrophyte modelling. All results are presented as maps in the report. The quality of the modelled predictions varies as a consequence of the quality and amount of the input data, the ecology and knowledge of the predicted phenomena, and by the modelling technique used. A substantial part of the variation is not described by the models, which should be expected for biological modelling. Therefore, the resulting grids should be used with caution and with this uncertainty kept in mind. All

  10. Differential bioaccumulation of "1"3"4Cs in tropical marine organisms and the relative importance of exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metian, Marc; Pouil, Simon; Hédouin, Laetitia; Oberhänsli, François; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Bustamante, Paco; Warnau, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of "1"3"4Cs was determined in 5 tropical marine species: three bivalves (the oysters Isognomon isognomum and Malleus regula, and the clam Gafrarium pectinatum), one decapod (shrimp Penaeus stylirostris) and one alga (Lobophora variegata). Marine organisms were exposed to the radionuclides via different pathways: seawater (all of them), food (shrimp and bivalves) and sediment (bivalves). Our results indicate that the studied tropical species accumulate Cs similarly than species from temperate regions whereas retention capacities seems to be greater in the tropical species. Bioaccumulation capacities of the two oysters were similar for all the exposure pathways. The alga, and to a lesser extent the shrimp, concentrated dissolved Cs more efficiently than the bivalves (approx. 14 and 7 times higher, respectively). Assimilation efficiencies of Cs in bivalves and shrimp after a single feeding with radiolabelled food were comprised between 7.0 ± 0.4 and 40.7 ± 4.3%, with a variable retention time (half-life –T_b_1_/_2– ranging from 16 ± 3 to 89 ± 55 d). Although the clam lives buried in the sediment, this exposure pathway resulted in low bioaccumulation efficiency for sediment-bound Cs (mean transfer factor: 0.020 ± 0.001) that was lower than the two oyster species, which are not used to live in this media (0.084 ± 0.003 and 0.080 ± 0.005). Nonetheless, Cs accumulated from sediment was similarly absorbed (61.6 ± 9.7 to 79.2 ± 2.3%) and retained (T_b_1_/_2: 37 ± 2 to 58 ± 25 d) for the three bivalves species. Despite the poor transfer efficiency of Cs from food, the use of a global bioaccumulation model indicated that the trophic pathways was the main uptake route of Cs in the bivalves and shrimp. In shelled organisms, shells played a non-negligible role in Cs uptake, and their composition and structure might play a major role in this process. Indeed, most of the Cs taken up from seawater and sediment was principally

  11. Estuarine consumers utilize marine, estuarine and terrestrial organic matter and provide connectivity among these food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flux of organic matter (OM) across ecosystem boundaries can influence estuarine food web dynamics and productivity. However, this process is seldom investigated taking into account all the adjacent ecosystems (e.g. ocean, river, land) and different hydrological settings (i.e....

  12. Dissolved organic nitrogen and carbon release by a marine unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benavides, M.; Agawin, N.S.R.; Aristegui, J.; Peene, J.; Stal, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Dinitrogen (N-2) fixation rates may be underestimated when recently fixed N2 is released as dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). DON release (DONr) is substantial in the filamentous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium but has never been reported in unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria. We used axenic

  13. Dissolved organic nitrogen and carbon release by a marine unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benavides, M.; Agawin, N.S.R.; Aristegui, J.; Peene, J.; Stal, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Dinitrogen (N2) fixation rates may be underestimated when recently fixed N2 is released as dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). DON release (DONr) is substantial in the filamentous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium but has never been reported in unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria. We used axenic

  14. An Account on marine wood-boring organisms of offshore waters of Bombay High, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagh, A.B.; Raveendran, T.V.

    An incidence of wood-boring organisms in a water column of 75 meters depth, 160 km off the Bombay coast is reported. The destruction of untreated panels of mango wood exposed for periods varying from 1-12 months was caused by eight species...

  15. Quantifying In Situ Metal and Organic Contaminant Mobility in Marine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    and west of Ford Island, within the Pearl Harbor Naval Base. Sediments are fine grain silts and clays of basaltic origins and contain various... fiber filters for organics), and check valves (Figure 8) connected to synchronized parallel rotary valves connected to the collection chamber. Samples

  16. Ammonium production off central Chile (36°S by photodegradation of phytoplankton-derived and marine dissolved organic matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Rain-Franco

    Full Text Available We investigated the production of ammonium by the photodegradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM in the coastal upwelling system off central Chile (36°S. The mean penetration of solar radiation (Z1% between April 2011 and February 2012 was 9.4 m, 4.4 m and 3.2 m for Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm, UV-A (320-400 nm and UV-B (280-320 nm, respectively. Ammonium photoproduction experiments were carried out using exudates of DOM obtained from cultured diatom species (Chaetoceros muelleri and Thalassiosira minuscule as well as natural marine DOM. Diatom exudates showed net photoproduction of ammonium under exposure to UVR with a mean rate of 0.56±0.4 µmol L(-1 h(-1 and a maximum rate of 1.49 µmol L(-1 h(-1. Results from natural marine DOM showed net photoproduction of ammonium under exposure to PAR+UVR ranging between 0.06 and 0.2 µmol L(-1 h(-1. We estimated the potential contribution of photochemical ammonium production for phytoplankton ammonium demand. Photoammonification of diatom exudates could support between 117 and 453% of spring-summer NH4(+ assimilation, while rates obtained from natural samples could contribute to 50-178% of spring-summer phytoplankton NH4(+ requirements. These results have implications for local N budgets, as photochemical ammonium production can occur year-round in the first meters of the euphotic zone that are impacted by full sunlight.

  17. Interactive effects of metal contamination and pathogenic organisms on the introduced marine bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum in European populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul-Pont, Ika; Montaudouin, Xavier de; Gonzalez, Patrice; Jude, Florence; Raymond, Natalie; Paillard, Christine; Baudrimont, Magalie

    2010-01-01

    In natural environment, marine organisms are concomitantly exposed to pollutants and multiple disease agents resulting in detrimental interactions. The present study evaluated interactive effects of metal contamination (cadmium) and pathogenic organisms (trematode parasites Himasthla elongata and pathogenic bacteria Vibrio tapetis) singularly and in combination on the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum, an introduced species to Europe, under laboratory controlled conditions. After 7 days, metal bioaccumulation and pathogen load were analyzed as well as metallothionein (MT) response and hemocyte concentrations and activities. Results showed that infection by opportunistic pathogens affects metal accumulation, leading to maximal Cd accumulation in co-infected clams. Among stressors only V. tapetis induced significant effects on immune parameters whereas a particular interaction 'trematode-bacteria' was shown on MT responses. Despite low trematode infection in agreement with the resistant status of R. philippinarum to these macroparasites, significant interaction with bacteria and metal occurred. Such results highlight the necessity of taking pathogens into account in ecotoxicological studies. - Co-infection by opportunistic pathogens affects metal accumulation and some defense-related activities in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

  18. Interactive effects of metal contamination and pathogenic organisms on the introduced marine bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum in European populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul-Pont, Ika, E-mail: i.paulpont@epoc.u-bordeaux1.f [Universite Bordeaux 1, UMR 5805 CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Montaudouin, Xavier de; Gonzalez, Patrice; Jude, Florence; Raymond, Natalie [Universite Bordeaux 1, UMR 5805 CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Paillard, Christine [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale-IUEM, LEMAR UMR 6539 CNRS, Place Nicolas Copernic, Technopole Brest Iroise, 29280 Plouzane (France); Baudrimont, Magalie [Universite Bordeaux 1, UMR 5805 CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France)

    2010-11-15

    In natural environment, marine organisms are concomitantly exposed to pollutants and multiple disease agents resulting in detrimental interactions. The present study evaluated interactive effects of metal contamination (cadmium) and pathogenic organisms (trematode parasites Himasthla elongata and pathogenic bacteria Vibrio tapetis) singularly and in combination on the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum, an introduced species to Europe, under laboratory controlled conditions. After 7 days, metal bioaccumulation and pathogen load were analyzed as well as metallothionein (MT) response and hemocyte concentrations and activities. Results showed that infection by opportunistic pathogens affects metal accumulation, leading to maximal Cd accumulation in co-infected clams. Among stressors only V. tapetis induced significant effects on immune parameters whereas a particular interaction 'trematode-bacteria' was shown on MT responses. Despite low trematode infection in agreement with the resistant status of R. philippinarum to these macroparasites, significant interaction with bacteria and metal occurred. Such results highlight the necessity of taking pathogens into account in ecotoxicological studies. - Co-infection by opportunistic pathogens affects metal accumulation and some defense-related activities in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

  19. Contamination of an arctic terrestrial food web with marine-derived persistent organic pollutants transported by breeding seabirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, Emily S.; Kimpe, Linda E.; Mallory, Mark L.; Smol, John P.; Blais, Jules M.

    2010-01-01

    At Cape Vera, Devon Island (Nunavut, Canada), a colony of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) concentrates and releases contaminants through their guano to the environment. We determined whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from seabirds were transferred to coastal food webs. Snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) were the most contaminated species, with ΣPCB and ΣDDT (mean: 168, 106 ng/g ww) concentrations surpassing environmental guidelines for protecting wildlife. When examined collectively, PCB congeners and DDT in jewel lichen (Xanthoria elegans) were lower in samples taken farther from the seabird colony, and increased with increasing δ 15 N values. However, only concentrations of p'p-DDE:ΣDDT and PCB-95 were significantly correlated inversely with distance from the seabird cliffs. Linkages between marine-derived POPs and their concentrations in terrestrial mammals were less clear. Our study provides novel contaminant data for these species and supports biovector transport as a source of organic contaminants to certain components of the terrestrial food web. - This study provides evidence of contaminant transport by seabirds to a coastal Arctic food web.

  20. MF/UF rejection and fouling potential of algal organic matter from bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2015-07-01

    Pretreatment with microfiltration (MF) or ultrafiltration (UF) membranes has been proposed for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants to address operational issues associated with algal blooms. Here, we investigated the MF/UF rejection and fouling potential of algal organic matter (AOM) released by common species of bloom-forming marine (Alexandrium tamarense and Chaetoceros affinis) and freshwater (Microcystis sp.) algae. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying growth pattern, cell concentration, AOM released and membrane fouling potential. The high membrane fouling potential of the cultures can be directly associated (R2>0.85) with AOM such as transparent exopolymer particle (TEP) while no apparent relationship with algal cell concentration was observed. The AOM comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) and low molecular weight organic compounds (e.g., humic-like substances). The former were largely rejected by MF/UF membranes while the latter were poorly rejected. MF (0.4μm and 0.1μm pore size) rejected 14%-56% of biopolymers while conventional UF (100kDa) and tight UF (10kDa) rejected up to 83% and 97%, respectively. The retention of AOM resulted in a rapid increase in trans-membrane pressure (δP) over time, characterised by pore blocking followed by cake filtration with enhanced compression as illustrated by an exponential progression of δP. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Contamination of an arctic terrestrial food web with marine-derived persistent organic pollutants transported by breeding seabirds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choy, Emily S., E-mail: echoy087@uottawa.c [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Kimpe, Linda E., E-mail: linda.kimpe@uottawa.c [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L., E-mail: mark.mallory@ec.gc.c [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Iqaluit, NU, X0A 0H0 (Canada); Smol, John P., E-mail: smolj@queensu.c [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Lab (PEARL), Department of Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Blais, Jules M., E-mail: jules.blais@uottawa.c [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    At Cape Vera, Devon Island (Nunavut, Canada), a colony of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) concentrates and releases contaminants through their guano to the environment. We determined whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from seabirds were transferred to coastal food webs. Snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) were the most contaminated species, with {Sigma}PCB and {Sigma}DDT (mean: 168, 106 ng/g ww) concentrations surpassing environmental guidelines for protecting wildlife. When examined collectively, PCB congeners and DDT in jewel lichen (Xanthoria elegans) were lower in samples taken farther from the seabird colony, and increased with increasing {delta}{sup 15}N values. However, only concentrations of p'p-DDE:{Sigma}DDT and PCB-95 were significantly correlated inversely with distance from the seabird cliffs. Linkages between marine-derived POPs and their concentrations in terrestrial mammals were less clear. Our study provides novel contaminant data for these species and supports biovector transport as a source of organic contaminants to certain components of the terrestrial food web. - This study provides evidence of contaminant transport by seabirds to a coastal Arctic food web.

  2. Assessing pollution in marine protected areas: the role of a multi-biomarker and multi-organ approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusso-Choueri, Paloma Kachel; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; de Araújo, Giuliana Seraphim; Cruz, Ana Carolina Feitosa; Stremel, Tatiana; Campos, Sandro; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Sousa; Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are vulnerable to many pressures, including pollution. However, environmental quality monitoring in these areas traditionally relies on only water chemistry and microbiological parameters. The goal of the current study was to investigate the role of a set of biomarkers in different target organs (liver, kidney, and gills) of fish in order to assess the environmental quality of an MPA (MTs, GPx, GST, GSH, DNA damage, LPO, AChE, and condition index). Chemical analyses were also performed on liver and muscle tissues to evaluate metal body burdens, and PAHs were identified in bile. A demersal fish (Cathorops spixii) that is widely consumed by the local population was used as bioindicator species, and the results were integrated using multivariate analysis. The use of the biomarker approach allowed for the identification of both seasonal and spatial variations in pollution sources around the Environmental Protected Area of Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe (APA-CIP). Higher metal body burdens associated with biological responses were found in the sites under the influence of urban areas during the dry season, and they were found in the sites under the influence of the Ribeira de Iguape River (RIR) during the rainy season. The liver was found to be more responsive in terms of its antioxidant responses, whereas gills were found to be more responsive to biomarkers of effect. These results show that this set of biomarker analyses in different organs of fish is a useful tool for assessing chemical pollution in an MPA.

  3. Sensitivity of Mediterranean bivalve mollusc aquaculture to climate change, ocean acidification, and other environmental pressures: findings from a producers’ survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, L.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Mass, F.; Theodorou, J.A.; Ziveri, P.; Gazeau, F.

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced climate change and ocean acidification are global environmental phenomena with a common driver: anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. Both processes potentially threaten the Mediterranean bivalve mollusc aquaculture sector, which is economically relevant to several regions and

  4. Antibacterial activity of marine culturable bacteria collected from a global sampling of ocean surface waters and surface swabs of marine organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Melchiorsen, Jette; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin

    2010-01-01

    ). Total cell counts at the seawater surface were 5 × 105 to 106 cells/ml, of which 0.1–0.2% were culturable on dilute marine agar (20°C). Three percent of the colonies cultured from seawater inhibited Vibrio anguillarum, whereas a significantly higher proportion (13%) of colonies from inert or biotic...

  5. Global trends in the fluorescence characteristics and distribution of marine dissolved organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Linda; Stedmon, Colin; Kragh, Theis

    2011-01-01

    . These observations imply a link to dark ocean microbial remineralization and indicate that the major source of humic-like compounds is microbial turnover of organic matter. The results of the present study show that the distribution of the humic-like DOM fractions is a balance between supply from continental run off......A fraction of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is able to fluoresce. This ability has been used in the present study to investigate the characteristics and distribution of different DOM fractions. A unique global dataset revealed seven different fluorescent fractions of DOM: two humic-like, four...... in the surface layer indicate the quantitative importance of photochemical degradation as a sink of the humic-like compounds. In the dark ocean (below 200 m), significant linear relationships between humic-like DOM fluorescence and microbial activity (apparent oxygen utilization, NO3- and PO43-) were found...

  6. Marine snow, organic solute plumes, and optimal chemosensory behavior of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Jackson, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    Leaking organic solutes form an elongated plume in the wake of a sinking aggregate. These solutes may both be assimilated by suspended bacteria and guide bacteria with chemokinetic swimming behavior toward the aggregate. We used modifications of previously published models of the flow and concent......Leaking organic solutes form an elongated plume in the wake of a sinking aggregate. These solutes may both be assimilated by suspended bacteria and guide bacteria with chemokinetic swimming behavior toward the aggregate. We used modifications of previously published models of the flow...... behavior was used to examine the potential contribution of aggregate-generated solute plumes for water column bacteria] production. Despite occupying only a small volume fraction, the plumes may provide important growth habitats for free bacteria and account for a significant proportion of water column...

  7. The distribution of 4-nonylphenol in marine organisms of North American Pacific Coast estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Jennifer; Johnson, Sarah E; Xia, Kang; West, Amy; Tomanek, Lars

    2012-04-01

    One of the chemical breakdown products of nonylphenol ethoxylates, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), accumulates in organisms and is of concern as an environmental pollutant due to its endocrine disrupting effects. We measured 4-NP levels in the seawater, sediment, and twelve organisms within the California estuary, Morro Bay, and examined biomagnification of 4-NP using stable isotope abundances (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) to quantify trophic position. 4-NP concentrations in organisms from Morro Bay included 25000±8600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of California sea lion, 14000±5600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of harbor porpoise, 138000±55000 ng g(-1) lw in liver of sea otters, 15700±3600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of seabirds, 36100±6100 ng g(-1) lw in arrow goby fish, 62800±28400 ng g(-1) lw in oysters, and 12700±1300 ng g(-1) lw in mussels. 4-NP levels generally showed a pattern of trophic dilution among organisms in Morro Bay, with exceptions of biomagnification observed between three trophic links: mussel to sea otter (BMF 10.9), oyster to sea otter (BMF 2.2), and arrow goby to staghorn sculpin (BMF 2.7). Our examination of other west coast estuaries of USA and Canada revealed that mean 4-NP concentrations in gobies and mussels from Morro Bay were significantly higher than those from a more urbanized estuary, San Francisco Bay (goby: 11100±3800 ng g(-1) lw) and from a remote estuary, Bamfield Inlet, Canada (goby: 9000±900 ng g(-1) lw, mussel: 6100±700 ng g(-1) lw). Relative to other estuaries worldwide, 4-NP levels in seawater (0.42±0.16 μg L(-1)) and sediment (53±14 ng g(-1) dw) of Morro Bay are low, but gobies and oysters have higher 4-NP levels than comparable fauna. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Marine Battlefields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harðardóttir, Sara

    as they are an important food source for various marine animals. For both phytoand zooplankton predation is a major cause of mortality, and strategies for protection or avoidance are important for survival. Diatoms of the genera Nitzschia and Pseudo-nitzschia are known to produce a neuro-toxin, domoic acid (DA). Despite......Phytoplankton species are photosynthetic organisms found in most aquatic habitats. In the ocean, phytoplankton are tremendously important because they produce the energy that forms the base of the marine food web. Zooplankton feed on phytoplankton and mediate the energy to higher trophic levels...

  9. Chemical composition and surfactant characteristics of marine foams investigated by means of UV-vis, FTIR and FTNIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecozzi, Mauro; Pietroletti, Marco

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we collected the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Fourier transform near-infrared (FTNIR) spectra of marine foams from different sites and foams produced by marine living organisms (i.e. algae and molluscs) to retrieve information about their molecular and structural composition. UV-vis spectra gave information concerning the lipid and pigment contents of foams. FTIR spectroscopy gave a more detailed qualitative information regarding carbohydrates, lipids and proteins in addition with information about the mineral contents of foams. FTNIR spectra confirmed the presence of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins in foams. Then, due to the higher content of structural information of FTIR spectroscopy with respect to FTNIR and UV-vis, we join the FTIR spectra of marine foams to those of humic substance from marine sediments and to the spectra of foams obtained by living organisms. We submitted this resulting FTIR spectral dataset to statistical multivariate methods to investigate specific aspects of foams such as structural similarity among foams and in addition, contributions from the organic matter of living organisms. Cluster analysis (CA) evidenced several cases (i.e. clusters) of marine foams having high structural similarity with foams from vegetal and animal samples and with humic substance extracted from sediments. These results suggested that all the living organisms of the marine environment can give contributions to the chemical composition of foams. Moreover, as CA also evidenced cases of structural differences within foam samples, we applied two-dimensional correlation analysis (2DCORR) to the FTIR spectra of marine foams to investigate the molecular characteristics which caused these structural differences. Asynchronous spectra of two-dimensional correlation analysis showed that the structural heterogeneity among foam samples depended reasonably on the presence and on the qualitative difference of

  10. Therapeutic properties and uses of marine invertebrates in the ancient Greek world and early Byzantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2010-07-20

    Marine organisms are currently investigated for the therapeutic potential of their natural products with very promising results. The human interest for their use in healing practices in the Eastern Mediterranean goes back to the antiquity. An attempt is made in the present work to investigate the therapeutic properties of marine invertebrates and the ways they were used in the medical practice during the dawn of the western medicine. The classical Greek texts of the Ancient Greek (Classical, Hellenistic and Roman) and early Byzantine period were studied and the data collected were analysed in order to extract detailed information on the parts of animal bodies and the ways they were used for healing purposes. Thirty-eight marine invertebrates were recorded for their therapeutic properties and uses in 40 works of 20 classical authors, covering a time period of 11 centuries (5th c. BC to 7th c. AD). The identified taxa were classified into 7 phyla and 11 classes of the animal kingdom, while molluscs were the dominant group. Marine invertebrates were more frequently used for their properties relevant to digestive, genitourinary and skin disorders. Flesh, broth, skeleton, or other special body parts of the animals were prepared as drinks, collyria, suppositories, cataplasms, compresses, etc. Marine invertebrates were well known for their therapeutic properties and had a prominent role in the medical practice during the Ancient Greek and the early Byzantine period. The diversity of animal species and their medicinal uses reflect the maritime nature of the Greek civilization, which flourished on the coasts and islands of the Aegean Sea. Most of them were common species exploited by humans for food or other everyday uses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Organic compounds and suspended matter in the marine ice of the Eastern Antarctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.A.; Novigatsky, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    Data on the composition of organic compounds in Antarctic sea ice are virtually non-existent, as most works concentrate on the structure, physical composition and biological properties of the ice. Data is needed for the study of the global carbon cycle and the estimation of background values and anthropogenic compounds. Specific features of the hydrometeorological regime near Antarctica affect the structure of the ice cover and its properties. The transportation of large volumes of snow to the ocean results in the formation of a snow sludge layer which gradually accumulates on the sea surface and freezes into young slush ice. The irregular distribution of snow at the ice surface and seawater infiltration results in the formation of ice with a specific crystalline structure and physiochemical properties. This paper discussed the dissolved and suspended lipids and hydrocarbons, as well as suspended matter (SM) concentrations in snow, sea ice and sub-ice water in coastal zones of the East Antarctic. The data was obtained during the Russian Antarctic Expedition in 2003. Variations in the concentration and distribution of the various substances suggest that they are related to ice forming conditions and to the processes that occur when ice forms, as well as in the interaction of the substances with ice, snow and sub-ice water. The SM and organic compounds are accumulated in layers characterized by intense autochthonous processes. It was noted that the zones stay biogeochemically active even under low temperature conditions. The highest concentrations of organic compounds, along with the biggest variations in their proportions have been discovered in the areas surrounded by penguin colonies near Buromsky Island and Haswell Island's Lake. The presence of significant quantities of PAHs in both pack and seasonal ice of high latitudes indicates that their formation is relatively rapid even at low temperatures. Many biochemical processes are intense under the influence of ice

  12. THE SECTION OF TORRE PICCHIO (TERNI, UMBRIA, CENTRAL ITALY:A VILLAFRANCHIAN SITE RICH IN VERTEBRATES, MOLLUSCS,OSTRACODS AND PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ODOARDO GIROTTI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluvial deposits of the S. Maria di Ciciliano Formation crop out near Montecastrilli (Terni, in the southwestern branch of the Tiberino Basin.  Many specimens of plants ("mummified" woods, fruits and seeds, freshwater molluscs, ostracods, vertebrate bones and coprolites were collected at Torre Picchio. This small outcrop contains a fairly rich record of fruits and seeds, among which about 50 species were identified; the most frequent invariably belong to submerged, floating and emergent aquatic herbs, possibly because these were buried not far from their place of growth, thus representing the ancient local vegetation.  The fruits and seeds of woody plants, including several exotic elements, were transported from neighbouring areas and indicate a paleoclimate similar to the present day, though slightly wetter.  Among molluscs, three distinct assemblages were found, indicating fluvial, swampy and lacustrine environment, respectively.  They contain taxa of biochronological interest, most of them typical of Early Pleistocene deposits (late Villafranchian, but making their first appearance in the Late Pliocene (Middle Villafranchian. One species, Margarifera (Pseudunio auricularia, represents the oldest record everywhere, since it was known, so far, only from the Middle Pleistocene upwards.  As palaeoenvironmental indicators, the ostracods complete the information given by molluscs.  Vetrebrates are represented by large and small mammals, rare birds, reptiles, amphibians and some fishes.  A great number of coprolites was collected as well.  The mammal assemblage shows affinities with the Costa S. Giacomo and Olivola F. U. (Middle and Late Villafranchian, Late Pliocene. Mimomys medasensis, an Iberoccitane element, is signaled for the first time in Italy.  From the geological point of view, the S. Maria di Ciciliano Fm. is interfingering with the marine Chiani-Tevere Fm., which is mostly Santernian in age and lies unconformably on the Middle

  13. First record of molluscs naturally infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935 (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lima Caldeira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Seeking the identification of Angiostrongylus cantonensis as a potential etiological agent of three clinical cases of eosinophilic meningitis, mollusc specimens were collected in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The snails were identified as Sarasinula marginata (45 specimens, Subulina octona (157, Achatina fulica (45 and Bradybaena similaris (23. Larvae obtained were submitted to polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism diagnosis. Their genetic profile were corresponded to A. cantonensis. Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected with third-stage larvae, developed menigoencephalitis, and parasites became sexually mature in the lungs. Additionally, larvae obtained from A. fulica snails, from São Vicente, state of São Paulo, also showed genetic profiles of this nematode. This is the first record of Brazilian molluscs infected with this nematode species.

  14. Radiocarbon (14C) Constraints On The Fraction Of Refractory Dissolved Organic Carbon In Primary Marine Aerosol From The Northwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaupre, S. R.; Kieber, D. J.; Keene, W. C.; Long, M. S.; Frossard, A. A.; Kinsey, J. D.; Duplessis, P.; Chang, R.; Maben, J. R.; Lu, X.; Zhu, Y.; Bisgrove, J.

    2017-12-01

    Nearly all organic carbon in seawater is dissolved (DOC), with more than 95% considered refractory based on modeled average lifetimes ( 16,000 years) and characteristically old bulk radiocarbon (14C) ages (4000 - 6000 years) that exceed the timescales of overturning circulation. Although this refractory dissolved organic carbon (RDOC) is present throughout the oceans as a major reservoir of the global carbon cycle, its sources and sinks are poorly constrained. Recently, RDOC was proposed to be removed from the oceans through adsorption onto the surfaces of rising bubble plumes produced by breaking waves, ejection into the atmosphere via bubble bursting as a component of primary marine aerosol (PMA), and subsequent oxidation in the atmosphere. To test this mechanism, we used natural abundance 14C (5730 ± 40 yr half-life) to trace the fraction of RDOC in PMA produced in a high capacity generator at two biologically-productive and two oligotrophic hydrographic stations in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean during a research cruise aboard the R/V Endeavor (Sep - Oct 2016). The 14C signatures of PMA separately generated day and night from near-surface (5 m) and deep (2500 m) seawater were compared with corresponding 14C signatures in seawater of near-surface dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, a proxy for recently produced organic matter), bulk deep DOC (a proxy for RDOC), and near-surface bulk DOC. Results constrain the selectivity of PMA formation from RDOC in natural mixtures of recently produced and refractory DOC. The implications of these results for PMA formation and RDOC biogeochemistry will be discussed.

  15. Rapid coastal survey of anthropogenic radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds in surficial marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.; Noakes, S.E.; Dvoracek, D.K.; Culp, R.A.; Bush, P.B.

    1999-01-01

    A towed survey system, the GIMS/CS 3 , has been developed to enable the rapid measurement and mapping of a variety of physical and geochemical parameters in the surficial sediments of aquatic environments while the survey vessel is underway. With its capability for measuring radiometric, elemental and organic compound constituents of sediments, as well as bathymetry and water quality parameters, the GIMS/CS 3 provides a cost-effective means of performing reconnaissance determinations of contaminant distributions and environmental monitoring tasks over broad geographic regions

  16. Sorting of Terrestrial and Marine Organic Matter along a Marginal Submarine Canyon: Radiocarbon and Biomarker Signatures of Surface Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, H. G.; Doherty, S.; Campbell, P.; McCarthy, M. D.; Prouty, N.

    2016-02-01

    Submarine canyons are incised features of many continental margins that can have significant influence on the hydrodynamic distribution of sediments and organic matter (OM) eroded and deposited from the continents. Baltimore Canyon, on the U.S. mid-Atlantic margin, contains a complex set of sedimentary processes that simultaneously create unique benthic habitats and control the deposition of OM. Along the canyon axis, loci of net erosion, net deposition, and intense winnowing each host diverse faunal assemblages and varying mixtures of sedimentary OM derived both from production in the overlying water column and from mobilized sediments. Bioavailable components of this deposited OM sustain benthic communities, while recalcitrant components can contribute to long-term carbon burial in the deep sea. Here we probe in detail the terrestrial versus marine origins of OM along a transect of Baltimore Canyon, as well as its bioavailability for benthic fauna, in order to explore how canyon-specific sediment dynamics might emplace a functional sorting of OM from shelf to open ocean. Determining the provenance of sedimentary OM is a continual challenge: commonly-measured bulk geochemical properties often provide insufficient information to distinguish end-member sources. We present a novel approach to separate functional classes of OM and investigate sources and degradative pathways of OM in Baltimore Canyon. In combination with bulk geochemical characteristics, surface sediments from water depths of 200-1200 meters were sequentially extracted (solvent-extracted, acid-hydrolyzed, and demineralized) to separate pools containing different prevalence of terrigenous, marine, and recalcitrant OM. Each class was analyzed for biomarker distributions; amino acid content, 13C signatures, and degradation indicators; bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes; and radiocarbon content in order to characterize potential end-member sources within the mixture, as well as their age profiles. These

  17. Molluscs for Sale: Assessment of Freshwater Gastropods and Bivalves in the Ornamental Pet Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ting Hui; Tan, Siong Kiat; Wong, Wing Hing; Meier, Rudolf; Chan, Sow-Yan; Tan, Heok Hui; Yeo, Darren C J

    2016-01-01

    The ornamental pet trade is often considered a key culprit for conservation problems such as the introduction of invasive species (including infectious diseases) and overharvesting of rare species. Here, we present the first assessment of the biodiversity of freshwater molluscs in the ornamental pet trade in Singapore, one of the most important global hubs of the ornamental aquarium trade, and discuss associated conservation concerns. We recorded freshwater molluscs from ornamental pet shops and major exporters including non-ornamental species (e.g., hitchhikers, molluscs sold as fish feed). We recorded an unexpectedly high diversity-59 species-of freshwater bivalves and gastropods, with the majority (38 species or 64%) being from the Oriental region. In addition to morphological examination, we sequenced the DNA barcode region of mitochondrial CO1 and 16S genes to provide molecular data for the confirmation of the identification and for future re-identification. DNA barcodes were obtained for 50 species, and all but four were separated by > 3% uncorrected pairwise distances. The trade has been considered a main introduction pathway for non-native species to Singapore, and we found that out of 15 species in the trade as well as in the wild in Singapore, 12 are either introduced or of unknown origin, representing almost half of the known non-native freshwater molluscs in Singapore. Particularly prevalent are non-ornamental species: six hitchhikers on aquarium plants and six species sold as fish feed. We found that a quarter of the trade species have a history of introduction, which includes 11 known or potentially invasive species. We conclude that potential overharvesting is difficult to assess because only half of the trade species have been treated by IUCN. Of these, 21 species are of Least Concern and three are Data Deficient. Our checklist, with accompanying DNA barcodes, images, and museum vouchers, provides an important reference library for future monitoring

  18. The Mediterranean stony coral Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767) as habitat provider for molluscs: colony size effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitacco, Valentina; Crocetta, Fabio; Orlando-Bonaca, Martina; Mavrič, Borut; Lipej, Lovrenc

    2017-11-01

    The stony coral Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767) is an important Mediterranean habitat builder, whose survival is now being threatened by human activities and possibly natural events such as mass mortality and bleaching. We characterized the mollusc assemblage associated with colonies in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) and then tested whether the number of mollusc species increases in relation with colony size, following a Species-Area Relationship (SAR) model. At least 62 taxa were found in association with coral colonies, with bivalves constituting the dominant group. More than half of the 3034 specimens encountered were juveniles. Mollusc taxa richness increased with increasing C. caespitosa colony size according to the power-function model, whilst the analyses of trophic and functional groups supports the hypothesis of at least two factors underlying SAR (area per se and habitat diversity). Our results confirmed the importance of C. caespitosa for benthic communities, indicating that larger colonies support higher biodiversity, and suggesting that C. caespitosa is the most important habit builder among Mediterranean cnidarians, having also an influential function as a natural nursery ground. These results underline the necessity of new investigations aimed at filling gaps in our knowledge and planning new measures to protect the species.

  19. Detection of PPCPs in marine organisms from contaminated coastal waters of the Saudi Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aasim M; Rønning, Helene Thorsen; Sydnes, Leiv K; Alarif, Walied M; Kallenborn, Roland; Al-Lihaibi, Sultan S

    2018-04-15

    The occurrence of PPCPs in macroalgae, barnacle and fish samples from contaminated coastal waters of the Saudi Red Sea is reported. Solvent extraction followed by solid phase extraction was applied to isolate the compounds, and their quantification was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Atenolol, ranitidine, chlorpheniramine, DEET, and atrazine were detected in one or more macroalgae at caffeine, methylparaben, and carbamazepine were present atmaximum concentrations of 41.3, 44.3, and 1.7ng/g (on a dry weight basis=dw), respectively. Eleven PPCPs were detected in the barnacle samples at concentrations between contaminated waters where a continuous supply of non-persistent contaminants such as PPCPs is available for long-term exposure of local benthic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Seismic based characterization of total organic content from the marine Sembar shale, Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Omer; Hussain, Tahir; Ullah, Matee; Bhatti, Asher Samuel; Ali, Aamir

    2018-02-01

    The exploration and production of unconventional resources has increased significantly over the past few years around the globe to fulfill growing energy demands. Hydrocarbon potential of these unconventional petroleum systems depends on the presence of significant organic matter; their thermal maturity and the quality of present hydrocarbons i.e. gas or oil shale. In this work, we present a workflow for estimating Total Organic Content (TOC) from seismic reflection data. To achieve the objective of this study, we have chosen a classic potential candidate for exploration of unconventional reserves, the shale of the Sembar Formation, Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan. Our method includes the estimation of TOC from the well data using the Passey's ΔlogR and Schwarzkofp's methods. From seismic data, maps of Relative Acoustic Impedance (RAI) are extracted at maximum and minimum TOC zones within the Sembar Formation. A geostatistical trend with good correlation coefficient (R2) for cross-plots between TOC and RAI at well locations is used for estimation of seismic based TOC at the reservoir scale. Our results suggest a good calibration of TOC values from seismic at well locations. The estimated TOC values range from 1 to 4% showing that the shale of the Sembar Formation lies in the range of good to excellent unconventional oil/gas play within the context of TOC. This methodology of source rock evaluation provides a spatial distribution of TOC at the reservoir scale as compared to the conventional distribution generated from samples collected over sparse wells. The approach presented in this work has wider applications for source rock evaluation in other similar petroliferous basins worldwide.

  1. Characterisation of algal organic matter produced by bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2015-04-01

    Algal blooms can seriously affect the operation of water treatment processes including low pressure (micro- and ultra-filtration) and high pressure (nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) membranes mainly due to accumulation of algal-derived organic matter (AOM). In this study, the different components of AOM extracted from three common species of bloom-forming algae (Alexandrium tamarense, Chaetoceros affinis and Microcystis sp.) were characterised employing various analytical techniques, such as liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, alcian blue staining and lectin staining coupled with laser scanning microscopy to indentify its composition and force measurement using atomic force microscopy to measure its stickiness. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying characteristics in terms of growth pattern, cell concentration and AOM release. The AOM produced by the three algal species comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) but some refractory compounds (e.g., humic-like substances) and other low molecular weight acid and neutral compounds w