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Sample records for marine organisms ii

  1. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart II of... - Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP) Limits for Marine Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP) Limits... (Surface Coating) Pt. 63, Subpt. II, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart II of Part 63—Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP...) through (4). b VOC (including exempt compounds listed as HAP) shall be used as a surrogate for VOHAP for...

  2. Radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki

    2001-01-01

    The concentration and accumulation of radionuclides in marine organisms were explained in this paper. Secular change of the radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs in seaweed in coastal area of Japan showed more than 5Bq/kg-fresh in the first half of 1960, but decreased less than 1 Bq/kg-fresh after then and attained to less than 0.1 Bq/kg-fresh in 1990s. However, the value increased a while in 1986, which indicated the effect of Chernobyl accident. The accident increased 137 Cs of shellfish near Japan. The concentration of 239+240 Pu was the lowest value in muscles of fish, but increased from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt in seaweed in 1999. 99 Tc concentration of seaweed showed from 100 to 1000 times as much as that of seawater. Radionuclides in the Irish Sea are originated from Sellafield reprocessing plant. The concentration factors of macro-algae and surface water fish (IAEA,1985) were shown. Analytical results of U in 61 kinds of marine organs showed that the concentration was different in the part of organ. The higher concentration of U was observed in hard tissue of fish. The concentration factor was different between chemical substances with the same radionuclides. (S.Y.)

  3. Marine oil spill response organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, C.

    1997-01-01

    The obligations under the law relative to the prevention of marine oil spills and the type of emergency plans needed to mitigate any adverse effects caused by a marine oil spill were discussed. The organizational structure, spill response resources and operational management capabilities of Canada's newly created Response Organizations (ROs) were described. The overall range of oil spill response services that the RO provides to the domestic oil handling, oil transportation and the international shipping industries were reviewed. Amendments to the Canada Shipping Act which require that certain ships and oil handling facilities take oil spill preparedness and response measures, including having an arrangement with an RO certified by the Canadian Coast Guard, were outlined. Canadians now benefit from five ROs established to provide coast-to-coast oil spill response coverage. These include the Western Canada Marine Response Corporation, the Canadian Marine Response Management Corporation, the Great Lakes Response Corporation, the Eastern Canada Response Corporation and the Atlantic Emergency Response Team Ltd. ROs have the expertise necessary to organize and manage marine oil spill response services. They can provide equipment, personnel and operational management for the containment, recovery and cleanup of oil spilled on water

  4. Antitumoral activity of marine organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Iglesias, O; Perez Gil, R; Colom, Y

    2010-01-01

    The study of the natural products from marine organism constitute a relatively recent scientific researcher field with high potentialities tanking in consideration that the oceans cover the three of the four parts of the earth. Poryphera and Bryozoans have been the Phylum more studied owning to the vulnerability, their soft body, their habitat on rocks, their slow movement and bright colors, for these reason these organisms are able to produce chemical substances as defense methods against depredators. Same mechanism is exhibit by the seaweeds with the production of secondary metabolites . In the present communication are exposed the main results obtained on the world a Cuba until the present in the looking for of substances with antitumor action from marine organism

  5. New marine science organization formed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooster, Warren S.

    A new international organization, the North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES) will be established to promote and coordinate marine scientific research in the northern North Pacific Ocean and the Berlin Sea. This was decided in Ottawa on December 12, 1990, when a draft convention was approved by representatives of Canada, China, Japan, the United States, and the Soviet Union. PICES will focus on research on the ocean environment and its interactions with land and atmosphere, its role and response to global weather and climate change, its flora, fauna and ecosystems, its uses and resources, and impacts upon it from human activities. Such studies relate not only to the effects of fishing and environmental change on fish stocks but also to such issues as the impacts of oil spills and other forms of pollution and the eventual consequences of climate change for uses of the ocean and its resources.

  6. Island biogeography of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  7. Monitoring radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, T.; Matsuba, M.; Kurosawa, M.; Koyanagi, T.

    1990-01-01

    Concentration of stable elements corresponding to important radionuclides was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for various marine organisms to find indicator organisms for environmental monitoring. Both analytical techniques indicated linearity over a range of concentrations covering 2-4 orders of magnitude. Detection limits of elements by ICP-MS were 10 or 100 times higher than those of ICP-AES, although the precision and accuracy of ICP-MS was slightly inferior to that of ICP-AES. For quantitative analysis of elements with medium mass numbers (chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, etc.), matrix interferences in ICP-MS were caused mainly by overlaps of spectra from coexisting elements in biological samples. The presence of background ions from atmosphere, water, and argon plasma interfered with determination of some isotopes. Most elements of high mass number could not be determined by ICP-AES because of its poor detection limits, whereas ICP-MS indicated high sensitivity and low background for elements of interest. We used ICP-MS analysis to determine the specific accumulation of certain elements in organs or tissues of 30 marine organisms

  8. From sea water to marine organisms; transfer to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku

    1979-01-01

    As a study on transfer of radioiodine to marine organisms, accumulation and excretion of radioiodine by five species of marine fishes were observed by the aquarium experiments using Na 131 I as the tracer. Transfer of radioiodine to the fishes was examined on three different pathways, via seawater, sediment, and food. Concentration of radioiodine in organs of tissues of sea bass, Lateolabrax japonics, yellow tail, Seriola quinqueradiata, and rock fish, Sebastes nivosus, reared in labeled seawater reached maximum within five to ten days and decreased thereafter. Concentration factors calculated at the fifth day of breeding showed the highest value in gall-bladder followed by gut-content suggesting the secretion of bile into the intestine. Loss of radioactivity from the fishes showed two components elimination patterns and biological half-lives were calculated as 2.8 days and 53.5 days, respectively, in muscle of sea bass, for example. Sediment-bound radioiodine administered to benthic fish, right-eye flounder, Kareius bicoloratus, was lost rapidly after the administration but about ten per cent of the whole-body radioactivity were retained by the fishes after the excretion of sediment and eliminated with longer half-lives comparable to those taken up from seawater. Distribution of radioiodine among organs or tissues of the flounder was different between the fishes before and after the elimination experiment showing rapid loss from gill and slower elimination from liver or muscle. Radioiodine administered to sea bream, Pagrus major, as labeled anchovy was climinated also with two components loss processes and elimination rates were little higher than the fishes administered radioiodine as solution in gelatine capsules. Higher distribution of radioiodine in gill of the sea bream suggested the dominant excretion of radioiodine through gill of the fishes. (author)

  9. Characterization of elements in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Toshiaki

    1993-01-01

    Characterization of elements in marine organisms was carried out to estimate the behavior of radionuclides in marine ecosystem or to clarify the physiological roles of elements in marine organisms. The concentrations of 238 U in fifty-five species of marine organisms were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The concentrations of 238 U in soft tissues of marine animals ranged from 0.076 to 5000ng/g wet wt. Especially, the branchial heart of octopus vulgaris showed the specific accumulation of 238 U. The kidney granules of bivalve molluscs showed very high concentrations of Mn, Zn, 210 Pb, 210 Po etc. The XAFS study for the granules of Cyclosunetta menstrualis indicated that the chemical form of metals in the granules was phosphate (e. g. Mn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 · 4H 2 O). (author)

  10. Quorum sensing antagonism from marine organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skindersø, Mette Elena; Ettinger-Epstein, P.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg

    2008-01-01

    target for the control of infectious bacteria. We present the results of screening of 284 extracts of marine organisms from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, for their inhibition of QS. Of the 284 extracts, 64 (23%) were active in a general, LuxR-derived QS screen, and of these 36 (56%) were also active...... in a specific Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS screen. Extracts of the marine sponge Luffariella variabilis proved active in both systems. The secondary metabolites manoalide, manoalide monoacetate, and secomanoalide isolated from the sponge showed strong QS inhibition of a lasB::gfp(ASV) fusion, demonstrating...... the potential for further identification of specific QS antagonists from marine organisms....

  11. Concentration of radionuclides by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Ryoichi

    1995-01-01

    The Japanese, who have ever been confronted with atomic bombs, are said to be very sensitive to the nuclear power, radioactivity and so on. However, the peaceful uses of the nuclear power are closely related to our daily lives. Consequently, we should recognize correctly the nuclear power, radioactivity and so on, without refusing emotion-ally or admitting uncritically. Many marine organisms have abilities to accumulate radionuclides to very high concentrations. But, the levels of man-made radioactivity of marine organisms in the sea around Japan have been decreased in recent years compared with those in the past. So, the annual internal dose equivalent for Japanese from seafood (marine organisms) are originated mainly from the natural radionuclides like 210 Po, 210 Pb and 40 K. Nevertheless, study on the marine radioecology must be progressed against the inadvertent radioactive contamination of the surrounding sea, due to the increase of nuclear facilities and nuclear weapons. (author)

  12. Ambient radioactivity monitoring V: Marine environment, fish and marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedekind, C.; Kanisch, G.

    1996-01-01

    The sea, originally thought to have an almost unlimited capacity of uptake of pollutants due to its water volumes available for dilution, was shown by growing insight into the physical, chemical and ecologic interdependencies to be a sensitive ecosystem. Its limits to cope with growing pollution are increasingly becoming clear, and this is a particular reason to perform radioactivity monitoring of the sea water, as radioactivity is transferred to the marine organisms. Organisms selected for monitoring are fish and crustaceans. (orig.) [de

  13. Metabolic transformation of radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku

    1987-01-01

    Physico-chemical form of radionuclides is one of the important factors governing the concentration by marine organisms, whereas biological activities affect the existing states of radionuclides especially in coastal waters. Radioiodine in the form of iodate which is predominant species in seawater is reduced to iodide ion by biological activities and concentration factor of iodide is an order of magnitude higher than those of iodate. Extremely high accumulation of transition elements, actinides, or natural radionuclides in branchial heart of octopus is explained by the fuction of adenochrome, a glandular pigment in the organ as a natural complexing agent, and similar metal-binding proteins with relatively low molecular weight have been found in various marine invertebrates. High accumulation of some elements also found in mollusk kidney is considered to be caused by the intracellular concretions composed of calcium phosphate. All these biological processes suggest the significance of further investigations on metabolic transformation of radionuclides in marine organisms. (author)

  14. Characterization of elements in marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Toshiaki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Nakaminato, Ibaraki (Japan). Nakaminato Lab. Branch Office

    1994-03-01

    Characterization of elements was carried out to clarify the mechanisms of bioconcentration and the physiological roles of elements in marine organisms. The concentrations of {sup 238}U in fifty-five species of marine organisms were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The concentrations of {sup 238}U in soft tissues of marine animals ranged from 0.076 to 500ng/g wet wt. Especially, the branchial heart of cephalopod molluscs showed the specific accumulation of {sup 238}U. The concentration factor of the branchial heart of Octopus vulgaris, which indicated the highest value, was calculated to be about 10{sup 3} by comparing it with the concentration of {sup 238}U (3.2 {+-} 0.2ng/ml) in coastal seawater of Japan. The concentrations of {sup 238}U of twenty species of algae ranged from 10 to 3700ng/g dry wt. (author).

  15. Characterization of elements in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Toshiaki

    1994-01-01

    Characterization of elements was carried out to clarify the mechanisms of bioconcentration and the physiological roles of elements in marine organisms. The concentrations of 238 U in fifty-five species of marine organisms were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The concentrations of 238 U in soft tissues of marine animals ranged from 0.076 to 500ng/g wet wt. Especially, the branchial heart of cephalopod molluscs showed the specific accumulation of 238 U. The concentration factor of the branchial heart of Octopus vulgaris, which indicated the highest value, was calculated to be about 10 3 by comparing it with the concentration of 238 U (3.2 ± 0.2ng/ml) in coastal seawater of Japan. The concentrations of 238 U of twenty species of algae ranged from 10 to 3700ng/g dry wt. (author)

  16. Carotenoids from Marine Organisms: Biological Functions and Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Galasso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As is the case for terrestrial organisms, carotenoids represent the most common group of pigments in marine environments. They are generally biosynthesized by all autotrophic marine organisms, such as bacteria and archaea, algae and fungi. Some heterotrophic organisms also contain carotenoids probably accumulated from food or partly modified through metabolic reactions. These natural pigments are divided into two chemical classes: carotenes (such as lycopene and α- and β-carotene that are composed of hydrogen and carbon; xanthophylls (such as astaxanthin, fucoxanthin and lutein, which are constituted by hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. Carotenoids, as antioxidant compounds, assume a key role in the protection of cells. In fact, quenching of singlet oxygen, light capture and photosynthesis protection are the most relevant biological functions of carotenoids. The present review aims at describing (i the biological functions of carotenoids and their benefits for human health, (ii the most common carotenoids from marine organisms and (iii carotenoids having large success in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmeceutical industries, highlighting the scientific progress in marine species cultivation for natural pigments production.

  17. Concentration of trace elements in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Takaaki; Suzuki, Hamaji; Iimura, Mitsue; Koyanagi, Taku

    1976-01-01

    Information on the quality and quantity of stable trace elements in marine environments is frequently required to analyze the radioecological behavior of radionuclides released from nuclear facilities into the sea. In the present work, special attention was concentrated in determination of stable Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb and Cs in marine organisms to estimate the concentration factors for these elements and corresponding radionuclides. Marine organisms (fishes, marine invertebrates and seaweeds) were collected at the seashore of Ibaragi prefecture and provided for chemical analysis after dry-ashing and wet-ashing. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry and neutron activation analysis were applied to determine the concentration of elements. The concentration of stable elements in fish muscle was independent on species of the fishes though slightly higher trends were observed in ''Usumebaru'', Sebastes nivosus for Cs, ''Ishimochi'', Nibea mitsukurii for Zn and Fe compared with other species. The concentration of Co, Zn and Fe in muscle of marine invertebrates was one order of magnitude higher than fish muscles especially in shellfishes for Co. Seaweeds showed peculiar species specificity for the concentration of stable trace elements and remarkable differences was observed between the species even among the same genus. (auth.)

  18. Role of marine algae in organic farming

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pereira, N.; Verlecar, X.N.

    Division of Publication and Information, Indian Council of Medical Research, V. Ramalingaswami Bhawan, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, India e - mail: encejain@yahoo.co.in Role of marine algae in organic far m ing As rightly outlined.... The Indi an Ocean, including its adjacent seas, extends over an area of about 73.44 ? 10 6 km 2 and the potential harvest of seaweeds from the Indian Ocean is about 870 thousand tonnes (wet weight) 3 . India could draw benefits from this marine...

  19. Concentration of technetium by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakamura, R.; Nakahara, M.

    1990-01-01

    Accumulation and excretion of technetium by marine organisms were observed in radioisotope tracer experiments to determine concentration factors for estimating radiation dose to humans from radioactive pollution of marine environments. Marine fish, crustaceans, mollusks, echinoderms, and seaweeds were reared in sea water labeled with 95m Tc to observe uptake from sea water. The organisms were then transferred into unlabeled sea water for depuration experiments. Concentration factors were calculated from uptake and excretion rates. Also considered was the contribution of food-chain transfer of technetium, observed by administering labeled seaweeds to mollusks or echinoderms. Low accumulations were shown by fish, crustaceans, pelecypods and cephalopods, whereas high concentration factors were observed in gastropods and seaweeds. Species specificity or specific accumulation in special organs or tissues was not evident except in seaweed, where the difference was clearly species-associated. Relatively high rates of technetium retention were observed in the organisms administered labeled seaweed. The higher concentrations observed in gastropods, compared to those in pelecypods, were thought to result from different feed habits. The adaptability of some species as indicator organisms for monitoring 99 Tc in sea water was recognized, but the contribution of technetium to radiation dose was considered insignificant

  20. Principles and application of transgenic technology in marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine organisms into which a foreign gene or noncoding DNA fragment is artificially introduced and stably integrated in their genomes are termed transgenic marine organisms. Since the first report in 1985, a wide range of transgenic fish and marine bivalve mollusks have been produced by microinjec...

  1. The concentrations of uranium in marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuba, Mitsue; Ishii, Toshiaki; Nakahara, Motokazu; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Watabe, Teruhisa; Hirano, Shigeki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan). Laboratory for Radioecology

    2000-07-01

    Determination of uranium in sixty-one species of marine organisms was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to obtain concentration factors and to estimate the internal radiation dose. The concentrations of uranium in soft tissues of marine animals were ranged from 0.077 to 5040 ng/g wet wt. Especially, the branchial heart of cephalopod molluscs showed the specific accumulation of uranium. The concentration factor of the branchial heart of Octopus vulgaris, which indicated the highest value, was calculated to be about 1.6 x 10{sup 3}, comparing with that (3.1 ng/ml) in coastal seawaters of Japan. The concentrations of uranium in hard tissues of marine invertebrates such as clam and sea urchin were similar to those in soft tissues. In contrast, hard tissues like bone, scale, fin, etc. of fishes showed much higher concentrations of uranium than soft tissues like muscle. The concentrations of uranium of twenty-two species of algae were ranged from 2 to 310 ng/g wet wt. Particularly, the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida showed the highest value of the uranium content in the algae and its concentration factor was calculated to be 10{sup 2}. (author)

  2. The concentrations of uranium in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuba, Mitsue; Ishii, Toshiaki; Nakahara, Motokazu; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Watabe, Teruhisa; Hirano, Shigeki

    2000-01-01

    Determination of uranium in sixty-one species of marine organisms was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to obtain concentration factors and to estimate the internal radiation dose. The concentrations of uranium in soft tissues of marine animals were ranged from 0.077 to 5040 ng/g wet wt. Especially, the branchial heart of cephalopod molluscs showed the specific accumulation of uranium. The concentration factor of the branchial heart of Octopus vulgaris, which indicated the highest value, was calculated to be about 1.6 x 10 3 , comparing with that (3.1 ng/ml) in coastal seawaters of Japan. The concentrations of uranium in hard tissues of marine invertebrates such as clam and sea urchin were similar to those in soft tissues. In contrast, hard tissues like bone, scale, fin, etc. of fishes showed much higher concentrations of uranium than soft tissues like muscle. The concentrations of uranium of twenty-two species of algae were ranged from 2 to 310 ng/g wet wt. Particularly, the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida showed the highest value of the uranium content in the algae and its concentration factor was calculated to be 10 2 . (author)

  3. Effects of drilling fluids on marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, P.R.; Duke, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on drilling fluids, also called drilling muds, which are essential to drilling processes in the exploration and production of oil and gas from the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). These fluids are usually discharged from drilling platforms into surrounding waters of the OCS and are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In a program carried out by the EPA Environmental research Laboratory at Gulf Breeze, Florida, diverse marine species as well as microbiotic and macrobiotic communities were studied. Drilling fluids were toxic to marine organisms in certain concentrations and exposure regimes. Furthermore, the fluids adversely affected the benthos physically by burying them or by altering the substrates. Toxicity of the drilling-fluid components, used drilling fluids from active Gulf of Mexico sites, and laboratory-prepared drilling fluids varied considerably. for example 96-h LC 50 s were from 25 μ liter -1 to > 1500 μl liter -1 for clams, larval lobsters, mysids, and grass shrimp. In most instances, mortality was significantly (α = 0.05) correlated with the diesel-oil content of the fluids collected from the Gulf of Mexico. Data and model simulations suggest a rapid dilution of drilling fluids released into OCS waters, resulting in concentrations below the acute-effect concentration for the water column organisms tested

  4. Accumulation of radioactive iron in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateda, Yuzuru

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation and excretion of radioactive iron in some marine organisms was investigated by radio-tracer experiments. The concentration factor, biological half-life, distribution in body, and combining form in some organs, are compared and discussed between mollusks and fishes. The results obtained are: 1) The concentration factor of seaweed was higher than those of worm and fish in uptake from seawater. Abalone showed a higher concentration factor than fish. 2) The first component of excretion curve was small in case of a longer period of uptake from seawater. 3) Abalone and octopus showed a higher radioactivity retention than flounder and black-fish. 4) The fish fed labelled seaweed showed a lower radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled worm. 5) The fish fed radioisotopes with prey showed a higher radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled prey. 6) Biological half-lives were longer in abalone and octopus than in fishes. The biological half-lives of radioactive iron in fishes varied according to the uptake modes. 7) The distribution ratio of radioactive iron in organisms were large in the liver and degestive tract. 8) The GFC profile of 59 Fe in some organs of organisms showed combining form of same molecular weight of proteinous matter. (author)

  5. Toxicity of common ions to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillard, D.A.; DuFresne, D.L.; Evans, J.

    1995-01-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and these may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due to osmotic imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnetsium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that the salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to the produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in a produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant

  6. Bioassay-directed fractionation of organic extracts of marine surface sediments from the north and Baltic sea. Pt. II. Results of the biotest battery and development of a biotest index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammann, U.; Danischewski, D.; Vobach, M. [Federal Research Centre for Fisheries, Inst. for Fishery Ecology, Hamburg (Germany); Biselli, S. [Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency, Hamburg (Germany); Eurofins Wiertz-Eggert-Joerissen, Hamburg (Germany); Reineke, N.; Huehnerfuss, H. [Univ. of Hamburg, Inst. for Organic Chemistry, Hamburg (Germany); Wosniok, W. [Univ. of Bremen, Inst. of Statistics, Bremen (Germany); Kinder, A.; Sierts-Herrmann, A.; Steinhart, H. [Univ. of Hamburg, Inst. for Food Chemistry, Hamburg (Germany); Theobald, N. [Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency, Hamburg (Germany); Vahl, H.H.; Westendorf, J. [Univ. of Hamburg, Univ. Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Dept. for Toxicology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    Goal, Scope and Background. The ecological relevance of contaminants in mixtures is difficult to assess, because of possible interactions and due to lacking toxicity data for many substances present in environmental samples. Marine sediment extracts, which contain a mixture of environmental contaminants in low concentrations, were the object of this study. The extracts were investigated with a set of different biotests in order to identify the compound or the substance class responsible for the toxicity. For this goal, a combination of biotests, biotest-directed fractionation and chemical analysis has been applied. Further on, a strategy for the development of a biotest index to describe the toxicity of the fractions without a prior ranking of the test results is proposed. This article (Part II) focuses on the biological results of the approach. Methods. The toxicological potential of organic extracts of sediments from the North Sea and the Baltic Sea was analyzed in a bioassay-directed fractionation procedure with a set of biotests: luciferase reporter gene assays on hormone receptor and Ah receptor, arabinose resistance test, fish embryo test (Danio rerio), comet assay, acetylcholinesterase inhibition test, heat-shock protein 70 induction, oxidative stress and luminescence inhibition test (Vibrio fischeri). The test results provided the basis for the calculation of a biotest index by factor analysis to compare the toxicity of the samples and fractions. Results and Discussion. Results of 11 biotests on different fractionation levels of the samples were described and discussed with regard to the occurrence of contaminants and their toxic potentials. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, quinones, brominated indoles and brominated phenols were in the focus of interest. A biotest index was constructed to compare the toxic responses in the samples and to group the biotest results. (orig.)

  7. Microbial bioavailability regulates organic matter preservation in marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koho, K. A.; Nierop, K. G. J.; Moodley, L.; Middelburg, J. J.; Pozzato, L.; Soetaert, K.; van der Plicht, J.; Reichart, G-J.; Herndl, G.

    2013-01-01

    Burial of organic matter (OM) plays an important role in marine sediments, linking the short-term, biological carbon cycle with the long-term, geological subsurface cycle. It is well established that low-oxygen conditions promote organic carbon burial in marine sediments. However, the mechanism

  8. Marine actinobacteria associated with marine organisms and their potentials in producing pharmaceutical natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliappan, Karuppiah; Sun, Wei; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-09-01

    Actinobacteria are ubiquitous in the marine environment, playing an important ecological role in the recycling of refractory biomaterials and producing novel natural products with pharmic applications. Actinobacteria have been detected or isolated from the marine creatures such as sponges, corals, mollusks, ascidians, seaweeds, and seagrass. Marine organism-associated actinobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, i.e., 3,003 sequences, deposited in the NCBI database clearly revealed enormous numbers of actinobacteria associated with marine organisms. For example, RDP classification of these sequences showed that 112 and 62 actinobacterial genera were associated with the sponges and corals, respectively. In most cases, it is expected that these actinobacteria protect the host against pathogens by producing bioactive compounds. Natural products investigation and functional gene screening of the actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms revealed that they can synthesize numerous natural products including polyketides, isoprenoids, phenazines, peptides, indolocarbazoles, sterols, and others. These compounds showed anticancer, antimicrobial, antiparasitic, neurological, antioxidant, and anti-HIV activities. Therefore, marine organism-associated actinobacteria represent an important resource for marine drugs. It is an upcoming field of research to search for novel actinobacteria and pharmaceutical natural products from actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms. In this review, we attempt to summarize the present knowledge on the diversity and natural products production of actinobacteria associated with the marine organisms, based on the publications from 1991 to 2013.

  9. An overview on genome organization of marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Maria

    2015-12-01

    In this review we will concentrate on some general genome features of marine organisms and their evolution, ranging from vertebrate to invertebrates until unicellular organisms. Before genome sequencing, the ultracentrifugation in CsCl led to high resolution of mammalian DNA (without seeing at the sequence). The analytical profile of human DNA showed that the vertebrate genome is a mosaic of isochores, typically megabase-size DNA segments that belong in a small number of families characterized by different GC levels. The recent availability of a number of fully sequenced genomes allowed mapping very precisely the isochores, based on DNA sequences. Since isochores are tightly linked to biological properties such as gene density, replication timing and recombination, the new level of detail provided by the isochore map helped the understanding of genome structure, function and evolution. This led the current level of knowledge and to further insights. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. W Photoprotection in Tropical Marine Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Roy A.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the earth's surface which results from stratospheric ozone depletions could have serious implications for terrestrial plants and for aquatic organisms within the euphotic zone. A documented 9% decline in ozone at mid-latitudes is considered to produce a 12% increase in harmful UV radiation. The biologically damaging effects of higher UV levels, particularly W-B (280-320 rim), could manifest earlier in the tropics because of the relative thinness of the earth's equatorial ozone layer. Tropical marine organisms are also living close to their upper tolerance levels of water temperature, However, despite the large potential effects on plants and animals, little is known about UV effects on tropical ecosystems. Long-term ecological studies are needed to quantify the effects of increased UV radiation on terrestrial and marine ecosystems and to produce reliable data for prediction. Plants have developed several mechanisms to protect themselves from harmful UV radiation, one of which is the production of secondary leaf pigments that absorb W-B radiation (screening pigments). A higher concentration of screening pigments (e.g. flavonoids) in leaves may be interpreted as a natural response to increased W radiation. If higher concentrations of flavonoids filter out the excessive W radiation, no damage will occur, as suggested by Caldwell et al. (1989) and Tevini (1993). Failure to screen all W-B may result in deleterious effects on photosynthesis, plant genetic material, and plant and leaf morphology and growth. Eventually this will have an impact on ecosystem processes, structure, species composition, and productivity. This paper describes an ongoing project that is assessing the responses of mangroves, seagrasses and corals to W radiation by studying pigment concentrations, biophysical parameters, and variations in spectral reflectance in the field and in W-reduction experiments. Preliminary results on the distribution

  11. Toxicity, Bioaccumulation and Biotransformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Marine Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The toxicity, bioaccumulation and biotransformation of citrate and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) capped silver nanoparticles (NPs) (AgNP-citrate and AgNP-PVP) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs in marine organisms via marine sediment exposure were investigated. Results from 7-d sedimen...

  12. Bioactivity of marine organisms. 4. Screening of some marine animals from the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, C.G.; Kamat, S.Y.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Das, B.; Battacharya, J.; Ramani, P.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Jain, S.; Srimal, R.C.

    Of twenty eight alcoholic extracts of marine organisms screened for a wide range of pharmacological activities, 15 showed biological activity. Of these two were anti implantation, 3 CNS stimulant, 2 hypotensive, 4 diuretic, 4 hypoglycaemic, 2...

  13. Investigating the Marine Environment and Its Resources, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Violetta F.

    This is the second of two volumes comprising a resource unit designed to help students become more knowledgeable about the marine environment and its resources. Included in this volume are discussions of changes in the human and marine environment, human needs, marine resources, living marine resources, marine transportation, marine energy…

  14. Bioactivity of marine organisms. Part 5. Screening of some marine fauna from the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, C.G.; Kamat, S.Y.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Das, B.; Patel, J.; Ramani, P.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Jain, S.; Srimal, R.C.

    (December), 1990, pp. 153-157 BIOACTIVITY OF MARINE ORGANISMS PART V : SCREENING OF SOME MARINE FAUNA FROM THE INDIAN COAST , CG. NAIK, S.Y. KAMAT, P.S. PARAMESHWARAN, B. DAS, JIVEXA PATEL, PRITA RAMANI, D.S. BHAKUNI", A.K. GOEL", SUDHA JAIN" AND R.c. SRIMAL... of Oceanography, Goa, in collaboration with the Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow for the screening of extracts ofmarine organisms for a wide range of biological activities. The programme consists of collection, identification and extraction of marine flora...

  15. Marine Genomics: A clearing-house for genomic and transcriptomic data of marine organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trent Harold F

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Marine Genomics project is a functional genomics initiative developed to provide a pipeline for the curation of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs and gene expression microarray data for marine organisms. It provides a unique clearing-house for marine specific EST and microarray data and is currently available at http://www.marinegenomics.org. Description The Marine Genomics pipeline automates the processing, maintenance, storage and analysis of EST and microarray data for an increasing number of marine species. It currently contains 19 species databases (over 46,000 EST sequences that are maintained by registered users from local and remote locations in Europe and South America in addition to the USA. A collection of analysis tools are implemented. These include a pipeline upload tool for EST FASTA file, sequence trace file and microarray data, an annotative text search, automated sequence trimming, sequence quality control (QA/QC editing, sequence BLAST capabilities and a tool for interactive submission to GenBank. Another feature of this resource is the integration with a scientific computing analysis environment implemented by MATLAB. Conclusion The conglomeration of multiple marine organisms with integrated analysis tools enables users to focus on the comprehensive descriptions of transcriptomic responses to typical marine stresses. This cross species data comparison and integration enables users to contain their research within a marine-oriented data management and analysis environment.

  16. Bio screening of marine organisms from the coasts of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.; Ameen, M.; Naz, S.; Noureen, S.

    2012-01-01

    This review article covers the literature on bio screening of crude extracts, fractions and pure compounds isolated from various marine organisms including seaweeds, mangroves, invertebrates and bacteria collected from the coasts of Karachi (Pakistan) published during the period 1984-2010. Recent studies showed that a number of novel compounds have been isolated from marine organisms possessing interesting biological activities. Various research groups from Pakistan have conducted the extensive bioassay-guided investigation of chemical constituents of marine organisms which showed anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, nematicidal, anti-inflammatory, anti-leishmanial, anti-coagulation, cytotoxicity, enzyme inhibition, inhibition of edema, anti-cancer, brine shrimp lethality, Lemna minor bioassay, phyto toxicity, spasmolytic, analgesic and hypolipidaemic activities. More than 70 marine organisms have been reported with reference to their biological studies and about 100 pure compounds were isolated from these organisms but only 18 compounds and 5 synthetic analogues of compound 1 were found active. This review article is particularly focused only on the reported bioactive compounds and crude extracts of marine organisms. (author)

  17. Source rock evaluation and organic geochemistry of Belayim Marine Oil Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abu Al-Atta

    2014-09-01

    In general, TOC analyses showed that the Nubia-A and B formation sediments are fairly immature compared to good source rocks with very high Hydrogen Index indicative of kerogen type II. The geochemical investigations of two oil samples indicate that the Upper Rudeis oil of Belayim Marine was derived from a marine carbonate rich source, which is relatively rich in algal organic matter and has moderate sulfur content. The maturity of the analyzed oils (about 0.75% R0 falls short from the stage of peak hydrocarbon generation which is known to be reached at about 0.85% R0.

  18. Matrix effects on organic pollutants analysis in marine sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azis, M. Y.; Asia, L.; Piram, A.; Buchari, B.; Doumenq, P.; Setiyanto, H.

    2018-05-01

    Interference from the matrix sample can influence of the accurate analytical method. Accelerated Solvent Extraction and their purification methods were tried to separate the organic micropollutants respectively in marine sediment. Those matrix were as organic pollutants evaluation in marine environment. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are two examples organic pollutant in environment which are carcinogenic and mutagenic. Marine sediments are important matrices of information regarding the human activities in coastal areas as well as the fate and behavior of organic pollutants, which are persistent in long-term. This research purpose to evaluate the matrice effect and the recovery from marine sediment spiking with several standar solution and deuterium of molecular target from organic pollutants in not polluted sample of sediment. Matrice samples was tested from indicate in unpolluted location. The methods were evaluated with standard calibration curve (linearity LOQ). Recovery (YE) relative, Matrice Effect (ME) relative correction with deuteriated standar were evaluated the interference the matrix. Interference effect for OCPs compounds were higher than PCBs in marine sediment.

  19. Contaminant monitoring programmes using marine organisms: Quality assurance and good laboratory practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This publication provides guidelines for obtaining reliable and relevant data during monitoring programmes in which contaminants are measured in marine organisms. It describes the precautions to be taken in each of the procedural steps from planning and sampling to the publication of data reports. The purpose of this document is to provide general guidance on quality assurance and to outline the approach that could be taken by laboratories to achieve the specific aims(s) for each marine pollution monitoring programme. Since most laboratories are currently focussing on programmes involving marine organisms, this document will be confined to this aspect. Four main aims can be identified for programmes involving the collection and analysis of marine organisms for the three main groups of contaminants (metals, organochlorine compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons), these are: (i) The measurement of contaminant levels in edible marine organisms in relation to public health; (ii) The identification of heavily contaminated areas of the sea (''hot spots'') where levels of contaminants are at least an order of magnitude higher than levels in clean or uncontaminated areas; (iii) The establishment of present levels of contaminants in marine organisms (i.e., a ''baseline''); (iv) The assessment of changes in concentrations of contaminants in organisms over a period of time (trends). The selection of organisms will be dictated by the eating patterns of the population. These can be identified by a survey of the species sold at the market, by obtaining information from colleagues in government departments who deal with such matters or in the absence of such information, by distributing a questionnaire to a representative section of the general public. 9 refs, 4 figs

  20. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine... Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing: E4 Mode No. Enginespeed 1 Torque(percent) 2...

  1. Noise in the Sea and Its Impacts on Marine Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Xinguo; Liu, Guangxu

    2015-01-01

    With the growing utilization and exploration of the ocean, anthropogenic noise increases significantly and gives rise to a new kind of pollution: noise pollution. In this review, the source and the characteristics of noise in the sea, the significance of sound to marine organisms, and the impacts of noise on marine organisms are summarized. In general, the studies about the impact of noise on marine organisms are mainly on adult fish and mammals, which account for more than 50% and 20% of all the cases reported. Studies showed that anthropogenic noise can cause auditory masking, leading to cochlear damage, changes in individual and social behavior, altered metabolisms, hampered population recruitment, and can subsequently affect the health and service functions of marine ecosystems. However, since different sampling methodologies and unstandarized measurements were used and the effects of noise on marine organisms are dependent on the characteristics of the species and noise investigated, it is difficult to compare the reported results. Moreover, the scarcity of studies carried out with other species and with larval or juvenile individuals severely constrains the present understanding of noise pollution. In addition, further studies are needed to reveal in detail the causes for the detected impacts. PMID:26437424

  2. Effects of Pollution on Marine Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearns, Alan J; Reish, Donald J; Oshida, Philip S; Morrison, Ann Michelle; Rempel-Hester, Mary Ann; Arthur, Courtney; Rutherford, Nicolle; Pryor, Rachel

    2017-10-01

    This review covers selected 2016 articles on the biological effects of pollutants and human physical disturbances on marine and estuarine plants, animals, ecosystems and habitats. The review, based largely on journal articles, covers field and laboratory measurement activities (bioaccumulation of contaminants, field assessment surveys, toxicity testing and biomarkers) as well as pollution issues of current interest including endocrine disrupters, emerging contaminants, wastewater discharges, dredging and disposal etc. Special emphasis is placed on effects of oil spills and marine debris due largely to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. Several topical areas reviewed in the past (ballast water and ocean acidification) were dropped this year. The focus of this review is on effects, not pollutant fate and transport. There is considerable overlap across subject areas (e.g.some bioaccumulation papers may be cited in other topical categories). Please use keyword searching of the text to locate related but distributed papers. Use this review only as a guide and please consult the original papers before citing them.

  3. Assessing toxicity of varying major ion concentrations to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, D.R.; Quast, W.

    1993-01-01

    Recent regulatory developments have required that produced waters discharged in the Gulf of Mexico be monitored for toxicity to marine organisms. While produced water may contain a variety of indigenous and introduced chemicals, virtually all have moderate to high concentrations of major ions. Although seawater is also rich in these ions, excessive salinity can cause toxicity to marine organisms. Perhaps more importantly, toxicity to marine organisms can be caused by deviations from normal ion ratios even if the total salinity is within organism tolerances. To provide a better understanding of marine organism responses to variations in major ion concentrations, the authors conducted a series of laboratory experiments to quantify the responses of mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia) and sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) to modifications of normal seawater chemistry. Acute testing included both increasing and decreasing the concentrations of individual ions relative to seawater, as well as altering total salinity. Results show these organisms can be adversely affected by this altered chemistry and their sensitivity is dependent upon the individual ions that are manipulated. Results from these studies are being incorporated into an overall strategy for evaluating the influence of major ion chemistry on produced water toxicity tests

  4. Marine Biology and Oceanography, Grades Nine to Twelve. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on sea plants/animals and their interactions with each other and the non-living environment, has sections dealing with: marine ecology; marine bacteriology;…

  5. Effect of different combining patterns of radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakamura, R.; Nakahara, M.

    1981-01-01

    Information on the environmental factors (level of radioactivity in sea water, salinity, temperature, etc.), the biological factors (growth stage, species of organism, etc.), and the metabolism of radionuclides in marine organisms should be taken into account so as to understand the mechanism of radioactive contamination of marine organisms. From this viewpoint, the combining of radionuclides with constituents in marine organisms was studied, indicating the differences as follows: (a) Different appearances of radioactive cobalt in the liver of the abalone due to chemical forms: From the gel filtration profiles on Sephadex it was observed that 57 Co accumulated in the liver of the abalone from sea water labelled by complexed 57 Co combines with a constituent in the liver that has a molecular weight of about 40,000. However, 60 Co taken up from sea water containing ionic 60 Co combines with other constituents in the liver. (b) Appearance of radionuclides in fish due to pathways (sea water and food): In fish liver, most 137 Cs from both sea water and food combines with only one constituent substance; the molecular weight of this substance was estimated at 1100-1300. Cobalt-60 from both sea water and food associates with two different molecular weight constituents, but 65 Zn made a considerable difference in the gel filtration profiles between sea water and food. These results indicate that the metabolism of radionuclides in marine organisms may possibly be varied by the chemical forms of radionuclides in sea water and the pathways of radionuclides. (author)

  6. Interactions of marine plankton with transuranic elements. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, N.S.; Bjerregaard, P.; Huynh-Ngoc, L.; Harvey, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    To assess the significance of naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (DOM) on complexation of transuranic elements in seawater, a series of bioassay experiments was conducted in which the effect of DOM on the accumulation of 241 Am, 237 Pu(III-IV), and 237 Pu(V-VI) by the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana was measured. EDTA at 0.3 μM complexed both metals substantially, resulting in reduced radio-isotope uptake by the diatom; the greatest effect was on Pu(III-IV). In contrast, there was no apparent complexation of either element by equimolar concentrations of marine fulvic (MFA) or humic acids (MHA), naturally occurring photooxidizable DOM (uncharacterized), or diatom exudates, as none of these materials reduced isotope uptake; on the contrary, there were indications that some of this DOM enhanced transuranic bioaccumulation in the diatom slightly. Subsequent experiments showed this enhancement was probably due to complexation of transition metals by the DOM, leading to fewer ambient ions 'competing' for binding sites on the cells; 241 Am uptake rates were negatively correlated (r = -0.846, P<.01) with ΣASV-labile Cu + Zn + Cd + Pb. These experiments suggest that naturally occurring DOM may not appreciably complex Am or Pu or greatly affect their bioavailability in the sea. (Auth.)

  7. Leaching of plastic additives to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelmans, Albert A.; Besseling, Ellen; Foekema, Edwin M.

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that ingestion of microplastics by aquatic species leads to increased exposure to plastic additives. However, experimental data or model based evidence is lacking. Here we assess the potential of leaching of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the intestinal tracts of Arenicola marina (lugworm) and Gadus morhua (North Sea cod). We use a biodynamic model that allows calculations of the relative contribution of plastic ingestion to total exposure of aquatic species to chemicals residing in the ingested plastic. Uncertainty in the most crucial parameters is accounted for by probabilistic modeling. Our conservative analysis shows that plastic ingestion by the lugworm yields NP and BPA concentrations that stay below the lower ends of global NP and BPA concentration ranges, and therefore are not likely to constitute a relevant exposure pathway. For cod, plastic ingestion appears to be a negligible pathway for exposure to NP and BPA. - Highlights: • Uptake of plastic additives after plastic ingestion was modeled for worms and fish. • This was done for bisphenol A and nonylphenol. • Uncertainty was accounted for by Monte Carlo simulations. • It appeared that exposure by plastic ingestion was negligible for fish. • Plastic ingestion may occasionally be relevant for marine worms. - Leaching of nonylphenol and bisphenol A from ingested microplastic may be relevant for the lugworm, but is irrelevant for fish like cod

  8. Impacts of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles on marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Tony J.; Tyler, Charles R.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing use of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles [Me(O)NPs] in products means many will inevitably find their way into marine systems. Their likely fate here is sedimentation following hetero-aggregation with natural organic matter and/or free anions, putting benthic, sediment-dwelling and filter feeding organisms most at risk. In marine systems, Me(O)NPs can absorb to micro-organisms with potential for trophic transfer following consumption. Filter feeders, especially bivalves, accumulate Me(O)NPs through trapping them in mucus prior to ingestion. Benthic in-fauna may directly ingest sedimented Me(O)NPs. In fish, uptake is principally via the gut following drinking, whilst Me(O)NPs caught in gill mucus may affect respiratory processes and ion transport. Currently, environmentally-realistic Me(O)NP concentrations are unlikely to cause significant adverse acute health problems, however sub-lethal effects e.g. oxidative stresses have been noted in many organisms, often deriving from dissolution of Ag, Cu or Zn ions, and this could result in chronic health impacts. -- Highlights: • Nanoparticle (NP) use increasing, and NPs ultimately discharged to marine systems. • Metal ion dissolution from NPs causes oxidative stress at relevant concentrations. • Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of NPs likely at all levels of marine food webs. • Biofilms and filter feeders are major NP accumulators, but many Classes lack study. • Current release levels unlikely to cause chronic damage, but may be a future issue. -- Exposure to metal (oxide) nanoparticles causes sub-lethal effects in marine organisms, the extent of which is related principally to the organisms' feeding regime, habitat and lifestyle

  9. Biology, genome organization and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of parvoviruses are now know to infect marine shrimp, and these viruses alone or in combination with other viruses have the potential to cause major losses in shrimp aquaculture globally. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biology, genome organization, gene expression, and...

  10. Accumulation of trace metals in coastal marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, A.W. van; Raaphorst, J.G. van

    1980-01-01

    ECN at Petten carries out a survey on the occurrence of trace metals in coastal marine organisms. The survey is aimed to provide an estimate of concentration factors in local marine organisms for neutron activation products released as low-level liquid radioactive waste into the North Sea. The organisms studied are red and brown seaweed, edible mussels ans shrimp. A summary of the results of analyses of iron, cobalt, zinc, silver and antimony in these organisms is presented. Concentration factors derived from mean stable-element concentrations range from about 50 for Sb in red seaweed and shrimp to about 10 4 for Fe in red seaweed and mussels. The largest variation is shown for zinc in seaweed, which variation is seasonal and most pronounced in brown seaweed. A discussion of the data is presented in relation to data from other West-European coastal areas and to data used for the radiological assessment of deep sea disposal of radioactive waste

  11. The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Stephanie L.; Thompson, Richard C.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2013-01-01

    Plastic debris at the micro-, and potentially also the nano-scale, are widespread in the environment. Microplastics have accumulated in oceans and sediments worldwide in recent years, with maximum concentrations reaching 100 000 particles m 3 . Due to their small size, microplastics may be ingested by low trophic fauna, with uncertain consequences for the health of the organism. This review focuses on marine invertebrates and their susceptibility to the physical impacts of microplastic uptake. Some of the main points discussed are (1) an evaluation of the factors contributing to the bioavailability of microplastics including size and density; (2) an assessment of the relative susceptibility of different feeding guilds; (3) an overview of the factors most likely to influence the physical impacts of microplastics such as accumulation and translocation; and (4) the trophic transfer of microplastics. These findings are important in guiding future marine litter research and management strategies. -- Highlights: •Accumulation of plastic waste in the oceans has become a pressing issue. •Here we review the susceptibility of marine invertebrates to microplastic uptake. •Size, shape and abundance influence uptake; microfibres are considered most harmful. •Colonisation of microplastics could have population-level impacts. •Results will inform future marine litter research and management strategies. -- Here we review microplastic uptake in marine organisms and assess individual, population and community level effects, highlighting the most susceptible species

  12. Radiocarbon in marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clercq, M. le; Plicht, J. van der; Meijer, H.A.J.; Baar, H.J.W. de

    Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) plays an important role in the ecology and carbon cycle in the ocean. Analytical problems with concentration and isotope ratio measurements have hindered its study. We have constructed a new analytical method based on supercritical oxidation for the determination of

  13. Inventory of organisms interfering with transmission of a marine trematode

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, J.E.; van der Meer, J.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2014-01-01

    It has increasingly been recognized that organisms can interfere with parasitic free-living stages, preventing them from infecting their specified host and thus reducing infection levels. This common phenomenon in freshwater and terrestrial systems has been termed the ‘dilution effect’ and, so far, is poorly studied in marine systems. Ten common intertidal organisms found in the Dutch Wadden Sea (North Sea) were tested to establish their effects on the free-living cercarial stages of the trem...

  14. Contribution to the study of radioactivity in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Gouvea, R. de C. dos; Santos, P.L. dos

    1986-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of natural radionuclides in marine organisms along the Rio de Janeiro coast was studied. Significant levels of 210 Po were found in the edible bivalve Perna perna linnaeus, 1758. The level of 210 Po in the soft tissue of bivalves collected along the Ponta Negra rock there was three times higher than that of similar organisms collected near Boa Viagem. (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. Bioavailability of sediment-bound contaminants to marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)]|[Colby Coll., Waterville, ME (United States); Neff, J. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)]|[Battelle Ocean Sciences, Duxbury, MA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    The bioavailability of sediment-bound contaminants to marine organisms indicates that there exists a potential for transfer of these contaminants through marine food webs to commercial fisheries products consumed by humans. However, there has been relatively little effort to combine and synthesize data on chemical/biological interactions between benthic animals and seagrasses and the sediments in which they reside on the one hand, and on the chemistry of bioaccumulation on the other. This report provides a conceptual basis for an approach to bioavailability and biomagnification of sediment-bound contaminants that reviews biological and chemical approaches.

  16. Interactions Between Prokaryotes and Dissolved Organic Matter in Marine Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, Sachia Jo

    organic bound carbon equal in size to atmospheric carbon dioxide. Prokaryotes mediate the fate of a large part of marine DOM, which is their principal source of energy and substrate. However, a large fraction is also left behind in the water column persisting for millennia, and prokaryotes may hold...... the key to understanding the mechanisms controlling the cycling of DOM within marine waters. In the thesis presented here, the aim was to investigate the activity and composition of prokaryotes to determine their functional role in DOM utilization. The thesis incorporates a range of study systems...

  17. Adaptive Observatories for Observing Moving Marine Organisms (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingham, J. G.; Scholin, C.; Zhang, Y.; Godin, M. A.; Hobson, B.; Frolov, S.

    2010-12-01

    The ability to characterize the response of small marine organisms to each other, and to their environment, is a demanding observational challenge. Small organisms live in a water reference frame, while existing cable or mooring-based observatories operate in an Earth reference frame. Thus repeated observations from a fixed system observe different populations as currents sweep organisms by the sensors. In contrast, mobile systems are typically optimized for spatial coverage rather than repeated observations of the same water volume. Lagrangian drifters track water mass, but are unable to find or reposition themselves relative to ocean features. We are developing a system capable of finding, following and observing discrete populations of marine organisms over time, leveraging a decade and a half investment in the Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network (AOSN) program. AOSN undertook the development of platforms to enable multi-platform coordinated measurement of ocean properties in the late 1990s, leading to the development of a variety of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and associated technologies, notably several glider systems, now in common use. Efforts by a number of research groups have focused on methods to employ these networked systems to observe and predict dynamic physical ocean phenomena. For example, periodic large scale field programs in Monterey Bay have progressively integrated these systems with data systems, predictive models, and web-based collaborative portals. We are adapting these approaches to follow and observe the dynamics of marine organisms. Compared to physical processes, the temporal and spatial variability of small marine organisms, particularly micro-organisms, is typical greater. Consequently, while multi-platform observations of physical processes can be coordinated via intermittent communications links from shore, biological observations require a higher degree of adaptability of the observation system in situ. This talk will

  18. Latitudinal gradients in degradation of marine dissolved organic carbon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Arnosti

    Full Text Available Heterotrophic microbial communities cycle nearly half of net primary productivity in the ocean, and play a particularly important role in transformations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC. The specific means by which these communities mediate the transformations of organic carbon are largely unknown, since the vast majority of marine bacteria have not been isolated in culture, and most measurements of DOC degradation rates have focused on uptake and metabolism of either bulk DOC or of simple model compounds (e.g. specific amino acids or sugars. Genomic investigations provide information about the potential capabilities of organisms and communities but not the extent to which such potential is expressed. We tested directly the capabilities of heterotrophic microbial communities in surface ocean waters at 32 stations spanning latitudes from 76°S to 79°N to hydrolyze a range of high molecular weight organic substrates and thereby initiate organic matter degradation. These data demonstrate the existence of a latitudinal gradient in the range of complex substrates available to heterotrophic microbial communities, paralleling the global gradient in bacterial species richness. As changing climate increasingly affects the marine environment, changes in the spectrum of substrates accessible by microbial communities may lead to shifts in the location and rate at which marine DOC is respired. Since the inventory of DOC in the ocean is comparable in magnitude to the atmospheric CO(2 reservoir, such a change could profoundly affect the global carbon cycle.

  19. Assessment of the impact of xenobiotic pollutants on the marine organisms: Molecular biomarker approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    of the organisms to xenobiotic compounds being transformed into reactive oxygen species. Most importantly, the occurrence of DNA strand breaks in marine organisms leading to the loss of DNA integrity is a significant biomarker of marine pollution. The measurement...

  20. Investigating organic aerosol loading in the remote marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lapina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol loading in the marine environment is investigated using aerosol composition measurements from several research ship campaigns (ICEALOT, MAP, RHaMBLe, VOCALS and OOMPH, observations of total AOD column from satellite (MODIS and ship-based instruments (Maritime Aerosol Network, MAN, and a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem. This work represents the most comprehensive evaluation of oceanic OM emission inventories to date, by employing aerosol composition measurements obtained from campaigns with wide spatial and temporal coverage. The model underestimates AOD over the remote ocean on average by 0.02 (21 %, compared to satellite observations, but provides an unbiased simulation of ground-based Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN observations. Comparison with cruise data demonstrates that the GEOS-Chem simulation of marine sulfate, with the mean observed values ranging between 0.22 μg m−3 and 1.34 μg m−3, is generally unbiased, however surface organic matter (OM concentrations, with the mean observed concentrations between 0.07 μg m−3 and 0.77 μg m−3, are underestimated by a factor of 2–5 for the standard model run. Addition of a sub-micron marine OM source of approximately 9 TgC yr−1 brings the model into agreement with the ship-based measurements, however this additional OM source does not explain the model underestimate of marine AOD. The model underestimate of marine AOD is therefore likely the result of a combination of satellite retrieval bias and a missing marine aerosol source (which exhibits a different spatial pattern than existing aerosol in the model.

  1. Marine Vibrio Species Produce the Volatile Organic Compound Acetone

    OpenAIRE

    Nemecek-Marshall, M.; Wojciechowski, C.; Kuzma, J.; Silver, G. M.; Fall, R.

    1995-01-01

    While screening aerobic, heterotrophic marine bacteria for production of volatile organic compounds, we found that a group of isolates produced substantial amounts of acetone. Acetone production was confirmed by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The major acetone producers were identified as nonclinical Vibrio species. Acetone production was maximal in the stationary phase of growth and was stimulated by addition of l-leucine...

  2. Marine modification of terrestrial influences on Gulf hypoxia: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines potential marine modification of two classes of terrestrial influence on Gulf hypoxia: (1 the flow of nutrient-rich water from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin and (2 the massive physical, hydrological, chemical and biological change associated with the Atchafalaya’s partial capture of the Mississippi River. The latter involves repartitioning of a total flow of about 20 000 m3 sec−1, equal to that of 13 Nile Rivers, and a sediment load of 210 million metric tonnes yr−1,nearly 20 times that delivered by all of the rivers of the East Coast of the USA. Also involved is the loss of hundreds-to-thousands of years of stored nutrients and organic matter to the Gulf from enormous coastal wetland loss. This study found that the oceanography of the Gulf minimises the impact of both classes of terrestrial influence from the Mississippi River and its nearby estuaries on Gulf hypoxia. Oceanographic conditions give events associated with the Atchafalaya River a disproportionately large influence on Gulf hypoxia. A truly holistic environmental approach which includes the full effects of this highly dynamic coastal area is recommended to better understand and control Gulf hypoxia.

  3. Concentration factors of radionuclides in the marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    Parameters related to the bioconcentration of radionuclides in the marine were shown by 'Assessment and guideline to the target value of dose in the environment of the power light water reactor facilities' (Nuclear Safety Commission), but the guideline data did not contain Ru and Ce relating to the reprocessing plant. So that more new data than these of 'Technical Reports Series No. 247' (published by IAEA in 1985) were mainly collected. Especially the data of nuclides with poor data of concentration factors (CF) and natural radionuclides (Po-210, Pb-210) were gathered. These data were pigeonholed and many tables (element, kinds of organisms, experimental methods) were made by separating the general remarks from the original experimental reports. The contents of this report are given as under, history of concentration factor (CF), determination method of CF, CF calculation method, calculation models related to CF, tables of metabolic parameters, tables of CF, the present conditions of studies for uptake of radionuclides with long half-life into the marine organisms, CF abstract tables and trial calculation of human exposure by eating the marine organisms. (S.Y.)

  4. Studies on radioactivity monitoring proceedure for marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku; Hirano, Shigeki

    1978-01-01

    Suitability of several species of mollusca and seaweeds as indicator organisms for radioactivity monitoring of marine environment was examined by radioisotope tracer experiments or stable elements analyses from the standpoints of the affinities for radionuclides, the sampling procedures, and the distribution of radioactive and stable elements in the body of these organisms. Extremely high concentration factor of 54 Mn was shown by kidney of scallop suggesting the suitability for the efficient monitoring of the nuclide though the contribution of kidney to the weight of scallop was very small. Higher concentration of 54 Mn in midgut gland rather than kidney was observed in the case of other species of shellfishes but distribution of the nuclide among organs or tissues of the organisms varied during the period of intake and excretion. Ununiform distribution of radioactive and stable elements among the species of seaweeds and in the body of seaweeds observed by the tracer experiments and stable element analyses suggested the necessity of careful selection of the samples for monitoring of these nuclides. From the results of tracer experiments carried out in order to elucidate the relation between existing state of radionuclides in seawater and uptake by marine organisms, it was supposed that the complexed forms with inorganic or organic ligands in seawater were predominant species of radioactive cerium in seawater. (author)

  5. Polonium-210 and lead-210 in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, M.; Kuwabara, J.; Komura, K.; Ueno, K.

    1994-01-01

    The concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb were determined in about 30 species of marine organisms collected mainly from the north-eastern region of Japan to know the levels and distributions of these radionuclides and to estimate their intake levels from marine foods. 210 Po and 210 Pb showed a wide range of concentration in species: 0.6-26 and 0.04-0.54 Bq/kg (wet wt) in fishes, 0.5-220 and 0.2-43 Bq/kg (wet wt) in molluscs, echinoderms and chordatas, and 2.8-4.3 and 0.4-1.3 Bq/kg (wet wt) in algae, respectively. Higher accumulation of 210 Po relative to 210 Pb was found in all of the samples analyzed. The intake levels of 210 Po and 210 Pb by marine foods consumption were roughly estimated to be 0.48-0.69 and 0.022-0.042 Bq/d per person, respectively, on the basis of the statistical data on the consumption of seafood and/or production rates of marine foods. (author) 16 refs.; 6 tabs

  6. Concentration of 60Co by marine organisms through sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu; Koyanagi, Taku; Saiki, Masamichi

    1976-01-01

    Uptake of 60 Co absorbed on sea sands by benthic marine organisms was observed in laboratory experiments, since the radioactive cobalt released from nuclear power plants or other establishments into coastal seawater trends to be absorbed on sea sediments and also various kinds of marine organisms live in bottom sediments. Few kinds of flatfishes (Limanda spp.) and shrimp (Trachypenaeus curvirostris) were reared in aquariums contained seawater and sea sands which were highly contaminated with 60 Co previously, and whole body retention and distribution of radioactivity were measured on the organisms taken up from the aquariums occasionally by a scintillation counter. Uptake of 60 Co from ingested sea sands was also observed on the flatfishes administrating the contaminated sands orally. Concentration of 60 Co by the flatfishes reared in the sands was not significant while the shrimp showed high retention of the radioactivity. The food habit of shrimp which usually feeds on organic detritus with other small benthic organisms is different from that of flatfishes, one of the carnivorous, and considered to bring the difference on the pathway of radionuclides concentration. Assimilation of 60 Co via the digestive tract of flatfishes through the sands was estimated as about 10 per cent of the administrated radioactivity. (auth.)

  7. Studies on uptake and loss of radionuclides by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku; Suzuki, Hamaji; Hirano, Shigeki; Nakahara, Motokazu; Ishii, Toshiaki

    1978-01-01

    Uptake and loss of 137 Cs, 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 59 fe by marine fishes were observed by the radio-isotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors and biological half-lives for these radionuclides by the fishes were estimated. Concentration factors of 137 Cs by fish muscles calculated at 200th day as 17.5 - 27.5 were lower than the values obtained by the field survey on stable or radioactive cesium suggesting slow turnover in fish muscles and contribution of food to the accumulation of the nuclide. Transfer of radionuclides associated with sediment to marine benthic organisms was examined by rearing the organisms in contaminated sediment or administering the sediment orally to the organisms. The transfer ratios of the nuclides from sediment to organisms were less than the concentration factors based on seawater by the factors ranging from around 100 to about 5,000 depending on the species of organisms or radionuclides. Accumulation of radionuclides through food chain in marine ecosystem was studied by feeding shellfishes with labelled phytoplankton and seaweeds by feeding fishes with assorted feeds labelled by radioisotopes. Absorption of 60 Co by abalones was affected by the species of the seaweeds as food and 47% of the administered dose was retained through Laminaria japonica, whereas 31% through Undaria and 26% through Eisenia. Absorption of the radionuclides by the fishes fed with labelled feeds was most significant in the case of 137 Cs and 65 Zn and transfer rate showed the maximum values at 48 hours after feeding as 100 and 24%, respectively. About 45% of the former distributed in muscle and 52% of the latter in digestive tract and blood of the fishes. (author)

  8. Anti-photoaging and Photoprotective Compounds Derived from Marine Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramjee Pallela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms form a prominent component of the oceanic population, which significantly contribute in the production of cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical molecules with biologically efficient moieties. In addition to the molecules of various biological activities like anti-bacterial, anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative etc., these organisms also produce potential photoprotective or anti-photoaging agents, which are attracting present day researchers. Continuous exposure to UV irradiation (both UV-A and UV-B leads to the skin cancer and other photoaging complications, which are typically mediated by the reactive oxygen species (ROS, generated in the oxidative pathways. Many of the anti-oxidative and anti-photoaging compounds have been identified previously, which work efficiently against photodamage of the skin. Recently, marine originated photoprotective or anti-photoaging behavior was observed in the methanol extracts of Corallina pilulifera (CPM. These extracts were found to exert potent antioxidant activity and protective effect on UV-A-induced oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblast (HDF cells by protecting DNA and also by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, a key component in photoaging of the skin due to exposure to UV-A. The present review depicts various other photoprotective compounds from algae and other marine sources for further elaborative research and their probable use in cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical industries.

  9. Reticulate Evolution and Marine Organisms: The Final Frontier?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Arnold

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The role that reticulate evolution (i.e., via lateral transfer, viral recombination and/or introgressive hybridization has played in the origin and adaptation of individual taxa and even entire clades continues to be tested for all domains of life. Though falsified for some groups, the hypothesis of divergence in the face of gene flow is becoming accepted as a major facilitator of evolutionary change for many microorganisms, plants and animals. Yet, the effect of reticulate evolutionary change in certain assemblages has been doubted, either due to an actual dearth of genetic exchange among the lineages belonging to these clades or because of a lack of appropriate data to test alternative hypotheses. Marine organisms represent such an assemblage. In the past half-century, some evolutionary biologists interested in the origin and trajectory of marine organisms, particularly animals, have posited that horizontal transfer, introgression and hybrid speciation have been rare. In this review, we provide examples of such genetic exchange that have come to light largely as a result of analyses of molecular markers. Comparisons among these markers and between these loci and morphological characters have provided numerous examples of marine microorganisms, plants and animals that possess the signature of mosaic genomes.

  10. The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L; Thompson, Richard C; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-07-01

    Plastic debris at the micro-, and potentially also the nano-scale, are widespread in the environment. Microplastics have accumulated in oceans and sediments worldwide in recent years, with maximum concentrations reaching 100 000 particles m(3). Due to their small size, microplastics may be ingested by low trophic fauna, with uncertain consequences for the health of the organism. This review focuses on marine invertebrates and their susceptibility to the physical impacts of microplastic uptake. Some of the main points discussed are (1) an evaluation of the factors contributing to the bioavailability of microplastics including size and density; (2) an assessment of the relative susceptibility of different feeding guilds; (3) an overview of the factors most likely to influence the physical impacts of microplastics such as accumulation and translocation; and (4) the trophic transfer of microplastics. These findings are important in guiding future marine litter research and management strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Concentration of radionuclides by marine organisms and their food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu

    1993-01-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides from seawater and from food by marine organisms was observed in the laboratory experiments to get bioconcentration parameters for the nuclides. The radionuclides investigated were 57 Co, 95m Tc, 103 Ru, 137 Cs, 65 Zn and 54 Mn. Several species of molluscs containing pelecypods, gastropods and cephalopod were used for the experimental organisms. For the uptake experiment from seawater, the organisms were kept for more than seven days in radioactive seawater containing those radionuclides together. Then the organisms were transferred into non-radioactive seawater to observe the loss of the nuclides from the organisms. Biphasic loss curves were observed for all of the nuclides. Bioconcentration parameters, such as uptake rate, excretion rate, biological half-life and concentration factor at steady state were estimated from the uptake and excretion curves of the nuclides by the organisms by applying an exponential model. In the uptake experiments from radioactive food, the phytoplankton (Tetraselmis tetrathele), the brown algae (Eisenia bicyclis) and the viscera of abalone were fed to bivalves, herbivorous gastropods and carnivorous molluscs, respectively. After single feeding of the labelled food with the nuclides, retention of the nuclides in whole body of the organisms was followed for several weeks or more. The organisms showed relatively high retention of the nuclides in whole body, except 137 Cs and 54 Mn. Retention of 137 Cs and 54 Mn in the organisms one day after feeding of radioactive food was lower than 25 % of the radioactivity dosed. (author)

  12. Extreme accumulations of natural polonium-210 in certain marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folsom, T.R.; Wong, K.M.; Hodge, V.F.

    1972-01-01

    Concentration levels of polonium-210 reported for sea water are reviewed, and activities accumulated by various marine plant and animal species are discussed. Special mention is made of detailed studies of one giant algae upon whose outer surfaces intense accumulations of polonium have been discovered recently. Some concentrations found in two organisms intimate with algae, the abalones and the sea hares, are reported. Concentrations are listed pertaining to organisms selected from the open ocean in order to show that intense polonium concentrations are not restricted to organisms living near the continents where precursors of polonium originate. A brief discussion of conditions on one of the marine mammals, the dolphin, next is made. Then comments are made upon a benthic species (the sable fish) that prefers to live close to the deep sea floor, presumably so as to eat detritus. They also eat many of the smaller organisms that compete for the natural deep sea fallout of food, and many of these live in close contact with the muds and clays of the sea floor that are rich in radium. Some of the behavior and anatomical features and polonium-210 distribution in one of the most interesting and valuable of fishes, the North Pacific albacore (Thunnus alalunga) is described. This species has been used previously to tell us something about nuclear fallout distributions in the North Pacific Ocean during the past decade and repeatedly has directed attention to features of this ocean that might hardly be detected otherwise. (U.S.)

  13. Marine organisms and their adaption - Adaptions solve the challenges of existence in the sea.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Das, A.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    in the upper ocean; the size of marine organisms decrease with depth (1) Marine adption includes symbiosis, camouflage, size, contact, communication, defensive and reproductive strategies besides, adaptions to environmental conditions like temperature, light...

  14. Latitudinal gradients in degradation of marine dissolved organic carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnosti, Carol; Steen, Andrew; Ziervogel, Kai

    2011-01-01

    unknown, since the vast majority of marine bacteria have not been isolated in culture, and most measurements of DOC degradation rates have focused on uptake and metabolism of either bulk DOC or of simple model compounds (e.g. specific amino acids or sugars). Genomic investigations provide information......Heterotrophic microbial communities cycle nearly half of net primary productivity in the ocean, and play a particularly important role in transformations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The specific means by which these communities mediate the transformations of organic carbon are largely...... about the potential capabilities of organisms and communities but not the extent to which such potential is expressed. We tested directly the capabilities of heterotrophic microbial communities in surface ocean waters at 32 stations spanning latitudes from 76 ºS to 79 ºN to hydrolyze a range of high...

  15. Effects of triclosan on marine benthic and epibenthic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Monique M; Ho, Kay T; Cantwell, Mark G; Burgess, Robert M; Pelletier, Marguerite C

    2012-08-01

    Triclosan is an antimicrobial compound that has been widely used in consumer products such as toothpaste, deodorant, and shampoo. Because of its widespread use, triclosan has been detected in various environmental media, including wastewater, sewage sludge, surface waters, and sediments. Triclosan is acutely toxic to numerous aquatic organisms, but very few studies have been performed on estuarine and marine benthic organisms. For whole sediment toxicity tests, the sediment-dwelling estuarine amphipod, Ampelisca abdita, and the epibenthic mysid shrimp, Americamysis bahia, are commonly used organisms. In the present study, median lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained for both of these organisms using water-only and whole sediment exposures. Acute 96-h water-only toxicity tests resulted in LC50 values of 73.4 and 74.3 µg/L for the amphipod and mysid, respectively. For the 7-d whole sediment toxicity test, LC50 values were 303 and 257 mg/kg (dry wt) for the amphipod and mysid, respectively. Using equilibrium partitioning theory, these whole sediment values are equivalent to interstitial water LC50 values of 230 and 190 µg/L for the amphipod and mysid, respectively, which are within a threefold difference of the observed 96-h LC50 water-only values. Triclosan was found to accumulate in polychaete tissue in a 28-d bioaccumulation study with a biota-sediment accumulation factor of 0.23 kg organic carbon/kg lipid. These data provide some of the first toxicity data for triclosan with marine benthic and epibenthic species while also indicating a need to better understand the effects of other forms of sediment carbon, triclosan ionization, and organism metabolism of triclosan on the chemical's behavior and toxicity in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  16. Need for organic reference materials in marine science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.E.

    1988-12-01

    The reference materials (RMs) available for organic trace analysis (OTA) and the development programmes of the RM producers are reviewed. The need for a wider range of determinants, matrices and classes of RMs, particularly the more widespread use of laboratory RMs (LRMs) is discussed. Additional certified RMs should include phenolic surfactant degradation products, chlorophenolics from the wood and paper industries, and organobromines from fire retardants. RMs as molecular markers of geogenic, pyrogenic and biogenic sources; chlorophylls and xanthophylls as a measure of marine productivity and natural shellfish toxins are proposed.

  17. Snellius II as a policy instrument for marine capacity building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stel, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world (1.8 million km2 of land, 3.1 million km2 of sea, plus a 200 miles Exclusive Economic Zone covering some 2.7 million km2). Its population, ranking number four on the world list, amounts to more than 216 million people. Marine related programmes are

  18. Preliminary study on the occurrence of brominated organic compounds in Dutch marine organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.J.J.; Veen, van der I.; Hesselingen, van J.M.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Osinga, R.; Boer, de J.

    2003-01-01

    The extracts of three marine organisms; the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, the brown seaweed Sargassum muticum and the sponge Halichondria panicea, all elicited a number of brominated compounds, some of which were tentatively identified. Tribromophenol was observed in all species. This compound, also

  19. Assessment of Integrated Information System (IIS) in organization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Integrated Information System (IIS) in organization. ... to enable the Information System (IS) managers, as well as top management to understand the ... since organisational and strategic aspects in IIS should also be considered.

  20. Insight into glucosidase II from the red marine microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Ontman, Oshrat; Fisher, Merav; Shotland, Yoram; Tekoah, Yoram; Malis Arad, Shoshana

    2015-12-01

    N-glycosylation of proteins is one of the most important post-translational modifications that occur in various organisms, and is of utmost importance for protein function, stability, secretion, and loca-lization. Although the N-linked glycosylation pathway of proteins has been extensively characterized in mammals and plants, not much information is available regarding the N-glycosylation pathway in algae. We studied the α 1,3-glucosidase glucosidase II (GANAB) glycoenzyme in a red marine microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta) using bioinformatic and biochemical approaches. The GANAB-gene was found to be highly conserved evolutionarily (compo-sed of all the common features of α and β subunits) and to exhibit similar motifs consistent with that of homolog eukaryotes GANAB genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its wide distribution across an evolutionarily vast range of organisms; while the α subunit is highly conserved and its phylogenic tree is similar to the taxon evolutionary tree, the β subunit is less conserved and its pattern somewhat differs from the taxon tree. In addition, the activity of the red microalgal GANAB enzyme was studied, including functional and biochemical characterization using a bioassay, indicating that the enzyme is similar to other eukaryotes ortholog GANAB enzymes. A correlation between polysaccharide production and GANAB activity, indicating its involvement in polysaccharide biosynthesis, is also demonstrated. This study represents a valuable contribution toward understanding the N-glycosylation and polysaccharide biosynthesis pathways in red microalgae. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  1. Antiviral Activity of Natural Products Extracted from Marine Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobia Tabassum

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Many epidemics have broken out over the centuries. Hundreds and thousands of humans have died over a disease. Available treatments for infectious diseases have always been limited. Some infections are more deadly than the others, especially viral pathogens. These pathogens have continuously resisted all kinds of medical treatment, due to a need for new treatments to be developed. Drugs are present in nature and are also synthesized in vitro and they help in combating diseases and restoring health. Synthesizing drugs is a hard and time consuming task, which requires a lot of man power and financial aid. However, the natural compounds are just lying around on the earth, may it be land or water. Over a thousand novel compounds isolated from marine organisms are used as antiviral agents. Others are being pharmacologically tested. Today, over forty antiviral compounds are present in the pharmacological market. Some of these compounds are undergoing clinical and pre-clinical stages. Marine compounds are paving the way for a new trend in modern medicine.

  2. Vanadium levels in marine organisms of Onagawa Bay in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Suzuki, H.; Saito, K.; Chatt, A.

    2009-01-01

    Vanadium in marine organisms from Onagawa Bay in Miyagi, Japan, was determined by an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method using anticoincidence gamma-ray spectrometry at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) facility in Canada. Seaweeds, cultivated oysters, plankton, and four different species of sea squirt were collected from Onagawa Bay during 2005-2008. Vanadium levels around 20 μg g -1 (dry weight) were found in Japanese tangle and hijiki seaweeds. One species of sea squirt (Ciona savignyi) contained 160-500 ppm of V and it was highest among the four species of sea squirts studied. Protein-bound V species were separated by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and the element determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). (author)

  3. Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Sensory Function in Marine Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashur, Molly M; Johnston, Nicole K; Dixson, Danielle L

    2017-07-01

    Ocean acidification has been identified as a major contributor to ocean ecosystem decline, impacting the calcification, survival, and behavior of marine organisms. Numerous studies have observed altered sensory perception of chemical, auditory, and visual cues after exposure to elevated CO2. Sensory systems enable the observation of the external environment and therefore play a critical role in survival, communication, and behavior of marine organisms. This review seeks to (1) summarize the current knowledge of sensory impairment caused by ocean acidification, (2) discuss potential mechanisms behind this disruption, and (3) analyze the expected taxa differences in sensitivities to elevated CO2 conditions. Although a lack of standardized methodology makes cross-study comparisons challenging, trends and biases arise from this synthesis including a substantial focus on vertebrates, larvae or juveniles, the reef ecosystem, and chemosensory perception. Future studies must broaden the scope of the field by diversifying the taxa and ecosystems studied, incorporating ontogenetic comparisons, and focusing on cryptic sensory systems such as electroreception, magnetic sense, and the lateral line system. A discussion of possible mechanisms reveals GABAA receptor reversal as the conspicuous physiological mechanism. However, the potential remains for alternative disruption through structure or cue changes. Finally, a taxonomic comparison of physiological complexity reveals few trends in sensory sensitivities to lowered pH, but we hypothesize potential correlations relating to habitat, life history or relative use of sensory systems. Elevated CO2, in concordance with other global and local stressors, has the potential to drastically shift community composition and structure. Therefore research addressing the extent of sensory impairment, the underlying mechanisms, and the differences between taxa is vital for improved predictions of organismal response to ocean acidification.

  4. Marine organisms: an alternative source of potentially valuable natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonse Kelecom

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper recalls the outcoming of marine natural products research and reviews a selection of marirne bioactive metabolites in current use together with promising trends in marine pharmacology.

  5. Trace Elements in Marine Sediment and Organisms in the Gulf of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worakhunpiset, Suwalee

    2018-01-01

    This review summarizes the findings from studies of trace element levels in marine sediment and organisms in the Gulf of Thailand. Spatial and temporal variations in trace element concentrations were observed. Although trace element contamination levels were low, the increased urbanization and agricultural and industrial activities may adversely affect ecosystems and human health. The periodic monitoring of marine environments is recommended in order to minimize human health risks from the consumption of contaminated marine organisms. PMID:29677146

  6. Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K.; Fileman, Elaine S.; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2014-01-01

    Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m−3. The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota. PMID:24681661

  7. Contrasting Responses of Marine and Freshwater Photosynthetic Organisms to UVB Radiation: A Meta-Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng; Duarte, Carlos M.; Agusti, Susana

    2017-01-01

    artificial lamps. We found that marine photosynthetic organisms tend to be more sensitive than freshwater photosynthetic organisms to UVB radiation; responses to either decreased or increased UVB radiation vary among taxa; the mortality rate is the most

  8. Organic carbon burial in fjords: Terrestrial versus marine inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xingqian; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Savage, Candida; Smith, Richard W.

    2016-10-01

    Fjords have been identified as sites of enhanced organic carbon (OC) burial and may play an important role in regulating climate change on glacial-interglacial timescales. Understanding sediment processes and sources of sedimentary OC are necessary to better constrain OC burial in fjords. In this study, we use Fiordland, New Zealand, as a case study and present data on surface sediments, sediment down-cores and terrestrial end-members to examine dynamics of sediments and the sources of OC in fjord sediments. Sediment cores showed evidence of multiple particle sources, frequent bioturbation and mass-wasting events. A multi-proxy approach (stable isotopes, lignin-phenols and fatty acids) allowed for separation of marine, soil and vascular plant OC in surface sediments. The relationship between mass accumulation rate (MAR) and OC contents in fjord surface sediments suggested that mineral dilution is important in controlling OC content on a global scale, but is less important for specific regions (e.g., New Zealand). The inconsistency of OC budgets calculated by using MAR weighted %OC and OC accumulation rates (AR; 6 vs 21-31 Tg OC yr-1) suggested that sediment flux in fjords was likely underestimated. By using end-member models, we propose that 55% to 62% of total OC buried in fjords is terrestrially derived, and accounts for 17 ± 12% of the OCterr buried in all marine sediments. The strong correlation between MAR and OC AR indicated that OC flux will likely decrease in fjords in the future with global warming due to decrease in sediment flux caused by glacier denudation.

  9. Biosorption of lead (II and copper (II by biomass of some marine algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaisuksant, Y.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption of heavy metal ions by algae is a potential technology for treating wastewater contaminated with heavy metals. Adsorption of lead (II and copper (II in aqueous solutions by some marine algae available in large quantities in Pattani Bay including Gracilaria fisheri, Ulva reticulata and Chaetomorpha sp. were investigated. The effect of pH on metal sorption of the algal biomass and the metal uptake capacity of the algal biomass comparing to that of synthetic adsorbents including activated carbon and siliga gel were studied by using batch equilibrium experiments. Each dried adsorbent was stirred in metal ions solutions with different pH or different concentration at room temperature for 24 hours and the residual metal ions were analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The initial concentrations of lead and copper ionswere 70 µg/l and 20 mg/l, respectively. It was found that the effect of pH on metal sorption was similar in each algal biomass. The metal uptake capacity increased as pH of the solution increased from 2.0 to 4.0 and reached a plateau at pH 5.0-7.0. The metal uptake capacities of each algal biomass were similar. At low concentrations of metal ions, the metal adsorption occurred rapidly while at higher metal concentration less metal adsorption by each algal biomass was observed. The metal adsorption of activated carbon and silica gel occurred gradually and was less than those of algal biomass. The equilibrium data of copper and lead ions fitted well to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum sorption capacity (Qm values (mean±SD of Chaetomorpha sp., U. reticulata, G. fisheri, activated carbon and silica gel for lead ions were 1.26±0.14, 1.19±0.14, 1.18±0.15, 1.14±0.11 and 1.15±0.12 mg/g, respectively. For copper adsorption, the Qm values for G. fisheri, U. reticulata and Chaetomorpha biomass were 15.87±1.03, 14.71±1.02 and 12.35± 1.03 mg/g, respectively. While those of activated carbon and

  10. An improved method for quantitatively measuring the sequences of total organic carbon and black carbon in marine sediment cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Zhu, Qing; Zhou, Qianzhi; Liu, Jinzhong; Yuan, Jianping; Wang, Jianghai

    2018-01-01

    Understanding global carbon cycle is critical to uncover the mechanisms of global warming and remediate its adverse effects on human activities. Organic carbon in marine sediments is an indispensable part of the global carbon reservoir in global carbon cycling. Evaluating such a reservoir calls for quantitative studies of marine carbon burial, which closely depend on quantifying total organic carbon and black carbon in marine sediment cores and subsequently on obtaining their high-resolution temporal sequences. However, the conventional methods for detecting the contents of total organic carbon or black carbon cannot resolve the following specific difficulties, i.e., (1) a very limited amount of each subsample versus the diverse analytical items, (2) a low and fluctuating recovery rate of total organic carbon or black carbon versus the reproducibility of carbon data, and (3) a large number of subsamples versus the rapid batch measurements. In this work, (i) adopting the customized disposable ceramic crucibles with the microporecontrolled ability, (ii) developing self-made or customized facilities for the procedures of acidification and chemothermal oxidization, and (iii) optimizing procedures and carbon-sulfur analyzer, we have built a novel Wang-Xu-Yuan method (the WXY method) for measuring the contents of total organic carbon or black carbon in marine sediment cores, which includes the procedures of pretreatment, weighing, acidification, chemothermal oxidation and quantification; and can fully meet the requirements of establishing their highresolution temporal sequences, whatever in the recovery, experimental efficiency, accuracy and reliability of the measurements, and homogeneity of samples. In particular, the usage of disposable ceramic crucibles leads to evidently simplify the experimental scenario, which further results in the very high recovery rates for total organic carbon and black carbon. This new technique may provide a significant support for

  11. Sources and composition of submicron organic mass in marine aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott M.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2014-11-01

    The sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMA) have been investigated with a range of physical and chemical measurements from open-ocean research cruises. This study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) of aMA from five ocean regions to show the following: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMA that can be identified as mainly atmospheric primary marine (ocean derived) aerosol particles (aPMA) is 65 ± 12% hydroxyl, 21 ± 9% alkane, 6 ± 6% amine, and 7 ± 8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemical reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal or continental emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model-generated primary marine aerosol particles from bubbled seawater (gPMA, which has 55 ± 14% hydroxyl, 32 ± 14% alkane, and 13 ± 3% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied and the ratio of organic carbon to sodium (OC/Na+) in the gPMA remained nearly constant over a broad range of chlorophyll a concentrations, the gPMA alkane group fraction appeared to increase with chlorophyll a concentrations (r = 0.66). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (42 ± 9%) compared to gPMA from nonproductive seawater (22 ± 10%), perhaps due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of

  12. A new physically-based quantification of marine isoprene and primary organic aerosol emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Meskhidze

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The global marine sources of organic carbon (OC are estimated here using a physically-based parameterization for the emission of marine isoprene and primary organic matter. The marine isoprene emission model incorporates new physical parameters such as light sensitivity of phytoplankton isoprene production and dynamic euphotic depth to simulate hourly marine isoprene emissions totaling 0.92 Tg C yr−1. Sensitivity studies using different schemes for the euphotic zone depth and ocean phytoplankton speciation produce the upper and the lower range of marine-isoprene emissions of 0.31 to 1.09 Tg C yr−1, respectively. Established relationships between sea spray fractionation of water-insoluble organic carbon (WIOC and chlorophyll-a concentration are used to estimate the total primary sources of marine sub- and super-micron OC of 2.9 and 19.4 Tg C yr−1, respectively. The consistent spatial and temporal resolution of the two emission types allow us, for the first time, to explore the relative contributions of sub- and super-micron organic matter and marine isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA to the total OC fraction of marine aerosol. Using a fixed 3% mass yield for the conversion of isoprene to SOA, our emission simulations show minor (<0.2% contribution of marine isoprene to the total marine source of OC on a global scale. However, our model calculations also indicate that over the tropical oceanic regions (30° S to 30° N, marine isoprene SOA may contribute over 30% of the total monthly-averaged sub-micron OC fraction of marine aerosol. The estimated contribution of marine isoprene SOA to hourly-averaged sub-micron marine OC emission is even higher, approaching 50% over the vast regions of the oceans during the midday hours when isoprene emissions are highest. As it is widely believed that sub-micron OC has the potential to influence the cloud droplet activation of marine aerosols, our

  13. ORGANIZATION II, NOVA SCIENCE UNIT 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broward County Schools, Fort Lauderdale, FL.

    THE ORGANIZATION OF THE NATURE OF SCIENCE IS EMPHASIZED THROUGH A FOCUS ON CHEMICAL REACTIONS. SIMILARITIES OF THE REACTIONS OF THE HALOGENS WITH THE ALKALI METALS OF LITHIUM, SODIUM, POTASSIUM, AND HYDROGEN ARE INTRODUCED TO THE STUDENT. STUDENTS ARE INTRODUCED TO THE PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS WHICH EMPHASIZES THE ORGANIZATION OF CHEMICAL…

  14. Biosynthesis of polybrominated aromatic organic compounds by marine bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vinayak; El Gamal, Abrahim A.; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Poth, Dennis; Kersten, Roland D.; Schorn, Michelle; Allen, Eric E.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated bipyrroles are natural products that bioaccumulate in the marine food chain. PBDEs have attracted widespread attention due to their persistence in the environment and potential toxicity to humans. However, the natural origins of PBDE biosynthesis are not known. Here we report marine bacteria as producers of PBDEs and establish a genetic and molecular foundation for their production that unifies paradigms for the elaboration of bromophenols and bromopyrroles abundant in marine biota. We provide biochemical evidence of marine brominase enzymes revealing decarboxylative-halogenation enzymology previously unknown among halogenating enzymes. Biosynthetic motifs discovered in our study were used to mine sequence databases to discover unrealized marine bacterial producers of organobromine compounds. PMID:24974229

  15. Microlayer source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the summertime marine Arctic boundary layer

    OpenAIRE

    Mungall, Emma L.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Wentzell, Jeremy J. B.; Lee, Alex K. Y.; Thomas, Jennie L.; Blais, Marjolaine; Gosselin, Michel; Miller, Lisa A.; Papakyriakou, Tim; Willis, Megan D.; Liggio, John

    2017-01-01

    A biogeochemical connection between the atmosphere and the ocean is demonstrated whereby a marine source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds is identified. Compounds of this type are involved in the formation of secondary organic aerosol, which remains one of the most poorly understood components of Earth’s climate system due in part to the diverse sources of its volatile organic compound precursors. This is especially the case for marine environments, where there are more oxygenated vol...

  16. Feasibility of vitrifying EPICOR II organic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    Two laboratory-scale runs have recently been completed to test the feasibility of a single-step incineration/vitrification process for Three Mile Island EPICOR II resins. The process utilizes vitrification equipment, specifically a 15-cm-dia in-can melter, and a specially designed feed technique. Two process tests, each conducted with 1.2 kg of EPICOR II resins loaded with nonradioactive cesium and strontium, showed excellent operational characteristics. Less than 0.8 wt% of the resins were entrained with the gaseous effluents in the second test. Cesium and strontium losses were controlled to 0.71 wt% and less. In addition, all the carbonaceous resins were converted completely to CO 2 with no detectable CO. Future activities are being directed to longer-term tests in laboratory-scale equipment to determine attainable volume reduction, process rates, and material conformance to processing conditions

  17. Polonium ({sup 210}Po) and lead ({sup 210}Pb) in marine organisms and their transfer in marine food chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P., E-mail: carvalho@itn.p [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    The determination of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb was performed in marine organisms from the seashore to abyssal depths, encompassing a plethora of species from the microscopic plankton to the sperm whale. Concentrations of those radionuclides ranged from low values of about 5 x 10{sup -1} Bq kg{sup -1} (wet wt.) in jellyfish, to very high values of about of 3 x 10{sup 4} Bq kg{sup -1} (wet wt.) in the gut walls of sardines, with a common pattern of {sup 210}Po > {sup 210}Pb.These radionuclides are primarily absorbed from water and concentrated by phyto- and microzooplankton, and then are transferred to the next trophic level along marine food chains. Investigation in epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic and abyssobenthic organisms revealed that {sup 210}Po is transferred in the marine food webs with transfer factors ranging from 0.1 to 0.7, and numerically similar to those of the energy transfer in the marine food chains. As {sup 210}Po preferentially binds to amino acids and proteins, its transfer in food chains likely traces protein transfer and, thus, {sup 210}Po transfer factors are similar to ecotrophic coefficients. {sup 210}Pb is transferred less efficiently in marine food chains and this contributes to increased {sup 210}Po:{sup 210}Pb activity ratios in some trophic levels.

  18. Polonium (210Po) and lead (210Pb) in marine organisms and their transfer in marine food chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P

    2011-05-01

    The determination of (210)Po and (210)Pb was performed in marine organisms from the seashore to abyssal depths, encompassing a plethora of species from the microscopic plankton to the sperm whale. Concentrations of those radionuclides ranged from low values of about 5 × 10(-1) Bq kg(-1) (wet wt.) in jellyfish, to very high values of about of 3 × 10(4) Bq kg(-1) (wet wt.) in the gut walls of sardines, with a common pattern of (210)Po > (210)Pb.These radionuclides are primarily absorbed from water and concentrated by phyto- and microzooplankton, and then are transferred to the next trophic level along marine food chains. Investigation in epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic and abyssobenthic organisms revealed that (210)Po is transferred in the marine food webs with transfer factors ranging from 0.1 to 0.7, and numerically similar to those of the energy transfer in the marine food chains. As (210)Po preferentially binds to amino acids and proteins, its transfer in food chains likely traces protein transfer and, thus, (210)Po transfer factors are similar to ecotrophic coefficients. (210)Pb is transferred less efficiently in marine food chains and this contributes to increased (210)Po:(210)Pb activity ratios in some trophic levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Polonium (210Po) and lead (210Pb) in marine organisms and their transfer in marine food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of 210 Po and 210 Pb was performed in marine organisms from the seashore to abyssal depths, encompassing a plethora of species from the microscopic plankton to the sperm whale. Concentrations of those radionuclides ranged from low values of about 5 x 10 -1 Bq kg -1 (wet wt.) in jellyfish, to very high values of about of 3 x 10 4 Bq kg -1 (wet wt.) in the gut walls of sardines, with a common pattern of 210 Po > 210 Pb.These radionuclides are primarily absorbed from water and concentrated by phyto- and microzooplankton, and then are transferred to the next trophic level along marine food chains. Investigation in epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic and abyssobenthic organisms revealed that 210 Po is transferred in the marine food webs with transfer factors ranging from 0.1 to 0.7, and numerically similar to those of the energy transfer in the marine food chains. As 210 Po preferentially binds to amino acids and proteins, its transfer in food chains likely traces protein transfer and, thus, 210 Po transfer factors are similar to ecotrophic coefficients. 210 Pb is transferred less efficiently in marine food chains and this contributes to increased 210 Po: 210 Pb activity ratios in some trophic levels.

  20. Burrowing and avoidance behaviour in marine organisms exposed to pesticide-contaminated sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhlenberg, Flemming; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Behavioural effects of marine sediment contaminated with pesticides (6000 ppm parathion, 200 ppm methyl parathion, 200 ppm malathion) were studied in a number of marine organisms in laboratory tests and in situ. The burrowing behaviour in Macoma baltica, Cerastoderma edule, Abra alba, Nereis...

  1. Bioactivity of marine organisms. Part 3. Screening of marine algae of Indian coast for biological activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.; Jayasree, V.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.

    Ethanolic extracts from Indian marine algae have been tested for anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-fertility, hypoglycaemic and a wide range of pharmacological activities. Of 34 species investigated 17 appeared biologically active. Six...

  2. Bioactivity of marine organisms. 6. Antiviral evaluation of marine algal extracts from the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Naik, C.G.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.

    Ethanolic extracts of Indian marine algae belonging to the Rhodophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Chlorophyceae were tested for anti-semiliki Forest (SFV), Ranikhet Disease (RDV) and Vaccinia (VV) viruses. In the primary screening of 31 seaweeds, 17...

  3. Occurrence and effects of plastic additives on marine environments and organisms: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermabessiere, Ludovic; Dehaut, Alexandre; Paul-Pont, Ika; Lacroix, Camille; Jezequel, Ronan; Soudant, Philippe; Duflos, Guillaume

    2017-09-01

    Plastics debris, especially microplastics, have been found worldwide in all marine compartments. Much research has been carried out on adsorbed pollutants on plastic pieces and hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) associated with microplastics. However, only a few studies have focused on plastic additives. These chemicals are incorporated into plastics from which they can leach out as most of them are not chemically bound. As a consequence of plastic accumulation and fragmentation in oceans, plastic additives could represent an increasing ecotoxicological risk for marine organisms. The present work reviewed the main class of plastic additives identified in the literature, their occurrence in the marine environment, as well as their effects on and transfers to marine organisms. This work identified polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), phthalates, nonylphenols (NP), bisphenol A (BPA) and antioxidants as the most common plastic additives found in marine environments. Moreover, transfer of these plastic additives to marine organisms has been demonstrated both in laboratory and field studies. Upcoming research focusing on the toxicity of microplastics should include these plastic additives as potential hazards for marine organisms, and a greater focus on the transport and fate of plastic additives is now required considering that these chemicals may easily leach out from plastics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Butenolide inhibits marine fouling by altering the primary metabolism of three target organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yifan; Zhang, Huoming; He, Lisheng; Liu, Changdong; Xü , Ying; Qian, Peiyuan

    2012-01-01

    Butenolide is a very promising antifouling compound that inhibits ship hull fouling by a variety of marine organisms, but its antifouling mechanism was previously unknown. Here we report the first study of butenolides molecular targets in three

  5. The levels of certain heavy metals in marine organisms from Aguada Bay (Goa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singbal, S.Y.S.; George, M.D.; Topgi, R.S.; Noronha, R.J.

    The levels of manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc and mercury have been measured in marine organisms from Aguada Bay which is one of the major fishing zones in Goa, India. The concentration of metals varied from species to species...

  6. Antifungal activity of some marine organisms from India, against food spoilage Aspergillus strains

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosale, S.H.; Jagtap, T.G.; Naik, C.G.

    Crude aqueous methanol extracts obtained from 31 species of various marine organisms (including floral and faunal), were screened for their antifungal activity against food poisoning strains of Aspergillus. Seventeen species exhibited mild (+ = zone...

  7. Coastal Benthic Optical Properties (CoBOP): Optical Properties of Benthic Marine Organisms and Substrates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mazel, Charles

    2002-01-01

    ...). The long-term objective of our research is to gain an understanding of the nature and significance of fluorescence and reflectance characteristics of benthic marine organisms in general, and coral...

  8. Antifouling potential of some marine organisms from India against species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosale, S.H; Nagle, V.L.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Potential of Some Marine Organisms from India Against Species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas S.H. Bhosale, V.L. Nagle, and T.G. Jagtap* National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403004, India Abstract: Crude methanolic extracts of 37 marine organisms.... The discs were placed in Zobell marine agar (pH 7.3) plates seeded with different strains of bacteria selected for studies. The cultures were incubated for 24 to 48 hours at room temperature, to obtain maximum growth in the culture media. The zones of inhi...

  9. Physiological and ecological implications of ocean deoxygenation for vision in marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Lillian R.; Levin, Lisa A.

    2017-08-01

    Climate change has induced ocean deoxygenation and exacerbated eutrophication-driven hypoxia in recent decades, affecting the physiology, behaviour and ecology of marine organisms. The high oxygen demand of visual tissues and the known inhibitory effects of hypoxia on human vision raise the questions if and how ocean deoxygenation alters vision in marine organisms. This is particularly important given the rapid loss of oxygen and strong vertical gradients in oxygen concentration in many areas of the ocean. This review evaluates the potential effects of low oxygen (hypoxia) on visual function in marine animals and their implications for marine biota under current and future ocean deoxygenation based on evidence from terrestrial and a few marine organisms. Evolutionary history shows radiation of eye designs during a period of increasing ocean oxygenation. Physiological effects of hypoxia on photoreceptor function and light sensitivity, in combination with morphological changes that may occur throughout ontogeny, have the potential to alter visual behaviour and, subsequently, the ecology of marine organisms, particularly for fish, cephalopods and arthropods with `fast' vision. Visual responses to hypoxia, including greater light requirements, offer an alternative hypothesis for observed habitat compression and shoaling vertical distributions in visual marine species subject to ocean deoxygenation, which merits further investigation. This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'.

  10. Catalytic destruction of organics and chlorinated organics with TEES II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, E.G.; Elliot, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Neuenschwander, G.G.

    1991-06-01

    A catalytic process is being developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for destroying hazardous organics and chlorinated organics, including spent solvents, in aqueous waste streams. Experiments have been conducted in a batch reactor, a bench-scale continuous-stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and an continuous-flow tubular reactor. A 5-gal/h developmental unit is under construction and will be operational in 1991. The Thermochemical Environmental Energy System 2 can destroy a wide variety of organics and chlorinated organics by thermocatalytic treatment at 300 degrees C to 350 degrees C and 2000 to 3000 psig. This paper summarizes the batch reactor and CSTR results and presents new results obtained in the tubular reactor. The high levels of destruction achieved in the tubular reactor show that kinetic data obtained in CSTR can be used to design large-scale tubular reactors with little scaleup risk. Corrosion studies were completed, and it appears that less expensive materials of construction can be used in many applications, which will make the process more cost effective. Cost estimates for larger- scale facilities have been prepared by Onsite*Ofsite, Inc., who is working with PNL to transfer the technology to industry. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  11. CORE Organic II - Tapping into Europe's organic Trend

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous,

    2012-01-01

    Organic food production has continued to grow in popularity, partly because it taps into a number ofcontemporary consumer concerns such as animal welfare and healthy eating. A new project aims tocapitalise on this demand by ensuring better research coordination across Europe.

  12. Specimen banking of marine organisms in the United States: Current status and long-term prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, P.R.; Wise, S.A.; Thorsteinson, L.; Koster, B.J.; Rowles, T.

    1997-01-01

    A major part of the activities conducted over the last decade by the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB) has involved the archival of marine specimens collected by ongoing environmental monitoring programs. These archived specimens include bivalves, marine sediments, and fish tissues collected by the National Status and Trends and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Damage Assessment programs, and marine mammal tissues collected by the Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program and the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project. In addition to supporting these programs, the specimens have been used to investigate circumpolar patterns of chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations, genetic separation of marine animal stocks, baseline levels of essential and nonessential elements in marine mammals, and the potential risk to human consumers in the Arctic from anthropogenic contaminants found in local subsistence foods. The NBSB specimens represent a resource that has the potential for addressing future issues of marine environmental quality and ecosystem changes through retrospective analysis; however, an ecosystem-based food web approach would maximize this potential. The current status of the NBSB activities related to the banking of marine organisms is presented and discussed, the long-term prospective of these activities is presented, and the importance of an ecosystem-based food web monitoring approach to the value of specimen banking is discussed.

  13. Organization of marine phenology data in support of planning and conservation in ocean and coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Fornwall, Mark D.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Griffis, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    Among the many effects of climate change is its influence on the phenology of biota. In marine and coastal ecosystems, phenological shifts have been documented for multiple life forms; however, biological data related to marine species' phenology remain difficult to access and is under-used. We conducted an assessment of potential sources of biological data for marine species and their availability for use in phenological analyses and assessments. Our evaluations showed that data potentially related to understanding marine species' phenology are available through online resources of governmental, academic, and non-governmental organizations, but appropriate datasets are often difficult to discover and access, presenting opportunities for scientific infrastructure improvement. The developing Federal Marine Data Architecture when fully implemented will improve data flow and standardization for marine data within major federal repositories and provide an archival repository for collaborating academic and public data contributors. Another opportunity, largely untapped, is the engagement of citizen scientists in standardized collection of marine phenology data and contribution of these data to established data flows. Use of metadata with marine phenology related keywords could improve discovery and access to appropriate datasets. When data originators choose to self-publish, publication of research datasets with a digital object identifier, linked to metadata, will also improve subsequent discovery and access. Phenological changes in the marine environment will affect human economics, food systems, and recreation. No one source of data will be sufficient to understand these changes. The collective attention of marine data collectors is needed—whether with an agency, an educational institution, or a citizen scientist group—toward adopting the data management processes and standards needed to ensure availability of sufficient and useable marine data to understand

  14. Effect of phytoplackton-derived organic matter on the behavior of marine aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, E.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G.; Green, D.

    2009-04-01

    The presence of significant concentrations of organic material in marine aerosols has been appreciated for several decades; however, only recently has significant progress been made towards demonstrating that this organic content is biogenically formed. Biogenic organics of placktonic life origin are incorporated in marine aerosol composition as a result of bubble bursting/breaking waves mechanisms that occur at the ocean surface. The presence of organic surfactants in the marine aerosol composition might have a significant impact on the properties of the generated aerosols by affecting the particles surface tension and solution balance properties. Nevertheless, it remains uncertain the role of such organics on the physical-chemical behavior of marine aerosols. In this work an experimental study was performed in order to determine the influence of biogenic marine organic compounds on the size distribution, hygroscopicity and cloud-nucleating properties of marine aerosols. For the experimental study a laboratory water recirculation system (bubble tank), designed for the simulation of bubble-burst aerosol formation, was used as marine aerosol generator. The bubble spectra produced by such system was characterized by means of an optical bubble measuring device (BMS) and it was found to be consistent with oceanic bubble spectra properties. Seawater proxy solutions were prepared from laboratory biologically-synthesized exudates produced by oceanic representative algal species and introduced in the tank for the generation of marine aerosol by bubble bursting. Two experimental methods were employed for seawater proxies preparation: the formation of surface monolayers from the biogenic surfactants extracted by a solid phase extraction technique (monolayer method) and the mixing of the exudates in the sea salt water bulk (bulk mixing method). Particle size distribution, hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nuclei experiments for different monolayers, and exudate mixtures

  15. Marine Heat Waves Hazard 3D Maps and the Risk for Low Motility Organisms in a Warming Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Galli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Frequency and severity of heat waves is expected to increase as a consequence of climate change with important impacts on human and ecosystems health. However, while many studies explored the projected occurrence of hot extremes on terrestrial systems, few studies dealt with marine systems, so that both the expected change in marine heat waves occurrence and the effects on marine organisms and ecosystems remain less understood and surprisingly poorly quantified. Here we: (i assess how much more frequent, severe, and depth-penetrating marine heat waves will be in the Mediterranean area in the next decades by post-processing the output of an ocean general circulation model; and (ii show that heat waves increase will impact on many species that live in shallow waters and have reduced motility, and related economic activities. This information is made available also as a dataset of temperature threshold exceedance indexes that can be used in combination with biological information to produce risk assessment maps for target species or biomes across the whole Mediterranean Sea. As case studies we compared projected heat waves occurrence with thermotolerance thresholds of low motility organisms. Results suggest a deepening of the survival horizon for red coral (Corallium rubrum, a commercially exploited benthic species already subjected to heat-related mass mortality events and coralligenous reefs as well as a reduction of suitable farming sites for the mussel Mythilus galloprovincialis. In recent years Mediterranean circalittoral ecosystems (coralligenous have been severely and repeatedly impacted by marine heat waves. Our results support that equally deleterious events are expected in the near future also for other ecologically important habitats (e.g., seagrass meadows and aquaculture activities (bivalvae, and point at the need for mitigation strategies.

  16. Comparison of "type I" and "type II" organic cation transport by organic cation transporters and organic anion-transporting polypeptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Montfoort, JE; Muller, M; Groothuis, GMM; Meijer, DKF; Koepsell, H; Meier, PJ

    Previous inhibition studies with taurocholate and cardiac glycosides suggested the presence of separate uptake systems for small "type I" (system1) and for bulky "type II" (system2) organic cations in rat hepatocytes. To identify the transport systems involved in type I and type II organic cation

  17. Acclimation of a marine microbial consortium for efficient Mn(II) oxidation and manganese containing particle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hao; Pan, Haixia; Xu, Jianqiang; Xu, Weiping; Liu, Lifen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An efficient Mn(II) oxidation marine sediments microbial community was obtained. • High-throughput sequencing indicated new Mn(II) oxidation associated genus. • Na_3MnPO_4CO_3 and MnCO_3 were synthesized by the consortium. • Consortium exhibited Mn(II) oxidation performance over a range of harsh conditions. - Abstract: Sediment contamination with metals is a widespread concern in the marine environment. Manganese oxidizing bacteria (MOB) are extensively distributed in various environments, but a marine microbial community containing MOB is rarely reported. In this study, a consortium of marine metal-contaminated sediments was acclimated using Mn(II). The shift in community structure was determined through high-throughput sequencing. In addition, the consortium resisted several harsh conditions, such as toxic metals (1 mM Cu(II) and Fe(III)), and exhibited high Mn(II) oxidation capacities even the Mn(II) concentration was up to 5 mM. Meanwhile, biogenic Mn containing particles were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and N_2 adsorption/desorption. Dye removal performance of the Mn containing particles was assayed using methylene blue, and 20.8 mg g"−"1 adsorption capacity was obtained. Overall, this study revealed several new genera associated with Mn(II) oxidation and rare biogenic Na_3MnPO_4CO_3_. Results suggested the complexity of natural microbe-mediated Mn transformation.

  18. Seasonal variation of marine organic aerosols in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, P.; Kawamura, K.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols were collected in the marine boundary layer during five marine cruises in the northern Pacific Ocean from October 1996 to July 1997. Organic molecular compositions of the marine aerosols were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Higher concentrations of levoglucosan and its isomers, the biomass-burning tracers, were observed in the coastal regions than those in the central north Pacific. Seasonal trends of biomass burning tracers were found to be higher in fall-winter-spring than in summer, suggesting an enhanced influence of continental aerosols to the marine atmosphere during cold seasons when the westerlies prevail. However, the atmospheric levels of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers from the photooxidation of isoprene and monoterpenes were higher in warm seasons than cold seasons, which are in accordance with the enhanced emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in summer. Stable C isotope ratios of total carbon (δ13CTC) in the marine aerosols ranged from -28.5‰ to -23.6‰ (mean -26.4‰), suggesting an important input of terrestrial/continental aerosol particles. Stable N isotope ratios (2.6‰ to 12.9‰, mean 7.1‰) were found to be higher in the coastal regions than those in the open oceans, suggesting an enhanced emission of marine aerosols in the open oceans. The fluorescence properties of the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in the marine aerosols conform the importance of marine emitted organics in the open ocean, especially during the high biological activity periods.

  19. Molecular insights into the microbial formation of marine dissolved organic matter: recalcitrant or labile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, B. P.; Kattner, G.; Witt, M.; Passow, U.

    2014-08-01

    The degradation of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important control variable in the global carbon cycle. For our understanding of the kinetics of organic matter cycling in the ocean, it is crucial to achieve a mechanistic and molecular understanding of its transformation processes. A long-term microbial experiment was performed to follow the production of non-labile DOM by marine bacteria. Two different glucose concentrations and dissolved algal exudates were used as substrates. We monitored the bacterial abundance, concentrations of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC), nutrients, amino acids and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) for 2 years. The molecular characterization of extracted DOM was performed by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) after 70 days and after ∼2 years of incubation. Although glucose quickly degraded, a non-labile DOC background (5-9% of the initial DOC) was generated in the glucose incubations. Only 20% of the organic carbon from the algal exudate degraded within the 2 years of incubation. The degradation rates for the non-labile DOC background in the different treatments varied between 1 and 11 μmol DOC L-1 year-1. Transparent exopolymer particles, which are released by microorganisms, were produced during glucose degradation but decreased back to half of the maximum concentration within less than 3 weeks (degradation rate: 25 μg xanthan gum equivalents L-1 d-1) and were below detection in all treatments after 2 years. Additional glucose was added after 2 years to test whether labile substrate can promote the degradation of background DOC (co-metabolism; priming effect). A priming effect was not observed but the glucose addition led to a slight increase of background DOC. The molecular analysis demonstrated that DOM generated during glucose degradation differed appreciably from DOM transformed during the degradation of the algal exudates. Our

  20. Screening for unicellular algae as possible bioassay organisms for monitoring marine water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán de Kuhn, Rosmary; Streb, Christine; Breiter, Roman; Richter, Peter; Neesse, Thomas; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2006-08-01

    ECOTOX is an automatic early warning system to monitor potential pollution of freshwater, municipal or industrial waste waters or aquatic ecosystems. It is based on a real time image analysis of the motility and orientation parameters of the unicellular, photosynthetic flagellate Euglena gracilis. In order to widen the use of the device to marine habitats and saline waters nine marine flagellates were evaluated as putative bioassay organisms, viz. Dunaliella salina, Dunaliella viridis, Dunaliella bardawil, Prorocentrum minimum Kattegat, P. minimum Lissabon, Tetraselmis suecica, Heterocapsa triquetra, Gyrodinium dorsum and Cryptomonas maculata. Because of their slow growth the last three strains were excluded from further evaluation. Selection criteria were ease of culture, density of cell suspension, stability of motility and gravitactic orientation. The sensitivity toward toxins was tested using copper(II) ions. The instrument allows the user to automatically determine effect-concentration (EC) curves from which the EC(50) values can be calculated. For the interpretation of the EC curves a sigmoid logistic model was proposed which proved to be satisfactory for all tested strains. The inhibition of the motility was considered as the most appropriate movement parameter as an endpoint. The Dunaliella species had the lowest sensitivity to copper with EC(50) values of 220, 198 and 176 mg/L for D. salina, D. bardawil and D. viridis, respectively, followed by T. suecica with an EC(50) value of 40 mg/L. The Prorocentrum species were found to be the most sensitive with an EC(50) value of 13.5 mg/L for P. minimum Lissabon and 7.5 mg/L for P. minimum Kattegat.

  1. Joint Program on Molecular Biology of Marine Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-20

    and lateral flagella formation in a marine vibrio (Belas and Colwell, 1982). Upon contact with a surface, the polar flagella of Vibrio ... parahemolyticus ceased to function. Shortl’ thereafter, lateral flagella formed around the cells, apparently mediating the "irreversible" attachment process. Pilus...Colwell. 1982. Adsorption kinetics of 18 Slaterally and polarly flagellated Vibrio . J. Bacteriol. 151:1568-1580. S-- Brown, C.M., D.C. Ellwood, and

  2. Spilt oil mineralization and influence upon marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    Several months have elapsed since the end of the Gulf War, and in spite of the efforts of specialists and workers, several hundreds oil fields are still burning, and coasts are smeared with oil. The effect that oil field fires exerted to the atmosphere and global environment is set aside, and in this report, the decomposition of oil spilled into the sea and its effect exerted to living things are discussed. The oil quantity flowed out from the valve for loading tankers was difficult to estimate, but it seemed 3 or 4 million barrels. Spilled durable oil impairs the amenity. The process of oil decomposition, the presence of the bacteria decomposing hydrocarbon in the sea, the factors affecting the microorganism decomposition, the capability of oil decomposition in Japanese coastal areas, and the final products of oil decomposition are reported. The effects that spilled oil exerted to marine plants, animals, the drowning of sea birds, the disturbance of information transmission and the ecosystem that does not recover are described. When useful marine living things are restored to the original state, marine product industry can declare the end of pollution, but on the ecosystem, the declaration of end does not exist. (K.I.)

  3. Ethics of cadaveric organ procurement and allocation (II).

    OpenAIRE

    MICHAŁOWICZ, B.; K SZCZYGIEŁ, REV; SAFJAN, M; RZEPLIŃSKI, A; LAND, W; NORTON DE MATOS, A; B CHYROWICZ, SISTER; W BOŁOZ, REV; YUSSIM, A; WICHROWSKI, M.

    2003-01-01

    Transplant Proc. 2003 May;35(3):1219-20. Ethics of cadaveric organ procurement and allocation (II). Michałowicz B, Rev K Szczygieł, Safjan M, Rzepliński A, Land W, Norton de Matos A, Sister B Chyrowicz, Rev W Bołoz, Yussim A, Wichrowski M. PMID: 12947911 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

  4. Effects of organism preparation in metallothionein and metal analysis in marine invertebrates for biomonitoring marine pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaten, J F P; Hudson, M D; Jensen, A C; Williams, I D

    2015-06-15

    Metallothionein (MT) is established as a potentially useful biomarker for monitoring aquatic pollution. This paper addresses widespread inconsistencies in storage conditions, tissue type selection and pre-treatment of samples before MT and metal analysis in biomarker studies. This variation hampers comparability and so the widespread implementation of this monitoring approach. Actively sampled Mytilus edulis in Southampton Water, UK were exposed to different storage temperatures, a variety of tissue types were analysed, and various pre-treatments of transportation on ice, transportation in seawater, depuration, and rapid dissection in the field were examined. Storage temperatures of -20 °C were found to be adequate for periods of at least ten weeks, as MT was not reduced by protein degradation compared with samples kept at -80 °C. Whole tissue and digestive gland concentrations of MT and metals were significantly positively correlated and directly relatable. MT in the digestive gland appeared to be more responsive to metals than in whole tissue, where it may be diluted, masking MT responses. However, longer study periods may suffer the effects of mass changes to the digestive gland, which alters MT concentration, and it may therefore be advisable to measure whole tissue. Depuration and transportation in seawater reduced both MT and metal concentrations in the digestive gland, and few correlations between MT and metals were identified for these treatments. It is therefore recommended that: i) samples are transported to the laboratory on ice and dissected as soon as possible thereafter, ii) depuration should not be used when examining MT response to metal exposure until further research clarifying its utility is reported, iii) either whole tissue or the digestive gland can be used to measure MT, though whole tissue may be preferable on long-term studies, and iv) organisms can be stored at -20 °C before analysis for up to ten weeks. These practices can be applied

  5. Optimising the use of marine tephrochronology in the North Atlantic: a detailed investigation of the Faroe Marine Ash Zones II, III and IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Adam J.; Davies, Siwan M.; Abbott, Peter M.; Rasmussen, Tine L.; Palmer, Adrian P.

    2014-12-01

    Tephrochronology is central to the INTIMATE goals for testing the degree of climatic synchroneity during abrupt climatic events that punctuated the last glacial period. Since their identification in North Atlantic marine sequences, the Faroe Marine Ash Zone II (FMAZ II), FMAZ III and FMAZ IV have received considerable attention due to their potential for high-precision synchronisation with the Greenland ice-cores. In order to optimise the use of these horizons as isochronous markers, a detailed re-investigation of their geochemical composition, sedimentology and the processes that deposited each ash zone is presented. Shard concentration profiles, geochemical homogeneity and micro-sedimentological structures are investigated for each ash zone preserved within core JM11-19PC, retrieved from the southeastern Norwegian Sea on the central North Faroe Slope. This approach allows a thorough assessment of primary ash-fall preservation and secondary depositional features and demonstrates its value for assessing depositional integrity in the marine environment. Results indicate that the FMAZ II and IV are well-resolved primary deposits that can be used as isochrons for high-precision correlation studies. We outline key recommendations for future marine tephra studies and provide a protocol for optimising the application of tephrochronology to meet the INTIMATE synchronisation goals.

  6. Global distribution and climate forcing of marine organic aerosol: 1. Model improvements and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Meskhidze

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine organic aerosol emissions have been implemented and evaluated within the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR's Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5 with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's 7-mode Modal Aerosol Module (MAM-7. Emissions of marine primary organic aerosols (POA, phytoplankton-produced isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA and methane sulfonate (MS are shown to affect surface concentrations of organic aerosols in remote marine regions. Global emissions of submicron marine POA is estimated to be 7.9 and 9.4 Tg yr−1, for the Gantt et al. (2011 and Vignati et al. (2010 emission parameterizations, respectively. Marine sources of SOA and particulate MS (containing both sulfur and carbon atoms contribute an additional 0.2 and 5.1 Tg yr−1, respectively. Widespread areas over productive waters of the Northern Atlantic, Northern Pacific, and the Southern Ocean show marine-source submicron organic aerosol surface concentrations of 100 ng m−3, with values up to 400 ng m−3 over biologically productive areas. Comparison of long-term surface observations of water insoluble organic matter (WIOM with POA concentrations from the two emission parameterizations shows that despite revealed discrepancies (often more than a factor of 2, both Gantt et al. (2011 and Vignati et al. (2010 formulations are able to capture the magnitude of marine organic aerosol concentrations, with the Gantt et al. (2011 parameterization attaining better seasonality. Model simulations show that the mixing state of the marine POA can impact the surface number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. The largest increases (up to 20% in CCN (at a supersaturation (S of 0.2% number concentration are obtained over biologically productive ocean waters when marine organic aerosol is assumed to be externally mixed with sea-salt. Assuming

  7. Effects of organic pollution on biological communities of marine biofilm on hard substrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Lázaro, C.; Fodelianakis, S.; Guerrero-Meseguer, L.; Marín, A.; Karakassis, I.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of organic enrichment on diatom and bacterial assemblages of marine epilithic biofilms on two locations in the Mediterranean, one situated in Spain and the other in Greece. Total organic carbon, total organic nitrogen, stable isotopes (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) and chlorophyll a indicated significant incorporation of organic wastes, increased primary production and trophic niche modifications on the biofilms close to the organic enrichment source. In Spain, where the organic load was higher than in Greece, diatom and, to some extent, bacterial assemblages varied following the organic enrichment gradient. The taxonomic richness of diatom and bacterial communities was not influenced by organic enrichment. Classical community parameters showed consistent patterns to organic pollution in both locations, whereas community assemblages were only influenced when organic pollution was greatest. The successional patterns of these communities were similar to other epilithic communities. The modification of community assemblages induced by organic pollution may affect ecological functions. - Highlights: • We examined the effect of organic enrichment on assemblages of marine biofilms. • Classical community parameters showed consistent patterns to organic pollution. • Diatom and bacterial assemblages were affected under high level of organic enrichment. • Successional patterns were similar to other communities inhabiting hard substrata. • Assemblage modifications induced by organic pollution may affect ecological functions. - Organic pollution modifies the assemblages of biofilm communities which may affect important ecological functions

  8. Mercury in marine organisms of the Tay region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A M; Jones, Y; Stewart, W D.P.

    1972-07-21

    The problem of mercury pollution in the Tay region of the United Kingdom is discussed with emphasis on mercury concentration within marine algae and invertebrates. High levels of Hg were found in Broughty Ferry algae while there was no detectable mercury in any of the samples collected from north of Arbroath. Most was found in the thallose algae, Ulva lactuca and Porphyra umbilicalis, and in Ceramium rubrum. In studies carried out on molluscs, high levels were found in the lamellibranch, Mytilus edulis and in the gastropods Littorina littoralis and Nucella lapillus. 12 references, 3 tables.

  9. Ecological roulette: the global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariton, J T; Geller, J B

    1993-07-02

    Ocean-going ships carry, as ballast, seawater that is taken on in port and released at subsequent ports of call. Plankton samples from Japanese ballast water released in Oregon contained 367 taxa. Most taxa with a planktonic phase in their life cycle were found in ballast water, as were all major marine habitat and trophic groups. Transport of entire coastal planktonic assemblages across oceanic barriers to similar habitats renders bays, estuaries, and inland waters among the most threatened ecosystems in the world. Presence of taxonomically difficult or inconspicuous taxa in these samples suggests that ballast water invasions are already pervasive.

  10. Amplification of marine methanotrophic enrichment DNA with 16S rDNA PCR primers for type II alpha proteobacteria methanotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockne, Karl J; Strand, Stuart E

    2003-09-01

    Type II alpha proteobacteria methanotrophs are capable of a wide range of cometabolic transformations of chlorinated solvents and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and this activity has been exploited in many terrestrial bioremediation systems. However, at present, all known obligately marine methanotrophic isolates are Type I gamma proteobacteria which do not have this activity to the extent of Type II methanotrophs. In previous work in our laboratory, determining the presence of Type II alpha proteobacteria methanotrophs in marine enrichment cultures that co-metabolized PAHs required a more sensitive assay. 16S rDNA PCR primers were designed based on oligonucleotide probes for serine pathway methanotrophs and serine pathway methylotrophs with an approximate amplification fragment size of 870 base pairs. Comparison of the primers using double primer BLAST searches in established nucleotide databases showed potential amplification with all Methylocystis and Methylosinus spp., as well as potential amplification with Methylocella palustrus. DNA from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, a Type II methanotroph, amplified with the primers with a fragment size of approximately 850 base pairs, whereas DNA extracted from Methylomonas methanica, a Type I methanotroph, did not. The primers were used to amplify DNA extracted from two marine methanotrophic enrichment cultures: a low nitrogen/low copper enrichment to select for Type II methanotrophs and a high nitrogen/high copper enrichment to select for Type I methanotrophs. Although DNA from both cultures amplified with the PCR primers, amplification was stronger in cultures that were specifically enriched for Type II methanotrophs, suggesting the presence of higher numbers of Type II methanotrophs. These results provide further evidence for the existence of Type II marine methanotrophs, suggesting the possibility of exploiting cometabolic activity in marine systems.

  11. DNA Extraction Protocols for Whole-Genome Sequencing in Marine Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova, Marina; Aronsson, Henrik; Cameron, R Andrew; Dahl, Peter; Godhe, Anna; Lind, Ulrika; Ortega-Martinez, Olga; Pereyra, Ricardo; Tesson, Sylvie V M; Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Blomberg, Anders; Johannesson, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment harbors a large proportion of the total biodiversity on this planet, including the majority of the earths' different phyla and classes. Studying the genomes of marine organisms can bring interesting insights into genome evolution. Today, almost all marine organismal groups are understudied with respect to their genomes. One potential reason is that extraction of high-quality DNA in sufficient amounts is challenging for many marine species. This is due to high polysaccharide content, polyphenols and other secondary metabolites that will inhibit downstream DNA library preparations. Consequently, protocols developed for vertebrates and plants do not always perform well for invertebrates and algae. In addition, many marine species have large population sizes and, as a consequence, highly variable genomes. Thus, to facilitate the sequence read assembly process during genome sequencing, it is desirable to obtain enough DNA from a single individual, which is a challenge in many species of invertebrates and algae. Here, we present DNA extraction protocols for seven marine species (four invertebrates, two algae, and a marine yeast), optimized to provide sufficient DNA quality and yield for de novo genome sequencing projects.

  12. Exploring the Contribution of Primary Marine Organic Matter to the Arctic Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, D. B.; Chang, R. Y. W.; Boyer, M.; Abbatt, J.

    2016-12-01

    The ocean is a significant source of aerosol to the atmosphere, and contributes significantly to the aerosol population especially in remote locations. Both primary and secondary processes connect the ocean to ambient aerosol loadings, but the extent to which the ocean is a source of organic material to the atmosphere is a current topic of scientific debate. The contribution of primary marine aerosol to atmospheric organic matter may have an influence on the water uptake properties and chemical reactivity of primary marine aerosol particles, influencing their climate-relevant properties. In this study, we characterize the contribution of primary marine aerosol to the arctic marine boundary layer using coincident quantitative measurements of freshly-produced sea spray aerosol and ambient marine aerosol to the arctic boundary layer during an expedition aboard the CCGS Amundsen. Sea spray production experiments were conducted during the cruise using a tank fitted with a plunging waterfall apparatus, a technique which has been recently shown to closely mimic the aerosol production behavior of controlled breaking waves. Comparison of the chemical composition of sea spray particles generated from water samples in various locations throughout the Canadian Archipelago will be presented. A tracer analysis of specific compounds known to be important contributors to primary marine organic material are tracked using GC/MS, along with those known to be tracers of biological aerosol and other organic matter sources. Size-segregated trends in tracer concentrations and ratios with inorganic components will be discussed in the context of understanding the contribution of primary organics to the Arctic atmosphere and in comparison with other sources of organic material observed during the ship-board campaign.

  13. Microlayer source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the summertime marine Arctic boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungall, Emma L.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Wentzell, Jeremy J. B.; Lee, Alex K. Y.; Thomas, Jennie L.; Blais, Marjolaine; Gosselin, Michel; Miller, Lisa A.; Papakyriakou, Tim; Willis, Megan D.; Liggio, John

    2017-06-01

    Summertime Arctic shipboard observations of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) such as organic acids, key precursors of climatically active secondary organic aerosol (SOA), are consistent with a novel source of OVOCs to the marine boundary layer via chemistry at the sea surface microlayer. Although this source has been studied in a laboratory setting, organic acid emissions from the sea surface microlayer have not previously been observed in ambient marine environments. Correlations between measurements of OVOCs, including high levels of formic acid, in the atmosphere (measured by an online high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer) and dissolved organic matter in the ocean point to a marine source for the measured OVOCs. That this source is photomediated is indicated by correlations between the diurnal cycles of the OVOC measurements and solar radiation. In contrast, the OVOCs do not correlate with levels of isoprene, monoterpenes, or dimethyl sulfide. Results from box model calculations are consistent with heterogeneous chemistry as the source of the measured OVOCs. As sea ice retreats and dissolved organic carbon inputs to the Arctic increase, the impact of this source on the summer Arctic atmosphere is likely to increase. Globally, this source should be assessed in other marine environments to quantify its impact on OVOC and SOA burdens in the atmosphere, and ultimately on climate.

  14. Microlayer source of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the summertime marine Arctic boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungall, Emma L; Abbatt, Jonathan P D; Wentzell, Jeremy J B; Lee, Alex K Y; Thomas, Jennie L; Blais, Marjolaine; Gosselin, Michel; Miller, Lisa A; Papakyriakou, Tim; Willis, Megan D; Liggio, John

    2017-06-13

    Summertime Arctic shipboard observations of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) such as organic acids, key precursors of climatically active secondary organic aerosol (SOA), are consistent with a novel source of OVOCs to the marine boundary layer via chemistry at the sea surface microlayer. Although this source has been studied in a laboratory setting, organic acid emissions from the sea surface microlayer have not previously been observed in ambient marine environments. Correlations between measurements of OVOCs, including high levels of formic acid, in the atmosphere (measured by an online high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer) and dissolved organic matter in the ocean point to a marine source for the measured OVOCs. That this source is photomediated is indicated by correlations between the diurnal cycles of the OVOC measurements and solar radiation. In contrast, the OVOCs do not correlate with levels of isoprene, monoterpenes, or dimethyl sulfide. Results from box model calculations are consistent with heterogeneous chemistry as the source of the measured OVOCs. As sea ice retreats and dissolved organic carbon inputs to the Arctic increase, the impact of this source on the summer Arctic atmosphere is likely to increase. Globally, this source should be assessed in other marine environments to quantify its impact on OVOC and SOA burdens in the atmosphere, and ultimately on climate.

  15. The Hygroscopicity Parameter of Marine Organics in Sea Spray Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, M.; Chang, R. Y. W.

    2015-12-01

    The effects of aerosols on climate are poorly understood, specifically with respect to their influence on cloud properties. Since oceans cover >70% of Earth's surface, sea spray aerosols (SSA), which act efficiently as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), may have important implications on Earth's radiation budget. Surface active organic species readily accumulate in the sea surface microlayer (SML), located at the ocean-atmosphere interface, and transfer onto nascent SSA. While it is understood that SSA are commonly enriched with organics, the resulting effect of the organic content on CCN activation remains unresolved. The hygroscopicity parameter, kappa (k), allows for the cloud nucleating properties of individual components to be predicted in particles of mixed composition; however, most studies typically infer k from ambient measurements without assessing the contribution of the individual components to the overall k. In this study, a method for quantifying the cloud nucleating properties of the organic species in surface seawater using k-Kohler theory is proposed. Ambient SML and bulk water samples will be collected and atomized to generate particles such that the overall k can be inferred from CCN measurements. The inorganic and organic components will be quantified, and the organic component will be separated so that the hygroscopicity of only the organic constituents can be determined. By comparing the inferred k values for the samples before and after removal of the inorganic component, the hygroscopicity of the organic constituents alone can be calculated, providing insight on the effect of organic species on CCN activation in SSA.

  16. Partitioning of organic production in marine plankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conan, P.; Søndergaard, Morten; Kragh, T.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the partitioning of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus between particulate and dissolved production using 11-m(3) marine mesocosms (bags) in a Norwegian fjord with a salinity of 28.3, a chlorophyll concentration of 0.6 mu g L-1, an even biomass among five algal groups, and nitrogen...... between 17 and 58 in the P-replete bags. The C: P ratio of new DOM in the +Si bags was about 300 at all dosing regimes. Consequently, the range in N: P ratios was also large, with values from below 1 to about 30. Carbon-rich DOM in oceans and coastal waters is not necessarily a function of a slow...

  17. Contrasting Responses of Marine and Freshwater Photosynthetic Organisms to UVB Radiation: A Meta-Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng

    2017-03-14

    Ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation is a global stressor that has profound impacts on freshwater and marine ecosystems. However, an analysis of the patterns of sensitivity to UVB radiation across aquatic photosynthetic organisms has not yet been published. Here, we performed a meta-analysis on results reported in 214 studies compiled from the published literature to quantify and compare the magnitude of responses of aquatic photosynthetic organisms to changes in UVB radiation. The meta-analysis was conducted on observations of marine (n = 893) and freshwater macroalgae (n = 126) and of marine (n = 1,087) and freshwater (n = 2,889) microalgae (total n = 4,995). Most of these studies (85%) analyzed the performance of organisms exposed to natural solar radiation when UVB was partially or totally reduced compared with the organismal performance under the full solar radiation spectrum, whereas the remaining 15% of the studies examined the responses of organisms to elevated UVB radiation mostly using artificial lamps. We found that marine photosynthetic organisms tend to be more sensitive than freshwater photosynthetic organisms to UVB radiation; responses to either decreased or increased UVB radiation vary among taxa; the mortality rate is the most sensitive of the trait responses to elevated UVB radiation, followed by changes in cellular and molecular traits; the sensitivity of microalgae to UVB radiation is dependent on size, with small-celled microalgae more sensitive than large-celled microalgae to UVB radiation. Thick macroalgae morphotypes were the less sensitive to UVB, but this effect could not be separated from phylogenetic differences. The high sensitivity of marine species, particularly the smallest photosynthetic organisms, to increased UVB radiation suggests that the oligotrophic ocean, a habitat comprising 70% of the world\\'s oceans with high UVB penetration and dominated by picoautotrophs, is extremely vulnerable to changes in UVB radiation.

  18. Mumbai harbour, India: Gateway for introduction of marine organisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaonkar, C.; Sawant, S.S.; Anil, A; Venkat, K.; Harkantra, S.N.

    Ships have been identified as one of the important vectors in the translocation of organisms from one bioregion to another leading to bioinvasion. In this context, harbours serve as a gateway for the introduction of alien species. Surveys were...

  19. Chemical and isotopic composition of marine organic matter as indicators of its origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malej, A.

    1989-07-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the relative importance of marine and terrestrial sources of Particulate Organic Matter (POM) in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Samples of POM were obtained from the water column at 14 stations using Niskin bottles at 4 depths and sediment traps (placed near the sea floor). Additional samples were obtained of likely source organic matter: sewage, river POM, phytoplankton bloom material, zooplankton, jelly-fish and bethic macrophytes. All samples were analyzed for total carbon and nitrogen and the delta C-13/C-12 ratio (by mass spectrometry). Marine and terrestrial sources of POM were clearly distinguished by their isotopic ratios. A linear model was set up to evaluate the relative importance of these sources at each sampling station. Except in the immediate vicinity of river sources, the marine component appears to dominate. 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  20. Marine Group II Dominates Planktonic Archaea in Water Column of the Northeastern South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haodong Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature, nutrients, and salinity are among the important factors constraining the distribution and abundance of microorganisms in the ocean. Marine Group II (MGII belonging to Euryarchaeota commonly dominates the planktonic archaeal community in shallow water and Marine Group I (MGI, now is called Thaumarchaeota in deeper water in global oceans. Results of quantitative PCR (qPCR and 454 sequencing in our study, however, showed the dominance of MGII in planktonic archaea throughout the water column of the northeastern South China Sea (SCS that is characterized by strong water mixing. The abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA representing the main group of Thaumarchaeota in deeper water in the northeastern SCS was significantly lower than in other oceanic regions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the top operational taxonomic units (OTUs of the MGII occurring predominantly below 200 m depth may be unique in the northeastern SCS based on the observation that they are distantly related to known sequences (identity ranging from 90–94%. The abundance of MGII was also significantly correlated with total bacteria in the whole column, which may indicate that MGII and bacteria may have similar physiological or biochemical properties or responses to environmental variation. This study provides valuable information about the dominance of MGII over AOA in both shallow and deep water in the northeastern SCS and highlights the need for comprehensive studies integrating physical, chemical, and microbial oceanography.

  1. Acclimation of a marine microbial consortium for efficient Mn(II) oxidation and manganese containing particle production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hao, E-mail: zhouhao@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education), School of Food and Environment, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin 124221 (China); Pan, Haixia [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education), School of Food and Environment, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin 124221 (China); Xu, Jianqiang [School of Life Science and Medicine, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin 124221 (China); Xu, Weiping; Liu, Lifen [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education), School of Food and Environment, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin 124221 (China)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • An efficient Mn(II) oxidation marine sediments microbial community was obtained. • High-throughput sequencing indicated new Mn(II) oxidation associated genus. • Na{sub 3}MnPO{sub 4}CO{sub 3} and MnCO{sub 3} were synthesized by the consortium. • Consortium exhibited Mn(II) oxidation performance over a range of harsh conditions. - Abstract: Sediment contamination with metals is a widespread concern in the marine environment. Manganese oxidizing bacteria (MOB) are extensively distributed in various environments, but a marine microbial community containing MOB is rarely reported. In this study, a consortium of marine metal-contaminated sediments was acclimated using Mn(II). The shift in community structure was determined through high-throughput sequencing. In addition, the consortium resisted several harsh conditions, such as toxic metals (1 mM Cu(II) and Fe(III)), and exhibited high Mn(II) oxidation capacities even the Mn(II) concentration was up to 5 mM. Meanwhile, biogenic Mn containing particles were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption. Dye removal performance of the Mn containing particles was assayed using methylene blue, and 20.8 mg g{sup −1} adsorption capacity was obtained. Overall, this study revealed several new genera associated with Mn(II) oxidation and rare biogenic Na{sub 3}MnPO{sub 4}CO{sub 3.} Results suggested the complexity of natural microbe-mediated Mn transformation.

  2. Trace metal concentrations in marine organisms from the Eastern Aegean, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucuksezgin, F.

    1999-01-01

    Monitoring of mercury, cadmium and lead levels in striped mullet (Mullus barbatus) was conducted in the Eastern Aegean over 3 year period and in some other species during 1996 in the framework of a National Marine Measurement Program and MED-POL II Project for the Aegean Sea. Of all the research on the concentrations of trace metals in the Aegean environment only a little has been carried out in that part of the Eastern Aegean

  3. Bridging Organizations Drive Effective Governance Outcomes for Conservation of Indonesia's Marine Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdej, Samantha M; Armitage, Derek R

    2016-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the influence of bridging organizations on governance outcomes for marine conservation in Indonesia. Conservation challenges require ways of governing that are collaborative and adaptive across boundaries, and where conservation actions are better coordinated, information flows improved, and knowledge better integrated and mobilized. We combine quantitative social network analysis and qualitative data to analyze bridging organizations and their networks, and to understand their contributions and constraints in two case studies in Bali, Indonesia. The analysis shows 1) bridging organizations help to navigate the 'messiness' inherent in conservation settings by compensating for sparse linkages, 2) the particular structure and function of bridging organizations influence governing processes (i.e., collaboration, knowledge sharing) and subsequent conservation outcomes, 3) 'bridging' is accomplished using different strategies and platforms for collaboration and social learning, and 4) bridging organizations enhance flexibility to adjust to changing marine conservation contexts and needs. Understanding the organizations that occupy bridging positions, and how they utilize their positionality in a governance network is emerging as an important determinant of successful conservation outcomes. Our findings contribute to a relatively new body of literature on bridging organizations in marine conservation contexts, and add needed empirical investigation into their value to governance and conservation in Coral Triangle nations and beyond.

  4. Bridging Organizations Drive Effective Governance Outcomes for Conservation of Indonesia’s Marine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdej, Samantha M.; Armitage, Derek R.

    2016-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the influence of bridging organizations on governance outcomes for marine conservation in Indonesia. Conservation challenges require ways of governing that are collaborative and adaptive across boundaries, and where conservation actions are better coordinated, information flows improved, and knowledge better integrated and mobilized. We combine quantitative social network analysis and qualitative data to analyze bridging organizations and their networks, and to understand their contributions and constraints in two case studies in Bali, Indonesia. The analysis shows 1) bridging organizations help to navigate the ‘messiness’ inherent in conservation settings by compensating for sparse linkages, 2) the particular structure and function of bridging organizations influence governing processes (i.e., collaboration, knowledge sharing) and subsequent conservation outcomes, 3) ‘bridging’ is accomplished using different strategies and platforms for collaboration and social learning, and 4) bridging organizations enhance flexibility to adjust to changing marine conservation contexts and needs. Understanding the organizations that occupy bridging positions, and how they utilize their positionality in a governance network is emerging as an important determinant of successful conservation outcomes. Our findings contribute to a relatively new body of literature on bridging organizations in marine conservation contexts, and add needed empirical investigation into their value to governance and conservation in Coral Triangle nations and beyond. PMID:26794003

  5. Studies on rare earth elements in seawater and uptake by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.; Koyanagi, T.; Saiki, M.

    1975-01-01

    The contents of rare earth elements in marine environmental samples were determined by neutron activation analysis to examine the existing state in coastal seawater and the concentration by marine organisms of the elements. Seawater was filtered through a Millipore filter GS (pore size 0.22 μm), before the analysis. Some of the seawater was treated with HC1 solution before filtration and some after filtration. Certain marine organisms were also analysed for determination of rare earth elements. These were: flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus); yellowtails (Seriola quinqueradiata); immature anchovy (Engraulis japonica); clams (Meretrix lusoria); green algae (Ulva pertusa); brown algae (Hizikia fusiforme, Sargassum fulvellum, Undaria pinnatifida). In the seawater without HC1 treatment before filtration, considerable amounts of the elements existed in residue on the filter, whereas in the seawater treated with HC1 before filtration, the greater part remained in the dissolved state. Concentration factors calculated from the contents of stable elements, therefore, are affected remarkably by the existing state of the elements in seawater. If only the dissolved state is assumed available for marine organisms, values one order higher are attained compared with the case where total amounts of the elements were used for the calculation. However, the contribution of the insoluble state seems to be not negligible with some organisms. The higher concentration factors for immature anchovy and clams observed in this study were considered to be caused by surface adsorption of elements in particulate form and also ingested sediment with high element concentration. (author)

  6. Mass spectrometry based approach for identification and characterisation of fluorescent proteins from marine organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wojdyla, Katarzyna Iwona; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    We present here a new analytical strategy for identification and characterisation of fluorescent proteins from marine organisms. By applying basic proteomics tools it is possible to screen large sample collections for fluorescent proteins of desired characteristics prior to gene cloning. Our...

  7. Fulvic acid-like organic compounds control nucleation of marine calcite under suboxic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuweiler, F.; D'Orazio, M.; Immenhauser, A.M.; Geipel, G.; Heise, K.H.; Cocozza, C.; Miano, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Intracrystalline organic compounds, enclosed within in situprecipitated marine microcrystalline calcite (automicrite), might represent either an inclusion or the catalyst of such precipitation. We use evidence from a Lower Cretaceous deep-water carbonate mound to show (1) the original source, (2)

  8. Demonstrating the Effects of Ocean Acidification on Marine Organisms to Support Climate Change Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Amanda L.; Hanson, Paul R.; Kelley, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification, a product of CO[subscript 2] absorption by the world's oceans, is largely driven by the anthropogenic combustion of fossil fuels and has already lowered the pH of marine ecosystems. Organisms with calcium carbonate shells and skeletons are especially susceptible to increasing environmental acidity due to reduction in the…

  9. Quantifying the degradation of organic matter in marine sediments: A review and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Sandra; Jørgensen, B. B.; LaRowe, D. E.; Middelburg, J. J.; Pancost, R. D.; Regnier, P.

    2013-08-01

    Quantifying the rates of biogeochemical processes in marine sediments is essential for understanding global element cycles and climate change. Because organic matter degradation is the engine behind benthic dynamics, deciphering the impact that various forces have on this process is central to determining the evolution of the Earth system. Therefore, recent developments in the quantitative modeling of organic matter degradation in marine sediments are critically reviewed. The first part of the review synthesizes the main chemical, biological and physical factors that control organic matter degradation in sediments while the second part provides a general review of the mathematical formulations used to model these processes and the third part evaluates their application over different spatial and temporal scales. Key transport mechanisms in sedimentary environments are summarized and the mathematical formulation of the organic matter degradation rate law is described in detail. The roles of enzyme kinetics, bioenergetics, temperature and biomass growth in particular are highlighted. Alternative model approaches that quantify the degradation rate constant are also critically compared. In the third part of the review, the capability of different model approaches to extrapolate organic matter degradation rates over a broad range of temporal and spatial scales is assessed. In addition, the structure, functions and parameterization of more than 250 published models of organic matter degradation in marine sediments are analyzed. The large range of published model parameters illustrates the complex nature of organic matter dynamics, and, thus, the limited transferability of these parameters from one site to another. Compiled model parameters do not reveal a statistically significant correlation with single environmental characteristics such as water depth, deposition rate or organic matter flux. The lack of a generic framework that allows for model parameters to be

  10. MOSAIC: An organic geochemical and sedimentological database for marine surface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavagna, Maria Luisa; Usman, Muhammed; De Avelar, Silvania; Eglinton, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Modern ocean sediments serve as the interface between the biosphere and the geosphere, play a key role in biogeochemical cycles and provide a window on how contemporary processes are written into the sedimentary record. Research over past decades has resulted in a wealth of information on the content and composition of organic matter in marine sediments, with ever-more sophisticated techniques continuing to yield information of greater detail and as an accelerating pace. However, there has been no attempt to synthesize this wealth of information. We are establishing a new database that incorporates information relevant to local, regional and global-scale assessment of the content, source and fate of organic materials accumulating in contemporary marine sediments. In the MOSAIC (Modern Ocean Sediment Archive and Inventory of Carbon) database, particular emphasis is placed on molecular and isotopic information, coupled with relevant contextual information (e.g., sedimentological properties) relevant to elucidating factors that influence the efficiency and nature of organic matter burial. The main features of MOSAIC include: (i) Emphasis on continental margin sediments as major loci of carbon burial, and as the interface between terrestrial and oceanic realms; (ii) Bulk to molecular-level organic geochemical properties and parameters, including concentration and isotopic compositions; (iii) Inclusion of extensive contextual data regarding the depositional setting, in particular with respect to sedimentological and redox characteristics. The ultimate goal is to create an open-access instrument, available on the web, to be utilized for research and education by the international community who can both contribute to, and interrogate the database. The submission will be accomplished by means of a pre-configured table available on the MOSAIC webpage. The information on the filled tables will be checked and eventually imported, via the Structural Query Language (SQL), into

  11. Inventory of organisms interfering with transmission of a marine trematode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welsh, J.E.; van der Meer, J.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2014-01-01

    It has increasingly been recognized that organisms can interfere with parasitic free-living stages, preventing them from infecting their specified host and thus reducing infection levels. This common phenomenon in freshwater and terrestrial systems has been termed the ‘dilution effect’ and, so far,

  12. Inventory of organisms interfering with transmission of a marine trematode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welsh, J.E.; van der Meer, J.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2014-01-01

    It has increasingly been recognized that organisms can interfere with parasitic free-living stages, preventing them from infecting their specified host and thus reducing infection levels. This common phenomenon in freshwater and terrestrial systems has been termed the 'dilution effect' and, so far,

  13. Experimental Evidence for Abiotic Sulfurization of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika M. Pohlabeln

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic sulfur (DOS is the largest pool of organic sulfur in the oceans, and as such it is an important component of the global sulfur cycle. DOS in the ocean is resistant against microbial degradation and turns over on a millennium time scale. However, sources and mechanisms behind its stability are largely unknown. Here, we hypothesize that in sulfate-reducing sediments sulfur is abiotically incorporated into dissolved organic matter (DOM and released to the ocean. We exposed natural seawater and the filtrate of a plankton culture to sulfidic conditions. Already after 1-h at 20°C, DOS concentrations had increased 4-fold in these experiments, and 14-fold after 4 weeks at 50°C, indicating that organic matter does not need long residence times in natural sulfidic environments to be affected by sulfurization. Molecular analysis via ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry showed that sulfur was covalently and unselectively bound to DOM. Experimentally produced and natural DOS from sediments were highly similar on a molecular and structural level. By combining our data with published benthic DOC fluxes we estimate that 30–200 Tg DOS are annually transported from anaerobic and sulfate reducing sediments to the oceans. Uncertainties in this first speculative assessment are large. However, this first attempt illustrates that benthic DOS flux is potentially one order of magnitude larger than that via rivers indicating that this could balance the estimated global net removal of refractory DOS.

  14. Evaluation of the toxicity of organic matter in marine sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    The inhibitory effects of the organics from the sediment along the east coast of India on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in-vitro were evaluated. Sediment samples collected from the surface layers at various depths were extracted. Each of the extracts...

  15. Environmental occurrence and ecological risk assessment of organic UV filters in marine organisms from Hong Kong coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ziye; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2016-10-01

    Organic UV filters, now considered to be emerging contaminants in aquatic ecosystems, are being intensively tracked in environmental waters worldwide. However, their environmental fate and impact of these contaminants on marine organisms remains largely unknown, especially in Asia. This work elucidates the occurrence and the ecological risks of seven UV filters detected in farmed fish, wild mussels and some other wild organisms collected from local mariculture farms in Hong Kong. For all of the organisms, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoic acid (OD-PABA) were the predominant contaminants with the highest concentrations up to 51.3 and 24.1ng/g (dw), respectively; lower levels were found for benzophenone-8 (BP-8), octocrylene (OC) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) from marine aquatic environment was carried out. The risk quotient (RQ) values of EHMC and BP-3 were calculated as 3.29 and 2.60, respectively, indicating these two UV filters may pose significant risks to the marine aquatic environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of heavy metals (other than mercury) on marine and estuarine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, G W

    1971-01-01

    Heavy metals such as copper, zinc and lead are normal constituents of marine and estuarine environments. When additional quantities are introduced from industrial wastes or sewage they enter the biogeochemical cycle and, as a result of being potentially toxic, may interfere with the ecology of a particular environment. In different marine organisms, the behavior of heavy metals is described in terms of their absorption, storage, excretion and regulation when different concentrations are available in the environment. At higher concentrations, the detrimental effects of heavy metals become apparent and their different toxic effects and factors affecting them are also described. 78 references, 9 figures, 4 tables.

  17. Contribution to the study of polonium-210 and lead-210 in marine organisms and their environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyraud, M.

    1982-06-01

    The following topics were emphasized: the role of 210 Po as a major source of natural radiation dose received by marin organisms; the contribution of 210 Po to the total α radioactivity in the hepatopancreas of crustaceans or mollusc cephalopods is more than 95%; in the euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica, the main source of 210 Po is the food they consume; the possible use of 210 Po as a natural biological tracer of the feeding of deep-sea mesopelagic animals; the 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratio is a good indicator of the importance of biological processes in the marine environment [fr

  18. The natural radiation environment of marine organisms and aspects of the human food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhed, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    This article is based on a paper presented at the SRP meeting on the Natural Radiation Environment, March 1982. The concentrations of some of the natural radionuclides in various components of the marine environment are described and the contributions which these make to the radiation exposure of both marine organisms and man are discussed. It is indicated that radium-226 is a useful tracer of oceanic processes and a potential means of verifying the models being developed to predict the radiological consequences of the disposal of radioactive wastes into the deep ocean. (author)

  19. Biologically-transformed zinc and its availability for bioaccumulation by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Heyraud, M.

    1980-01-01

    Zinc which occurs in sea water as a trace element exists in several different stable or meta-stable forms in the aquatic environment. One of them is ''complexed'' form which is relatively stable. Radiotracer studies were carried out to investigate the mode of formation of the complexed zinc fraction and to find whether this fraction once formed by biological means is available for accumulation by marine biota. Sea water solutions used in the experiments were filtered through double 0.45 μm Millipore filters. Chelex-100 resin which quantitatively removes zinc from sea water was used to measure the relative degree of binding of different species of 65 Zn formed by association with marine organisms. 65 Zn in exometabolites from living animals represented in this case by shrimp (Lymata seticaudata), influence of organic detritus represented in this case by dead shrimp on the conversion of different forms of zinc and bioavailability of biologically processed 65 Zn were studied. It was observed that: (1) living and dead marine animals can produce a soluble species of complexed, possibly organically bound, zinc, (2) uptake of this species is reduced relative to that of the ionic form indicating that zinc which has passed through biological cycles may be less available for bioaccumulation than zinc which has been directly introduced into the marine environment in inorganic forms. (M.G.B.)

  20. International Literature Review on WHODAS II (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federici, Stefano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This review is a critical analysis regarding the study and utilization of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II as a basis for establishing specific criteria for evaluating relevant international scientific literature.The WHODAS II is an instrument developed by the World Health Organisation in order to assess behavioural limitations and restrictions related to an individual’s participation, independent from a medical diagnosis. This instrument was developed by the WHO’s Assessment, Classification and Epidemiology Group within the framework of the WHO/NIH Joint Project on Assessment and Classification of Disablements. To ascertain the international dissemination level of for WHODAS II’s utilization and, at the same time, analyse the studies regarding the psychometric validation of the WHODAS II translation and adaptation in other languages and geographical contests. Particularly, our goal is to highlight which psychometric features have been investigated, focusing on the factorial structure, the reliability, and the validity of this instrument. International literature was researched through the main data bases of indexed scientific production: the Cambridge Scientific Abstracts – CSA, PubMed, and Google Scholar, from 1990 through to December 2008.The following search terms were used:“whodas”, in the field query, plus “title” and “abstract”.The WHODAS II has been used in 54 studies, of which 51 articles are published in international journals, 2 conference abstracts, and one dissertation abstract. Nevertheless, only 7 articles are published in journals and conference proceedings regarding disability and rehabilitation. Others have been published in medical and psychiatric journals, with the aim of indentifying comorbidity correlations in clinical diagnosis concerning patients with mental illness. Just 8 out of 51 articles have studied the psychometric properties of the WHODAS II. The

  1. Bioavailability of autochthonous dissolved organic nitrogen in marine plankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Helle; Markager, Svend Stiig; Søndergaard, Morten

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) produced during a phytoplankton bloom. The experiments were conducted with natural plankton communities as batch growth experiments over approximately 30 days with nitrogen limitation. Five to six...... times during the exponential and stationary phases of each experimental bloom the bioavailability of DON was measured over 60 days together with DOC and oxygen consumption. The overall aim was to quantify remineralization of the added nitrate. The results showed that maximum 33 % of the added nitrate...

  2. Comparison of influences of sediments and sea water on accumulation of radionuclides by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Taiji; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    1978-01-01

    The concentration factors of 106 Ru- 106 Rh and 137 Cs for a marine bivalve and a alga were investigated. Furthermore, the transfer ratio ([cpm/g of organism]/[cpm/g of sediment]) of these nuclides from contaminated sediments to organisms was examined. Then the concentration factors were compared with the transfer ratio to know the relative influence of sea water and sediments on the contamination of marine organisms. The obtained figures, we call the biological factor of the sediments (BFS), were 70 and 160 for red alga and bivalve on 137 Cs, and 5400 and 2900 for them in case of 106 Ru- 106 Rh, respectively. These figures were comparable to those for annelid worm, 40 on 137 Cs and 1000 on 106 Ru- 106 Rh. (auth.)

  3. Intellectual Organization in the New Model of the Russian Marine Industry Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Kostrikova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of intellectual organizations in the formation of professional competence, social adaptability and volitional qualities of workers of marine industry is actual in terms of growth of natural and man-made emergency situations, unstable socio-economic environment. In the marine industry, except for the education system and research, such organizations have prospects of development as the most competitive in the shipbuilding, fishing industry, port management, the logistics of fishing in the ocean and coastal fisheries, transport and storage prior to further processing. In this article is proposed a holistic resource approach to the formation of intellectual organization as a major maritime educational complex that integrates all stages of maritime specialist training, from a seaman to a master of a large ship including active research and intense maritime practice.

  4. Antitumoral activity of marine organism; Actividad antitumoral de los organismos marinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Iglesias, O [Centro de Bioproductos Marinos, La Habana (Cuba); Perez Gil, R; Colom, Y [Instituno Nacional de Oncologia y Radiobiologia (INOR), La Habana (Cuba)

    2010-07-01

    The study of the natural products from marine organism constitute a relatively recent scientific researcher field with high potentialities tanking in consideration that the oceans cover the three of the four parts of the earth. Poryphera and Bryozoans have been the Phylum more studied owning to the vulnerability, their soft body, their habitat on rocks, their slow movement and bright colors, for these reason these organisms are able to produce chemical substances as defense methods against depredators. Same mechanism is exhibit by the seaweeds with the production of secondary metabolites . In the present communication are exposed the main results obtained on the world a Cuba until the present in the looking for of substances with antitumor action from marine organism.

  5. Metal–organic complexation in the marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witter Amy

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the voltammetric methods that are used to assess metal–organic complexation in seawater. These consist of titration methods using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV and cathodic stripping voltammetry competitive ligand experiments (CSV-CLE. These approaches and a kinetic approach using CSV-CLE give similar information on the amount of excess ligand to metal in a sample and the conditional metal ligand stability constant for the excess ligand bound to the metal. CSV-CLE data using different ligands to measure Fe(III organic complexes are similar. All these methods give conditional stability constants for which the side reaction coefficient for the metal can be corrected but not that for the ligand. Another approach, pseudovoltammetry, provides information on the actual metal–ligand complex(es in a sample by doing ASV experiments where the deposition potential is varied more negatively in order to destroy the metal–ligand complex. This latter approach gives concentration information on each actual ligand bound to the metal as well as the thermodynamic stability constant of each complex in solution when compared to known metal–ligand complexes. In this case the side reaction coefficients for the metal and ligand are corrected. Thus, this method may not give identical information to the titration methods because the excess ligand in the sample may not be identical to some of the actual ligands binding the metal in the sample.

  6. Studies on concentration of radionuclides by marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    Materials used were more than 20 kinds of fishes. 85 Sr chiefly localized in the hard tissue, such as the scale, bone, and gill, 60 Co in the liver, 65 Zn in the digestive organs, such as the liver, stomach, and intestine, 144 Ce in the gill, scale and liver, 106 Ru in the liver and intestine, and 131 I in the digestive organs, especially in the gallbladder. However, all these nuclides showed only slight localization in the edible parts of fish bodies. The concentration of radionuclides in immature anchovy was examined using 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 144 Ce and so on, as tracers. The concentration factor of 137 Cs was 10 times that of 85 Sr, though, the loss of 137 Cs was very rapid compared to that of 85 Sr. 144 Ce pollution of immature anchovy was chiefly by adsorption to the surface of fish bodies. As to shells radionuclides were remarkably taken up in the mid-gut gland, among them, 144 Ce taken up in shell bodies was not excreated but accumulated in the bodies. In algae, 85 Sr, 106 Ru, and 59 Fe seemed to pollute algae physico-chemically by adsorption, and 131 I, 137 Cs, and 60 Co seemed to be taken up through inorganic metabolism showing their concentration factor 100 times that in fishes. (JPN)

  7. Speciation and Distribution of Trace Metals and Organic Matter in Marine Lake as In Situ Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, M.; Fiket, Ž.; Cuculić, V.; Cukrov, N.; Geček, S.

    2016-02-01

    Marine lakes are unique, isolated marine systems, also recognized as in situ "laboratories" in which geochemical processes on a different scale compared to the open sea, can be observed. Impact of organic matter cycling on distribution of trace metals in the marine lake Mir, located on Dugi Otok Island, in the central part of the eastern Adriatic Sea, was investigated. Intense spatial and seasonal variations of physico-chemical parameters and organic matter concentrations in the water column of the Lake are governed predominantly by natural processes. Enhanced oxygen consumption in the Lake during summer season, high organic carbon concentrations and low redox potential result in occasional occurrence of anoxic conditions in the bottom layers. Speciation modelling showed that dissolved trace metals Cu, Pb and Zn, are mostly bound to organic matter, while Cd, Co and Ni are present predominantly as free ions and inorganic complexes. Trace metals removal from the water column and their retention in the sediment was found to depend on the nature of the relationship between specific metal and high proportion of organic matter (up to 9%) and inorganic phases, Fe-oxyhydroxydes or biogenic calcite. Surrounding karstic background, with occasional occurrences of red soil characterize deposited sediments as coarse grained and carbonate rich, whose elemental composition is affected by bathymetry of the basin and overall biological production.

  8. The precipitation, growth and stability of mercury sulfide nanoparticles formed in the presence of marine dissolved organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazrui, Nashaat M; Seelen, Emily; King'ondu, Cecil K; Thota, Sravan; Awino, Joseph; Rouge, Jessica; Zhao, Jing; Mason, Robert P

    2018-04-25

    The methylation of mercury is known to depend on the chemical forms of mercury (Hg) present in the environment and the methylating bacterial activity. In sulfidic sediments, under conditions of supersaturation with respect to metacinnabar, recent research has shown that mercury precipitates as β-HgS(s) nanoparticles (β-HgS(s)nano). Few studies have examined the precipitation of β-HgS(s)nano in the presence of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM). In this work, we used dynamic light scattering (DLS) coupled with UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the formation and fate of β-HgS(s)nano formed in association with marine DOM extracted from the east and west of Long Island Sound, and at the shelf break of the North Atlantic Ocean, as well as with low molecular weight thiols. We found that while the β-HgS(s)nano formed in the presence of oceanic DOM doubled in size after 5 weeks, those forming in solutions with coastal DOM did not grow over time. In addition, when the HgII : DOM ratio was varied, β-HgS(s)nano only rapidly aggregated at high ratios (>41 μmol HgII per mg C) where the concentration of thiol groups was determined to be substantially low relative to HgII. This suggests that functional groups other than thiols could be involved in the stabilization of β-HgS(s)nano. Furthermore, we showed that β-HgS(s)nano forming under anoxic conditions remained stable and could therefore persist in the environment sufficiently to impact the methylation potential. Exposure of β-HgS(s)nano to sunlit and oxic environments, however, caused rapid aggregation and sedimentation of the nanoparticles, suggesting that photo-induced changes or oxidation of organic matter adsorbed on the surface of β-HgS(s)nano affected their stability in surface waters.

  9. A Biogeotechnical approach to Stabilize Soft Marine Soil with a Microbial Organic Material called Biopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, I.; Cho, G. C.; Kwon, Y. M.; Im, J.

    2017-12-01

    The importance and demands of offshore and coastal area development are increasing due to shortage of usable land and to have access to valuable marine resources. However, most coastal soils are soft sediments, mainly composed with fines (silt and clay) and having high water and organic contents, which induce complicated mechanical- and geochemical- behaviors and even be insufficient in Geotechnical engineering aspects. At least, soil stabilization procedures are required for those soft sediments, regardless of the purpose of usage on the site. One of the most common soft soil stabilization method is using ordinary cement as a soil strengthening binder. However, the use of cement in marine environments is reported to occur environmental concerns such as pH increase and accompanying marine ecosystem disturbance. Therefore, a new environmentally-friendly treatment material for coastal and offshore soils. In this study, a biopolymer material produced by microbes is introduced to enhance the physical behavior of a soft tidal flat sediment by considering the biopolymer rheology, soil mineralogy, and chemical properties of marine water. Biopolymer material used in this study forms inter-particle bonds between particles which is promoted through cation-bridges where the cations are provided from marine water. Moreover, biopolymer treatment renders unique stress-strain relationship of soft soils. The mechanical stiffness (M) instantly increase with the presence of biopolymer, while time-dependent settlement behavior (consolidation) shows a big delay due to the viscous biopolymer hydrogels in pore spaces.

  10. Toxicity of seven priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) to marine organisms: Current status, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Galhano, Victor; Ferreira, Marta; Guimarães, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Shipping industry and seaborne trade have rapidly increased over the last fifty years, mainly due to the continuous increasing demand for chemicals and fuels. Consequently, despite current regulations, the occurrence of accidental spills poses an important risk. Hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) have been raising major concern among environmental managers and scientific community for their heterogeneity, hazardous potential towards aquatic organisms and associated social-economic impacts. A literature review on ecotoxicological hazards to aquatic organisms was conducted for seven HNSs: acrylonitrile, n-butyl acrylate, cyclohexylbenzene, hexane, isononanol, trichloroethylene and xylene. Information on the mechanisms of action of the selected HNS was also reviewed. The main purpose was to identify: i) knowledge gaps in need of being addressed in future research; and ii) a set of possible biomarkers suitable for ecotoxicological assessment and monitoring in both estuarine and marine systems. Main gaps found concern the scarcity of information available on ecotoxicological effects of HNS towards marine species and their poorly understood mode of action in wildlife. Differences were found between the sensitivity of freshwater and seawater organisms, so endpoints produced in the former may not be straightforwardly employed in evaluations for the marine environment. The relationship between sub-individual effects and higher level detrimental alterations (e.g. behavioural, morphological, reproductive effects and mortality) are not fully understood. In this context, a set of biomarkers associated to neurotoxicity, detoxification and anti-oxidant defences is suggested as potential indicators of toxic exposure/effects of HNS in marine organisms. Overall, to support the development of contingency plans and the establishment of environmental safety thresholds, it will be necessary to undertake targeted research on HNS ecotoxicity in the marine environment. Research should

  11. Toxicity of seven priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) to marine organisms: Current status, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S., E-mail: cristinasrocha@gmail.com; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Galhano, Victor; Ferreira, Marta, E-mail: marta.ferreira@usp.ac.fj; Guimarães, Laura

    2016-01-15

    Shipping industry and seaborne trade have rapidly increased over the last fifty years, mainly due to the continuous increasing demand for chemicals and fuels. Consequently, despite current regulations, the occurrence of accidental spills poses an important risk. Hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) have been raising major concern among environmental managers and scientific community for their heterogeneity, hazardous potential towards aquatic organisms and associated social-economic impacts. A literature review on ecotoxicological hazards to aquatic organisms was conducted for seven HNSs: acrylonitrile, n-butyl acrylate, cyclohexylbenzene, hexane, isononanol, trichloroethylene and xylene. Information on the mechanisms of action of the selected HNS was also reviewed. The main purpose was to identify: i) knowledge gaps in need of being addressed in future research; and ii) a set of possible biomarkers suitable for ecotoxicological assessment and monitoring in both estuarine and marine systems. Main gaps found concern the scarcity of information available on ecotoxicological effects of HNS towards marine species and their poorly understood mode of action in wildlife. Differences were found between the sensitivity of freshwater and seawater organisms, so endpoints produced in the former may not be straightforwardly employed in evaluations for the marine environment. The relationship between sub-individual effects and higher level detrimental alterations (e.g. behavioural, morphological, reproductive effects and mortality) are not fully understood. In this context, a set of biomarkers associated to neurotoxicity, detoxification and anti-oxidant defences is suggested as potential indicators of toxic exposure/effects of HNS in marine organisms. Overall, to support the development of contingency plans and the establishment of environmental safety thresholds, it will be necessary to undertake targeted research on HNS ecotoxicity in the marine environment. Research should

  12. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to marine organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijerick, D.G.; Regoli, L.; Stubblefield, W.

    2012-01-01

    A scientific research program was initiated by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) which addressed identified gaps in the environmental toxicity data for the molybdate ion (MoO 4 2− ). These gaps were previously identified during the preparation of EU-REACH-dossiers for different molybdenum compounds (European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances; EC, 2006). Evaluation of the open literature identified few reliable marine ecotoxicological data that could be used for deriving a Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) for the marine environment. Rather than calculating a PNEC marine using the assessment factor methodology on a combined freshwater/marine dataset, IMOA decided to generate sufficient reliable marine chronic data to permit derivation of a PNEC by means of the more scientifically robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Nine test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na 2 MoO 4 ·2H 2 O) according to published standard testing guidelines that are acceptable for a broad range of regulatory purposes. The selected test organisms were representative for typical marine trophic levels: micro-algae/diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta), macro-alga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mysids (Americamysis bahia), copepod (Acartia tonsa), fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), echinoderms (Dendraster exentricus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and molluscs (Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas). Available NOEC/EC 10 levels ranged between 4.4 mg Mo/L (blue mussel M. edulis) and 1174 mg Mo/L (oyster C. gigas). Using all available reliable marine chronic effects data that are currently available, a HC 5,50% (median hazardous concentration affecting 5% of the species) of 5.74 (mg Mo)/L was derived with the statistical extrapolation approach, a value that can be used for national and

  13. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to marine organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijerick, D.G., E-mail: Dagobert.heijerick@arche-consulting.be [ARCHE - Assessing Risks of Chemicals, Stapelplein 70 Bus 104, Gent (Belgium); Regoli, L. [International Molybdenum Association, 4 Heathfield Terrace, London, W4 4JE (United Kingdom); Stubblefield, W. [Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 421 Weniger Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    A scientific research program was initiated by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) which addressed identified gaps in the environmental toxicity data for the molybdate ion (MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). These gaps were previously identified during the preparation of EU-REACH-dossiers for different molybdenum compounds (European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances; EC, 2006). Evaluation of the open literature identified few reliable marine ecotoxicological data that could be used for deriving a Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) for the marine environment. Rather than calculating a PNEC{sub marine} using the assessment factor methodology on a combined freshwater/marine dataset, IMOA decided to generate sufficient reliable marine chronic data to permit derivation of a PNEC by means of the more scientifically robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Nine test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O) according to published standard testing guidelines that are acceptable for a broad range of regulatory purposes. The selected test organisms were representative for typical marine trophic levels: micro-algae/diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta), macro-alga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mysids (Americamysis bahia), copepod (Acartia tonsa), fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), echinoderms (Dendraster exentricus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and molluscs (Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas). Available NOEC/EC{sub 10} levels ranged between 4.4 mg Mo/L (blue mussel M. edulis) and 1174 mg Mo/L (oyster C. gigas). Using all available reliable marine chronic effects data that are currently available, a HC{sub 5,50%} (median hazardous concentration affecting 5% of the species) of 5.74 (mg Mo)/L was derived with the statistical extrapolation approach, a

  14. Physiology, Fe(II oxidation, and Fe mineral formation by a marine planktonic cyanobacterium grown under ferruginous conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D. Swanner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for Fe(II oxidation and deposition of Fe(III-bearing minerals from anoxic or redox-stratified Precambrian oceans has received support from decades of sedimentological and geochemical investigation of Banded Iron Formations (BIF. While the exact mechanisms of Fe(II oxidation remains equivocal, reaction with O2 in the marine water column, produced by cyanobacteria or early oxygenic phototrophs, was likely. In order to understand the role of cyanobacteria in the deposition of Fe(III minerals to BIF, we must first know how planktonic marine cyanobacteria respond to ferruginous (anoxic and Fe(II-rich waters in terms of growth, Fe uptake and homeostasis, and Fe mineral formation. We therefore grew the common marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7002 in closed bottles that began anoxic, and contained Fe(II concentrations that span the range of possible concentrations in Precambrian seawater. These results, along with cell suspension experiments, indicate that Fe(II is likely oxidized by this strain via chemical oxidation with oxygen produced during photosynthesis, and not via any direct enzymatic or photosynthetic pathway. Imaging of the cell-mineral aggregates with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM are consistent with extracellular precipitation of Fe(III (oxyhydroxide minerals, but that >10% of Fe(III sorbs to cell surfaces rather than precipitating. Proteomic experiments support the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in Fe(II toxicity to Synechococcus PCC 7002. The proteome expressed under low Fe conditions included multiple siderophore biosynthesis and siderophore and Fe transporter proteins, but most siderophores are not expressed during growth with Fe(II. These results provide a mechanistic and quantitative framework for evaluating the geochemical consequences of perhaps life’s greatest metabolic innovation, i.e. the evolution and activity of oxygenic photosynthesis, in ferruginous

  15. Effect of water pollution on marine organisms; Sekiyu osen no kaiyo seibutsu eno eikyo hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, M. [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan); Fujisawa, K. [Okayama Prefectural Fisheries Experiment Station, Okayama (Japan)

    1997-10-10

    Toxicity of petroleum component to aquatic organisms appears as a result of its deposition onto living organisms followed by its migration into bodies of the organisms, and emergence of toxicity from the migrated component. Effect evaluation processes standing on this viewpoint may include the exposure monitoring or migration monitoring, in which the petroleum component migrated into marine organisms is analyzed and the state of the component concentrated in these organisms is measured, or effect monitoring, in which actions of the petroleum component in the organisms are investigated. The effects of petroleum on aquatic organisms would include the following occurrence: direct fatal toxicity acting on cells and membranes, quasi-fatal toxicity causing death indirectly through feeding actions and abnormal actions, direct coating of oil on surface of organisms, which prevents movability and feeding actions of the organisms and reduces hydrophilicity of plumes and hairs, pollution of living organisms due to migration of carcinogenic aromatic compounds into bodies of the living organisms, and change in species compositions and geographic distribution of living organisms due to change in physico-chemical environment. This paper explains cases of detection and identification of organic sulfur compounds, aromatic compounds, polycyclic aromatic compounds, paraffins, olefins and heavy metals in parametric compounds of petroleum. 20 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Modeling the role of microplastics in Bioaccumulation of organic chemicals to marine aquatic organisms. Critical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that ingestion of microplastics may increase bioaccumulation of organic chemicals by aquatic organisms. This paper critically reviews the literature on the effects of plastic ingestion on the bioaccumulation of organic chemicals, emphasizing quantitative approaches and mechanistic

  17. Hygroscopic properties of smoke-generated organic aerosol particles emitted in the marine atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wonaschütz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available During the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE, a plume of organic aerosol was produced by a smoke generator and emitted into the marine atmosphere from aboard the R/V Point Sur. In this study, the hygroscopic properties and the chemical composition of the plume were studied at plume ages between 0 and 4 h in different meteorological conditions. In sunny conditions, the plume particles had very low hygroscopic growth factors (GFs: between 1.05 and 1.09 for 30 nm and between 1.02 and 1.1 for 150 nm dry size at a relative humidity (RH of 92%, contrasted by an average marine background GF of 1.6. New particles were produced in large quantities (several 10 000 cm−3, which lead to substantially increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations at supersaturations between 0.07 and 0.88%. Ratios of oxygen to carbon (O : C and water-soluble organic mass (WSOM increased with plume age: from −3, respectively, while organic mass fractions decreased slightly (~ 0.97 to ~ 0.94. High-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS spectra show that the organic fragment m/z 43 was dominated by C2H3O+ in the small, new particle mode and by C3H7+ in the large particle mode. In the marine background aerosol, GFs for 150 nm particles at 40% RH were found to be enhanced at higher organic mass fractions: an average GF of 1.06 was observed for aerosols with an organic mass fraction of 0.53, and a GF of 1.04 for an organic mass fraction of 0.35.

  18. Marine chemistry, fish / shell-fish surveys, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data from current meter and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from 1993-01-26 to 1994-06-13 (NODC Accession 9500088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine chemistry, fish / shell-fish surveys, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data were collected using current meter and other...

  19. Primary and Secondary Organic Marine Aerosol and Oceanic Biological Activity: Recent Results and New Perspectives for Future Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Rinaldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important natural aerosol systems at the global level is marine aerosol that comprises both organic and inorganic components of primary and secondary origin. The present paper reviews some new results on primary and secondary organic marine aerosol, achieved during the EU project MAP (Marine Aerosol Production, comparing them with those reported in the recent literature. Marine aerosol samples collected at the coastal site of Mace Head, Ireland, show a chemical composition trend that is influenced by the oceanic biological activity cycle, in agreement with other observations. Laboratory experiments show that sea-spray aerosol from biologically active sea water can be highly enriched in organics, and the authors highlight the need for further studies on the atmospheric fate of such primary organics. With regard to the secondary fraction of organic aerosol, the average chemical composition and molecular tracer (methanesulfonic-acid, amines distribution could be successfully characterized by adopting a multitechnique analytical approach.

  20. Phosphorus sorption on marine carbonate sediment: phosphonate as model organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Jia-Zhong

    2011-11-01

    Organophosphonate, characterized by the presence of a stable, covalent, carbon to phosphorus (C-P) bond, is a group of synthetic or biogenic organophosphorus compounds. The fate of these organic phosphorus compounds in the environment is not well studied. This study presents the first investigation on the sorption of phosphorus (P) in the presence of two model phosphonate compounds, 2-aminothylphosphonoic acid (2-AEP) and phosphonoformic acid (PFA), on marine carbonate sediments. In contrast to other organic P compounds, no significant inorganic phosphate exchange was observed in seawater. P was found to adsorb on the sediment only in the presence of PFA, not 2-AEP. This indicated that sorption of P from phosphonate on marine sediment was compound specific. Compared with inorganic phosphate sorption on the same sediments, P sorption from organic phosphorus is much less in the marine environment. Further study is needed to understand the potential role of the organophosphonate compounds in biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus in the environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of organic pollution on biological communities of marine biofilm on hard substrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Lázaro, C; Fodelianakis, S; Guerrero-Meseguer, L; Marín, A; Karakassis, I

    2015-06-01

    We examined the effect of organic enrichment on diatom and bacterial assemblages of marine epilithic biofilms on two locations in the Mediterranean, one situated in Spain and the other in Greece. Total organic carbon, total organic nitrogen, stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and chlorophyll a indicated significant incorporation of organic wastes, increased primary production and trophic niche modifications on the biofilms close to the organic enrichment source. In Spain, where the organic load was higher than in Greece, diatom and, to some extent, bacterial assemblages varied following the organic enrichment gradient. The taxonomic richness of diatom and bacterial communities was not influenced by organic enrichment. Classical community parameters showed consistent patterns to organic pollution in both locations, whereas community assemblages were only influenced when organic pollution was greatest. The successional patterns of these communities were similar to other epilithic communities. The modification of community assemblages induced by organic pollution may affect ecological functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Estimation of the toxicity of pollutants to marine phytoplanktonic and zooplanktonic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    One of the basic components of the action plans sponsored by UNEP in the framework of the Regional Seas Programme is the assessment of the state of the marine environment and of its resources, and of the sources and trends of the pollution, and the impact of pollution on human health, marine ecosystems, and amenities. In order to ensure that the data obtained through this assessment can be compared on a world-wide basis and thus contribute to the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) of UNEP, a set of Reference Methods and Guidelines for marine pollution studies are being developed as part of a programme of comprehensive technical support which includes the provision of expert advice, reference methods and materials, training and data quality assurance. This reference method describes procedures for estimating the toxicity of pollutants to marine phytoplankton and zooplankton. Procedures are given for estimating the media effective concentrations (EC50) of toxicants to phytoplankton, and the minimum algistatic concentration (MAC-5). For zooplankton, procedures are given for determining median lethal concentrations. Organisms are exposed to each of a range of concentrations of the test substance. For phytoplankton, the median effective concentration (EC50) is estimated in terms of the number of individuals surviving, the biomass of individuals surviving, or the chlorophyll content of the individuals surviving. For zooplankton, the media lethal concentration (LC50) is estimated by conventional log-probit analysis of the mortality data

  3. I. Structural studies of termite defense secretions. II. Structural studies of natural products of marine nudibranchs. [Kempene, tridachione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solheim, B.A.

    1977-12-01

    Three families of termites have the ability to produce a sticky secretion that envelopes and immobilizes the enemy. In the family Termitidae the secretion contains the diterpenoid hydrocarbons, kempene I and kempene II. The molecular structure of kempene II from the termite, Nasutitermes kempae, is described in detail. Another species of termite, Cubitermes umbratus, contained the diterpenoid hydrocarbon biflora-4,10-19,15-triene in the secretion and this compound is described. Studies were also conducted on the mucous secretion of the pedal gland of the marine nudibranch, Tidachiella diomedea. Tridachione, a substituted ..gamma..-pyrone, was isolated in the pure state and its molecular structure is described in detail. (HLW)

  4. Macromolecular composition of terrestrial and marine organic matter in sediments across the East Siberian Arctic Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, Robert B.; Doğrul Selver, Ayça; Gustafsson, Örjan; Semiletov, Igor P.; Haghipour, Negar; Wacker, Lukas; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Talbot, Helen M.; van Dongen, Bart E.

    2016-10-01

    Mobilisation of terrestrial organic carbon (terrOC) from permafrost environments in eastern Siberia has the potential to deliver significant amounts of carbon to the Arctic Ocean, via both fluvial and coastal erosion. Eroded terrOC can be degraded during offshore transport or deposited across the wide East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS). Most studies of terrOC on the ESAS have concentrated on solvent-extractable organic matter, but this represents only a small proportion of the total terrOC load. In this study we have used pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-GCMS) to study all major groups of macromolecular components of the terrOC; this is the first time that this technique has been applied to the ESAS. This has shown that there is a strong offshore trend from terrestrial phenols, aromatics and cyclopentenones to marine pyridines. There is good agreement between proportion phenols measured using py-GCMS and independent quantification of lignin phenol concentrations (r2 = 0.67, p radiocarbon data for bulk OC (14COC) which, when coupled with previous measurements, allows us to produce the most comprehensive 14COC map of the ESAS to date. Combining the 14COC and py-GCMS data suggests that the aromatics group of compounds is likely sourced from old, aged terrOC, in contrast to the phenols group, which is likely sourced from modern woody material. We propose that an index of the relative proportions of phenols and pyridines can be used as a novel terrestrial vs. marine proxy measurement for macromolecular organic matter. Principal component analysis found that various terrestrial vs. marine proxies show different patterns across the ESAS, and it shows that multiple river-ocean transects of surface sediments transition from river-dominated to coastal-erosion-dominated to marine-dominated signatures.

  5. The use of potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution as a suitable approach to isolate plastics ingested by marine organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühn, Susanne; Werven, Van Bernike; Oyen, Van Albert; Meijboom, André; Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa L.; Franeker, Van Jan A.

    2017-01-01

    In studies of plastic ingestion by marine wildlife, visual separation of plastic particles from gastrointestinal tracts or their dietary content can be challenging. Earlier studies have used solutions to dissolve organic materials leaving synthetic particles unaffected. However, insufficient tests

  6. Decomposition of 14C-labeled organic substances in marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The depth variation of total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter composition and porewater composition in marine sediments suggest that different components of the organic matter undergo decomposition at widely different rates. The decomposition of 14 C-labeled organic substances was followed in sediment microcosms in the laboratory. The substances used were chosen to simulate a portion of material settling to the sediment-water interface (a marine diatom) or hypothesized components of refractory sediment organic matter (melanoidins and a bacterial polymer). The microcosms were found to be good models of the sediment-water interface in terms of how well they mimicked sediment decomposition rates and processes. The decomposition of the labeled material and the natural sediment TOC were monitored over 1 month: the water overlying the sediment remained oxic, and net consumption of nitrate was small. There was no detectable sulfate reduction. The algae and the bacterial polymer were decomposed on average 9x faster than the melanoidins and 90x faster than the natural sediment TOC. The soluble fraction of the algae was decomposed more rapidly than the particulate material

  7. Macromolecular composition of terrestrial and marine organic matter in sediments across the East Siberian Arctic Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Sparkes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobilisation of terrestrial organic carbon (terrOC from permafrost environments in eastern Siberia has the potential to deliver significant amounts of carbon to the Arctic Ocean, via both fluvial and coastal erosion. Eroded terrOC can be degraded during offshore transport or deposited across the wide East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS. Most studies of terrOC on the ESAS have concentrated on solvent-extractable organic matter, but this represents only a small proportion of the total terrOC load. In this study we have used pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (py-GCMS to study all major groups of macromolecular components of the terrOC; this is the first time that this technique has been applied to the ESAS. This has shown that there is a strong offshore trend from terrestrial phenols, aromatics and cyclopentenones to marine pyridines. There is good agreement between proportion phenols measured using py-GCMS and independent quantification of lignin phenol concentrations (r2 = 0.67, p < 0.01, n = 24. Furfurals, thought to represent carbohydrates, show no offshore trend and are likely found in both marine and terrestrial organic matter. We have also collected new radiocarbon data for bulk OC (14COC which, when coupled with previous measurements, allows us to produce the most comprehensive 14COC map of the ESAS to date. Combining the 14COC and py-GCMS data suggests that the aromatics group of compounds is likely sourced from old, aged terrOC, in contrast to the phenols group, which is likely sourced from modern woody material. We propose that an index of the relative proportions of phenols and pyridines can be used as a novel terrestrial vs. marine proxy measurement for macromolecular organic matter. Principal component analysis found that various terrestrial vs. marine proxies show different patterns across the ESAS, and it shows that multiple river–ocean transects of surface sediments transition from river-dominated to

  8. Psychiatric emergencies (part II): psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S

    2013-02-01

    In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common

  9. A new laboratory radio frequency identification (RFID) system for behavioural tracking of marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Sbragaglia, Valerio; Sarriá, David; García, José Antonio; Costa, Corrado; del Río, Joaquín; Mànuel, Antoni; Menesatti, Paolo; Sardà, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) devices are currently used to quantify several traits of animal behaviour with potential applications for the study of marine organisms. To date, behavioural studies with marine organisms are rare because of the technical difficulty of propagating radio waves within the saltwater medium. We present a novel RFID tracking system to study the burrowing behaviour of a valuable fishery resource, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus L.). The system consists of a network of six controllers, each handling a group of seven antennas. That network was placed below a microcosm tank that recreated important features typical of Nephrops' grounds, such as the presence of multiple burrows. The animals carried a passive transponder attached to their telson, operating at 13.56 MHz. The tracking system was implemented to concurrently report the behaviour of up to three individuals, in terms of their travelled distances in a specified unit of time and their preferential positioning within the antenna network. To do so, the controllers worked in parallel to send the antenna data to a computer via a USB connection. The tracking accuracy of the system was evaluated by concurrently recording the animals' behaviour with automated video imaging. During the two experiments, each lasting approximately one week, two different groups of three animals each showed a variable burrow occupancy and a nocturnal displacement under a standard photoperiod regime (12 h light:12 h dark), measured using the RFID method. Similar results were obtained with the video imaging. Our implemented RFID system was therefore capable of efficiently tracking the tested organisms and has a good potential for use on a wide variety of other marine organisms of commercial, aquaculture, and ecological interest.

  10. A New Laboratory Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) System for Behavioural Tracking of Marine Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Sbragaglia, Valerio; Sarriá, David; García, José Antonio; Costa, Corrado; del Río, Joaquín; Mànuel, Antoni; Menesatti, Paolo; Sardà, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) devices are currently used to quantify several traits of animal behaviour with potential applications for the study of marine organisms. To date, behavioural studies with marine organisms are rare because of the technical difficulty of propagating radio waves within the saltwater medium. We present a novel RFID tracking system to study the burrowing behaviour of a valuable fishery resource, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus L.). The system consists of a network of six controllers, each handling a group of seven antennas. That network was placed below a microcosm tank that recreated important features typical of Nephrops’ grounds, such as the presence of multiple burrows. The animals carried a passive transponder attached to their telson, operating at 13.56 MHz. The tracking system was implemented to concurrently report the behaviour of up to three individuals, in terms of their travelled distances in a specified unit of time and their preferential positioning within the antenna network. To do so, the controllers worked in parallel to send the antenna data to a computer via a USB connection. The tracking accuracy of the system was evaluated by concurrently recording the animals’ behaviour with automated video imaging. During the two experiments, each lasting approximately one week, two different groups of three animals each showed a variable burrow occupancy and a nocturnal displacement under a standard photoperiod regime (12 h light:12 h dark), measured using the RFID method. Similar results were obtained with the video imaging. Our implemented RFID system was therefore capable of efficiently tracking the tested organisms and has a good potential for use on a wide variety of other marine organisms of commercial, aquaculture, and ecological interest. PMID:22163710

  11. A New Laboratory Radio Frequency Identification (RFID System for Behavioural Tracking of Marine Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Sardà

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency identification (RFID devices are currently used to quantify several traits of animal behaviour with potential applications for the study of marine organisms. To date, behavioural studies with marine organisms are rare because of the technical difficulty of propagating radio waves within the saltwater medium. We present a novel RFID tracking system to study the burrowing behaviour of a valuable fishery resource, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus L.. The system consists of a network of six controllers, each handling a group of seven antennas. That network was placed below a microcosm tank that recreated important features typical of Nephrops’ grounds, such as the presence of multiple burrows. The animals carried a passive transponder attached to their telson, operating at 13.56 MHz. The tracking system was implemented to concurrently report the behaviour of up to three individuals, in terms of their travelled distances in a specified unit of time and their preferential positioning within the antenna network. To do so, the controllers worked in parallel to send the antenna data to a computer via a USB connection. The tracking accuracy of the system was evaluated by concurrently recording the animals’ behaviour with automated video imaging. During the two experiments, each lasting approximately one week, two different groups of three animals each showed a variable burrow occupancy and a nocturnal displacement under a standard photoperiod regime (12 h light:12 h dark, measured using the RFID method. Similar results were obtained with the video imaging. Our implemented RFID system was therefore capable of efficiently tracking the tested organisms and has a good potential for use on a wide variety of other marine organisms of commercial, aquaculture, and ecological interest.

  12. Reconstruction of late Quaternary marine and terrestrial environmental conditions of Northwest Africa and Southeast Australia : a multiple organic proxy study using marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfama Lopes dos Santos, R.

    2012-01-01

    NW Africa and SE Australia are regions which are particularly vulnerable to climate change. In this thesis, organic proxies are used from marine sediment cores to reconstruct past environmental conditions from these areas. In sediments from NW Africa, the UK'37 showed an efficient proxy for sea

  13. The copepod Tigriopus: A promising marine model organism for ecotoxicology and environmental genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisuddin, Sheikh [Department of Chemistry and the National Research Lab of Marine Molecular and Environmental Bioscience, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kwok, Kevin W.H. [Swire Institute of Marine Science, Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Leung, Kenneth M.Y. [Swire Institute of Marine Science, Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Schlenk, Daniel [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Lee, Jae-Seong [Department of Chemistry and the National Research Lab of Marine Molecular and Environmental Bioscience, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jslee2@hanyang.ac.kr

    2007-07-20

    There is an increasing body of evidence to support the significant role of invertebrates in assessing impacts of environmental contaminants on marine ecosystems. Therefore, in recent years massive efforts have been directed to identify viable and ecologically relevant invertebrate toxicity testing models. Tigriopus, a harpacticoid copepod has a number of promising characteristics which make it a candidate worth consideration in such efforts. Tigriopus and other copepods are widely distributed and ecologically important organisms. Their position in marine food chains is very prominent, especially with regard to the transfer of energy. Copepods also play an important role in the transportation of aquatic pollutants across the food chains. In recent years there has been a phenomenal increase in the knowledge base of Tigriopus spp., particularly in the areas of their ecology, geophylogeny, genomics and their behavioural, biochemical and molecular responses following exposure to environmental stressors and chemicals. Sequences of a number of important marker genes have been studied in various Tigriopus spp., notably T. californicus and T. japonicus. These genes belong to normal biophysiological functions (e.g. electron transport system enzymes) as well as stress and toxic chemical exposure responses (heat shock protein 20, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase). Recently, 40,740 expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) from T. japonicus, have been sequenced and of them, 5673 ESTs showed significant hits (E-value, >1.0E-05) to the red flour beetle Tribolium genome database. Metals and organic pollutants such as antifouling agents, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychrlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have shown reproducible biological responses when tested in Tigriopus spp. Promising results have been obtained when Tigriopus was used for assessment of risk associated with exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Application of environmental

  14. The copepod Tigriopus: A promising marine model organism for ecotoxicology and environmental genomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisuddin, Sheikh; Kwok, Kevin W.H.; Leung, Kenneth M.Y.; Schlenk, Daniel; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2007-01-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence to support the significant role of invertebrates in assessing impacts of environmental contaminants on marine ecosystems. Therefore, in recent years massive efforts have been directed to identify viable and ecologically relevant invertebrate toxicity testing models. Tigriopus, a harpacticoid copepod has a number of promising characteristics which make it a candidate worth consideration in such efforts. Tigriopus and other copepods are widely distributed and ecologically important organisms. Their position in marine food chains is very prominent, especially with regard to the transfer of energy. Copepods also play an important role in the transportation of aquatic pollutants across the food chains. In recent years there has been a phenomenal increase in the knowledge base of Tigriopus spp., particularly in the areas of their ecology, geophylogeny, genomics and their behavioural, biochemical and molecular responses following exposure to environmental stressors and chemicals. Sequences of a number of important marker genes have been studied in various Tigriopus spp., notably T. californicus and T. japonicus. These genes belong to normal biophysiological functions (e.g. electron transport system enzymes) as well as stress and toxic chemical exposure responses (heat shock protein 20, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase). Recently, 40,740 expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) from T. japonicus, have been sequenced and of them, 5673 ESTs showed significant hits (E-value, >1.0E-05) to the red flour beetle Tribolium genome database. Metals and organic pollutants such as antifouling agents, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychrlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have shown reproducible biological responses when tested in Tigriopus spp. Promising results have been obtained when Tigriopus was used for assessment of risk associated with exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Application of environmental

  15. Elucidating Microbial Species-Specific Effects on Organic Matter Transformation in Marine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, N.; Enke, T. N.; Beaupre, S. R.; Teske, A.; Cordero, O. X.; Pearson, A.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial transformation and decomposition of organic matter in sediments constitutes one of the largest fluxes of carbon in marine environments. Mineralization of sedimentary organic matter by microorganisms results in selective degradation such that bioavailable or accessible compounds are rapidly metabolized while more recalcitrant, complex compounds are preserved and buried in sediment. Recent studies have found that the ability to use different carbon sources appears to vary among microorganisms, suggesting that the availability of certain pools of carbon can be specific to the taxa that utilize the pool. This implies that organic matter mineralization in marine environments may depend on the metabolic potential of the microbial populations that are present and active. The goal of our study was to investigate the extent to which organic matter availability and transformation may be species-specific using sediment from Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California). We carried out time-series incubations using bacterial isolates and sterilized sediment in the IsoCaRB system which allowed us to measure the production rates and natural isotopic signatures (δ13C and Δ14C) of microbially-respired CO2. Separate incubations using two different marine bacterial isolates (Vibrio sp. and Pseudoalteromonas sp.) and sterilized Guaymas Basin sediment under oxic conditions showed that the rate and total quantity of organic matter metabolized by these two species differs. Approximately twice as much CO2 was collected during the Vibrio sp. incubation compared to the Pseudoalteromonas sp. incubation. Moreover, the rate at which organic matter was metabolized by the Vibrio sp. was much higher than the Pseudoalteromonas sp. indicating the intrinsic availability of organic matter in sediments may depend on the species that is present and active. Isotopic analyses of microbially respired CO2 will be used to constrain the type and age of organic matter that is accessible to each species

  16. The multi-objective optimization of the horizontal-axis marine current turbine based on NSGA-II algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, G J; Guo, P C; Luo, X Q; Feng, J J

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes a hydrodynamic optimization technique for horizontal-axial marine current turbine. The pitch angle distribution is important to marine current turbine. In this paper, the pitch angle distribution curve is parameterized as four control points by Bezier curve method. The coordinates of the four control points are chosen as optimization variables, and the sample space are structured according to the Box-Behnken experimental design method (BBD). Then the power capture coefficient and axial thrust coefficient in design tip-speed ratio is obtained for all the elements in the sample space by CFD numerical simulation. The power capture coefficient and axial thrust are chosen as objective function, and quadratic polynomial regression equations are constructed to fit the relationship between the optimization variables and each objective function according to response surface model. With the obtained quadratic polynomial regression equations as performance prediction model, the marine current turbine is optimized using the NSGA-II multi-objective genetic algorithm, which finally offers an improved marine current turbine.

  17. Characterization and evolution of MHC class II B genes in Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Moreno, Maria A; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2009-08-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules play a key role in the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. Class II B genes appear to evolve in a very different manner in mammals and birds. Orthology is commonly observed among mammal loci, while genes tend to cluster phylogenetically within bird species. Here we present class II B data from a representative of another major group of amniotes, the squamates (i.e. lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians), with the ultimate goal of placing mammalian and avian MHC evolution into a broader context. In this study, eight class II B cDNA sequences were obtained from the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) which were divided into five locus groups, Amcr-DAB1 through -DAB5, based on similarities along most of the coding and noncoding portions of the transcribed gene. All marine iguana sequences were monophyletic with respect to class II genes from other vertebrates indicating that they originated from a common ancestral locus after squamates split from other reptiles. The beta-1 domain, which is involved in antigen binding, exhibited signatures of positive selection as well as interlocus gene conversion in both long and short tracts-a pattern also observed in birds and fish, but not in mammals. On the other hand, the beta-2 domain was divergent between gene groups, which is characteristic of mammals. Based on these results, we preliminarily show that squamate class II B genes have been shaped by a unique blend of evolutionary forces that have been observed in differing degrees in other vertebrates.

  18. Marine ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

  19. Detecting marine hazardous substances and organisms: sensors for pollutants, toxins, and pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zielinski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments are influenced by a wide diversity of anthropogenic and natural substances and organisms that may have adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. Real-time measurements of pollutants, toxins, and pathogens across a range of spatial scales are required to adequately monitor these hazards, manage the consequences, and to understand the processes governing their magnitude and distribution. Significant technological advancements have been made in recent years for the detection and analysis of such marine hazards. In particular, sensors deployed on a variety of mobile and fixed-point observing platforms provide a valuable means to assess hazards. In this review, we present state-of-the-art of sensor technology for the detection of harmful substances and organisms in the ocean. Sensors are classified by their adaptability to various platforms, addressing large, intermediate, or small areal scales. Current gaps and future demands are identified with an indication of the urgent need for new sensors to detect marine hazards at all scales in autonomous real-time mode. Progress in sensor technology is expected to depend on the development of small-scale sensor technologies with a high sensitivity and specificity towards target analytes or organisms. However, deployable systems must comply with platform requirements as these interconnect the three areal scales. Future developments will include the integration of existing methods into complex and operational sensing systems for a comprehensive strategy for long-term monitoring. The combination of sensor techniques on all scales will remain crucial for the demand of large spatial and temporal coverage.

  20. Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter across a Marine Distributed Biological Observatory in the Pacific Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, S. L.; Frey, K. E.; Shake, K. L.; Cooper, L. W.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in marine ecosystems as both a carbon source for the microbial food web (and thus a source of CO2 to the atmosphere) and as a light inhibitor in marine environments. The presence of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM; the optically active portion of total DOM) can have significant controlling effects on transmittance of sunlight through the water column and therefore on primary production as well as the heat balance of the upper ocean. However, CDOM is also susceptible to photochemical degradation, which decreases the flux of solar radiation that is absorbed. Knowledge of the current spatial and temporal distribution of CDOM in marine environments is thus critical for understanding how ongoing and future changes in climate may impact these biological, biogeochemical, and physical processes. We describe the quantity and quality of CDOM along five key productive transects across a developing Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) in the Pacific Arctic region. The samples were collected onboard the CCGS Sir Wilfred Laurier in July 2013 and 2014. Monitoring of the variability of CDOM along transects of high productivity can provide important insights into biological and biogeochemical cycling across the region. Our analyses include overall concentrations of CDOM, as well as proxy information such as molecular weight, lability, and source (i.e., autochthonous vs. allochthonous) of organic matter. We utilize these field observations to compare with satellite-derived CDOM concentrations determined from the Aqua MODIS satellite platform, which ultimately provides a spatially and temporally continuous synoptic view of CDOM concentrations throughout the region. Examining the current relationships among CDOM, sea ice variability, biological productivity, and biogeochemical cycling in the Pacific Arctic region will likely provide key insights for how ecosystems throughout the region will respond in future

  1. Dissolved organic matter in sea spray: a transfer study from marine surface water to aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Kopplin, P.; Liger-Belair, G.; Koch, B. P.; Flerus, R.; Kattner, G.; Harir, M.; Kanawati, B.; Lucio, M.; Tziotis, D.; Hertkorn, N.; Gebefügi, I.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosols impose direct and indirect effects on the climate system, for example, by absorption of radiation in relation to cloud droplets size, on chemical and organic composition and cloud dynamics. The first step in the formation of Organic primary aerosols, i.e. the transfer of dissolved organic matter from the marine surface into the atmosphere, was studied. We present a molecular level description of this phenomenon using the high resolution analytical tools of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Our experiments confirm the chemoselective transfer of natural organic molecules, especially of aliphatic compounds from the surface water into the atmosphere via bubble bursting processes. Transfer from marine surface water to the atmosphere involves a chemical gradient governed by the physicochemical properties of the involved molecules when comparing elemental compositions and differentiating CHO, CHNO, CHOS and CHNOS bearing compounds. Typical chemical fingerprints of compounds enriched in the aerosol phase were CHO and CHOS molecular series, smaller molecules of higher aliphaticity and lower oxygen content, and typical surfactants. A non-targeted metabolomics analysis demonstrated that many of these molecules corresponded to homologous series of oxo-, hydroxy-, methoxy-, branched fatty acids and mono-, di- and tricarboxylic acids as well as monoterpenes and sugars. These surface active biomolecules were preferentially transferred from surface water into the atmosphere via bubble bursting processes to form a significant fraction of primary organic aerosols. This way of sea spray production leaves a selective biological signature of the surface water in the corresponding aerosol that may be transported into higher altitudes up to the lower atmosphere, thus contributing to the formation of secondary organic aerosol on a global scale or transported laterally with

  2. Recreational Diver Behavior and Contacts with Benthic Organisms in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Vinicius J.; Luiz, Osmar J.; Schiavetti, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    In the last two decades, coral reefs have become popular among recreational divers, especially inside marine protected areas. However, the impact caused by divers on benthic organisms may be contributing to the degradation of coral reefs. We analyzed the behavior of 142 scuba divers in the Abrolhos National Marine Park, Brazil. We tested the effect of diver profile, reef type, use of additional equipment, timing, and group size on diver behavior and their contacts with benthic organisms. Eighty-eight percent of divers contacted benthic organism at least once, with an average of eight touches and one damage per dive. No significant differences in contacts were verified among gender, group size, or experience level. Artificial reef received a higher rate of contact than pinnacle and fringe reefs. Specialist photographers and sidemount users had the highest rates, while non-users of additional equipment and mini camera users had the lowest contact rates. The majority of contacts were incidental and the highest rates occurred in the beginning of a dive. Our findings highlight the need of management actions, such as the provision of pre-dive briefing including ecological aspects of corals and beginning dives over sand bottoms or places with low coral abundance. Gathering data on diver behavior provides managers with information that can be used for tourism management.

  3. Butenolide inhibits marine fouling by altering the primary metabolism of three target organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yifan

    2012-06-15

    Butenolide is a very promising antifouling compound that inhibits ship hull fouling by a variety of marine organisms, but its antifouling mechanism was previously unknown. Here we report the first study of butenolides molecular targets in three representative fouling organisms. In the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite, butenolide bound to acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1), which is involved in ketone body metabolism. Both the substrate and the product of ACAT1 increased larval settlement under butenolide treatment, suggesting its functional involvement. In the bryozoan Bugula neritina, butenolide bound to very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADVL), actin, and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). ACADVL is the first enzyme in the very long chain fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. The inhibition of this primary pathway for energy production in larvae by butenolide was supported by the finding that alternative energy sources (acetoacetate and pyruvate) increased larval attachment under butenolide treatment. In marine bacterium Vibrio sp. UST020129-010, butenolide bound to succinyl-CoA synthetase β subunit (SCSβ) and inhibited bacterial growth. ACAT1, ACADVL, and SCSβ are all involved in primary metabolism for energy production. These findings suggest that butenolide inhibits fouling by influencing the primary metabolism of target organisms. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms: quantifying sensitivities and interaction with warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Kristy J; Kordas, Rebecca L; Crim, Ryan; Hendriks, Iris E; Ramajo, Laura; Singh, Gerald S; Duarte, Carlos M; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Ocean acidification represents a threat to marine species worldwide, and forecasting the ecological impacts of acidification is a high priority for science, management, and policy. As research on the topic expands at an exponential rate, a comprehensive understanding of the variability in organisms' responses and corresponding levels of certainty is necessary to forecast the ecological effects. Here, we perform the most comprehensive meta-analysis to date by synthesizing the results of 228 studies examining biological responses to ocean acidification. The results reveal decreased survival, calcification, growth, development and abundance in response to acidification when the broad range of marine organisms is pooled together. However, the magnitude of these responses varies among taxonomic groups, suggesting there is some predictable trait-based variation in sensitivity, despite the investigation of approximately 100 new species in recent research. The results also reveal an enhanced sensitivity of mollusk larvae, but suggest that an enhanced sensitivity of early life history stages is not universal across all taxonomic groups. In addition, the variability in species' responses is enhanced when they are exposed to acidification in multi-species assemblages, suggesting that it is important to consider indirect effects and exercise caution when forecasting abundance patterns from single-species laboratory experiments. Furthermore, the results suggest that other factors, such as nutritional status or source population, could cause substantial variation in organisms' responses. Last, the results highlight a trend towards enhanced sensitivity to acidification when taxa are concurrently exposed to elevated seawater temperature. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. PCBs and PCDD/Fs distribution in tissues and organs of marine animals in Russian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirova, Z.; Kruglov, E.; Loshkina, E.; Khalilov, R. [Environmental Research and Protection Centre, Ufa (Russian Federation); Melnikov, S.; Vlasov, S. [Regional Centre Monitoring of the Arctic, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2004-09-15

    Studies of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Russian Arctic were conducted recently by a Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) project. This project developed new data on the POPs pollution levels in the environment and biosphere, including PCBs and PCDD/Fs, in arctic regions of Russia. Transboundary transport and biomagnification within food chains in arctic regions result in POPs accumulation in tissues of fish and marine animals. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of indicator PCBs, co-planar PCBs and PCDD/Fs in different tissues and organs of seals, walruses and whales caught near the seashore of Chukotski Peninsula (settlement of Lavrenty), Russia, to determine the background level of arctic biota pollution and to study distribution of toxicants in organisms of marine animals. Sampling was made in the course of the 1{sup st} and the 2{sup nd} stages of the 4{sup th} phase of Raipon/AMAP/GEF project ''Persistent Toxic Substances (PTS), Food Security and Indigenous Peoples of the Russian North'' in 2002 by researchers of the Regional Center for Monitoring of the Arctic (RCMA), St. Petersburg, Russia.

  6. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms: quantifying sensitivities and interaction with warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Kristy J; Kordas, Rebecca L; Crim, Ryan; Hendriks, Iris E; Ramajo, Laura; Singh, Gerald S; Duarte, Carlos M; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification represents a threat to marine species worldwide, and forecasting the ecological impacts of acidification is a high priority for science, management, and policy. As research on the topic expands at an exponential rate, a comprehensive understanding of the variability in organisms' responses and corresponding levels of certainty is necessary to forecast the ecological effects. Here, we perform the most comprehensive meta-analysis to date by synthesizing the results of 228 studies examining biological responses to ocean acidification. The results reveal decreased survival, calcification, growth, development and abundance in response to acidification when the broad range of marine organisms is pooled together. However, the magnitude of these responses varies among taxonomic groups, suggesting there is some predictable trait-based variation in sensitivity, despite the investigation of approximately 100 new species in recent research. The results also reveal an enhanced sensitivity of mollusk larvae, but suggest that an enhanced sensitivity of early life history stages is not universal across all taxonomic groups. In addition, the variability in species' responses is enhanced when they are exposed to acidification in multi-species assemblages, suggesting that it is important to consider indirect effects and exercise caution when forecasting abundance patterns from single-species laboratory experiments. Furthermore, the results suggest that other factors, such as nutritional status or source population, could cause substantial variation in organisms' responses. Last, the results highlight a trend towards enhanced sensitivity to acidification when taxa are concurrently exposed to elevated seawater temperature. PMID:23505245

  7. Polonium-210 and lead-210 in marine organisms: allometric relationships and their significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, R.D.; Heyraud, M.

    1991-01-01

    Allometric relationships which indicate that Po-210 concentrations in marine organisms decrease with increasing organism mass have been reported previously in a few taxa. We report here the results of a study of nearly 400 data covering nine taxa of marine organisms. The data for each taxon are fitted to the allometric equation log Q = log a + b log M, where Q is the Po-210 concentration (mBq/g dry mass) and M is the dry mass per individual (g). The weighted mean of the nine Po-210 slopes is -0.24 ± 0.05, and of the eight Pb-210 slopes is -0.22 ± 0.05. These values are close to the slope of -0.25 frequently found in mass-specific allometric relationships in biology; an association between radionuclide concentration and food ingestion rate is indicated. The intertaxon variations in the intercept log a are large, nearly two orders of magnitude for Po-210, a fact which almost certainly reflects intertaxon differences in diet and/or assimilation. Within taxa, sub-groupings of the Po-210 data are found; these are discussed and an attempt is made to classify them statistically for the data as a whole. (Author)

  8. Determination of 238U in marine organisms by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Toshiaki; Nakahara, Motokazu; Matsuba, Mitsue; Ishikawa, Masafumi

    1991-01-01

    Determination of 238 U in fifty-five species of marine organisms was carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry which showed some advantages such as high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and small interferences from matrices for the analysis of high mass elements. The concentrations of 238 U in soft tissues of marine animals ranged from 0.076 to 5000 ng/g wet wt. Especially, the branchial heart of cephalopod molluscs showed the specific accumulation of 238 U. The concentration factor of the branchial heart of Octopus vulgaris, which indicated the highest value, was calculated to be about 10 3 by comparing it with the concentration of 238 U (3.2±0.2 ng/ml) in coastal seawaters of Japan. The concentrations of 238 U in hard tissues of marine invertebrates were similar to those in soft tissues. In contrast, hard tissues like bone, scale, fin, etc. of fishes showed much higher concentrations of 238 U than soft tissues like muscle and liver. The concentrations of 238 U of twenty species of algae ranged from 10 to 3700 ng/g dry wt. (author)

  9. Functional Molecular Diversity of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter Is Reduced during Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mentges

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic matter (DOM is a highly diverse mixture of compounds, accounting for one of the world's largest active carbon pools. The surprising recalcitrance of some DOM compounds to bacterial degradation has recently been associated with its diversity. However, little is known about large-scale patterns of marine DOM diversity and its change through degradation, in particular considering the functional diversity of DOM. Here, we analyze the development of marine DOM diversity during degradation in two data sets comprising DOM of very different ages: a three-year mesocosm experiment and highly-resolved field samples from the Atlantic and Southern Ocean. The DOM molecular composition was determined using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. We quantify DOM diversity using three conceptually different diversity measures, namely richness of molecular formulas, abundance-based diversity, and functional molecular diversity. Using these measures we find stable molecular richness of DOM with age >1 year, systematic changes in the molecules' abundance distribution with degradation state, and increasing homogeneity with respect to chemical properties for more degraded DOM. Coinciding with differences in sea water density, the spatial field data separated clearly into regions of high and low diversity. The joint application of different diversity measures yields a comprehensive overview on temporal and spatial patterns of molecular diversity, valuable for general conclusions on drivers and consequences of marine DOM diversity.

  10. Using latent effects to determine the ecological importance of dissolved organic matter to marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Dean E; Johnson, Collin H

    2006-10-01

    The uptake and utilization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by marine invertebrates is a field that has received significant attention over the past 100 years. Although it is well established that DOM is taken up by marine invertebrates, the extent to which it contributes to an animal's survival, growth, and reproduction (that is, the ecological benefits) remains largely unknown. Previous work seeking to demonstrate the putative ecological benefits of DOM uptake have examined them within a single life stage of an animal. Moreover, most of the benefits are demonstrated through indirect approaches by examining (1) mass balance, or (2) making comparisons of oxyenthalpic conversions of transport rates to metabolic rate as judged by oxygen consumption. We suggest that directly examining delayed metamorphosis or the latent effects associated with nutritional stress of larvae is a better model for investigating the ecological importance of DOM to marine invertebrates. We also provide direct evidence that availability of DOM enhances survival and growth of the bryozoan Bugula neritina. That DOM offsets latent effects in B. neritina suggests that the underlying mechanisms are at least in part energetic.

  11. Fundamental study on magnetic separation of aquatic organisms for preservation of marine ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, destruction and disturbance of marine ecosystem have been caused by changes in global environment and transplants of farmed fishes and shellfishes. To solve the problems, water treatment techniques to kill or to remove aquatic organisms are necessary. In this study, application of magnetic separation for removal of the aquatic organisms was examined in order to establish the process with high-speed, compact device and low environmental load. Techniques of magnetic seeding and magnetic separation using superconducting magnet are important for high-speed processing of aquatic organisms. Magnetic seeding is to adhere separating object to the surface of ferromagnetic particles, and magnetic separation is to remove aquatic organisms with magnetic force. First, we confirmed the possibility of magnetic seeding of aquatic organisms, and then interaction between aquatic organisms and ferromagnetic particles was examined. Next, for practical application of magnetic separation system using superconducting magnet for removal of aquatic organisms, particle trajectories were simulated and magnetic separation experiment using superconducting magnet was performed in order to design magnetic separation system to achieve high separation efficiency.

  12. A fish-feeding laboratory bioassay to assess the antipredatory activity of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Micah J; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2015-01-11

    Marine chemical ecology is a young discipline, having emerged from the collaboration of natural products chemists and marine ecologists in the 1980s with the goal of examining the ecological functions of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms. The result has been a progression of protocols that have increasingly refined the ecological relevance of the experimental approach. Here we present the most up-to-date version of a fish-feeding laboratory bioassay that enables investigators to assess the antipredatory activity of secondary metabolites from the tissues of marine organisms. Organic metabolites of all polarities are exhaustively extracted from the tissue of the target organism and reconstituted at natural concentrations in a nutritionally appropriate food matrix. Experimental food pellets are presented to a generalist predator in laboratory feeding assays to assess the antipredatory activity of the extract. The procedure described herein uses the bluehead, Thalassoma bifasciatum, to test the palatability of Caribbean marine invertebrates; however, the design may be readily adapted to other systems. Results obtained using this laboratory assay are an important prelude to field experiments that rely on the feeding responses of a full complement of potential predators. Additionally, this bioassay can be used to direct the isolation of feeding-deterrent metabolites through bioassay-guided fractionation. This feeding bioassay has advanced our understanding of the factors that control the distribution and abundance of marine invertebrates on Caribbean coral reefs and may inform investigations in diverse fields of inquiry, including pharmacology, biotechnology, and evolutionary ecology.

  13. A GCM study of organic matter in marine aerosol and its potential contribution to cloud drop activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Roelofs

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available With the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM we investigate the potential influence of organic aerosol originating from the ocean on aerosol mass and chemical composition and the droplet concentration and size of marine clouds. We present sensitivity simulations in which the uptake of organic matter in the marine aerosol is prescribed for each aerosol mode with varying organic mass and mixing state, and with a geographical distribution and seasonality similar to the oceanic emission of dimethyl sulfide. Measurements of aerosol mass, aerosol chemical composition and cloud drop effective radius are used to assess the representativity of the model initializations. Good agreement with the measurements is obtained when organic matter is added to the Aitken, accumulation and coarse modes simultaneously. Representing marine organics in the model leads to higher cloud drop number concentrations and thus smaller cloud drop effective radii, and this improves the agreement with measurements. The mixing state of the organics and the other aerosol matter, i.e. internal or external depending on the formation process of aerosol organics, is an important factor for this. We estimate that globally about 75 Tg C yr−1 of organic matter from marine origin enters the aerosol phase, with comparable contributions from primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation.

  14. The composition of nucleation and Aitken modes particles during coastal nucleation events: evidence for marine secondary organic contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vaattovaara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly-formed nanometer-sized particles have been observed at coastal and marine environments world wide. Organic species have so far not been detected in those newly-formed nucleation mode particles. In this study, we applied the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer method to study the possible existence of an organic fraction in recently formed coastal nucleation mode particles (d<20 nm at the Mace Head research station. Furthermore, effects of those nucleation events on potential cloud condensation nuclei were studied. The coastal events were typical for the Mace Head region and they occurred at low tide conditions during efficient solar radiation and enhanced biological activity in spring 2002. Additionally, a pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter technique was used to study the composition of newly-formed particles formed in low tide conditions during a lower biological activity in October 2002. The overall results of the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer and the pulse height analyzer ultrafine condensation particle counter measurements indicate that those coastally/marinely formed nucleation mode particles include a remarkable fraction of secondary organic products, beside iodine oxides, which are likely to be responsible for the nucleation. During clean marine air mass conditions, the origin of those secondary organic oxidation compounds can be related to marine coast and open ocean biota and thus a major fraction of the organics may originate from biosynthetic production of alkenes such as isoprene and their oxidation driven by iodine radicals, hydroxyl radicals, acid catalysis, and ozone during efficient solar radiation. During modified marine conditions, also anthropogenic secondary organic compounds may contribute to the nucleation mode organic mass, in addition to biogenic secondary organic compounds. Thus, the ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer

  15. A Model Compound Study: The ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants with a battery of marine bioassays

    OpenAIRE

    Macken, A.; Giltrap, M.; Foley, B.; McGovern, E.; McHugh, B.; Davoren, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants frequently detected in marine sediments (tributyltin, triphenyltin, benzo[a]pyrene, fluoranthene, and PCB 153) using three marine species (Vibrio fischeri, Tetraselmis suecica, and Tisbe battagliai). The sensitivity of each species varied for all compounds. The triorganotins were consistently the most toxic to all species. The applicability of each test system to assess the acute toxicity of environmental contam...

  16. A GCM study of organic matter in marine aerosol and its potential contribution to cloud drop activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, G.J.H.

    2007-01-01

    With the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM we investigate the potential influence of organic aerosol originating from the ocean on aerosol mass and chemical composition and the droplet concentration and size of marine clouds. We present sensitivity simulations in which the uptake of organic

  17. /sup 210/Po in marine organisms: a wide range of natural radiation dose domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, F P

    1988-01-01

    Marine biota is able to concentrate /sup 210/Po to high levels, as 10/sup 3/-10/sup 5/ relative to sea water concentration. /sup 210/Po concentrations in mixed zooplankton reaches 34-51 Bq.kg/sup -1/ (fresh wt), special groups such as copepods reaching even higher concentrations /similar to/ 90 Bq.kg/sup -1/, whereas gelatinous zooplankton display /similar to/ 1 Bq.kg/sup -1/. Epipelagic teleosts feeding on plankton displayed the highest concentrations found in fish muscle, 2-21 Bq.kg/sup -1/. Contrasting with this, demersal teleosts and elasmobranchs display lower /sup 210/Po concentrations, in the ranges 0.5-7 Bq.kg/sup -1/ and 0.2-1.7 Bq.kg/sup -1/, respectively. Much higher concentrations can, however, be measured in fish liver, gonad, bone and piloric caecca, and small mesopelagic fish can reach /similar to/ 800 Bq.kg/sup -1/ on a whole-body basis. Due to these /sup 210/Po activity concentrations, dose equivalent rates delivered to biological tissues in marine organisms can vary widely, from 0.4 mSv.y/sup -1/ in gelatinous plankton up to 5.6 x 10/sup 3/ mSv.y/sup -1/ in the gut wall of sardines. It is concluded that in organisms living in the same ocean layer a wide range of internal radiation doses exists and it is essentially sustained by /sup 210/Po food-chain transfer. (author).

  18. The trace metals accumulation in marine organisms of the southeastern Adriatic coast, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimovic Danijela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration and accumulation of trace metals (Co, Ni, As, Cd, Pb and Hg were measured in sea water, sediments and marine organisms in the coastline of the Montenegro. The obtained results of trace metals in seagrass and mussels were compared with those found in the water column and sediment. Sampling was performed in the fall of 2005 at five locations in the Montenegrin coastline, Sveta Stasija, Herceg Novi, Zanjice, Budva and Bar, which present different levels and sources of human impact. The heavy metals analyses in seawater, sediment, P. oceanica and M. galloprovincialis identified the harbor of Bar as the most Hg-contaminated site, Zanjice as the most As contaminated and Sveta Stasija as the most Pb-contaminated areas of the Montenegrin coastal area. This study showed that P. oceanica may have a greater bioaccumulation capacity than M. galloprovincialis for the considered metals, except for As and Hg, and both organisms may reflect contamination in the water column and in the sediment. For the first time, seagrass P. oceanica and M. galloprovincialis were employed as metal bioindicators for the southeastern Adriatic. The results of this study could serve as a baseline in the future for the assessment of anthropogenic effects in this marine ecosystem.

  19. Thermophilic anaerobes in arctic marine sediments induced to mineralize complex organic matter at high temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubert, Casey; Arnosti, Carol; Brüchert, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Marine sediments harbour diverse populations of dormant thermophilic bacterial spores that become active in sediment incubation experiments at much higher than in situ temperature. This response was investigated in the presence of natural complex organic matter in sediments of two Arctic fjords......, as well as with the addition of freeze-dried Spirulina or individual high-molecular-weight polysaccharides. During 50°C incubation experiments, Arctic thermophiles catalysed extensive mineralization of the organic matter via extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation and sulfate reduction. This high...... reactivity determined the extent of the thermophilic response. Fjord sediments with higher in situ SRR also supported higher SRR at 50°C. Amendment with Spirulina significantly increased volatile fatty acids production and SRR relative to unamended sediment in 50°C incubations. Spirulina amendment also...

  20. Organic carbon degradation in arctic marine sediments, Svalbard: A comparison of initial and terminal steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnosti, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    2006-01-01

    carbohydrate concentrations were comparable to those measured in more temperate sediments, and likely comprise a considerable fraction of porewater dissolved organic carbon. A comparison of dissolved carbohydrate inventories with hydrolysis and sulfate reduction rates suggests that the turnover of carbon......Degradation of marine organic matter under anoxic conditions involves microbial communities working in concert to remineralize complex substrates to CO2. In order to investigate the coupling between the initial and terminal steps of this sequence in permanently cold sediments, rates...... of extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis and sulfate reduction were measured in parallel cores collected from 5 fjords on the west and northwest coast of Svalbard, in the high Arctic. Inventories of total dissolved carbohydrates were also measured in order to evaluate their potential role in carbon turnover...

  1. Origin of particulate organic carbon in the marine atmosphere as indicated by it stable carbon isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesselet, R.; Fontugne, M.; Buat-Menard, P.; Ezat, U.; Lambert, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Organic carbon concentration and isotopic composition were determined in samples of atmospheric particulate matter collected in 1979 at remote marine locations (Enewetak atoll, Sargasso Sea) during the SEAREX (Sea-Air Exchange) program field experiments. Atmospheric Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) concentrations were found to be in the range of 0.3 to 1.2 mg. m -3 , in agreement with previous literature data. The major mass of POC was found on the smallest particles (r 13 C/ 12 C of the small particles is close to the one expected (d 13 C = 26 +- 2 0 //sub infinity/) for atmospheric POC of continental origin. For all the samples analysed so far, it appears that more than 80% of atmospheric POC over remote marine areas is of continental origin. This can be explained either by long-range transport of small sized continental organic aserosols or by the production of POC in the marine atmosphere from a vapor phase organic carbon pool of continental origin. The POC in the large size fraction of marine aerosols ( 13 C = -21 +- 2 0 / 00 ) for POC associated with sea-salt droplets transported to the marine atmosphere

  2. Organic molecular composition of marine aerosols over the Arctic Ocean in summer: contributions of primary emission and secondary aerosol formation

    OpenAIRE

    P. Q. Fu; K. Kawamura; J. Chen; B. Charrière; R. Sempéré

    2013-01-01

    Organic molecular composition of marine aerosol samples collected during the MALINA cruise in the Arctic Ocean was investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. More than 110 individual organic compounds were determined in the samples and were grouped into different compound classes based on the functionality and sources. The concentrations of total quantified organics ranged from 7.3 to 185 ng m−3 (mean 47.6 ng m−3), accounting ...

  3. A research for Class II defect Bored Pile’s Accept Criteria: A case of Penang Second Marine bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kang

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this preliminary research is to study the accept criteria of class II bored pile with subtle defect. According to a detailed comparison of the existed different standards, Chinese ones are more applicable especially for the large diameter bored piles. Through the concrete coring at pile No P25-03 of this case and the comparison to the actual calculation, the Class II pile’s defects were very minor. Comparison was also made for the effects on pile structural capacities before and after repair of the defects. the feasible repair proposal may bring forward to more defects to the piles. The Class II piles don’t need any further repairation when piles have typical of similar character and sonic logging test result with P25-03‘s one. For other Class II piles with some differences in characters, verification is needed through further concrete coring on the pile. The recommendation of this research could be adopted for the similar huge marine structures which installed large diameter bored piles.

  4. Comparative toxicity test of water-accommodated fractions of oils and oil dispersants to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This reference method describes a simple procedure for comparing the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants, and mixtures thereof, to marine animals. It allows the toxicity of different dispersants to be rapidly compared to that of oil, or of a mixture of oil an oil dispersant. It is designed for routine monitoring and screening purposes and is not appropriate as a research method. The physical and chemical properties of oil dispersants create many difficulties in the measurements of their toxicity to marine organisms. Strictly speaking, their toxicity can only be accurately estimated using complex procedures and apparatus. (A relatively simple apparatus for preparing oil/water or oil/water/oil dispersant emulsions is described in Appendix B). Simpler methods can provide useful information, provided their limitations are clearly understood and taken into consideration in the assessment and application of their results. Some of the special considerations relating to the measurement of the toxicity of oil and oil dispersants are described in Appendix A. The Appendix also explains the rationale and limitations of the method described here. 3 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

  6. On the accumulation of radioactive materials in marine organisms along the coast of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, K.R.; Pak, C.K.

    1975-01-01

    In order to clarify the accumulation of radioactive materials in marine organisms of Korea, the present investigation is carried out with 54 samples of edible seaweeds collected from eight sampling sites along the coast of Korea during September, 1973 and April 1974. In this paper, ash contents, gross alpha acitvities and gross beta activities are detected. The ash content is 7.54-15.95% in the species investigated. Among the algal phyla it is about 13.13% in green algae, 12.77% in the species investigated. Among the algal phyla it is about 13.13%in green algae, in turn. The activities in a single species collected at the same season increase from eastern to western and southern coasts of Korea, in turn. Gross beta activities, however, fluctuate from 2.40 nCi/Kg-fresh material experimented, to red and brown algae, in turn. The gross beta acitivites are specially higher in Sargassum thunbergii, 22.14 nCi/Kg. It is expected that this plant could be an indicator to detect the activities in the marine algae along the coast of Korea. (author)

  7. [Dynamics of 95Zr in simulated marine water-sediment-organisms system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlin; Shi, Jianjun; Sun, Pingyue; Li, Mingyun

    2003-06-01

    To provide scientific evidence to evaluate the behavior of 95Zr in ocean ecosystem, the dynamic model of the transference, accumulation and disappearance of 95Zr among the simulated marine water, sediment and organisms was investigated using Nassarius semiplicatus and Boleophthalums pectinirostris as experimental stuffs. The result showed that 95Zr(Bq.g-1 or Bq.ml-1) in the marine water was decreased more than 90% in the first 4 h, and then descended gradually. 95Zr in sediment was increased in the peak in 48 h and then declined. The radioactivity percent of 95Zr in the shell and muslce of Nassarius semiplicatus was 68.7% and 31.30% respectively, while the radioactivity percent was 22.80%, 12.64%, 34.82%, 10.31%, 4.48%, 11.55% and 3.71%, respectively in the fill, fin, viscera, skull, skin, vertebra and muscle of Boleophthalmus pectinirostris. Nassarius semiplicatus had a greater concentrating capability of 95Zr than Boleophthalmus pectinirostris. The order of the 95Zr concentration was found to be sediment > Nassarius semiplicatus > water > Boleophthalmus pectinirostris. A dynamic model of closed four-compartment was constructed with exponent function.

  8. Adsorption of marine phycotoxin okadaic acid on a covalent organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Laura M; Pinela, Sara R; Fernandes, Soraia P S; Louçano, João; Carbó-Argibay, Enrique; Sarriá, Marisa P; Rodríguez-Abreu, Carlos; Peixoto, João; Espiña, Begoña

    2017-11-24

    Phycotoxins, compounds produced by some marine microalgal species, can reach high concentrations in the sea when a massive proliferation occurs, the so-called harmful algal bloom. These compounds are especially dangerous to human health when concentrated in the digestive glands of seafood. In order to generate an early warning system to alert for approaching toxic outbreaks, it is very important to improve monitoring methods of phycotoxins in aquatic ecosystems. Solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking devices reported thus far based on polymeric resins have not been able to provide an efficient harmful algal bloom prediction system due to their low adsorption capabilities. In this work, a water-stable covalent organic framework (COF) was evaluated as adsorbent for the hydrophobic toxin okadaic acid, one of the most relevant marine toxins and the parental compound of the most common group of toxins responsible for the diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. Adsorption kinetics of okadaic acid onto the COF in seawater showed that equilibrium concentration was reached in only 60min, with a maximum experimental adsorption of 61mgg -1 . Desorption of okadaic acid from the COF was successful with both 70% ethanol and acetonitrile as solvent, and the COF material could be reused with minor losses in adsorption capacity for three cycles. The results demonstrate that COF materials are promising candidates for solid-phase adsorption in water monitoring devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Speciation and bioaccumulation in a model organism of U, Np and Am in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloubier, Melody

    2015-01-01

    The fate of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment remains a major concern in our modern nuclearized societies. Among the environmental compartments, the hydrosphere is ubiquitous and can transport compounds or elements over very long distances. The recent event of Fukushima demonstrated that the marine environment could be directly affected and this raises both scientific and societal questions. Moreover, some studies have already shown that radionuclides present in seawater can be strongly accumulated by marine organisms although their speciation is most of the time unknown. Yet this knowledge is essential to better understand the transfer mechanisms from the hydrosphere to the biosphere and to evaluate their global impact on humans. In this work, we chose to experimentally determine the speciation of three actinides in doped seawater: uranium(VI), neptunium(V) and americium(III) (and the chemical surrogate europium(III)) by coupling speciation modeling with spectroscopic tools among which Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence (TRLIF) and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Then, we have studied the accumulation process in the sponge A. cavernicola, chosen here because it is considered as a bio-monitor of heavy metal pollution. The accumulation of europium(III), americium(III) and uranium(VI) in A. cavernicola were investigated at trace and ultra-trace levels. Besides, for europium, X-ray and electronic imaging permit to localize the accumulated element in the sponge and to specify its speciation [fr

  10. The use of potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution as a suitable approach to isolate plastics ingested by marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Susanne; van Werven, Bernike; van Oyen, Albert; Meijboom, André; Bravo Rebolledo, Elisa L; van Franeker, Jan A

    2017-02-15

    In studies of plastic ingestion by marine wildlife, visual separation of plastic particles from gastrointestinal tracts or their dietary content can be challenging. Earlier studies have used solutions to dissolve organic materials leaving synthetic particles unaffected. However, insufficient tests have been conducted to ensure that different categories of consumer products partly degraded in the environment and/or in gastrointestinal tracts were not affected. In this study 63 synthetic materials and 11 other dietary items and non-plastic marine debris were tested. Irrespective of shape or preceding environmental history, most polymers resisted potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution, with the exceptions of cellulose acetate from cigarette filters, some biodegradable plastics and a single polyethylene sheet. Exposure of hard diet components and other marine debris showed variable results. In conclusion, the results confirm that usage of KOH solutions can be a useful approach in general quantitative studies of plastic ingestion by marine wildlife. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of terrestrial and marine organic matters on deposition of dechlorane plus (DP) in marine sediments from the Southern Yellow Sea, China: Evidence from multiple biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guoguang; Peng, Jialin; Hao, Ting; Feng, Lijuan; Liu, Qiaoling; Li, Xianguo

    2017-01-01

    As an emerging halogenated organic contaminant, Dechlorane Plus (DP) was scarcely reported in marine environments, especially in China. In this work, 35 surface sediments and a sediment core were collected across the Southern Yellow Sea (SYS) to comprehensively explore the spatio-temporal distribution and possible migration pathway of DP. DP concentrations ranged from 14.3 to 245.5 pg/g dry weight in the surface sediments, displaying a seaward increasing trend with the high levels in the central mud zone. This spatial distribution pattern was ascribed to that fine particles with the elevated DP levels were preferentially transported to the central mud zone under hydrodynamic forcing and/or via long-range atmospheric transportation and deposition. DP concentrations in sediment core gradually increased from the mid-1950s to present, which corresponded well with the historical production and usage of DP, as well as the economic development in China. Significantly positive correlation between DP and total organic carbon (TOC) in both surface sediments and sediment core indicated TOC-dependent natural deposition of DP in the SYS. We used multiple biomarkers, for the first time, to explore the potential effects of terrestrial and marine organic matters (TOM and MOM) on DP deposition. The results showed that competition may occur between TOM and MOM for DP adsorption, and MOM was the predominant contributor in controlling DP deposition in the marine sediments from the SYS. - Highlights: • Effects of TOM and MOM on DP deposition were first explored by multi-biomarkers. • Hydrodynamic forcing and atmospheric deposition were responsible for DP in the SYS. • MOM was the predominant contributor in controlling DP deposition to sediments in the SYS. • Competition may occur between TOM and MOM for DP adsorption. - This study was the first attempt to comprehensively explore the effects of TOM and MOM on DP deposition in marine sediments from the SYS.

  12. The fate of fixed nitrogen in marine sediments with low organic loading: an in situ study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonaglia, Stefano; Hylén, Astrid; Rattray, Jane E.

    2017-01-01

    Given the increasing impacts of human activities on global nitrogen (N) cycle, investigations on N transformation processes in the marine environment have drastically increased in the last years. Benthic N cycling has mainly been studied in anthropogenically impacted estuaries and coasts, while its...... sediments worldwide (range 34–344 µmol N m−2 d−1). Anammox accounted for 18–26 % of the total N2 production. Absence of free hydrogen sulfide and low concentrations of dissolved iron in sediment pore waters suggested that denitrification and DNRA were driven by organic matter oxidation rather than...... chemolithotrophy. DNRA was as important as denitrification at a shallow, coastal station situated in the northern Bothnian Bay. At this pristine and fully oxygenated site, ammonium regeneration through DNRA contributed more than one third to the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) diffusing from the sediment...

  13. Some lower food web organisms in the nutrition of marine harpacticoid copepods: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieper, Marianna

    1985-12-01

    Some lower food web organisms from the marine littoral environment were studied as food for harpacticoid copepods. In laboratory experiments, it could be shown that, among the ciliates, the slow-moving Uronema sp. was taken up while the fast-moving Euplotes sp. was not. Asterionella glacialis, a pennate diatom with spiny projections, was unsuitable as food. The centric diatom Skeletonema costatum was ingested by all harpacticoid species tested, including Tisbe holothuriae, Paramphiascella vararensis, Amphiascoides debilis and Dactylopodia vulgaris. All are epibenthic and phytal species occurring in the shallow waters of Helgoland (North Sea). The amount of ciliate and algal carbon taken up was less than that provided by bacteria under laboratory conditions. However, some diatom food may be essential for the development of D. vulgaris.

  14. Novel synthetic organic compounds inspired from antifeedant marine alkaloids as potent bacterial biofilm inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Rajesh A; Karpoormath, Rajshekhar; Naphade, Shital S; Bangalore, Pavankumar; Shaikh, Mahamadhanif; Hampannavar, Girish

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we have reported seventeen novel synthetic organic compounds derived from marine bromopyrrole alkaloids, exhibiting potential inhibition of biofilm produced by Gram-positive bacteria. Compound 5f with minimumbiofilm inhibitory concentration(MBIC) of 0.39, 0.78 and 3.125 μg/mL against MSSA, MRSA and SE respectively, emerged as promising anti-biofilm lead compounds. In addition, compounds 5b, 5c, 5d, 5e, 5f, 5h, 5i and 5j revealed equal potency as that of the standard drug Vancomycin (MBIC = 3.125 μg/mL) against Streptococcus epidermidis. Notably, most of the synthesized compounds displayed better potency than Vancomycin indicating their potential as inhibitors of bacterial biofilm. The cell viability assay for the most active hybrid confirms its anti-virulence properties which need to be further researched. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Arsenic speciation in marine organisms: from the analytical methodology to the constitution of reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Moll, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Minerale et Analytique, URA 405 du CNRS, E. H. I. C. S., 1 rue Blaise Pascal, F-67008 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Heimburger, R. [Laboratoire de Chimie Minerale et Analytique, URA 405 du CNRS, E. H. I. C. S., 1 rue Blaise Pascal, F-67008 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Lagarde, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie Minerale et Analytique, URA 405 du CNRS, E. H. I. C. S., 1 rue Blaise Pascal, F-67008 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Leroy, M.J.F. [Laboratoire de Chimie Minerale et Analytique, URA 405 du CNRS, E. H. I. C. S., 1 rue Blaise Pascal, F-67008 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Maier, E. [Commission of the European Communities, Measurements and Testing Programme (BCR), 75 rue Montoyer, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium)

    1996-03-01

    An analytical procedure for total arsenic and arsenic species quantification in marine organisms has been developed. Fresh materials are freeze-dried and reduced to powders before analysis. Arsenic is determined either by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) directly or by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES) after microwave digestion. Arsenic speciation is performed on the extracted sample using liquid chromatography coupled to ICP/OES for arsenobetaine and arsenocholine determination and to the hydride generation-quartz furnace atomic absorption spectrometric technique for arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic and dimethylarsinic acids quantification. Special precautions are taken to avoid losses or contaminations as well as to prevent analytical errors during the quantification stage. Other methods are applied and the corresponding results compared for each step of the procedure. The method is finally validated by means of intercomparison studies within the Measurements and Testing Programme of the European Community (formely BCR). (orig.). With 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Anthropogenic Forcing of Carbonate and Organic Carbon Preservation in Marine Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Richard

    2017-01-03

    Carbon preservation in marine sediments, supplemented by that in large lakes, is the primary mechanism that moves carbon from the active surficial carbon cycle to the slower geologic carbon cycle. Preservation rates are low relative to the rates at which carbon moves between surface pools, which has led to the preservation term largely being ignored when evaluating anthropogenic forcing of the global carbon cycle. However, a variety of anthropogenic drivers-including ocean warming, deoxygenation, and acidification, as well as human-induced changes in sediment delivery to the ocean and mixing and irrigation of continental margin sediments-all work to decrease the already small carbon preservation term. These drivers affect the cycling of both carbonate and organic carbon in the ocean. The overall effect of anthropogenic forcing in the modern ocean is to decrease delivery of carbon to sediments, increase sedimentary dissolution and remineralization, and subsequently decrease overall carbon preservation.

  17. The accumulation of radiocesium in coarse marine sediment: Effects of mineralogy and organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeongkyoo; Kim, Kangjoo; Kang, Hee-Dong; Kim, Wan; Doh, Si-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Kim, Byoung-Ki

    2007-01-01

    The controlling factors affecting the accumulation of 137 Cs in marine sediment have not been investigated in detail, especially in coarse grained sediment. Eighty eight coarse marine sediment samples near Wuljin, Korea, were characterized by quantitative X-ray-diffraction (XRD), gamma-ray, and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Those factors were then compared. The grain size was in the range of -0.48 to 3.6 Mdφ corresponding to sand grains. TOC content was in the range of 0.06-1.75%, and the concentration of 137 Cs was 137 Cs activity, which was first reported here, probably due to the weathered frayed edge site of biotite produced by a release of K. The samples with low TOC contents showed even better correlation between biotite content and 137 Cs activity. For the entire samples, however, the TOC content showed better correlation with 137 Cs activity than other single factors, indicating that biotite and organic carbon are the most important factors controlling 137 Cs fixation. The combined effect of biotite and TOC for 137 Cs fixation was also confirmed by multiple regression analysis ( 137 Cs activity = 1.712 . TOC (wt%) + 0.202 . biotite (wt%) - 0.097; R 2 = 0.819). The regressed slopes indicated that the 137 Cs-adsorption capacity of TOC was about 8.5 times higher than that of biotite. However, the amount of 137 Cs adsorbed onto biotite was 30% more than that adsorbed onto TOC due to much greater biotite content in the sediment. The role of biotite in fixing 137 Cs becomes more important in sediment with coarser grains, containing little TOC

  18. Microbial decomposition of marine dissolved organic matter in cool oceanic crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah Walter, Sunita R.; Jaekel, Ulrike; Osterholz, Helena; Fisher, Andrew T.; Huber, Julie A.; Pearson, Ann; Dittmar, Thorsten; Girguis, Peter R.

    2018-05-01

    Marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is one of the largest active reservoirs of reduced carbon on Earth. In the deep ocean, DOC has been described as biologically recalcitrant and has a radiocarbon age of 4,000 to 6,000 years, which far exceeds the timescale of ocean overturning. However, abiotic removal mechanisms cannot account for the full magnitude of deep-ocean DOC loss. Deep-ocean water circulates at low temperatures through volcanic crust on ridge flanks, but little is known about the associated biogeochemical processes and carbon cycling. Here we present analyses of DOC in fluids from two borehole observatories installed in crustal rocks west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and show that deep-ocean DOC is removed from these cool circulating fluids. The removal mechanism is isotopically selective and causes a shift in specific features of molecular composition, consistent with microbe-mediated oxidation. We suggest organic molecules with an average radiocarbon age of 3,200 years are bioavailable to crustal microbes, and that this removal mechanism may account for at least 5% of the global loss of DOC in the deep ocean. Cool crustal circulation probably contributes to maintaining the deep ocean as a reservoir of `aged' and refractory DOC by discharging the surviving organic carbon constituents that are molecularly degraded and depleted in 14C and 13C into the deep ocean.

  19. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pod diversity and distribution are important especially since studies on marine biodiversity are scarce .... Method II –. Zamoum &. Furla (2012) protocol. Method III. – Geist et al (2008) protocol ..... Public Library Of Science One 8: 51273.

  20. Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurements in Diagnostics of Turbocharged Marine Internal Combustion Engines Part II Dynamic Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczewski Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the article describes the technology of marine engine diagnostics making use of dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. Little-known achievements of Prof. S. Rutkowski of the Naval College in Gdynia (now: Polish Naval Academy in this area are presented. A novel approach is proposed which consists in the use of the measured exhaust gas temperature dynamics for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the enthalpy flux of successive pressure pulses of the exhaust gas supplying the marine engine turbocompressor. General design assumptions are presented for the measuring and diagnostic system which makes use of a sheathed thermocouple installed in the engine exhaust gas manifold. The corrected thermal inertia of the thermocouple enables to reproduce a real time-history of exhaust gas temperature changes.

  1. SeaDataNet II - EMODNet - building a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

    2014-05-01

    EMODNet (European Marine Observation and Data Network) that is promoted in the EU Communication. In the past 4 years EMODNet portals have been initiated for marine data themes: digital bathymetry, chemistry, physical oceanography, geology, biology, and seabed habitat mapping. These portals are now being expanded to all European seas in successor projects, which started mid 2013 from EU DG MARE. EMODNet encourages more data providers to come forward for data sharing and participating in the process of making complete overviews and homogeneous data products. The EMODNet Bathymetry project is very illustrative for the synergy with SeaDataNet and added value of generating public data products. The project develops and publishes Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These are produced from survey and aggregated data sets. The portal provides a versatile DTM viewing service with many relevant map layers and functions for retrieving. A further refinement is taking place in the new phase. The presentation will give information on present services of the SeaDataNet infrastructure and services, highlight key achievements in SeaDataNet II so far, and give further insights in the EMODNet Bathymetry progress.

  2. Structure and membrane organization of photosystem II in green plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankamer, B; Barber, J; Boekema, EJ

    1997-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is the pigment protein complex embedded in the thylakoid membrane of higher plants, algae, and cyanobacteria that uses solar energy to drive the photosynthetic water-splitting reaction. This chapter reviews the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of PSII as

  3. The role of low-temperature organic matter diagenesis in carbonate precipitation within a marine deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Kazuya; Ishii, Eiichi; Hirota, Akinari; Komatsu, Daisuke D.; Ikeya, Kosuke; Tsunogai, Urumu

    2017-01-01

    degradation of organic matter has proceeded too far for any more CO_2 to be produced. Thus, carbonate precipitation is initiated when pH rises due to microbial CO_2 reduction. The contrast between the occurrence of carbonate veins in the Koetoi and Wakkanai formations can be explained by our results, which can also be applied to general carbonate behavior in marine sedimentary rocks. - Highlights: • δ"1"3C – δD systematics of coexisting CH_4 and CO_2. • Extreme-"1"3C enrichment caused by microbial CO_2 reduction in a closed system. • Organic matter diagenesis plays an important role in carbonate precipitation.

  4. Relating biomarkers to whole-organism effects using species sensitivity distributions : A pilot study for marine species exposed to oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.G.D.; Bechmann, R.K.; Hendriks, A.J.; Skadsheim, A.; Larsen, B.K.; Baussant, T.; Bamber, S.; Sannei, S.

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers are widely used to measure environmental impacts on marine species. For many biomarkers, it is not clear how the signal levels relate to effects on the whole organism. This paper shows how species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) can be applied to evaluate multiple biomarker responses in

  5. Marine lake as in situ laboratory for studies of organic matter influence on speciation and distribution of trace metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, Marina; Fiket, Željka; Geček, Sunčana; Cukrov, Neven; Cuculić, Vlado

    2015-07-01

    Karst marine lakes are unique marine systems, also recognized as in situ "laboratories" in which geochemical processes on a different scale compared to the open sea, can be observed. In this study, organic matter cycle and its impact on distribution of trace metals in the marine lake Mir, located on Dugi Otok Island, in the central part of the eastern Adriatic Sea, was investigated for the first time. Studied marine lake is small, isolated, shallow basin, with limited communication with the open sea. Intense spatial and seasonal variations of organic matter, dissolved and particulate (DOC, POC), and dissolved trace metals concentrations in the water column of the Lake are governed predominantly by natural processes. Enhanced oxygen consumption in the Lake during summer season, high DOC and POC concentrations and low redox potential result in occasional occurrence of anoxic conditions in the bottom layers with appearance of sulfur species. Speciation modeling showed that dissolved trace metals Cu, Pb and Zn, are mostly bound to organic matter, while Cd, Co and Ni are present predominantly as free ions and inorganic complexes. Trace metals removal from the water column and their retention in the sediment was found to depend on the nature of the relationship between specific metal and organic or inorganic phases, sulfides, Fe-oxyhydroxydes or biogenic calcite. The above is reflected in the composition of the sediments, which are, in addition to influence of karstic background and bathymetry of the basin, significantly affected by accumulation of detritus at the bottom of the Lake.

  6. Bioaccumulation and Toxicity of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes to Benthic Organisms at the Base of the Marine Food Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) increases over time, so does the potential for environmental release. This research aimed to determine the toxicity, bioavailability, and bioaccumulation of SWNTs in marine benthic organisms at the base of the food chain. The t...

  7. Molecular formulae of marine and terrigenous dissolved organic matter detected by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Boris P.; Witt, Matthias; Engbrodt, Ralph; Dittmar, Thorsten; Kattner, Gerhard

    2005-07-01

    The chemical structure of refractory marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is still largely unknown. Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR-MS) was used to resolve the complex mixtures of DOM and provide valuable information on elemental compositions on a molecular scale. We characterized and compared DOM from two sharply contrasting aquatic environments, algal-derived DOM from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica) and terrigenous DOM from pore water of a tropical mangrove area in northern Brazil. Several thousand molecular formulas in the mass range of 300-600 Da were identified and reproduced in element ratio plots. On the basis of molecular elemental composition and double-bond equivalents (DBE) we calculated an average composition for marine DOM. O/C ratios in the marine samples were lower (0.36 ± 0.01) than in the mangrove pore-water sample (0.42). A small proportion of chemical formulas with higher molecular mass in the marine samples were characterized by very low O/C and H/C ratios probably reflecting amphiphilic properties. The average number of unsaturations in the marine samples was surprisingly high (DBE = 9.9; mangrove pore water: DBE = 9.4) most likely due to a significant contribution of carbonyl carbon. There was no significant difference in elemental composition between surface and deep-water DOM in the Weddell Sea. Although there were some molecules with unique marine elemental composition, there was a conspicuous degree of similarity between the terrigenous and algal-derived end members. Approximately one third of the molecular formulas were present in all marine as well as in the mangrove samples. We infer that different forms of microbial degradation ultimately lead to similar structural features that are intrinsically refractory, independent of the source of the organic matter and the environmental conditions where degradation took place.

  8. Contribution of transformation products towards the total herbicide toxicity to tropical marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Philip; Eaglesham, Geoff; Parks, Stephen; Kenway, Matt; Beltran, Victor; Flores, Florita; Mueller, Jochen F; Negri, Andrew P

    2018-03-19

    The toxicity of herbicide degradation (transformation) products is rarely taken into account, even though these are commonly detected in the marine environment, sometimes at concentrations higher than the parent compounds. Here we assessed the potential contribution of toxicity by transformation products of five photosystem II herbicides to coral symbionts (Symbiodinium sp.), the green algae Dunaliella sp., and prawn (Penaeus monodon) larvae. Concentration-dependent inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency (∆F/F m ') was observed for all herbicides in both microalgal species. The toxicity of solutions of aged diuron solutions containing transformation products to Symbiodinium sp. and Dunaliella sp. was greater than could be explained by the concentrations of diuron measured, indicating transformation products contributed to the inhibition of ∆F/F m '. However, the toxicity of aged atrazine, simazine, hexazinone, and ametryn solutions could be explained by the concentration of parent herbicide, indicating no contribution by transformation products. Prawn larval metamorphosis was not sensitive to the herbicides, but preliminary results indicated some toxicity of the transformation products of atrazine and diuron. Risk assessments should take into account the contribution of herbicide transformation products; however, further studies are clearly needed to test the toxicity of a far wider range of transformation products to a representative diversity of relevant taxa.

  9. Organic molecular composition of marine aerosols over the Arctic Ocean in summer: contributions of primary emission and secondary aerosol formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Q. Fu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic molecular composition of marine aerosol samples collected during the MALINA cruise in the Arctic Ocean was investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. More than 110 individual organic compounds were determined in the samples and were grouped into different compound classes based on the functionality and sources. The concentrations of total quantified organics ranged from 7.3 to 185 ng m−3 (mean 47.6 ng m−3, accounting for 1.8–11.0% (4.8% of organic carbon in the marine aerosols. Primary saccharides were found to be dominant organic compound class, followed by secondary organic aerosol (SOA tracers formed from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs such as isoprene, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene. Mannitol, the specific tracer for airborne fungal spores, was detected as the most abundant organic species in the samples with a concentration range of 0.052–53.3 ng m−3 (9.2 ng m−3, followed by glucose, arabitol, and the isoprene oxidation products of 2-methyltetrols. Biomass burning tracers such as levoglucosan are evident in all samples with trace levels. On the basis of the tracer-based method for the estimation of fungal-spore OC and biogenic secondary organic carbon (SOC, we estimate that an average of 10.7% (up to 26.2% of the OC in the marine aerosols was due to the contribution of fungal spores, followed by the contribution of isoprene SOC (mean 3.8% and α-pinene SOC (2.9%. In contrast, only 0.19% of the OC was due to the photooxidation of β-caryophyllene. This study indicates that primary organic aerosols from biogenic emissions, both from long-range transport of mid-latitude aerosols and from sea-to-air emission of marine organics, as well as secondary organic aerosols formed from the photooxidation of biogenic VOCs are important factors controlling the organic chemical composition of marine aerosols in the Arctic Ocean.

  10. Luftwaffe Maritime Operations in World War II: Thought, Organization and Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gould, Winston A

    2005-01-01

    .... This paper will examine the Luftwaffe's thinking, organization, and technology as they pertained to Countersea Operations during World War II, with a focus on the Battle of the Atlantic during the period 1939-1945...

  11. Marine biotoxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ... (ciguatera fish poisoning). It discusses in detail the causative toxins produced by marine organisms, chemical structures and analytical methods, habitat and occurrence of the toxin-producing organisms, case studies and existing regulations...

  12. Chromium(II) Metal–Organic Polyhedra as Highly Porous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinhee; Perry, Zachary; Chen, Ying-Pin; Bae, Jaeyeon; Zhou, Hong-Cai (DGIST); (TAM)

    2017-08-10

    Herein we report for the first time the synthesis of Cr(II)-based metal–organic polyhedra (MOPs) and the characterization of their porosities. Unlike the isostructural Cu(II)- or Mo(II)-based MOPs, Cr(II)-based MOPs show unusually high gas uptakes and surface areas. The combination of comparatively robust dichromium paddlewheel units (Cr2 units), cage symmetries, and packing motifs enable these materials to achieve Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface areas of up to 1000 m2/g. Reducing the aggregation of the Cr(II)-based MOPs upon activation makes their pores more accessible than their Cu(II) or Mo(II) counterparts. Further comparisons of surface areas on a molar (m2/mol cage) rather than gravimetric (m2/g) basis is proposed as a rational method of comparing members of a family of related molecular materials.

  13. Thallium isotope evidence for a permanent increase in marine organic carbon export in the early Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S.G.; Mar-Gerrison, S.; Gannoun, A.; LaRowe, D.; Klemm, V.; Halliday, A.N.; Burton, K.W.; Hein, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The first high resolution thallium (Tl) isotope records in two ferromanganese crusts (Fe-Mn crusts), CD29 and D11 from the Pacific Ocean are presented. The crusts record pronounced but systematic changes in 205Tl/203Tl that are unlikely to reflect diagenetic overprinting or changes in isotope fractionation between seawater and Fe-Mn crusts. It appears more likely that the Fe-Mn crusts track the Tl isotope composition of seawater over time. The present-day oceanic residence time of Tl is estimated to be about 20,000??yr, such that the isotopic composition should reflect ocean-wide events. New and published Os isotope data are used to construct age models for these crusts that are consistent with each other and significantly different from previous age models. Application of these age models reveals that the Tl isotope composition of seawater changed systematically between ~ 55??Ma and ~ 45??Ma. Using a simple box model it is shown that the present day Tl isotope composition of seawater depends almost exclusively on the ratio between the two principal output fluxes of marine Tl. These fluxes are the rate of removal of Tl from seawater via scavenging by authigenic Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide precipitation and the uptake rate of Tl during low temperature alteration of oceanic crust. It is highly unlikely that the latter has changed greatly. Therefore, assuming that the marine Tl budget has also not changed significantly during the Cenozoic, the low 205Tl/203Tl during the Paleocene is best explained by a more than four-fold higher sequestration of Tl by Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides compared with at the present day. The calculated Cenozoic Tl isotopic seawater curve displays a striking similarity to that of S, providing evidence that both systems may have responded to the same change in the marine environment. A plausible explanation is a marked and permanent increase in organic carbon export from ~ 55??Ma to ~ 45??Ma, which led to higher pyrite burial rates and a significantly reduced

  14. Toxic effect of a marine bacterium on aquatic organisms and its algicidal substances against Phaeocystis globosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuchan Yang

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms have caused enormous damage to the marine ecosystem and the coastal economy in China. In this paper, a bacterial strain B1, which had strong algicidal activity against Phaeocystis globosa, was isolated from the coastal waters of Zhuhai in China. The strain B1 was identified as Bacillus sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence and morphological characteristics. To evaluate the ecological safety of the algicidal substances produced by strain B1, their toxic effects on marine organisms were tested. Results showed that there were no adverse effects observed in the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, Chaetoceros muelleri, and Isochrystis galbana after exposure to the algicidal substances at a concentration of 1.0% (v/v for 96 h. The 48h LC50 values for Brachionus plicatilis, Moina mongolica Daday and Paralichthys olivaceus were 5.7, 9.0 and 12.1% (v/v, respectively. Subsequently, the algicidal substances from strain B1 culture were isolated and purified by silica gel column, Sephadex G-15 column and high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and PeakView Software, the purified substances were identified as prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine. Algicidal mechanism indicated that prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine inhibited the growth of P. globosa by disrupting the antioxidant systems. In the acute toxicity assessment using M. mongolica, 24h LC50 values of prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine were 7.0 and 13.8 g/L, respectively. The active substances produced by strain B1 can be considered as ecologically and environmentally biological agents for controlling harmful algal blooms.

  15. Organic pollution and its effects in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in Eastern Mediterranean coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Emmanouil, Christina; Anastasiadou, Pelagia; Papadi-Psyllou, Asimina; Papadopoulos, Antonis; Okay, Oya; Machera, Kyriaki

    2015-01-01

    Persistent chemicals and emerging pollutants are continuously detected in marine waters and biota. Out of these, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCs) are significant contaminants with decades of presence in the marine environment. The Mediterranean Sea is an ecosystem directly affected by a variety of anthropogenic activities including industry, municipal, touristic, commercial and agricultural. The Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) is a filter feeder, which presents wide distribution. In this regard, the specific organism was used as a biological indicator for the monitoring and evaluation of pollution in the studied areas with focus on the mentioned chemical groups. Pristine Turkish sites with minimum effect from anthropogenic activities, in contrast with Greek sites which were subjected to heavy industrial and shipping activity, were selected. A gas chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric method (GC-MS/MS) was developed and validated to monitor 34 compounds (16 EPA priority PAHs and 18 OCs). Analyses of mussel samples in 2011 from sites with the limited anthropogenic pollution shores have shown the occurrence of 11 pollutants (6 PAHs, 5 OCs), while in the samples from sites with intensive activity and expected pollution, 12 PAHs and 6 OCs were detected. Biochemical and biological responses studied only in mussels samples from the sites with the highest contamination showed a situation that was under strong seasonal influence. The intensity of the response was also influenced by deployment duration. Noteworthy correlations were detected among biochemical/biological effects and between mussel body burden and these effects. Continuous monitoring of priority pollutants of East Mediterranean Sea is vital both for ecological and human risk assessment purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Advanced characterization of dissolved organic matter released by bloom-forming marine algae

    KAUST Repository

    Rehman, Zahid Ur

    2017-06-01

    Algal organic matter (AOM), produced by marine phytoplankton during bloom periods, may adversely affect the performance of membrane processes in seawater desalination. The polysaccharide fraction of AOM has been related to (bio)fouling in micro-filtration and ultrafiltration, and reverse osmosis membranes. However, so far, the chemical structure of the polysaccharides released by bloom-forming algae is not well understood. In this study, dissolved fraction of AOM produced by three algal species (Chaetoceros affinis, Nitzschia epithemoides and Hymenomonas spp.) was characterized using liquid chromatography–organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescence spectroscopy. Chemical structure of polysaccharides isolated from the AOM solutions at stationary phase was analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR). The results showed that production and composition of dissolved AOM varied depending on algal species and their growth stage. AOM was mainly composed of biopolymers (BP; i.e., polysaccharides and proteins [PN]), but some refractory substances were also present.H-NMR spectra confirmed the predominance of carbohydrates in all samples. Furthermore, similar fingerprints were observed for polysaccharides of two diatom species, which differed considerably from that of coccolithophores. Based on the findings of this study,H-NMR could be used as a method for analyzing chemical profiles of algal polysaccharides to enhance the understanding of their impact on membrane fouling.

  17. Screening of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in marine organisms from the Caribbean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Fabio; Amaya-García, Fabián; Tello, Edisson; Ramos, Freddy Alejandro; Umaña, Adriana; Puyana, Mónica; Resende, Jackson A L C; Castellanos, Leonardo

    2018-06-04

    The acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of 89 organic extracts from marine organisms was evaluated through a TLC bioautography methodology. Extracts from soft corals (Eunicea and Plexaura) were the most active compared with extracts from sponges. The bioguided chemical study of the most active extract, obtained from Pseudoplexaura porosa, led to the isolation of a diterpene with spectroscopic properties consistent to those published to the cembrane Steylolide. However, further analysis by X-ray diffraction indicated that the compound was the 14-acetoxycrassine (1), correcting the structure reported to the Styelolide. Additionally, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of fourteen cembranoids (2-15) isolated from soft corals Eunicea knighti and Pseudoplexaura flagellosa was evaluated. Cembranoids 2, 3 and 4 were the most active compounds in the TLC bioassay. Then, the most promising cembranoids, 14-acetoxycrassine (1) and asperdiol (2), were tested quantitatively and they exhibited IC 50 values of 1.40 ± 0.113 and 0.358 ± 0.130 μM, respectively.

  18. Selective accumulation of organically bound tritium in the marine unicellular algae Dunaliella bioculata and Acetabularia mediterranea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strack, S.; Kirchmann, R.; Luettke, A.; Bonotto, S.

    1983-01-01

    The marine unicellular algae Dunaliella bioculata and Acetabularia mediterranea have been used to assess the importance of the radioactive contamination by 3 H bound to different organic molecules. We have studied the uptake of 10 different tritiated substances, which are precursors for the cells' main macromolecules: thymidine-methyl- 3 H, adenine-2- 3 H, uridine-5- 3 H, L-leucine-4- 3 H, glycine-2- 3 H, L-arginine-3.4- 3 H, L-aspartic acid-2.3- 3 H, L-phenylalanine-2.3- 3 H, D-glucose-2- 3 H and D-glucose-6- 3 H. Under our experimental conditions, all the tritiated organic molecules are taken up by both algal species. Their intracellular concentration may reach that of the external medium. However, some molecules are selectively accumulated: adenine and leucine in Dunaliella, adenine, arginine and glucose in Acetabularia. Increasing concentrations of adenine and leucine, supplied to the cultures of Dunaliella seem to be without effect on the growth of the algae. (author)

  19. Competitive sorption of persistent organic pollutants onto microplastics in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J.; Thompson, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Organic pollutants are present as complex mixtures in the marine environment. ► The competitive sorption of phenanthrene and DDT in a bi-solute system was investigated onto PVC and PE. ► DDT outcompeted phenanthrene for sorption onto plastic. ► DDT also appeared to have a negative effect on the sorption of phenanthrene onto plastic when added at high concentration. - Abstract: Plastics are known to sorb persistent organic pollutants from seawater. However, studies to quantify sorption rates have only considered the affinity of chemicals in isolation, unlike the conditions in the environment where contaminants are present as complex mixtures. Here we examine whether phenanthrene and 4,4′-DDT, in a mixture, compete for sorption sites onto PVC with no added additives (unplasticised PVC or uPVC) and Ultra-High Molecular Weight polyethylene. Interactions were investigated by exposing particles of uPVC and UHMW PE to mixtures of 3H and 14C radiolabelled Phe and DDT. Changes in sorption capacity were modelled by applying a Freundlich binding sorption isotherms. An Extended Langmuir Model and an Interaction Factor Model were also applied to predict equilibrium concentrations of pollutants onto plastic. This study showed that in a bi-solute system, DDT exhibited no significantly different sorption behaviour than in single solute systems. However, DDT did appear to interfere with the sorption of Phe onto plastic, indicating an antagonistic effect.

  20. The role of rivers in transporting organic contaminants in the marine environment of Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2013-04-01

    The study of trace organic contaminants in coastal marine environments and especially in estuarine systems is of great importance, since these areas, being biologically productive and receiving considerable pollutant inputs from land-based sources via river runoff, act as a transit zone in which contaminants are transported to the sea. The aim of this work is to identify the significance of estuarine export of organic pollution in the marine environment of Greece. For this reason, the distribution, composition and sources of hydrocarbon mixtures were investigated in sediments collected from eight major Greek estuarine systems, by using a molecular marker approach and several diagnostic criteria and indices. Surface sediment samples were collected from the estuaries of five rivers in Northern Greece flowing into Aegean sea (Axios, Aliakmonas, Strymon, Nestos, Evros), one river in Central Greece (Asopos) also flowing into Aegean Sea and two rivers in Western Greece flowing into Ionian sea (Acheloos, Acherontas). The highest aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations (>100 μg/g), indicative of petroleum pollution, were recorded in Asopos estruaries, followed by Aliakmonas, Axios, Strymon and Evros estuaries (50-100 μg/g). On the contrary, in Nestos delta, as well as in Acheloos and Acherontas estuaries, hydrocarbon values were found low and similar to those measured in open sea (marine environment. The unresolved complex mixture (UCM) was the main component of the aliphatic fraction in most cases demonstrating some petroleum inputs in all areas, but high values of the ratio unresolved to resolved compounds (U/R), which are clearly indicative of petroleum residues, were measured only in Asopos, Axios and Evros estuary (U/R: 5.1-10.4). The n-alkane distribution was generally similar with that of total aliphatics. The high molecular weight n-alkanes (>C23) predominated in most cases, showing an important odd/even carbon number preference (mean CPI values above 5) which is

  1. δ11B as monitor of calcification site pH in divergent marine calcifying organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jill N.; Liu, Yi-Wei; Ries, Justin B.; Guillermic, Maxence; Ponzevera, Emmanuel; Eagle, Robert A.

    2018-03-01

    The boron isotope composition (δ11B) of marine biogenic carbonates has been predominantly studied as a proxy for monitoring past changes in seawater pH and carbonate chemistry. However, a number of assumptions regarding chemical kinetics and thermodynamic isotope exchange reactions are required to derive seawater pH from δ11B biogenic carbonates. It is also probable that δ11B of biogenic carbonate reflects seawater pH at the organism's site of calcification, which may or may not reflect seawater pH. Here, we report the development of methodology for measuring the δ11B of biogenic carbonate samples at the multi-collector inductively coupled mass spectrometry facility at Ifremer (Plouzané, France) and the evaluation of δ11BCaCO3 in a diverse range of marine calcifying organisms reared for 60 days in isothermal seawater (25 °C) equilibrated with an atmospheric pCO2 of ca. 409 µatm. Average δ11BCaCO3 composition for all species evaluated in this study range from 16.27 to 35.09 ‰, including, in decreasing order, coralline red alga Neogoniolithion sp. (35.89 ± 3.71 ‰), temperate coral Oculina arbuscula (24.12 ± 0.19 ‰), serpulid worm Hydroides crucigera (19.26 ± 0.16 ‰), tropical urchin Eucidaris tribuloides (18.71 ± 0.26 ‰), temperate urchin Arbacia punctulata (16.28 ± 0.86 ‰), and temperate oyster Crassostrea virginica (16.03 ‰). These results are discussed in the context of each species' proposed mechanism of biocalcification and other factors that could influence skeletal and shell δ11B, including calcifying site pH, the proposed direct incorporation of isotopically enriched boric acid (instead of borate) into biogenic calcium carbonate, and differences in shell/skeleton polymorph mineralogy. We conclude that the large inter-species variability in δ11BCaCO3 (ca. 20 ‰) and significant discrepancies between measured δ11BCaCO3 and δ11BCaCO3 expected from established relationships between abiogenic δ11BCaCO3 and seawater pH arise

  2. Heavy metal distribution in organic and siliceous marine sponge tissues measured by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, S; Annibaldi, A; Truzzi, C; Scarponi, G

    2016-10-15

    May sponge spicules represent a "tank" to accumulate heavy metals? In this study we test this hypothesis determining the distribution of Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations between organic and siliceous tissues in Antarctic Demospongia (Sphaerotylus antarcticus, Kirkpatrikia coulmani and Haliclona sp.) and in the Mediterranean species Petrosia ficiformis. Results show that although, in these sponges, spicules represent about 80% of the mass content, the accumulation of pollutant is lower in the spicules than in the corresponding organic fraction. The contribution of tissues to the total sponge content of Cd, Pb and Cu is respectively 99%, 82% and 97% for Antarctic sponges and 96%, 95% and 96% for P. ficiformis, similar in polar and temperate organisms. These results pave the way to a better understanding of the role of marine sponges in uptaking heavy metals and to their possible use as monitor of marine ecosystems, recommend by the Water Framework Directive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential pattern of semantic memory organization between bipolar I and II disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jae Seung; Choi, Sungwon; Ha, Kyooseob; Ha, Tae Hyon; Cho, Hyun Sang; Choi, Jung Eun; Cha, Boseok; Moon, Eunsoo

    2011-06-01

    Semantic cognition is one of the key factors in psychosocial functioning. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in pattern of semantic memory organization between euthymic patients with bipolar I and II disorders using the category fluency task. Study participants included 23 euthymic subjects with bipolar I disorder, 23 matched euthymic subjects with bipolar II disorder and 23 matched control subjects. All participants were assessed for verbal learning, recall, learning strategies, and fluency. The combined methods of hierarchical clustering and multidimensional scaling were used to compare the pattern of semantic memory organization among the three groups. Quantitative measures of verbal learning, recall, learning strategies, and fluency did not differ between the three groups. A two-cluster structure of semantic memory organization was identified for the three groups. Semantic structure was more disorganized in the bipolar I disorder group compared to the bipolar II disorder. In addition, patients with bipolar II disorder used less elaborate strategies of semantic memory organization than those of controls. Compared to healthy controls, strategies for categorization in semantic memory appear to be less knowledge-based in patients with bipolar disorders. A differential pattern of semantic memory organization between bipolar I and II disorders indicates a higher risk of cognitive abnormalities in patients with bipolar I disorder compared to patients with bipolar II disorder. Exploring qualitative nature of neuropsychological domains may provide an explanatory insight into the characteristic behaviors of patients with bipolar disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Dunaliella tertiolecta organic exudates on the Fe(II) oxidation kinetics in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A G; Santana-Casiano, J M; González-Dávila, M; Pérez-Almeida, N; Suárez de Tangil, M

    2014-07-15

    The role played by the natural organic ligands excreted by the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta on the Fe(II) oxidation rate constants was studied at different stages of growth. The concentration of dissolved organic carbon increased from 2.1 to 7.1 mg L(-1) over time of culture. The oxidation kinetics of Fe(II) was studied at nanomolar levels and under different physicochemical conditions of pH (7.2-8.2), temperature (5-35 °C), salinity (10-37), and dissolved organic carbon produced by cells (2.1-7.1 mg L(-1)). The experimental rate always decreased in the presence of organic exudates with respect to that in the control seawater. The Fe(II) oxidation rate constant was also studied in the context of Marcus theory, where ΔG° was 39.31-51.48 kJ mol(-1). A kinetic modeling approach was applied for computing the equilibrium and rate constants for Fe(II) and exudates present in solution, the Fe(II) speciation, and the contribution of each Fe(II) species to the overall oxidation rate constant. The best fit model took into account two acidity equilibrium constants for the Fe(II) complexing ligands with pKa,1=9.45 and pKa,2=4.9. The Fe(II) complexing constants were KFe(II)-LH=3×10(10) and KFe(II)-L=10(7), and the corresponding computed oxidation rates were 68±2 and 36±8 M(-1) min(-1), respectively.

  5. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  6. Marine Hydrokinetic Energy Site Identification and Ranking Methodology Part II: Tidal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilcher, Levi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tinnesand, Heidi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Marine hydrokinetic energy is a promising and growing piece of the renewable energy sector that offers high predictability and additional energy sources for a diversified energy economy. This report investigates the market opportunities for tidal energy along the U.S. coastlines. It is part one of a two-part investigation into the United States' two largest marine hydrokinetic resources (wave and tidal). Tidal energy technology is still an emerging form of renewable energy for which large-scale grid-connected project costs are currently poorly defined. Ideally, device designers would like to know the resource conditions at economical project sites so they can optimize device designs. On the other hand, project developers need detailed device cost data to identify sites where projects are economical. That is, device design and siting are, to some extent, a coupled problem. This work describes a methodology for identifying likely deployment locations based on a set of criteria that tidal energy experts in industry, academia, and national laboratories agree are likely to be important factors for all technology types. Several factors that will affect tidal project costs and siting have not been considered here -- including permitting constraints, conflicting use, seasonal resource variability, extreme event likelihood, and distance to ports -- because consistent data are unavailable or technology-independent scoring could not be identified. As the industry continues to mature and converge around a subset of device archetypes with well-defined costs, more precise investigations of project siting that include these factors will be possible. For now, these results provide a high-level guide pointing to the regions where markets and resource will one day support commercial tidal energy projects.

  7. Ceramic membrane as a pretreatment for reverse osmosis: Interaction between marine organic matter and metal oxides

    KAUST Repository

    Dramas, Laure

    2013-02-01

    Scaling and (bio)fouling phenomena can severely alter the performance of the reverse osmosis process during desalination of seawater. Pretreatments must be applied to efficiently remove particles, colloids, and also precursors of the organic fouling and biofouling. Ceramic membranes offer a lot of advantages for micro and ultrafiltration pretreatments because their initial properties can be recovered using more severe cleaning procedure. The study focuses on the interaction between metal oxides and marine organic matter. Experiments were performed at laboratory scale. The first series of experiments focus on the filtration of different fractions of natural organic matter and model compounds solutions on flat disk ceramic membranes (47 mm of diameter) characterized with different pore size and composition. Direct filtration experiments were conducted at 0.7 bar or 2 bars and at room temperature (20 ± 0.5 °C). The efficiency of backflush and alkaline cleaning were eval, and titanium oxides. Each metal oxide corresponds to a specific pore size for the disk ceramic membranes: 80, 60, and 30 nm. Different sizes of metal oxide particles are used to measure the impact of the surface area on the adsorption of the organic matter. Seawaters from the Arabian Gulf and from the Red Sea were collected during algal blooms. Cultures of algae were also performed in the laboratory and in cooperation with woods hole oceanographic institute. Solutions of algal exudates were obtained after a couple of weeks of cultivation followed by sonication. Solutions were successively filtered through GFF (0.7 lm) and 0.45 lm membrane filters before use. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration of final solution was between 1 and 4 mg/L and showed strong hydrophilic character. These various solutions were prepared with the objective to mimic the dissolved organic matter composition of seawater subjected to algal bloom. Characterization of the solutions of filtration experiments (feed

  8. Thallium (III) salts utilization in organic synthesis. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, H.M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The utilizations of thallium (III) salts in organic synthesis with carbonylic and acitylenic substrates are presented. The reactions of carbonylic substra3ts with kitones and the oxidation reactions of acetylenic substrates are shown. Others reactions including thallium (III) salts and non aromatic unsatured substracts, as cleasage of ethers and epoxide using thallium trinitrate, hydrazones treatments with thallium triacetates, etc, are also mentioned. (C.G.C.) [pt

  9. Quick, portable toxicity testing of marine or terrigenous fluids, sediments, or chemicals with bioluminescent organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabate, R.W.; Stiffey, A.V.; Dewailly, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    A hand-held, battery-operated instrument, which measures bioluminescence inhibition of the microscopic marine dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula, is capable of field-testing substances for toxicity. The organism is sensitive to ppb of strong toxicants. It tolerates some solvents in concentrations necessary for testing lipophylic samples. A test consumes only micrograms of sample. This method requires no adjustments for salinity, pH, color, or turbidity. It has been used successfully to test oil-well drilling fluids, brines produced with oil, waters and sediments from streams and lakes and petroleum-plant effluents containing contaminants such as benzene. The test is non-specific; however, if the substance is known, the end-point effects a direct measurement of its concentration. One-hour toxicity screening tests in the field produce results comparable to the standard four-hour laboratory test. Keeping the sample in the dark during incubation and testing, together with shortness of the overall procedure, eliminates anomalies from light-sensitive substances. Day-to-day variation, as well as among test replicates, is less than 10%. This quick method yields results comparable with a quick test that uses Photobacterium phosphoria, and with 96-hour tests that use Mysidopsis bahia, Artemia salina, Gonyaulax polyedra, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Cyprinodon variegatus

  10. The Impact of Ocean Acidification on Reproduction, Early Development and Settlement of Marine Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Bailey

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Predicting the impact of warming and acidifying on oceans on the early development life history stages of invertebrates although difficult, is essential in order to anticipate the severity and consequences of future climate change. This review summarises the current literature and meta-analyses on the early life-history stages of invertebrates including fertilisation, larval development and the implications for dispersal and settlement of populations. Although fertilisation appears robust to near future predictions of ocean acidification, larval development is much more vulnerable and across invertebrate groups, evidence indicates that the impacts may be severe. This is especially for those many marine organisms which start to calcify in their larval and/or juvenile stages. Species-specificity and variability in responses and current gaps in the literature are highlighted, including the need for studies to investigate the total effects of climate change including the synergistic impact of temperature, and the need for long-term multigenerational experiments to determine whether vulnerable invertebrate species have the capacity to adapt to elevations in atmospheric CO2 over the next century.

  11. Structure and Chromosomal Organization of Yeast Genes Regulated by Topoisomerase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ricky S; Nikolaou, Christoforos; Roca, Joaquim

    2018-01-03

    Cellular DNA topoisomerases (topo I and topo II) are highly conserved enzymes that regulate the topology of DNA during normal genome transactions, such as DNA transcription and replication. In budding yeast, topo I is dispensable whereas topo II is essential, suggesting fundamental and exclusive roles for topo II, which might include the functions of the topo IIa and topo IIb isoforms found in mammalian cells. In this review, we discuss major findings of the structure and chromosomal organization of genes regulated by topo II in budding yeast. Experimental data was derived from short (10 min) and long term (120 min) responses to topo II inactivation in top-2 ts mutants. First, we discuss how short term responses reveal a subset of yeast genes that are regulated by topo II depending on their promoter architecture. These short term responses also uncovered topo II regulation of transcription across multi-gene clusters, plausibly by common DNA topology management. Finally, we examine the effects of deactivated topo II on the elongation of RNA transcripts. Each study provides an insight into the particular chromatin structure that interacts with the activity of topo II. These findings are of notable clinical interest as numerous anti-cancer therapies interfere with topo II activity.

  12. Assessment of Marine Pollution in İzmir Bay: Heavy Metal and Organic Compound Concentrations in Surficial Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    AKSU, Ali Engin

    2014-01-01

    The extent of marine pollution in İzmir Bay is investigated using inorganic and organic geochemical data from surface sediments. The concentrations of 42 elements in 84 samples established that surface sediments in Inner İzmir Bay display significant enrichments in Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, P, Pb, Sb, Sn, V, and Zn, associated with notably high concentrations of total organic carbon and sulphur. Organic geochemical data in 14 samples from Inner İzmir Bay showed that these sediments...

  13. Feasibility study for application of the marine coral powder as a novel adsorbent for Volatile Organic Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mashkoori

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The marine coral has a porous outer surface and it has served in the processes such as water treatment systems, removal of carbon dioxide and adsorption of arsenic. Based on the need for cheap and efficient adsorbents, in sampling, the aim of this study, comparison of the efficiency of marine coral powder and activated charcoal in adsorption of volatile organic hydrocarbons was considered. In this experimental research, a certain concentrations of 8 volatile organic hydrocarbons: (para-Xylene, Chloroform, Carbon tetrachloride, tert-Butanol, Pyridine, Acetone, Ethyl acetate and Diethyl ether was injected into dynamic atmospheric chamber in the NTP (Normal Temperature and Pressure conditions. Air sampling was performed with the tube containing marine coral powder as well as the tube of activated charcoal, based on the standard method of NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and in the same laboratory conditions. Then samples were injected into the gas Chromatograph apparatus and analytical comparison has been done between the amount of adsorption of hydrocarbons by activated charcoal and coral powder-test and Mann-Whitney were done with SPSS V.20.Findings showed that there was a significant difference between the amount of adsorption of Para-Xylene, carbon tetrachloride, tert-Butanol, Pyridine, acetone and Ethyl acetate hydrocarbons by activated charcoal and coral powder (P<0.05(. The amount of hydrocarbons adsorption by activated charcoal was, more than coral powder significantly (P<0.001. Based on the present research, in sampling of used hydrocarbons, the marine coral powder was less efficient than the activated charcoal, and it is recommended that more works be designed about other techniques such as coating of the marine coral powder in order to the improvement of adsorption capacity for volatile organic hydrocarbons.

  14. Persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from Yongxing Island, South China Sea: levels, composition profiles and human dietary exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Xin; Hao, Qing; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Shuai-Long; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-03-01

    Little data is available on the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in marine organisms from South China Sea (SCS). Five marine fish species were collected from Yongxing Island, SCS to investigate the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs concentrations ranged from 2.0-117, 6.3-199, and 9.7-5831 ng g(-1) lw, respectively. In general, contaminants measured in this study were at the lower end of the global range. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were significantly correlated in fish samples, implying that PBDEs are as prevalent as PCBs in Yongxing Island. Among the five fish species studied, yellow striped goatfish had the highest concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs, probably attributed to its different living and feeding habits. The contaminant distribution pattern indicated that agrochemical source is more important than industrial source in Yongxing Island, SCS. The average estimated daily intakes of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs via fish consumption by local residents in the coastal areas of South China ranged from 1.42-5.91, 3.20-13.3, and 8.08-33.6 ng d(-1), which were lower than those in previous studies, suggesting that consumption of marine fish in Yongxing Island, SCS, might not subject local residents to significant health risk as far as POPs are concerned. This is the first study to report the occurrence of POPs in marine biota from SCS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A model compound study: The ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants employing a battery of marine bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macken, Ailbhe [Radiation and Environmental Science Centre, Focas Institute, DIT, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland)], E-mail: ailbhe.macken@dit.ie; Giltrap, Michelle [Radiation and Environmental Science Centre, Focas Institute, DIT, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Marine Institute, Rinville, Oranmore, Co. Galway (Ireland)], E-mail: michelle.giltrap@marine.ie; Foley, Barry [School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, DIT, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland)], E-mail: barry.foley@dit.ie; McGovern, Evin [Marine Institute, Rinville, Oranmore, Co. Galway (Ireland)], E-mail: evin.mcgovern@marine.ie; McHugh, Brendan [Marine Institute, Rinville, Oranmore, Co. Galway (Ireland)], E-mail: brendan.mchugh@marine.ie; Davoren, Maria [Radiation and Environmental Science Centre, Focas Institute, DIT, Kevin Street, Dublin 8 (Ireland)], E-mail: maria.davoren@dit.ie

    2008-06-15

    This paper describes the ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants frequently detected in marine sediments (tributyltin, triphenyltin, benzo[a]pyrene, fluoranthene, and PCB 153) using three marine species (Vibrio fischeri, Tetraselmis suecica, and Tisbe battagliai). The sensitivity of each species varied for all compounds. The triorganotins were consistently the most toxic to all species. The applicability of each test system to assess the acute toxicity of environmental contaminants and their use in Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) is discussed. Suitability of the Microtox and T. battagliai tests for employment in TIE studies were further assessed through spiking experiments with tributyltin. Results demonstrated that the most effective treatment to remove organotin toxicity from the sample was the C{sub 18} resin. The results of this study have important implications for risk assessment in estuarine and coastal waters in Ireland, where, at present the monitoring of sediment and water quality is predominantly reliant on chemical analysis alone. - Ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic marine sediment contaminants was conducted and the suitability of the test species for marine porewater TIE discussed.

  16. Influence of trophic level, and calcification on the uptake of plutonium observed, in situ, in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guary, J.C.; Fraizier, A.

    1977-01-01

    A study has been made of the transport mechanisms of plutonium in the marine environment. This work has shown that a relationship exists between the concentration of plutonium in marine plant and animal species and the trophic level of these organisms; this relation is evidenced by a decrease in the concentration of the radioelement as the trophic level of the species increases. Three modes of transport - via water, sediment and food - have been studied. Direct contact between sea water and organisms, the principal mode of transfer to marine species belonging to lower trophic levels (the primary producers and consumers), seems to play an important role in the uptake of plutonium. On the other hand, the sediment in contact with which certain species live does not appear to constitute an important transfer vector. The trophic relations between animal species lead one to assume that plutonium is transported also via the food-chain without necessarily implying that there is a concentration of the radioelement along the whole chain leading from the primary producers to the tertiary consumers. In addition, it has been possible to establish that there is a relation between the rate of plutonium uptake and the calcified structures of certain marine species comparable to that which exists in the bone tissue of terrestrial mammals. (author)

  17. A model compound study: The ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants employing a battery of marine bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macken, Ailbhe; Giltrap, Michelle; Foley, Barry; McGovern, Evin; McHugh, Brendan; Davoren, Maria

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants frequently detected in marine sediments (tributyltin, triphenyltin, benzo[a]pyrene, fluoranthene, and PCB 153) using three marine species (Vibrio fischeri, Tetraselmis suecica, and Tisbe battagliai). The sensitivity of each species varied for all compounds. The triorganotins were consistently the most toxic to all species. The applicability of each test system to assess the acute toxicity of environmental contaminants and their use in Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) is discussed. Suitability of the Microtox and T. battagliai tests for employment in TIE studies were further assessed through spiking experiments with tributyltin. Results demonstrated that the most effective treatment to remove organotin toxicity from the sample was the C 18 resin. The results of this study have important implications for risk assessment in estuarine and coastal waters in Ireland, where, at present the monitoring of sediment and water quality is predominantly reliant on chemical analysis alone. - Ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic marine sediment contaminants was conducted and the suitability of the test species for marine porewater TIE discussed

  18. Sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds to plastics in marine environments: Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endo, S.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine plastics have shown to contain various environmental chemicals. For evaluating the potential of plastics to influence regional and global dynamics of these chemicals and to serve as a vector to marine biota, understanding of sorption and desorption of chemicals by plastics is important. In

  19. Seasonal variation in accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in an Arctic marine benthic food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evenset, A., E-mail: anita.evenset@akvaplan.niva.no [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø (Norway); Hallanger, I.G. [University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø (Norway); Tessmann, M. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Research, University of Hamburg (Germany); Warner, N. [Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Ruus, A. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Borgå, K. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo (Norway); Department of Biosciences, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern 0316, Oslo (Norway); Gabrielsen, G.W. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Christensen, G. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); Renaud, P.E. [Akvaplan-niva. Fram Centre, Tromsø (Norway); University Centre in Svalbard, Longyearbyen (Norway)

    2016-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as well as food-web biomagnification, in an Arctic, benthic marine community. Macrozoobenthos, demersal fish and common eiders were collected both inside and outside of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May, July and October 2007. The samples were analysed for a selection of legacy chlorinated POPs. Overall, low levels of POPs were measured in all samples. Although POP levels and accumulation patterns showed some seasonal variation, the magnitude and direction of change was not consistent among species. Overall, seasonality in bioaccumulation in benthic biota was less pronounced than in the pelagic system in Kongsfjorden. In addition, the results indicate that δ{sup 15}N is not a good predictor for POP-levels in benthic food chains. Other factors, such as feeding strategy (omnivory, necrophagy versus herbivory), degree of contact with the sediment, and a high dependence on particulate organic matter (POM), with low POP-levels and high δ{sup 15}N-values (due to bacterial isotope enrichment), seem to govern the uptake of the different POPs and result in loads deviating from what would be expected consulting the trophic position alone. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation in POP biomagnification was investigated in a benthic food web. • Levels of POPs are generally low in benthic species from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. • POP-concentrations varied with season, but direction of change varied among taxa. • No POP-biomagnification, except for cis-nonachlor, was detected in this study. • δ{sup 15}N-values does not seem to be a good proxy for trophic level in macrozoobenthos.

  20. Seasonal variation in accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in an Arctic marine benthic food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evenset, A.; Hallanger, I.G.; Tessmann, M.; Warner, N.; Ruus, A.; Borgå, K.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Christensen, G.; Renaud, P.E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate seasonal variation in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as well as food-web biomagnification, in an Arctic, benthic marine community. Macrozoobenthos, demersal fish and common eiders were collected both inside and outside of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, during May, July and October 2007. The samples were analysed for a selection of legacy chlorinated POPs. Overall, low levels of POPs were measured in all samples. Although POP levels and accumulation patterns showed some seasonal variation, the magnitude and direction of change was not consistent among species. Overall, seasonality in bioaccumulation in benthic biota was less pronounced than in the pelagic system in Kongsfjorden. In addition, the results indicate that δ"1"5N is not a good predictor for POP-levels in benthic food chains. Other factors, such as feeding strategy (omnivory, necrophagy versus herbivory), degree of contact with the sediment, and a high dependence on particulate organic matter (POM), with low POP-levels and high δ"1"5N-values (due to bacterial isotope enrichment), seem to govern the uptake of the different POPs and result in loads deviating from what would be expected consulting the trophic position alone. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation in POP biomagnification was investigated in a benthic food web. • Levels of POPs are generally low in benthic species from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. • POP-concentrations varied with season, but direction of change varied among taxa. • No POP-biomagnification, except for cis-nonachlor, was detected in this study. • δ"1"5N-values does not seem to be a good proxy for trophic level in macrozoobenthos.

  1. The salting-out of molibdoferrats(II from aqueous solutions by the organic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola V. Nikolenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a method for producing of molybdoferrate(II precipitates by salting-out them from aqueous solutions by means of organic solvents. Dependence of the composition of molybdoferrate(II precipitates on the pH of the reaction solutions was studied. Experiments on salting-out of molybdoferrate(II with various organic solvents were carried out. As a result it was found that the best reagent for the molybdoferrate(II salting-out is acetone. By its use, lowest quantity of the ammonium sulfate impurities was obtained. It is also of importance that by using of acetone the process of regeneration by distillation of the reaction solutions is characterized by the lowest energy consumption. A functional relationship between the solubility of molybdoferrates(II and dielectric constant of the medium was established. By increasing the dielectric constant of the solvent solubility of molybdoferrates(II rapidly increases. The linearized dependence ln(lnS–ln(1/e was proposed to predict the solubility of molybdoferrates(II in various aqueous-organic solutions.

  2. The Effectivity of Marine Bio-activator and Surimi Liquid Waste Addition of Characteristics Liquid Organic Fertilizer from Sargassum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Wening Ratrinia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOrganic fertilizer is highly recommended for soil and plant because it can improve the productivity and repair physical, chemical, and biological of soil. Sargassum sp. and surimi liquid wastes contain organic matter and nutrient needed by plants and soils. The addition of marine bio-activator which contains bacterial isolates from litter mangrove serves to accelerate the composting time and increases the activity of microorganisms in the decomposition process. The purpose of this study was to determine optimum time and the best formulation of decomposition process organic fertilizer. Raw materials used a waste of seaweed Sargassum sp., marine bio-activator and surimi liquid waste from catfish (Clarias sp.. The research was conducted six treatments control, Sargassum sp. + marine bio-activator, surimi liquid waste , Sargassum sp. + marine bio-activator + surimi liquid waste 80%, 90%, 100%. All treatments were fermented for 9 days and analysed the C-organic, total N, C/N ratio, P2O5, K2O on days 0, 3, 6 and 9. The results showed the optimum fermentation period was on the 6th day. The most optimum concentration of surimi liquid waste added was at a concentration of 90%, with characteristics of the products was C-organic 0.803±0.0115%, total N 740.063±0.0862 ppm, C/N ratio 10.855±0.1562, P2O5 425.603±0.2329 ppm, K2O 2738.627±0.2836 ppm.

  3. The Effectivity of Marine Bio-activator and Surimi Liquid Waste Addition of Characteristics Liquid Organic Fertilizer from Sargassum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Wening Ratrinia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic fertilizer is highly recommended for soil and plant because it can improve the productivity and repair physical, chemical, and biological of soil. Sargassum sp. and surimi liquid wastes contain organic matter and nutrient needed by plants and soils. The addition of marine bio-activator which contains bacterial isolates from litter mangrove serves to accelerate the composting time and increases the activity of microorganisms in the decomposition process. The purpose of this study was to determine optimum time and the best formulation of decomposition process organic fertilizer. Raw materials used a waste of seaweed Sargassum sp., marine bio-activator and surimi liquid waste from catfish (Clarias sp.. The research was conducted six treatments control, Sargassum sp. + marine bio-activator, surimi liquid waste , Sargassum sp. + marine bio-activator + surimi liquid waste 80%, 90%, 100%. All treatments were fermented for 9 days and analysed the C-organic, total N, C/N ratio, P2 O5 , K2 O on days 0, 3, 6 and 9. The results showed the optimum fermentation period was on the 6th day. The most optimum concentration of surimi liquid waste added was at a concentration of 90%, with characteristics of the products was C-organic 0.803 ± 0.0115 %, total N 740.063 ± 0.0862 ppm, C/N ratio 10.855 ± 0.1562, P2 O5 425.603 ± 0.2329 ppm, K2 O 2738.627 ± 0.2836 ppm.

  4. Validation of ATR FT-IR to identify polymers of plastic marine debris, including those ingested by marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Melissa R.; Horgen, F. David; Orski, Sara V.; Rodriguez, Viviana; Beers, Kathryn L.; Balazs, George H.; Jones, T. Todd; Work, Thierry M.; Brignac, Kayla C.; Royer, Sarah-Jeanne; Hyrenbach, David K.; Jensen, Brenda A.; Lynch, Jennifer M.

    2018-01-01

    Polymer identification of plastic marine debris can help identify its sources, degradation, and fate. We optimized and validated a fast, simple, and accessible technique, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR), to identify polymers contained in plastic ingested by sea turtles. Spectra of consumer good items with known resin identification codes #1–6 and several #7 plastics were compared to standard and raw manufactured polymers. High temperature size exclusion chromatography measurements confirmed ATR FT-IR could differentiate these polymers. High-density (HDPE) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) discrimination is challenging but a clear step-by-step guide is provided that identified 78% of ingested PE samples. The optimal cleaning methods consisted of wiping ingested pieces with water or cutting. Of 828 ingested plastics pieces from 50 Pacific sea turtles, 96% were identified by ATR FT-IR as HDPE, LDPE, unknown PE, polypropylene (PP), PE and PP mixtures, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, and nylon.

  5. Laboratory experiments on the transfer dynamics of plutonium from marine sediments to sea water and to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, T.; Lowman, F.G.

    1975-01-01

    The leachability of 239 240 Pu from a fine contaminated calcareous sediment to aerated open sea water and to anoxic sea water was measured. The distribution coefficient for 239 240 Pu from sediment to sea water was 6.1 x 10 -5 for aerated water and 2.6 x 10 -6 for anoxic water. Experiments on the uptake of 239 240 Pu by the clams Donax denticulatus, and Lucina pectinata, were done in aquaria containing kilogram quantities of sediment from the Bravo Crater at Bikini Atoll. The concentration factor for 239 240 Pu by the soft parts of these clams was about 200. All the plutonium taken up in the soft parts was associated with the gill, mantle and siphon. No plutonium was detected in the adductor muscles or hepatopancreas. The smooth surfaces of the shells of the Donax did not show any detectable plutonium, but the rough shell surfaces of the Lucina concentrated plutonium by a factor of 1.10 x 10 4 over that in the sea water. Marine periphyton cultured on glass plates in an aquarium concentrated 239 240 Pu by a factor of about 7 x 10 3 over that in the sea water. (U.S.)

  6. Applied radiotracer techniques for studying pollutant bioaccumulation in selected marine organisms (jellyfish, crabs and sea stars)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Teyssie, J.-L.; Cotret, O.; Danis, B.; Warnau, M.; Rouleau, C.

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining specific information on contaminant biokinetics in marine biota is often necessary for properly interpreting monitoring data on trace contaminant levels in bioindicator species living under varying environmental conditions. Radiotracers have been employed in laboratory experiments to assess the uptake, distribution and retention of selected heavy metals and PCB congeners in three potential marine bioindicators occupying different ecological niches in the coastal zone. Pelagic and benthic jellyfish readily accumulated Co, Ag, Zn, Cd, 137 Cs and 241 Am from both water and food and retained them with biological half-lives (Tb1/2) ranging from a few days to several weeks. Zinc and silver were accumulated to the greatest degree (CF ∼ 4 · 10 2 ), with benthic jellyfish having a greater affinity for metals than the pelagic species. Results from light-dark experiments indicate that the enhanced metal uptake in the benthic jellyfish is due to the presence of endosymbiotic photosynthetic zooxanthellae situated in the arms of organisms. Shore crabs ingesting Ag, a sewage-related contaminant, readily accumulated the metal with male crabs assimilating some 71% and female crabs 51% of the Ag from their food. Moreover, the assimilated fraction of Ag remained virtually immobile in their tissues as evidenced by an extremely long Tb1/2 for depuration of 7.3 years. Sea stars exposed to 14 C-labelled PCB congener no. 153 in sea water accumulated the congener mainly in the body wall and podia reaching lipid weight CFs that ranged between approximately 2 · 10 5 to 4 · 10 5 . In contrast, following exposure in radiolabelled sediments, the corresponding PCB transfer factors in the same tissues were much lower, viz., 3 · 10 2 to 5 · 10 2 . Nevertheless, regardless of the exposure mode, CFs of PCB in the other tissues (digestive system, gonads, pyloric and rectal caeca) were consistently one to two orders of magnitude lower, an observation which suggests that sea star body

  7. Molecular characterization of water soluble organic nitrogen in marine rainwater by ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Altieri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric water soluble organic nitrogen (WSON is a subset of the complex organic matter in aerosols and rainwater, which impacts cloud condensation processes and aerosol chemical and optical properties and may play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle of N. However, its sources, composition, connections to inorganic N, and variability are largely unknown. Rainwater samples were collected on the island of Bermuda (32.27° N, 64.87° W, which experiences both anthropogenic and marine influenced air masses. Samples were analyzed by ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to chemically characterize the WSON. Elemental compositions of 2281 N containing compounds were determined over the mass range m/z+ 50 to 500. The five compound classes with the largest number of elemental formulas identified, in order from the highest number of formulas to the lowest, contained carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen (CHON+, CHON compounds that contained sulfur (CHONS+, CHON compounds that contained phosphorus (CHONP+, CHON compounds that contained both sulfur and phosphorus (CHONSP+, and compounds that contained only carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN+. Compared to rainwater collected in the continental USA, average O:C ratios of all N containing compound classes were lower in the marine samples whereas double bond equivalent values were higher, suggesting a reduced role of secondary formation mechanisms. Despite their prevalence in continental rainwater, no organonitrates or nitrooxy-organosulfates were detected, but there was an increased presence of organic S and organic P containing compounds in the marine rainwater. Cluster analysis showed a clear chemical distinction between samples collected during the cold season (October to March which have anthropogenic air mass origins and samples collected during the warm season (April to September with remote

  8. Marine organic geochemistry in industrially affected coastal areas in Greece: Hydrocarbons in surface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocarbons are abundant components of the organic material in coastal zones. Their sources are mainly anthropogenic, but several natural ones have also been recognized. Among hydrocarbons, the polycyclic aromatic ones (PAHs) have received special attention since they considered as hazardous environmental chemicals and are included in priority pollutant lists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distribution, sources and transport pathways of hydrocarbons in marine areas in Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone by using a molecular marker approach, characteristic compositional patterns and related indices and also to evaluate their potential toxicity. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three marine areas: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, affected from the operation of an alumina and production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos, affected from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, affected from a cement production plant. In all the studied areas aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. High aliphatic hydrocarbon (AHC) concentrations (~500 μg/g), indicating significant petroleum related inputs, were measured only in Antikyra bay. In all the other samples, AHC values were below 100 μg/g. N-alkanes were the most prominent resolved components (R) with an elevated odd to even carbon number preference, revealing the high importance of terrestrial inputs in the study areas. The unresolved complex mixture (UCM) was the major component of the aliphatic fraction (UCM/R > 4), indicating a chronic oil pollution. A series of hopanes were also identified, with patterns characteristic of oil-derived hydrocarbons, further confirming the presence of pollutant inputs from fossil fuel products. Extremely high PAH concentrations (> 100,000 ng/g) were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production

  9. Badlands and the Carbon cycle: a significant source of petrogenic organic carbon in rivers and marine environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copard, Yoann; Eyrolle-Boyer, Frederique; Radakovitch, Olivier; Poirel, Alain; Raimbault, Patrick; Lebouteiller, Caroline; Gairoard, Stéphanie; Di-Giovanni, Christian

    2016-04-01

    A key issue in the study of carbon biogeochemical cycle is to well constrain each carbon origin in term of fluxes between all C-reservoirs. From continental surfaces to oceans, rivers convey particulate organic carbon originate from the biomass (biospheric OC) and /or from the sedimentary rocks (petrogenic OC). Existence and importance of this petrogenic OC export to oceans was debated for several decades (see Copard et al., 2007 and ref.), but it is now assumed that 20% of the global carbon export to ocean has a geological origin (Galy et al., 2015). The main current challenge is to constrain the major contributors to this petrogenic OC flux. Amongst the expected sedimentary sources of petrogenic OC in rivers, sedimentary rocks forming badlands can be rightly considered as some viable candidates. Indeed these rocks show a strong erosion rate, may exceed 50 kt km-2 y-1 and in addition, shales, marls and argillaceous rocks, frequently forming badlands (see Nadal-Romero et al., 2011 for the Mediterranean area), contain a significant amount of petrogenic OC (frequently over 0.50 wt. %, Ronov and Yaroshevsky 1976). Our work illustrates the contribution of badlands, mainly distributed within the Durance catchment (a main tributary of the Rhône river), in the petrogenic OC export to the Mediterranean Sea. The approach is based on (i) the use of previous and new data on radiogenic carbon, (ii) bulk organic geochemistry (Rock-Eval pyrolysis), (iii) optical quantification of particulate OM (palynofacies), performed on suspended sediments from the Durance, the Rhône rivers and from small rivers draining the badlands. A mean erosion rate of badlands, previously calculated for instrumented catchments (SOERE Draix-Bléone, Graz et al., 2012) was also applied to the badlands disseminated within the Durance catchment. These different methodologies converge to a petrogenic contribution of the OC export to the Mediterranean Sea close to 30 %. Badlands from the Durance catchment

  10. The 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II: a nonparametric item response analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Ana

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have analyzed the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II using classical omnibus measures of scale quality. These analyses are sample dependent and do not model item responses as a function of the underlying trait level. The main objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the WHO-DAS II items and their options in discriminating between changes in the underlying disability level by means of item response analyses. We also explored differential item functioning (DIF in men and women. Methods The participants were 3615 adult general practice patients from 17 regions of Spain, with a first diagnosed major depressive episode. The 12-item WHO-DAS II was administered by the general practitioners during the consultation. We used a non-parametric item response method (Kernel-Smoothing implemented with the TestGraf software to examine the effectiveness of each item (item characteristic curves and their options (option characteristic curves in discriminating between changes in the underliying disability level. We examined composite DIF to know whether women had a higher probability than men of endorsing each item. Results Item response analyses indicated that the twelve items forming the WHO-DAS II perform very well. All items were determined to provide good discrimination across varying standardized levels of the trait. The items also had option characteristic curves that showed good discrimination, given that each increasing option became more likely than the previous as a function of increasing trait level. No gender-related DIF was found on any of the items. Conclusions All WHO-DAS II items were very good at assessing overall disability. Our results supported the appropriateness of the weights assigned to response option categories and showed an absence of gender differences in item functioning.

  11. Transfer of organic carbon through marine water columns to sediments – insights from stable and radiocarbon isotopes of lipid biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    S. G. Wakeham; A. P. McNichol

    2014-01-01

    Compound-specific 13C and 14C compositions of diverse lipid biomarkers (fatty acids, alkenones, hydrocarbons, sterols and fatty alcohols) were measured in sinking particulate matter collected in sediment traps and from underlying surface sediments in the Black Sea, the Arabian Sea and the Ross Sea. The goal was to develop a multiparameter approach to constrain relative inputs of organic carbon (OC) from marine biomass, terrigenous vascular-plant and relict-kerogen sources. U...

  12. Secondary ion mass spectrometry and environment. SIMS as applied to the detection of stable and radioactive isotopes in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassard-Bouchaud, C.; Escaig, F.; Hallegot, P.

    1984-01-01

    Several marine species of economical interest, Crustacea (crabs and prawns) and Molluscs (common mussels and oysters) were collected from coastal waters of France: English Channel, Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea and of Japan. Microanalyses which were performed at the tissue and cell levels, using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, revealed many contaminants; stable isotopes as well as radioactive actinids such as uranium were detected. Uptake, storage and excretion target organs were identified [fr

  13. δ11B as monitor of calcification site pH in divergent marine calcifying organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Sutton

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The boron isotope composition (δ11B of marine biogenic carbonates has been predominantly studied as a proxy for monitoring past changes in seawater pH and carbonate chemistry. However, a number of assumptions regarding chemical kinetics and thermodynamic isotope exchange reactions are required to derive seawater pH from δ11B biogenic carbonates. It is also probable that δ11B of biogenic carbonate reflects seawater pH at the organism's site of calcification, which may or may not reflect seawater pH. Here, we report the development of methodology for measuring the δ11B of biogenic carbonate samples at the multi-collector inductively coupled mass spectrometry facility at Ifremer (Plouzané, France and the evaluation of δ11BCaCO3 in a diverse range of marine calcifying organisms reared for 60 days in isothermal seawater (25 °C equilibrated with an atmospheric pCO2 of ca. 409 µatm. Average δ11BCaCO3 composition for all species evaluated in this study range from 16.27 to 35.09 ‰, including, in decreasing order, coralline red alga Neogoniolithion sp. (35.89 ± 3.71 ‰, temperate coral Oculina arbuscula (24.12 ± 0.19 ‰, serpulid worm Hydroides crucigera (19.26 ± 0.16 ‰, tropical urchin Eucidaris tribuloides (18.71 ± 0.26 ‰, temperate urchin Arbacia punctulata (16.28 ± 0.86 ‰, and temperate oyster Crassostrea virginica (16.03 ‰. These results are discussed in the context of each species' proposed mechanism of biocalcification and other factors that could influence skeletal and shell δ11B, including calcifying site pH, the proposed direct incorporation of isotopically enriched boric acid (instead of borate into biogenic calcium carbonate, and differences in shell/skeleton polymorph mineralogy. We conclude that the large inter-species variability in δ11BCaCO3 (ca. 20 ‰ and significant discrepancies between measured δ11BCaCO3 and δ11BCaCO3 expected from established relationships

  14. Phenotypic plasticity or speciation? A case from a clonal marine organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshioka Paul M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clonal marine organisms exhibit high levels of morphological variation. Morphological differences may be a response to environmental factors but also they can be attributed to accumulated genetic differences due to disruption of gene flow among populations. In this study, we examined the extensive morphological variation (of 14 characters in natural populations observed in the gorgonian Eunicea flexuosa, a widely distributed Caribbean octocoral. Eco-phenotypic and genetic effects were evaluated by reciprocal transplants of colonies inhabiting opposite ends of the depth gradient and analysis of population genetics of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, respectively. Results Significant differences (P 17 m. A discriminant function analysis based on a priori univariate and multivariate analyses (which separated the colonies in morphotypes correctly classified 93% of the colonies for each environment. Light, water motion and sediment transport might influence the distribution of the two morphotypes. Reaction norms of morphological characters of colonies reciprocally transplanted showed gradual significant changes through the 15 months of transplantation. Sclerites of shallow water colonies became larger when transplanted to deeper environments and vice versa, but neither of the two transplanted groups overlapped with the residents' morphology. Genetic analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear genes suggested that such discrete morphology and non-overlapping phenotypic plasticity is correlated with the presence of two independent evolutionary lineages. The distribution of the lineages is non-random and may be related to adaptational responses of each lineage to the environmental demands of each habitat. Conclusion The extensive distribution and ample morphological variation of Eunicea flexuosa corresponds to two distinct genetic lineages with narrower distributions and more rigid phenotypic plasticity than the original description. The

  15. Antimicrobial activity of marine organisms collected off the coast of South East India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rodrigues, E.; Tilvi, S.; Naik, C.G.

    In vitro antimicrobial screening of nine marine sponges (Porifera) and two seaweeds, collected from south east coast of India, against selected clinical isolates of bacteria and fungi was conducted in this study. Methanolic extracts of all...

  16. US annual report to the ICES working group on introductions and transfers of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides annual update on new introductions to the US, new regulations, and major research/management efforts in the US related to marine invasive species, with focus on activities in the North Atlantic

  17. Bioactivity of marine organisms: Part 7- Effect of seaweed extract on central nervous system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Naik, C.G.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Jain, S.; Goel, A.K.; Srimal, R.C.

    Alcohol extracts of marine algae (Rhodophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Chlorophyceae) was screened for their effect on central nervous system. Of 69 species investigated 8 appeared biologically active, 6 being CNS stimulant, sites and dates of collection...

  18. Technetium-99 content in some marine organisms collected near La Hague, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, L.; Patti, F.; Cappellini, L.; Masson, M.; Germain, P.

    1981-01-01

    Analyses for 99 Tc in some marine biological samples taken near the outlet of the low level radioactive effluent pipeline of the nuclear reprocessing plant of La Hague, France, gave positive results. From 500 to 3500 pCi kg -1 wet weight of 99 Tc were observed in brown algae; Fucus sp. appeared to be a good indicator of this long-lived radionuclide in a marine environment. (author)

  19. Marine mammal blubber reference and control materials for use in the determination of halogenated organic compounds and fatty acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucklick, John R.; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Becker, Paul R. [Hollings Marine Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Charleston, SC (United States); Schantz, Michele M.; Porter, Barbara J.; Poster, Dianne L.; Leigh, Stefan; Wise, Stephen A. [NIST, Analytical Chemistry Division, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Rowles, Teri K. [National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a diverse collection of control materials derived from marine mammal blubber, fat, and serum. Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1945 Organics in Whale Blubber was recertified for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners. SRM 1945 has also been assigned mass fraction values for compounds not frequently determined in marine samples including toxaphene congeners, coplanar PCBs, and methoxylated PBDE congeners which are natural products. NIST also has assigned mass fraction values, as a result of interlaboratory comparison exercises, for PCB congeners, organochlorine pesticides, PBDE congeners, and fatty acids in six homogenate materials produced from marine mammal blubber or serum. The materials are available from NIST upon request; however, the supply is very limited for some of the materials. The materials include those obtained from pilot whale blubber (Homogenates III and IV), Blainville's beaked whale blubber (Homogenate VII), polar bear fat (Homogenate VI), and California sea lion serum (Marine Mammal Control Material-1 Serum) and blubber (Homogenate V). (orig.)

  20. Riverine dominance of a nearshore marine demersal food web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine (i) the importance of riverine and marine organic matter for the Thukela Bank food web; and (ii) whether there are seasonal changes in the Thukela River stable isotope values, and, if so, whether these are reflected in the isotope values of demersal organisms. Estuarine organic matter ...

  1. Bio-prospecting of Plants and Marine Organisms in Saudi Arabia for New Potential Bioactivity

    KAUST Repository

    Hajjar, Dina A.

    2016-12-08

    demonstrates the efficiency of the newly developed pipeline using cell-based phenotypic screening. Anti-cancer potential activity was detected in Juniperus phoenicea. Bioactive potential against the reverse transcriptase enzyme of HIV virus was confirmed in Avicennia marina leaves. The organic extracts of Actinomycetes bacterial isolates were found active against West Nile Virus NS3 Protease. Here, promising starting point for the potential of drug discovery of plants and marine organism of Saudi Arabia.

  2. Evaluation of the Marine Algae Gracilaria and its Activated Carbon for the Adsorption of Ni(II from Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esmaeili

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The batch removal of Ni2+ from aqueous solution and wastewater using marine dried (MD red algae Gracilaria and its activated carbon (AC was studied. For these experiments, adsorption of Ni2+ was used to form two biomasses of AC and MD. Both methods used different pH values, biomass and initial concentration of Ni2+. Subsequently adsorption models and kinetic studies were carried out. The maximum efficiencies of Ni2+ removal were 83.55% and 99.04% for MD and AC respectively developed from it. The experimental adsorption data were fitted to the Langmuir adsorption model. The nickel(II uptake by the biosorbents was best described by pseudo-second order rate model. The kinetic studies showed that the heavy metal uptake was observed more rapidly by the AC with compared to MD. AC method developed from MD biomass exhibited higher biosorption capacity. Adsorption capacity is related to the pH of solution, pH 5.0 is optimal for nickel. The maximum efficiencies of Ni2+ removal were for AC method. The capacity is related to the pH of solution, pH 5.0 is optimal for nickel. The equilibrium adsorption data are correlated by Langmuir isotherm equation. The adsorption kinetic data can be described by the second order kinetic models

  3. High summertime aerosol organic functional group concentrations from marine and seabird sources at Ross Island, Antarctica, during AWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Observations of the organic components of the natural aerosol are scarce in Antarctica, which limits our understanding of natural aerosols and their connection to seasonal and spatial patterns of cloud albedo in the region. From November 2015 to December 2016, the ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE measured submicron aerosol properties near McMurdo Station at the southern tip of Ross Island. Submicron organic mass (OM, particle number, and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations were higher in summer than other seasons. The measurements included a range of compositions and concentrations that likely reflected both local anthropogenic emissions and natural background sources. We isolated the natural organic components by separating a natural factor and a local combustion factor. The natural OM was 150 times higher in summer than in winter. The local anthropogenic emissions were not hygroscopic and had little contribution to the CCN concentrations. Natural sources that included marine sea spray and seabird emissions contributed 56 % OM in summer but only 3 % in winter. The natural OM had high hydroxyl group fraction (55 %, 6 % alkane, and 6 % amine group mass, consistent with marine organic composition. In addition, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra showed the natural sources of organic aerosol were characterized by amide group absorption, which may be from seabird populations. Carboxylic acid group contributions were high in summer and associated with natural sources, likely forming by secondary reactions.

  4. From fresh to marine waters: characterization and fate of dissolved organic matter in the Lena River delta region, Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael eGonçalves-Araujo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Connectivity between the terrestrial and marine environment in the Artic is changing as a result of climate change, influencing both freshwater budgets and the supply of carbon to the sea. This study characterizes the optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM within the Lena Delta region and evaluates the behavior of DOM across the fresh water-marine gradient. Six fluorescent components (four humic-like; one marine humic-like; one protein-like were identified by Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC with a clear dominance of allochthonous humic-like signals. Colored DOM (CDOM and dissolved organic carbon (DOC were highly correlated and had their distribution coupled with hydrographical conditions. Higher DOM concentration and degree of humification were associated with the low salinity waters of the Lena River. Values decreased towards the higher salinity Laptev Sea shelf waters. Results demonstrate different responses of DOM mixing in relation to the vertical structure of the water column, as reflecting the hydrographical dynamics in the region. Two mixing curves for DOM were apparent. In surface waters above the pycnocline there was a sharper decrease in DOM concentration in relation to salinity indicating removal. In the bottom water layer the DOM decrease within salinity was less. We propose there is a removal of DOM occurring primarily at the surface layer, which is likely driven by photodegradation and flocculation.

  5. Effects of ocean acidification on marine dissolved organic matter are not detectable over the succession of phytoplankton blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zark, Maren; Riebesell, Ulf; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2015-10-01

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the largest active organic carbon reservoirs on Earth, and changes in its pool size or composition could have a major impact on the global carbon cycle. Ocean acidification is a potential driver for these changes because it influences marine primary production and heterotrophic respiration. We simulated ocean acidification as expected for a "business-as-usual" emission scenario in the year 2100 in an unprecedented long-term mesocosm study. The large-scale experiments (50 m(3) each) covered a full seasonal cycle of marine production in a Swedish Fjord. Five mesocosms were artificially enriched in CO2 to the partial pressure expected in the year 2100 (900 μatm), and five more served as controls (400 μatm). We applied ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry to monitor the succession of 7360 distinct DOM formulae over the course of the experiment. Plankton blooms had a clear effect on DOM concentration and molecular composition. This succession was reproducible across all 10 mesocosms, independent of CO2 treatment. In contrast to the temporal trend, there were no significant differences in DOM concentration and composition between present-day and year 2100 CO2 levels at any time point of the experiment. On the basis of our results, ocean acidification alone is unlikely to affect the seasonal accumulation of DOM in productive coastal environments.

  6. Size exclusion and anion exchange high performance liquid chromatography for characterizing metals bound to marine dissolved organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Otero, Natalia; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fractionation methods for assessing metals bound to marine DOM were developed. ► SEC and AEC with UV detection and hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry were used. ► SEC-UV showed marine DOM of molecular weights from 16 to 1 kDa. ► Cobalt, manganese, strontium and zinc are bound to marine DOM. - Abstract: Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) followed by anion exchange chromatography (AEC) hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied for fractionating metals bound to marine dissolved organic matter (DOM). Surface seawater samples (100 L) were subjected to tangential flow ultrafiltration (10,000 Da cut off) for isolating and pre-concentrating dissolved large molecules. The isolated fraction (retentate) consisted of 1 L, which was further freeze-dried and re-dissolved to 250 mL with ultrapure water. After HI Trap desalting of the re-dissolved retentate, SEC with UV detection showed marine DOM ranging from 6.5 kDa (lower than the permeable volume of the SEC column) to 16 kDa. A further characterization of this fraction by AEC with UV detection revealed the existence of four groups of macromolecules exhibiting retention times of 2.3, 2.8, 4.5 and 14.0 min. AEC hyphenated with ICP-MS showed the presence of strontium and zinc in the first AE fraction isolated from the SEC fraction; while manganese was found to be bound to the second AE fraction. Cobalt was found to be bound to molecules comprising the third AE fraction.

  7. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Ivan, E-mail: ivanmuno@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Martinez Bueno, Maria J., E-mail: mjbueno@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Agueera, Ana, E-mail: aaguera@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R., E-mail: amadeo@ual.e [Departamento de Hidrogeologia y Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. - Exposure and effects of twelve organic micro-pollutants are evaluated at a Spanish fish farm.

  8. Environmental and human health risk assessment of organic micro-pollutants occurring in a Spanish marine fish farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Ivan; Martinez Bueno, Maria J.; Agueera, Ana; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work the risk posed to seawater organisms, predators and humans is assessed, as a consequence of exposure to 12 organic micro-pollutants, namely metronidazole, trimethoprim, erythromycin, simazine, flumequine, carbaryl, atrazine, diuron, terbutryn, irgarol, diphenyl sulphone (DPS) and 2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMTB). The risk assessment study is based on a 1-year monitoring study at a Spanish marine fish farm, involving passive sampling techniques. The results showed that the risk threshold for irgarol concerning seawater organisms is exceeded. On the other hand, the risk to predators and especially humans through consumption of fish is very low, due to the low bioconcentration potential of the substances assessed. - Exposure and effects of twelve organic micro-pollutants are evaluated at a Spanish fish farm.

  9. Production of heterotrophic bacteria inhabiting macroscopic organic aggregates (marine snow) from surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alldredge, A.L.; Cole, J.J.; Caron, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Macroscopic detrital aggregates, known as marine snow, are a ubiquitous and abundant component of the marine pelagic zone. Descriptions of microbial communities occurring at densities 2-5 orders of magnitude higher on these particles than in the surrounding seawater have led to the suggestion that marine snow may be a site of intense heterotrophic activity. The authors tested this hypothesis using incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into macromolecules as a measure of bacterial growth occurring on marine snow from oceanic waters in the North Atlantic and from neritic waters off southern California. Abundances of marine snow ranged from 0.1 to 4.3 aggregates per liter. However, only 0.1-4% ration per cell on aggregates was generally equal to or lower than that of bacteria found free-living in the surrounding seawater, indicating that attached bacteria were not growing more rapidly than free-living bacteria. Bacteria inhabiting aggregates were up to 25 times larger than free-living forms

  10. Microbial colonization and degradation of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic bags in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauendorf, Alice; Krause, Stefan; Bigalke, Nikolaus K; Gorb, Elena V; Gorb, Stanislav N; Haeckel, Matthias; Wahl, Martin; Treude, Tina

    2016-02-15

    To date, the longevity of plastic litter at the sea floor is poorly constrained. The present study compares colonization and biodegradation of plastic bags by aerobic and anaerobic benthic microbes in temperate fine-grained organic-rich marine sediments. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic carrier bags were incubated in natural oxic and anoxic sediments from Eckernförde Bay (Western Baltic Sea) for 98 days. Analyses included (1) microbial colonization rates on the bags, (2) examination of the surface structure, wettability, and chemistry, and (3) mass loss of the samples during incubation. On average, biodegradable plastic bags were colonized five times higher by aerobic and eight times higher by anaerobic microbes than polyethylene bags. Both types of bags showed no sign of biodegradation during this study. Therefore, marine sediment in temperate coastal zones may represent a long-term sink for plastic litter and also supposedly compostable material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A model compound study: the ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants employing a battery of marine bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, Ailbhe; Giltrap, Michelle; Foley, Barry; McGovern, Evin; McHugh, Brendan; Davoren, Maria

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the ecotoxicological evaluation of five organic contaminants frequently detected in marine sediments (tributyltin, triphenyltin, benzo[a]pyrene, fluoranthene, and PCB 153) using three marine species (Vibrio fischeri, Tetraselmis suecica, and Tisbe battagliai). The sensitivity of each species varied for all compounds. The triorganotins were consistently the most toxic to all species. The applicability of each test system to assess the acute toxicity of environmental contaminants and their use in Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) is discussed. Suitability of the Microtox and T. battagliai tests for employment in TIE studies were further assessed through spiking experiments with tributyltin. Results demonstrated that the most effective treatment to remove organotin toxicity from the sample was the C18 resin. The results of this study have important implications for risk assessment in estuarine and coastal waters in Ireland, where, at present the monitoring of sediment and water quality is predominantly reliant on chemical analysis alone.

  12. Some trace elements in the waters, marine organisms and sediments of the Adriatic by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosta, L.; Ravnik, V.; Byrne, A.R.; Dermelj, M.; Stirn, J.

    1978-01-01

    A number of investigations of trace elements in the waters, organisms and sediments of the Adriatic, using neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separations are reported. These include studies of Hg in mussels from the Northern Adriatic, of Hg and Se in edible animals from the Rijeka region, and of seven elements (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Se and Zn) in marine invertebrates from the Slovene coast. Additionally, plankton, sediment cores and water samples were taken from a grid of stations covering the whole Adriatic and analyzed for 6 to 11 of the trace elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Sb and Zn (Hg only in water). Generally, levels found were not indicative of pollution as compared with oceanic samples, but some evidence of locally increased levels was found, especially for Hg. The levels of eleven trace elements in three marine Intercomparison samples prepared by the IAEA Monaco Laboratory are also presented. (T.G.)

  13. Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruban, A.V.; Wentworth, M.; Yakushevska, A.E.; Andersson, J.; Lee, P.J.; Keegstra, W.; Dekker, J.P.; Boekema, E.J.; Jansson, S.; Horton, P.

    2003-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a key component of photosynthesis, the process of converting sunlight into the chemical energy of life. In plant cells, it forms a unique oligomeric macrostructure in membranes of the chloroplasts. Several light-harvesting antenna complexes are organized precisely in the

  14. Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruban, AV; Wentworth, M; Yakushevska, AE; Andersson, J; Lee, PJ; Keegstra, W; Dekker, JP; Boekema, EJ; Jansson, S; Horton, P

    2003-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a key component of photosynthesis, the process of converting sunlight into the chemical energy of life. In plant cells, it forms a unique oligomeric macrostructure in membranes of the chloroplasts(1). Several light-harvesting antenna complexes are organized precisely in the

  15. Ubiquitous presence of Fe(II) in aquatic colloids and its association with organic carbon

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    von der Heyden, BP

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available and freshwater environments. We show that Fe(II)-rich phases are prevalent throughout different aquatic regimes yet exhibit a high degree of chemical heterogeneity. Furthermore, we show that Fe-rich particles show strong associations with organic carbon...

  16. Mexican Americans on the Home Front: Community Organizations in Arizona during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Christine

    During World War II Arizona's Mexican-American communities organized their own patriotic activities and worked, in spite of racism, to support the war effort. In Phoenix the Lenadores del Mundo, an active fraternal society, began this effort by sponsoring a festival in January 1942. Such "mutualistas" provided an essential support system…

  17. A study on the 210Po distribution in marine organisms around the coastal waters of Mumbai Harbour Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemalatha, P.; Preetha, J.; Madhuparna, D.; Narayani, K.; Vandana, P.; Ravi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The near-shore environment and the surface oceans are very reactive zones with heavy geochemical and biological activity. Among the natural radionuclide, Po assumes importance as it is a good representative isotope of naturally occurring radionuclide present in the sea water which is particle reactive and high-energy alpha emitter. The source of Po is mainly from the diffusion of 222 Rn gas from its parent 238 U decay product 226 Ra. 210 Po gets accumulated in very high level in organisms and thus becomes responsible for the internal radiation dose to human. The main path for entry of the activity into human-is through consumption of marine food. This paper presents the results on the study conducted to investigate the 210 Po accumulation in the marine organism around Mumbai. The results were compared with 210 Po activity in representative marine organisms from eastern and western coastal India. Twelve different varieties of marine organisms (Fish, Crab, Prawns) consumed by the local population were collected from the catch at the shore and from the local fish markets. 210 Po was estimate in the organisms and in the sea water by standard radiochemical analysis. The edible portion of the organism were separated, freeze dried, acid digested at controlled temperature of 90℃ and the residue was extracted in 0.5M HCI. 210 Po in sea water was concentrated using Fe(OH) 3 scavenging followed by extraction by 0.5M HCI. Po was further separated from the acid extract by spontaneous deposition on to a Ag disk at 80℃. Alpha activity in the deposited sample was estimated using Alpha spectrometry. 208 Po and 209 Po tracers were used as yield monitor. 210 Po was observed to be in the range of <0.008-8.39 Bq.kg -1 in fish varieties. In prawns, activity was in the range of <0.008-1.41 Bq.kg -1 . Bioaccumulation factor was calculated and the values were compared with the IAEA reported values and discussed. (author)

  18. Modeling the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II using non-parametric item response models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Hidalgo, María Dolores; Guilera, Georgina; Pino, Oscar; Rojo, J Emilio; Gómez-Benito, Juana

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) is a multidimensional instrument developed for measuring disability. It comprises six domains (getting around, self-care, getting along with others, life activities and participation in society). The main purpose of this paper is the evaluation of the psychometric properties for each domain of the WHO-DAS II with parametric and non-parametric Item Response Theory (IRT) models. A secondary objective is to assess whether the WHO-DAS II items within each domain form a hierarchy of invariantly ordered severity indicators of disability. A sample of 352 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder is used in this study. The 36 items WHO-DAS II was administered during the consultation. Partial Credit and Mokken scale models are used to study the psychometric properties of the questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the WHO-DAS II scale are satisfactory for all the domains. However, we identify a few items that do not discriminate satisfactorily between different levels of disability and cannot be invariantly ordered in the scale. In conclusion the WHO-DAS II can be used to assess overall disability in patients with schizophrenia, but some domains are too general to assess functionality in these patients because they contain items that are not applicable to this pathology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Influence of continental organic aerosols to the marine atmosphere over the East China Sea: Insights from lipids, PAHs and phthalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mingjie; Yang, Fan; Ren, Hong; Zhao, Wanyu; Zhao, Ye; Li, Linjie; Yan, Yu; Zhang, Yingjie; Lai, Senchao; Zhang, Yingyi; Yang, Yang; Wang, Zifa; Sun, Yele; Fu, Pingqing

    2017-12-31

    Total suspended particle (TSP) samples were collected during a marine cruise in the East China Sea from May 18 to June 12, 2014. They were analyzed for solvent extractable organic compounds (lipid compounds, PAHs and phthalates) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to better understand the sources and source apportionment of aerosol pollution in the western North Pacific. Higher concentrations were observed in the terrestrially influenced aerosol samples on the basis of five-day backward air mass trajectories, especially for aerosols collected near coastal areas. Phthalates were found to be the dominant species among these measured compound classes (707±401ngm -3 for daytime and 313±155ngm -3 for nighttime), followed by fatty acids, fatty alcohols, n-alkanes and PAHs. In general, the daytime abundances for these compounds are higher than nighttime, possibly attributable to more intensive anthropogenic activities during the daytime. The factor analysis indicates that biomass burning, fungal activities and fossil fuel combustion maybe the main emission sources for organic aerosols over the East China Sea. This study demonstrates that the East Asian continent can be a natural emitter of biogenic and anthropogenic organics to the marine atmosphere through long-range transport, which controls the chemical composition and concentration of organic aerosols over the East China Sea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Variation in bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants based on octanol-air partitioning: Influence of respiratory elimination in marine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Sara K; Harley, John R; Lieske, Camilla L; Muir, Derek C G; Whiting, Alex V; O'Hara, Todd M

    2015-11-15

    Risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are often based on octanol-water (KOW) partitioning dynamics and may not adequately reflect bioaccumulation in air-breathing organisms. It has been suggested that compounds with low KOW and high octanol-air partitioning (KOA) coefficients have the potential to bioaccumulate in air-breathing organisms, including marine mammals. Here we evaluate differences in concentrations of POPs for two trophically matched Arctic species, spotted seal (Phoca largha) and sheefish (Stenodus leucichthys). We compared concentrations of 108 POPs in matched tissues (liver and muscle) across three ranges of KOW. We found a significant positive correlation between POP concentration and log KOA in spotted seal tissues for low log KOW compounds (log KOW <5.5, p<0.05). This provides further evidence for empirical models and observed bioaccumulation patterns in air-breathing organisms, and highlights the potential for bioaccumulation of these compounds in Arctic marine mammals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Simulated coal spill causes mortality and growth inhibition in tropical marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kathryn L E; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P

    2016-05-13

    Coal is a principal fossil fuel driving economic and social development, and increases in global coal shipments have paralleled expansion of the industry. To identify the potential harm associated with chronic marine coal contamination, three taxa abundant in tropical marine ecosystems (the coral Acropora tenuis, the reef fish Acanthochromis polyacanthus and the seagrass Halodule uninervis) were exposed to five concentrations (0-275 mg coal l(-1)) of suspended coal dust (coal exposure can cause considerable lethal effects on corals, and reductions in seagrass and fish growth rates. Coral survivorship and seagrass growth rates were inversely related to increasing coal concentrations (≥38 mg coal l(-1)) and effects increased between 14 and 28 d, whereas fish growth rates were similarly depressed at all coal concentrations tested. This investigation provides novel insights into direct coal impacts on key tropical taxa for application in the assessment of risks posed by increasing coal shipments in globally threatened marine ecosystems.

  2. A review on organic spintronic materials and devices: II. Magnetoresistance in organic spin valves and spin organic light emitting diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugang Geng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the preceding review paper, Paper I [Journal of Science: Advanced Materials and Devices 1 (2016 128–140], we showed the major experimental and theoretical studies on the first organic spintronic subject, namely organic magnetoresistance (OMAR in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs. The topic has recently been of renewed interest as a result of a demonstration of the magneto-conductance (MC that exceeds 1000% at room temperature using a certain type of organic compounds and device operating condition. In this report, we will review two additional organic spintronic devices, namely organic spin valves (OSVs where only spin polarized holes exist to cause magnetoresistance (MR, and spin organic light emitting diodes (spin-OLEDs where both spin polarized holes and electrons are injected into the organic emissive layer to form a magneto-electroluminescence (MEL hysteretic loop. First, we outline the major advances in OSV studies for understanding the underlying physics of the spin transport mechanism in organic semiconductors (OSCs and the spin injection/detection at the organic/ferromagnet interface (spinterface. We also highlight some of outstanding challenges in this promising research field. Second, the first successful demonstration of spin-OLEDs is reviewed. We also discuss challenges to achieve the high performance devices. Finally, we suggest an outlook on the future of organic spintronics by using organic single crystals and aligned polymers for the spin transport layer, and a self-assembled monolayer to achieve more controllability for the spinterface.

  3. Butyltin compounds in biofilm and marine organisms from the Dona Paula Bay, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.

    waters of California, USA (Stephenson 1991). In the C. gigas collected from the Gulf of Mexico, the TBT levels varied from 49 to 3559 ng/g (Wade, Garcia-Romero, and Brooks 1991). TBT concentrations re corded during this study suggest that TBT compounds... Indian waters Marine Environmental Research 48:123-130 Wade T L, Garcia-Romero B, and Brooks J M. 1991 Oysters as bio-monitors of butyltins in the Gulf of Mexico Marine Environmental Research 32: 233-241 ...

  4. Geochemical imprint of depositional conditions on organic matter in laminated-Bioturbated interbeds from fine-grained marine sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, L.M.; Claypool, G.E.; King, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Laminated organic-rich shales are interbedded at a scale of centimeters to a few meters with bioturbated organic-poor mudstones or limestones in some fine-grained marine sequences. We have analyzed the organic matter in pairs of laminated/bioturbated interbeds from Cretaceous and Devonian rocks deposited in epicontinental and oceanic settings for the purpose of studying the influence of depositional and early diagenetic environment on the organic geochemical properties of marine shales. Results of these analyses indicate that for rocks that are still in a diagenetic stage of thermal alteration, the relative abundance of biomarker compounds and specific biomarker indices can be useful indicators of depositional and early diagenetic conditions. Pristane/phytane ratios are generally highest for laminated rocks from epicontinental basins and appear to reflect the input of isoprenoid precursors more than oxygenated versus anoxic depositional conditions. The thermally immature laminated rocks are characterized by relatively high contents of 17??(H), 21??(H)-hopanes, hopenes, sterenes and diasterenes, and by strong predominance of the 22R over 22S homohopane isomers. Thermally immature bioturbated samples are characterized by absence of the ??,??-hopanes, by low contents of both saturated and unsaturated polycyclic hydrocarbons, and by slight or no predominance of the 22R over 22S homohopane isomers. There are less obvious compositional differences between the saturated hydrocarbons in the laminated and bioturbated units from the thermally mature sequences. For both the thermally mature and immature laminated samples, the degree of isomerization at the 22C position for hopanes and at the 20C position for steranes is generally consistent with the degree of thermal maturity interpreted from other properties of the organic matter. The bioturbated samples, however, exhibit inconsistent and anomalously high degrees of isomerization for the homohopanes, resulting either from

  5. CTD, marine invertebrate pathology, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data collected using CTD casts and other instruments from SEA TRANSPORTER and other platforms in Gulf of Mexico from 1978-05-20 to 1979-01-15 (NODC Accession 8000022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, marine invertebrate pathology, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data were collected using CTD, net casts, and other instruments...

  6. Study of some modern carbonated marine organisms, using U234/U238 activities and its uranium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregnolatto, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Several types of alive carbonated organisms of marine fluvial or mixed environment origin were analized in its concentrations of Uranium and about its activity ratio U 234 /U 238 . In the same way measurements were made from the water of these three types of environments. The results indicate that the mollusks shells show a very low concentration compared with corals. Its concentration varies from 0.04 to 0.33 ppm. Inside the limit of errors we can say that the several types of carbonated organisms show the same disequilibrium U 234 /U 238 which was found in associated waters. An analysis of a piece of wood from long time immersed in the sea water was made. The result indicates that there was a marked high in concentration of Uranium due to chelatation with organic matter. (C.D.G.) [pt

  7. Flow enhances photosynthesis in marine benthic autotrophs by increasing the efflux of oxygen from the organism to the water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass, Tali; Genin, Amatzia; Shavit, Uri; Grinstein, Mor; Tchernov, Dan

    2010-02-09

    Worldwide, many marine coastal habitats are facing rapid deterioration due in part to human-driven changes in habitat characteristics, including changes in flow patterns, a factor known to greatly affect primary production in corals, algae, and seagrasses. The effect of flow traditionally is attributed to enhanced influx of nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) across the benthic boundary layer from the water to the organism however, here we report that the organism's photosynthetic response to changes in the flow is nearly instantaneous, and that neither nutrients nor DIC limits this rapid response. Using microelectrodes, dual-pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry, particle image velocimetry, and real time mass-spectrometry with the common scleractinian coral Favia veroni, the alga Gracilaria cornea, and the seagrass Halophila stipulacea, we show that this augmented photosynthesis is due to flow-driven enhancement of oxygen efflux from the organism to the water, which increases the affinity of the RuBisCO to CO(2). No augmentation of photosynthesis was found in the absence of flow or when flow occurred, but the ambient concentration of oxygen was artificially elevated. We suggest that water motion should be considered a fundamental factor, equivalent to light and nutrients, in determining photosynthesis rates in marine benthic autotrophs.

  8. A new marine sediment certified reference material (CRM) for the determination of persistent organic contaminants: IAEA-459.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, Imma; Cassi, Roberto; Huertas, David

    2018-04-11

    A new marine sediment certified reference material (IAEA 459) with very low concentrations (μg kg -1 ) for a variety of persistent organic contaminants (POPs) listed by the Stockholm Convention, as well as other POPs and priority substances (PSs) listed in many environmental monitoring programs was developed by the IAEA. The sediment material was collected from the Ham River estuary in South Korea, and the assigned final values were derived from robust statistics on the results provided by selected laboratories which demonstrated technical and quality competence, following the guidance given in ISO Guide 35. The robust mean of the laboratory means was assigned as certified values, for those compounds where the assigned value was derived from at least five datasets and its relative expanded uncertainty was less than 40% of the assigned value (most of the values ranging from 8 to 20%). All the datasets were derived from at least two different analytical techniques which have allowed the assignment of certified concentrations for 22 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 6 organochlorinated (OC) pesticides, 5 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs). Mass fractions of compounds that did not fulfill the criteria of certification are considered information values, which include 29 PAHs, 11 PCBs, 16 OC pesticides, and 5 PBDEs. The extensive characterization and associated uncertainties at concentration levels close to the marine sediment quality guidelines will make CRM 459 a valuable matrix reference material for use in marine environmental monitoring programs.

  9. Effect of Terrestrial and Marine Organic Aerosol on Regional and Global Climate: Model Development, Application, and Verification with Satellite Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Zhang, Yang; Kamykowski, Daniel

    2012-03-28

    In this DOE project the improvements to parameterization of marine primary organic matter (POM) emissions, hygroscopic properties of marine POM, marine isoprene derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) emissions, surfactant effects, new cloud droplet activation parameterization have been implemented into Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 5.0), with a seven mode aerosol module from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)'s Modal Aerosol Model (MAM7). The effects of marine aerosols derived from sea spray and ocean emitted biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) on microphysical properties of clouds were explored by conducting 10 year CAM5.0-MAM7 model simulations at a grid resolution 1.9° by 2.5° with 30 vertical layers. Model-predicted relationship between ocean physical and biological systems and the abundance of CCN in remote marine atmosphere was compared to data from the A-Train satellites (MODIS, CALIPSO, AMSR-E). Model simulations show that on average, primary and secondary organic aerosol emissions from the ocean can yield up to 20% increase in Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) at 0.2% Supersaturation, and up to 5% increases in droplet number concentration of global maritime shallow clouds. Marine organics were treated as internally or externally mixed with sea salt. Changes associated with cloud properties reduced (absolute value) the model-predicted short wave cloud forcing from -1.35 Wm-2 to -0.25 Wm-2. By using different emission scenarios, and droplet activation parameterizations, this study suggests that addition of marine primary aerosols and biologically generated reactive gases makes an important difference in radiative forcing assessments. All baseline and sensitivity simulations for 2001 and 2050 using global-through-urban WRF/Chem (GU-WRF) were completed. The main objective of these simulations was to evaluate the capability of GU-WRF for an accurate representation of the global atmosphere by exploring the most accurate

  10. Detection of Copper (II) and Cadmium (II) binding to dissolved organic matter from macrophyte decomposition by fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra combined with parallel factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Dong-hai; Guo, Xu-jing; Wen, Li; He, Lian-sheng; Wang, Jing-gang; Li, Jun-qi

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from macrophyte decomposition, and to study its complexation with Cu (II) and Cd (II). Both the protein-like and the humic-like components showed a marked quenching effect by Cu (II). Negligible quenching effects were found for Cd (II) by components 1, 5 and 6. The stability constants and the fraction of the binding fluorophores for humic-like components and Cu (II) can be influenced by macrophyte decomposition of various weight gradients in aquatic plants. Macrophyte decomposition within the scope of the appropriate aquatic phytomass can maximize the stability constant of DOM-metal complexes. A large amount of organic matter was introduced into the aquatic environment by macrophyte decomposition, suggesting that the potential risk of DOM as a carrier of heavy metal contamination in macrophytic lakes should not be ignored. - Highlights: • Macrophyte decomposition increases fluorescent DOM components in the upper sediment. • Protein-like components are quenched or enhanced by adding Cu (II) and Cd (II). • Macrophyte decomposition DOM can impact the affinity of Cu (II) and Cd (II). • The log K M and f values showed a marked change due to macrophyte decomposition. • Macrophyte decomposition can maximize the stability constant of DOM-Cu (II) complexes. - Macrophyte decomposition DOM can influence on the binding affinity of metal ions in macrophytic lakes

  11. Kinetic studies of electrochemical generation of Ag(II) ion and catalytic oxidation of selected organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawodzinski, C.; Smith, W.H.; Martinez, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a method to treat mixed hazardous wastes containing selected organic compounds and heavy metals, including actinide elements. One approach is to destroy the organic via electrochemical oxidation to carbon dioxide, then recover the metal contaminants through normally accepted procedures such as ion exchange, precipitation, etc. The authors have chosen to study the electrochemical oxidation of a simple alcohol, iso-propanol. Much of the recent work reported involved the use of an electron transfer mediator, usually the silver(I)/(II) redox couple. This involved direct electrochemical generation of the mediator at the anode of a divided cell followed by homogeneous reaction of the mediator with the organic compound. In this study the authors have sought to compare the mediated reaction with direct electrochemical oxidation of the organic. In addition to silver(I)/(II) they also looked at the cobalt(II)/(III) redox coupled. In the higher oxidation state both of these metal ions readily hydrolyze in aqueous solution to ultimately form insoluble oxide. The study concluded that in a 6M nitric acid solution at room temperature iso-propanol can be oxidized to carbon dioxide and acetic acid. Acetic acid is a stable intermediate and resists further oxidation. The presence of Co(III) enhances the rate or efficiency of the reaction

  12. A magnesium-induced triplex pre-organizes the SAM-II riboswitch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Roy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our 13C- and 1H-chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST experiments previously revealed a dynamic exchange between partially closed and open conformations of the SAM-II riboswitch in the absence of ligand. Here, all-atom structure-based molecular simulations, with the electrostatic effects of Manning counter-ion condensation and explicit magnesium ions are employed to calculate the folding free energy landscape of the SAM-II riboswitch. We use this analysis to predict that magnesium ions remodel the landscape, shifting the equilibrium away from the extended, partially unfolded state towards a compact, pre-organized conformation that resembles the ligand-bound state. Our CEST and SAXS experiments, at different magnesium ion concentrations, quantitatively confirm our simulation results, demonstrating that magnesium ions induce collapse and pre-organization. Agreement between theory and experiment bolsters microscopic interpretation of our simulations, which shows that triplex formation between helix P2b and loop L1 is highly sensitive to magnesium and plays a key role in pre-organization. Pre-organization of the SAM-II riboswitch allows rapid detection of ligand with high selectivity, which is important for biological function.

  13. Evaluating Production of Cyclopentyl Tetraethers by Marine Group II Euryarchaeota in the Pearl River Estuary and Coastal South China Sea: Potential Impact on the TEX86 Paleothermometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Xiang Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available TEX86 [TetraEther indeX of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs with 86 carbon atoms] has been widely applied to reconstruct (paleo- sea surface temperature. Marine Group I (MG-I Thaumarchaeota were thought to be the primary source of GDGTs constituting the TEX86 formula; however, recent research has suggested that Marine Group II (MG-II Euryarchaeota may also contribute significantly to the GDGT pool in the ocean. Little is known regarding the potential impact of MG-II Euryarchaeota-derived GDGTs on TEX86 values recorded in marine sediments. In this study, we assessed the relationship between distributions of GDGTs and MG-II Euryarchaeota and evaluated its potential effect on the TEX86 proxy. Lipid and DNA analyses were performed on suspended particulate matter and surface sediments collected along a salinity gradient from the lower Pearl River (river water and its estuary (mixing water to the coastal South China Sea (SCS, seawater. TEX86-derived temperatures from the water column and surface sediments were significantly correlated and both were lower than satellite-based temperatures. The ring index (RI values in these environments were higher than predicted from the calculated TEX86-RI correlation, indicating that the GDGT pool in the water column of the PR estuary and coastal SCS comprises relatively more cyclopentane rings, which thereby altered TEX86 values. Furthermore, the abundance of MG-II Euryarchaeota 16S rRNA gene in the mixing water was two to three orders of magnitude higher than those observed in the river or seawater. Significant linear correlations were observed between the gene abundance ratio of MG-II Euryarchaeota to total archaea and the fractional abundance of GDGTs with cyclopentane rings. Collectively, these results suggest that MG-II Euryarchaeota likely produce a large proportion of GDGTs with 1–4 cyclopentane moieties, which may bias TEX86 values in the water column and sediments. As such, valid

  14. Simulated coal spill causes mortality and growth inhibition in tropical marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kathryn L. E.; Hoogenboom, Mia O.; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P.

    2016-05-01

    Coal is a principal fossil fuel driving economic and social development, and increases in global coal shipments have paralleled expansion of the industry. To identify the potential harm associated with chronic marine coal contamination, three taxa abundant in tropical marine ecosystems (the coral Acropora tenuis, the reef fish Acanthochromis polyacanthus and the seagrass Halodule uninervis) were exposed to five concentrations (0-275 mg coal l-1) of suspended coal dust (<63 μm) over 28 d. Results demonstrate that chronic coal exposure can cause considerable lethal effects on corals, and reductions in seagrass and fish growth rates. Coral survivorship and seagrass growth rates were inversely related to increasing coal concentrations (≥38 mg coal l-1) and effects increased between 14 and 28 d, whereas fish growth rates were similarly depressed at all coal concentrations tested. This investigation provides novel insights into direct coal impacts on key tropical taxa for application in the assessment of risks posed by increasing coal shipments in globally threatened marine ecosystems.

  15. Occurrence of persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from the Natuna Island, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qing; Sun, Yu-Xin; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Yao, Zi-Wei; Wang, You-Shao; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-08-15

    Five marine fish species were collected from the Natuna Island, South China Sea to investigate the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). Concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs in marine fish ranged from 2.85 to 7.82, 14.3 to 48.1, and 7.99 to 40.3 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Higher concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs were observed in Snakefish (Trachinocephalus myops), which might be attributed to their different feeding and living habits. PCBs were the predominant POPs in all marine fish, followed by DDTs and PBDEs. BDE 47 and PCB 153 were the predominant congener of PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. Compositional distribution of DDTs indicated the possible presence of fresh input sources around the Natuna Island. The ratios of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT being less than 1 in fish samples suggested that DDT contributions from dicofol seemed considerably low. New input sources of DDT in South China Sea are worth further research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Natural Proline-Rich Cyclopolypeptides from Marine Organisms: Chemistry, Synthetic Methodologies and Biological Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wan-Yin; Dahiya, Rajiv; Qin, Hua-Li; Mourya, Rita; Maharaj, Sandeep

    2016-10-26

    Peptides have gained increased interest as therapeutics during recent years. More than 60 peptide drugs have reached the market for the benefit of patients and several hundreds of novel therapeutic peptides are in preclinical and clinical development. The key contributor to this success is the potent and specific, yet safe, mode of action of peptides. Among the wide range of biologically-active peptides, naturally-occurring marine-derived cyclopolypeptides exhibit a broad range of unusual and potent pharmacological activities. Because of their size and complexity, proline-rich cyclic peptides (PRCPs) occupy a crucial chemical space in drug discovery that may provide useful scaffolds for modulating more challenging biological targets, such as protein-protein interactions and allosteric binding sites. Diverse pharmacological activities of natural cyclic peptides from marine sponges, tunicates and cyanobacteria have encouraged efforts to develop cyclic peptides with well-known synthetic methods, including solid-phase and solution-phase techniques of peptide synthesis. The present review highlights the natural resources, unique structural features and the most relevant biological properties of proline-rich peptides of marine-origin, focusing on the potential therapeutic role that the PRCPs may play as a promising source of new peptide-based novel drugs.

  17. Identification of candidate structured RNAs in the marine organism 'Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwalbach Michael S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metagenomic sequence data are proving to be a vast resource for the discovery of biological components. Yet analysis of this data to identify functional RNAs lags behind efforts to characterize protein diversity. The genome of 'Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique' HTCC 1062 is the closest match for approximately 20% of marine metagenomic sequence reads. It is also small, contains little non-coding DNA, and has strikingly low GC content. Results To aid the discovery of RNA motifs within the marine metagenome we exploited the genomic properties of 'Cand. P. ubique' by targeting our search to long intergenic regions (IGRs with relatively high GC content. Analysis of known RNAs (rRNA, tRNA, riboswitches etc. shows that structured RNAs are significantly enriched in such IGRs. To identify additional candidate structured RNAs, we examined other IGRs with similar characteristics from 'Cand. P. ubique' using comparative genomics approaches in conjunction with marine metagenomic data. Employing this strategy, we discovered four candidate structured RNAs including a new riboswitch class as well as three additional likely cis-regulatory elements that precede genes encoding ribosomal proteins S2 and S12, and the cytoplasmic protein component of the signal recognition particle. We also describe four additional potential RNA motifs with few or no examples occurring outside the metagenomic data. Conclusion This work begins the process of identifying functional RNA motifs present in the metagenomic data and illustrates how existing completed genomes may be used to aid in this task.

  18. Warming and organic matter sources impact the proportion of dissolved to total activities in marine extracellular enzymatic rates

    KAUST Repository

    Baltar, Federico

    2017-04-19

    Extracellular enzymatic activities (EEAs) are the rate-limiting step in the degradation of organic matter. Extracellular enzymes can be found associated to cells or dissolved in the surrounding water. The proportion of cell-free EEA constitutes in many marine environments more than half of the total activity. This high proportion causes an uncoupling between hydrolysis rates and the actual bacterial activity. However, we do not know what factors control the proportion of dissolved relative to total EEA, nor how this may change in the future ocean. To resolve this, we performed laboratory experiments with water from the Great Barrier Reef (Australia) to study the effects of temperature and dissolved organic matter sources on EEA and the proportion of dissolved EEA. We found that warming increases the rates of organic matter hydrolysis and reduces the proportion of dissolved relative to total EEA. This suggests a potential increase of the coupling between organic matter hydrolysis and heterotrophic activities with increasing ocean temperatures, although strongly dependent on the organic matter substrates available. Our study suggests that local differences in the organic matter composition in tropical coastal ecosystems will strongly affect the proportion of dissolved EEA in response to ocean warming.

  19. The effect of Ca2+ ions and ionic strength on Mn(II) oxidation by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. SG-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2013-01-01

    Manganese(IV) oxides, believed to form primarily through microbial activities, are extremely important mineral phases in marine environments where they scavenge a variety of trace elements and thereby control their distributions. The presence of various ions common in seawater are known to influence Mn oxide mineralogy yet little is known about the effect of these ions on the kinetics of bacterial Mn(II) oxidation and Mn oxide formation. We examined factors affecting bacterial Mn(II) oxidation by spores of the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1 in natural and artificial seawater of varying ionic conditions. Ca2+ concentration dramatically affected Mn(II) oxidation, while Mg2+, Sr2+, K+, Na+ and NO3- ions had no effect. The rate of Mn(II) oxidation at 10 mM Ca2+ (seawater composition) was four or five times that without Ca2+. The relationship between Ca2+ content and oxidation rate demonstrates that the equilibrium constant is small (on the order of 0.1) and the binding coefficient is 0.5. The pH optimum for Mn(II) oxidation changed depending on the amount of Ca2+ present, suggesting that Ca2+ exerts a direct effect on the enzyme perhaps as a stabilizing bridge between polypeptide components. We also examined the effect of varying concentrations of NaCl or KNO3 (0-2000 mM) on the kinetics of Mn(II) oxidation in solutions containing 10 mM Ca2+. Mn(II) oxidation was unaffected by changes in ionic strength (I) below 0.2, but it was inhibited by increasing salt concentrations above this value. Our results suggest that the critical coagulation concentration is around 200 mM of salt (I = ca. 0.2), and that the ionic strength of seawater (I > 0.2) accelerates the precipitation of Mn oxides around the spores. Under these conditions, the aggregation of Mn oxides reduces the supply of dissolved O2 and/or Mn2+ and inhibits the Mn(II) → Mn(III) step controlling the enzymatic oxidation of Mn(II). Our results suggest that the hardness and ionic strength of the aquatic environment

  20. Mn(II)-coordinated Fluorescent Carbon Dots: Preparation and Discrimination of Organic Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuru; Wang, Tianren; Chen, Xi; Xu, Yang; Li, Huanrong

    2018-04-01

    Herein, we prepared a Mn(II)-coordinated carbon dots (CDs) with fluorescence and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) bimodal properties by a one-pot solvothermal method and separated via silica column chromatography. The quantum yield of the CDs increased greatly from 2.27% to 6.75% with increase of Mn(II) doping, meanwhile the CDs exhibited a higher MR activity (7.28 mM-1s-1) than that of commercial Gd-DTPA (4.63 mM-1s-1). In addition, white light emitting CDs were obtained by mixing the different types of CDs. Notably, these CDs exhibited different fluorescence emissions in different organic solvents and could be used to discriminate organic solvents based on the polarity and protonation of the solvents.

  1. Whole genome sequence analysis of Geitlerinema sp. FC II unveils competitive edge of the strain in marine cultivation system for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchu, Navish Kumar; Khater, Shradha; Patil, Sonal; Nagle, Vinod; Das, Gautam; Bhadra, Bhaskar; Sapre, Ajit; Dasgupta, Santanu

    2018-03-05

    A filamentous cyanobacteria, Geitlerinema sp. FC II, was isolated from marine algae culture pond at Reliance Industries Limited (RIL), India. The 6.7 Mb draft genome of FC II encodes for 6697 protein coding genes. Analysis of the whole genome sequence revealed presence of nif gene cluster, supporting its capability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. FC II genome contains two variants of sulfide:quinone oxidoreductases (SQR), which is a crucial elector donor in cyanobacterial metabolic processes. FC II is characterized by the presence of multiple CRISPR- Cas (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindrome Repeats - CRISPR associated proteins) clusters, multiple variants of genes encoding photosystem reaction centres, biosynthetic gene clusters of alkane, polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides. Presence of these pathways will help FC II in gaining an ecological advantage over other strains for biomass production in large scale cultivation system. Hence, FC II may be used for production of biofuel and other industrially important metabolites. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transfer Hydro-dehalogenation of Organic Halides Catalyzed by Ruthenium(II) Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Tingjie; Wang, Zhenrong; Chen, Jiajia; Xia, Yuanzhi

    2017-02-03

    A simple and efficient Ru(II)-catalyzed transfer hydro-dehalogenation of organic halides using 2-propanol solvent as the hydride source was reported. This methodology is applicable for hydro-dehalogenation of a variety of aromatic halides and α-haloesters and amides without additional ligand, and quantitative yields were achieved in many cases. The potential synthetic application of this method was demonstrated by efficient gram-scale transformation with catalyst loading as low as 0.5 mol %.

  3. Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization

    OpenAIRE

    Ruban, AV; Wentworth, M; Yakushevska, AE; Andersson, J; Lee, PJ; Keegstra, W; Dekker, JP; Boekema, EJ; Jansson, S; Horton, P

    2003-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a key component of photosynthesis, the process of converting sunlight into the chemical energy of life. In plant cells, it forms a unique oligomeric macrostructure in membranes of the chloroplasts(1). Several light-harvesting antenna complexes are organized precisely in the PSII macrostructure-the major trimeric complexes (LHCII)(2) that bind 70% of PSII chlorophyll and three minor monomeric complexes(3)-which together form PSII supercomplexes(4-6). The antenna comple...

  4. White organic light-emitting devices incorporating nanoparticles of II-VI semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jin H; Bertoni, Cristina; Dunn, Steve; Wang, Changsheng; Talapin, Dmitri V; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmueller, Alexander; Hua Yulin; Bryce, Martin R; Petty, Michael C

    2007-01-01

    A blue-green fluorescent organic dye and red-emitting nanoparticles, based on II-VI semiconductors, have been used together in the fabrication of white organic light-emitting devices. In this work, the materials were combined in two different ways: in the form of a blend, and as separate layers deposited on the opposite sides of the substrate. The blended-layer structure provided purer white emission. However, this device also exhibited a number of disadvantages, namely a high drive voltage, a low efficiency and some colour instability. These problems could be avoided by using a device structure that was fabricated using separate dye and nanoparticle layers

  5. Phototoxic potential of undispersed and dispersed fresh and weathered Macondo crude oils to Gulf of Mexico Marine Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Bryson E; Marzooghi, Solmaz; Di Toro, Dominic M; Stubblefield, William A

    2017-10-01

    Crude oils contain a mixture of hydrocarbons, including phototoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that have the ability to absorb ultraviolet (UV) light. Absorption of UV light by PAHs can substantially increase their toxicity to marine organisms. The objective of the present study was to examine the potential for phototoxicity of fresh and naturally weathered Macondo crude oils alone and in combination with the dispersant Corexit 9500 to mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia), inland silverside (Menidia beryllina), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis). Acute toxicity tests were conducted using combinations of natural or artificial sunlight and low-energy water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of fresh and weathered Macondo crude oils collected from the Gulf of Mexico. Studies were also conducted to compare the phototoxicity resulting from natural and artificial sunlight. Fresh Macondo crude oil was more phototoxic than weathered crude oils, both in the presence and in the absence of UV light. Differences in toxicity between fresh and weathered crude oils were likely attributed to lighter-ringed PAHs in fresh crude oils. Phototoxic PAHs were relatively resistant to weathering compared with lighter-ringed PAHs. The addition of Corexit 9500 to crude oil increased toxicity compared with tests with crude oil alone, by increasing phototoxic PAH concentrations in WAFs. Macondo crude oils had the potential to be phototoxic to Gulf of Mexico marine organisms if specific light conditions and PAH concentrations were present during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2640-2650. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  6. Perspective on the Use of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Organisms as a Source of New Antithrombotic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. S. Mourão

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Thromboembolic diseases are increasing worldwide and always require anticoagulant therapy. We still need safer and more secure antithrombotic drugs than those presently available. Sulfated polysaccharides from marine organisms may constitute a new source for the development of such drugs. Investigation of these compounds usually attempts to reproduce the therapeutic effects of heparin. However, we may need to follow different routes, focusing particularly in the following aspects: (1 defining precisely the specific structures required for interaction of these sulfated polysaccharides with proteins of the coagulation system; (2 looking for alternative mechanisms of action, distinct from those of heparin; (3 identifying side effects (mostly pro-coagulant action and hypotension rather than bleeding and preparing derivatives that retain the desired antithrombotic action but are devoid of side effects; (4 considering that sulfated polysaccharides with low anticoagulant action on in vitro assays may display potent effects on animal models of experimental thrombosis; and finally (5 investigating the antithrombotic effect of these sulfated polysaccharides after oral administration or preparing derivatives that may achieve this effect. If these aspects are successfully addressed, sulfated polysaccharides from marine organisms may conquer the frontier of antithrombotic therapy and open new avenues for treatment or prevention of thromboembolic diseases.

  7. Analytical approaches for the determination of personal care products and evaluation of their occurrence in marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesdeoca-Esponda, Sarah; Checchini, Leonardo; Del Bubba, Massimo; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodriguez, José Juan

    2018-03-23

    Contamination of the aquatic environment caused by multiple human activities may exert a negative impact on all living organisms. Several contaminants of emerging concern such as personal care products (PCPs) are continuously released into the aquatic environment where they are biologically active and persistent. This work reviews the current knowledge, provided by papers published after 2010 and indexed by SciFinder, Scopus, and Google search engines, about the determination and occurrence of PCPs in marine biota. Analytical methodologies have been critically reviewed, emphasizing the importance of green and high-throughput approaches and focusing the discussion on the complexity of the solute-matrix interaction in the extraction step, as well as the matrix effect in the instrumental determination. Finally, the worldwide distribution of PCPs is surveyed, taking into account the concentrations found in the same organism in different marine environments. Differences among various world areas have been highlighted, evidencing some critical aspects from an environmental point of view. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Organization of co-occurring Axis II features in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchfield, Kenneth L; Clarkin, John F; Levy, Kenneth N; Kernberg, Otto F

    2008-06-01

    Considerable heterogeneity exists in the comorbid Axis II features that frequently accompany borderline personality disorder (BPD). These features have potential to be meaningfully organized, relate to specific BPD presentation, and have implications for treatment process and outcome. The present study explored patterns of Axis II comorbidity in order to identify subtypes of BPD. A well-defined sample of 90 patients diagnosed with BPD was recruited as part of an RCT study. Participants were administered the International Personality Disorder Examination (Loranger, 1999) to diagnose BPD and assess comorbid Axis II features. Other measures were also administered to assess aspects of current work and relationship functioning, symptomatology, and self-concept. Q-factoring was used to develop subtypes based on commonly occurring Axis II profiles, identifying three: Cluster A (elevated paranoid and schizotypal features), Cluster B (elevated narcissistic and histrionic features), and Cluster C (elevated avoidant and obsessive-compulsive features). An additional factor analysis revealed two dimensions underlying the comorbid features identifiable as: extraversion versus introversion and antagonism versus constraint. Validity of these two maps of comorbidity was explored in terms of the BPD criteria themselves, as well as on work and relationship functioning, identity diffusion, views of self and others, positive and negative affect, behavioural dyscontrol, and symptomatic distress. Clinically meaningful subtypes can be identified for BPD based on co-occurring Axis II features. Further research is needed to replicate and further establish base-rates of these subtypes as well as their differential implications for treatment.

  9. Organic matter compounds as source indicators and tracers for marine pollution in a western Mediterranean coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorri, Jalila; Geffroy-Rodier, Claude; Boufahja, Fehmi; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Aïssa, Patricia; Ksibi, Mohamed; Amblès, André

    2011-11-01

    Complex organic compounds found in oil and sediments linked with a particular source (such as algae, bacteria or vascular plants) are defined as biomarkers and are useful dating indicators in organic geochemistry. This paper presents the composition of the organic matter (OM) on marine surface sediments from a degraded Tunisian coast analysed by pyrolysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). High total OM contents (0.3-4.2%) were detected with high levels of saturated linear hydrocarbons. The aliphatic lipids had contributed with up to 11.7% of the total OM, and their distribution had consisted of resolved compounds (n-alkanes and fatty acid (FAs)) and an unresolved complex mixture. Hydrocarbons, primarily n-alkanes, were ranged from 368 to 3,886 μg g(-1). The FAs (674-2,568 μg g(-1)) were dominated by derived primary production, and the short chain FAs (C16 and C18) were the most abundant throughout. The ubiquitous presence of petroleum contamination, mainly from offshore oil exploration, discharge of pollutants from rivers, shipping activities and atmospheric deposition was found in all samples. The Gabès littoral seems to be quite to very polluted near the industrial zone of Ghannouch. The C/H ratio (generally around 5.9), the thermal analysis and GC-MS of n-alkanes and FAs showed that the OM in the studied area was composed of anthropogenic/petrogenic, marine and continental sources. Our study represents an innovative approach to assessing environmental pollution. The evaluation of organic matter by examination of sterols, alkanes and fatty acids allows the identification of source, both anthropogenic and natural.

  10. Biological responses of two marine organisms of ecological relevance to on-going ocean acidification and global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomiero, A; Bellerby, R G J; Manca Zeichen, M; Babbini, L; Viarengo, A

    2018-05-01

    Recently, there has been a growing concern that climate change may rapidly and extensively alter global ecosystems with unknown consequences for terrestrial and aquatic life. While considerable emphasis has been placed on terrestrial ecology consequences, aquatic environments have received relatively little attention. Limited knowledge is available on the biological effects of increments of seawater temperature and pH decrements on key ecological species, i.e., primary producers and/or organisms representative of the basis of the trophic web. In the present study, we addressed the biological effects of global warming and ocean acidification on two model organisms, the microbenthic marine ciliate Euplotes crassus and the green alga Dunaliella tertiocleta using a suite of high level ecological endpoint tests and sub-lethal stress measures. Organisms were exposed to combinations of pH and temperature (TR1: 7.9 [pH], 25.5 °C and TR2: 7.8 [pH], 27,0 °C) simulating two possible environmental scenarios predicted to occur in the habitats of the selected species before the end of this century. The outcomes of the present study showed that the tested scenarios did not induce a significant increment of mortality on protozoa. Under the most severe exposure conditions, sub-lethal stress indices show that pH homeostatic mechanisms have energetic costs that divert energy from essential cellular processes and functions. The marine protozoan exhibited significant impairment of the lysosomal compartment and early signs of oxidative stress under these conditions. Similarly, significant impairment of photosynthetic efficiency and an increment in lipid peroxidation were observed in the autotroph model organism held under the most extreme exposure condition tested. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  12. Microplastics as vectors for bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic chemicals in the marine environment: A state-of-the-science review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziccardi, Linda M; Edgington, Aaron; Hentz, Karyn; Kulacki, Konrad J; Kane Driscoll, Susan

    2016-07-01

    A state-of-the-science review was conducted to examine the potential for microplastics to sorb hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) from the marine environment, for aquatic organisms to take up these HOCs from the microplastics, and for this exposure to result in adverse effects to ecological and human health. Despite concentrations of HOCs associated with microplastics that can be orders of magnitude greater than surrounding seawater, the relative importance of microplastics as a route of exposure is difficult to quantify because aquatic organisms are typically exposed to HOCs from various compartments, including water, sediment, and food. Results of laboratory experiments and modeling studies indicate that HOCs can partition from microplastics to organisms or from organisms to microplastics, depending on experimental conditions. Very little information is available to evaluate ecological or human health effects from this exposure. Most of the available studies measured biomarkers that are more indicative of exposure than effects, and no studies showed effects to ecologically relevant endpoints. Therefore, evidence is weak to support the occurrence of ecologically significant adverse effects on aquatic life as a result of exposure to HOCs sorbed to microplastics or to wildlife populations and humans from secondary exposure via the food chain. More data are needed to fully understand the relative importance of exposure to HOCs from microplastics compared with other exposure pathways. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1667-1676. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  13. Ceramic membrane as a pretreatment for reverse osmosis: Interaction between marine organic matter and metal oxides

    KAUST Repository

    Dramas, Laure; Croue, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    (raw solution and supernatant solutions) included fluorescence, UV, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and Liquid Chromatography - Organic Carbon Detection measurements. In comparison to seawater under normal condition, seawa- ters collected during

  14. Phospholipid studies of marine organisms: 14. Ether lipids of the sponge Tethya aurantia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.M.; Djerassi, C.

    1987-01-01

    The novel unesterified alkyl glycerol monoethers, (2S)-1-(hexadecyloxy)-2,3-propanediol (1), (2S)-1-(16-methylheptadecyloxy)-2,3-propanediol (2) and (2S)-1-(15-methylheptadecyloxy)-2,3-propanediol (3) were isolated from the marine sponge Tethya aurantia and were characterized by spectroscopic methods. These three saturated ethers as well as a series of alk-1'-enyl glycerol monoethers were also encountered in the phospholipids of the same sponge after reduction with LiAlH4. Incorporation experiments with dissociated cells of T. aurantia indicated that [1- 14 C]-hexadecanol was incorporated into the unesterified alkyl glycerol monoethers

  15. Procedure for studying population genetic aspects of marine organisms using biochemical techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.

    ~d~raJnlngonTa.~ono"",~n~llcsand(dn~Banking ~fC(J4S,alandMann~Blo,"sources, ClFE, MumOOI --- vacuum is applied to eliminate air bubbles and this hot solution is then poured into a plastic trough on a 3 mm glass plate. Then the gel is covered with a plastic wrap and cooled to room temperature... then placed firmly together as before cutting. 187 NBDBlDBT Sponsored Training on Taxonomy, Omelia and Gene Banking o/Coastal and Marine Bloresources, ClFE, Mumbal - Electrode tray containing 300 ml of buffer in each side was used T\\. . lne starch-gel block...

  16. Cytogenetic studies of marine organisms in the areas with higher contents of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytsugina, V.G.; Floru, Kh.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Chalulu, K.; Gorbenko, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations in cells of marine crustaceans and worms have been studied at sites with a high natural radioactivity level (the Black Sea coast at the mountain Karadag in the Crimea and the Ikaria Island in the Aegean Sea, an area around the hydrothermal spa) as well as at sites with the normal natural radiation level. Higher level of chromosome mutagenesis was found in cells of Melita palmata embryos and in germ and somatic cells of Lycastopsis sp. juveniles in the area around the spa. Probably, chromosome aberrations were induced by higher concentrations of natural radionuclides and their radiation in the environment

  17. Oxidation of manganese(II) with ferrate: Stoichiometry, kinetics, products and impact of organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Joseph E; Mai, Xuyen; Jiang, Yanjun; Reckhow, David A; Tobiason, John E

    2016-09-01

    Manganese is a contaminant of concern for many drinking water utilities, and future regulation may be pending. An analysis of soluble manganese (Mn(II)) oxidation by ferrate (Fe(VI)) was executed at the bench-scale, in a laboratory matrix, both with and without the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) and at two different pH values, 6.2 and 7.5. In the matrix without NOM, the oxidation of Mn(II) by Fe(VI) followed a stoichiometry of 2 mol Fe(VI) to 3 mol Mn(II). The presence of NOM did not significantly affect the stoichiometry of the oxidation reaction, indicating relative selectivity of Fe(VI) for Mn(II). The size distribution of resulting particles included significant amounts of nanoparticles. Resulting manganese oxide particles were confirmed to be MnO2 via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The rate of the Mn(II) oxidation reaction was fast relative to typical time scales in drinking water treatment, with an estimated second order rate constant of approximately 1 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 9.2 and > 9 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 6.2. In general, ferrate is a potential option for Mn(II) oxidation in water treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neocortical layers I and II of the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus). I. Intrinsic organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, F; Facal-Valverde, M V

    1986-01-01

    The intrinsic organization and interlaminar connections in neocortical layers I and II have been studied in adult hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) using the Golgi method. Layer I contains a dense plexus of horizontal fibers, the terminal dendritic bouquets of pyramidal cells of layer II and of underlying layers, and varieties of intrinsic neurons. Four main types of cells were found in layer I. Small horizontal cells represent most probably persisting foetal horizontal cells described for other mammals. Large horizontal cells, tufted cells, and spinous horizontal cells were also found in this layer. Layer II contains primitive pyramidal cells representing the most outstanding feature of the neocortex of the hedgehog. Most pyramidal cells in layer II have two, three or more apical dendrites, richly covered by spines predominating over the basal dendrites. These cells resemble pyramidal cells found in the piriform cortex, hippocampus and other olfactory areas. It is suggested that the presence of these neurons reflects the retention of a primitive character in neocortical evolution. Cells with intrinsic axons were found among pyramidal cells in layer II. These have smooth dendrites penetrating layer I and local axons forming extremely complex terminal arborizations around the bodies and proximal dendritic portions of pyramidal cells. They most probably effect numerous axo-somatic contacts resembling basket cells. The similarity of some axonal terminals with the chandelier type of axonal arborization is discussed. Other varieties of cells located in deep cortical layers and having ascending axons for layers I and II were also studied. It is concluded that the two first neocortical layers represent a level of important integration in this primitive mammal.

  19. Non-polar organic compounds in marine aerosols over the northern South China Sea: Influence of continental outflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Yingyi; Fu, Pingqing; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ho, Kin Fai; Liu, Fobang; Zou, Shichun; Wang, Shan; Lai, Senchao

    2016-06-01

    Filter samples of total suspended particle (TSP) collected during a cruise campaign over the northern South China Sea (SCS) from September to October 2013 were analyzed for non-polar organic compounds (NPOCs) as well as organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble ions. A total of 115 NPOCs species in groups of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), iso-/antiso-alkanes, hopanes, steranes, methylalkanes, branched alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes and phthalates were detected. The characteristics of NPOCs in marine TSP samples were investigated to understand the sources from the Asian continent and other regions. The concentrations of total NPOCs ranged from 19.8 to 288.2 ng/m(3) with an average of 87.9 ng/m(3), which accounted for 0.8-1.7% (average 1.0%) of organic matter (OM). n-Alkanes was the predominant group, accounting for 43.1-79.5%, followed by PAHs (5.5-44.4%) and hopanes (1.6-11.4%). We found that primary combustion (biomass burning/fossil fuel combustion) was the dominant source for the majority of NPOCs (89.1%). Biomass burning in southern/southeastern China via long-range transport was proposed to be a major contributor of NPOCs in marine aerosols over the northern SCS, suggested by the significant correlations between nss-K(+) and NPOCs groups as well as the analysis of air mass back-trajectory and fire spots. For the samples with strong continental influence, the strong enhancement in concentrations of n-alkanes, PAHs, hopanes and steranes were attributed to fossil fuel (coal/petroleum) combustion. In addition, terrestrial plants waxes were another contributor to NPOCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antifouling coatings: recent developments in the design of surfaces that prevent fouling by proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Indrani; Pangule, Ravindra C.; Kane, Ravi S. [Howard P. Isermann Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Ricketts Building, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2011-02-08

    The major strategies for designing surfaces that prevent fouling due to proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms are reviewed. Biofouling is of great concern in numerous applications ranging from biosensors to biomedical implants and devices, and from food packaging to industrial and marine equipment. The two major approaches to combat surface fouling are based on either preventing biofoulants from attaching or degrading them. One of the key strategies for imparting adhesion resistance involves the functionalization of surfaces with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or oligo(ethylene glycol). Several alternatives to PEG-based coatings have also been designed over the past decade. While protein-resistant coatings may also resist bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation, in order to overcome the fouling-mediated risk of bacterial infection it is highly desirable to design coatings that are bactericidal. Traditional techniques involve the design of coatings that release biocidal agents, including antibiotics, quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), and silver, into the surrounding aqueous environment. However, the emergence of antibiotic- and silver-resistant pathogenic strains has necessitated the development of alternative strategies. Therefore, other techniques based on the use of polycations, enzymes, nanomaterials, and photoactive agents are being investigated. With regard to marine antifouling coatings, restrictions on the use of biocide-releasing coatings have made the generation of nontoxic antifouling surfaces more important. While considerable progress has been made in the design of antifouling coatings, ongoing research in this area should result in the development of even better antifouling materials in the future. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Investigating Marine Dissolved Organic Matter Fluorescence Transformations with Organic Geochemical Proxies in a Growth and Degradation Experiment using Amino Acids, Amino Sugars, and Phenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, M. R.; Bianchi, T. S.; Osburn, C. L.; Kinsey, J. D.; Ziervogel, K.; Schnetzer, A.

    2017-12-01

    The origin and mechanisms driving the formation of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in the open ocean remain unclear. Although recent studies have attempted to deconvolve the chemical composition and source of marine FDOM, these studies have been qualitative in nature. Here, we investigate these transformations using a more quantitative biomarker approach in a controlled growth and degradation experiment. In this experiment, a natural assemblage of phytoplankton was collected off the coast of North Carolina and incubated within roller bottles containing 0.2 µm-filtered North Atlantic surface water amended with f/2 nutrients. Samples were collected at the beginning (day 0), during exponential growth (day 13), stationary (day 20), and degradation (day 62) phases of the phytoplankton incubation. Amino acids, amino sugars, and phenolic compounds of the dissolved (DOM) were measured in conjunction with enzyme assays and bacterial counts to track shifts in OM quality as FDOM formed and was then transformed throughout the experiment. The results from the chemical analyses showed that the OM composition changed significantly from the initial and exponential phases to the stationary and degradation phases of the experiment. The percentage of aromatic amino acids to the total amino acid pool increased significantly during the exponential phase of phytoplankton growth, but then decreased significantly during the stationary and degradation phases. This increase was positively correlated to the fractional contribution of the protein-like peak in fluorescence to the total FDOM fluorescence. An increase in the concentration of amino acid degradation products during the stationary and degradation phases suggests that compositional changes in OM were driven by microbial transformation. This was further supported by a concurrent increase in total enzyme activity and increase in "humic-like" components of the FDOM. These findings link the properties and formation of FDOM

  2. Unprecedented Self-Organized Monolayer of a Ru(II) Complex by Diazonium Electroreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Quynh; Sun, Xiaonan; Lafolet, Frédéric; Audibert, Jean-Frédéric; Miomandre, Fabien; Lemercier, Gilles; Loiseau, Frédérique; Lacroix, Jean-Christophe

    2016-08-03

    A new heteroleptic polypyridyle Ru(II) complex was synthesized and deposited on surface by the diazonium electroreduction process. It yields to the covalent grafting of a monolayer. The functionalized surface was characterized by XPS, electrochemistry, AFM, and STM. A precise organization of the molecules within the monolayer is observed with parallel linear stripes separated by a distance of 3.8 nm corresponding to the lateral size of the molecule. Such organization suggests a strong cooperative process in the deposition process. This strategy is an original way to obtain well-controlled and stable functionalized surfaces for potential applications related to the photophysical properties of the grafted chromophore. As an exciting result, it is the first example of a self-organized monolayer (SOM) obtained using diazonium electroreduction.

  3. The reform of Byzantine military and territorial organization under Justinian II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a contribution to the research of the initial stages in the evolution of the thematic system. It focuses on the role of Emperor Justinian II in the formation of the new imperial military and territorial organization. Byzantine scholars have determined a long time ago that it is Justinian II who should be credited with the founding of new military districts (themes in Hellas and Sicily. This paper, however, suggests that the formation of the themes in Thrace and Kibyrrhaiotai could also be considered a part of Justinian’s policy. In addition, the paper aims to highlight Justinian’s role in the formation of the frontier military and administrative system (the kleisourai of Strymon and Cappadocia, as well as in the reform of military and territorial organization in the Aegean basin. By creating new army units which were not based on the Late Roman heritage, Justinian essentially abandoned the principles that the Byzantine army had previously functioned on. Finally, the paper highlights the fact that the establishment of new thematic units under Emperor Justinian II was coupled with his extensive colonization measures. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 177032: Tradicija, inovacija i identitet u vizantijskom svetu

  4. Tracking the long-distance dispersal of marine organisms: sensitivity to ocean model resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Putman, Nathan F.; He, Ruoying

    2013-01-01

    Ocean circulation models are widely used to simulate organism transport in the open sea, where challenges of directly tracking organisms across vast spatial and temporal scales are daunting. Many recent studies tout the use of ‘high-resolution’ models, which are forced with atmospheric data on the scale of several hours and integrated with a time step of several minutes or seconds. However, in many cases, the model's outputs that are used to simulate organism movement have been averaged to co...

  5. Solid phase extraction of Cd(II) and Pb(II) using a magnetic metal-organic framework, and their determination by FAAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza; Matbouie, Zahra; Asgharinezhad, Ali Akbar; Dehghani, Ali

    2013-01-01

    We describe a novel magnetic metal-organic framework (MOF) for the preconcentration of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions. The MOF was prepared from the Fe 3 O 4 -pyridine conjugate and the copper(II) complex of trimesic acid. The MOF was characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, SEM and XRD. A Box-Behnken design through response surface methodology and experimental design was used to identify the optimal parameters for preconcentration. Extraction time, amount of magnetic MOF and pH value were found to be critical factors for uptake, while type, volume, concentration of eluent, and elution time are critical in the elution step. The ions were then determined by FAAS. The limits of detection are 0.2 and 1.1 μg L −1 for Cd(II), and Pb(II) ions, respectively, relative standard deviations are −1 of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions), and the enrichment capacity of the MOF is at around 190 mg g −1 for both ions which is higher than the conventional Fe 3 O 4 -pyridine material. The magnetic MOF was successfully applied to the rapid extraction of trace quantities of Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions in fish, sediment, and water samples. (author)

  6. Persistent organic pollutants in marine biota of São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Patrick S; Cipro, Caio V Z; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2013-09-15

    Remote islands, such as the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago (SPSPA), Brazil, are pristine areas. However, these locations are not exempt from the arrival of anthropogenic agents, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The present study aimed to determine the occurrence and distribution of POPs in the marine biota of the SPSPA. Sample extractions were performed using a microwave-assisted method. The predominant compounds were PCBs and DDTs, which respectively had mean wet weight concentrations of 62.23 and 9.23 ng g(-1) in the tropical two-wing flying fish (Exocoetus volitans), 78.66 and 6.81 ng g(-1) in the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) and 43.40 and 3.03 ng g(-1) in the red rock crab (Grapsus grapsus). Low levels of contaminants suggest a relative degree of isolation. Occurrence and distribution profiles of PCBs support long-range atmospheric transport as the main source of contamination and demonstrate the ubiquity of these pollutants in the marine environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis and performance optimization of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) waste heat recovery system for marine diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Song, Yin; Gu, Chun-wei

    2015-01-01

    Escalating fuel prices and imposition of carbon dioxide emission limits are creating renewed interest in methods to increase the thermal efficiency of marine diesel engines. One viable means to achieve such improved thermal efficiency is the conversion of engine waste heat to a more useful form of energy, either mechanical or electrical. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been demonstrated to be a promising technology to recover waste heat. This paper examines waste heat recovery of a marine diesel engine using ORC technology. Two separated ORC apparatuses for the waste heat from both the jacket cooling water and the engine exhaust gas are designed as the traditional recovery system. The maximum net power output is chosen as the evaluation criterion to select the suitable working fluid and define the optimal system parameters. To simplify the waste heat recovery, an optimized system using the jacket cooling water as the preheating medium and the engine exhaust gas for evaporation is presented. The influence of preheating temperature on the system performance is evaluated to define the optimal operating condition. Economic and off-design analysis of the optimized system is conducted. The simulation results reveal that the optimized system is technically feasible and economically attractive. - Highlights: • ORC is used to recover waste heat from both exhaust gas and jacket cooling water. • Comparative study is conducted for different ORC systems. • Thermal performance, system structure and economic feasibility are considered. • Optimal preheating temperature of the system is selected

  8. Temporal variations of 137Cs concentrations in the surface seawater and marine organisms collected from the Japanese coast during the 1980's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, M.; Nagaya, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The surface seawater and marine organisms were collected on the Japanese coast and analyzed for their 137 Cs concentrations during the 1980's. The 137 Cs concentrations in surface seawater decreased almost exponentially with time and the 137 Cs removal rate constant was estimated to be 0.0445 y -1 . The 137 Cs concentrations in marine organisms also decreased almost exponentially with time. The environmental half-lives of 137 Cs in muscle and viscera of fish, crustacea, and seaweed were estimated from the measured decreases of 137 Cs concentrations. (author)

  9. Study of environmental and biological factors that affect larval survival in sessile coastal marine organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Viladrich Canudas, Núria; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals

    2015-01-01

    La reproducció sexual és un procés biològic fonamental per a la majoria de les espècies vives, sent essencial per a la perpetuació de les espècies i assegurar-ne la diversitat genètica. En invertebrats sèssils marins, com corals i gorgònies, aquest tipus de reproducció, a més, permet la dispersió dels individus, el que facilita la colonització de noves àrees i assegurar el flux de gens entre poblacions. En general, la reproducció sexual es caracteritza per un alt cost energètic, la qual cosa ...

  10. Archaeal remains dominate marine organic matter from the early Albian oceanic anoxic event 1b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuypers, M.M.M.; Blokker, P.; Hopmans, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    The sources for both soluble and insoluble organic matter of the early Albian (∼112 Myr) oceanic anoxic event (OAE) 1b black shales of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) site 1049C (North Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Florida) and the Ravel section of the Southeast France Basin (SEFB) were...... in C/C ratios was used to estimate that up to ∼40% of the organic matter of the SEFB and up to ∼80% of the organic matter of ODP site 1049C preserved in the black shales is derived from archaea. Furthermore, it is shown that, even though there are apparent similarities (high organic carbon (OC) content......, distinct lamination, C-enrichment of OC) between the black shales of OAE1b and the Cenomanian/Turonian (∼94 Myr) OAE, the origin of the organic matter (archaeal versus phytoplanktonic) and causes for C-enrichment of OC are completely different....

  11. An application of nitrogen microwave-induced plasma mass spectrometry to isotope dilution analysis of selenium in marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirasaki, Toshihiro [Hitachi Instruments Engineering Co. Ltd., Hitachinaka, Ibaraki (Japan); Yoshinaga, Jun; Morita, Masatoshi; Okumoto, Toyoharu; Oishi, Konosuke

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen microwave-induced plasma mass spectrometry was studied for its applicability to the isotope dilution analysis of selenium in biological samples. Spectroscopic interference by calcium, which is present in high concentrations in biological samples, was investigated. No detectable background spectrum was observed for the major selenium isotopes of {sup 78}Se and {sup 80}Se. No detectable interferences by sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus on the isotope ratio {sup 80}Se/{sup 78}Se were observed up to concentration of 200 mg/ml. The method was applied to the analysis of selenium in biological reference materials of marine organisms. The results showed good agreement between the certified and found values. (author).

  12. Microplastics as Vehicles of Environmental PAHs to Marine Organisms: Combined Chemical and Physical Hazards to the Mediterranean Mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Pittura

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous occurrence of microplastics (MPs in the marine environment is raising concern for interactions with marine organisms. These particles efficiently adsorb persistent organic pollutants from surrounding environment and, due to the small size, they are easily available for ingestion at all trophic levels. Once ingested, MPs can induce mechanical damage, sub-lethal effects, and various cellular responses, further modulated by possible release of adsorbed chemicals or additives. In this study, ecotoxicological effects of MPs and their interactions with benzo(apyrene (BaP, chosen as a model compound for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were investigated in Mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis. Organisms were exposed for 4 weeks to 10 mg/L of low-density polyethylene (LDPE microparticles (2.34 * 107 particles/L, size range 20–25 μm, both virgin and pre-contaminated with BaP (15 μg/g. Organisms were also exposed for comparison to BaP dosed alone at 150 ng/L, corresponding to the amount adsorbed on microplastics. Tissue localization of microplastics was histologically evaluated; chemical analyses and a wide battery of biomarkers covering molecular, biochemical and cellular levels allowed to evaluate BaP bioaccumulation, alterations of immune system, antioxidant defenses, onset of oxidative stress, peroxisomal proliferation, genotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. Obtained data were elaborated within a quantitative weight of evidence (WOE model which, using weighted criteria, provided synthetic hazard indices, for both chemical and cellular results, before their integration in a combined index. Microplastics were localized in hemolymph, gills, and especially digestive tissues where a potential transfer of BaP from MPs was also observed. Significant alterations were measured on the immune system, while more limited effects occurred on the oxidative status, neurotoxicity, and genotoxicity, with a different susceptibility of

  13. SeaDataNet II - Second phase of developments for the pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

    2013-04-01

    The second phase of the project SeaDataNet started on October 2011 for another 4 years with the aim to upgrade the SeaDataNet infrastructure built during previous years. The numbers of the project are quite impressive: 59 institutions from 35 different countries are involved. In particular, 45 data centers are sharing human and financial resources in a common efforts to sustain an operationally robust and state-of-the-art Pan-European infrastructure for providing up-to-date and high quality access to ocean and marine metadata, data and data products. The main objective of SeaDataNet II is to improve operations and to progress towards an efficient data management infrastructure able to handle the diversity and large volume of data collected via the Pan-European oceanographic fleet and the new observation systems, both in real-time and delayed mode. The infrastructure is based on a semi-distributed system that incorporates and enhance the existing NODCs network. SeaDataNet aims at serving users from science, environmental management, policy making, and economical sectors. Better integrated data systems are vital for these users to achieve improved scientific research and results, to support marine environmental and integrated coastal zone management, to establish indicators of Good Environmental Status for sea basins, and to support offshore industry developments, shipping, fisheries, and other economic activities. The recent EU communication "MARINE KNOWLEDGE 2020 - marine data and observation for smart and sustainable growth" states that the creation of marine knowledge begins with observation of the seas and oceans. In addition, directives, policies, science programmes require reporting of the state of the seas and oceans in an integrated pan-European manner: of particular note are INSPIRE, MSFD, WISE-Marine and GMES Marine Core Service. These underpin the importance of a well functioning marine and ocean data management infrastructure. SeaDataNet is now one of

  14. Identification of Tight-Binding Plasmepsin II and Falcipain 2 Inhibitors in Aqueous Extracts of Marine Invertebrates by the Combination of Enzymatic and Interaction-Based Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Sarduy, Emir; Guerra, Yasel; Covaleda Cortés, Giovanni; Avilés, Francesc Xavier; Chávez Planes, María A.

    2017-01-01

    Natural products from marine origin constitute a very promising and underexplored source of interesting compounds for modern biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. However, their evaluation is quite challenging and requires specifically designed assays to reliably identify the compounds of interest in a highly heterogeneous and interfering context. In the present study, we describe a general strategy for the confident identification of tight-binding protease inhibitors in the aqueous extracts of 62 Cuban marine invertebrates, using Plasmodium falciparum hemoglobinases Plasmepsin II and Falcipain 2 as model enzymes. To this end, we first developed a screening strategy that combined enzymatic with interaction-based assays and then validated screening conditions using five reference extracts. Interferences were evaluated and minimized. The results from the massive screening of such extracts, the validation of several hits by a variety of interaction-based assays and the purification and functional characterization of PhPI, a multifunctional and reversible tight-binding inhibitor for Plasmepsin II and Falcipain 2 from the gorgonian Plexaura homomalla, are presented. PMID:28430158

  15. Brominated flame retardants in aquatic organisms from the North Sea in comparison with biota from the high Arctic marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørmo, Eugen G; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Lie, Elisabeth; Skaare, Janneche U

    2009-10-01

    The extent of trophic transfer of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and seven polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were examined in pelagic and benthic aquatic animals (invertebrates and fish) in a near-shore estuary environment of the southeastern North Sea (Norway; 59 degrees N). Whole-body burdens of HBCD and several of the most abundant PBDEs biomagnified with increasing trophic position in the food web. Biomagnification of HBCD was particularly strong, resulting in whole-body burdens of this compound comparable to those of total PBDEs in the higher-trophic-level species. Body burdens of PBDEs were higher in pelagic than in benthic aquatic organisms. This was particularly evident for the lesser-brominated and volatile PBDE congeners. Atmospheric gas-water-phytoplankton exchange of these volatile compounds over the water surface may account for this observation. The PBDE burdens in pelagic zooplankton from the North Sea were more than 60-fold greater than those in corresponding pelagic zooplankton from the colder high Arctic latitudes (>78 degrees N) of Norway (Svalbard). This great difference may relate to reduced chemical gas-water exchange over open waters at the colder Arctic latitudes. However, previously measured whole-body burdens of BFRs in other aquatic marine organisms from the high Arctic were comparable or even exceeded those in the North Sea samples of the present study. These include sympagic (sea ice-associated) invertebrates and fish accumulating high burdens of particle-associated BFRs. The present study provides new insight regarding the distribution of BFRs in ecologically different compartments of marine ecosystems, essential information for understanding the food-web transfer and geographical dispersal of these compounds.

  16. Hunt for Palytoxins in a Wide Variety of Marine Organisms Harvested in 2010 on the French Mediterranean Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronel Biré

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the summer of 2010, 31 species including fish, echinoderms, gastropods, crustaceans, cephalopods and sponges were sampled in the Bay of Villefranche on the French Mediterranean coast and screened for the presence of PLTX-group toxins using the haemolytic assay. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was used for confirmatory purposes and to determine the toxin profile. The mean toxin concentration in the whole flesh of all sampled marine organisms, determined using the lower- (LB and upper-bound (UB approach was 4.3 and 5.1 µg·kg−1, respectively, with less than 1% of the results exceeding the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA threshold of 30 µg·kg−1and the highest values being reported for sea urchins (107.6 and 108.0 µg·kg−1. Toxins accumulated almost exclusively in the digestive tube of the tested species, with the exception of octopus, in which there were detectable toxin amounts in the remaining tissues (RT. The mean toxin concentration in the RT of the sampled organisms (fishes, echinoderms and cephalopods was 0.7 and 1.7 µg·kg−1 (LB and UB, respectively, with a maximum value of 19.9 µg·kg−1 for octopus RT. The herbivorous and omnivorous organisms were the most contaminated species, indicating that diet influences the contamination process, and the LC-MS/MS revealed that ovatoxin-a was the only toxin detected.

  17. Foraminiferal assemblages and organic carbon relationship in benthic marine ecosystem of Western Indian Continental Shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Nigam, R.

    that Ammobaculites agglutinans (d'Orbigny) and Ammonia spp have positive (direct) tendency towards organic carbon while miliolids (Quinqueloqulina spp, Spiroloculina spp and Triloculina spp Florilus-Nonion and Nonionella spp have negative (inverse) tendency...

  18. Isotopic Constraints on the Sources and Associations of Organic Compounds in Marine Sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Helen K

    2006-01-01

    .... The main objective has been to determine the significance of these associations, and to assess how they affect the transport, bioavailability, preservation and residence times of organic compounds in the environment...

  19. Characterisation of algal organic matter produced by bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.; Ekowati, Yuli; Neu, Thomas R.; Kleijn, J. Mieke; Winters, Harvey; Amy, Gary L.; Schippers, Jan Cornelis; Kennedy, Maria Dolores

    2015-01-01

    , such as liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, alcian blue staining and lectin staining coupled with laser scanning microscopy to indentify its composition and force measurement using

  20. Toxicity of natural mixtures of organic pollutants in temperate and polar marine phytoplankton

    KAUST Repository

    Echeveste, Pedro; Galbá n-Malagó n, Cristó bal; Dachs, Jordi; Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Agusti, Susana

    2016-01-01

    concentrations, viability of the cells, and growth and decay constants were monitored in response to addition of a range of concentrations of mixtures of organic pollutants obtained from seawater extracts. Almost all of the phytoplankton groups were significantly

  1. Marine polar steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonik, Valentin A

    2001-01-01

    Structures, taxonomic distribution and biological activities of polar steroids isolated from various marine organisms over the last 8-10 years are considered. The peculiarities of steroid biogenesis in the marine biota and their possible biological functions are discussed. Syntheses of some highly active marine polar steroids are described. The bibliography includes 254 references.

  2. A Deg-protease family protein in marine Synechococcus is involved in outer membrane protein organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhona Kayra Stuart

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Deg-family proteases are a periplasm-associated group of proteins that are known to be involved in envelope stress responses and are found in most microorganisms. Orthologous genes SYNW2176 (in strain WH8102 and sync_2523 (strain CC9311 are predicted members of the Deg-protease family and are among the few genes induced by copper stress in both open ocean and coastal marine Synechococcus strains. In contrast to the lack of a phenotype in a similar knockout in Synechocystis PCC6803, a SYNW2176 knockout mutant in strain WH8102 was much more resistant to copper than the wild-type. The mutant also exhibited a significantly altered outer membrane protein composition which may contribute to copper resistance, longer lag phase after transfer, low-level consistent alkaline phosphatase activity, and an inability to induce high alkaline phosphatase activity in response to phosphate stress. This phenotype suggests a protein-quality-control role for SYNW2176, the absence of which leads to a constitutively activated stress response. Deg-protease family proteins in this ecologically important cyanobacterial group thus help to determine outer membrane responses to both nutrients and toxins.

  3. Radioactivity in Norwegian Waters: Distribution in seawater and sediments, and uptake in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise

    2001-01-01

    Prior to the detonation of the first thermonuclear bomb, small amounts of radioactivity, for example in mineral water, were considered to be health enriching. Negative experiences related to thermonuclear bombs and several nuclear accidents have, however, changed people's attitude towards radioactivity during the past 40-50 years. Today, there is a common concern for regular and potential accidental releases of radioactivity from sources such as Sellafield. Although this is important, incorrect assessments of the effects of these releases (e.g. created by uncritical journalism) have the potential to harm the country's fisheries and economy. Therefore, it is of major importance to document up-to-date levels of radioactive contamination of the marine environment, and be able to place these into the proper perspectives. The main topics of the thesis may be summarised as follows: (1) Distribution of Caesium-137, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239,240 and Americium-241 in sediments with emphasis on the Spitsbergen-Bear Island area, (2) Uptake of Caesium-137 in phytoplankton representative for the Barents and Norwegian Seas phytoplankton communities (laboratory experiments), (3) Bioaccumulation of Caesium-137 in food webs in the Barents and Norwegian Seas, (4) Geographical variations of Caesium-137 in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) along the Norwegian coast, (5) Transport times for Technetium-99 from Sellafield to various locations along the Norwegian coast and the Arctic Ocean

  4. Radioactivity in Norwegian Waters: Distribution in seawater and sediments, and uptake in marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise

    2001-07-01

    Prior to the detonation of the first thermonuclear bomb, small amounts of radioactivity, for example in mineral water, were considered to be health enriching. Negative experiences related to thermonuclear bombs and several nuclear accidents have, however, changed people's attitude towards radioactivity during the past 40-50 years. Today, there is a common concern for regular and potential accidental releases of radioactivity from sources such as Sellafield. Although this is important, incorrect assessments of the effects of these releases (e.g. created by uncritical journalism) have the potential to harm the country's fisheries and economy. Therefore, it is of major importance to document up-to-date levels of radioactive contamination of the marine environment, and be able to place these into the proper perspectives. The main topics of the thesis may be summarised as follows: (1) Distribution of Caesium-137, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239,240 and Americium-241 in sediments with emphasis on the Spitsbergen-Bear Island area, (2) Uptake of Caesium-137 in phytoplankton representative for the Barents and Norwegian Seas phytoplankton communities (laboratory experiments), (3) Bioaccumulation of Caesium-137 in food webs in the Barents and Norwegian Seas, (4) Geographical variations of Caesium-137 in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) along the Norwegian coast, (5) Transport times for Technetium-99 from Sellafield to various locations along the Norwegian coast and the Arctic Ocean.

  5. Radioactivity in Norwegian Waters: Distribution in seawater and sediments, and uptake in marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise

    2001-07-01

    Prior to the detonation of the first thermonuclear bomb, small amounts of radioactivity, for example in mineral water, were considered to be health enriching. Negative experiences related to thermonuclear bombs and several nuclear accidents have, however, changed people's attitude towards radioactivity during the past 40-50 years. Today, there is a common concern for regular and potential accidental releases of radioactivity from sources such as Sellafield. Although this is important, incorrect assessments of the effects of these releases (e.g. created by uncritical journalism) have the potential to harm the country's fisheries and economy. Therefore, it is of major importance to document up-to-date levels of radioactive contamination of the marine environment, and be able to place these into the proper perspectives. The main topics of the thesis may be summarised as follows: (1) Distribution of Caesium-137, Plutonium-238, Plutonium-239,240 and Americium-241 in sediments with emphasis on the Spitsbergen-Bear Island area, (2) Uptake of Caesium-137 in phytoplankton representative for the Barents and Norwegian Seas phytoplankton communities (laboratory experiments), (3) Bioaccumulation of Caesium-137 in food webs in the Barents and Norwegian Seas, (4) Geographical variations of Caesium-137 in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) along the Norwegian coast, (5) Transport times for Technetium-99 from Sellafield to various locations along the Norwegian coast and the Arctic Ocean.

  6. Molecular organization of the 5S rDNA gene type II in elasmobranchs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Sergio I; Hleap, Jose S; Cárdenas, Heiber; Blouin, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The 5S rDNA gene is a non-coding RNA that can be found in 2 copies (type I and type II) in bony and cartilaginous fish. Previous studies have pointed out that type II gene is a paralog derived from type I. We analyzed the molecular organization of 5S rDNA type II in elasmobranchs. Although the structure of the 5S rDNA is supposed to be highly conserved, our results show that the secondary structure in this group possesses some variability and is different than the consensus secondary structure. One of these differences in Selachii is an internal loop at nucleotides 7 and 112. These mutations observed in the transcribed region suggest an independent origin of the gene among Batoids and Selachii. All promoters were highly conserved with the exception of BoxA, possibly due to its affinity to polymerase III. This latter enzyme recognizes a dT4 sequence as stop signal, however in Rajiformes this signal was doubled in length to dT8. This could be an adaptation toward a higher efficiency in the termination process. Our results suggest that there is no TATA box in elasmobranchs in the NTS region. We also provide some evidence suggesting that the complexity of the microsatellites present in the NTS region play an important role in the 5S rRNA gene since it is significantly correlated with the length of the NTS.

  7. Toxicity of natural mixtures of organic pollutants in temperate and polar marine phytoplankton

    KAUST Repository

    Echeveste, Pedro

    2016-07-26

    Semivolatile and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) undergo atmospheric transport before being deposited to the oceans, where they partition to phytoplankton organic matter. The goal of this study was to determine the toxicity of naturally occurring complex mixtures of organic pollutants to temperate and polar phytoplankton communities from the Mediterranean Sea, the North East (NE) Atlantic, and Southern Oceans. The cell abundance of the different phytoplankton groups, chlorophyll a concentrations, viability of the cells, and growth and decay constants were monitored in response to addition of a range of concentrations of mixtures of organic pollutants obtained from seawater extracts. Almost all of the phytoplankton groups were significantly affected by the complex mixtures of non-polar and polar organic pollutants, with toxicity being greater for these mixtures than for single POPs or simple POP mixtures. Cocktails\\' toxicity arose at concentrations as low as tenfold the field oceanic levels, probably due to a higher chemical activity of the mixture than of simple POPs mixtures. Overall, smaller cells were the most affected, although Mediterranean picophytoplankton was significantly more tolerant to non-polar POPs than picophytoplankton from the Atlantic Ocean or the Bellingshausen Sea microphytoplankton. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Impacts of springtime biomass burning in the northern Southeast Asia on marine organic aerosols over the Gulf of Tonkin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lishan; Yang, Xiaoyang; Lai, Senchao; Ren, Hong; Yue, Siyao; Zhang, Yingyi; Huang, Xin; Gao, Yuanguan; Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Fu, Pingqing

    2018-06-01

    Fine particles (PM 2.5 ) samples, collected at Weizhou Island over the Gulf of Tonkin on a daytime and nighttime basis in the spring of 2015, were analyzed for primary and secondary organic tracers, together with organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and stable carbon isotopic composition (δ 13 C) of total carbon (TC). Five organic compound classes, including saccharides, lignin/resin products, fatty acids, biogenic SOA tracers and phthalic acids, were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Levoglucosan was the most abundant organic species, indicating that the sampling site was under strong influence of biomass burning. Based on the tracer-based methods, the biomass-burning-derived fraction was estimated to be the dominant contributor to aerosol OC, accounting for 15.7% ± 11.1% and 22.2% ± 17.4% of OC in daytime and nighttime samples, respectively. In two episodes E1 and E2, organic aerosols characterized by elevated concentrations of levoglucosan as well as its isomers, sugar compounds, lignin products, high molecular weight (HMW) fatty acids and β-caryophyllinic acid, were attributed to the influence of intensive biomass burning in the northern Southeast Asia (SEA). However, the discrepancies in the ratios of levoglucosan to mannosan (L/M) and OC (L/OC) as well as the δ 13 C values suggest the type of biomass burning and the sources of organic aerosols in E1 and E2 were different. Hardwood and/or C 4 plants were the major burning materials in E1, while burning of softwood and/or C 3 plants played important role in E2. Furthermore, more complex sources and enhanced secondary contribution were found to play a part in organic aerosols in E2. This study highlights the significant influence of springtime biomass burning in the northern SEA to the organic molecular compositions of marine aerosols over the Gulf of Tonkin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Toxicity of Bioactive and Probiotic Marine Bacteria and Their Secondary Metabolites in Artemia sp. and Caenorhabditis elegans as Eukaryotic Model Organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neu, Anna; Månsson, Maria; Gram, Lone

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported that some strains belonging to the marine Actinobacteria class, the Pseudoalteromonas genus, the Roseobacter clade, and the Photobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families produce both antibacterial and antivirulence compounds, and these organisms are interesting from......-producing Roseobacter bacteria as a promising group to be used as probiotics in aquaculture, whereas Actinobacteria, Pseudoalteromonas, Photobacteriaceae, and Vibrionaceae should be used with caution....

  10. Persistent organic pollutants and mercury in marine biota of the Canadian Arctic: an overview of spatial and temporal trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braune, B M; Outridge, P M; Fisk, A T; Muir, D C G; Helm, P A; Hobbs, K; Hoekstra, P F; Kuzyk, Z A; Kwan, M; Letcher, R J; Lockhart, W L; Norstrom, R J; Stern, G A; Stirling, I

    2005-12-01

    This review summarizes and synthesizes the significant amount of data which was generated on mercury (Hg) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Canadian Arctic marine biota since the first Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report (CACAR) was published in 1997. This recent body of work has led to a better understanding of the current levels and spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in biota, including the marine food species that northern peoples traditionally consume. Compared to other circumpolar countries, concentrations of many organochlorines (OCs) in Canadian Arctic marine biota are generally lower than in the European Arctic and eastern Greenland but are higher than in Alaska, whereas Hg concentrations are substantially higher in Canada than elsewhere. Spatial coverage of OCs in ringed seals, beluga and seabirds remains a strength of the Arctic contaminant data set for Canada. Concentrations of OCs in marine mammals and seabirds remain fairly consistent across the Canadian Arctic although subtle differences from west to east and south to north are found in the proportions of various chemicals. The most significant development since 1997 is improvement in the temporal trend data sets, thanks to the use of archived tissue samples from the 1970s and 1980s, long-term studies using archeological material, as well as the continuation of sampling. These data cover a range of species and chemicals and also include retrospective studies on new chemicals such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers. There is solid evidence in a few species (beluga, polar bear, blue mussels) that Hg at some locations has significantly increased from pre-industrial times to the present; however, the temporal trends of Hg over the past 20-30 years are inconsistent. Some animal populations exhibited significant increases in Hg whereas others did not. Therefore, it is currently not possible to determine if anthropogenic Hg is generally increasing in Canadian Arctic biota. It is

  11. Biomagnification of organic pollutants in benthic and pelagic marine food chains from the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nfon, Erick; Cousins, Ian T.; Broman, Dag

    2008-01-01

    The trophic transfer of organic pollutants with varying physical chemical properties was determined in both a pelagic and benthic food chain using δ 15 N as a continuous variable for assessing trophic levels. The trophic transfer of organic pollutants through the entire food chain in terms of food chain magnification factors (FCMFs) was quantified from the slope of the regression between ln [concentration] and δ 15 N. Organic pollutants with statistically significant FCMFs > 1 were considered to biomagnify within the food chain, whereas those with FCMFs 1 were found for PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the Baltic food chains whereas statistically significant FCMFs 15 N method suggested a food chain structure which was not consistent with the known dietary patterns of the species. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were additionally calculated as the ratio of the lipid normalized concentrations in the predator and prey species with adjustment for trophic level and were generally consistent with the FCMFs with BMF > 1 for PCBs and organochlorines

  12. CCN Properties of Organic Aerosol Collected Below and within Marine Stratocumulus Clouds near Monterey, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akua Asa-Awuku

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The composition of aerosol from cloud droplets differs from that below cloud. Its implications for the Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN activity are the focus of this study. Water-soluble organic matter from below cloud, and cloud droplet residuals off the coast of Monterey, California were collected; offline chemical composition, CCN activity and surface tension measurements coupled with Köhler Theory Analysis are used to infer the molar volume and surfactant characteristics of organics in both samples. Based on the surface tension depression of the samples, it is unlikely that the aerosol contains strong surfactants. The activation kinetics for all samples examined are consistent with rapid (NH42SO4 calibration aerosol. This is consistent with our current understanding of droplet kinetics for ambient CCN. However, the carbonaceous material in cloud drop residuals is far more hygroscopic than in sub-cloud aerosol, suggestive of the impact of cloud chemistry on the hygroscopic properties of organic matter.

  13. PBDE and PCB accumulation in benthos near marine wastewater outfalls: The role of sediment organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinn, Pamela M.; Johannessen, Sophia C.; Ross, Peter S.; Macdonald, Robie W.; Whiticar, Michael J.; Lowe, Christopher J.; Roodselaar, Albert van

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in sediments and benthic invertebrates near submarine municipal outfalls in Victoria and Vancouver, B.C., Canada, two areas with contrasting receiving environments. PBDE concentrations in wastewater exceeded those of the legacy PCBs by eight times at Vancouver and 35 times at Victoria. Total PBDE concentrations in benthic invertebrates were higher near Vancouver than Victoria, despite lower concentrations in sediments, and correlated with organic carbon-normalized concentrations in sediment. Principal Components Analysis indicated uptake of individual PBDE congeners was determined by sediment properties (organic carbon, grain size), while PCB congener uptake was governed by physico-chemical properties (octanol-water partitioning coefficient). Results suggest the utility of sediment quality guidelines for PBDEs and likely PCBs benefit if based on organic carbon-normalized concentrations. Also, where enhanced wastewater treatment increases the PBDEs to particulate organic carbon ratio in effluent, nearfield benthic invertebrates may face increased PBDE accumulation. - Highlights: ► Physical receiving environment affects PBDE bioaccumulation by benthic invertebrates. ► PBDE uptake is correlated with organic-carbon normalized sediment concentrations. ► PBDE and PCB congener uptake are governed by different properties. ► PBDE sediment quality guidelines may benefit by using organic carbon-normalized data. ► Enhanced wastewater treatment may mean increased benthic invertebrate PBDE bioaccumulation. - The physical receiving environment affects the accumulation of PBDEs by benthic invertebrates near submarine municipal outfalls, and uptake of PBDE congeners is governed by different properties than for PCB congeners.

  14. Manganese(II), iron(II), and mixed-metal metal-organic frameworks based on chains with mixed carboxylate and azide bridges: magnetic coupling and slow relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Qin; Yue, Qi; Qi, Yan; Wang, Kun; Sun, Qian; Gao, En-Qing

    2013-04-15

    Mn(II) and Fe(II) compounds derived from azide and the zwitterionic 1-carboxylatomethylpyridinium-4-carboxylate ligand are isomorphous three-dimensional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the sra net, in which the metal ions are connected into anionic chains by mixed (μ-1,1-azide)bis(μ-carboxylate) triple bridges and the chains are cross-linked by the cationic backbones of the zwitterionic ligands. The Mn(II) MOFs display typical one-dimensional antiferromagnetic behavior. In contrast, with one more d electron per metal center, the Fe(II) counterpart shows intrachain ferromagnetic interactions and slow relaxation of magnetization attributable to the single-chain components. The activation energies for magnetization reversal in the infinite- and finite-chain regimes are Δτ1 = 154 K and Δτ2 = 124 K, respectively. Taking advantage of the isomorphism between the Mn(II) and Fe(II) MOFs, we have prepared a series of mixed-metal Mn(II)(1-x)Fe(II)(x) MOFs with x = 0.41, 0.63, and 0.76, which intrinsically feature random isotropic/anisotropic sites and competing antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic interactions. The materials show a gradual antiferromagnetic-to-ferromagnetic evolution in overall behaviors as the Fe(II) content increases, and the Fe-rich materials show complex relaxation processes that may arise for mixed SCM and spin-glass mechanisms. A general trend is that the activation energy and the blocking temperature increase with the Fe(II) content, emphasizing the importance of anisotropy for slow relaxation of magnetization.

  15. Spatial modelling of marine organisms in Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Including calculation of physical predictor variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlen, Ida; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Isaeus, Martin (AquaBiota Water Research, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-06-15

    GIS grids (maps) of marine parameters were created using point data from previous site investigations in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The proportion of global radiation reaching the sea bottom in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated in ArcView, using Secchi depth measurements and the digital elevation models for the respective area. The number of days per year when the incoming light exceeds 5 MJ/m2 at the bottom was then calculated using the result of the previous calculations together with measured global radiation. Existing modelled grid-point data on bottom and pelagic temperature for Forsmark were interpolated to create surface covering grids. Bottom and pelagic temperature grids for Oskarshamn were calculated using point measurements to achieve yearly averages for a few points and then using regressions with existing grids to create new maps. Phytoplankton primary production in Forsmark was calculated using point measurements of chlorophyll and irradiance, and a regression with a modelled grid of Secchi depth. Distribution of biomass of macrophyte communities in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated using spatial modelling in GRASP, based on field data from previous surveys. Physical parameters such as those described above were used as predictor variables. Distribution of biomass of different functional groups of fish in Forsmark was calculated using spatial modelling based on previous surveys and with predictor variables such as physical parameters and results from macrophyte modelling. All results are presented as maps in the report. The quality of the modelled predictions varies as a consequence of the quality and amount of the input data, the ecology and knowledge of the predicted phenomena, and by the modelling technique used. A substantial part of the variation is not described by the models, which should be expected for biological modelling. Therefore, the resulting grids should be used with caution and with this uncertainty kept in mind. All

  16. Bromination of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter following Full Scale Electrochemical Ballast Water Disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsior, Michael; Mitchelmore, Carys; Heyes, Andrew; Harir, Mourad; Richardson, Susan D; Petty, William Tyler; Wright, David A; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-08-04

    An extensively diverse array of brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were generated following electrochemical disinfection of natural coastal/estuarine water, which is one of the main treatment methods currently under consideration for ballast water treatment. Ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed 462 distinct brominated DBPs at a relative abundance in the mass spectra of more than 1%. A brominated DBP with a relative abundance of almost 22% was identified as 2,2,4-tribromo-5-hydroxy-4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione, which is an analogue to several previously described 2,2,4-trihalo-5-hydroxy-4-cyclopentene-1,3-diones in drinking water. Several other brominated molecular formulas matched those of other known brominated DBPs, such as dibromomethane, which could be generated by decarboxylation of dibromoacetic acid during ionization, dibromophenol, dibromopropanoic acid, dibromobutanoic acid, bromohydroxybenzoic acid, bromophenylacetic acid, bromooxopentenoic acid, and dibromopentenedioic acid. Via comparison to previously described chlorine-containing analogues, bromophenylacetic acid, dibromooxopentenoic acid, and dibromopentenedioic acid were also identified. A novel compound at a 4% relative abundance was identified as tribromoethenesulfonate. This compound has not been previously described as a DBP, and its core structure of tribromoethene has been demonstrated to show toxicological implications. Here we show that electrochemical disinfection, suggested as a candidate for successful ballast water treatment, caused considerable production of some previously characterized DBPs in addition to novel brominated DBPs, although several hundred compounds remain structurally uncharacterized. Our results clearly demonstrate that electrochemical and potentially direct chlorination of ballast water in estuarine and marine systems should be approached with caution and the concentrations, fate, and toxicity of DBP need to be further characterized.

  17. Spatial modelling of marine organisms in Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Including calculation of physical predictor variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlen, Ida; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Isaeus, Martin

    2007-06-01

    GIS grids (maps) of marine parameters were created using point data from previous site investigations in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The proportion of global radiation reaching the sea bottom in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated in ArcView, using Secchi depth measurements and the digital elevation models for the respective area. The number of days per year when the incoming light exceeds 5 MJ/m2 at the bottom was then calculated using the result of the previous calculations together with measured global radiation. Existing modelled grid-point data on bottom and pelagic temperature for Forsmark were interpolated to create surface covering grids. Bottom and pelagic temperature grids for Oskarshamn were calculated using point measurements to achieve yearly averages for a few points and then using regressions with existing grids to create new maps. Phytoplankton primary production in Forsmark was calculated using point measurements of chlorophyll and irradiance, and a regression with a modelled grid of Secchi depth. Distribution of biomass of macrophyte communities in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated using spatial modelling in GRASP, based on field data from previous surveys. Physical parameters such as those described above were used as predictor variables. Distribution of biomass of different functional groups of fish in Forsmark was calculated using spatial modelling based on previous surveys and with predictor variables such as physical parameters and results from macrophyte modelling. All results are presented as maps in the report. The quality of the modelled predictions varies as a consequence of the quality and amount of the input data, the ecology and knowledge of the predicted phenomena, and by the modelling technique used. A substantial part of the variation is not described by the models, which should be expected for biological modelling. Therefore, the resulting grids should be used with caution and with this uncertainty kept in mind. All

  18. Differential bioaccumulation of "1"3"4Cs in tropical marine organisms and the relative importance of exposure pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metian, Marc; Pouil, Simon; Hédouin, Laetitia; Oberhänsli, François; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Bustamante, Paco; Warnau, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of "1"3"4Cs was determined in 5 tropical marine species: three bivalves (the oysters Isognomon isognomum and Malleus regula, and the clam Gafrarium pectinatum), one decapod (shrimp Penaeus stylirostris) and one alga (Lobophora variegata). Marine organisms were exposed to the radionuclides via different pathways: seawater (all of them), food (shrimp and bivalves) and sediment (bivalves). Our results indicate that the studied tropical species accumulate Cs similarly than species from temperate regions whereas retention capacities seems to be greater in the tropical species. Bioaccumulation capacities of the two oysters were similar for all the exposure pathways. The alga, and to a lesser extent the shrimp, concentrated dissolved Cs more efficiently than the bivalves (approx. 14 and 7 times higher, respectively). Assimilation efficiencies of Cs in bivalves and shrimp after a single feeding with radiolabelled food were comprised between 7.0 ± 0.4 and 40.7 ± 4.3%, with a variable retention time (half-life –T_b_1_/_2– ranging from 16 ± 3 to 89 ± 55 d). Although the clam lives buried in the sediment, this exposure pathway resulted in low bioaccumulation efficiency for sediment-bound Cs (mean transfer factor: 0.020 ± 0.001) that was lower than the two oyster species, which are not used to live in this media (0.084 ± 0.003 and 0.080 ± 0.005). Nonetheless, Cs accumulated from sediment was similarly absorbed (61.6 ± 9.7 to 79.2 ± 2.3%) and retained (T_b_1_/_2: 37 ± 2 to 58 ± 25 d) for the three bivalves species. Despite the poor transfer efficiency of Cs from food, the use of a global bioaccumulation model indicated that the trophic pathways was the main uptake route of Cs in the bivalves and shrimp. In shelled organisms, shells played a non-negligible role in Cs uptake, and their composition and structure might play a major role in this process. Indeed, most of the Cs taken up from seawater and sediment was principally

  19. Estuarine consumers utilize marine, estuarine and terrestrial organic matter and provide connectivity among these food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flux of organic matter (OM) across ecosystem boundaries can influence estuarine food web dynamics and productivity. However, this process is seldom investigated taking into account all the adjacent ecosystems (e.g. ocean, river, land) and different hydrological settings (i.e....

  20. Dissolved organic nitrogen and carbon release by a marine unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benavides, M.; Agawin, N.S.R.; Aristegui, J.; Peene, J.; Stal, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Dinitrogen (N-2) fixation rates may be underestimated when recently fixed N2 is released as dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). DON release (DONr) is substantial in the filamentous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium but has never been reported in unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria. We used axenic

  1. Dissolved organic nitrogen and carbon release by a marine unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benavides, M.; Agawin, N.S.R.; Aristegui, J.; Peene, J.; Stal, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Dinitrogen (N2) fixation rates may be underestimated when recently fixed N2 is released as dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). DON release (DONr) is substantial in the filamentous cyanobacterium Trichodesmium but has never been reported in unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria. We used axenic

  2. An Account on marine wood-boring organisms of offshore waters of Bombay High, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagh, A.B.; Raveendran, T.V.

    An incidence of wood-boring organisms in a water column of 75 meters depth, 160 km off the Bombay coast is reported. The destruction of untreated panels of mango wood exposed for periods varying from 1-12 months was caused by eight species...

  3. Quantifying In Situ Metal and Organic Contaminant Mobility in Marine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    and west of Ford Island, within the Pearl Harbor Naval Base. Sediments are fine grain silts and clays of basaltic origins and contain various... fiber filters for organics), and check valves (Figure 8) connected to synchronized parallel rotary valves connected to the collection chamber. Samples

  4. Iron Isotope Fractionation during Fe(II) Oxidation Mediated by the Oxygen-Producing Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanner, E. D.; Bayer, T.; Wu, W.; Hao, L.; Obst, M.; Sundman, A.; Byrne, J. M.; Michel, F. M.; Kleinhanns, I. C.; Kappler, A.; Schoenberg, R.

    2017-04-11

    In this study, we couple iron isotope analysis to microscopic and mineralogical investigation of iron speciation during circumneutral Fe(II) oxidation and Fe(III) precipitation with photosynthetically produced oxygen. In the presence of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7002, aqueous Fe(II) (Fe(II)aq) is oxidized and precipitated as amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide minerals (iron precipitates, Feppt), with distinct isotopic fractionation (ε56Fe) values determined from fitting the δ56Fe(II)aq (1.79‰ and 2.15‰) and the δ56Feppt (2.44‰ and 2.98‰) data trends from two replicate experiments. Additional Fe(II) and Fe(III) phases were detected using microscopy and chemical extractions and likely represent Fe(II) and Fe(III) sorbed to minerals and cells. The iron desorbed with sodium acetate (FeNaAc) yielded heavier δ56Fe compositions than Fe(II)aq. Modeling of the fractionation during Fe(III) sorption to cells and Fe(II) sorption to Feppt, combined with equilibration of sorbed iron and with Fe(II)aq using published fractionation factors, is consistent with our resulting δ56FeNaAc. The δ56Feppt data trend is inconsistent with complete equilibrium exchange with Fe(II)aq. Because of this and our detection of microbially excreted organics (e.g., exopolysaccharides) coating Feppt in our microscopic analysis, we suggest that electron and atom exchange is partially suppressed in this system by biologically produced organics. These results indicate that cyanobacteria influence the fate and composition of iron in sunlit environments via their role in Fe(II) oxidation through O2 production, the capacity of their cell surfaces to sorb iron, and the interaction of secreted organics with Fe(III) minerals.

  5. DFT investigation of Ni(II) adsorption onto MA-DTPA/PVDF chelating membrane in the presence of coexistent cations and organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Laizhou; Zhao, Xiaodan; Fu, Jie; Wang, Xiuli; Sheng, Yiping; Liu, Xiaowei

    2012-01-15

    Melamine-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid/polyvinylidene fluoride (MA-DTPA/PVDF) chelating membrane bearing polyaminecarboxylate groups was used to remove Ni(II) from nickel plating effluents. Adsorption experiments were conducted to study the adsorption of the membrane towards Ni(II) in Ni(II)-Ca(II), Ni(II)-NH(4)(+), Ni(II)-Fe(III) binary systems, and Ni(II)-lactic acid, Ni(II)-succinic acid and Ni(II)-citric acid complex systems. For the ternary nickel plating processes, the effects of 3d transition metals including Fe(II), Co(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) on Ni(II) adsorption were evaluated. The influences of the aforementioned coexistent cations and organic acids were elucidated by the continuum solvation model (COSMO)-corrected density functional theory (DFT) method. Geometries and complexation energies were analyzed for metal-MA-DTPA and Ni(II)-organic acid complexes. DFT results accord with the experimental data, indicating that DFT is helpful to evaluate the complexation between the membrane and metal cations. The coexistent Ca(II) tends to form more stable complex with MA-DTPA ligand than NH(4)(+) and Fe(III), and can interfere with the formation of Ni(II)-MA-DTPA complex. The complexing sequence of 3d metals with MA-DTPA ligand is Zn(II)). Therefore, both Fe(II) and Cu(II) have the considerable competition with Ni(II). The stabilities of Ni(II)-organic acid complexes follow the order of lactic acidII)-MA-DTPA complex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ammonium production off central Chile (36°S by photodegradation of phytoplankton-derived and marine dissolved organic matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Rain-Franco

    Full Text Available We investigated the production of ammonium by the photodegradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM in the coastal upwelling system off central Chile (36°S. The mean penetration of solar radiation (Z1% between April 2011 and February 2012 was 9.4 m, 4.4 m and 3.2 m for Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm, UV-A (320-400 nm and UV-B (280-320 nm, respectively. Ammonium photoproduction experiments were carried out using exudates of DOM obtained from cultured diatom species (Chaetoceros muelleri and Thalassiosira minuscule as well as natural marine DOM. Diatom exudates showed net photoproduction of ammonium under exposure to UVR with a mean rate of 0.56±0.4 µmol L(-1 h(-1 and a maximum rate of 1.49 µmol L(-1 h(-1. Results from natural marine DOM showed net photoproduction of ammonium under exposure to PAR+UVR ranging between 0.06 and 0.2 µmol L(-1 h(-1. We estimated the potential contribution of photochemical ammonium production for phytoplankton ammonium demand. Photoammonification of diatom exudates could support between 117 and 453% of spring-summer NH4(+ assimilation, while rates obtained from natural samples could contribute to 50-178% of spring-summer phytoplankton NH4(+ requirements. These results have implications for local N budgets, as photochemical ammonium production can occur year-round in the first meters of the euphotic zone that are impacted by full sunlight.

  7. SeaDataNet II - EMODNet Bathymetry - building a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management and a digital high resolution bathymetry for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Fichaut, Michele

    2015-04-01

    The second phase of the project SeaDataNet is well underway since October 2011. The main objective is to improve operations and to progress towards an efficient data management infrastructure able to handle the diversity and large volume of data collected via research cruises and monitoring activities in European marine waters and global oceans. The SeaDataNet infrastructure comprises a network of interconnected data centres and a central SeaDataNet portal. The portal provides users a unified and transparent overview of the metadata and controlled access to the large collections of data sets, managed by the interconnected data centres, and the various SeaDataNet standards and tools,. SeaDataNet is also setting and governing marine data standards, and exploring and establishing interoperability solutions to connect to other e-infrastructures on the basis of standards of ISO (19115, 19139), OGC (WMS, WFS, CS-W and SWE), and OpenSearch. The population of directories has increased considerably in cooperation and involvement in associated EU projects and initiatives. SeaDataNet now gives overview and access to more than 1.6 million data sets for physical oceanography, chemistry, geology, geophysics, bathymetry and biology from more than 100 connected data centres from 34 countries riparian to European seas. Access to marine data is also a key issue for the implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The EU communication 'Marine Knowledge 2020' underpins the importance of data availability and harmonising access to marine data from different sources. SeaDataNet qualified itself for an active role in the data management component of the EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data network) that is promoted in the EU Communication. Starting 2009 EMODnet pilot portals have been initiated for marine data themes: digital bathymetry, chemistry, physical oceanography, geology, biology, and seabed habitat mapping. These portals are being expanded to all

  8. Interactive effects of metal contamination and pathogenic organisms on the introduced marine bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum in European populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul-Pont, Ika; Montaudouin, Xavier de; Gonzalez, Patrice; Jude, Florence; Raymond, Natalie; Paillard, Christine; Baudrimont, Magalie

    2010-01-01

    In natural environment, marine organisms are concomitantly exposed to pollutants and multiple disease agents resulting in detrimental interactions. The present study evaluated interactive effects of metal contamination (cadmium) and pathogenic organisms (trematode parasites Himasthla elongata and pathogenic bacteria Vibrio tapetis) singularly and in combination on the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum, an introduced species to Europe, under laboratory controlled conditions. After 7 days, metal bioaccumulation and pathogen load were analyzed as well as metallothionein (MT) response and hemocyte concentrations and activities. Results showed that infection by opportunistic pathogens affects metal accumulation, leading to maximal Cd accumulation in co-infected clams. Among stressors only V. tapetis induced significant effects on immune parameters whereas a particular interaction 'trematode-bacteria' was shown on MT responses. Despite low trematode infection in agreement with the resistant status of R. philippinarum to these macroparasites, significant interaction with bacteria and metal occurred. Such results highlight the necessity of taking pathogens into account in ecotoxicological studies. - Co-infection by opportunistic pathogens affects metal accumulation and some defense-related activities in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

  9. Interactive effects of metal contamination and pathogenic organisms on the introduced marine bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum in European populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul-Pont, Ika, E-mail: i.paulpont@epoc.u-bordeaux1.f [Universite Bordeaux 1, UMR 5805 CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Montaudouin, Xavier de; Gonzalez, Patrice; Jude, Florence; Raymond, Natalie [Universite Bordeaux 1, UMR 5805 CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Paillard, Christine [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale-IUEM, LEMAR UMR 6539 CNRS, Place Nicolas Copernic, Technopole Brest Iroise, 29280 Plouzane (France); Baudrimont, Magalie [Universite Bordeaux 1, UMR 5805 CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France)

    2010-11-15

    In natural environment, marine organisms are concomitantly exposed to pollutants and multiple disease agents resulting in detrimental interactions. The present study evaluated interactive effects of metal contamination (cadmium) and pathogenic organisms (trematode parasites Himasthla elongata and pathogenic bacteria Vibrio tapetis) singularly and in combination on the bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum, an introduced species to Europe, under laboratory controlled conditions. After 7 days, metal bioaccumulation and pathogen load were analyzed as well as metallothionein (MT) response and hemocyte concentrations and activities. Results showed that infection by opportunistic pathogens affects metal accumulation, leading to maximal Cd accumulation in co-infected clams. Among stressors only V. tapetis induced significant effects on immune parameters whereas a particular interaction 'trematode-bacteria' was shown on MT responses. Despite low trematode infection in agreement with the resistant status of R. philippinarum to these macroparasites, significant interaction with bacteria and metal occurred. Such results highlight the necessity of taking pathogens into account in ecotoxicological studies. - Co-infection by opportunistic pathogens affects metal accumulation and some defense-related activities in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

  10. Contamination of an arctic terrestrial food web with marine-derived persistent organic pollutants transported by breeding seabirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, Emily S.; Kimpe, Linda E.; Mallory, Mark L.; Smol, John P.; Blais, Jules M.

    2010-01-01

    At Cape Vera, Devon Island (Nunavut, Canada), a colony of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) concentrates and releases contaminants through their guano to the environment. We determined whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from seabirds were transferred to coastal food webs. Snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) were the most contaminated species, with ΣPCB and ΣDDT (mean: 168, 106 ng/g ww) concentrations surpassing environmental guidelines for protecting wildlife. When examined collectively, PCB congeners and DDT in jewel lichen (Xanthoria elegans) were lower in samples taken farther from the seabird colony, and increased with increasing δ 15 N values. However, only concentrations of p'p-DDE:ΣDDT and PCB-95 were significantly correlated inversely with distance from the seabird cliffs. Linkages between marine-derived POPs and their concentrations in terrestrial mammals were less clear. Our study provides novel contaminant data for these species and supports biovector transport as a source of organic contaminants to certain components of the terrestrial food web. - This study provides evidence of contaminant transport by seabirds to a coastal Arctic food web.

  11. MF/UF rejection and fouling potential of algal organic matter from bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2015-07-01

    Pretreatment with microfiltration (MF) or ultrafiltration (UF) membranes has been proposed for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants to address operational issues associated with algal blooms. Here, we investigated the MF/UF rejection and fouling potential of algal organic matter (AOM) released by common species of bloom-forming marine (Alexandrium tamarense and Chaetoceros affinis) and freshwater (Microcystis sp.) algae. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying growth pattern, cell concentration, AOM released and membrane fouling potential. The high membrane fouling potential of the cultures can be directly associated (R2>0.85) with AOM such as transparent exopolymer particle (TEP) while no apparent relationship with algal cell concentration was observed. The AOM comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) and low molecular weight organic compounds (e.g., humic-like substances). The former were largely rejected by MF/UF membranes while the latter were poorly rejected. MF (0.4μm and 0.1μm pore size) rejected 14%-56% of biopolymers while conventional UF (100kDa) and tight UF (10kDa) rejected up to 83% and 97%, respectively. The retention of AOM resulted in a rapid increase in trans-membrane pressure (δP) over time, characterised by pore blocking followed by cake filtration with enhanced compression as illustrated by an exponential progression of δP. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Contamination of an arctic terrestrial food web with marine-derived persistent organic pollutants transported by breeding seabirds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choy, Emily S., E-mail: echoy087@uottawa.c [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Kimpe, Linda E., E-mail: linda.kimpe@uottawa.c [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Mallory, Mark L., E-mail: mark.mallory@ec.gc.c [Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Iqaluit, NU, X0A 0H0 (Canada); Smol, John P., E-mail: smolj@queensu.c [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Lab (PEARL), Department of Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Blais, Jules M., E-mail: jules.blais@uottawa.c [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    At Cape Vera, Devon Island (Nunavut, Canada), a colony of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) concentrates and releases contaminants through their guano to the environment. We determined whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from seabirds were transferred to coastal food webs. Snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis) were the most contaminated species, with {Sigma}PCB and {Sigma}DDT (mean: 168, 106 ng/g ww) concentrations surpassing environmental guidelines for protecting wildlife. When examined collectively, PCB congeners and DDT in jewel lichen (Xanthoria elegans) were lower in samples taken farther from the seabird colony, and increased with increasing {delta}{sup 15}N values. However, only concentrations of p'p-DDE:{Sigma}DDT and PCB-95 were significantly correlated inversely with distance from the seabird cliffs. Linkages between marine-derived POPs and their concentrations in terrestrial mammals were less clear. Our study provides novel contaminant data for these species and supports biovector transport as a source of organic contaminants to certain components of the terrestrial food web. - This study provides evidence of contaminant transport by seabirds to a coastal Arctic food web.

  13. Assessing pollution in marine protected areas: the role of a multi-biomarker and multi-organ approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusso-Choueri, Paloma Kachel; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; de Araújo, Giuliana Seraphim; Cruz, Ana Carolina Feitosa; Stremel, Tatiana; Campos, Sandro; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Sousa; Ribeiro, Ciro Alberto Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are vulnerable to many pressures, including pollution. However, environmental quality monitoring in these areas traditionally relies on only water chemistry and microbiological parameters. The goal of the current study was to investigate the role of a set of biomarkers in different target organs (liver, kidney, and gills) of fish in order to assess the environmental quality of an MPA (MTs, GPx, GST, GSH, DNA damage, LPO, AChE, and condition index). Chemical analyses were also performed on liver and muscle tissues to evaluate metal body burdens, and PAHs were identified in bile. A demersal fish (Cathorops spixii) that is widely consumed by the local population was used as bioindicator species, and the results were integrated using multivariate analysis. The use of the biomarker approach allowed for the identification of both seasonal and spatial variations in pollution sources around the Environmental Protected Area of Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe (APA-CIP). Higher metal body burdens associated with biological responses were found in the sites under the influence of urban areas during the dry season, and they were found in the sites under the influence of the Ribeira de Iguape River (RIR) during the rainy season. The liver was found to be more responsive in terms of its antioxidant responses, whereas gills were found to be more responsive to biomarkers of effect. These results show that this set of biomarker analyses in different organs of fish is a useful tool for assessing chemical pollution in an MPA.

  14. Antibacterial activity of marine culturable bacteria collected from a global sampling of ocean surface waters and surface swabs of marine organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Melchiorsen, Jette; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin

    2010-01-01

    ). Total cell counts at the seawater surface were 5 × 105 to 106 cells/ml, of which 0.1–0.2% were culturable on dilute marine agar (20°C). Three percent of the colonies cultured from seawater inhibited Vibrio anguillarum, whereas a significantly higher proportion (13%) of colonies from inert or biotic...

  15. Global trends in the fluorescence characteristics and distribution of marine dissolved organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Linda; Stedmon, Colin; Kragh, Theis

    2011-01-01

    . These observations imply a link to dark ocean microbial remineralization and indicate that the major source of humic-like compounds is microbial turnover of organic matter. The results of the present study show that the distribution of the humic-like DOM fractions is a balance between supply from continental run off......A fraction of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is able to fluoresce. This ability has been used in the present study to investigate the characteristics and distribution of different DOM fractions. A unique global dataset revealed seven different fluorescent fractions of DOM: two humic-like, four...... in the surface layer indicate the quantitative importance of photochemical degradation as a sink of the humic-like compounds. In the dark ocean (below 200 m), significant linear relationships between humic-like DOM fluorescence and microbial activity (apparent oxygen utilization, NO3- and PO43-) were found...

  16. Marine snow, organic solute plumes, and optimal chemosensory behavior of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Jackson, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    Leaking organic solutes form an elongated plume in the wake of a sinking aggregate. These solutes may both be assimilated by suspended bacteria and guide bacteria with chemokinetic swimming behavior toward the aggregate. We used modifications of previously published models of the flow and concent......Leaking organic solutes form an elongated plume in the wake of a sinking aggregate. These solutes may both be assimilated by suspended bacteria and guide bacteria with chemokinetic swimming behavior toward the aggregate. We used modifications of previously published models of the flow...... behavior was used to examine the potential contribution of aggregate-generated solute plumes for water column bacteria] production. Despite occupying only a small volume fraction, the plumes may provide important growth habitats for free bacteria and account for a significant proportion of water column...

  17. The distribution of 4-nonylphenol in marine organisms of North American Pacific Coast estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Jennifer; Johnson, Sarah E; Xia, Kang; West, Amy; Tomanek, Lars

    2012-04-01

    One of the chemical breakdown products of nonylphenol ethoxylates, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), accumulates in organisms and is of concern as an environmental pollutant due to its endocrine disrupting effects. We measured 4-NP levels in the seawater, sediment, and twelve organisms within the California estuary, Morro Bay, and examined biomagnification of 4-NP using stable isotope abundances (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) to quantify trophic position. 4-NP concentrations in organisms from Morro Bay included 25000±8600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of California sea lion, 14000±5600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of harbor porpoise, 138000±55000 ng g(-1) lw in liver of sea otters, 15700±3600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of seabirds, 36100±6100 ng g(-1) lw in arrow goby fish, 62800±28400 ng g(-1) lw in oysters, and 12700±1300 ng g(-1) lw in mussels. 4-NP levels generally showed a pattern of trophic dilution among organisms in Morro Bay, with exceptions of biomagnification observed between three trophic links: mussel to sea otter (BMF 10.9), oyster to sea otter (BMF 2.2), and arrow goby to staghorn sculpin (BMF 2.7). Our examination of other west coast estuaries of USA and Canada revealed that mean 4-NP concentrations in gobies and mussels from Morro Bay were significantly higher than those from a more urbanized estuary, San Francisco Bay (goby: 11100±3800 ng g(-1) lw) and from a remote estuary, Bamfield Inlet, Canada (goby: 9000±900 ng g(-1) lw, mussel: 6100±700 ng g(-1) lw). Relative to other estuaries worldwide, 4-NP levels in seawater (0.42±0.16 μg L(-1)) and sediment (53±14 ng g(-1) dw) of Morro Bay are low, but gobies and oysters have higher 4-NP levels than comparable fauna. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Marine Battlefields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harðardóttir, Sara

    as they are an important food source for various marine animals. For both phytoand zooplankton predation is a major cause of mortality, and strategies for protection or avoidance are important for survival. Diatoms of the genera Nitzschia and Pseudo-nitzschia are known to produce a neuro-toxin, domoic acid (DA). Despite......Phytoplankton species are photosynthetic organisms found in most aquatic habitats. In the ocean, phytoplankton are tremendously important because they produce the energy that forms the base of the marine food web. Zooplankton feed on phytoplankton and mediate the energy to higher trophic levels...

  19. Organic compounds and suspended matter in the marine ice of the Eastern Antarctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.A.; Novigatsky, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    Data on the composition of organic compounds in Antarctic sea ice are virtually non-existent, as most works concentrate on the structure, physical composition and biological properties of the ice. Data is needed for the study of the global carbon cycle and the estimation of background values and anthropogenic compounds. Specific features of the hydrometeorological regime near Antarctica affect the structure of the ice cover and its properties. The transportation of large volumes of snow to the ocean results in the formation of a snow sludge layer which gradually accumulates on the sea surface and freezes into young slush ice. The irregular distribution of snow at the ice surface and seawater infiltration results in the formation of ice with a specific crystalline structure and physiochemical properties. This paper discussed the dissolved and suspended lipids and hydrocarbons, as well as suspended matter (SM) concentrations in snow, sea ice and sub-ice water in coastal zones of the East Antarctic. The data was obtained during the Russian Antarctic Expedition in 2003. Variations in the concentration and distribution of the various substances suggest that they are related to ice forming conditions and to the processes that occur when ice forms, as well as in the interaction of the substances with ice, snow and sub-ice water. The SM and organic compounds are accumulated in layers characterized by intense autochthonous processes. It was noted that the zones stay biogeochemically active even under low temperature conditions. The highest concentrations of organic compounds, along with the biggest variations in their proportions have been discovered in the areas surrounded by penguin colonies near Buromsky Island and Haswell Island's Lake. The presence of significant quantities of PAHs in both pack and seasonal ice of high latitudes indicates that their formation is relatively rapid even at low temperatures. Many biochemical processes are intense under the influence of ice

  20. Radiocarbon (14C) Constraints On The Fraction Of Refractory Dissolved Organic Carbon In Primary Marine Aerosol From The Northwest Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaupre, S. R.; Kieber, D. J.; Keene, W. C.; Long, M. S.; Frossard, A. A.; Kinsey, J. D.; Duplessis, P.; Chang, R.; Maben, J. R.; Lu, X.; Zhu, Y.; Bisgrove, J.

    2017-12-01

    Nearly all organic carbon in seawater is dissolved (DOC), with more than 95% considered refractory based on modeled average lifetimes ( 16,000 years) and characteristically old bulk radiocarbon (14C) ages (4000 - 6000 years) that exceed the timescales of overturning circulation. Although this refractory dissolved organic carbon (RDOC) is present throughout the oceans as a major reservoir of the global carbon cycle, its sources and sinks are poorly constrained. Recently, RDOC was proposed to be removed from the oceans through adsorption onto the surfaces of rising bubble plumes produced by breaking waves, ejection into the atmosphere via bubble bursting as a component of primary marine aerosol (PMA), and subsequent oxidation in the atmosphere. To test this mechanism, we used natural abundance 14C (5730 ± 40 yr half-life) to trace the fraction of RDOC in PMA produced in a high capacity generator at two biologically-productive and two oligotrophic hydrographic stations in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean during a research cruise aboard the R/V Endeavor (Sep - Oct 2016). The 14C signatures of PMA separately generated day and night from near-surface (5 m) and deep (2500 m) seawater were compared with corresponding 14C signatures in seawater of near-surface dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, a proxy for recently produced organic matter), bulk deep DOC (a proxy for RDOC), and near-surface bulk DOC. Results constrain the selectivity of PMA formation from RDOC in natural mixtures of recently produced and refractory DOC. The implications of these results for PMA formation and RDOC biogeochemistry will be discussed.

  1. Rapid coastal survey of anthropogenic radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds in surficial marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.; Noakes, S.E.; Dvoracek, D.K.; Culp, R.A.; Bush, P.B.

    1999-01-01

    A towed survey system, the GIMS/CS 3 , has been developed to enable the rapid measurement and mapping of a variety of physical and geochemical parameters in the surficial sediments of aquatic environments while the survey vessel is underway. With its capability for measuring radiometric, elemental and organic compound constituents of sediments, as well as bathymetry and water quality parameters, the GIMS/CS 3 provides a cost-effective means of performing reconnaissance determinations of contaminant distributions and environmental monitoring tasks over broad geographic regions

  2. Sorting of Terrestrial and Marine Organic Matter along a Marginal Submarine Canyon: Radiocarbon and Biomarker Signatures of Surface Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, H. G.; Doherty, S.; Campbell, P.; McCarthy, M. D.; Prouty, N.

    2016-02-01

    Submarine canyons are incised features of many continental margins that can have significant influence on the hydrodynamic distribution of sediments and organic matter (OM) eroded and deposited from the continents. Baltimore Canyon, on the U.S. mid-Atlantic margin, contains a complex set of sedimentary processes that simultaneously create unique benthic habitats and control the deposition of OM. Along the canyon axis, loci of net erosion, net deposition, and intense winnowing each host diverse faunal assemblages and varying mixtures of sedimentary OM derived both from production in the overlying water column and from mobilized sediments. Bioavailable components of this deposited OM sustain benthic communities, while recalcitrant components can contribute to long-term carbon burial in the deep sea. Here we probe in detail the terrestrial versus marine origins of OM along a transect of Baltimore Canyon, as well as its bioavailability for benthic fauna, in order to explore how canyon-specific sediment dynamics might emplace a functional sorting of OM from shelf to open ocean. Determining the provenance of sedimentary OM is a continual challenge: commonly-measured bulk geochemical properties often provide insufficient information to distinguish end-member sources. We present a novel approach to separate functional classes of OM and investigate sources and degradative pathways of OM in Baltimore Canyon. In combination with bulk geochemical characteristics, surface sediments from water depths of 200-1200 meters were sequentially extracted (solvent-extracted, acid-hydrolyzed, and demineralized) to separate pools containing different prevalence of terrigenous, marine, and recalcitrant OM. Each class was analyzed for biomarker distributions; amino acid content, 13C signatures, and degradation indicators; bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes; and radiocarbon content in order to characterize potential end-member sources within the mixture, as well as their age profiles. These

  3. Use of Iron (II Salts and Complexes for the Production of Soil Amendments from Organic Solid Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amerigo Beneduci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to obtain rapidly stabilized composts for crops from solid organic wastes is evaluated. Here we used a laboratory scale reaction chamber where solid waste treatment was performed under strictly controlled temperature and pressure conditions. The row organic waste was mixed with acid solutions containing iron (II ions either in the fully hydrated form or in the form of complexes with the diethylentriaminopentaacetic acid. Data from elemental analysis distribution and GC/MS analysis of the polar and non polar dissolved organic matter, clearly showed that Fe(II ions significantly enhance organic substrate oxidation of the initial solid waste, compared to a material obtained without the addition of the Fe(II ions to the raw organic matrix. These results suggest that Fe(II ions might be involved in a catalytic oxidation pathway that would be activated under the experimental conditions used. The extent of the oxidation process was evaluated by the value of the C/N ratio and, qualitatively, by the molecular composition of the dissolved organic matter. After about 6 hours of incubation, dark-brown and dry organic matrices were obtained with C/N ratio as low as 12 and a high degree of oxidative decomposition into low-molecular-weight compounds at high oxidation state.

  4. Uptake of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by microalgae in presence of colloidal organic matter from wastewater treatment plant effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worms, Isabelle A.M.; Traber, Jacqueline; Kistler, David; Sigg, Laura; Slaveykova, Vera I.

    2010-01-01

    The present study addresses the key issue of linking the chemical speciation to the uptake of priority pollutants Cd(II) and Pb(II) in the wastewater treatment plant effluents, with emphasis on the role of the colloidal organic matter (EfOM). Binding of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by EfOM was examined by an ion exchange technique and flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in parallel to bioassays with green microalga Chlorella kesslerii in ultrafiltrate (<1 kDa) and colloidal isolates (1 kDa to 0.45 μm). The uptake of Cd by C. kesslerii was consistent with the speciation analysis and measured free metal ion concentrations, while Pb uptake was much greater than that expected from the speciation measurement. Better understanding of the differences in the effects of the EfOM on Cd(II) and Pb(II) uptake required to take into account the size dependence of metal binding by EfOM. - Colloids isolated from WWTP effluents decrease Cd uptake, but increase Pb uptake by microalga Chlorella kesslerii.

  5. Uptake of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by microalgae in presence of colloidal organic matter from wastewater treatment plant effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worms, Isabelle A.M. [Environmental Biophysical Chemistry, IIE-ENAC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 2, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Traber, Jacqueline; Kistler, David; Sigg, Laura [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Slaveykova, Vera I., E-mail: vera.slaveykova@epfl.c [Environmental Biophysical Chemistry, IIE-ENAC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Station 2, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    The present study addresses the key issue of linking the chemical speciation to the uptake of priority pollutants Cd(II) and Pb(II) in the wastewater treatment plant effluents, with emphasis on the role of the colloidal organic matter (EfOM). Binding of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by EfOM was examined by an ion exchange technique and flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in parallel to bioassays with green microalga Chlorella kesslerii in ultrafiltrate (<1 kDa) and colloidal isolates (1 kDa to 0.45 mum). The uptake of Cd by C. kesslerii was consistent with the speciation analysis and measured free metal ion concentrations, while Pb uptake was much greater than that expected from the speciation measurement. Better understanding of the differences in the effects of the EfOM on Cd(II) and Pb(II) uptake required to take into account the size dependence of metal binding by EfOM. - Colloids isolated from WWTP effluents decrease Cd uptake, but increase Pb uptake by microalga Chlorella kesslerii.

  6. Interaction of CREDO [Centralized Reliability Data Organization] with the EBR-II [Experimental Breeder Reactor II] PRA [probabilistic risk assessment] development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.S.; Ragland, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences review of US Department of Energy (DOE) class 1 reactors recommended that the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), operated by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), develop a level 1 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and make provisions for level 2 and level 3 PRAs based on the results of the level 1 PRA. The PRA analysis group at ANL will utilize the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to support the PRA data needs. CREDO contains many years of empirical liquid-metal reactor component data from EBR-II. CREDO is a mutual data- and cost-sharing system sponsored by DOE and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuels Development Corporation of Japan. CREDO is a component based data system; data are collected on components that are liquid-metal specific, associated with a liquid-metal environment, contained in systems that interface with liquid-metal environments, or are safety related for use in reliability/availability/maintainability (RAM) analyses of advanced reactors. The links between the EBR-II PRA development effort and the CREDO data collection at EBR-II extend beyond the sharing of data. The PRA provides a measure of the relative contribution to risk of the various components. This information can be used to prioritize future CREDO data collection activities at EBR-II and other sites

  7. Structure of diphosphine complexes of Co(II) in solutions of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraev, V.V.; Mandyuk, I.M.; Ratovskii, G.V.; Dmitrieva, T.V.; Shmidt, F.K.

    1987-01-01

    The structure of the dichloride complexes of cobalt(II) with 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane (DPPE) and 1,1-bis(diphenylphosphino)methane (DPPM) in organic solvents has been investigated by ESR and electronic spectroscopy. It has been shown that the low-spin complex Co(DPPE) 2 Cl 2 exists in dichloroethane and ethanol solutions in the form of a trigonal bipyramid. Cobalt dichloride reacts with DPPM to form 1:1 and 1:2 complexes, between which there is an equilibrium in a dichloroethane solution. The equilibrium is displaced under the action of the free diphosphine toward the formation of the 1:2 complex. Elimination of the diphosphine from the coordination sphere of cobalt occurs in an ethanol solution

  8. Direct Synthesis of 7 nm Thick Zinc(II)-Benzimidazole-Acetate Metal-Organic Framework Nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Feng; Kumar, Prashant; Xu, Wenqian; Mkhoyan, K. Andre; Tsapatsis, Michael

    2018-01-09

    Two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising candidates for high performance gas sepa-ration membranes. Currently, MOF nanosheets are mostly fabricated through delamination of layered MOFs, which often re-sults in a low yield of intact free-standing nanosheets. In this work, we present a direct synthesis method for zinc(II)-benzimidazole-acetate (Zn(Bim)OAc) MOF nanosheets. The obtained nanosheets have a lateral dimension of 600 nm when synthesized at room temperature. By adjusting the synthesis temperature, the morphology of obtained nanosheets can be readily tuned from nanosheets to nanobelts. A thickness of 7 nm is determined for Zn(Bim)OAc using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, which makes these nanosheets promising building blocks of gas sepa-ration membranes.

  9. Detection of PPCPs in marine organisms from contaminated coastal waters of the Saudi Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aasim M; Rønning, Helene Thorsen; Sydnes, Leiv K; Alarif, Walied M; Kallenborn, Roland; Al-Lihaibi, Sultan S

    2018-04-15

    The occurrence of PPCPs in macroalgae, barnacle and fish samples from contaminated coastal waters of the Saudi Red Sea is reported. Solvent extraction followed by solid phase extraction was applied to isolate the compounds, and their quantification was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Atenolol, ranitidine, chlorpheniramine, DEET, and atrazine were detected in one or more macroalgae at caffeine, methylparaben, and carbamazepine were present atmaximum concentrations of 41.3, 44.3, and 1.7ng/g (on a dry weight basis=dw), respectively. Eleven PPCPs were detected in the barnacle samples at concentrations between contaminated waters where a continuous supply of non-persistent contaminants such as PPCPs is available for long-term exposure of local benthic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Seismic based characterization of total organic content from the marine Sembar shale, Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Omer; Hussain, Tahir; Ullah, Matee; Bhatti, Asher Samuel; Ali, Aamir

    2018-02-01

    The exploration and production of unconventional resources has increased significantly over the past few years around the globe to fulfill growing energy demands. Hydrocarbon potential of these unconventional petroleum systems depends on the presence of significant organic matter; their thermal maturity and the quality of present hydrocarbons i.e. gas or oil shale. In this work, we present a workflow for estimating Total Organic Content (TOC) from seismic reflection data. To achieve the objective of this study, we have chosen a classic potential candidate for exploration of unconventional reserves, the shale of the Sembar Formation, Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan. Our method includes the estimation of TOC from the well data using the Passey's ΔlogR and Schwarzkofp's methods. From seismic data, maps of Relative Acoustic Impedance (RAI) are extracted at maximum and minimum TOC zones within the Sembar Formation. A geostatistical trend with good correlation coefficient (R2) for cross-plots between TOC and RAI at well locations is used for estimation of seismic based TOC at the reservoir scale. Our results suggest a good calibration of TOC values from seismic at well locations. The estimated TOC values range from 1 to 4% showing that the shale of the Sembar Formation lies in the range of good to excellent unconventional oil/gas play within the context of TOC. This methodology of source rock evaluation provides a spatial distribution of TOC at the reservoir scale as compared to the conventional distribution generated from samples collected over sparse wells. The approach presented in this work has wider applications for source rock evaluation in other similar petroliferous basins worldwide.

  11. Characterisation of algal organic matter produced by bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2015-04-01

    Algal blooms can seriously affect the operation of water treatment processes including low pressure (micro- and ultra-filtration) and high pressure (nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) membranes mainly due to accumulation of algal-derived organic matter (AOM). In this study, the different components of AOM extracted from three common species of bloom-forming algae (Alexandrium tamarense, Chaetoceros affinis and Microcystis sp.) were characterised employing various analytical techniques, such as liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, alcian blue staining and lectin staining coupled with laser scanning microscopy to indentify its composition and force measurement using atomic force microscopy to measure its stickiness. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying characteristics in terms of growth pattern, cell concentration and AOM release. The AOM produced by the three algal species comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) but some refractory compounds (e.g., humic-like substances) and other low molecular weight acid and neutral compounds were also found. Biopolymers containing fucose and sulphated functional groups were found in all AOM samples while the presence of other functional groups varied between different species. A large majority (>80%) of the acidic polysaccharide components (in terms of transparent exopolymer particles) were found in the colloidal size range (<0.4μm). The relative stickiness of AOM substantially varied between algal species and that the cohesion between AOM-coated surfaces was much stronger than the adhesion of AOM on AOM-free surfaces. Overall, the composition as well as the physico-chemical characteristics (e.g., stickiness) of AOM will likely dictate the severity of fouling in membrane systems during algal blooms.

  12. Assessment of the potential impact of the phosphate industry along the Syrian Coast by evaluating 210Po and 210Pb levels in sediment, seawater and selected marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, S.; Mamish, S.

    2000-12-01

    Phosphate industry is considered to be one of the potential sources of natural radionuclides in Syrian environment. Most of the phosphate ore is exported in large quantities via one of the main Syrian ports (Tartous) situated on the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea (34 54 North , 35 52 East). The impact of the loading cargoes on the marine environment has been evaluated. 210 Po and 210 Pb in seawater, sediment and marine organisms have been determined. Results have shown a significant enhancement of these two radionuclides in sediment and surface water inside the port area. The highest 210 Po and 210 Pb concentrations observed in sediment were found to be 170 Bq.kg -1 and 64 Bq.kg -1 respectively. While, 210 Pb and 210 Po concentrations in surface water ranged from 5 to 20 m Bq.l -1 and 0.93 to 3.23 m Bq.l -1 . In addition, other naturally occurring radionuclides were also determined in the collected sediment samples and relatively higher values ( 226 Ra = 33.2 Bq.kg -1 and 234 Th = 88 Bq.kg -1 ) were observed for those samples collected from inside the port. However, the effect of loading cargoes on the near marine environment was found to be mainly related to wind direction where air particulate carrying radioactivity either being blown to lands or sea. Moreover, comparable values of 210 Po and 210 Pb for all marine organisms (algae, crab and fish) have been observed and it is not recommended to use these organisms for evaluating the effect of phosphate industry on marine environment. This is due to the fact that marine organisms accumulate 210 Po and 210 Pb in their body. Two core samples were also collected in order to investigate the history of pollution in the port. Results have shown a complex relation for unsupported 210 Pb with depth, where the constant supply dating method can not be applied. This is due to the fact that two sources for unsupported 210 Pb being observed in the port area; viz. radon gas and phosphate dust carrying radioactivity

  13. Estimation of biological parameters of marine organisms using linear and nonlinear acoustic scattering model-based inversion methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dezhang; Lawson, Gareth L; Wiebe, Peter H

    2016-05-01

    The linear inversion commonly used in fisheries and zooplankton acoustics assumes a constant inversion kernel and ignores the uncertainties associated with the shape and behavior of the scattering targets, as well as other relevant animal parameters. Here, errors of the linear inversion due to uncertainty associated with the inversion kernel are quantified. A scattering model-based nonlinear inversion method is presented that takes into account the nonlinearity of the inverse problem and is able to estimate simultaneously animal abundance and the parameters associated with the scattering model inherent to the kernel. It uses sophisticated scattering models to estimate first, the abundance, and second, the relevant shape and behavioral parameters of the target organisms. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the abundance, size, and behavior (tilt angle) parameters of marine animals (fish or zooplankton) can be accurately inferred from the inversion by using multi-frequency acoustic data. The influence of the singularity and uncertainty in the inversion kernel on the inversion results can be mitigated by examining the singular values for linear inverse problems and employing a non-linear inversion involving a scattering model-based kernel.

  14. Characteristic Assessment of Diesel-degrading Bacteria Immobilized on Natural Organic Carriers in Marine Environment: the Degradation Activity and Nutrient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jianliang; Wu, Yanan; Liu, Zhixiu; Li, Menglu; Sun, Xiyu; Wang, Huajun; Liu, Bing

    2017-08-17

    Oil spill has led to severe environmental and ecological problems. Due to the harsh environmental conditions, the bioremediation technology is not successfully used to remedy the oil spill in marine environment. In this study, immobilization technology was used to immobilize bacteria on natural organic carriers (i.e., wood chips and maize straw). The higher surface area of in wood chips leads to larger biomass density (0.0242 gVSS/g) than that of maize straw of 0.0097 gVSS/g carrier. Compared with biodegradation efficiency of free bacteria (44.79%), the immobilized bacteria on wood chips and maize straw reached to 73.39% and 52.28%, respectively. The high biological activity of the immobilized bacteria can be also explained by nutrients, such as TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus), released from wood chips and maize straw, which was 8.83 mg/g and 5.53 mg/g, 0.0624 mg/g and 0.0099 mg/g, respectively.

  15. Environmental factors determining ammonia-oxidizing organism distribution and diversity in marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouskill, Nicholas J; Eveillard, Damien; Chien, Diana; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B

    2012-03-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) play a vital role in bridging the input of fixed nitrogen, through N-fixation and remineralization, to its loss by denitrification and anammox. Yet the major environmental factors determining AOB and AOA population dynamics are little understood, despite both groups having a wide environmental distribution. This study examined the relative abundance of both groups of ammonia-oxidizing organisms (AOO) and the diversity of AOA across large-scale gradients in temperature, salinity and substrate concentration and dissolved oxygen. The relative abundance of AOB and AOA varied across environments, with AOB dominating in the freshwater region of the Chesapeake Bay and AOA more abundant in the water column of the coastal and open ocean. The highest abundance of the AOA amoA gene was recorded in the oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP) and the Arabian Sea (AS). The ratio of AOA : AOB varied from 0.7 in the Chesapeake Bay to 1600 in the Sargasso Sea. Relative abundance of both groups strongly correlated with ammonium concentrations. AOA diversity, as determined by phylogenetic analysis of clone library sequences and archetype analysis from a functional gene DNA microarray, detected broad phylogenetic differences across the study sites. However, phylogenetic diversity within physicochemically congruent stations was more similar than would be expected by chance. This suggests that the prevailing geochemistry, rather than localized dispersal, is the major driving factor determining OTU distribution. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Dissolved organic matter composition drives the marine production of brominated very short-lived substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yina; Thornton, Daniel C O; Bianchi, Thomas S; Arnold, William A; Shields, Michael R; Chen, Jie; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A

    2015-03-17

    Brominated very short-lived substances (BrVSLS), such as bromoform, are important trace gases for stratospheric ozone chemistry. These naturally derived trace gases are formed via bromoperoxidase-mediated halogenation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in seawater. Information on DOM type in relation to the observed BrVSLS concentrations in seawater, however, is scarce. We examined the sensitivity of BrVSLS production in relation to the presence of specific DOM moieties. A total of 28 model DOM compounds in artificial seawater were treated with vanadium bromoperoxidase (V-BrPO). Our results show a clear dependence of BrVSLS production on DOM type. In general, molecules that comprise a large fraction of the bulk DOM pool did not noticeably affect BrVSLS production. Only specific cell metabolites and humic acid appeared to significantly enhance BrVSLS production. Amino acids and lignin phenols suppressed enzyme-mediated BrVSLS production and may instead have formed halogenated nonvolatile molecules. Dibromomethane production was not observed in any experiments, suggesting it is not produced by the same pathway as the other BrVSLS. Our results suggest that regional differences in DOM composition may explain the observed BrVSLS concentration variability in the global ocean. Ultimately, BrVSLS production and concentrations are likely affected by DOM composition, reactivity, and cycling in the ocean.

  17. Utilization of inorganic and organic nitrogen by bacteria in marine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, P.A.; Kirchman, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The relative contribution of various inorganic and organic forms of nitrogen to the nitrogen requirements of picoplankton was examined with 15 N tracers. Size fractionation was used to measure uptake by <1-μm size microorganisms, and inhibitors of protein synthesis were used to separate procaryotic from eucaryotic nitrogen uptake. Picoplankton utilized mainly ammonium and amino acids and only negligible amounts of nitrate and urea. Nearly all amino acid uptake was by procaryotes, while both procaryotes and eucaryotes utilized ammonium. About 78% of total ammonium uptake was by procaryotes, and a significant portion of this was due specifically to heterotrophic bacteria. Regeneration of ammonium was correlated with eucaryotic rather than procaryotic activity. Ammonium accounted for at least 20-60% of the summed ammonium plus amino acid utilization by bacteria. The results suggest that significant portion of ammonium uptake in the euphotic zone was by heterotrophic bacteria rather than solely by phytoplankton. This may invalidate the use of the Redfield C:N ratio for estimating rates of nitrogen assimilation in the euphotic zone from carbon assimilation rates

  18. Toxic effects of chlorinated organic compounds and potassium dichromate on growth rate and photosynthesis of marine phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Nyholm, Niels

    1992-01-01

    The toxic effects of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) on the photosynthesis of natural marine phytoplankton and five species of marine microalgae were investigated. Effect concentrations corresponding to a 50 % depression of photosynthesis (6h...

  19. Meta-analysis of amino acid stable nitrogen isotope ratios for estimating trophic position in marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jens M; Popp, Brian N; Winder, Monika

    2015-07-01

    Estimating trophic structures is a common approach used to retrieve information regarding energy pathways, predation, and competition in complex ecosystems. The application of amino acid (AA) compound-specific nitrogen (N) isotope analysis (CSIA) is a relatively new method used to estimate trophic position (TP) and feeding relationships in diverse organisms. Here, we conducted the first meta-analysis of δ(15)N AA values from measurements of 359 marine species covering four trophic levels, and compared TP estimates from AA-CSIA to literature values derived from food items, gut or stomach content analysis. We tested whether the AA trophic enrichment factor (TEF), or the (15)N enrichment among different individual AAs is constant across trophic levels and whether inclusion of δ(15)N values from multiple AAs improves TP estimation. For the TEF of glutamic acid relative to phenylalanine (Phe) we found an average value of 6.6‰ across all taxa, which is significantly lower than the commonly applied 7.6‰. We found that organism feeding ecology influences TEF values of several trophic AAs relative to Phe, with significantly higher TEF values for herbivores compared to omnivores and carnivores, while TEF values were also significantly lower for animals excreting urea compared to ammonium. Based on the comparison of multiple model structures using the metadata of δ(15)N AA values we show that increasing the number of AAs in principle improves precision in TP estimation. This meta-analysis clarifies the advantages and limitations of using individual δ(15)N AA values as tools in trophic ecology and provides a guideline for the future application of AA-CSIA to food web studies.

  20. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and human risks of heavy metal concentrations in wild marine organisms from the Maowei Sea, the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Huang, Hong-Hui; Liu, Yong; Gong, Xiu-Yu; Liao, Xiu-Li

    2018-04-01

    We investigated heavy metal concentrations in wild marine organisms from Maowei Sea, a significant gulf of low-latitude developing regions of the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea. Twenty species, comprising fish, cephalopods, and crustaceans were collected and analyzed for heavy metals. Heavy metal levels (mg/kg, wet weight) in the aquatic organism samples were: 0.003-1.800 for Cd, 0.02-0.14 for Pb, 0.10-0.63 for Cr, 0.20-77.50 for Cu, 9.50-64.60 for Zn, 0.006-0.066 for Hg, and 0.10-1.50 for As. Non-metric multidimensional scaling coupled with cluster analysis revealed two groupings that mainly resulted from different species of the metals in marine organisms. The highest concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Hg, and As were found in species of cephalopods. Health risk assessment based on the target hazard quotients (THQ) and total THQ indicated no significant adverse health effects from consumption of marine organisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Levels and its Correlation to Size of Marine Organisms Harvested from a War-Induced Oil Spill Zone of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.K. BARBOUR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first work establishing a base-line data of the level of total Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB contaminants in selected marine organisms (Siganus rivulatus, Mullet spp., and oysters and its relationship to organism size and the harvest distance from the oil spill source. Six locations across the Lebanese Mediterranean were included for sampling. Oysters and the two fish types were collected after 72 days of the spill. The length, maximum width, and whole weight of individual organisms were recorded. Methanol extracts of the samples were analyzed for total PCB using a Competitive Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA based Spectrophotometry.All means of PCB in the three selected marine organisms were below the guidance level set by USFDA (2 ppm. A total of 6 significant regression equations were established between the total PCB level and certain size dimensions of specific selected marine species, with values of R2 ranging between 0.719 – 0.909 and P values ranging from 0.038 – 0.099.In addition, the total PCB level in Siganus rivulatus correlated with the harvest distance north of the oil spill source, signifying a drop in total PCB level with an increase in harvest distance from the oil spill source.

  2. The role of boundary organizations in co-management: examining the politics of knowledge integration in a marine protected area in Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noella J. Gray

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs are an increasingly popular tool for management of the marine commons. Effective governance is essential if MPAs are to achieve their objectives, yet many MPAs face conflicts and governance challenges, including lack of trust and knowledge integration between fishers, scientists, and policy makers. This paper considers the role of a boundary organization in facilitating knowledge integration in a co-managed MPA, the Gladden Spit and Silk Cayes Marine Reserve in Belize. Boundary organizations can play an important role in resource management, by bridging the science-policy divide, facilitating knowledge integration, and enabling communication in conditions of uncertainty. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in Belize, the paper identifies four challenges for knowledge integration. First, actors have divergent perspectives on whether and how knowledge is being integrated. Second, actors disagree on resource conditions within the MPA and how these should be understood. Third, in order to maintain accountability with multiple actors, including fishers, government, and funders, the boundary organization has promoted the importance of different types of knowledge for different purposes (science and fishers’ knowledge, rather than the integration of these. Finally, a lack of trust and uneven power relations make it difficult to separate knowledge claims from political claims. However, even if knowledge integration proves difficult, boundary organizations may still play an important role by maintaining accountability, providing space for conflicting understandings to co-exist, and ultimately for governance institutions to evolve.

  3. A study on the photocatalytic decomposition reactions of organics dissolved in water (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, K. W.; Na, J. W.; Cho, Y. H.; Chung, H. H.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on aqueous TiO 2 photocatalytic reaction characteristics of 4 nitrogen-containing and 12 aromatic organic compounds were carried out. Based on the values calculated for the distribution of ionic species and atomic charge, the characteristics of their photocatalytic decomposition were estimated. It was shown that the dependence of decomposition of the N-containing compounds were linearly proportional to their nitrogen atomic charge values, while that of the aromatic compounds were inversely proportional. The effects of aqueous pH, oxygen content and concentration on the TiO 2 photocatalytic characteristics of EDTA-Cu(II) and EDTA-Fe(III) were experimentally investigated. All EDTA systems were decomposed better in the pH range of 2.5∼3.0 and with more dissolved oxygen. These results could be applied to a unit process for removal of organic impurities dissolved in a source water of the system water, and for treatment of EDTA-containing liquid waste produced by chemical cleaning process in the domestic NPPs

  4. A study on the photo catalytic decomposition reactions of organics dissolved in water (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, K.W.; Na, J. W.; Cho, Y. H.; Chung, H. H.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments on aqueous TiO 2 photo catalytic reaction of nitrogen containing organic compounds such as ethylamine, phenylhydrazine, pyridine, urea and EDTA were carried out. Based on the values calculated for the distribution of ionic species and atomic charge, the characteristics of their photo catalytic decomposition were estimated. It was shown that the decomposition characteristics was linearly proportional to nitrogen atomic charge value. On the other hand, the effects of aqueous pH, oxygen content and concentration on the TiO 2 photo catalytic characteristics of EDTA, EDTA-Cu(II) and EDTA-Fe(III) were experimentally investigated. All EDTA systems were decomposed better in the pH range of 2.5-3.0 and with more dissolved oxygen. These results could be applied to construction of a process for removal of organic impurities dissolved in a source of system water, or for treatment of EDTA-containing liquid waste produced by a chemical cleaning in the domestic NPPs. (author)

  5. Plants lacking the main light-harvesting complex retain photosystem II macro-organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruban, A V; Wentworth, M; Yakushevska, A E; Andersson, J; Lee, P J; Keegstra, W; Dekker, J P; Boekema, E J; Jansson, S; Horton, P

    2003-02-06

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a key component of photosynthesis, the process of converting sunlight into the chemical energy of life. In plant cells, it forms a unique oligomeric macrostructure in membranes of the chloroplasts. Several light-harvesting antenna complexes are organized precisely in the PSII macrostructure-the major trimeric complexes (LHCII) that bind 70% of PSII chlorophyll and three minor monomeric complexes-which together form PSII supercomplexes. The antenna complexes are essential for collecting sunlight and regulating photosynthesis, but the relationship between these functions and their molecular architecture is unresolved. Here we report that antisense Arabidopsis plants lacking the proteins that form LHCII trimers have PSII supercomplexes with almost identical abundance and structure to those found in wild-type plants. The place of LHCII is taken by a normally minor and monomeric complex, CP26, which is synthesized in large amounts and organized into trimers. Trimerization is clearly not a specific attribute of LHCII. Our results highlight the importance of the PSII macrostructure: in the absence of one of its main components, another protein is recruited to allow it to assemble and function.

  6. A study on the photo catalytic decomposition reactions of organics dissolved in water (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, K.W.; Na, J. W.; Cho, Y. H.; Chung, H. H

    2000-01-01

    Experiments on aqueous TiO{sub 2} photo catalytic reaction of nitrogen containing organic compounds such as ethylamine, phenylhydrazine, pyridine, urea and EDTA were carried out. Based on the values calculated for the distribution of ionic species and atomic charge, the characteristics of their photo catalytic decomposition were estimated. It was shown that the decomposition characteristics was linearly proportional to nitrogen atomic charge value. On the other hand, the effects of aqueous pH, oxygen content and concentration on the TiO{sub 2} photo catalytic characteristics of EDTA, EDTA-Cu(II) and EDTA-Fe(III) were experimentally investigated. All EDTA systems were decomposed better in the pH range of 2.5-3.0 and with more dissolved oxygen. These results could be applied to construction of a process for removal of organic impurities dissolved in a source of system water, or for treatment of EDTA-containing liquid waste produced by a chemical cleaning in the domestic NPPs. (author)

  7. A study on the photocatalytic decomposition reactions of organics dissolved in water (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, K. W.; Na, J. W.; Cho, Y. H.; Chung, H. H

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on aqueous TiO{sup 2} photocatalytic reaction characteristics of 4 nitrogen-containing and 12 aromatic organic compounds were carried out. Based on the values calculated for the distribution of ionic species and atomic charge, the characteristics of their photocatalytic decomposition were estimated. It was shown that the dependence of decomposition of the N-containing compounds were linearly proportional to their nitrogen atomic charge values, while that of the aromatic compounds were inversely proportional. The effects of aqueous pH, oxygen content and concentration on the TiO{sup 2} photocatalytic characteristics of EDTA-Cu(II) and EDTA-Fe(III) were experimentally investigated. All EDTA systems were decomposed better in the pH range of 2.5{approx}3.0 and with more dissolved oxygen. These results could be applied to a unit process for removal of organic impurities dissolved in a source water of the system water, and for treatment of EDTA-containing liquid waste produced by chemical cleaning process in the domestic NPPs.

  8. High field NMR spectroscopy and FTICR mass spectrometry: powerful discovery tools for the molecular level characterization of marine dissolved organic matter from the South Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertkorn, N.; Harir, M.; Koch, B. P.; Michalke, B.; Grill, P.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.

    2012-01-01

    Non target high resolution organic structural spectroscopy of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolated on 27 November 2008 by means of solid phase extraction (SPE) from four different depths in the South Atlantic Ocean off the Angola coast (3.1° E; -17.7° S; Angola basin) provided molecular level information of complex unknowns with unprecedented coverage and resolution. The sampling was intended to represent major characteristic oceanic regimes of general significance: 5 m (FISH; near surface photic zone), 48 m (FMAX; fluorescence maximum), 200 m (upper mesopelagic zone) and 5446 m (30 m above ground). 800 MHz proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 1H NMR, spectra were least affected by fast and differential transverse NMR relaxation and produced at first similar looking, rather smooth bulk NMR envelopes reflecting intrinsic averaging from massive signal overlap. Visibly resolved NMR signatures were most abundant in surface DOM but contributed at most a few percent to the total 1H NMR integral and were mainly limited to unsaturated and singly oxygenated carbon chemical environments. The relative abundance and variance of resolved signatures between samples was maximal in the aromatic region; in particular, the aromatic resolved NMR signature of the deep ocean sample at 5446 m was considerably different from that of all other samples. When scaled to equal total NMR integral, 1H NMR spectra of the four marine DOM samples revealed considerable variance in abundance for all major chemical environments across the entire range of chemical shift. Abundance of singly oxygenated CH units and acetate derivatives declined from surface to depth whereas aliphatics and carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAM) derived molecules increased in abundance. Surface DOM contained a remarkably lesser abundance of methyl esters than all other marine DOM, likely a consequence of photodegradation from direct exposure to sunlight. All DOM showed similar overall 13C NMR

  9. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.

  10. Micro-Spectroscopic Chemical Imaging of Individual Identified Marine Biogenic and Ambient Organic Ice Nuclei (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, D. A.; Alpert, P. A.; Wang, B.; OBrien, R. E.; Moffet, R. C.; Aller, J. Y.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric ice formation represents one of the least understood atmospheric processes with important implications for the hydrological cycle and climate. Current freezing descriptions assume that ice active sites on the particle surface initiate ice nucleation, however, the nature of these sites remains elusive. Here, we present a new experimental method that allows us to relate physical and chemical properties of individual particles with observed water uptake and ice nucleation ability using a combination of micro-spectroscopic and optical single particle analytical techniques. We apply this method to field-collected particles and particles generated via bursting of bubbles produced by glass frit aeration and plunging water impingement jets in a mesocosm containing artificial sea water and bacteria and/or phytoplankton. The most efficient ice nuclei (IN) within a particle population are identified and characterized. Single particle characterization is achieved by computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. A vapor controlled cooling-stage coupled to an optical microscope is used to determine the onsets of water uptake, immersion freezing, and deposition ice nucleation of the individual particles as a function of temperature (T) as low as 200 K and relative humidity (RH) up to water saturation. In addition, we perform CCSEM/EDX to obtain on a single particle level the elemental composition of the entire particle population. Thus, we can determine if the IN are exceptional in nature or belong to a major particle type class with respect to composition and size. We find that ambient and sea spray particles are coated by organic material and can induce ice formation under tropospheric relevant conditions. Micro-spectroscopic single particle analysis of the investigated particle samples invokes a potential

  11. Organ preservation in stage II and III head and neck cancer utilizing alternate week concomitant chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, David B.; Vokes, Everett; Mittal, Bharat B.; Stenson, Kerstin; Kies, M.; Pelzer, H.; Nautiyal, Jaishanker; Kozloff, Mark; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Haraf, Daniel J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: A prospective phase II trial was conducted to determine the efficacy and rate of organ preservation of alternate week concomitant chemoradiotherapy in stage II and III head and neck cancer. Methods: Forty-nine patients (10 stage II and 39 stage III) with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region have been entered into a prospective phase II trial. Pretreatment evaluation included history and physical examination, computed tomography of the neck, bone scan, chest x-ray, panendoscopy and biopsy confirmation of malignancy. Therapy is given in 2 week cycles consisting of 5 days of concomitant chemoradiotherapy followed by a nine day break during which no treatment is given. Each cycle of treatment consists of 1.0 gm hydroxyurea P.O. every 12 hours for 6 days (11 doses per cycle) and 800mg/m 2 /d continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil along with concomitant radiation therapy (RT) administered in 1.8-2.0 Gy daily fractions for five days. This alternate week (week on/week off) schedule is continued for a total of 7 cycles resulting in an overall treatment time of 13 weeks and a total RT dose of 70 Gy. Extent of initial surgery included biopsy only (59.2%), minimal laser debulking (12.2%), and resection with or without neck dissection (28.6%). Results: The majority of patients are male (71.4%), with a median age of 61.3 years. Primary sites included oral cavity (16.3%), oropharynx (12.2%), larynx (57.1%), hypopharynx (8.1%), and nasopharynx (4.1%). T stage included T3 (32 patients, 65.3%), T2 (16 patients, 32.7%), and T1 (1 patient). N stage included N1 (17 patients, 34.7%), and N0 (32 patients, 65.3%). With a median follow-up of 27 months, the overall response rate is 100% (91.7 complete response, and 8.3% partial response). The 5 year actuarial local control, disease free survival, and overall survival is 90.1%, 88.3%, and 65.0%, respectively. One patient has failed with distant disease alone. Four patients had isolated local failures and (3(4)) were

  12. CO2 leakage from carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) systems affects organic matter cycling in surface marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastelli, Eugenio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Amaro, Teresa; Greco, Silvestro; Lo Martire, Marco; Carugati, Laura; Queirós, Ana M; Widdicombe, Stephen; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), involving the injection of CO 2 into the sub-seabed, is being promoted worldwide as a feasible option for reducing the anthropogenic CO 2 emissions into the atmosphere. However, the effects on the marine ecosystems of potential CO 2 leakages originating from these storage sites have only recently received scientific attention, and little information is available on the possible impacts of the resulting CO 2 -enriched seawater plumes on the surrounding benthic ecosystem. In the present study, we conducted a 20-weeks mesocosm experiment exposing coastal sediments to CO 2 -enriched seawater (at 5000 or 20,000 ppm), to test the effects on the microbial enzymatic activities responsible for the decomposition and turnover of the sedimentary organic matter in surface sediments down to 15 cm depth. Our results indicate that the exposure to high-CO 2 concentrations reduced significantly the enzymatic activities in the top 5 cm of sediments, but had no effects on subsurface sediment horizons (from 5 to 15 cm depth). In the surface sediments, both 5000 and 20,000 ppm CO 2 treatments determined a progressive decrease over time in the protein degradation (up to 80%). Conversely, the degradation rates of carbohydrates and organic phosphorous remained unaltered in the first 2 weeks, but decreased significantly (up to 50%) in the longer term when exposed at 20,000 ppm of CO 2 . Such effects were associated with a significant change in the composition of the biopolymeric carbon (due to the accumulation of proteins over time in sediments exposed to high-pCO 2 treatments), and a significant decrease (∼20-50% at 5000 and 20,000 ppm respectively) in nitrogen regeneration. We conclude that in areas immediately surrounding an active and long-lasting leak of CO 2 from CCS reservoirs, organic matter cycling would be significantly impacted in the surface sediment layers. The evidence of negligible impacts on the deeper sediments should be

  13. Deproteinization potential and antioxidant property of haloalkalophilic organic solvent tolerant protease from marine Bacillus sp. APCMST-RS3 using marine shell wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumalai Maruthiah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current increase in the vast amount of marine crustacean shell waste produced by the fish processing industries has led to the need to find new methods for its disposal. Hence, the present study was carried out via marine shell wastes as substrate for protease production. The maximum production (4000.65 U/ml from Bacillus sp. APCMST-RS3 was noticed in 3:1% shrimp and oyster shell powder (SOSP as substrate. Purified protease showed 53.22% and 22.66% enzyme yield; 3.48 and 8.49 fold purity with 40 kDa molecular weight; whereas, its Km and Vmax values were 0.6666 g/l, 1111.11 U/ml. This enzyme showed optimum activity at pH 9 and 60 °C temperature. Also, it retained maximum protease activity in the presence of NaCl (2.5 M, surfactants (Tween 20, 40, 60, 80 and SDS and metal ions (MnCl2, CaCl2, HgCl2 and BaCl2 and solvents. The candidate bacterium effectively deproteinized (84.35% shrimp shell and its antioxidant potentials.

  14. Implication of sample preparation procedures in determination of 137Cs radioactivity in muscle of marine organisms and the radioactivity concentration in the recent years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Shinji; Isoyama, Naohiko; Misonoo, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Long-term fluctuation of the yield and ash content of muscle dissected from marine organisms were investigated for establishing a standard of pretreatment procedure based on the data on radioactivity analyses of various biological samples such as fish and shellfish which were collected from 15 sea areas adjacent to nuclear power stations in Japan. The muscle yield in terms of the percentage of muscle weight to the whole raw weight as well as ash content were obtained for 53 species during the period from 1983 to 2007 and subjected to a statistical scrutiny. There was no significant change in general in the muscle yield and ash content, with the exception of some species due to modification of pretreatment method. However those exceptions would not have resulted in a critical change of the level of 137 Cs concentration in marine organisms as a whole in the sea areas of concern, because it was usually expressed as the average for three different species in the present study. The ash content would be useful, nevertheless, as an index to assure the comparability of sample preparation technique. The 137 Cs radioactivity concentration in muscle of marine organisms gradually decreased year by year from 1990 after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, and would not be more than 0.24 Bq/kg-wet, the maximum level during 2003 to 2007, in the future from the viewpoint of fail-safe approaching. (author)

  15. Evaluating Late Cretaceous OAEs and the influence of marine incursions on organic carbon burial in an expansive East Asian paleo-lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Matthew M.; Ibarra, Daniel E.; Gao, Yuan; Sageman, Bradley B.; Selby, David; Chamberlain, C. Page; Graham, Stephan A.

    2018-02-01

    Expansive Late Cretaceous lacustrine deposits of East Asia offer unique stratigraphic records to better understand regional responses to global climate events, such as oceanic anoxic events (OAEs), and terrestrial organic carbon burial dynamics. This study presents bulk organic carbon isotopes (δ13Corg), elemental concentrations (XRF), and initial osmium ratios (187Os/188Os, Osi) from the Turonian-Coniacian Qingshankou Formation, a ∼5 Ma lacustrine mudstone succession in the Songliao Basin of northeast China. A notable δ13Corg excursion (∼ + 2.5‰) in organic carbon-lean Qingshankou Members 2-3 correlates to OAE3 in the Western Interior Basin (WIB) of North America within temporal uncertainty of high-precision age models. Decreases in carbon isotopic fractionation (Δ13C) through OAE3 in the WIB and Songliao Basin, suggest that significantly elevated global rates of organic carbon burial drew down pCO2, likely cooling climate. Despite this, Osi chemostratigraphy demonstrates no major changes in global volcanism or weathering trends through OAE3. Identification of OAE3 in a lake system is consistent with lacustrine records of other OAEs (e.g., Toarcian OAE), and underscores that terrestrial environments were sensitive to climate perturbations associated with OAEs. Additionally, the relatively radiogenic Osi chemostratigraphy and XRF data confirm that the Qingshankou Formation was deposited in a non-marine setting. Organic carbon-rich intervals preserve no compelling Osi evidence for marine incursions, an existing hypothesis for generating Member 1's prolific petroleum source rocks. Based on our results, we present a model for water column stratification and source rock deposition independent of marine incursions, detailing dominant biogeochemical cycles and lacustrine organic carbon burial mechanisms.

  16. INTERSPECIES CORRELATION ESTIMATION (ICE) FOR ACUTE TOXICITY TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS AND WILDLIFE. II. USER MANUAL AND SOFTWARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Amha, Mark R. Ellersieck and Foster L. Mayer. 2003. Interspecies Correlation Estimations (ICE) for Acute Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms and Wildlife. II. User Manual and Software. EPA/600/R-03/106. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effe...

  17. Pharmacological developments obtained from marine natural products and current pipeline perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Elkin; Rojas, Jhon J; Martínez, Alejandro

    2011-02-01

    Marine organisms represent a new extensive source for bioactive molecules. They have the potential to provide new therapeutic alternatives to treat human diseases. In this paper, we describe and discuss a variety of isolated and semisynthetic molecules obtained from marine sources. These compounds are in phase II, phase III and at the commercialization stage of new drug development. A description of the mechanism of action, dosage used and side effects are also reported. The positive results obtained from these studies have triggered the development of new studies to evaluate the prospects for utilization of marine organisms.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical investigations of mixed-ligand copper(II)-organic supramolecular frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandeep K.; Srivastava, Ashish Kumar; Srivastava, Krishna; Banerjee, Rahul; Prasad, Jagdish

    2017-11-01

    Two mixed-ligand copper(II)-organic coordination compounds with 5,5‧-dimethyl-2,2‧-bipyridine (5,5‧-Me2bpy) as a primary ligand while aliphatic malonate (Hmal) and aromatic 2-hydroxynicotinate (2-OHNA) as secondary ligands, were synthesized. These complexes are formulated as: [Cu(Hmal)(5,5‧-Me2bpy)(H2O)](ClO4) 1 and [Cu2(2-OHNA)2(5,5‧-Me2bpy)2(NO3)](NO3) 2. These two complexes were structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Characterization was further supported by powder X-ray diffraction analysis, elemental analyses, FT-IR, FAB-MASS and TGA, DSC studies. Cyclic voltammetric and UV-visible spectral studies of these two complexes have also been done. The electrochemical studies of complex 1 in DMSO and DMF have shown that this complex undergoes quasi-reversible diffusion-controlled one-electron transfer reaction without any chemical complication while complex 2 in DMSO undergoes quasi-reversible diffusion-controlled one electron transfer reaction, following EC mechanism. The electrochemical behaviour of complex 2 in DMF is complicated probably due to presence of more than one species in solution phase.

  19. Benthic organisms and marine toxic substances and pollutants collected using sediment sampler and net casts from the GUS III and EXCELLENCE in the Gulf of Mexico from 1978-05-24 to 1979-02-26 (NODC Accession 7900304)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms and marine toxic substances and pollutants were collected using sediment sampler and net casts in the Gulf of Mexico. Data were submitted by Texas...

  20. Benthic organisms and marine toxic substances and pollutants collected using net and sediment samplers from the MT MITCHELL and other platforms from 22 May 1974 to 27 May 1974 (NODC Accession 7800886)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms and marine toxic substances and pollutants were collected using sediment sampler and net casts in the coastal waters of the East coast of US. Data...

  1. Benthic organism and marine toxic substances and pollutants collected using net and sediment sampler casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in Gulf of Mexico from 1979-07-23 to 1980-12-13 (NODC Accession 8200103)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organism and marine toxic substances and pollutants were collected using net, sediment sampler, and other instruments from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other...

  2. Benthic organisms and marine toxic substances and pollutants data collected using net casts and other instruments from the GYRE and other platforms in NW Atlantic Ocean from 11 November 1983 to 30 July 1986 (NODC Accession 8800192)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms and marine toxic substances and pollutants were collected using net casts, sediment sampler, and other instruments from the GYRE and other...

  3. Chemical, benthic organisms, zooplankton, marine toxic substances, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 1979-08-30 to 1981-09-21 (NODC Accession 8200012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, marine toxic substances, benthic organisms, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf...

  4. Microbe-mediated transformations of marine dissolved organic matter during 2,100 years of natural incubation in the cold, oxic crust of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah Walter, S. R.; Jaekel, U.; Huber, J. A.; Dittmar, T.; Girguis, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    On the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, oxic seawater from the deep ocean is downwelled into the basaltic crust, supplying the crustal aquifer with an initial inoculum of organic matter and electron acceptors. Studies have shown that fluids circulating within the crust are minimally altered from original seawater, making this subsurface environment a unique natural experiment in which the fate of marine organic matter and the limitations of microbial adaptability in the context of reduced carbon supply can be examined. To make the subsurface crustal aquifer accessible, two CORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit) observatories have been installed at North Pond, a sediment-filled depression beneath the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea. Radiocarbon analysis of dissolved inorganic (DIC) and organic carbon (DOC) in samples recovered from these observatories show uncoupled aging between DOC and DIC with Δ14C values of DOC as low as -933‰ despite isolation from the open ocean for, at most, 2,100 years. This extreme value is part of a general trend of decreasing DOC δ13C and Δ14C values with increasing incubation time within the aquifer. Combined with reduced concentrations of DOC, our results argue for selective microbial oxidation of the youngest, most 13C-enriched components of downwelled DOC, possibly identifying these as characteristics of the more bioavailable fractions of deep-ocean dissolved organic matter. They also suggest that microbial oxidation during low-temperature hydrothermal circulation could be an important sink for aged marine dissolved organic matter.

  5. Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta): A target species for monitoring litter ingested by marine organisms in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiddi, Marco; Hochsheid, Sandra; Camedda, Andrea; Baini, Matteo; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Serena, Fabrizio; Tomassetti, Paolo; Travaglini, Andrea; Marra, Stefano; Campani, Tommaso; Scholl, Francesco; Mancusi, Cecilia; Amato, Ezio; Briguglio, Paolo; Maffucci, Fulvio; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Bentivegna, Flegra; de Lucia, Giuseppe Andrea

    2017-11-01

    Marine litter is any persistent, manufactured or processed solid material discarded, disposed of or abandoned in the marine and coastal environment. Ingestion of marine litter can have lethal and sub-lethal effects on wildlife that accidentally ingests it, and sea turtles are particularly susceptible to this threat. The European Commission drafted the 2008/56/EC Marine Strategy Framework Directive with the aim to achieve a Good Environmental Status (GES), and the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta, Linnaeus 1758) was selected for monitoring the amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals. An analogous decision has been made under the UNEP/MAP Barcelona Convention for the protection of the Mediterranean Sea, following the Ecosystem Approach. This work provides for the first time, two possible scenarios for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive GES, both related to "Trends in the amount and composition of litter ingested by marine animals" in the Mediterranean Sea. The study validates the use of the loggerhead turtle as target indicator for monitoring the impact of litter on marine biota and calls for immediate use of this protocol throughout the Mediterranean basin and European Region. Both GES scenarios are relevant worldwide, where sea turtles and marine litter are present, for measuring the impact of ingested plastics and developing policy strategies to reduce it. In the period between 2011 and 2014, 150 loggerhead sea turtles, found dead, were collected from the Italian Coast, West Mediterranean Sea Sub-Region. The presence of marine litter was investigated using a standardized protocol for necropsies and lab analysis. The collected items were subdivided into 4 main categories, namely, IND-Industrial plastic, USE-User plastic, RUB-Non plastic rubbish, POL-Pollutants and 14 sub-categories, to detect local diversity. Eighty-five percent of the individuals considered (n = 120) were found to have ingested an average of 1.3 ± 0.2 g of

  6. Pollution from organic contaminants in Greek marine areas, receiving anthropogenic pressures from intense activities in the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread pollutants in marine sediments, receiving the pressures from various anthropogenic activities in the coastal zone. Due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic behaviour, PAHs are classified as priority contaminants to be monitored in environmental quality control schemes. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of PAHs in coastal areas of Greece directly influenced from the operation of major industrial units in the coastal zone, investigate their sources and evaluate their potential toxicity by comparison against effect - based sediment quality guidelines. Thirty two surface sediment samples were collected from three areas of the Hellenic coastline: a) Antikyra bay in Korinthiakos gulf, influenced from the operation of an alumina and aluminium production plant b) Larymna bay in Noth Evoikos gulf, influenced from the operation of a nickel production plant and c) Aliveri bay in South Evoikos Gulf, influenced from a cement production plant. In all the areas studied, aquaculture and fishing activities have been also developed in the coastal zone. PAH concentrations were determined by GC-MS, after soxhlet extraction and fractionation by silica column chromatography. PAH sources and origin were investigated by applying several isomeric ratio diagnostic criteria. The mean quotient Effect- Range Median (m-ERM) was used to evaluate the potential of adverse effects posed to benthic organisms. Three m-ERM-q values were used to differentiate the probability of observing toxicity and classify sites into four categories: sediments with m-ERM1.5 have the highest probability (76%) of toxicity. Extremely high PAH concentrations more than 100,000 ng/g were found in the close vicinity of the alumina production plant in Antikyra bay. High levels of PAHs up to 22,000 ng/g were also found in Aliveri bay, whereas lowest values, but still indicating significant pollution, were measured close to the nickel production plant

  7. Synthesis, characterisation and catalytic activity of 4, 5-imidazoledicarboxylate ligated Co(II) and Cd(II) metal-organic coordination complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangu, Kranthi Kumar; Maddila, Suresh; Mukkamala, Saratchandra Babu; Jonnalagadda, Sreekantha B.

    2017-09-01

    Two mono nuclear coordination complexes, namely, [Co(4,5-Imdc)2 (H2O)2] (1) and [Cd(4,5-Imdc)2(H2O)3]·H2O (2) were constructed using Co(II) and Cd(II) metal salts with 4,5-Imidazoledicarboxylic acid (4,5-Imdc) as organic ligand. Both 1, 2 were structurally characterized by single crystal XRD and the results reveal that 1 belongs to P21/n space group with unit cell parameters [a = 5.0514(3) Å, b = 22.5786(9) Å, c = 6.5377(3) Å, β = 111.5°] whereas, 2 belongs to P21/c space group with unit cell parameters [a = 6.9116(1) Å, b = 17.4579(2) Å, c = 13.8941(2) Å, β = 97.7°]. While Co(II) in 1 exhibited a six coordination geometry with 4,5-Imdc and water molecules, Cd(II) ion in 2 showed a seven coordination with the same ligand and solvent. In both 1 and 2, the hydrogen bond interactions with mononuclear unit generated 3D-supramolecular structures. Both complexes exhibit solid state fluorescent emission at room temperature. The efficacy of both the complexes as heterogeneous catalysts was examined in the green synthesis of six pyrano[2,3,c]pyrazole derivatives with ethanol as solvent via one-pot reaction between four components, a mixture of aromatic aldehyde, malononitrile, hydrazine hydrate and dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate. Both 1 and 2 have produced pyrano [2,3,c]pyrazoles in impressive yields (92-98%) at room temperature in short interval of times (<20 min), with no need for any chromatographic separations. With good stability, ease of preparation and recovery plus reusability up to six cycles, both 1 and 2 prove to be excellent environmental friendly catalysts for the value-added organic transformations using green principles.

  8. Banking of environmental samples for short-term biochemical and chemical monitoring of organic contamination in coastal marine environments: the GICBEM experience (1986-1990). Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie des Ecosystèmes, Marins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, P; Narbonne, J F; Lafaurie, M; Ribera, D; Lemaire, P; Raoux, C; Michel, X; Salaun, J P; Monod, J L; Romeo, M

    1993-11-01

    The GICBEM (Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie des Ecosystèmes Marins) program consists of an evaluation of the ecosystem health status in the Mediterranean Sea mainly based on chemical and biochemical approaches. Specific chemical contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), heavy metals) in waters, sediments, and related biotransformation indicators in target organisms (mussels, fish) have been selected for a complete survey of the coastal waters. In order to provide an appropriate sampling program for standardization for each sampling cruise, various aspects have been studied: (a) parameters for the choice of the sample sites; (b) ways of collection the samples (waters, sediments, marine organisms); and (c) preparation of the samples for a short term storage on board ship and for further analyses in the ground laboratory. Methods of preparation and storage of the samples are described and could be used to initiate an environmental banking program including both possible retrospective analyses of chemical pollutants and biochemical indicators. Moreover, the correlation between chemicals (PAH) and biochemical (mixed function oxygenase activities) parameters has been studied and this demonstrates the capability of the enzyme activities as reliable pollution biomarkers.

  9. A metal-organic framework nanocomposite made from functionalized magnetite nanoparticles and HKUST-1 (MOF-199) for preconcentration of Cd(II), Pb(II), and Ni(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorbani-Kalhor, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    The author describes the preparation of a magnetic metal organic framework of type MOF-199 containing magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles carrying covalently immobilized 4-(thiazolylazo) resorcinol (Fe 3 O 4 -TAR). This material is shown to represent a viable sorbent for separation and preconcentration of Cd(II), Pb(II), and Ni(II) ions. Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize the parameters affecting preconcentration. Following elution with 0.6 mol L −1 EDTA, the ions were quantified by FAAS. The capacity of the sorbent ranged between 185 and 210 mg g −1 . The limits of detection are 0.15, 0.40, and 0.8 ng mL −1 for Cd(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) ions, respectively. The relative standard deviations are <8.5 %. The method was successfully applied to the rapid extraction of trace amounts of these ions from sea food and agri food. (author)

  10. Development of a service organization. CHA (Catholic Hospital Association) from post-World War II through Vatican II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, C J

    1990-06-01

    Having weathered the Depression and war years, CHA in the late 1940s looked forward to a new era in Catholic healthcare. The third and fourth articles of Health Progress's six-part history of CHA described how Rev. Alphonse M. Schwitalla, SJ, led the association through one of the most difficult periods in U.S. history. This article follows CHA's development into a modern service organization under the leadership of Rev. John J. Flanagan, SJ. The series' final installment, which will appear in the July-August issue, describes how CHA has modernized its services and structure in the past two decades to help its members adjust to a turbulent environment.

  11. The Philanthropic Organizations' Assistance to Jews of Romania and "Transnistria" during the World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radchenko, I. G.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to assistance, rescue to the Jewish people in Romanian territory, including "Transnistria" in 1939–1945. Using the archival document from different institutions (USHMM, Franklyn D. Roosevelt Library and newest literature, the author shows the scale of the assistance, its mechanism and kinds. It was determined some of existed charitable organizations and analyzed its mechanism of cooperation between each other. Before the war, the Romanian Jewish Community was the one of largest in Europe (after USSR and Poland and felt all tragedy of Holocaust. Romania was the one of the Axis states; the anti-Semitic policy has become a feature of Marshal Antonescu policy. It consisted of deportations from some regions of Romania to newly-created region "Transnistria", mass exterminations, death due to some infectious disease, hunger, etc. At the same moment, Romania became an example of cooperation of the international organizations, foreign governments on providing aid. The scale of this assistance was significant: thanks to it, many of Romanian Jews (primarily, children could survive the Holocaust: some of them were come back to Romanian regions, others decide to emigrate to Palestine. The emphasis is placed on the personalities, who played important (if not decisive role: W. Filderman, S. Mayer, Ch. Colb, J. Schwarzenberg, R. Mac Clelland and many others. It was found that the main part of assistance to Romanian Jews was began to give from the end of 1943, when the West States, World Jewish community obtained numerous proofs of Nazi crimes against the Jews (and, particularly, Romanian Jews. It is worth noting that the assistance was provided, mostly, for Romanian Jews, deported from Regat; some local (Ukrainian Jews also had the possibility to receive a lot of needful things. But before the winter 1942, most of Ukrainian Jews was exterminated in ghettos and concentration camps. The main kinds of the assistance were financial

  12. Marine palynology in progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manten, A.A.

    1966-01-01

    One of the things which the Second International Conference on Palynology (held in Utrecht, August 29-September 3, 1966) revealed, was the rapid expansion which marine palynological research has undergone in recent years. This was the main stimulus to organize this special issue of Marine

  13. Inhibiting prolyl isomerase activity by hybrid organic-inorganic molecules containing rhodium(II) fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Jane M; Kundu, Rituparna; Cooper, Julian C; Ball, Zachary T

    2014-11-15

    A small molecule containing a rhodium(II) tetracarboxylate fragment is shown to be a potent inhibitor of the prolyl isomerase FKBP12. The use of small molecules conjugates of rhodium(II) is presented as a general strategy for developing new protein inhibitors based on distinct structural and sequence features of the enzyme active site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Physiological effects of five different marine natural organic matters (NOMs and three different metals (Cu, Pb, Zn on early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Sega Nogueira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Metals are present in aquatic environments as a result of natural and anthropogenic inputs, and may induce toxicity to organisms. One of the main factors that influence this toxicity in fresh water is natural organic matter (NOM but all NOMs are not the same in this regard. In sea water, possible protection by marine NOMs is not well understood. Thus, our study isolated marine NOMs by solid-phase extraction from five different sites and characterized them by excitation-emission fluorescence analysis—one inshore (terrigenous origin, two offshore (autochthonous origin, and two intermediate in composition (indicative of a mixed origin. The physiological effects of these five NOMS alone (at 8 mg/L, of three metals alone (copper, lead and zinc at 6 µg Cu/L, 20 µg Pb/L, and 25 µg Zn/L respectively, and of each metal in combination with each NOM, were evaluated in 48-h exposures of mussel larvae. Endpoints were whole body Ca2++Mg2+-ATPase activity, carbonic anhydrase activity and lipid peroxidation. By themselves, NOMs increased lipid peroxidation, Ca2++Mg2+-ATPase, and/or carbonic anhydrase activities (significant in seven of 15 NOM-endpoint combinations, whereas metals by themselves did not affect the first two endpoints, but Cu and Pb increased carbonic anhydrase activities. In combination, the effects of NOMs predominated, with the metal exerting no additional effect in 33 out of 45 combinations. While NOM effects varied amongst different isolates, there was no clear pattern with respect to optical or chemical properties. When NOMs were treated as a single source by data averaging, NOM had no effect on Ca2++Mg2+-ATPase activity but markedly stimulated carbonic anhydrase activity and lipid peroxidation, and there were no additional effects of any metal. Our results indicate that marine NOMs may have direct effects on this model marine organism, as well as protective effects against metal toxicity, and the quality of marine NOMs may be an

  15. Physiological effects of five different marine natural organic matters (NOMs) and three different metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) on early life stages of the blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Adalto; Smith, Scott; Jorge, Marianna Basso; Diamond, Rachael L.; Wood, Chris M.

    2017-01-01

    Metals are present in aquatic environments as a result of natural and anthropogenic inputs, and may induce toxicity to organisms. One of the main factors that influence this toxicity in fresh water is natural organic matter (NOM) but all NOMs are not the same in this regard. In sea water, possible protection by marine NOMs is not well understood. Thus, our study isolated marine NOMs by solid-phase extraction from five different sites and characterized them by excitation-emission fluorescence analysis—one inshore (terrigenous origin), two offshore (autochthonous origin), and two intermediate in composition (indicative of a mixed origin). The physiological effects of these five NOMS alone (at 8 mg/L), of three metals alone (copper, lead and zinc at 6 µg Cu/L, 20 µg Pb/L, and 25 µg Zn/L respectively), and of each metal in combination with each NOM, were evaluated in 48-h exposures of mussel larvae. Endpoints were whole body Ca2++Mg2+-ATPase activity, carbonic anhydrase activity and lipid peroxidation. By themselves, NOMs increased lipid peroxidation, Ca2++Mg2+-ATPase, and/or carbonic anhydrase activities (significant in seven of 15 NOM-endpoint combinations), whereas metals by themselves did not affect the first two endpoints, but Cu and Pb increased carbonic anhydrase activities. In combination, the effects of NOMs predominated, with the metal exerting no additional effect in 33 out of 45 combinations. While NOM effects varied amongst different isolates, there was no clear pattern with respect to optical or chemical properties. When NOMs were treated as a single source by data averaging, NOM had no effect on Ca2++Mg2+-ATPase activity but markedly stimulated carbonic anhydrase activity and lipid peroxidation, and there were no additional effects of any metal. Our results indicate that marine NOMs may have direct effects on this model marine organism, as well as protective effects against metal toxicity, and the quality of marine NOMs may be an important factor in

  16. Effect of supramolecular organization of a cartilaginous tissue on thermal stability of collagen II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat'eva, N. Yu.; Averkiev, S. V.; Lunin, V. V.; Grokhovskaya, T. E.; Obrezkova, M. V.

    2006-08-01

    The thermal stability of collagen II in various cartilaginous tissues was studied. It was found that heating a tissue of nucleus pulposus results in collagen II melting within a temperature range of 60-70°C; an intact tissue of hyaline cartilage (of nasal septum and cartilage endplates) is a thermally stable system, where collagen II is not denatured completely up to 100°C. It was found that partial destruction of glycosaminoglycans in hyaline cartilage leads to an increase in the degree of denaturation of collagen II upon heating, although a significant fraction remains unchanged. It was shown that electrostatic interactions of proteoglycans and collagen only slightly affect the thermal stability of collagen II in the tissues. Evidently, proteoglycan aggregates play a key role: they create topological hindrances for moving polypeptide chains, thereby reducing the configurational entropy of collagen macromolecules in the state of a random coil.

  17. Sorption study of 226Ra(II) et 238U(VI) on to peat organic matter, in mining environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordelet, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    The environmental footprint of former uranium mining sites is a major concern for society. In order to guarantee the protection of ecosystems and thus a minimal radiological impact on the biosphere, it is important to understand and to be able to model the phenomena controlling the migration of uranium and its decay products, specially radium ( 226 Ra) (AREVA's Envir-at-Mines project). In the environment, among solid phases which can retain 238 U(VI) and 226 Ra(II), peat is known to have relevant affinity for U(VI). Because peat is usually composed at 90% dry weight of organic matter, the aim of this study was to qualify and quantify peat organic matter affinity for 238 U(VI) and 226 Ra(II). Peat samples extracted from Les Sagnes (close to a former uranium mining site in Limousin area, France) was characterised and batch adsorption/desorption experiments were conducted. The results indicate that 226 Ra(II) adsorption onto that peat is higher than 97% for pH ≥ 4-6 (depending on the organic/mineral ratio in dry peat) corresponding to K d values about 4500 ± 500 mL/g and 238 U(VI) adsorption is higher than 80% at pH ≥ 3 with K d maximal values reaching 11000 mL/g around pH 4.5. Only a little desorption was measured after one month. An ion exchange modelling for radium adsorption onto one type of organic matter sorption site was enough to fit the experimental adsorption K d for the peat over the whole range of pH. However, uranium sorption on peat can be modelled on that organic sorption site only from pH 1 to 5. From pH 5 to 10, to explain the experimental uranium adsorption K d values (close to 1500 mL/g), uranium sorption onto mineral phases (such as smectite and iron oxide in this study) has to be considered. An operational data set is given for both 238 U(VI) and 226 Ra(II) sorption onto Les Sagnes peat. Unlike usual peat, peat from Les Sagnes contains more than 10% dry weight of mineral matter. That is why it is necessary to model sorption of those two

  18. A new photoactive Ru(II)tris(2,2'-bipyridine) templated Zn(II) benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate metal organic framework: structure and photophysical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Christi L; Wojtas, Lukasz; Gao, Wen-Yang; Ma, Shengqian; Larsen, Randy W

    2015-03-28

    It has now been demonstrated that Ru(ii)tris(2,2'-bipyridine) (RuBpy) can be utilized to template the formation of new metal organic framework (MOF) materials containing crystallographically resolved RuBpy clusters with unique photophysical properties. Two such materials, RWLC-1 and RWLC-2, have now been reported from our laboratory and are composed of RuBpy encapsulated in MOFs composed of Zn(ii) ions and 1,3,5-tris(4-carboxyphenyl)benzene ligands (C. L. Whittington, L. Wojtas and R. W. Larsen, Inorg. Chem., 2014, 53, 160-166). Here, a third RuBpy templated photoactive MOF is described (RWLC-3) that is derived from the reaction between Zn(ii) ions and 1,4-dicarboxybenzene in the presence of RuBpy. Single Crystal X-ray diffraction studies determined the position of RuBpy cations within the crystal lattice. The RWLC-3 structure is described as a 2-fold interpenetrated pillared honeycomb network (bnb) containing crystallographically resolved RuBpy clusters. The two bnb networks are weakly interconnected. The encapsulated RuBpy exhibits two emission decay lifetimes (τ-fast = 120 ns, τ-slow = 453 ns) and a bathochromic shift in the steady state emission spectrum relative to RuBpy in ethanol.

  19. Introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry: A tutorial review. Part II. Practical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, Amélie; Nonell, Anthony; Todolí Torró, José Luis; Bresson, Carole; Vio, Laurent; Vercouter, Thomas; Chartier, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This tutorial review is dedicated to the analysis of organic/hydro-organic matrices by ICP techniques. A state-of-the-art focusing on sample introduction, relevant operating parameters optimization and analytical strategies for elemental quantification is provided. - Highlights: • Practical considerations to perform analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. • Description, benefits and drawbacks of recent introduction devices. • Optimization to improve plasma tolerance towards organic/hydro-organic matrices. • Analytical strategies for elemental quantification in organic/hydro-organic matrices. - Abstract: Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are increasingly used to carry out analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. The introduction of such matrices into ICP sources is particularly challenging and can be the cause of numerous drawbacks. This tutorial review, divided in two parts, explores the rich literature related to the introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in ICP sources. Part I provided theoretical considerations associated with the physico-chemical properties of such matrices, in an attempt to understand the induced phenomena. Part II of this tutorial review is dedicated to more practical considerations on instrumentation, instrumental and operating parameters, as well as analytical strategies for elemental quantification in such matrices. Two important issues are addressed in this part: the first concerns the instrumentation and optimization of instrumental and operating parameters, pointing out (i) the description, benefits and drawbacks of different kinds of nebulization and desolvation devices and the impact of more specific instrumental parameters such as the injector characteristics and the material used for the cone; and, (ii) the optimization of operating parameters, for both ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Even if it is at the margin of this tutorial review

  20. Introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry: A tutorial review. Part II. Practical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclercq, Amélie, E-mail: amelie.leclercq@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Nonell, Anthony, E-mail: anthony.nonell@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Todolí Torró, José Luis, E-mail: jose.todoli@ua.es [Universidad de Alicante, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatología, Ap. de Correos, 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Bresson, Carole, E-mail: carole.bresson@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vio, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.vio@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vercouter, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.vercouter@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, SEARS, Laboratoire de développement Analytique Nucléaire Isotopique et Elémentaire, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chartier, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.chartier@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN, DANS, DPC, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-07-23

    Graphical abstract: This tutorial review is dedicated to the analysis of organic/hydro-organic matrices by ICP techniques. A state-of-the-art focusing on sample introduction, relevant operating parameters optimization and analytical strategies for elemental quantification is provided. - Highlights: • Practical considerations to perform analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. • Description, benefits and drawbacks of recent introduction devices. • Optimization to improve plasma tolerance towards organic/hydro-organic matrices. • Analytical strategies for elemental quantification in organic/hydro-organic matrices. - Abstract: Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are increasingly used to carry out analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. The introduction of such matrices into ICP sources is particularly challenging and can be the cause of numerous drawbacks. This tutorial review, divided in two parts, explores the rich literature related to the introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in ICP sources. Part I provided theoretical considerations associated with the physico-chemical properties of such matrices, in an attempt to understand the induced phenomena. Part II of this tutorial review is dedicated to more practical considerations on instrumentation, instrumental and operating parameters, as well as analytical strategies for elemental quantification in such matrices. Two important issues are addressed in this part: the first concerns the instrumentation and optimization of instrumental and operating parameters, pointing out (i) the description, benefits and drawbacks of different kinds of nebulization and desolvation devices and the impact of more specific instrumental parameters such as the injector characteristics and the material used for the cone; and, (ii) the optimization of operating parameters, for both ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Even if it is at the margin of this tutorial review

  1. Design and optimisation of organic Rankine cycles for waste heat recovery in marine applications using the principles of natural selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    , boundary conditions, hazard levels and environmental concerns. A generally applicable methodology, based on the principles of natural selection, is presented and used to determine the optimum working fluid, boiler pressure and Rankine cycle process layout for scenarios related to marine engine heat...

  2. Biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine polychaetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Giessing, Anders; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2008-01-01

    Deposit-feeding polychaetes constitute the dominant macrofauna in marine environments that tend to be depositional centers for organic matter and contaminants. Polychaetes are known to accumulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from both particulate and dissolved phases but less is known...... about the mechanisms underlying elimination of accumulated PAHs. An important pathway of elimination is through biotransformation which results in increased aqueous solubility of the otherwise hydrophobic PAHs. Biotransformation in marine polychaetes proceeds in a two phased process similar to those...... well studied in vertebrates, phase I enzymes belonging to the Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme family, along with a few phase II enzymes have been identified in marine polychaetes. In this review we aim at highlighting advances in the mechanistic understanding of PAH biotransformation in marine polychaetes...

  3. Oceanic processes in marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, D.J.; Duedall, I.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following areas: bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons in marine environments; behavior of drilling fluid discharges off the coast of California; effects of drilling fluids on marine organisms; and the effects of radioactive waste disposal on marine amphipods

  4. Long-term field measurement of sorption of organic contaminants to five types of plastic pellets: implications for plastic marine debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Hoh, Eunha; Hentschel, Brian T; Kaye, Shawn

    2013-02-05

    Concerns regarding marine plastic pollution and its affinity for chemical pollutants led us to quantify relationships between different types of mass-produced plastic and organic contaminants in an urban bay. At five locations in San Diego Bay, CA, we measured sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) throughout a 12-month period to the five most common types of mass-produced plastic: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and polypropylene (PP). During this long-term field experiment, sorption rates and concentrations of PCBs and PAHs varied significantly among plastic types and among locations. Our data suggest that for PAHs and PCBs, PET and PVC reach equilibrium in the marine environment much faster than HDPE, LDPE, and PP. Most importantly, concentrations of PAHs and PCBs sorbed to HDPE, LDPE, and PP were consistently much greater than concentrations sorbed to PET and PVC. These data imply that products made from HDPE, LDPE, and PP pose a greater risk than products made from PET and PVC of concentrating these hazardous chemicals onto fragmented plastic debris ingested by marine animals.