WorldWideScience

Sample records for marine macroalga ulva

  1. Accumulation of Cu and Zn from antifouling paint particles by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Andrew; Pollock, Heather; Brown, Murray T.

    2009-01-01

    The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been exposed to different concentrations of antifouling paint particles (4-200 mg L -1 ) in the presence of a fixed quantity of clean estuarine sediment and its photosynthetic response and accumulation of Cu and Zn monitored over a period of 2 days. An immediate (<2 h) toxic effect was elicited under all experimental conditions that was quantitatively related to the concentration of contaminated particles present. Likewise, the rate of leaching of both Cu and Zn was correlated with the concentration of paint particles added. Copper accumulation by the alga increased linearly with aqueous Cu concentration, largely through adsorption to the cell surface, but significant accumulation of Zn was not observed. Thus, in coastal environments where boat maintenance is practiced, discarded antifouling paint particles are an important source of Cu, but not Zn, to U. lactuca. - The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, is able to accumulate Cu but not Zn from discarded antifouling paint particles.

  2. Accumulation of Cu and Zn from antifouling paint particles by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.u [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Pollock, Heather [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been exposed to different concentrations of antifouling paint particles (4-200 mg L{sup -1}) in the presence of a fixed quantity of clean estuarine sediment and its photosynthetic response and accumulation of Cu and Zn monitored over a period of 2 days. An immediate (<2 h) toxic effect was elicited under all experimental conditions that was quantitatively related to the concentration of contaminated particles present. Likewise, the rate of leaching of both Cu and Zn was correlated with the concentration of paint particles added. Copper accumulation by the alga increased linearly with aqueous Cu concentration, largely through adsorption to the cell surface, but significant accumulation of Zn was not observed. Thus, in coastal environments where boat maintenance is practiced, discarded antifouling paint particles are an important source of Cu, but not Zn, to U. lactuca. - The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, is able to accumulate Cu but not Zn from discarded antifouling paint particles.

  3. Cultivation and conversion of marine macroalgae. [Gracilaria and Ulva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.; DeBusk, T.A.; Blakeslee, M.

    1984-05-01

    Research was conducted on the development of an alternative ocean energy farm concept that would not be dependent upon deep ocean water or other extraneous sources for its nutrient supply and that could be located in shallow, near shore, and protected coastal ocean areas. There are five tasks reported in this document: determination of the annual yield of Ulva in non-intensive cultures; evaluation of the effect of carbon concentration on Gracilaria and Ulva yields; evaluation of spray/mist culture of Ulva and Gracilaria; species screening for the production of petroleum replacement products; and synthesis analysis, and economic energy evaluation of culture data. An alternative concept to open ocean culture is a land-based energy production system utilizing saline waters from underground aquifers or enclosed coastal areas. Research was performed to evaluate growth and biomass production of all macroscopic algal species that could be obtained in adequate quantity in the central Florida area. A total of 42 species were grown in specially adapted burial vaults. These included 16 green algae (Garcilaria 4 weekshlorophyta), 2 brown algae (Phaeophyta), and 18 red algae (Rhodophyta). Of these, the most successful and suitable species were a strain of Gracilaria (a red seaweed) and Ulva (a green seaweed). These two species have a high carbohydrate content that may be anaerobically digested to methane gas. Well-nourished Gracilaria will double its biomass in 1 to 4 weeks, depending on the season, water flow, and other variables. After its biomass has doubled (i.e., from 2 to 4 kg/m/sup 2/) the incremental growth is harvested to return the crop to a starting density. Enrichment of the new starting crop following harvest could conceivably be accomplished onsite at the seaweed farm, but the rapid uptake and storage of nutrients by depleted seaweeds makes possible a simpler process, known as pulse fertilization.

  4. Toxicity of tire wear particle leachate to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.u [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Rice, Lynsey [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Tire wear particles filed from the treads of end-of-life vehicle tires have been added to sea water to examine the release of Zn and the toxicity of the resulting leachate and dilutions thereof to the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. Zinc release appeared to be diffusion-controlled, with a conditional rate constant of 5.4 {mu}g[L(h){sup 1/2}]{sup -1}, and about 1.6% of total Zn was released after 120 h incubation. Exposure to increasing concentrations of leachate resulted in a non-linear reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion of U. lactuca and, with the exception of the undiluted leachate, increasing accumulation of Zn. Phototoxicity was significantly lower on exposure to equivalent concentrations of Zn added as Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, suggesting that organic components of leachate are largely responsible for the overall toxicity to the alga. Given the ubiquity and abundance of TWP in urban coastal sediments, the generation, biogeochemistry and toxicity of tire leachate in the marine setting merit further attention. - Tire wear leachate is toxic to Ulva lactuca and zinc is a potential bioindicator of leachate contamination in urban marine systems.

  5. Uptake of PCBs contained in marine sediments by the green macroalga Ulva rigida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Donald; Rajic, Ljiljana; Sly, Elizabeth; Meric, Dogus; Sheahan, Thomas

    2014-11-15

    The uptake of PCBs contained in marine sediments by the green macroalga Ulva rigida was investigated in both laboratory and field experiments. Under laboratory conditions, total PCBs (tPCBs) uptake was significantly greater in live vs dead plants. The concentration of tPCB taken up in live plants was greatest in the first 24h (1580 μg kg(-1) dry weight), and then increased at a lower rate from day 2 to 14. Dead plants had a significantly lower tPCB concentration after 24h (609 μg kg(-1) dry weight) and lower uptake rate through day 14. Lesser chlorinated PCB congeners (below 123) made up the majority of PCBs taken up. Congener composition in both laboratory and field experiments was correlated to congener logKow value and sediment content. Field experiments showed that Ulva plants could concentrate PCBs to 3.9 mg kg(-1) in 24h. Thus, U. rigida is capable of removing PCBs in sediments at a rapid rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of cisplatin in the marine environment using the macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easton, Cecilia; Turner, Andrew; Sewell, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin (cis-PtCl 2 (NH 3 ) 2 ), has been added to cultures of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, under various experimental conditions. Both accumulation and internalisation over a 48 h period was greater when cisplatin was added to coastal sea water (salinity = 33) from a distilled water solution than when added to either sea water or estuarine water (salinity = 16.5) from a saline solution. This effect is attributed to the greater abundance of the more reactive monoaqua complex (cis-PtCl(OH 2 )(NH 3 ) 2 + ) in the distilled water solution and kinetic constraints on its conversion back to cis-PtCl 2 (NH 3 ) 2 in sea water. Despite its mode of action at the cellular level, cisplatin added up to concentrations of 150 nM did not incur a measurable reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion under any of experimental conditions tested. - Highlights: → This study is the first to examine the biogeochemistry and toxicity of a cytotoxic drug in the marine environment. → Cisplatin is accumulated and internalised by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. → Accumulation is greater when the drug is administered from a distilled water solution than from a saline solution. → Results are consistent with the greater abundance of the more reactive aquated complexes in pure water. → Cisplatin is not phytotoxic to the alga over the concentration range (<150 nM) studied. - The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin, is accumulated and internalised by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, but is not phytotoxic up to concentrations of 150 nM

  7. An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of cisplatin in the marine environment using the macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easton, Cecilia [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Sewell, Graham [School of Health Professions, University of Plymouth, Peninsula Allied Health Centre, Plymouth PL6 8BH (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin (cis-PtCl{sub 2}(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}), has been added to cultures of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, under various experimental conditions. Both accumulation and internalisation over a 48 h period was greater when cisplatin was added to coastal sea water (salinity = 33) from a distilled water solution than when added to either sea water or estuarine water (salinity = 16.5) from a saline solution. This effect is attributed to the greater abundance of the more reactive monoaqua complex (cis-PtCl(OH{sub 2})(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +}) in the distilled water solution and kinetic constraints on its conversion back to cis-PtCl{sub 2}(NH{sub 3}){sub 2} in sea water. Despite its mode of action at the cellular level, cisplatin added up to concentrations of 150 nM did not incur a measurable reduction in the efficiency of photochemical energy conversion under any of experimental conditions tested. - Highlights: > This study is the first to examine the biogeochemistry and toxicity of a cytotoxic drug in the marine environment. > Cisplatin is accumulated and internalised by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca. > Accumulation is greater when the drug is administered from a distilled water solution than from a saline solution. > Results are consistent with the greater abundance of the more reactive aquated complexes in pure water. > Cisplatin is not phytotoxic to the alga over the concentration range (<150 nM) studied. - The cytotoxic drug, cisplatin, is accumulated and internalised by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, but is not phytotoxic up to concentrations of 150 nM

  8. Influence of synthetic surfactants on the uptake of Pd, Cd and Pb by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masakorala, Kanaji; Turner, Andrew; Brown, Murray T.

    2008-01-01

    Uptake of Pd, Cd and Pb by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been studied in the presence of an anionic (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS), cationic (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide; HDTMA) and non-ionic (Triton X-100; TX) surfactant. Compared with the surfactant-free system, metal sorption was reduced in the presence of SDS or TX. Neither surfactant, however, had any measurable impact on cell membrane permeability, determined by leakage of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA), or on metal internalisation. We attribute these observations to the stabilisation of aqueous Cd and Pb by SDS and the shielding of otherwise amenable sorption sites by TX. Presence of HDTMA resulted in a reduction in the extent of both sorption and internalisation of all metals and a significant increase in the leakage of DFAA. Thus, by enhancing membrane permeability, HDTMA exerts the greatest influence on metal behaviour in the presence of U. lactuca. - Synthetic surfactants exert a significant impact on the uptake and internalisation of metals by a marine macroalga

  9. Influence of synthetic surfactants on the uptake of Pd, Cd and Pb by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masakorala, Kanaji [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk; Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Uptake of Pd, Cd and Pb by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been studied in the presence of an anionic (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS), cationic (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide; HDTMA) and non-ionic (Triton X-100; TX) surfactant. Compared with the surfactant-free system, metal sorption was reduced in the presence of SDS or TX. Neither surfactant, however, had any measurable impact on cell membrane permeability, determined by leakage of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA), or on metal internalisation. We attribute these observations to the stabilisation of aqueous Cd and Pb by SDS and the shielding of otherwise amenable sorption sites by TX. Presence of HDTMA resulted in a reduction in the extent of both sorption and internalisation of all metals and a significant increase in the leakage of DFAA. Thus, by enhancing membrane permeability, HDTMA exerts the greatest influence on metal behaviour in the presence of U. lactuca. - Synthetic surfactants exert a significant impact on the uptake and internalisation of metals by a marine macroalga.

  10. Production of Biofuels from Marine Macroalgae Melanothamnus afaqhusainii and Ulva fasciata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A. M.; Hussain, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    This research article is based on the production of biofuels from the marine macro red alga Melanothamnus afaqhusainii and marine macro green alga Ulva fasciata from the Karachi coast. M. afaqhusainii was investigated for biodiesel as well as for bioethanol whereas U. fasciata was investigated only for bioethanol. Two types of biodiesels namely fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) were prepared by the transesterification of algal oil. The carbohydrates from both algae were extracted by distilled water and subjected to different biochemical tests. It was hydrolyzed by various methods including acidic and basic as well as by using ammonia, hydrogen peroxide and mixture of organic solvents in the presence of AlCl/sub 3/. The comparative study of these methods revealed their efficiency order as NaOH (10 percentage)/heating (method-2) > NaOH (10 percentage)/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in microwave oven (method-5) > ammonia (50 percentage)/reflux (method-6). After hydrolysis, the presence of carbohydrates in the hydrolyzed samples was investigated by different biochemical tests including Molisch Test, Iodine Test, Benedict Test, Tollen Test, Barfoed's Test, Fehling solution Test, Osazone Test, Seliwanoff's Test and Bial's Test. In addition, the presence of glucose was confirmed by glucometer and Combur Test. The detailed investigation of carbohydrates was carried out that resulted in the identification of reducing sugars, polysaccharides, disaccharides and monosaccharides including glucose. The hydrolyzed samples were fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under ground and paratial anaerobic conditions. The bioethanol so formed by fermentation was directly converted to UV active derivatives namely ethyl benzoate and benzyl acetate. They were confirmed by TLC examination in comparison with standard ethyl benzoate and benzyl acetate. UV spectrophotometer was used for the determination of total sugar and bioethanol on the basis of absorbance

  11. An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of thallium in the coastal marine environment using the macroalga, Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Furniss, Oliver

    2012-12-01

    Thallium(I) has been added to cultures of the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, for a period of 48 h and the accumulation of the metal and its effects on the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PS II) measured. Thallium elicited a measurable toxic response above concentrations of 10 μg L⁻¹ in both coastal seawater (salinity 33) and estuarine water (salinity 20). The accumulation of Tl was defined by a linear relationship with aqueous Tl and accumulation factors of about 900 mL g⁻¹ in both media. Thallium accumulated by U. lactuca that was resistant to an EDTA extraction and, by operational definition, internalised, exceeded 90% in both cases. Accumulation and toxicity of Tl in the presence of a ∼10⁵-fold excess of its biogeochemical analogue, potassium, suggests that Tl has a high intrinsic phytotoxicity and that its mode of action involves permeation of the cell membrane as Tl⁺ through NaCl-KCl co-transporter sites rather than (or in addition to) transport through K⁺ ion channels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Studies of marine macroalgae: saline desert water cultivation and effects of environmental stress on proximate composition. Final subcontract report. [Gracilaria tikvahiae; Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.; DeBusk, T.A.; Peterson, J.E.

    1985-11-01

    The results presented in this report address the growth potential of marine macroalgae cultivated in desert saline waters, and the effects of certain environmental stresses (e.g., nitrogen, salinity, and temperature) on the proximate composition of several marine macroalgae. Two major desert saline water types were assayed for their ability to support the growth of Gracilaria, Ulva, and Caulerpa. Both water types supported short term growth, but long term growth was not supported. Carbohydrate levels in Gracilaria were increased by cultivation under conditions of high salinity, low temperature, and low nitrogen and phosphorous availability. Data suggests that it may be possible to maximize production of useful proximate constituents by cultivating the algae under optimum conditions for growth, and then holding the resulting biomass under the environmental conditions which favor tissue accumulation of the desired storage products. 16 refs., 21 figs., 19 tabs.

  13. Time Course Exo-Metabolomic Profiling in the Green Marine Macroalga Ulva (Chlorophyta for Identification of Growth Phase-Dependent Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghreed Alsufyani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine green macroalga Ulva (Chlorophyta lives in a mutualistic symbiosis with bacteria that influence growth, development, and morphogenesis. We surveyed changes in Ulva’s chemosphere, which was defined as a space where organisms interact with each other via compounds, such as infochemicals, nutrients, morphogens, and defense compounds. Thereby, Ulva mutabilis cooperates with bacteria, in particular, Roseovarius sp. strain MS2 and Maribacter sp. strain MS6 (formerly identified as Roseobacter sp. strain MS2 and Cytophaga sp. strain MS6. Without this accompanying microbial flora, U. mutabilis forms only callus-like colonies. However, upon addition of the two bacteria species, in effect forming a tripartite community, morphogenesis can be completely restored. Under this strictly standardized condition, bioactive and eco-physiologically-relevant marine natural products can be discovered. Solid phase extracted waterborne metabolites were analyzed using a metabolomics platform, facilitating gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis, combined with the necessary acquisition of biological metadata. Multivariate statistics of the GC-MS and LC-MS data revealed strong differences between Ulva’s growth phases, as well as between the axenic Ulva cultures and the tripartite community. Waterborne biomarkers, including glycerol, were identified as potential indicators for algal carbon source and bacterial-algal interactions. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that U. mutabilis releases glycerol that can be utilized for growth by Roseovarius sp. MS2.

  14. Energy production from marine biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L; Daugbjerg Jensen, P; Svane Bech, K [Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark); and others

    2011-11-15

    In this project, methods for producing liquid, gaseous and solid biofuel from the marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca has been studied. To get an understanding of the growth conditions of Ulva lactuca, laboratory scale growth experiments describing N, P, and CO{sub 2} uptake and possible N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} production are carried out. The macroalgae have been converted to bioethanol and methane (biogas) in laboratory processes. Further the potential of using the algae as a solid combustible biofuel is studied. Harvest and conditioning procedures are described together with the potential of integrating macroalgae production at a power plant. The overall conclusions are: 1. Annual yield of Ulva lactuca is 4-5 times land-based energy crops. 2. Potential for increased growth rate when bubbling with flue gas is up to 20%. 3. Ethanol/butanol can be produced from pretreated Ulva of C6 and - for butanol - also C5 sugars. Fermentation inhibitors can possibly be removed by mechanical pressing. The ethanol production is 0,14 gram pr gram dry Ulva lactuca. The butanol production is lower. 4. Methane yields of Ulva are at a level between cow manure and energy crops. 5. Fast pyrolysis produces algae oil which contains 78 % of the energy content of the biomass. 6. Catalytic supercritical water gasification of Ulva lactuca is feasible and a methane rich gas can be obtained. 7. Thermal conversion of Ulva is possible with special equipment as low temperature gasification and grate firing. 8. Co-firing of Ulva with coal in power plants is limited due to high ash content. 9. Production of Ulva only for energy purposes at power plants is too costly. 10. N{sub 2}O emission has been observed in lab scale, but not in pilot scale production. 11. Analyses of ash from Ulva lactuca indicates it as a source for high value fertilizers. 12. Co-digestion of Ulva lactuca together with cattle manure did not alter the overall fertilization value of the digested cattle manure alone. (LN)

  15. A novel marine algal toxicity bioassay based on sporulation inhibition in the green macroalga Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Taejun [Division of Biology and Chemistry, University of Incheon, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hanalgae@incheon.ac.kr; Choi, Gye-Woon [Department of Civil and Environmental System Engineering, University of Incheon, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-10

    A 5-day aquatic toxicity test based on sporulation inhibition of the green macroalga Ulva pertusa Kjellman has been developed. Optimal test conditions determined for photon irradiance, salinity and temperature were 60-200 {mu}mol photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, 25-35%o and 15-20 deg C, respectively. Tests were conducted by exposing U. pertusa thallus disks to a reference toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), metals (Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}) and elutriates of sludge collected from nine different locations. The EC{sub 50} values for SDS was 5.35 mg L{sup -1}. When four heavy metals were assayed, the NOECs were highest for lead (0.625 mg L{sup -1}) and lowest for copper (0.031 mg L{sup -1}). The EC{sub 50} values showed the following toxicity rankings: Cu{sup 2+} (0.061 mg L{sup -1}) > Cd{sup 2+} (0.326 mg L{sup -1}) > Zn{sup 2+} (0.738 mg L{sup -1}) > Pb{sup 2+} (0.877 mg L{sup -1}). The bioassay indicated also that the sporulation endpoint could be a sensitive indicator of toxicity effects of elutriates of sludge as reflected from the NOEC values equal to or lower than the lowest concentration employed (6.25%). Sporulation was significantly inhibitied in all elutriates with the greatest and least effects observed in elutriates of sludge from industrial waste (EC{sub 50} 6.78%) and filtration bed (EC{sub 50} 15.0%), respectively. The results of the Spearman rank correlation analysis for EC{sub 50} data versus the concentrations of toxicants in the sludge presented a significant correlation between toxicity and four heavy metals (Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}). Introduction of the concept of toxicity unit (TU) showed that these metals were the main cause of toxicity in elutriates of at least four out of nine sludge samples. Members of the order Ulvales show a wide geographic distribution and have similar reproductive characteristics, thus making it possible to apply the present test method to other algae of this taxa, elsewhere

  16. A novel marine algal toxicity bioassay based on sporulation inhibition in the green macroalga Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Taejun; Choi, Gye-Woon

    2005-01-01

    A 5-day aquatic toxicity test based on sporulation inhibition of the green macroalga Ulva pertusa Kjellman has been developed. Optimal test conditions determined for photon irradiance, salinity and temperature were 60-200 μmol photons m -2 s -1 , 25-35%o and 15-20 deg C, respectively. Tests were conducted by exposing U. pertusa thallus disks to a reference toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), metals (Cd 2+ , Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , Pb 2+ ) and elutriates of sludge collected from nine different locations. The EC 50 values for SDS was 5.35 mg L -1 . When four heavy metals were assayed, the NOECs were highest for lead (0.625 mg L -1 ) and lowest for copper (0.031 mg L -1 ). The EC 50 values showed the following toxicity rankings: Cu 2+ (0.061 mg L -1 ) > Cd 2+ (0.326 mg L -1 ) > Zn 2+ (0.738 mg L -1 ) > Pb 2+ (0.877 mg L -1 ). The bioassay indicated also that the sporulation endpoint could be a sensitive indicator of toxicity effects of elutriates of sludge as reflected from the NOEC values equal to or lower than the lowest concentration employed (6.25%). Sporulation was significantly inhibitied in all elutriates with the greatest and least effects observed in elutriates of sludge from industrial waste (EC 50 6.78%) and filtration bed (EC 50 15.0%), respectively. The results of the Spearman rank correlation analysis for EC 50 data versus the concentrations of toxicants in the sludge presented a significant correlation between toxicity and four heavy metals (Cd 2+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ ). Introduction of the concept of toxicity unit (TU) showed that these metals were the main cause of toxicity in elutriates of at least four out of nine sludge samples. Members of the order Ulvales show a wide geographic distribution and have similar reproductive characteristics, thus making it possible to apply the present test method to other algae of this taxa, elsewhere. This novel method will be a useful tool for assessing the aquatic toxicity of a wide range of toxicants, once the

  17. Biorefinery of the macroalgae Ulva lactuca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, P.R.; Cerezo-Chinarro, O.; Akkerman, R.J.; Olivieri, G.; Wijffels, R.H.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Eppink, M.H.M.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of osmotic shock, enzymatic incubation, pulsed electric field, and high shear homogenization on the release of water-soluble proteins and carbohydrates from the green alga Ulva lactuca was investigated in this screening study. For osmotic shock, both temperature and incubation time had

  18. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from macroalgae Ulva lactuca against clinically important Staphylococci is impacted by lunar phase of macroalgae harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveau, A M; Miller-Hope, Z; Lloyd, E; Williams, B S; Bolduc, C; Meader, J M; Weiss, F; Burkholder, K M

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common human bacterial pathogen that causes skin and soft tissue infections. Methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA) are increasingly drug-resistant, and thus there is great need for new therapeutics to treat Staph. aureus infections. Attention has focused on potential utility of natural products, such as extracts of marine macroalgae, as a source of novel antimicrobial compounds. The green macroalgae Ulva lactuca produces compounds inhibitory to human pathogens, although the effectiveness of U. lactuca extracts against clinically relevant strains of Staph. aureus is poorly understood. In addition, macroalgae produce secondary metabolites that may be influenced by exogenous factors including lunar phase, but whether lunar phase affects U. lactuca antimicrobial capacity is unknown. We sought to evaluate the antibacterial properties of U. lactuca extracts against medically important Staphylococci, and to determine the effect of lunar phase on antimicrobial activity. We report that U. lactuca methanolic extracts inhibit a range of Staphylococci, and that lunar phase of macrolagae harvest significantly impacts antimicrobial activity, suggesting that antimicrobial properties can be maximized by manipulating time of algal harvest. These findings provide useful parameters for future studies aimed at isolating and characterizing U. lactuca anti-Staphylococcal agents. The growing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant human pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has intensified efforts towards discovery and development of novel therapeutics. Marine macroalgae like Ulva lactuca are increasingly recognized as potential sources of antimicrobials, but the efficacy of U. lactuca extracts against common, virulent strains of Staph. aureus is poorly understood. We demonstrate that U. lactuca methanolic extracts inhibit a variety of clinically relevant Staphylococcus strains, and that the antimicrobial activity can

  19. Thermochemical hydrolysis of macroalgae Ulva for biorefinery: Taguchi robust design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Linzon, Yoav; Vitkin, Edward; Yakhini, Zohar; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Golberg, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the impact of all process parameters on the efficiency of biomass hydrolysis and on the final yield of products is critical to biorefinery design. Using Taguchi orthogonal arrays experimental design and Partial Least Square Regression, we investigated the impact of change and the comparative significance of thermochemical process temperature, treatment time, %Acid and %Solid load on carbohydrates release from green macroalgae from Ulva genus, a promising biorefinery feedstock. The average density of hydrolysate was determined using a new microelectromechanical optical resonator mass sensor. In addition, using Flux Balance Analysis techniques, we compared the potential fermentation yields of these hydrolysate products using metabolic models of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild type, Saccharomyces cerevisiae RN1016 with xylose isomerase and Clostridium acetobutylicum. We found that %Acid plays the most significant role and treatment time the least significant role in affecting the monosaccharaides released from Ulva biomass. We also found that within the tested range of parameters, hydrolysis with 121 °C, 30 min 2% Acid, 15% Solids could lead to the highest yields of conversion: 54.134-57.500 gr ethanol kg-1 Ulva dry weight by S. cerevisiae RN1016 with xylose isomerase. Our results support optimized marine algae utilization process design and will enable smart energy harvesting by thermochemical hydrolysis.

  20. Thermochemical hydrolysis of macroalgae Ulva for biorefinery: Taguchi robust design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Linzon, Yoav; Vitkin, Edward; Yakhini, Zohar; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Golberg, Alexander

    2016-06-13

    Understanding the impact of all process parameters on the efficiency of biomass hydrolysis and on the final yield of products is critical to biorefinery design. Using Taguchi orthogonal arrays experimental design and Partial Least Square Regression, we investigated the impact of change and the comparative significance of thermochemical process temperature, treatment time, %Acid and %Solid load on carbohydrates release from green macroalgae from Ulva genus, a promising biorefinery feedstock. The average density of hydrolysate was determined using a new microelectromechanical optical resonator mass sensor. In addition, using Flux Balance Analysis techniques, we compared the potential fermentation yields of these hydrolysate products using metabolic models of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild type, Saccharomyces cerevisiae RN1016 with xylose isomerase and Clostridium acetobutylicum. We found that %Acid plays the most significant role and treatment time the least significant role in affecting the monosaccharaides released from Ulva biomass. We also found that within the tested range of parameters, hydrolysis with 121 °C, 30 min 2% Acid, 15% Solids could lead to the highest yields of conversion: 54.134-57.500 gr ethanol kg(-1) Ulva dry weight by S. cerevisiae RN1016 with xylose isomerase. Our results support optimized marine algae utilization process design and will enable smart energy harvesting by thermochemical hydrolysis.

  1. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Hans Uwe; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2017-08-28

    Marine macroalgae produce a wide variety of biologically-active metabolites that have been developed into commercial products, such as antibiotics, immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic agents, and cosmetic products. Many marine algae remain clean over longer periods of time, suggesting their strong antifouling potential. Isolation of biogenic compounds and the determination of their structure could provide leads for the development of environmentally-friendly antifouling paints. Isolated substances with potent antifouling activity belong to fatty acids, lipopeptides, amides, alkaloids, lactones, steroids, terpenoids, and pyrroles. It is unclear as yet to what extent symbiotic microorganisms are involved in the synthesis of these compounds. Algal secondary metabolites have the potential to be produced commercially using genetic and metabolic engineering techniques. This review provides an overview of publications from 2010 to February 2017 about antifouling activity of green, brown, and red algae. Some researchers were focusing on antifouling compounds of brown macroalgae, while metabolites of green algae received less attention. Several studies tested antifouling activity against bacteria, microalgae and invertebrates, but in only a few studies was the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of marine macroalgae tested. Rarely, antifouling compounds from macroalgae were isolated and tested in an ecologically-relevant way.

  2. Nutritional and Functional Bioactivity Value of Selected Azorean Macroalgae: Ulva compressa, Ulva rigida, Gelidium microdon, and Pterocladiella capillacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Lisete; Lima, Elisabete; Neto, Ana Isabel; Marcone, Massimo; Baptista, José

    2017-07-01

    This study presents information on the biochemical composition (dry weight basis), nutritional aspects, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties of selected macroalgae (Ulva compressa, Ulva rigida, Gelidium microdon, and Pterocladiella capillacea) from Azores. Moisture content was very high (83.2% to 90.0% of fresh weight). Total dietary fiber (33.7% to 41.0%) that presented a good balance of both soluble and insoluble fibers (15.5% to 19.2% and 18.2% to 21.8%, respectively) was the most abundant component in these macroalgae. Protein and ash (ranged from 15.7% to 23.4% and 10.7% to 20.7%, respectively) were the 2nd most abundant components in red and green macroalgae, respectively. Moderate soluble carbohydrate contents (14.5% to 19.8%) were found in all species. Lipid contents were low (1.0% to 4.3%), particularly in Ulva species (1.0% to 1.7%), but contained higher unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) (7.5% to 32.9% and 29.6% to 69.2% of total FA for monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid groups, respectively) than saturated fatty acid (23.3% to 46.8% of total FA) contents. All the macroalgal proteins had high digestibility in vitro (82.2% to 89.4%, relatively to sodium caseinate), contained high quantity of essential amino acids (45.3% to 58.1% of total amino acids), but in different proportions, and were rich in aspartic and glutamic acids that together account for 17.2% to 36.2% of the total amino acids. These results suggested that regular consumption of the selected macroalgae may improve human health and revealed that they can be used for producing food supplements for human and animal nutrition and/or pharmaceuticals with potential effect on the regional economy. Furthermore, the ACE-inhibitory IC 50 values of 0.095 to 0.695 mg/mL for the <1 kDa protein hydrolysate fraction revealed a potential impact on hypertension disorder. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Bioremediation of reject water from anaerobically digested waste water sludge with macroalgae (Ulva lactuca, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sode, Sidsel; Bruhn, Annette; Balsby, Thorsten J S; Larsen, Martin Mørk; Gotfredsen, Annemarie; Rasmussen, Michael Bo

    2013-10-01

    Phosphorus and biologically active nitrogen are valuable nutrient resources. Bioremediation with macroalgae is a potential means for recovering nutrients from waste streams. In this study, reject water from anaerobically digested sewage sludge was successfully tested as nutrient source for cultivation of the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. Maximal growth rates of 54.57±2.16% FW d(-1) were achieved at reject water concentrations equivalent to 50 μM NH4(+). Based on the results, the growth and nutrient removal was parameterised as function of NH4(+) concentration a tool for optimisation of any similar phycoremediation system. Maximal nutrient removal rates of 22.7 mg N g DW(-1) d(-1) and 2.7 mg P g DW(-1) d(-1) were achieved at reject water concentrations equivalent to 80 and 89 μM NH4(+), respectively. A combined and integrated use of the produced biomass in a biorefinery is thought to improve the feasibility of using Ulva for bioremediation of reject water. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Allelopathic interactions between the opportunistic species Ulva prolifera and the native macroalga Gracilaria lichvoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xu

    Full Text Available Allelopathy, one type of direct plant competition, can be a potent mechanism through which plant communities are structured. The aim of this study was to determine whether allelopathic interactions occur between the opportunistic green tide-forming species Ulva prolifera and the native macroalga Gracilaria lichvoides, both of which were collected from the coastline of East China sea. In laboratory experiments, the presence of G. lichvoides at 1.25 g wet weight L(-1 significantly inhibited growth and photosynthesis of U. prolifera at concentrations of 1.25, 2.50, and 3.75 g wet weight L(-1 (p0.05. Culture medium experiments further confirmed that some allelochemicals may be released by both of the tested macroalgae, and these could account for the observed physiological inhibition of growth and photosynthesis. Moreover, the native macroalgae G. lichvoides was a stronger competitor than the opportunistic species U. prolifera. Collectively, the results of the present study represent a significant advance in exploring ecological questions about the effects of green tide blooms on the macroalgal community.

  5. Anaerobic co-digestion of Tunisian green macroalgae Ulva rigida with sugar industry wastewater for biogas and methane production enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karray, Raida; Karray, Fatma; Loukil, Slim; Mhiri, Najla; Sayadi, Sami

    2017-03-01

    Ulva rigida is a green macroalgae, abundantly available in the Mediterranean which offers a promising source for the production of valuable biomaterials, including methane. In this study, anaerobic digestion assays in a batch mode was performed to investigate the effects of various inocula as a mixture of fresh algae, bacteria, fungi and sediment collected from the coast of Sfax, on biogas production from Ulva rigida. The results revealed that the best inoculum to produce biogas and feed an anaerobic reactor is obtained through mixing decomposed macroalgae with anaerobic sludge and water, yielding into 408mL of biogas. The process was then investigated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) which led to an overall biogas production of 375mL with 40% of methane. Further co-digestion studies were performed in an anaerobic up-flow bioreactor using sugar wastewater as a co-substrate. A high biogas production yield of 114mL g -1 VS added was obtained with 75% of methane. The co-digestion proposed in this work allowed the recovery of natural methane, providing a promising alternative to conventional anaerobic microbial fermentation using Tunisian green macroalgae. Finally, in order to identify the microbial diversity present in the reactor during anaerobic digestion of Ulva rigida, the prokaryotic diversity was investigated in this bioreactor by the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Desiccation induces accumulations of antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin in intertidal macro-alga Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujun Xie

    Full Text Available For plants and algae, exposure to high light levels is deleterious to their photosynthetic machineries. It also can accelerate water evaporation and thus potentially lead to drought stress. Most photosynthetic organisms protect themselves against high light caused photodamages by xanthophyll cycle-dependent thermal energy dissipation. It is generally accepted that high light activates xanthophyll cycle. However, the relationship between xanthophyll cycle and drought stress remains ambiguous. Herein, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta, a representative perennial intertidal macro-algae species with high drought-tolerant capabilities and simple structures, was used to investigate the operation of xanthophyll cycle during desiccation in air. The results indicate that desiccation under dim light induced accumulation of antheraxanthin (Ax and zeaxanthin (Zx at the expense of violaxanthin (Vx. This accumulation could be arrested by dithiothreitol completely and by uncoupler (carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone partially, implying the participation of Vx de-epoxidase in conversion of Vx to Ax and Zx. Treatment with inhibitors of electron transport along thylakoid membrane, e.g. DCMU, PG and DBMIB, did not significantly arrest desiccation-induced accumulation of Ax and Zx. We propose that for U. pertusa, besides excess light, desiccation itself could also induce accumulation of Ax and Zx. This accumulation could proceed without electron transport along thylakoid membrane, and is possibly resulting from the reduction of thylakoid lumen volume during desiccation. Considering the pleiotropic effects of Ax and Zx, accumulated Ax and Zx may function in protecting thylakoid membrane and enhancing thermal quenching during emersion in air.

  7. Energy Production from Marine Biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaisen, Lars; Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter; Svane Bech, Karin

    The background for this research activity is that the 2020 goals for reduction of the CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are so challenging that exorbitant amounts of biomass and other renewable sources of energy must be mobilised in order to – maybe – fulfil the ambitious 2020 goals. The macroalgae...... is an unexploited, not researched, not developed source of biomass and is at the same time an enormous resource by mass. It is therefore obvious to look into this vast biomass resource and by this report give some of the first suggestions of how this new and promising biomass resource can be exploited....

  8. In situ monitoring of molecular changes during cell differentiation processes in marine macroalgae through mass spectrometric imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ralf W; Crecelius, Anna C; Schubert, Ulrich S; Wichard, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI) was employed to discriminate between cell differentiation processes in macroalgae. One of the key developmental processes in the algal life cycle is the production of germ cells (gametes and zoids). The gametogenesis of the marine green macroalga Ulva mutabilis (Chlorophyta) was monitored by metabolomic snapshots of the surface, when blade cells differentiate synchronously into gametangia and giving rise to gametes. To establish MSI for macroalgae, dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), a known algal osmolyte, was determined. MSI of the surface of U. mutabilis followed by chemometric data analysis revealed dynamic metabolomic changes during cell differentiation. DMSP and a total of 55 specific molecular biomarkers, which could be assigned to important stages of the gametogenesis, were detected. Our research contributes to the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying macroalgal cell differentiation. Graphical abstract Molecular changes during cell differentiation of the marine macroalga Ulva were visualized by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI).

  9. The green seaweed Ulva: a model system to study morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichard, Thomas; Charrier, Bénédicte; Mineur, Frédéric; Bothwell, John H; Clerck, Olivier De; Coates, Juliet C

    2015-01-01

    Green macroalgae, mostly represented by the Ulvophyceae, the main multicellular branch of the Chlorophyceae, constitute important primary producers of marine and brackish coastal ecosystems. Ulva or sea lettuce species are some of the most abundant representatives, being ubiquitous in coastal benthic communities around the world. Nonetheless the genus also remains largely understudied. This review highlights Ulva as an exciting novel model organism for studies of algal growth, development and morphogenesis as well as mutualistic interactions. The key reasons that Ulva is potentially such a good model system are: (i) patterns of Ulva development can drive ecologically important events, such as the increasing number of green tides observed worldwide as a result of eutrophication of coastal waters, (ii) Ulva growth is symbiotic, with proper development requiring close association with bacterial epiphytes, (iii) Ulva is extremely developmentally plastic, which can shed light on the transition from simple to complex multicellularity and (iv) Ulva will provide additional information about the evolution of the green lineage.

  10. Effects of three macroalgae, Ulva linza (Chlorophyta), Corallina pilulifera (Rhodophyta) and Sargassum thunbergii (Phaeophyta) on the growth of the red tide microalga Prorocentrum donghaiense under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renjun; Xiao, Hui; Wang, You; Zhou, Wenli; Tang, Xuexi

    2007-10-01

    Allelopathic effects of several concentrations of fresh tissue and dry powder of three macroalgae, Ulva linza, Corallina pilulifera and Sargassum thunbergii, on the red tide microalga Prorocentrum donghaiense were evaluated in microcosms. Preliminary studies on the algicidal effects of one aqueous and four organic solvent extracts from the macroalgae on the microalga were carried out to confirm the existence of allelochemicals in the tissues of the macroalgae. The effects of macroalgal culture medium filtrate on P. donghaiense were investigated using initial or semi-continuous filtrate addition. Furthermore, the potential effects of the microalga on these three macroalgae were also tested. The results of the microcosm assay showed that the growth of P. donghaiense was strongly inhibited by using fresh tissues and dry powder of the three macroalgae. Both aqueous and methanol extracts of the macroalgae had strong growth inhibitory effects on P. donghaiense, while the other three organic solvent extracts (acetone, ether and chloroform) had no apparent effect on its growth; this suggested that the allelochemicals from these three macroalga had relatively high polarities. The three macroalgal culture medium filtrates exhibited apparent growth inhibitory effect on the microalgae under initial or semi-continuous addition, which suggested that the cells of P. donghaiense are sensitive to the allelochemicals. In contrast, P. donghaiense had no apparent effect on the growth of the macroalgae in coexistence experiment.

  11. Preference of the herbivorous marine teleost Siganus canaliculatus for different macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Cuihong; Zeng, Fangui; Wang, Shuqi; Li, Yuanyou

    2014-06-01

    The decomposition of a large amount of unexploited macroalgal resource along the coast of China often results in heavy environmental pollution. In order to pave a way of using macroalgae as the dietary ingredient of rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus, one of a few farmed herbivorous marine teleosts in China, its preference (feeding selectivity) for different macroalgae was determined in this study. Seven seaweed species abundantly inhabiting the coast of east Guangdong Province were exposed simultaneously to rabbitfish juveniles in laboratory (multiple-choice feeding) with their content and absolute intake assayed. It was found that the most preferred algae were Ulva prolifera, Gracilaria lemaneiformis and Chaetomorpha linum, less preferred algae were U. pertusa and Porphyra haitanensis, and least preferred ones were Sargassum fusiforme and Corallina sessilis. Such an order did not change when one to four relatively preferred seaweeds were removed. The preferred seaweeds were richer in protein and soluble sugar thus higher in energy than the least preferred. In addition, this fish was found to favor filamentous and flat algae rather than calcified ones. Accordingly, the richness of nutrients and morphological characteristics determined the preference of S. canaliculatus for tested macroalgae.

  12. A macroalgae-based biotechnology for water remediation: Simultaneous removal of Cd, Pb and Hg by living Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Bruno; Rocha, Luciana S; Lopes, Cláudia B; Figueira, Paula; Duarte, A C; Vale, Carlos; Pardal, M A; Pereira, E

    2017-04-15

    Metal uptake from contaminated waters by living Ulva lactuca was studied during 6 days, under different relevant contamination scenarios. In mono-metallic solutions, with concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 μg L -1 for Hg, 10-200 μg L -1 for Cd, and 50-1000 μg L -1 for Pb, macroalgae (500 mg L -1 , d.w.) were able to remove, in most cases 93-99% of metal, allowing to achieve water quality criteria regarding both surface and drinking waters. In multi-metallic solutions, comprising simultaneously the three metals, living macroalgae still performed well, with Hg removal (c.a. 99%) not being significantly affected by the presence of Cd and Pb, even when those metals were in higher concentrations. Removal efficiencies for Cd and Pb varied between 57 and 96%, and 34-97%, respectively, revealing an affinity of U. lactuca toward metals: Hg > Cd > Pb. Chemical quantification in macroalgae, after bioaccumulation assays demonstrated that all Cd and Hg removed from solution was really bound in macroalgae biomass, while only half of Pb showed to be sorbed on the biomass. Overall, U. lactuca accumulated up to 209 μg g -1 of Hg, up to 347 μg g -1 of Cd and up to 1641 μg g -1 of Pb, which correspond to bioconcentration factors ranging from 500 to 2200, in a dose-dependent accumulation. Pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Elovich models showed a good performance in describing the kinetics of bioaccumulation, in the whole period of time. In the range of experimental conditions used, no mortality was observed and U. lactuca relative growth rate was not significantly affected by the presence of metals. Results represent an important contribution for developing a macroalgae-based biotechnology, applied for contaminated saline water remediation, more "green" and cost-effective than conventional treatment methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Substantial role of macroalgae in marine carbon sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Vegetated coastal habitats have been identified as important carbon sinks. In contrast to angiosperm-based habitats such as seagrass meadows, salt marshes and mangroves, marine macroalgae have largely been excluded from discussions of marine carbon sinks. Macroalgae are the dominant primary producers in the coastal zone, but they typically do not grow in habitats that are considered to accumulate large stocks of organic carbon. However, the presence of macroalgal carbon in the deep sea and sediments, where it is effectively sequestered from the atmosphere, has been reported. A synthesis of these data suggests that macroalgae could represent an important source of the carbon sequestered in marine sediments and the deep ocean. We propose two main modes for the transport of macroalgae to the deep ocean and sediments: macroalgal material drifting through submarine canyons, and the sinking of negatively buoyant macroalgal detritus. A rough estimate suggests that macroalgae could sequester about 173 TgC yr â '1 (with a range of 61-268 TgC yr â '1) globally. About 90% of this sequestration occurs through export to the deep sea, and the rest through burial in coastal sediments. This estimate exceeds that for carbon sequestered in angiosperm-based coastal habitats.

  14. Substantial role of macroalgae in marine carbon sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Krause-Jensen, Dorte

    2016-09-12

    Vegetated coastal habitats have been identified as important carbon sinks. In contrast to angiosperm-based habitats such as seagrass meadows, salt marshes and mangroves, marine macroalgae have largely been excluded from discussions of marine carbon sinks. Macroalgae are the dominant primary producers in the coastal zone, but they typically do not grow in habitats that are considered to accumulate large stocks of organic carbon. However, the presence of macroalgal carbon in the deep sea and sediments, where it is effectively sequestered from the atmosphere, has been reported. A synthesis of these data suggests that macroalgae could represent an important source of the carbon sequestered in marine sediments and the deep ocean. We propose two main modes for the transport of macroalgae to the deep ocean and sediments: macroalgal material drifting through submarine canyons, and the sinking of negatively buoyant macroalgal detritus. A rough estimate suggests that macroalgae could sequester about 173 TgC yr â \\'1 (with a range of 61-268 TgC yr â \\'1) globally. About 90% of this sequestration occurs through export to the deep sea, and the rest through burial in coastal sediments. This estimate exceeds that for carbon sequestered in angiosperm-based coastal habitats.

  15. The green seaweed Ulva: A model system to study morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas eWichard; Benedicte eCharrier; Benedicte eCharrier; Frédéric eMineur; John Henry Bothwell; Olivier eDe Clerck; Juliet C. Coates

    2015-01-01

    Green macroalgae, mostly represented by the Ulvophyceae, the main multicellular branch of the Chlorophyceae, constitute important primary producers of marine and brackish coastal ecosystems. Ulva or sea lettuce species are some of the most abundant representatives, being ubiquitous in coastal benthic communities around the world. Nonetheless the genus also remains largely understudied. This review highlights Ulva as an exciting novel model organism for studies of algal growth, development and...

  16. The green seaweed Ulva: a model system to study morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wichard, Thomas; Charrier, Bénédicte; Mineur, Frédéric; Bothwell, John H; De Clerck, Olivier; Coates, Juliet C

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Green macroalgae, mostly represented by the Ulvophyceae, the main multicellular branch of the Chlorophyceae, constitute important primary producers of marine and brackish coastal ecosystems. Ulva or sea lettuce species are some of the most abundant representatives, being ubiquitous in coastal benthic communities around the world. Nonetheless the genus also remains largely understudied. This review highlights Ulva as an exciting novel model organism for studies of algal...

  17. Production and characterization of enzymatic cocktail produced by Aspergillus niger using green macroalgae as nitrogen source and its application in the pre-treatment for biogas production from Ulva rigida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karray, Raida; Hamza, Manel; Sayadi, Sami

    2016-09-01

    Marine macroalgae are gaining more and more importance as a renewable feedstock for durable bioenergy production, but polysaccharides of this macroalgae are structurally complex in its chemical composition. The use of enzymatic hydrolysis may provide new pathways in the conversion of complex polysaccharides to fermentable sugars. In this study, an enzymatic cocktail with high specificity was first isolated from Aspergillus niger using the green macroalgae Ulva rigida as nitrogen source. The cocktail is rich on β-glucosidase, pectinase and carboxy-methyl-cellulase (CMCase). The highest activity was obtained with β-glucosidase (109IUmL(-1)) and pectinase (76IUmL(-1)), while CMCase present the lowest activity 4.6IUmL(-1). The U. rigida pre-treatment with this enzymatic cocktail showed high rate of reduced sugar release, and could bring promising prospects for enzymatic pre-treatment of the biogas production from U. rigida biomass which reached 1175mLgCODint(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary study on the responses of three marine algae, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta), Gelidium amansii (Rhodophyta) and Sargassum enerve (Phaeophyta), to nitrogen source and its availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongyan; Amy, Pickering; Sun, Jun

    2004-04-01

    An experiment was designed to select economically valuable macroalga species with high nutrient uptake rates. Such species cultured on a large scale could be a potential solution to eutrophication. Three macroalgae species, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta), Gelidium amansii (Rhodophyta) and Sargassum enerve (Phaeophyta), were chosen for the experiment because of their economic values and availability. Control and four nitrogen concentrations were achieved by adding NH{4/+} and NO{3/-}. The results indicate that the fresh weights of all species increase faster than that of control after 5 d culture. The fresh weight of Ulva pertusa increases fastest among the 3 species. However, different species show different responses to nitrogen source and its availability. They also show the advantage of using NH{4/+} than using NO{3/-}. U. pertusa grows best and shows higher capability of removing nitrogen at 200µmolL-1, but it has lower economical value. G. amansii has higher economical value but lower capability of removing nitrogen at 200 µmolL-1. The capability of nitrogen assimilation of S. enerve is higher than that of G. amansii at 200µmolL -1, but the former’s increase of fresh weight is lower than those of other two species. Then present preliminary study demonstrates that it is possible to use macroalgae as biofilters and further development of this approach could provide biologically valuable information on the source, fate, and transport of N in marine ecosystems. Caution is needed should we extrapolate these findings to natural environments.

  19. The effects of s-triazines on selected marine macroalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewey, S.A.; Nummela, E.C.

    1999-01-01

    Although s-triazines have been used as herbicides for many years, their use and that of other herbicides and fungicides, in antifouling compounds is only fairly recent. The Hamble estuary, Hampshire UK has been identified as one such site. Investigations were conducted into the effects of s-triazines on selected marine macroalgae, local to that area

  20. Trace element seasonality in marine macroalgae of different functional-form groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malea, Paraskevi; Chatziapostolou, Anastasia; Kevrekidis, Theodoros

    2015-02-01

    Novel information on the seasonality of element accumulation in seaweeds is provided. Seasonal patterns of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, U, V and Zn concentrations in macroalgae belonging to different functional-form groups (Ulva intestinalis, Ulva rigida, Codium fragile, Gracilaria gracilis) from the Thessaloniki Gulf, Aegean Sea were determined and compared. Uni- and multivariate data analyses were applied. Element concentrations generally decreased during spring and/or summer, probably due to the growth effect, but a reverse trend, particularly in Ulva species, was also observed. Most elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr) in Ulva species displayed a comparatively low monthly variability, indicating that the extent of seasonal variation is closely related to thallus morphology and growth strategy. In particular, these data suggest that Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb and Sr contents in fast-growing, sheet-like macroalgae are less influenced by the season, compared to their contents in coarsely-branched and thick-leathery macroalgae; therefore, sheet-like macroalgae may be more appropriate to be used in biomonitoring of coastal waters. The data presented could be utilized in the development of biomonitoring programmes for the protection of coastal environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. USE OF ULVA LACTUCA TO DISTINGUISH PH DEPENDENT TOXICANTS IN MARINE WATERS AND SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulva lactuca (sea lettuce) is a cosmopolitan marine attached green seaweed capable of sequestering high environmental levels of ammonia. Ammonia can be acutely toxic to marine organisms and is often found in dredged sediments from highly industrial areas or from areas with high c...

  2. Methane production from marine macroalgae. A literature study with comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josefsen, K.; Aasen, I.M.

    1995-06-16

    This report is a survey of the published literature on fermentation of marine macroalgae to produce methane. The emphasis is placed on modern fermentation process development, including both bio-technological and economic parameters. Marine macroalgae are mostly good feedstock for methane fermentation. The main carbohydrates in seaweeds are alginate, laminaria and mannitol. Both the N and P content of kelp are usually high enough to avoid nutrient limitation. The biogass produced from marine macroalgae usually contains 50 - 65% methane. Experimentally methane yields in the order of 0.35 - 0.43 m{sup 3}/kg volatile solids (VS) have been obtained from Macrocystis pyrifera and 0.20 - 0.30 m{sup 3}/kg VS for Laminaria sp. at long retention times (50-60 days) in completely mixed reactors. The maximum reported production rate in a completely mixed reactor is 2.7 vol CH{sub 4}/reactor volume x day for M. pyrifera. In reactor configurations giving longer solids retention times (SRT) than liquid retention times (LRT), the highest reported productivity was 3.3 vol/vol x day, with loading rate 9.6 kg VS/m{sup 3} x day, HRT 10 days and SRT 23 days. There are discussions of special problems related to fermentation of marine algae, in particular the sulphur content, the toxicity of H{sub 2}S and the precipitation of heavy metals as sulphides. 72 refs., 5 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Biorefinery of the macroalgae Ulva lactuca: extraction of proteins and carbohydrates by mild disintegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, P R; Cerezo-Chinarro, O; Akkerman, R J; Olivieri, G; Wijffels, R H; Brandenburg, W A; Eppink, M H M

    2018-01-01

    The effect of osmotic shock, enzymatic incubation, pulsed electric field, and high shear homogenization on the release of water-soluble proteins and carbohydrates from the green alga Ulva lactuca was investigated in this screening study. For osmotic shock, both temperature and incubation time had a significant influence on the release with an optimum at 30 °C for 24 h of incubation. For enzymatic incubation, pectinase demonstrated being the most promising enzyme for both protein and carbohydrate release. Pulsed electric field treatment was most optimal at an electric field strength of 7.5 kV cm -1 with 0.05 ms pulses and a specific energy input relative to the released protein as low as 6.6 kWh kg prot -1 . Regarding literature, this study reported the highest protein (~ 39%) and carbohydrate (~ 51%) yields of the four technologies using high shear homogenization. Additionally, an energy reduction up to 86% was achieved by applying a novel two-phase (macrostructure size reduction and cell disintegration) technique.

  4. Prebiotics from marine macroalgae for human and animal health applications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and\\/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date.

  5. Temporal pattern in the bloom-forming macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum and Ulva pertusa in seagrass beds, Swan Lake lagoon, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wang, Feng; Liu, Bingjian; Liu, Xujia; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We conducted an annual survey of bloom-forming macroalgae in a lagoon. • C. linum biomass reached 1712 ± 780 g DW m −2 at the northern part of the lagoon. • Macroalgae δ 15 N values indicated a land-based source of N enrichment to the blooms. • High nutrient concentrations near the river mouth supported the blooms. • C. linum blooms induced the loss of seagrasses and benthic filter feeders. - Abstract: Seagrasses that are distributed over a large area of the Swan Lake, Weihai, China, support a productive ecosystem. In recent years, however, frequent macroalgal blooms have changed the ecosystem structure and threatened the seagrasses. To understand the bloom-forming macroalgae we conducted a yearly field survey of Swan Lake. Results indicated that the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum and Ulva pertusa both exhibited a much higher productivity and attained a greater maximum biomass (of 1712 ± 780 g DW m −2 and 1511 ± 555 g DW m −2 , respectively) than was the case for the seagrasses. The mean annual atomic ratios of C/N, C/P and N/P in C. linum were 14.31 ± 4.45, 402.82 ± 130.25, and 28.12 ± 2.08, respectively. The δ 15 N values (11.09 ± 0.91‰ for C. linum; 9.27 ± 2.83‰ for U. pertusa) indicated a land-based source of N enrichment to the macroalgal blooms. High concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in the lagoon, particularly near the river mouth, supported the blooms

  6. Prebiotics from Marine Macroalgae for Human and Animal Health Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Sullivan, Laurie; Murphy, Brian; McLoughlin, Peter; Duggan, Patrick; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Hughes, Helen; Gardiner, Gillian E.

    2010-01-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date. PMID:20714423

  7. Marine biomass research in Florida. [Gracilaria tikvahiae, Ulva Lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    The red alga Gracilaria tikvahiae may be grown outdoors year-round in central Florida with yields averaging 35.5 g dry weight/sq. m/day, greater than the most productive terrestrial plants. This occurs when the plants are grown in suspended culture, with vigorous aeration and an exchange of 25 or more culture volumes of enriched seawater per day. A culture system was designed in which Gracilaria, stocked at a density of 2 kg wet weight/sq.m, grows to double its biomass in one to two weeks; it is then harvested to its starting density, and anaerobically digested to methane. The biomass is soaked for 6 hours in the digester residue, storing enough nutrients for two week's growth in unenriched seawater. The methane is combusted for energy and the waste gas is fed to the culture to provide mixing of CO/sub 2/ eliminating the need for aeration and seawater exchange. The green alga Ulva lactuca, unlike Gracilaria, uses bicarbonate as a photosynthesis carbon source, and can be grown at high pH, with little or no free CO/sub 2/. It can therefore produce higher yields than Gracilaria in low water exchange conditions. It is also more efficiently converted to methane than is Gracilaria, but cannot tolerate Florida's summer temperatures so cannot be grown year-round. Attempts are being made to locate or produce through selective breeding, a high-temperature tolerant strain of Ulva. 21 references.

  8. Benthic macroalgae as biological indicators of heavy metal pollution in the marine environments: a biomonitoring approach for pollution assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sukalyan; Bhattacharya, Tanushree; Singh, Gurmeet; Maity, Jyoti Prakash

    2014-02-01

    Metal pollution in the marine coastline environment is an important topical issue in the context of ecological disturbance and climate change. Heavy metal contaminations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in seawater and surficial sediments, as well as macroalgal diversity, were determined in six different locations along the coast of the Gulf of Kutch in India. The marine coastline environment was found to be enriched with Cd and Zn in comparison to other metals. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) inter-elemental positive-correlations were observed between Fe-Mn, Fe-Cu, Fe-Cr, Fe-Zn, Cr-Cu, Cu-Mn, and Cd-Zn, as well as negative-correlations between Cd-Pb, Ni-Pb, and Zn-Pb. Though genus specific macroalgal responses to heavy metal accumulation were significant, species specific response was insignificant (p ≤ 0.05). The relative abundance of metals in macroalgae followed the order of Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cd>Cr>Ni>Pb. The high uptake of metals in green algae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis) and brown algae (Padina gymnospora and Dictyota bartayresiana) suggested that these algae may be used as potential biomonitors for heavy metal pollution. Three pollution indicators, Contamination Factor (CF), Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (Igeo) were calculated to determine the degree of metal pollution in the marine coastline and the contribution of anthropogenic influence. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The green seaweed Ulva: A model system to study morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eWichard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Green macroalgae, mostly represented by the Ulvophyceae, the main multicellular branch of the Chlorophyceae, constitute important primary producers of marine and brackish coastal ecosystems. Ulva or sea lettuce species are some of the most abundant representatives, being ubiquitous in coastal benthic communities around the world. Nonetheless the genus also remains largely understudied. This review highlights Ulva as an exciting novel model organism for studies of algal growth, development and morphogenesis as well as mutualistic interactions. The key reasons that Ulva is potentially such a good model system are: (i patterns of Ulva development can drive ecologically important events, such as the increasing number of green tides observed worldwide as a result of eutrophication of coastal waters, (ii Ulva growth is symbiotic, with proper development requiring close association with bacterial epiphytes, (iii Ulva is extremely developmentally plastic, which can shed light on the transition from simple to complex multicellularity and (iv Ulva will provide additional information about the evolution of the green lineage.

  10. Role of marine macroalgae in plant protection & improvement for sustainable agriculture technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seham M. Hamed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine macroalgae are plant-like organisms with simple internal structures that generally live in coastal areas. They mainly include different communities of red, brown and green macroalgae. Marine macroalgae commonly occupy intertidal and sublittoral-to-littoral zones on rocks and other hard substrata. They are considered to be an excellent natural biosource in different aspects of agricultural fields. They have great proficiency in improving soil physical and chemical properties. Marine macroalgae are also characterized by producing a large array of biologically active biocidal substances against plant-infecting pathogens. Unfortunately, most available literatures on marine macroalgae and their derivatives mainly focused on their pharmaceutical applications but their potential utilization in sustainable agriculture development is still often regarded as a secondary goal. However, a relatively considerable dataset on marine macroalgae showed that they could play a major role in plant protection and improvement. This review summarizes different aspects of potential macroalgal applications in agriculture. Commercial production and exploitation of specific compounds with interesting biotechnological importance from marine macroalgae including microbicides, nematicides, insecticides, biofertilizers, biostimulators and soil conditioners are highlighted and discussed in detail. Bioactive compounds like fatty acids (in particular polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, proteins (amino acids, bioflavonoids, sulfated polysaccharides, carotenoids, polyphenols and carbohydrates are considered to have bactericidal, antiviral and fungicidal effects against some plant-infecting pathogens. These biocontrol agents provide multiple benefits and act as useful pointers for improving cultivation practices in diverse habitats. Marine macroalgae can be generally considered as promising multifunctional bioinoculants and ecofriendly environmental tools in recent trends

  11. Detection of Genetic Variations in Marine Algae Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta Induced by Heavy Metal Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel Saleh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta green macroalgae has been successfully used as bioindicator for heavy metals pollution in ecosystems. Random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMP marker was employed to investigate genetic DNA pattern variability in green U. lactuca 5 days after exposure to Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn heavy metals stress. Genomic template stability (GTS% value was employed as a qualitative DNA changes measurement based on RAMP technique. In this respect, estimated GTS% value was recorded to be 65.215, 64.630, 59.835 and 59.250% for Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn treatment, respectively. Moreover, genetic similarity (GS induced by the above heavy metals was also evaluated to measure genetic distance between algae treated plants and their respective control. In this respect, estimated GS values generated by RAMP marker ranged between 0.576 (between control and Zn treatment - 0.969 (for both case; between Pb and Cu and between Cd and Zn treatment with an average of 0.842. Based upon data presented herein based on variant bands number (VB, GTS% and GS values; the present study could be suggested that Pb and Cu followed similar tendency at genomic DNA changes. Similar finding was also observed with Cd and Zn ions. Thereby, RAMP marker successfully highlighted DNA change patterns induced by heavy metals stress.

  12. Bacteria-induced morphogenesis of Ulva intestinalis and Ulva mutabilis (Chlorophyta): a contribution to the lottery theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderiardakani, Fatemeh; Coates, Juliet C; Wichard, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    The green marine macroalgae of the class Ulvophyceae (Ulvophytes) are common algae distributed worldwide particularly in intertidal areas, which play a key role in aquatic ecosystems. They are potentially valuable resources for food, animal feed and fuel but can also cause massive nuisance blooms. Members of Ulvaceae, like many other seaweeds, harbour a rich diversity of epiphytic bacteria with functions related to host growth and morphological development. In the absence of appropriate bacterially derived signals, germ cells of the genus Ulva develop into 'atypical' colonies consisting of undifferentiated cells with abnormal cell walls. This paper examines the specificity of bacteria-induced morphogenesis in Ulva, by cross-testing bacteria isolated from several Ulva species on two Ulva species, the emerging model system Ulva mutabilis and the prominent biofouler species Ulva intestinalis. We show that pairs of bacterial strains isolated from species other than U. mutabilis and U. intestinalis can fully rescue axenic plantlets generated either from U. mutabilis or U. intestinalis gametes. This laboratory-based study demonstrates that different compositions of microbial communities with similar functional characteristics can enable complete algal morphogenesis and thus supports the 'competitive lottery' theory for how symbiotic bacteria drive algal development. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Photosystem I shows a higher tolerance to sorbitol-induced osmotic stress than photosystem II in the intertidal macro-algae Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Zheng, Zhenbing; Gu, Wenhui; Xie, Xiujun; Huan, Li; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce

    2014-10-01

    The photosynthetic performance of the desiccation-tolerant, intertidal macro-algae Ulva prolifera was significantly affected by sorbitol-induced osmotic stress. Our results showed that photosynthetic activity decreased significantly with increases in sorbitol concentration. Although the partial activity of both photosystem I (PS I) and photosystem II (PS II) was able to recover after 30 min of rehydration, the activity of PS II decreased more rapidly than PS I. At 4 M sorbitol concentration, the activity of PS II was almost 0 while that of PS I was still at about one third of normal levels. Following prolonged treatment with 1 and 2 M sorbitol, the activity of PS I and PS II decreased slowly, suggesting that the effects of moderate concentrations of sorbitol on PS I and PS II were gradual. Interestingly, an increase in non-photochemical quenching occurred under these conditions in response to moderate osmotic stress, whereas it declined significantly under severe osmotic stress. These results suggest that photoprotection in U. prolifera could also be induced by moderate osmotic stress. In addition, the oxidation of PS I was significantly affected by osmotic stress. P700(+) in the thalli treated with high concentrations of sorbitol could still be reduced, as PS II was inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), but it could not be fully oxidized. This observation may be caused by the higher quantum yield of non-photochemical energy dissipation in PS I due to acceptor-side limitation (Y(NA)) during rehydration in seawater containing DCMU. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. Tropical Atlantic marine macroalgae with bioactivity against virulent and antibiotic resistant Vibrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Cristina Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of ethanol, methanol, hexane and acetone-based extracts of the macroalgae Padina gymnospora (PG, Hypnea musciformes (HM, Ulva fasciata (UF and Caulerpa prolifera (CP was investigated. The disk diffusion method was used to evaluate the algae antimicrobial effect against standard strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica and five virulent antibiotic-resistant strains of V. brasiliensis, V. xuii and V. navarrensis (isolated from the hemolymph of Litopenaeus vannamei. Ethanol extracts of PG and HM inhibited all Vibrio strains. E. coli and P. aeruginosa were only susceptible to ethanol extracts of PG. Among the methanol extracts, only UF was bioactive, inhibiting V. navarrensis. The observed inhibitory effect of ethanol extracts of PG, HM and UF against virulent antibiotic-resistant bacteria suggests these macroalgal species constitute a potential source of bioactive compounds.

  15. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko; Ito, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria

  16. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Miyamoto, Tomofumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Ito, Makoto, E-mail: makotoi@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria.

  17. Protective role of marine macroalgae extracts against STZ induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine macroalgae

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the anti-diabetic activity of marine macroalgae extracts (n = 31, purification and characterization of sulphated galactopyran (SGP from Gracilaria opuntia (FM4 in diabetic rats. Methods: The animals were separated into groups and STZ (55 mg/kg body weight was used to induce diabetics. Glucose, HbA1c, insulin, C-peptide levels and in vivo antioxidant levels were estimated and histopathological studies were done in STZ-induced diabetic and marine macroalgae treated rats. Results: Based on glucose and HbA1c levels and in vivo antioxidant levels, among the 31 marine macroalgae extracts, FM4 has showed high anti-diabetic activity. Hence, FM4 was purified and characterized by 1H-NMR spectra and FT-IR as sulphated galactopyran. During the survival analysis, SGP at dose of 100 mg/kg showed significant (P < 0.05 survival rate and elevations in C-peptide and insulin levels. The histopathological modulations of SGP were observed in diabetic rat tissues such as liver, kidney and brain. Hence obtained results reveal that SGP treated diabetic rats has significant changes in C-peptide and insulin levels which regulates the blood glucose levels and recovered the histopathological changes. Conclusions: Marine macroalgae have significant anti-diabetic activity. Hence, they could be used as nutraceutical supplement or natural green remedy against diabetes mellitus.

  18. Screening and isolation of the algicidal compounds from marine green alga Ulva intestinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue; Jin, Haoliang; Zhang, Lin; Hu, Wei; Li, Yahe; Xu, Nianjun

    2016-07-01

    Twenty species of seaweed were collected from the coast of Zhejiang, China, extracted with ethanol, and screened for algicidal activity against red tide microalgae Heterosigma akashiwo and Prorocentrum micans. Inhibitory effects of fresh and dried tißsues of green alga Ulva intestinalis were assessed and the main algicidal compounds were isolated, purified, and identified. Five seaweed species, U. intestinalis, U. fasciata, Grateloupia romosissima, Chondria crassicaulis, and Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, were investigated for their algicidal activities. Fresh tissues of 8.0 and 16.0 mg/mL of U. intestinalis dissolved in media significantly inhibited growth of H. akashiwo and P. micans, respectively. Dried tissue and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts of U. intestinalis at greater than 1.2 and 0.04 mg/mL, respectively, were fatal to H. akashiwo, while its water and EtOAc extracts in excess of 0.96 and 0.32 mg/mL, respectively, were lethal to P. micans. Three algicidal compounds in the EtOAc extracts were identified as 15-ethoxy-(6z,9z,12z)-hexadecatrienoic acid (I), (6E,9E,12E)-(2-acetoxy- β-D-glucose)-octadecatrienoic acid ester (II) and hexadecanoic acid (III). Of these, compound II displayed the most potent algicidal activity with IC50 values of 4.9 and 14.1 µg/mL for H. akashiwo and P. micans, respectively. Compound I showed moderate algicidal activity with IC50 values of 13.4 and 24.7 µg/mL for H. akashiwo and P. micans, respectively. These findings suggested that certain macroalgae or products therefrom could be used as effective biological control agents against red tide algae.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of selected marine macroalgae against some pathogenic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab Omer Abdalla

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of six marine macroalgae belonging to green algae (Chlorophyceae, brown algae (Phaeophyceae and the red algae (Rhodophyceae collected from the intertidal area of the Sudanese Red Sea coast near Port Sudan. Methods: Methanol was used for extracting the active principles of the algae and the disc diffusion method was performed to examine the activity and the minimum inhibitory concentration of the samples against four pathogenic bacteria and two fungi. Results: All tested algal extracts exhibited considerable bioactivity and inhibited the growth of all pathogenic microorganisms under investigation. The green alga Caulerpa racemosa produced the maximum inhibition zone (21 mm against Candida albicans while the red alga Laurencia papillosa showed low antimicrobial activity with the minimum inhibition zone of 10 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The tested algal extracts did not show any special antimicrobial influence on the selected microorganisms when they were considered as Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi but the most efficient methanolic extracts in inhibiting microbial growth were those of green macroalgae followed by the brown and the red macroalgae respectively. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that the tested marine macroalgae from Sudanese Red Sea coast may represent a potential and alternative source for secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity.

  20. Diversity of pigmented Gram-positive bacteria associated with marine macroalgae from Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Sergio; Alvarado, Pamela; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jian; Garrido, Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the diversity and roles of Gram-positive and pigmented bacteria in Antarctic environments, especially those associated with marine macroorganisms. This work is the first study about the diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable pigmented Gram-positive bacteria associated with marine Antarctic macroalgae. A total of 31 pigmented Gram-positive strains were isolated from the surface of six species of macroalgae collected in the King George Island, South Shetland Islands. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities ≥99%, 18 phylotypes were defined, which were clustered into 11 genera of Actinobacteria (Agrococcus, Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Citricoccus, Kocuria, Labedella, Microbacterium, Micrococcus, Rhodococcus, Salinibacterium and Sanguibacter) and one genus of the Firmicutes (Staphylococcus). It was found that five isolates displayed antimicrobial activity against a set of macroalgae-associated bacteria. The active isolates were phylogenetically related to Agrococcus baldri, Brachybacterium rhamnosum, Citricoccus zhacaiensis and Kocuria palustris. The results indicate that a diverse community of pigmented Gram-positive bacteria is associated with Antartic macroalgae and suggest its potential as a promising source of antimicrobial and pigmented natural compounds. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Lead (Pb heavy metal impacts in the green Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyceae marine algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Saleh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity of different lead (Pb (0, 2, 4 and 8 mg/L concentrations in the green Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta marine algae at physiological level has been investigated 48 h after Pb treatment under laboratory conditions. Thalus algae damages followed Pb treatment as revealed by microscopy test showed that the 4 and 8 mg/L Pb caused morphological changes in cells viability; whereas, no effect observed at the lowest Pb applied concentration (2 mg/L. Data revealed that Pb stress caused reduction in most investigated physiological parameters i.e. Pigments content, osmotic potential and membrane stability index values. This decline in osmotic potential was significantly (p ≤ 0.001 different. Whereas, estimated electric conductivity (EC values increased significantly (p ≤ 0.001 as applied Pb concentration increased. The current study allowed somewhat to highlight and better understanding Pb impacts in U. lactuca algae. Thereby, the studied algae could be used as a useful bioindicator in Pb polluted ecosystems.

  2. Influences of marine sediment on the accumulation of radionuclides by green alga (Ulva pertusa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Ueda, Taiji

    1975-01-01

    Distribution of radionuclides ( 60 Co, 137 Cs, 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 106 Ru- 106 Rh) among green alga (Ulva pertusa), sea water and marine sediment were examined by radioisotope tracer experiment in order to estimate the influence of sediment on the accumulation of radionuclides by the alga. By the application of the compartment model to the experimental results, exponential formulas of distributions were obtained. Through comparison of the transfer coefficients of radionuclides calculated from the exponential formulas, the influence of the sediment on the accumulation of the radionuclides by the green alga was determined to be the largest for 60 Co, followed by 95 Zr- 95 Nb, 106 Ru- 106 Rh and 137 Cs in this order. The activity ratios of 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 106 Ru- 106 Rh calculated from the transfer coefficients are larger for the alga than for the sediment, inversely those of 60 Co and 137 Cs show higher values for the sediment than for the alga. Especially, in the case of 60 Co, the activity ratio for the sediment is approximately 20 times greater than that for the alga. Biological half lives in green alga estimated from the transfer coefficients were 10 days for 60 Co, 7 days for 137 Cs, 26 days for 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 24 days for 106 Ru- 106 Rh. (auth.)

  3. Removal of cadmium from aqueous solution using marine green algae, Ulva lactuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Ghoneim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of marine algae for removal of metals from the aqueous solution. The green alga, Ulva lactuca, collected from the intertidal zone of the Suez Bay, northern part of the Red Sea was used to reduce cadmium levels from the aqueous solutions. The biosorption mechanisms of Cd2+ ions onto the algal tissues were examined using various analytical techniques: Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results indicated that at the optimum pH value of 5.5; about 0.1 g of U. lactuca was enough to remove 99.2% of 10 mg L−1 Cd2+ at 30 °C in the aqueous solutions. The equilibrium data were well fitted with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The monolayer adsorption capacity was 29.1 mg g−1. The calculated RL and ‘n’ values have proved the favorability of cadmium adsorption onto U. lactuca. The desorption test revealed that HCl was the best for the elution of metals from the tested alga. In conclusion, the seaweed U. lactuca was the favorable alternative of cadmium removal from water.

  4. Distributions of radionuclides among green alga (Ulva pertusa), sea water and marine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Ueda, Taishi

    1976-01-01

    Distributions of radionuclides ( 60 Co, 137 Cs, 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 106 Ru- 106 Rh) among green alga (Ulva pertusa), sea water and marine sediment were examined by radioisotope tracer experiment in order to estimate the influence of sediment on the accumulation of radionuclides by the alga. By the application of the compartment model to the experimental results, exponential formulas of distributions were obtained. Through comparison of the transfer coefficients of radionuclides calculated from the exponential formulas, the influence of the sediment on the accumulation of the radionuclides by the green alga was determined to be the largest for 60 Co, followed by 95 Zr,- 95 Nb, 106 Ru- 106 Rh and 137 Cs in this order. The activity ratios of 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 106 Ru- 106 Rh calculated from the transfer coefficients are larger for the alga than for the sediment, inversely those of 60 Co and 137 Cs show higher values for the sediment than for the alga. Especially, in the case of 60 Co, the activity ratio for the sediment is approximately 20 times greater than that for the alga. Biological half lives in green alga estimated from the transfer coefficients were 10 days for 60 Co, 7 days for 137 Cs, 26 days for 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 24 days for 95 Zr- 95 Nb and 24 days for 106 Ru- 106 Rh. (auth.)

  5. Composition, nutritional aspects and effect on serum parameters of marine algae Ulva rigida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Cristina; Millán, Rosendo; Míguez, Isabel

    2010-02-01

    Algae are commonly consumed in Asia and have also gained popularity in Europe. However, data on the bioavailability of their components are limited. The present study was designed to determine the composition of Ulva rigida and the effects of inclusion of 10% of the algae in a standard diet for 4 weeks on nutritive value and serum parameters in order to consider the usefulness of Ulva as a dietary supplement. Ulva rigida is rich in protein, carbohydrates, fibre, vitamins and minerals and has a low lipid content. Analysis of the amino acid composition revealed good-quality protein. The algae were well accepted by experimental animals and did not significantly change nutritional parameters but reduced LDL cholesterol. Ulva rigida is an excellent source of nutrients and could improve a balanced diet. Further studies are required to research the potential of the seaweed as a natural source of bioactive compounds.

  6. Review on toxicity testing with marine macroalgae and the need for method standardization--exemplified with copper and phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Britta T; Kautsky, Lena

    2003-02-01

    Toxic effects on macroalgae have been compiled. Eighty-two articles have been found in literature during 1959-2000. A total of 120 substances were investigated using 65 different macroalgae species. About one-third of the tested compounds were organic substances (33%), another third metal-organic substances (35%), and the last third were oils (14%), metals (8%), detergents (7.5%) and other inorganic chemicals (2.5%). Half of the substances were only tested once on a single species. Likewise, toxicity data has only been reported for one chemical tested on a single occasion for about half of the 65 species. Thus little is known about the toxic effects on marine macroalgae. The objectives of the previous studies undertaken varied and therefore the toxicity data was presented in numerous ways, e.g. using different exposure times, temperature, light intensity, light regime, salinity, and nutrients, which makes a direct comparison of the data difficult. This review also shows that many stages in the lifecycle of macroalgae are often more sensitive to toxic substances than other aquatic organisms. Consequently, tests using macroalgae may discover toxicity earlier, which would in turn also protect the fauna. If toxic compounds have a negative affect on the distribution and growth of structurally and functionally dominating macroalgae, there may indirectly be a large and harmful influence on the whole marine coastal ecosystem. For this reason tests on macroalgae should be included in control programs along the coasts.

  7. Synthesis of Biodiesel from the Oily Content of Marine Green Alga Ulva fasciata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A. M.; Fatima, N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is focused on the chemical transformation of oils derived from the marine green alga Ulva fasciata Delile to biodiesel. The transesterification of algal oil was performed with a variety of alcohols using Na metal and NaOH as catalysts. Transesterification of algal oil by mechanical stirring yielded significant biodiesel within an hour at 60 degree C with NaOH and at room temperature with Na metal. In addition, microwave irradiated transesterification produced significant amount of biodiesel with NaOH and Na metal within 1-5 minutes. However, reaction of sodium metal in microwave oven was highly exothermic and uncontrollable that could also damage the radiation source. The reactivity order of alcohols was found to be methanol > ethanol > benzyl alcohol > 1-propanol > 1-butanol > 1-pentanol > 1-hexanol > 2-propanol. Isopropyl alcohol was found to be least reactive due to steric hindrance. Benzyl alcohol was found to be more reactive than 1-propyl alcohol due to the electron withdrawing effect of benzene ring. The highest % conversion of FAME and FAEE were found to be 97% and 98% respectively using Na metal through mechanical stirring. Biodiesel production was confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Furthermore, the fuel properties including density, kinematics viscosity, high heating value, acid value, free fatty acid (%), cloud point and pour point of U. fasciata oil and all the esters were determined and compared with the standard limits of biodiesel. Fatty acid methyl, ethyl, 1-propyl, 2-propyl, 1-butyl, 1-pentyl and 1-hexyl esters showed the fuel properties within the biodiesel standard limits therefore all of them were considered as the substitute of biodiesel. On the other hand, the fuel properties of benzyl ester were found to be above the limits of biodiesel specifications and thus it could not be considered as biodiesel. This research article will be helpful to overcome the current challenges of energy crisis, global warming and

  8. Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Kjelleberg, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    , representing the major taxonomic groups, different seasons, and isolation strategies, were tested for antiadhesive effect against the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis. The antiadhesive effects were assessed by quantifying...... the number of strain S91 or Ulva spores attaching to a preformed biofilm of each of the 22 strains. The strongest antifouling activity was found in Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilms of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and Pseudoalteromonas ulvae prevented Pseudoalteromonas S91 from...

  9. Production of liquid biofuels (biodiesel and bioethanol) from brown marine macroalgae Padina tetrastromatica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashokkumar, Veeramuthu; Salim, Mohd Razman; Salam, Zainal; Sivakumar, Pandian; Chong, Cheng Tung; Elumalai, Sanniyasi; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Ani, Farid Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated concept of biofuels production from brown macroalgae P. tetrastromatica. • The activation energy was determined as Ea = 34.314 kJ mol"−"1. • Brown marine alga produced 7.8% of biodiesel by acid and alkali transesterification. • The fuel properties of Padina biodiesel meet the ASTM specifications. • Spent biomass of Padina yields 16.1% of bioethanol after fermentation process. - Abstract: In this study, an integrated biomass conversion concept of producing liquid biofuels from brown marine macroalga Padina tetrastromatica was investigated. The algal biomass was collected from the Mandapam coastal region and processed under laboratory. Various parameters were studied to extract crude lipids from the biomass. A kinetic study was conducted for extracting the lipids from the biomass, which follows the first order kinetics and the lipid yield was 8.15 wt.%. The activation energy; Ea = 34.314 kJ mol"−"1 and their thermodynamic parameters were determined. Since the crude algal lipids contain high amount of free fatty acids, a sequential transesterification technique was examined and 7.8% of biodiesel (78 mg/g algal biomass) yield was obtained. The biodiesel was analyzed by "1H and "1"3C–NMR spectroscopy and the conversion yield was estimated. Further, the biodiesel fuel properties were investigated and found that all the features fit the required ASTM D6751 specification limits. The residual biomass after lipid extraction was further explored for bioethanol production through the anaerobic fermentation process. The ethanol yield obtained after saccharification and fermentation were estimated and 161 mg/g residue biomass was reported. The theoretical yield of conversion of hydrolysate to bioethanol was estimated and found to be 83.4%. Therefore, this study demonstrates that macroalga P. tetrastromatica biomass has great potential to produce liquid biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol.

  10. Retrospective analysis of diversity and species composition of marine macroalgae of Hainan Island (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlyanov, Eduard A.; Titlyanova, Tamara V.; Xia, Bangmei; Bartsch, Inka

    2016-09-01

    Retrospective analysis of diversity and species composition of marine macroalgae of Hainan Island in the period 1933-1992 is presented in this paper. There are two extensive sample collection periods of benthic macroalgae: the early collection (EC) covers a period between the early 1930s and the 1980s before considerable urbanization and reef degradation took place and a late collection (LC) was performed in 1990/1992 during a phase of rapid urbanization. Analysis of data also including an earlier published inventory of green algae covering the same collection sites (Titlyanov et al. 2011a) revealed that the marine flora of the island comprises 426 taxa in total, with 59% red algae, 18% brown algae and 23% green algae. In total 59 species of red algae, 11 species of brown algae and 37 species of green algae sampled during the LC are new records for Hainan Island. Considerable floristic changes between EC and LC became evident. In the LC there were significantly more filamentous, tubular or fine blade-like, and often epiphytic, green and red algae with a high surface-to-volume ratio. Additionally a reduction of green, brown and red algal species with larger fleshy or foliose thalli and a low surface-to-volume ratio was observed. It is assumed that the changes reflect the degradation of the coral reef ecosystem around Hainan, which was damaged by human activities especially in the 1950s-1970s.

  11. Cesium-137 concentrations in marine macroalgae from different biotopes in the Aegean Sea (Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawidis, Thomas; Heinrich, Gerorg; Brown, Murray-T

    2003-03-01

    The commonest species of red, brown, and green macroalgae were sampled from a range of biotopes in the Aegean Sea during 1998 for their 137Cs content. Significant differences in 137Cs concentrations were found among different species growing under similar environmental conditions, suggesting that uptake does not follow physical levels but is influenced by allometric parameters and physiological mechanisms. 137Cs content in collected seaweeds were in the descending order: Ulva lactuca>Enteromorpha linza>Gracilaria verrucosa>Ceramium rubrum>Cystoseira barbata. A comparison of the stations studied indicated that the degree of accumulation is also dependent on the geomorphology of the specific area. The west side of Thermaikos Gulf, where the rivers Axios, Aliakmon, and Pinios flow, was highly contaminated as was the Strymonicos Gulf where the river Strymon flows. High cesium concentrations were also observed in algae from Lemnos Island near the mouth of the Dardanelles Channel, most likely due to the horizontal circulation of water masses from the Marmaras Sea to the Aegean Sea resulting in the discharge of 137Cs during the purification process in the Black Sea through the Dardanelles Straits. It is concluded that the general dispersion of 137Cs results from the water circulation regime within the Aegean Sea. Higher levels are present in the northern part of the basin due to current circulation originating from the Black Sea and from outflow of rivers. Levels decrease to the south and east, but increase again to the west of Crete where the Black Sea water mass can be periodically traced.

  12. Climate change and ocean acidification effects on seagrasses and marine macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Marguerite; Bowes, George; Ross, Cliff; Zhang, Xing-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Although seagrasses and marine macroalgae (macro-autotrophs) play critical ecological roles in reef, lagoon, coastal and open-water ecosystems, their response to ocean acidification (OA) and climate change is not well understood. In this review, we examine marine macro-autotroph biochemistry and physiology relevant to their response to elevated dissolved inorganic carbon [DIC], carbon dioxide [CO2 ], and lower carbonate [CO3 (2-) ] and pH. We also explore the effects of increasing temperature under climate change and the interactions of elevated temperature and [CO2 ]. Finally, recommendations are made for future research based on this synthesis. A literature review of >100 species revealed that marine macro-autotroph photosynthesis is overwhelmingly C3 (≥ 85%) with most species capable of utilizing HCO3 (-) ; however, most are not saturated at current ocean [DIC]. These results, and the presence of CO2 -only users, lead us to conclude that photosynthetic and growth rates of marine macro-autotrophs are likely to increase under elevated [CO2 ] similar to terrestrial C3 species. In the tropics, many species live close to their thermal limits and will have to up-regulate stress-response systems to tolerate sublethal temperature exposures with climate change, whereas elevated [CO2 ] effects on thermal acclimation are unknown. Fundamental linkages between elevated [CO2 ] and temperature on photorespiration, enzyme systems, carbohydrate production, and calcification dictate the need to consider these two parameters simultaneously. Relevant to calcifiers, elevated [CO2 ] lowers net calcification and this effect is amplified by high temperature. Although the mechanisms are not clear, OA likely disrupts diffusion and transport systems of H(+) and DIC. These fluxes control micro-environments that promote calcification over dissolution and may be more important than CaCO3 mineralogy in predicting macroalgal responses to OA. Calcareous macroalgae are highly vulnerable to OA

  13. Mechanisms of metal tolerance in marine macroalgae, with emphasis on copper tolerance in Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moenne, Alejandra; González, Alberto; Sáez, Claudio A

    2016-07-01

    Green and red macroalgae are closely related organisms, and with terrestrial plants, and constitute the base of marine food webs in coastal ecosystems. Green and red seaweeds, as all living organisms, require essential metals, such as copper, iron, zinc, which can act as co-factors for several proteins and enzymes; however, these metals in excess can induce stress and impair cell viability. Most important negative effects of metal excess are related to the induction of an oxidative stress condition, characterized by the over-accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). In this respect, copper, abundant in wastewaters disposed to coastal environments from domestic and industrial activities, has been one of the most studied metals. Different investigations have provided evidence that green and red macroalgae display several defenses against copper excess to prevent, or at least reduce, stress and damage, among which are cellular exclusion mechanisms, synthesis of metal-chelating compounds, and the activation of the antioxidant system. Most important defense mechanisms identified in green and red seaweed involve: metal-binding to cell wall and epibionts; syntheses of metallothioneins and phytochelatins that accumulate in the cytoplasm; and the increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase, and greater production of antioxidant metabolites as glutathione and ascorbate in organelles and the cytoplasm. In this review, we go through historical records, latest advances, and pending tasks aiming to expand our current knowledge on defense mechanisms to copper excess in green and red macroalgae, with emphasis on biochemical and molecular aspects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasound assisted methods for enhanced extraction of phycobiliproteins from marine macro-algae, Gelidium pusillum (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rochak; Tavanandi, Hrishikesh A; Mantri, Vaibhav A; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2017-09-01

    Extraction of phycobiliproteins (R-phycoerythrin, R-PE and R-phycocyanin, R-PC) from macro-algae is difficult due to the presence of large polysaccharides (agar, cellulose etc.) present in the cell wall which offer major hindrance for cell disruption. The present study is aimed at developing most suitable methodology for the primary extraction of R-PE and R-PC from marine macro-algae, Gelidium pusillum(Stackhouse) Le Jolis. Such extraction of phycobiliproteins by using ultrasonication and other conventional methods such as maceration, maceration in presence of liquid nitrogen, homogenization, and freezing and thawing (alone and in combinations) is reported for the first time. Standardization of ultrasonication for different parameters such as ultrasonication amplitude (60, 90 and 120µm) and ultrasonication time (1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10mins) at different temperatures (30, 35 and 40°C) was carried out. Kinetic parameters were estimated for extraction of phycobiliproteins by ultrasonication based on second order mass transfer kinetics. Based on calorimetric measurements, power, ultrasound intensity and acoustic power density were estimated to be 41.97W, 14.81W/cm 2 and 0.419W/cm 3 , respectively. Synergistic effect of ultrasonication was observed when employed in combination with other conventional primary extraction methods. Homogenization in combination with ultrasonication resulted in an enhancement in efficiency by 9.3% over homogenization alone. Similarly, maceration in combination with ultrasonication resulted in an enhancement in efficiency by 31% over maceration alone. Among all the methods employed, maceration in combination with ultrasonication resulted in the highest extraction efficiency of 77 and 93% for R-PE and R-PC, respectively followed by homogenization in combination with ultrasonication (69.6% for R-PE and 74.1% for R-PC). HPLC analysis was carried out in order to ensure that R-PE was present in the extract and remained intact even after processing

  15. Radionuclides in marine macroalgae from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutians: establishing a baseline for future biomonitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Kosson, David S.; Powers, Charles W.; Jewett, Stephen; Friedlander, Barry; Chenelot, Heloise; Volz, Conrad D.; Jeitner, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Levels of radionuclides in seven species of marine brown algae and Ulva were determined to establish a baseline for the Northern Pacific Ocean/Bering Sea (Aleutian Islands). There were differences in levels among algal species and locations (Amchitka Island vs Kiska Island). No values were above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) level for 137 Cs, 129 I, 6 Co, 152 Eu, 9 Sr, and 99 Tc. There were interspecific differences in some radionuclides: Ulva lactuca (=Ulva fenestrata) had the highest levels of 241 Am, Alaria fistulosa had the highest levels of 239,24 Pu, and Fucus distichus (=Fucus gardneri) had the highest levels of 234 U, 235 U, and 238 U. However, levels of all radionuclides were generally low and near the MDA for all isotopes. Although Amchitka Island had higher levels of 239,24 Pu than Kiska, the differences were very small and not significant biologically. The data indicate that algae can be useful bioindicators of actinides because they accumulate them at very low environmental levels, allowing them to provide early warning of any potential seepage of radionuclides into the marine environment. Further, the data indicate that some species (the intertidal Fucus) are better accumulators than others, and these should be used as bioindicators in future monitoring schemes

  16. Biogas from Marine Macroalgae: a New Environmental Technology — Life Cycle Inventory for a Further LCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Francesco; Blumberga, Dagnija; Gigli, Emanuele

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to analyze the innovative process of production of biogas (via fermentation processes) using marine macroalgae as feedstock in a pilot project plant in Augusta (Sicily, Italy). Algae, during their growth, have the capacity to assimilate nutrients and thus subsequent harvesting of the algal biomass recovers the nutrients from biowaste sources giving the possibility to transform negative environmental externalities in positive mainly in terms of eutrophication and climate change impact categories. The paper presents a novel environmental technology for the production of biogas and 2nd generation biofuel (liquid biomethane) after an upgrading process through the use of a cryogenic technology. The paper would also like to make the first attempt at understanding the possibility to implement this innovative technology in the Latvian context. The first calculations and assumptions for the Life Cycle Inventory for a further Life Cycle Assessment are presented.

  17. Seasonal changes in nutrient limitation and nitrate sources in the green macroalga Ulva lactuca at sites with and without green tides in a northeastern Pacific embayment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alstyne, Kathryn L

    2016-02-15

    In Penn Cove, ulvoid green algal mats occur annually. To examine seasonal variation in their causes, nitrogen and carbon were measured in Ulva lactuca in May, July, and September and stable nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios were quantified in U. lactuca, Penn Cove seawater, upwelled water from Saratoga Passage, water near the Skagit River outflow, and effluents from wastewater treatment facilities. Ulvoid growth was nitrogen limited and the sources of nitrogen used by the algae changed during the growing season. Algal nitrogen concentrations were 0.85-4.55% and were highest in September and at sites where algae were abundant. Upwelled waters were the primary nitrogen source for the algae, but anthropogenic sources also contributed to algal growth towards the end of the growing season. This study suggests that small nitrogen inputs can result in crossing a "tipping point", causing the release of nutrient limitation and localized increases in algal growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antioxidative sulphated polygalactans from marine macroalgae as angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Fasina; Chakraborty, Kajal

    2017-08-17

    Antioxidant and antihypertensive potential of the sulphated polygalactans isolated from the marine macroalgae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria opuntia were assessed by utilising different in vitro systems. The galactans isolated from K. alvarezii possessed significantly greater antioxidative properties as determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH IC 90 0.97 mg/mL) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS .+ IC 90 0.72 mg/mL) scavenging activities than those isolated from G. opuntia (DPPH IC 90 1.2 mg/mL and ABTS 0.86 mg/mL). The sulphated polygalactan →4)-4-O-sulphonato-(2-O-methyl)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-(2-O-methyl)-α-D-galactopyranan from K. alvarezii showed greater angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity (IC 50 0.02 μg/mL) than →3)-4-O-sulphonato-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-(2-O-sulphonato)-α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-4-O-sulphonato-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-xylosyl-(1→3)-4-O-sulphonato-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-3,6-anhydro-(2-O-sulphonato)-α-D-galactopyranan motif extracted from G. opuntia (IC 50 0.70 μg/mL). Structure activity correlation studies displayed that the ACE inhibitory properties of titled polygalactans were directly proportional to their electronic properties and inversely with the steric and hydrophobic characteristics. Putative ACE inhibitory mechanism of action of sulphated galactans from marine macroalgae corroborated the structure bioactivity correlation analysis.

  19. Aminas biogênicas em macroalgas marinhas do Estado do Ceará, Brasil Biogenic amines in marine macroalgae of the state of Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barroso de Alencar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Muitas aminas são comumente encontradas em alimentos de origem vegetal e animal, porém apenas um pequeno número é de interesse por produzirem reações adversas se ingeridas e absorvidas no organismo humano. Dentre elas, a histamina e a tiramina podem desencadear sintomas de intoxicação. As algas marinhas são amplamente consumidas pelos povos orientais, e, no Ocidente, seu consumo encontra-se em expansão. O Brasil não tem esta tradição, mas a diversidade de espécies encontradas no litoral brasileiro as torna potencialmente úteis como alimento humano. Para promovê-las com essa finalidade, são necessários estudos químicos e bioquímicos. No presente trabalho, treze espécies de macroalgas marinhas coletadas na praia do Pacheco, no município de Caucaia - CE, foram preliminarmente analisadas quanto à presença de histamina e tiramina por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. A identificação destas aminas biogênicas foi feita com base nos tempos de retenção dos padrões comerciais de dicloridrato de histamina e cloridrato de tiramina, comparados com aqueles correspondentes aos mesmos compostos nos extratos algais. Nenhuma das treze espécies estudadas neste trabalho apresentou histamina e/ou tiramina em quantidades capazes de provocar sintomas de intoxicação através do seu consumo.Many amines are commonly found in food of both animal and vegetable origin, however only a small number is of interest since they produce diverse reactions when ingested and absorbed by humans. Among them, histamine and tyramine can cause intoxication symptoms. Marine algae are consumed widely by the eastern civilizations, and in the West, their consumption is expanding. Brazil does not have this tradition, but the diversity of species found throughout the Brazilian coast line make marine algae potentially useful for human ingestion. For such, it is necessary to perform chemical and biochemical studies. In this study, thirteen species of

  20. Dose assessment for marine biota and humans from discharge of 131I to the marine environment and uptake by algae in Sydney, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veliscek Carolan, Jessica; Hughes, Catherine E.; Hoffmann, Emmy L.

    2011-01-01

    Iodine-131 reaches the marine environment through its excretion to the sewer by nuclear medicine patients followed by discharge through coastal and deepwater outfalls. 131 I has been detected in macroalgae, which bio-accumulate iodine, growing near the coastal outfall of Cronulla sewage treatment plant (STP) since 1995. During this study, 131 I levels in liquid effluent and sludge from three Sydney STPs as well as in macroalgae (Ulva sp. and Ecklonia radiata) growing near their shoreline outfalls were measured. Concentration factors of 176 for Ulva sp. and 526 for E. radiata were derived. Radiation dose rates to marine biota from 131 I discharged to coastal waters calculated using the ERICA dose assessment tool were below the ERICA screening level of 10 μGy/hr. Radiation dose rates to humans from immersion in seawater or consumption of Ulva sp. containing 131 I were three and two orders of magnitude below the IAEA screening level of 10 μSv/year, respectively.

  1. Comparative Studies on the Carbohydrate Composition of Marine Macroalgae: Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this subcontract is to evaluate carbohydrates from macroalgae common to the Gulf of Mexico. Information from these analyses will be used to provide an indication of the feasibility of fermenting macroalgae to ethanol. Knowledge of the carbohydrates will allow for assessment of required pretreatments and utilization efficiencies in converting algal feedstocks to ethanol.

  2. Ultrasound-enhanced rapid in situ transesterification of marine macroalgae Enteromorpha compressa for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, Tamilarasan; Kasirajan, Ramachandran; Renganathan, Sahadevan

    2014-03-01

    In situ transesterification of Enteromorpha compressa algal biomass was carried out for the production of biodiesel. The maximum methyl esters (ME) yield of 98.89% was obtained using ultrasonic irradiation. Tetra hydro furan (THF) and acid catalyst (H2SO4) was found to be an appropriate co-solvent and catalyst for high free fatty acids (FFA) content E. compressa biomass to increase the efficiency of the reactive in situ process. The optimization study was conducted to obtain the maximum yield and it was determined as 30vol% of THF as a co-solvent, 10wt% of H2SO4, 5.5:1 ratio of methanol to algal biomass and 600rpm of mixing intensity at 65°C for 90min of ultrasonic irradiation time. The produced biodiesel was characterized by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) analysis. Kinetic studies revealed that the reaction followed the first-order reaction mechanism. Rapid in situ transesterification was found to be suitable technique to produce biodiesel from marine macroalgae feedstock. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Heavy metal concentrations in macroalgae species from Sinop coasts of the Southern Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Bat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Ni, Cu, Mn, Pb, Cd and Co in macroalgae from Sinop coasts of the Sounthern Black Sea. Methods: Chlorophyta-green algae (Chaetomorpha spp., Cladophora spp., Ulva linza, Ulva intestinalis, Ulva lactuca, Ulva rigida; Ochrophyta-brown alga [Cystoseira barbata (C. barbata] and Rhodophyta-red algae (Ceramium spp., Corallina panizzoi were collected seasonally in the year 2010 from the upper infralittoral zone of inner harbour, outer harbour, Gerze and Ayancık of Sinop coasts of the Black Sea. The samples were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer in order to determine heavy metal levels in different algal division species along Sinop coasts and to provide information of marine environment quality as marine strategy framework directive is aimed to ensure good environmental status of the seas by 2020 in the European Union. Results: The results showed that metal concentrations in all studied green algae, brown alga and red algae increase in the order: Cd < Co < Ni < Pb < Cu < Zn < Mn < Fe, Cd < Co < Cu < Ni < Pb < Mn < Zn < Fe and Co < Cd < Ni < Cu < Pb < Mn < Zn < Fe, respectively. In all divisions, among the essential elements the highest concentrations exhibited by Fe, in Gerze station- (2328 ± 89 µg/g dry weight in Chaetomorpha spp.; (2143 ± 78 µg/g dry weight in C. barbata and (968 ± 20 µg/g dry weight in Ceramium spp. Conclusions: The highest accumulation of different metals in the analysed algae species were: Fe and Co in Chaetomorpha spp., Zn in C. barbata, Ni and Cu in Ulva linza, Mn in Ulva intestinalis, Pb and Cd in Corallina panizzoi.

  4. Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Harder, Tilmann; Gram, Lone

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrionaceae based on phenotypic tests and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The numbers of bioactive bacteria were significantly higher in warmer than in colder months. While some species were isolated at all sampling locations, others were niche specific. We repeatedly isolated Phaeobacter gallaeciensis at surfaces from one site and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata at two others. Twenty-two strains, representing the major taxonomic groups, different seasons, and isolation strategies, were tested for antiadhesive effect against the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis. The antiadhesive effects were assessed by quantifying the number of strain S91 or Ulva spores attaching to a preformed biofilm of each of the 22 strains. The strongest antifouling activity was found in Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilms of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and Pseudoalteromonas ulvae prevented Pseudoalteromonas S91 from attaching to steel surfaces. P. piscicida killed S91 bacteria in the suspension cultures, whereas P. tunicata and P. ulvae did not; however, they did prevent adhesion by nonbactericidal mechanism(s). Seven Pseudoalteromonas species, including P. piscicida and P. tunicata, reduced the number of settling Ulva zoospores to less than 10% of the number settling on control surfaces. The antifouling alpP gene was detected only in P. tunicata strains (with purple and yellow pigmentation), so

  5. Non-destructive alpha-particle activation analysis of P, Cl, K and Ca in marine macro-alga samples using synthetic multielement reference material as comparative standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Y.; Naitoh, H.; Suzuki, N.

    1992-01-01

    A Synthetic Reference Material (SyRM) composed with accurately known amounts of 12 elements has been prepared. The elemental composition of the SyRM is closely similar to that of marine macro-algae sample. The elemental composition of the SyRM was regulated by the starting materials used for the synthesis. The SyRM was used as a comparative standard for non-destructive alpha-particle activation analysis of marine macro-alga samples. P, Cl, K and Ca were determined simultaneously without correction for alpha range due to difference in the elemental composition between the analytical samples and the comparative standard. (author) 19 refs.; 4 tabs

  6. Comparative study on metal biosorption by two macroalgae in saline waters: single and ternary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Paula; Henriques, Bruno; Teixeira, Ana; Lopes, Cláudia B; Reis, Ana T; Monteiro, Rui J R; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A; Pereira, E

    2016-06-01

    The biosorption capability of two marine macroalgae (green Ulva lactuca and brown Fucus vesiculosus) was evaluated in the removal of toxic metals (Hg, Cd and Pb) from saline waters, under realistic conditions. Results showed that, independently of the contamination scenario tested, both macroalgae have a remarkable capacity to biosorb Hg and Pb. In single-contaminant systems, by using only c.a. 500 mg of non-pre-treated algae biomass (size macroalgae exhibited a similar selectivity toward the target metals: Hg > Pb> > Cd, although Pb removal by U. lactuca was more inhibited than that achieved by F. vesiculosus. Under the experimental conditions used, none of the macroalgae was effective to remove Cd (maximum removal of 20 %). In all cases, the kinetics of biosorption was mathematically described with success. Globally, it became clear that the studied macroalgae may be part of simple, efficient, and cost-effective water treatment technologies. Nevertheless, Fucus vesiculosus has greater potential, since it always presented higher initial sorption rates and higher removal efficiencies.

  7. Effect of graded levels of dietary seaweed (Ulva sp.) on growth, hematological and serum biochemical parameters in dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus, sciaenidae

    OpenAIRE

    Molatelo Junior Madibana; Victor Mlambo; Brett Lewis; Chris Fouché

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of incorporating graded levels of green macroalgae seaweed (Ulva sp.) into diets of juvenile dusky kob (Argyrosomus japonicus) on growth performance, hematology and serum biochemistry. Five experimental diets were formulated to contain 0 (Ulva0), 50 (Ulva50), 100 (Ulva100), 150 (Ulva150) and 200 (Ulva200) g seaweed meal/kg commercial kob feed on a dry matter basis. Seventy-seven dusky kob fingerlings (mean body mass 9.14â¯Â±â¯0.30â¯g) were distribu...

  8. Effects of solar UV radiation on photosynthesis and enzyme activities (carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase in marine macroalgae from southern Spain Efectos de la radiación solar UV sobre la fotosíntesis y actividades enzimáticas (anhidrasa carbónica y nitrato reductasa en macralgas marinas del sur de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÉLIX L. FIGUEROA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of solar ultraviolet (UV radiation during daily cycles on photosynthesis and two key enzymes involved in carbon incorporation, the carbonic anhydrase, and in inorganic nitrogen reduction, the nitrate reductase, of macroalgae from southern Spain are presented. During daily cycles, photoinhibition in several intertidal macroalgae, expressed as decrease in the effective quantum yield from the morning to noon time, was linearly dependent on the daily integrated irradiance. However, recovery, expressed as the increase in the effective quantum yield from noon to the afternoon, presented a different pattern; full recovery was found below daily integrated irradiance of 1.0 x10(4 kJ m-2. However, recovery reached only 50 % at higher irradiances. The existence of daily photoinhibition and full recovery in intertidal algae suggests that photoinhibition is a photoprotective mechanism against high solar radiation as in higher plants, and that patterns of photoinhibition and recovery are affected by accumulative doses. Activities of carbonic anhidrase and nitrate reductase were determined in three marine macroalgae (Plocamium cartilagineum, Ulva rigida and Fucus spiralis under full (PAR + UV-A + UV-B and excluded UV solar radiation (PAR. Under PAR + UV-A + UV-B, peaks of enzyme activity were found in P. cartilagineum during the evening, and accordingly to data previously published for other red macroalgae. This situation was modified by the absence of UV radiation since the increase in the activities was delayed several hours. In the three macroalgae and under full solar radiation, a significant and negative correlation was found only when data from nitrate reductase activity was shifted in time during at least four hours. This correlation is lost in Ulva rigida when UV radiation is excluded. The existence of these daily variations with a negative correlation of both enzyme activities could reflect a complex regulatory link between carbon and

  9. Effects of marine and freshwater macroalgae on in vitro total gas and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Lorenna; Magnusson, Marie; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky; Tomkins, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of twenty species of tropical macroalgae on in vitro fermentation parameters, total gas production (TGP) and methane (CH4) production when incubated in rumen fluid from cattle fed a low quality roughage diet. Primary biochemical parameters of macroalgae were characterized and included proximate, elemental, and fatty acid (FAME) analysis. Macroalgae and the control, decorticated cottonseed meal (DCS), were incubated in vitro for 72 h, where gas production was continuously monitored. Post-fermentation parameters, including CH4 production, pH, ammonia, apparent organic matter degradability (OMd), and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations were measured. All species of macroalgae had lower TGP and CH4 production than DCS. Dictyota and Asparagopsis had the strongest effects, inhibiting TGP by 53.2% and 61.8%, and CH4 production by 92.2% and 98.9% after 72 h, respectively. Both species also resulted in the lowest total VFA concentration, and the highest molar concentration of propionate among all species analysed, indicating that anaerobic fermentation was affected. Overall, there were no strong relationships between TGP or CH4 production and the >70 biochemical parameters analysed. However, zinc concentrations >0.10 g x kg(-1) may potentially interact with other biochemical components to influence TGP and CH4 production. The lack of relationship between the primary biochemistry of species and gas parameters suggests that significant decreases in TGP and CH4 production are associated with secondary metabolites produced by effective macroalgae. The most effective species, Asparagopsis, offers the most promising alternative for mitigation of enteric CH4 emissions.

  10. Effects of marine and freshwater macroalgae on in vitro total gas and methane production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenna Machado

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of twenty species of tropical macroalgae on in vitro fermentation parameters, total gas production (TGP and methane (CH4 production when incubated in rumen fluid from cattle fed a low quality roughage diet. Primary biochemical parameters of macroalgae were characterized and included proximate, elemental, and fatty acid (FAME analysis. Macroalgae and the control, decorticated cottonseed meal (DCS, were incubated in vitro for 72 h, where gas production was continuously monitored. Post-fermentation parameters, including CH4 production, pH, ammonia, apparent organic matter degradability (OMd, and volatile fatty acid (VFA concentrations were measured. All species of macroalgae had lower TGP and CH4 production than DCS. Dictyota and Asparagopsis had the strongest effects, inhibiting TGP by 53.2% and 61.8%, and CH4 production by 92.2% and 98.9% after 72 h, respectively. Both species also resulted in the lowest total VFA concentration, and the highest molar concentration of propionate among all species analysed, indicating that anaerobic fermentation was affected. Overall, there were no strong relationships between TGP or CH4 production and the >70 biochemical parameters analysed. However, zinc concentrations >0.10 g x kg(-1 may potentially interact with other biochemical components to influence TGP and CH4 production. The lack of relationship between the primary biochemistry of species and gas parameters suggests that significant decreases in TGP and CH4 production are associated with secondary metabolites produced by effective macroalgae. The most effective species, Asparagopsis, offers the most promising alternative for mitigation of enteric CH4 emissions.

  11. Marine macroalgae in the agronomy and potential use of floating sargassum for manure production in the San Andres and Providencia Archipelago, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bula Meyer, German

    2004-01-01

    An account is made on the use of marine macroalgae in agronomy and the potential that floating Sargassum arriving to san Andres and Providencia has for this activity. This Sargassum, which has been a nuisance for the tourist economy of the islands, promises to be an excellent resource for manure production

  12. Interaction strength between different grazers and macroalgae mediated by ocean acidification over warming gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, E; Rodil, I F; Vaz-Pinto, F; Fernández, A; Arenas, F

    2017-04-01

    Since the past century, rising CO 2 levels have led to global changes (ocean warming and acidification) with subsequent effects on marine ecosystems and organisms. Macroalgae-herbivore interactions have a main role in the regulation of marine community structure (top-down control). Gradients of warming prompt complex non-linear effects on organism metabolism, cascading into altered trophic interactions and community dynamics. However, not much is known on how will acidification and grazer assemblage composition shape these effects. Within this context, we aimed to assess the combined effects of warming gradients and acidification on macroalgae-herbivore interactions, using three cosmopolitan species, abundant in the Iberian Peninsula and closely associated in nature: the amphipod Melita palmata, the gastropod Gibbula umbilicalis, and the green macroalga Ulva rigida. Under two CO 2 treatments (ΔCO 2 ≃ 450 μatm) across a temperature gradient (13.5, 16.6, 19.9 and 22.1 °C), two mesocosm experiments were performed to assess grazer consumption rates and macroalgae-herbivore interaction, respectively. Warming (Experiment I and II) and acidification (Experiment II) prompted negative effects in grazer's survival and species-specific differences in consumption rates. M. palmata was shown to be the stronger grazer per biomass (but not per capita), and also the most affected by climate stressors. Macroalgae-herbivore interaction strength was markedly shaped by the temperature gradient, while simultaneous acidification lowered thermal optimal threshold. In the near future, warming and acidification are likely to strengthen top-down control, but further increases in disturbances may lead to bottom-up regulated communities. Finally, our results suggest that grazer assemblage composition may modulate future macroalgae-herbivore interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In vitro Antibacterial Activities of the Marine Macroalgae\\" Laurencia Snyderiae\\" and \\"Sargassum Angustifolium\\" Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    behrouz Derakhshesh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays widespread applications of antibiotics caused to create resistant microorganisms and increased additive antibiotic resistance in all over the world. Thus, researches linked to investigate new antimicrobial agents that are produced in natural way have great significance to achieve new pharmaceutics resources. Based on many accomplished researches, some macroalgae have found to show noticeable antimicrobial and antifungal activities. Methods: In this research antimicrobial activity of organic extracts of the macroalgae "Laurencia snyderiae" and Sargassum angustifolium (which has been collected from coasts of Boushehr port was tested against 3 Gram- positive bacteria Streptococous mutans, Streptococous salivaris and Streptococous sanguis as well as 4 Gram- negative bacteria Salmonella typhi, Proteus vulgaris, Shigella flexniu and Micrococos luteus. Extraction was carried out using maceration method, methanol and chloroform extracts was obtained. Antimicrobial activities of the final extracts was tested using two methods agar disk diffusion method and serial tube dilution method (in order to determine Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. Results: Results of bioassay showed the tested macroalgae exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against Gram- negative bacteria, S. typhi and Gram- negative bacteria M. Luteus exhibited the highest resistant against algal extracts. Conclusion: red alga L. snyderiae exhibited higher antibacterial activity than brown alga S. angustifolium against tested bacteria strains.

  14. Deashing macroalgae biomass by pulsed electric field treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Arthur; Sack, Martin; Israel, Alvaro; Frey, Wolfgang; Müller, Georg; Golberg, Alexander

    2018-05-01

    Among all biomass constituents, the ashes are major hurdles for biomass processing. Ashes currently have low market value and can make a non-negligible fraction of the biomass dry weight significantly impacting its further processing by degrading equipment, lowering process yield, inhibiting reactions and decreasing products qualities. However, most of the current treatments for deashing biomass are of poor efficiency or industrial relevance. This work is the first report on the use of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) to enhance deashing of biomass from a high ash content green marine macroalga, Ulva sp., using hydraulic pressing. By inducing cell permeabilization of the fresh biomass, PEF was able to enhance the ash extraction from 18.4% (non-treated control) to 37.4% of the total ash content in average, significantly enhancing the extraction of five of the major ash elements (K, Mg, Na, P and S) compared to pressing alone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK KASAR LIPID Ulva fasciata TERHADAP Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riong Seulina Panjaitan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The increasing of antimicrobial resistance in medical field has become a serious problem which is have to be solved by exploring raw material on natural product. Seaweed or macroalgae is one of marine natural wealth of Indonesia’s sea. In this research, lipid extraction of seaweed (macroalgae Ulva fasciata has been done according to Folch method by using sochlet and mixure of solvent namely chloroform:methanol (2:1/ (v/v. The result gave two phase namely chloroform phase (0,6% (v/b and methanol phase (7,79% (v/b. Furthermore, both of phase of crude extract lipid Ulva fasciata were tested their antibacterial activities against Bacillus cereus bacterial which is three times. Tetracyclin is used as positive control and the solvent (methanol-chloroform is used as negative control. The results were both of phase gave antibacterial activity namely 0,02 mm/ μg extract for chloroform phase and 0,02 mm/ μg extract for methanol phase.Abstrak: Peningkatan kasus resistensi antimikroba pada dunia medis telah menjadi masalah yang serius sehingga perlu dilakukan pengeksplorasian bahan baku untuk antibiotik khususnya dari bahan alam. Rumput laut (makroalga merupakan salah satu kekayaan alam hayati laut Indonesia yang memiliki kandungan lipid. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan ekstraksi lipid rumput laut (makroalga Ulva fasciata berdasarkan metode Folch dengan menggunakan sokhlet dan campuran pelarut yang digunakan yaitu kloroform:metanol (2:1/ (v/v. Hasil ekstraksi lipid Ulva fasciata menghasilkan dua fasa yaitu fasa kloroform sebanyak 0,6 % (v/b dan fasa metanol sebanyak 7,79 % (v/b. Selanjutnya kedua fasa ekstrak kasar lipid Ulva fasciata tersebut diuji aktivitas antibakterinya terhadap bakteri Bacillus cereus sebanyak tiga kali pengulangan. Kontrol positif yang digunakan adalah tetrasiklin dan kontrol negatifnya adalah pelarut yaitu kloroform dan metanol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kedua fasa tersebut memberikan aktivitas antibakteri

  16. Efficacy of marine green alga Ulva fasciata extract on the management of shrimp bacterial diseases Eficacia del extracto del alga marina verde Ulva fasciata sobre el manejo de las enfermedades bacterianas en camarones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Selvin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites of the green algae, Ulva fasciata, were tested to determine the efficacy of controlling shrimp bacterial pathogens. Exploratory experiments indicated that an intermediate dose (1 g kg-1 of shrimp of Ulva in the diet was highly effective at controlling bacterial pathogens of shrimp, as compared to lower (500 mg kg-1 and higher (1.5 g kg-1 doses. The pilot experiments evaluated the percent of relative protection afforded shrimps treated with Ulva diet and faced with various concentrations of bacterial pathogen. The survival of shrimps treated with Ulva diet was significant (P Metabolites secundario de algas verdes Ulva fasciata fue probado para determinar la eficacia de controlar el camarón pathogens bacterial. Las conclusiones de experimentos exploratorios indicaron que la dosis mediana (1 g kg-1 de camarón de dieta Ulva era sumamente eficaz en el control de pathogens bacterial de camarón cuando comparado al más abajo (500 mg kg-1 y más alto (1,5 g kg-1 dosis. En los experimentos pilotos, la protección de pariente de por ciento de camarones trató con la dieta Ulva y desafió con varias concentraciones de bacterial patógeno fueron evaluados. La supervivencia de camarones trató con la dieta Ulva era significativo (P < 0,01. Basado en las conclusiones presentes, podría ser deducido que U. verde fasciata puede ser una fuente excelente para desarrollar la comida potente medicinal para la dirección de enfermedad de camarón.

  17. Effects of antifouling biocides to the germination and growth of the marine macroalga, Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Jackie H. [School of Ecology and Environment, Deakin University, P.O. Box 423, Warrnambool, Victoria 3280 (Australia) and Department of Primary Industries Research Victoria, Queenscliff, P.O. Box 114 Queenscliff, Victoria 3225 (Australia) and School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton Campus, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)]. E-mail jhmyers@deakin.edu.au; Gunthorpe, Leanne [Department of Primary Industries Research Victoria, Queenscliff, P.O. Box 114 Queenscliff, Victoria 3225 (Australia)]. E-mail Leanne.Gunthorpe@dpi.vic.gov.au; Allinson, Graeme [School of Ecology and Environment, Deakin University, P.O. Box 423, Warrnambool, Victoria 3280 (Australia)]. E-mail graemea@deakin.edu.au; Duda, Susan [Department of Primary Industries Research Victoria, Queenscliff, P.O. Box 114 Queenscliff, Victoria 3225 (Australia)]. E-mail Susan.Duda@dpi.vic.gov.au

    2006-09-15

    The International Maritime Organisation's (IMO) ban on the use of tributyltin in antifouling paints has inevitability increased the use of old fashioned antifoulants and/or the development of new paints containing 'booster biocides'. These newer paints are intended to be environmentally less harmful, however the broader environmental effects of these 'booster biocides' are poorly known. Germination and growth inhibition tests using the marine macroalga, Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of four new antifouling biocides in relation to tributyltin-oxide (TBTO). Each of the biocides significantly inhibited germination and growth of Hormosira banksii spores. Toxicity was in increasing order: diuron < zineb < seanine 211 < zinc pyrithione < TBTO. However, the lack of knowledge on partitioning in the environment makes it difficult to make a full assessment on whether the four biocides tested offer an advantage over organotin paints in terms of environmental impact.

  18. Effects of antifouling biocides to the germination and growth of the marine macroalga, Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Jackie H. . E-mail jhmyers@deakin.edu.au; Gunthorpe, Leanne . E-mail Leanne.Gunthorpe@dpi.vic.gov.au; Allinson, Graeme . E-mail graemea@deakin.edu.au; Duda, Susan . E-mail Susan.Duda@dpi.vic.gov.au

    2006-01-01

    The International Maritime Organisation's (IMO) ban on the use of tributyltin in antifouling paints has inevitability increased the use of old fashioned antifoulants and/or the development of new paints containing 'booster biocides'. These newer paints are intended to be environmentally less harmful, however the broader environmental effects of these 'booster biocides' are poorly known. Germination and growth inhibition tests using the marine macroalga, Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of four new antifouling biocides in relation to tributyltin-oxide (TBTO). Each of the biocides significantly inhibited germination and growth of Hormosira banksii spores. Toxicity was in increasing order: diuron < zineb < seanine 211 < zinc pyrithione < TBTO. However, the lack of knowledge on partitioning in the environment makes it difficult to make a full assessment on whether the four biocides tested offer an advantage over organotin paints in terms of environmental impact

  19. Zinc concentrations in marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland in relation to phylogenetic grouping, habitat and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stengel, Dagmar B.; Macken, Ailbhe; Morrison, Liam; Morley, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Zinc concentrations in 19 species of marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland (Spiddal, Co. Galway) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Algae were collected from a single site but occupied different shore levels and belonged to distinct phylogenetic groupings and to different (previously recognised) morphological groups. Concentrations ranged from 15-115 μg g -1 dry weight. The greatest variation in concentration occurred amongst the red algal species, containing both maximum and minimum concentrations. Zn concentrations in brown and green algae were generally lower than those in red algae. When grouped according to thallus morphology, thin, branched sheets (which consisted mainly of red algae) contained the highest Zn concentrations. In filamentous algae, Zn levels were higher than in thick-leathery or coarsely branched algae. However, all green algal species examined had similar Zn concentrations, despite their different morphologies. In brown algae, the highest Zn levels were detected in mid-shore fucoids (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus), while thicker, subtidal and low-shore brown algae (Laminaria digitata, Halydris siliquosa) exhibited lower Zn concentrations. The lowest Zn concentrations were detected in high-intertidal species (Fucus spiralis, Pelvetia canaliculata), the only marine lichen examined (Ramalina siliquosa) and a red crustose alga (Corallina officinalis). In all morphological groups, red algal representatives contained relatively higher levels of Zn, the exception being Corallina officinalis. Zn levels in 4 species from a second, estuarine site in Galway Bay exhibited the same relative differences amongst species, but were all consistently higher than in algae from Spiddal. It is concluded that Zn accumulation in macroalgae is closely related to ecological growth strategies, following a functional-form model. However, the phylogenetic origin of species which determines carbohydrate and phenol composition, and

  20. Zinc concentrations in marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland in relation to phylogenetic grouping, habitat and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengel, Dagmar B.; Macken, Ailbhe; Morrison, Liam; Morley, Nicholas

    2004-05-01

    Zinc concentrations in 19 species of marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland (Spiddal, Co. Galway) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Algae were collected from a single site but occupied different shore levels and belonged to distinct phylogenetic groupings and to different (previously recognised) morphological groups. Concentrations ranged from 15-115 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight. The greatest variation in concentration occurred amongst the red algal species, containing both maximum and minimum concentrations. Zn concentrations in brown and green algae were generally lower than those in red algae. When grouped according to thallus morphology, thin, branched sheets (which consisted mainly of red algae) contained the highest Zn concentrations. In filamentous algae, Zn levels were higher than in thick-leathery or coarsely branched algae. However, all green algal species examined had similar Zn concentrations, despite their different morphologies. In brown algae, the highest Zn levels were detected in mid-shore fucoids (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus), while thicker, subtidal and low-shore brown algae (Laminaria digitata, Halydris siliquosa) exhibited lower Zn concentrations. The lowest Zn concentrations were detected in high-intertidal species (Fucus spiralis, Pelvetia canaliculata), the only marine lichen examined (Ramalina siliquosa) and a red crustose alga (Corallina officinalis). In all morphological groups, red algal representatives contained relatively higher levels of Zn, the exception being Corallina officinalis. Zn levels in 4 species from a second, estuarine site in Galway Bay exhibited the same relative differences amongst species, but were all consistently higher than in algae from Spiddal. It is concluded that Zn accumulation in macroalgae is closely related to ecological growth strategies, following a functional-form model. However, the phylogenetic origin of species which determines carbohydrate and phenol composition

  1. Comparison of the antioxidative components of some marine macroalgae from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, G.; Dere, E.; Dere, S.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for natural antioxidant molecules to replace the synthetic additives currently used in the food industry. Therefore, in this study, the total phenolic contents, total antioxidant capacities (lipid-soluble and water-soluble), total protein contents, vitamin E contents and vitamin C contents of Ulva rigida C. Agardh, Codium tomentosum Stackhouse, Gracilaria gracilis (Stackhouse) M. Steentoft, L.M. Irvine et W.F. Farnham and Sphaerococcus coronopifolius Stackhouse were determined. According to our data, among the algae studied, the highest levels of bioactive components were found in U. rigida, followed by C. tomentosum, G. gracilis and S. coronopifolius. In particular, U. rigida and C. tomentosum showed the highest values for all of the parameters studied. Therefore, U. rigida and C. tomentosum could be considered as species possessing significant natural antioxidant molecules which might be useful for the food industry. (author)

  2. Chemical characterization of 21 species of marine macroalgae common in Norwegian waters: benefits of and limitations to their potential use in food and feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancarosa, Irene; Belghit, Ikram; Bruckner, Christian G; Liland, Nina S; Waagbø, Rune; Amlund, Heidi; Heesch, Svenja

    2018-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND In the past few years, much effort has been invested into developing a new blue economy based on harvesting, cultivating and processing marine macroalgae in Norway. Macroalgae have high potential for a wide range of applications, e.g. as source of pharmaceuticals, production of biofuels or as food and feed. However, data on the chemical composition of macroalgae from Norwegian waters are scant. This study was designed to characterize the chemical composition of 21 algal species. Both macro‐ and micronutrients were analysed. Concentrations of heavy metals and the metalloid arsenic in the algae were also quantified. RESULTS The results confirm that marine macroalgae contain nutrients which are relevant for both human and animal nutrition, the concentrations whereof are highly dependent on species. Although heavy metals and arsenic were detected in the algae studied, concentrations were mostly below maximum allowed levels set by food and feed legislation in the EU. CONCLUSION This study provides chemical data on a wide range of algal species covering the three taxonomic groups (brown, red and green algae) and discusses both benefits of and potential limitations to their use for food and feed purposes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:29193189

  3. Chemical characterization of 21 species of marine macroalgae common in Norwegian waters: benefits of and limitations to their potential use in food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancarosa, Irene; Belghit, Ikram; Bruckner, Christian G; Liland, Nina S; Waagbø, Rune; Amlund, Heidi; Heesch, Svenja; Lock, Erik-Jan

    2018-03-01

    In the past few years, much effort has been invested into developing a new blue economy based on harvesting, cultivating and processing marine macroalgae in Norway. Macroalgae have high potential for a wide range of applications, e.g. as source of pharmaceuticals, production of biofuels or as food and feed. However, data on the chemical composition of macroalgae from Norwegian waters are scant. This study was designed to characterize the chemical composition of 21 algal species. Both macro- and micronutrients were analysed. Concentrations of heavy metals and the metalloid arsenic in the algae were also quantified. The results confirm that marine macroalgae contain nutrients which are relevant for both human and animal nutrition, the concentrations whereof are highly dependent on species. Although heavy metals and arsenic were detected in the algae studied, concentrations were mostly below maximum allowed levels set by food and feed legislation in the EU. This study provides chemical data on a wide range of algal species covering the three taxonomic groups (brown, red and green algae) and discusses both benefits of and potential limitations to their use for food and feed purposes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. An evaluation of the toxicity and bioaccumulation of bismuth in the coastal environment using three species of macroalga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearns, James; Turner, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth is a heavy metal whose biogeochemical behaviour in the marine environment is poorly defined. In this study, we exposed three different species of macroalga (the chlorophyte, Ulva lactuca, the phaeophyte, Fucus vesiculosus, and the rhodophyte, Chondrus crispus) to different concentrations of Bi (up to 50 μg L −1 ) under controlled, laboratory conditions. After a period of 48-h, the phytotoxicity of Bi was measured in terms of chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, and adsorption and internalisation of Bi determined by ICP after EDTA extraction and acid digestion, respectively. For all algae, both the internalisation and total accumulation of Bi were proportional to the concentration of aqueous metal. Total accumulation followed the order: F. vesiculosus > C. crispus > U. lactuca; with respective accumulation factors of about 4200, 1700 and 600 L kg −1 . Greatest internalisation (about 33% of total accumulated Bi) was exhibited by C. crispus, the only macroalga to display a phytotoxic response in the exposures. A comparison of the present results with those reported in the literature suggests that Bi accumulation by macroalgae is significantly lower than its accumulation by marine plankton (volume concentration factors of 10 5 to 10 7 ), and that the phytotoxicity of Bi is low relative to other heavy metals like Ag and Tl. - Highlights: • Very little is understood about the biogeochemistry of bismuth. • We exposed three species of coastal macroalga to variable concentrations of Bi. • Greatest accumulation was exhibited by Fucus vesiculosus. • Greatest internalisation was exhibited by Chondus crispus. • C. crispus was the only macroalga to display a toxic response. - Bismuth is accumulated by three species of marine macroalga but exhibits only moderate toxicity to the rhodophyte, Chondrus crispus.

  5. Impact of seaweed beachings on dynamics of δ15N isotopic signatures in marine macroalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemesle, Stéphanie; Mussio, Isabelle; Rusig, Anne-Marie; Menet-Nédélec, Florence; Claquin, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two coastal sites (COU, GM) in the Bay of Seine affected by summer seaweed beachings. • The same temporal dynamics of the algal δ 15 N at the two sites. • N and P concentrations in seawater of the two sites dominated by riverine sources. • A coupling between seaweed beachings and N sources of intertidal macroalgae. - Abstract: A fine-scale survey of δ 15 N, δ 13 C, tissue-N in seaweeds was conducted using samples from 17 sampling points at two sites (Grandcamp-Maisy (GM), Courseulles/Mer (COU)) along the French coast of the English Channel in 2012 and 2013. Partial triadic analysis was performed on the parameter data sets and revealed the functioning of three areas: one estuary (EstA) and two rocky areas (GM ∗ , COU ∗ ). In contrast to oceanic and anthropogenic reference points similar temporal dynamics characterized δ 15 N signatures and N contents at GM ∗ and COU ∗ . Nutrient dynamics were similar: the N-concentrations in seawater originated from the River Seine and local coastal rivers while P-concentrations mainly from these local rivers. δ 15 N at GM ∗ were linked to turbidity suggesting inputs of autochthonous organic matter from large-scale summer seaweed beachings made up of a mixture of Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta species. This study highlights the coupling between seaweed beachings and nitrogen sources of intertidal macroalgae

  6. Land use, macroalgae, and a tumor-forming disease in marine turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle S Van Houtan

    Full Text Available Wildlife diseases are an increasing concern for endangered species conservation, but their occurrence, causes, and human influences are often unknown. We analyzed 3,939 records of stranded Hawaiian green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas over 28 years to understand fibropapillomatosis, a tumor-forming disease linked to a herpesvirus. Turtle size is a consistent risk factor and size-standardized models revealed considerable spatial and temporal variability. The disease peaked in some areas in the 1990s, in some regions rates remained constant, and elsewhere rates increased. Land use, onshore of where the turtles feed, may play a role. Elevated disease rates were clustered in watersheds with high nitrogen-footprints; an index of natural and anthropogenic factors that affect coastal eutrophication. Further analysis shows strong epidemiological links between disease rates, nitrogen-footprints, and invasive macroalgae and points to foraging ecology. These turtles now forage on invasive macroalgae, which can dominate nutrient rich waters and sequester environmental N in the amino acid arginine. Arginine is known to regulate immune activity, promote herpesviruses, and contribute to tumor formation. Our results have implications for understanding diseases in aquatic organisms, eutrophication, herpesviruses, and tumor formation.

  7. Biochars derived from wasted marine macro-algae (Saccharina japonica and Sargassum fusiforme) and their potential for heavy metal removal in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poo, Kyung-Min; Son, Eun-Bi; Chang, Jae-Soo; Ren, Xianghao; Choi, Yun-Jung; Chae, Kyu-Jung

    2018-01-15

    For the purpose of reusing wasted marine macro-algae generated during cultivation, harvesting, processing and selling processes, biochars derived from Saccharina japonica (known as kelp) and Sargassum fusiforme (known as hijikia) were characterized and their removal capacities for Cu, Cd, and Zn in aqueous solution were assessed. Feedstocks, S. japonica, S. fusiforme, and also pinewood sawdust as a control, were pyrolyzed at 250, 400, 500, 600 and 700 °C. In evaluating heavy metal removal capacities, SJB (S. japonica biochar) showed the best performance, with removal efficiencies of more than 98% for the three heavy metals when pyrolyzed at over 400 °C. SFB (S. fusiforme biochar) also showed good potential as an adsorbent, with removal efficiencies for the three heavy metals of more than 86% when pyrolyzed at over 500 °C. On the contrary, the maximum removal efficiencies of PSB (pinewood sawdust biochar) were 81%, 46%, and 47% for Cu, Cd, and Zn, respectively, even at 700 °C, the highest pyrolysis temperature. This demonstrates that marine macro-algae were advantageous in terms of production energy for removing heavy metals even at relatively low pyrolysis temperatures, compared with PSB. The excellent heavy metal adsorption capacities of marine macro-algae biochars were considered due to their higher pH and more oxygen-containing functional groups, although the specific surface areas of SJB and SFB were significantly lower than that of PSB. This research confirmed that the use of marine macro-algae as a heavy metal adsorbent was suitable not only in the removal of heavy metals, but also in terms of resource recycling and energy efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Simple mass transport model for metal uptake by marine macroalgae growing at different rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Although algae growing at different rates may exhibit different concentrations of a given metal, such differences in algal chemistry may or may not reflect actual effects of environmental growth factors on the kinetics of metal uptake. Published data on uptake of rubidium, cadmium, and manganese by the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile grown at different rates in open system sea water was interpreted using the model. Differences in exposure time to sea water of relatively old and relatively young thalli were responsible for significant decreases in algal rubidium and cadmium concentrations with increases in specific growth rate. The biomass-specific growth rates of uptake of these two metals did not vary with growth rate. Both algal concentrations and specific rates of uptake of manganese increase significantly with increasing growth rate, thus indicating a distinct link between the kinetics of manganese uptake and metabolic rate. Under some circumstances, seaweed bioassay coupled with an interpretive model may provide the only reasonable approach to the study of chemical uptake-growth phenomena. In practice, if the residence time of sea water in culture chambers is sufficiently low to preclude pseudo-closed system artifacts, differences in trace metal concentrations between input and output sea water may be difficult to detect. In the field and in situ experiments based on time-series monitoring of changes in the water chemistry would be technically difficult or perhaps impossible to perform. 13 references, 1 figure.

  9. Metabolomic response of a marine bacterium to 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose, the rare sugar from red macroalgae, as the sole carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Eun Ju; Yu, Sora; Kim, Sooah; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2018-03-20

    Marine red macroalgae have received much attention as sustainable resources for producing bio-based products. Therefore, understanding the metabolic pathways of carbohydrates from red macroalgae, in fermentative microorganisms, is crucial for efficient bioconversion of the carbohydrates into bio-based products. Recently, the novel catabolic pathway of 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose (AHG), the main component of red macroalgae, was discovered in a marine bacterium, Vibrio sp. strain EJY3. However, the global metabolic network in response to AHG remains unclear. Here, the intracellular metabolites of EJY3 grown on AHG, glucose, or galactose were comparatively profiled using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The global metabolite profiling results revealed that the metabolic profile for AHG significantly differed from those for other common sugars. Specifically, the metabolic intermediate of the AHG pathway, 3,6-anhydrogalactonate, was detected during growth only in the presence of AHG; thus, the recently discovered key steps in AHG catabolism was found not to occur in the catabolism of other common sugars. Moreover, the levels of metabolic intermediates related to glycerolipid metabolism and valine biosynthesis were higher with AHG than those with other sugars. These comprehensive metabolomic analytical results for AHG in this marine bacterium can be used as the basis for having fermentative microbial strains to engineered to efficiently utilize AHG from macroalgal biomass. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of impacts of climate change and local stressors on the biotechnological potential of marine macroalgae: a brief theoretical discussion of likely scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Horta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change can be associated with variations in the frequency and intensity of extreme temperatures and precipitation events on the local and regional scales. Along coastal areas, flooding associated with increased occupation has seriously impacted products and services generated by marine life, in particular the biotechnological potential that macroalgae hold. Therefore, this paper analyzes the available information on the taxonomy, ecology and physiology of macroalgae and discusses the impacts of climate change and local stress on the biotechnological potential of Brazilian macroalgae. Based on data compiled from a series of floristic and ecological works, we note the disappearance in some Brazilian regions of major groups of biotechnological interest. In some cases, the introduction of exotic species has been documented, as well as expansion of the distribution range of economically important species. We also verify an increase in the similarities between the Brazilian phycogeographic provinces, although they still remain different. It is possible that these changes have resulted from the warming of South Atlantic water, as observed for its surface in southeastern Brazilian, mainly during the winter. However, unplanned urbanization of coastal areas can also produce similar biodiversity losses, which requires efforts to generate long-term temporal data on the composition, community structure and physiology of macroalgae.

  11. Impact of seaweed beachings on dynamics of δ(15)N isotopic signatures in marine macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemesle, Stéphanie; Mussio, Isabelle; Rusig, Anne-Marie; Menet-Nédélec, Florence; Claquin, Pascal

    2015-08-15

    A fine-scale survey of δ(15)N, δ(13)C, tissue-N in seaweeds was conducted using samples from 17 sampling points at two sites (Grandcamp-Maisy (GM), Courseulles/Mer (COU)) along the French coast of the English Channel in 2012 and 2013. Partial triadic analysis was performed on the parameter data sets and revealed the functioning of three areas: one estuary (EstA) and two rocky areas (GM(∗), COU(∗)). In contrast to oceanic and anthropogenic reference points similar temporal dynamics characterized δ(15)N signatures and N contents at GM(∗) and COU(∗). Nutrient dynamics were similar: the N-concentrations in seawater originated from the River Seine and local coastal rivers while P-concentrations mainly from these local rivers. δ(15)N at GM(∗) were linked to turbidity suggesting inputs of autochthonous organic matter from large-scale summer seaweed beachings made up of a mixture of Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta species. This study highlights the coupling between seaweed beachings and nitrogen sources of intertidal macroalgae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sulphated galactopyran derived from Gracilaria opuntia, a marine macroalgae restores the antioxidant metabolic enzymes during STZ induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Rayapu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen the effect of sulphated galactopyran fraction isolated from Gracilaria opuntia (G. opuntia (FM4 in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods: In vitro antioxidant assays of FM4 were estimated by DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl free radical and Nitric oxide free radical activities. FM4 was purified and characterized by 1H-NMR spectra and FTIR as sulphated galactopyran. Diabetes was induced intraperitonially by single dose of STZ (55 mg/kg body weight. FM4 was administrated orally (80, 100, 125 mg/kg BW to diabetic rats for 60 days. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, lipid peroxidase (LPx, glutathione reduced (GSH, vitamin-C (VIT-C and vitamin-E (VIT-E levels were estimated. Glibenclamide was used as standard drug. Results: Our results demonstrated that the aqueous extract of G. opuntia possess free radical scavenging activity. During FM4 fraction treatment (100 mg/kg BW, the SOD, GPx, CAT, GST, GSH, VIT-C and VIT-E levels were significantly (P < 0.05 increased, and the LPx levels were decreased in different organs such as liver, kidney, brain and pancreas of diabetic rats. Conclusions: The sulphated galactopyran fraction of the marine macroalgae (G. opuntia possesses the antioxidant activity which might help in the prevention of oxidative damage that occurs during diabetes.

  13. Toxic effect of nonylphenol on the marine macroalgae Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta): antioxidant system and antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Mingqin; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the toxic effect of nonylphenol (NP) on the antioxidant response and antitumor activity of Gracilaria lemaneiformis. An obvious oxidative damage was observed in this study. The thallus exposed to NP showed 1.2-2.0-fold increase in lipid peroxide and displayed a maximum level of 16.58 μmol g -1 Fw on 0.6 mg L -1 for 15-day exposure. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enhanced significantly by 1.1-3.2-fold and subsequently diminished at the high concentrations and prolonged exposure. The results of DNA damage in comet assay also supported that NP was obviously toxic on G. lemaneiformis with increasing the percentage of tail DNA in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the ethanol extract of G. lemaneiformis (EEGL) did exhibit antitumor potential against HepG-2 cells. While decreased in cell inhibition, ROS generation, apoptosis, and caspase-3 in HepG-2 cells treated with the EEGL were observed when G. lemaneiformis was exposed to NP for 15 days, and which were related to exposure concentration of NP. These suggested that NP has strongly toxic effect on the antitumor activity of G. lemaneiformis. The results revealed in this study imply that macroalgae can be useful biomarkers to evaluate marine pollutions.

  14. Characterisation of lipid fraction of marine macroalgae by means of chromatography techniques coupled to mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragonese, Carla; Tedone, Laura; Beccaria, Marco; Torre, Germana; Cichello, Filomena; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2014-02-15

    In this work the characterisation of the lipid fraction of several species of marine macro algae gathered along the eastern coast of Sicily is reported. Two species of green marine algae (Chloropyceae), two species of red marine algae (Rhodophyceae) and four species of brown marine algae (Pheophyceae) were evaluated in terms of fatty acids, triacylglycerols, pigments and phospholipids profile. Advanced analytical techniques were employed to fully characterise the lipid profile of these Mediterranean seaweeds, such as GC-MS coupled to a novel mass spectra database supported by the simultaneous use of linear retention index (LRI) for the identification of fatty acid profile; LC-MS was employed for the identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs), carotenoids and phospholipids; the determination of accurate mass was carried out on carotenoids and phospholipids. Quantitative data are reported on fatty acids and triacylglycerols as relative percentage of total fraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies on photosynthesis and respiration in some marine macroalgae of the Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    Primary production and respiration rates were measured in 14 marine macroalgal species from the Goa coast. The highest production rate was observed in Hypnea musciformis and the lowest in Laurencia papillosa. Net production rates in these 14 species...

  16. REMOVAL OF AMMONIA TOXCITY IN MARINE SEDIMENT TIES: A COMPARISON OF ULVA LACTUCA, ZEOLITE AND AREATION METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia is suspected of causing some of the toxicity observed in marine sediment toxicity tests because it is sometimes found at elevated concentrations in marine interstitial waters. In marine waters, ammonia exists as un-ionized ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4+) which combine ...

  17. Neuroprotective effect of seaweeds inhabiting South Indian coastal area (Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve): Cholinesterase inhibitory effect of Hypnea valentiae and Ulva reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganthy, N; Karutha Pandian, S; Pandima Devi, K

    2010-01-14

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, which is one of the four leading causes of death in developed nations. Until date the only symptomatic treatment for this disease is based on the "cholinergic hypothesis" where the drugs enhance acetylcholine levels in the brain by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In the course for screening cholinesterase inhibitors about eight seaweeds, with wide pharmaceutical applications, were collected from Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar, Marine Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu, India. Inhibitory effect of methanol extract of the seaweeds was studied in vitro by incubating various concentration of the extract with AChE or butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) and assessing their activities by Ellman's colorimetric method. Kinetic parameters like IC(50), K(i) and V(max) were also analyzed. The results showed that of the eight seaweeds screened Hypnea valentiae, Padina gymnospora, Ulva reticulata and Gracilaria edulis exhibited inhibitory activity to AChE with IC(50) value of 2.6, 3.5, 10 and 3mg/ml respectively, while H. valentiae, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Dictyota dichotoma and U. reticulata showed 50% inhibition to BuChE at concentration 3.9, 7, 6.5 and 10mg/ml respectively. The inhibitory activities of the seaweed extracts were comparable to the standard drug donepezil. Enzyme kinetic analysis showed that algal extracts exhibited mixed type inhibition (partial noncompetitive inhibition). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Checklist and Bibliography of Benthic Marine Macroalgae Recorded from Northern Australia. I. Rhodophyta,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Basson, P.W. (1979). "Marine algae of the Arabian Qilf coast of Saudi Arabia. II." Botanica mar., 22, 65-82. Belanger, C., Dory de Saint Vincent, J.B. and...Cook Island". Botanica mr., 20, 161-166. Chiang, Y.M. (1970). "Morphological studies of red algae of the family Cryptonemiaceas." Univ. Calif. Pubis Bot...western Indian Ocean." Botanica mar., 25, 401-444. 83 Parke, M. and Dixon, P.S. (1976). "Check-list of British marine algae - third revision." J. mar

  19. Chemical compositions of the marine algae Gracilaria salicornia (Rhodophyta) and Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) as a potential food source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarsa, Mehdi; Rezaei, Masoud; Ramezanpour, Zohreh; Waaland, Joseph Robert

    2012-09-01

    The nutritional compositions of two edible red (Gracilaria salicornia) and green (Ulva lactuca) seaweeds were determined to evaluate their possible uses as potential food ingredients. In general, these species contained limited amounts of lipids ranging between 0.99 and 2.00 g 100 g(-1) dry weight) and considerably high amount of minerals, especially in G. salicornia (38.91 g 100 g(-1) d.w.). The crude protein values varied between 9.58 and 10.69 g 100 g(-1) d.w. Amounts for total amino acids were 889.78 ± 22.64 mg g(-1) protein d.w. in G. salicornia and 543.3 ± 15.14 mg g(-1) protein d.w. in U. lactuca. The most abundant fatty acids were C12:0, C16:0, C20:4 ω6 and C22:5 ω3, in addition to C18:1 in G. salicornia. Both seaweed species were balanced sources of ω3 and ω6 fatty acids with a ratio of ω6/ω3 that varied between 1.2 and 1.17. Between the seaweeds investigated, high levels of K (2414.02-11 380.06 mg 100 g(-1) d.w.) were observed and the amounts of Ca, Na and Fe were higher than those reported for land plants. Thus, G. salicornia and U. lactuca may be utilised as value-added products for human nutrition purposes. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Isolation, purification and properties of an R-phycocyanin from the phycobilisomes of a marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    Full Text Available Phycobilisomes were prepared from a marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata (P. urceolata by sucrose step-gradient ultracentrifugation. From the prepared phycobilisomes, an R-phycocyanin was isolated by gel filtration on Sephadex G-150 and then purified by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE performed in neutral buffer systems. The purified R-phycocyanins showed not only a homogeneous trimer of 136 kDa in gel filtration and a single band in native PAGE, but also exhibited one band at about pH 5.7 in native isoelectric focusing (IEF. By a gradient SDS-PAGE the purified R-phycocyanin was determined to contain one a subunit of 17.5 kDa (α17.5 and two b subunits of 21.3 kDa and 22.6 kDa (β21.3 and β22.6. The analysis from denaturing isoelectric focusing and two-dimension PAGE demonstrated that α17.5, β21.3 and β22.6 had their pIs of 6.4, 5.3 and 5.4, respectively. Furthermore, mass spectroscopy analysis of β21.3 and β22.6 by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry demonstrated the two b subunits had differences in peptide mass fingerprinting. These results revealed that the prepared R-phycocyanins were composed of one a and two b subunits. (α17:53 β21:32 β22:61 and (α17:53 β21:31 β22:62, which have a structural foundation to show their pIs too close for them to be definitely resolved by native IEF, are postulated to be the most possible trimeric forms of the R-phycocyanins prepared from the phycobilisomes of P. urceolata.

  1. Checklist and Bibliography of Benthic Marine Macroalgae Recorded from Northern Australia. III. Chlorophyta,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    polynesischen Formen dieser Famille." Beh. bot. Zbl., 18, 165-193, pls 5,6. Chapman, v.J. (1977). "Marine algae of Norfolk Island and Cook Island." Botanica ... botanica altera. Sistens generwn plantarum. Suppl. 3, Vienna, 111 pp. 7E;bank, L. (1946). "Hawaiian representatives of the genus Caulerpa. - Univ...vicinity of Townsville, Queensland." Atoll Res. Bull., 237, 1-29. Nizamuddin, m. (1967). "Caulerpa from Karachi Coast. II." Botanica rnar., 10, 158-166

  2. Allelopathic potential of extracts the from marine macroalga Plocamium brasiliense and their effects on pasture weed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainiomar Raimundo da Fonseca

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Four extracts from the marine red alga Plocamium brasiliense (Greville M.A.Howe & W.R.Taylor were prepared to identify and characterize their potential allelopathic effects on seed germination, radicle elongation and hypocotyl development of the weeds Mimosa pudica L. and Senna obtusifolia (L. Irwin & Barneby. The four extracts were prepared in a sequence of solvents of increasing polarity: n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol/water (7:3. The germination bioassay was carried out at 25 °C with a 12 h photoperiod and the radicle elongation and hypocotyl development at 25 °C with a 24 h photoperiod. The dichloromethane extract showed inhibitory effects on seed germination of both plants (35 and 14%, respectively, in M. pudica and S. obtusifolia, radical germination (52 and 41.7%, respectively and hypocotyl development (17.1 and 25.5%, respectively. Given the high sensitivity of this parameter to the potential allelopathic effects and the insufficient number of references found in the literature, these results are expected to stimulate new tests with other species of marine algae. Given the high sensitivity of the method for the detection of allelopathic potential, the species P. brasiliense emerges as a possible source of allelopathic substances against weed species. The results are attributed to the chemical composition, especially in relation to the presence of halogenated monoterpenes.

  3. Allelopathic potential of extracts the from marine macroalga Plocamium brasiliense and their effects on pasture weed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainiomar Raimundo da Fonseca

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Four extracts from the marine red alga Plocamium brasiliense (Greville M.A.Howe & W.R.Taylor were prepared to identify and characterize their potential allelopathic effects on seed germination, radicle elongation and hypocotyl development of the weeds Mimosa pudica L. and Senna obtusifolia (L. Irwin & Barneby. The four extracts were prepared in a sequence of solvents of increasing polarity: n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol/water (7:3. The germination bioassay was carried out at 25 °C with a 12 h photoperiod and the radicle elongation and hypocotyl development at 25 °C with a 24 h photoperiod. The dichloromethane extract showed inhibitory effects on seed germination of both plants (35 and 14%, respectively, in M. pudica and S. obtusifolia, radical germination (52 and 41.7%, respectively and hypocotyl development (17.1 and 25.5%, respectively. Given the high sensitivity of this parameter to the potential allelopathic effects and the insufficient number of references found in the literature, these results are expected to stimulate new tests with other species of marine algae. Given the high sensitivity of the method for the detection of allelopathic potential, the species P. brasiliense emerges as a possible source of allelopathic substances against weed species. The results are attributed to the chemical composition, especially in relation to the presence of halogenated monoterpenes.

  4. Death by Ulva

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on a series of field and laboratory mesocosm experiments where we examined the effects of two levels of decomposing Ulva on Spartina alterniflora growth, soil biogeochemistry, and nitrogen dynamics. Monitoring of porewater revealed rapid mineralization to ammonium from...

  5. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Brown Marine Macroalga, Sargassum Muticum Aqueous Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Azizi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological synthesis of nanoparticles is a relatively new emerging field of nanotechnology which has economic and eco-friendly benefits over chemical and physical processes of synthesis. In the present work, for the first time, the brown marine algae Sargassum muticum (S. muticum aqueous extract was used as a reducing agent for the synthesis of nanostructure silver particles (Ag-NPs. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized systematically by using FTIR, XRD, TEM and UV–Vis spectroscopy. The formation of Ag-NPs was confirmed through the presence of an intense absorption peak at 420 nm using a UV–visible spectrophotometer. A TEM image showed that the particles are spherical in shape with size ranging from 5 to 15 nm. The nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. This was confirmed by the XRD pattern. From the FTIR results, it can be seen that the reduction has mostly been carried out by sulphated polysaccharides present in S. muticum.

  6. Macroalgae Butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-02-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company (DuPont) and Bio Architecture Lab, Inc. (BAL) are exploring the commercial viability of producing fuel-grade isobutanol from macroalgae (seaweed). Making macroalgae an attractive substrate for biofuel applications however, will require continued technology development. Assuming these developments are successful, initial assessments suggest macroalgae aquafarming in our oceans has the potential to produce a feedstock with cost in the same range as terrestrial-based substrates (crop residuals, energy crops) and may be the feedstock of choice in some locations. The use of macroalgae also diversifies the sources of U.S. biomass in order to provide more options in meeting demand for biofuels. The process being developed will use a robust industrial biocatalyst (microorganism) capable of converting macroalgal-derived sugars directly into isobutanol. Biobutanol is an advanced biofuel with significant advantages over ethanol, including higher energy content, lower greenhouse gas emissions, and the ability to be blended in gasoline at higher levels than ethanol without changes to existing automobiles or the fuel industry infrastructure. Butamax™ is currently commercializing DuPont’s biobutanol fermentation technology that uses sugar and starch feedstocks.

  7. Screening of proteins based on macro-algae from West Java coast in Indonesian marine as a potential anti-aging agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Arlina Prima; Dewi, Rizna Triana; Handayani, Aniek Sri; Harjanto, Sri; Chalid, Mochamad

    2018-02-01

    Algae has been known as one of the potential marine bio-resources that have been used in many fields such as bio-energy, food, pharmaceutical and medical applications. Study of macro-algae or seaweed for medicine application, in particular, highlights to empower their ingredients as a promising antioxidant like anti-aging agent due to their diversity in biological activity. The tropical climate of Indonesia with the highest marine biodiversity puts this country an auspicious source of numerous alga species as a novel antioxidant source. A Sample of 29 species of macroalgae has been collected from Coast of Pari Island as a part of Seribu Islands, Indonesia. Screening and extracting of aqueous tropical marine alga protein as a potential source for an antioxidant agent has been done by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging method, and protein contents have been determined by Lowry method. Sample number 26 of the phylum Rhodophyta have 9.00±0.03 % protein content, which is potential for nutritional food in form of nutraceutical. That sample demonstrated the maximum DPPH scavenging activity 79.27±1.81 %. Moreover, crude extract from another species from phylum Rhodophyta had the very lower IC50 (3.4333±0.29 mg/ml) followed by Chlorophyta species (7.1069±1.78 mg/ml). In general, this study found that algae from phylum Rhodophyta possess a high content of protein, high activity towards free radical. Nevertheless, algae acquire the lowest IC50 value not only dominated by Rhodophyta but also from phylum Chlorophyta. The conclusion of this study leads to empowering high antioxidant activity algae as an anti-aging agent, which can be used in pharmaceutical applications. Therefore, the next study should be concerned on the properties of the algae which has been known to be suitable for pharmaceutical fields.

  8. Ocean Acidification Accelerates the Growth of Two Bloom-Forming Macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Craig S; Gobler, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    While there is growing interest in understanding how marine life will respond to future ocean acidification, many coastal ecosystems currently experience intense acidification in response to upwelling, eutrophication, or riverine discharge. Such acidification can be inhibitory to calcifying animals, but less is known regarding how non-calcifying macroalgae may respond to elevated CO2. Here, we report on experiments performed during summer through fall with North Atlantic populations of Gracilaria and Ulva that were grown in situ within a mesotrophic estuary (Shinnecock Bay, NY, USA) or exposed to normal and elevated, but environmentally realistic, levels of pCO2 and/or nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). In nearly all experiments, the growth rates of Gracilaria were significantly increased by an average of 70% beyond in situ and control conditions when exposed to elevated levels of pCO2 (p0.05). The δ13C content of both Gracilaria and Ulva decreased two-to-three fold when grown under elevated pCO2 (pacidification, a process that will intensify in the coming decades.

  9. Regulation of gametogenesis and zoosporogenesis in Ulva linza (Chlorophyta: comparison with Ulva mutabilis and potential for laboratory culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Fay Vesty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Green Ulvophyte macroalgae represent attractive model systems for understanding growth, development and evolution. They are untapped resources for food, fuel and high-value compounds, but can also form nuisance blooms. To fully analyse green seaweed morphogenesis, controlled laboratory-based culture of these organisms is required. To date, only a single Ulvophyte species, Ulva mutabilis Føyn, has been manipulated to complete its whole life cycle in laboratory culture and to grow continuously under axenic conditions. Such cultures are essential to address multiple key questions in Ulva development and in algal-bacterial interactions. Here we show that another Ulva species, U. linza, with a broad geographical distribution, has the potential to be grown in axenic culture similarly to U. mutabilis. Ulva linza can be reliably induced to sporulate (form gametes and zoospores in the laboratory, by cutting the relevant thallus tissue into small pieces and removing extracellular inhibitors (sporulation and swarming inhibitors. The germ cells work as an ideal feed stock for standardized algae cultures.The requirement of U. linza for bacterial signals to induce its normal morphology (particularly of the rhizoids appears to have a species-specific component. The axenic cultures of these two species pave the way for future comparative studies of algal-microbial interactions.

  10. Trophic categorization in the Rías Baixas (NW Spain: nutrients in water and in macroalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Villares

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine eutrophication caused by an excess supply of nutrients is a serious problem in many coastal areas throughout the world. In the present study we used the capacity of macroalgae (Ulva and Enteromorpha to integrate the nutrient regime of a water body in order to examine the trophic categorization in the embayments studied. We found that the trophic categorization established based on nutrient levels in macroalgae differed from that established based on concentrations in the water. The waters of the innermost areas of the inlets were the most nutrient enriched; the algae appeared to be more affected by specific local conditions and did not display the gradient of decreasing nutrient concentrations from inner to outer areas that was observed in the water samples. The lack of correspondence between nutrients in the water and in the algae in the present study may have been due to the heterogeneous nutrient conditions found in coastal areas, so that the intertidal algae did not adequately reflect the nutrient levels of the inner zones of the embayments under study.

  11. Occurrence of arsenic in selected marine macroalgae from two coastal areas of South Australia. [Rhodophyceae; phaeophyceae; Chlorophyceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, W.A.; Clarke, S.M.

    1984-03-01

    Total arsenic concentrations have been measured in macroalgae specimens from two coastal areas of South Australia. Phaeophyta in both areas were found to contain elevated arsenic concentrations (42.2-179 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ and 26.3-65.3 ..mu..g g/sup -1/) relative to Rhodophyta (17.6-31.3 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ and 12.5-16.2 ..mu..g g/sup -1/) and Chlorophyta (6.3-16.3 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ and 9.9-10.8 ..mu..g g/sup -1/). 13 references, 3 tables.

  12. Isolation and characterization of marine bacteria from macroalgae Gracilaria salicornia and Gelidium latifolium on agarolitic activity for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaroe, M.; Pratiwi, I.; Sunudin, A.

    2017-05-01

    Gracilaria salicornia and Gelidium latifolium have high content of agar and potential to be use as raw material for bioethanol. In bioethanol production, one of the processes level is enzyme hydrolysis. Various microorganisms, one of which is bacteria, can carry out the enzyme hydrolysis. Bacteria that degrade the cell walls of macroalgae and produce an agarase enzyme called agarolytic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to isolate bacteria from macroalgae G. salicornia and G. latifolium, which has the highest agarase enzyme activities, and to obtain agarase enzyme characteristic for bioethanol production. There are two isolates bacteria resulted from G. salicornia that are N1 and N3 and there are two isolates from G. latifolium that are BSUC2 and BSUC4. The result of agarase enzyme qualitative test showed that isolates bacteria from G. latifolium were greater than G. salicornia. The highest agarolitic index of bacteria from G. salicornia produced by isolate N3 was 2.32 mm and isolate N3 was 2.27 mm. Bacteria from G. latifolium produced by isolate BSUC4 was 4.28 mm and isolate BSUC2 was 4.18 mm, respectively. Agarase enzyme activities from isolates N1 and N3 were optimum working at pH 7 and temperature 30 °C, while from isolates BSUC4 was optimum at pH 7 and temperature 50 °C. This is indicated that the four bacteria are appropriate to hydrolyze macro alga for bioethanol production.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of macroalgae: methane potentials, pre-treatment, inhibition and co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we tested four macroalgae species – harvested in Denmark – for their suitability of bioconversion to methane. In batch experiments (53 WC) methane yields varied from 132 ml g volatile solids1 (VS) for Gracillaria vermiculophylla, 152 ml g VS1 for Ulva lactuca, 166 ml g VS1...

  14. Effect of graded levels of dietary seaweed (Ulva sp. on growth, hematological and serum biochemical parameters in dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus, sciaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molatelo Junior Madibana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the effect of incorporating graded levels of green macroalgae seaweed (Ulva sp. into diets of juvenile dusky kob (Argyrosomus japonicus on growth performance, hematology and serum biochemistry. Five experimental diets were formulated to contain 0 (Ulva0, 50 (Ulva50, 100 (Ulva100, 150 (Ulva150 and 200 (Ulva200 g seaweed meal/kg commercial kob feed on a dry matter basis. Seventy-seven dusky kob fingerlings (mean body mass 9.14 ± 0.30 g were distributed into each of 20 experimental tanks and offered diets at 2.8% body mass. Weight and length of fish were measured weekly for 9 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, fish fed Ulva50 had higher body mass (38.20 ± 1.38 g compared to those fed the other three Ulva-based diets. Fish offered Ulva200 had significantly (P  .05 by dietary treatments. However, the levels of both blood cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase tended to decrease as dietary Ulva inclusion levels increased. These results indicate that Ulva could be incorporated at the rate of 50 g kg−1 in future commercial dusky kob diets without any negative effects on feed utilizationa and growth performance. Hematology and serum biochemistry results indicate that dietary inclusion of Ulva had no adverse effects on physiological status of the fish. Keywords: Ulva sp., Haematology, Dusky kob, Feed conversion efficiency, Specific growth rate

  15. Bioprospecção de macroalgas marinhas e plantas aquáticas para o controle da antracnose do feijoeiro Bioprospecting of marine seaweeds and aquatic plants for controlling the bean anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Fernandes de Abreu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar o efeito local, residual e sistêmico, de extratos de 17 espécies de macroalgas marinhas e de duas plantas aquáticas, sobre a antracnose do feijoeiro. Para tanto, os espécimes foram coletados, identificados, secos em estufa (50ºC/ 48 h, moídos e seus compostos extraídos com etanol. Plantas de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Uirapuru foram cultivadas em vasos, em casa-de-vegetação. Os 19 extratos foram subdivididos e testados em duas etapas de seleção e comparação independentes, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco repetições (vasos com três plantas. As plantas foram pulverizadas com extratos na concentração de 50 mg de peso seco/mL quando apresentavam o primeiro trifólio expandido. Para verificar o efeito local, as plantas foram inoculadas com uma suspensão de 1,2 x 10(6 conídios/mL 4 horas após o tratamento, enquanto que para o estudo do efeito residual e sistêmico, as plantas foram inoculadas 7 dias após o tratamento. A severidade da antracnose foi avaliada 7 dias após a inoculação (dai na planta inteira e no trifólio não tratado (efeito sistêmico, utilizando-se uma escala de 1 a 9. As algas e plantas que reduziram significativamente a severidade da doença foram comparadas em experimento avaliado aos 7 e aos 12 dai. O extrato de Bryothamnion seaforthii apresentou efeito local, reduzindo em 35% a severidade da antracnose, enquanto o extrato de Ulva fasciata demonstrou efeito residual com redução de 22% na doença aos 12 dai. Somente os extratos de Lemna sp. e U. fasciata reduziram sistemicamente a severidade de doença aos 7 dai na ordem de 55 e 44%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha. O possível modo de ação desses extratos é discutido.The goal of this work was to test the local, residual as well as systemic effect of extracts from 17 marine seaweeds and two aquatic plant species against the bean anthracnose. For that, specimens were

  16. Separation of Native Allophycocyanin and R-Phycocyanin from Marine Red Macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata by the Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Performed in Novel Buffer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Gong, Xueqin; Wang, Shumei; Chen, Lixue; Sun, Li

    2014-01-01

    Three buffer systems of Imidazole−Acetic acid, HEPES−Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris−HEPES−MES were designed based on the principle of discontinuous polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for the native PAGE which could be performed in pH 7.0 and 6.5 in order to analyze and prepare the minor components of allophycocyanin (AP) and R-phycocyanin (R-PC) from marine red macroalga Polysiphonia urceolata. These AP and R-PC phycobiliproteins are easily denatured in alkaline environments. The obtained results demonstrated that the PAGE modes performed in the buffer systems of HEPES−Imidazole/Bis-tris and Bis-tris−HEPES−MES gave the satisfactory resolution and separation of AP and R-PC proteins. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the AP and R-PC proteins which were prepared by the established PAGE modes proved that they maintained natural spectroscopic characteristics. The established PAGE modes may also provide useful references and selections for some other proteins that are sensitive to alkaline environments or are not effectively separated by the classical PAGE modes performed normally in alkaline buffer systems. PMID:25166028

  17. Green seaweed Ulva as a monitor for pollution in coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, H.G.

    1983-01-01

    Methods have been developed which capitalize on the capacity of Ulva to function as a bioindicator of pollution in coastal waters. Studies have been performed evaluating the growth of both Ulva tissue discs and Ulva germlings as they relate to physical and chemical parameters of the environment. The Ulva tissue disc method for the in situ monitoring of organic load (nitrogen and phosphorus) in coastal waters was demonstrated to be marginally effective. The in situ differential growth reponse of parthenogenetically developed germlings fulfilled the monitoring objective, but multi-faceted environmental considerations introduced complications which reduced the feasibility of the germling deployment method for routine monitoring. The assessment of Ulva as a bioaccumulator was undertaken. Use of Ulva as an in situ sampling device has demonstrated appreciable success. This in situ monitor can provide concentrated samples of environmental pollutants. Analytical techniques have been employed to extract information on trace metals, pesticides, PCBs and other accumulated organohalides. Ulva is a bioacumulator which, by all standards, has much to recommend it. Precedures have been developed to reduce much of the inherent biological varation. Ulva has world-wide occurrence, and is therefore capable of providing a standard for comparison of data. This alga merits consideration as an international monitor for pollutants in the marine environment.

  18. Regulation of gametogenesis and zoosporogenesis in Ulva linza (Chlorophyta): comparison with Ulva mutabilis and potential for laboratory culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesty, Eleanor F.; Kessler, Ralf W.; Wichard, Thomas; Coates, Juliet C.

    2015-01-01

    Green Ulvophyte macroalgae represent attractive model systems for understanding growth, development, and evolution. They are untapped resources for food, fuel, and high-value compounds, but can also form nuisance blooms. To fully analyze green seaweed morphogenesis, controlled laboratory-based culture of these organisms is required. To date, only a single Ulvophyte species, Ulva mutabilis Føyn, has been manipulated to complete its whole life cycle in laboratory culture and to grow continuously under axenic conditions. Such cultures are essential to address multiple key questions in Ulva development and in algal–bacterial interactions. Here we show that another Ulva species, U. linza, with a broad geographical distribution, has the potential to be grown in axenic culture similarly to U. mutabilis. U. linza can be reliably induced to sporulate (form gametes and zoospores) in the laboratory, by cutting the relevant thallus tissue into small pieces and removing extracellular inhibitors (sporulation and swarming inhibitors). The germ cells work as an ideal feed stock for standardized algae cultures. The requirement of U. linza for bacterial signals to induce its normal morphology (particularly of the rhizoids) appears to have a species-specific component. The axenic cultures of these two species pave the way for future comparative studies of algal–microbial interactions. PMID:25674100

  19. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of Mediterranean macro-algae as dynamic factors for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlia M. El Maghraby

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the total lipid contents and fatty acid profiles, the marine macro-algae Jania rubens (Rhodophyceae, Ulva linza (Chlorophyceae and Padina pavonica (Phaeophyceae were evaluated for biodiesel production during the spring, summer and autumn. Seawater parameters such as pH, salinity and temperature were measured. The total lipid content varied from 1.56% (J. rubens to 4.14% (U. linza of dry weight, with the highest values occurring in spring. The fatty acid methyl ester profiles were analysed using gas chromatography. The highest percentage of total fatty acids was recorded in P. pavonica, with 6.2% in autumn, whereas the lowest was in J. rubens, with 68.6% in summer. The relative amount of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was significantly higher in P. pavonica than in the other macro-algae. Seasonal variations in pH, salinity and temperature had no significant effect on the total lipid and fatty acid contents. Principal component analysis grouped brown and green algae together, whereas red alga grouped out. Furthermore, methyl ester profiles indicate that brown and green seaweeds are preferred, followed by red seaweeds, which appears to have little potential for oil-based products. Therefore, these seaweeds are not targets for biodiesel production.

  20. Strong Endemism of bloom-forming tubular Ulva in Indian West Coast, with description of Ulva paschima Sp. Nov. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Felix; John, Aijaz Ahmad; Bhushan, Satej

    2014-01-01

    Ulva intestinalis and Ulva compressa are two bloom-forming morphologically-cryptic species of green seaweeds widely accepted as cosmopolitan in distribution. Previous studies have shown that these are two distinct species that exhibit great morphological plasticity with changing seawater salinity. Here we present a phylogeographic assessment of tubular Ulva that we considered belonging to this complex collected from various marine and estuarine green-tide occurrences in a ca. 600 km stretch of the Indian west coast. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic reconstructions using ITS nrDNA revealed strong endemism of Indian tubular Ulva, with none of the Indian isolates forming part of the already described phylogenetic clades of either U. compressa or U. intestinalis. Due to the straightforward conclusion that Indian isolates form a robust and distinct phylogenetic clade, a description of a new bloom-forming species, Ulva paschima Bast, is formally proposed. Our phylogenetic reconstructions using Neighbor-Joining method revealed evolutionary affinity of this new species with Ulva flexuosa. This is the first molecular assessment of Ulva from the Indian Subcontinent.

  1. Potential of macroalgae for biodiesel production: Screening and evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abomohra, Abd El-Fatah; El-Naggar, Amal Hamed; Baeshen, Areej Ali

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, biofuel production is a fast expanding industry and is facing a growing dilemma about a feedstock source capable of keeping up with demand. Recently, macroalgae have been attracting a wide attention as a source for biofuel. In the present study, ten macroalgae were collected and screened as biodiesel feedstocks. As a result of their high biomass production and relatively high lipid content, Ulva lactuca, Padina boryana and Ulva intestinalis showed the highest significant lipids and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) areal productivities among the studied species. Saturated fatty acids (SAFs) showed insignificant differences in the selected species, with noticeably significant higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) content in U. lactuca by 4.2 and 3 times, with respect to P. boryana and U. intestinalis, respectively. The recorded increase in PUFAs was attributed to higher content of C16:4n-3, C18:3n-3 and C18:4n-3. By lipid fractionation, P. boryana showed significant higher concentration of neutral lipids (37.7 mg g -1 CDW, representing 46.7% of total fatty acids) in comparison to U. lactuca and U. intestinalis, which showed 16% and 17% lower neutral lipid fractions, respectively. In addition, biodiesel characteristics of the studied macroalgae complied with that of international standards. Furthermore, oil-free residual biomass can be readily converted into fermentable sugars or biogas due to its high carbohydrates content, which adds to the economics of macroalgae as biofuel feedstock. In conclusion, the present study confirmed that macroalgae represent an attractive alternative renewable feedstock for biodiesel and other biofuels. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of the aqueous extract and polysaccharide fraction from brown marine macroalgae Padina sp. from Gulf of Mannar of Peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nammunayathuputhenkotta Krishnankartha Praveen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of the aqueous extract and polysaccharide fraction from two brown marine macroalga, Padina gymnospora (P. gymnospora and Padina tetrastomatica (P. tetrastomatica harvested from Gulf of Mannar of peninsular India. Methods: The antioxidant activity was evaluated using different in vitro systems, viz., 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2, 2′-azino-bis-3ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS, H2O2/ HO. radical scavenging, Fe2+ ion chelating ability, and reducing potential. Folin–Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content, and the results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalents (GE. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance formation inhibition assay was employed to assess the ability of the samples to inhibit lipid oxidation in a model system. COXII and LOXV inhibition assays were employed to assess the anti-inflammatory potential of aqueous extract and polysaccharide fraction. Results: The aqueous extract fraction of P. tetrastomatica realized high total phenolic content (288 mg GE/g, and its activity towards scavenging short-lived radicals (OH. and H2O2 (27.8% and 68.3%, respectively; 0.6 mg/mL are higher than those registered for Padina gymnospora. Aqueous extract and polysaccharide fractions of P. gymnospora showed higher anti-inflammatory activities against LOXV (56% and 53%, respectively and COXII (30% and 35%, respectively; 1 mg/mL enzymes. The correlation studies confirmed that polysaccharides present with the Padina sp. are responsible for their anti-inflammatory potential. IR spectral data of polysaccharide fraction revealed the presence of polysaccharide in alginate form and also confirmed the presence of sulphated polysaccharides as principle bioactive constituents. Conclusions: The study revealed that these seaweeds possess beneficial value as human food or health additives and can be used as a natural green

  3. Green tide to green fuels: TG–FTIR analysis and kinetic study of Ulva prolifera pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceylan, Selim; Goldfarb, Jillian L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Distributed Activation Energy Model applied to Ulva prolifera pyrolysis. • Model and experimental data in good agreement to predict activation energy. • Ulva prolifera shows relatively low activation energy compared to other macroalgae. • Evolved gas analysis shows CO 2 emission decreasing with temperature. • Methane evolution increases with temperature, peaks at 800 °C. - Abstract: The world grapples with identifying renewable replacements for fossil fuels. Ulva prolifera, a macroalgae species that has caused green tides in China and Europe, represents a possible source of renewable energy. Given its low lipid content, thermochemical conversion techniques such as pyrolysis may be more suitable than biochemical techniques. We apply the Distributed Activation Energy Model to determine the activation energy of pyrolysis of U. prolifera from thermogravimetric data with combined evolved gas analysis via FTIR. Correlation coefficients for the DAEM were greater than 0.98 at each conversion; the apparent activation energy ranged from 130 to 152 kJ/mol, in good accord with the literature. Three stages of decomposition were noted over the entire temperature range; below 110 °C mass loss due to moisture removal. The largest stage of pyrolysis occurred between 190 and 400 °C with peak mass loss conversion rates up to 8.1 wt% per minute at 20 °C/min. The concentration of CO 2 in the evolved gas peaked along with mass loss rate at 242.7 °C. Stage III of pyrolysis saw a slow mass loss rate and a significant amount of methane from the macroalgae. Given its low energy, nutrient, land and maintenance requirements to grow, tolerance to a variety of environmental conditions, and low pyrolysis activation energies (as compared to other macroalgae), thermochemical conversion via pyrolysis is a viable way to extract energy from this seaweed species

  4. Macroalgae δ15N values in well-mixed estuaries: Indicator of anthropogenic nitrogen input or macroalgae metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimonet, Mélanie; Guillou, Gaël; Mornet, Françoise; Richard, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    Although nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ15N) in macroalgae is widely used as a bioindicator of anthropogenic nitrogen inputs to the coastal zone, recent studies suggest the possible role of macroalgae metabolism in δ15N variability. Simultaneous determinations of δ15N of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) along the land-sea continuum, inter-species variability of δ15N and its sensitivity to environmental factors are necessary to confirm the efficiency of macroalgae δ15N in monitoring nitrogen origin in mixed-use watersheds. In this study, δ15N of annual and perennial macroalgae (Ulva sp., Enteromorpha sp., Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus) are compared to δ15N-DIN along the Charente Estuary, after characterizing δ15N of the three main DIN sources (i.e. cultivated area, pasture, sewage treatment plant outlet). During late winter and spring, when human activities produce high DIN inputs, DIN sources exhibit distinct δ15N signals in nitrate (NO) and ammonium (NH): cultivated area (+6.5 ± 0.6‰ and +9.0 ± 11.0‰), pasture (+9.2 ± 1.8‰ and +12.4‰) and sewage treatment plant discharge (+16.9 ± 8.7‰ and +25.4 ± 5.9‰). While sources show distinct δN- in this multiple source catchment, the overall mixture of NO sources - generally >95% DIN - leads to low variations of δN-NO at the mouth of the estuary (+7.7 to +8.4‰). Even if estuarine δN-NO values are not significantly different from pristine continental and oceanic site (+7.3‰ and +7.4‰), macroalgae δ15N values are generally higher at the mouth of the estuary. This highlights high anthropogenic DIN inputs in the estuary, and enhanced contribution of 15N-depleted NH in oceanic waters. Although seasonal variations in δN-NO are low, the same temporal trends in macroalgae δ15N values at estuarine and oceanic sites, and inter-species differences in δ15N values, suggest that macroalgae δ15N values might be modified by the metabolic response of macroalgae to environmental parameters (e

  5. Deconstruction of Macroalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Seema [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scullin, Chessa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Simmons, Blake [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-26

    The goal of this collaborative project was to explore the feasibility of using macroalgae as a feedstock for biofuel. Specifically to focus on the conversion of macroalgae to biofuels or other valuable co-products which are low carbon, cost-effective, and sustainable. The main objectives were to develop a library of the composition of macroalgae, develop optimal pretreatments, investigate and determine and optimize enzymatic cocktails capable of efficiently hydrolyzing the resultant polysaccharides into monomeric sugars. The initial technical objective was to identify, verify, and develop new modes of pre-treatment and evaluate enzymes for hydrolysis of macroalgae to fermentable sugars.

  6. Implications of Zostera noltii recolonization on Hydrobia ulvae population structure success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, T F; Cardoso, P G; Pardal, M A

    2012-02-01

    Over 1990-1998, the Mondego estuary, Portugal, experienced profound modifications due to eutrophication, culminating in the disappearance and replacement of Zostera noltii by opportunistic macroalgae in the inner most disturbed areas. A decade after restoration measures implementation, Z. noltii started to gradually recolonize the inner parts, following 20 years of absence. This work explores the factors underlying successful Z. noltii recolonization and its subsequent implications on a mud snail Hydrobia ulvae population. During the macroalgal bloom, highest values in H. ulvae abundance, biomass and production were recorded, strongly declining afterwards. Three recovery attempts characterized the post-restoration phase, with considerably increases in H. ulvae abundance, biomass and production since Z. noltii reappearance. The seagrass provided long-term protection and abundant food resources for reproductive adults, contrarily to the ephemeral macroalgae. Through time, large size individuals increased, becoming the population more stable, structured and similar to the one inhabiting the "original"Z. noltii meadows. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of season and location on the natural radioactivity in marine macroalgae (Gracilaria edulis) of coastal Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saroja, P.M.; Raj, G.A.G.; Selvan, K.E.

    2012-01-01

    Gracilaria edulis, an edible red marine macro algae from three high background radiation areas (Arockiapuram, Kadiapattinam and Kurumpanai) on the southwest coast of Tamil Nadu, and one low background radiation area (Mandapam) on the southeast coast of Tamil Nadu, in India, were studied for variations in average gross alpha and beta radiation activities. Significant variations in average gross beta activities were observed while alpha activities showed only marginal variation. The average gross alpha activity was recorded high (61.51 Bq kg -1 ) during the post southwest monsoon season, while it recorded lowest (25.48 Bq kg -1 ) during the post northeast monsoon season. Average gross beta activity varied between seasons with the lowest level (211.55 Bq Kg -1 ) during post southwest monsoon season and the highest (413.33 Bq kg -1 ) during post northeast monsoon season. Among the four locations, the gross alpha activity was high (70.95 ± 26.74 Bq Kg -1 ) in Arockiapuram and low (18.74 ± 6.32 Bq Kg -1 ) in Mandapam, while the gross beta activity was high (442.25 ± 168.53 Bq Kg -1 ) in Kurumpanai and low (158.63 ± 34.37 Bq Kg -1 ) in Mandapam. Average gross alpha activity in G. edulis was found significantly varying in terms of locations, while average gross beta activity for the same species recorded significant seasonal variation. (author)

  8. Apparent characteristics and taxonomic study of macroalgae in Pattani Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naruemol Pianthumdee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available 2A survey on macroalgae in Pattani Bay was carried out to build up a database resource for the management of algae in the area. From February 2004 to March 2005, samples of macroalgae from 10 sites were randomly collected monthly. Macroalgae were found at 4 sites in the north of the bay, namely Laem Tachi, Lighthouse, Ban Bu Di and Ban Ta Lo Samilae; 3 sites in the east, namely Ban Da To, the Yaring River Mouth and Ban Bang Pu and only one site in the south at Ban Tanyong Lu Lo. Twelve species of 3 divisions of macroalgae were detected. They were Division Cyanophyta, Lyngbya majuscula (Dillwyn Harvey ex Gomont; Division Chlorophyta; Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus, U. pertusa Kjellman and U. reticulata Forsskal, Rhizoclonium riparium (Roth Harvey, R. tortuosum Kutzing, Chaetomorpha crassa (C. Agardh Kutzing and Cladophora sp.; and Division Rhodophyta, namely Gracilaria tenuistipitata Chang et Xia, G. fisheri (Xia et Abbott Abbott, Zhang et Xia, Hypnea spinella (C. Agardh Kutzing and Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl B∅rgesen. Among them, four species were new recordings at Pattani Bay: Lyngbya majuscula, Rhizoclonium riparium, R. tortuosum and Acanthophora spicifera. Most of these seaweeds were found at the east sites in the dry season from February to September 2004 and from January to March 2005. Only a few species could be found in the wet season from November to December 2004.

  9. Detection of macroalgae blooms by complex SAR imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Hui; Perrie, William; Liu, Qingrong; He, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Complex SAR imagery enables better recognition of macroalgae patches. • Combination of different information in SAR matrix forms new index factors. • Proposed index factors contribute to unsupervised recognition of macroalgae. -- Abstract: Increased frequency and enhanced damage to the marine environment and to human society caused by green macroalgae blooms demand improved high-resolution early detection methods. Conventional satellite remote sensing methods via spectra radiometers do not work in cloud-covered areas, and therefore cannot meet these demands for operational applications. We present a methodology for green macroalgae bloom detection based on RADARSAT-2 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Green macroalgae patches exhibit different polarimetric characteristics compared to the open ocean surface, in both the amplitude and phase domains of SAR-measured complex radar backscatter returns. In this study, new index factors are defined which have opposite signs in green macroalgae-covered areas, compared to the open water surface. These index factors enable unsupervised detection from SAR images, providing a high-resolution new tool for detection of green macroalgae blooms, which can potentially contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms related to outbreaks of green macroalgae blooms in coastal areas throughout the world ocean

  10. Solar ultraviolet radiation affects the activity of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase and the composition of photosynthetic and xanthophyll cycle pigments in the intertidal green alga Ulva lactuca L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischof, K; Krabs, G; Wiencke, C; Hanelt, D

    The effect of solar UV radiation on the physiology of the intertidal green macroalga Ulva lactuca L. was investigated. A natural Ulm community at the shore of Helgoland was covered with screening foils, excluding UV-B or UV-B + UV-A from the solar spectrum. In the sampled material, changes in the

  11. Bioenergy potential of Ulva lactuca: Biomass yield, methane production and combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Dahl, Jonas; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The biomass production potential at temperate latitudes (56°N), and the quality of the biomass for energy production (anaerobic digestion to methane and direct combustion) were investigated for the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca. The algae were cultivated in a land based facility demonstrating...... in weight specific methane production compared to wet biomass. Ash and alkali contents are the main challenges in the use of U. lactuca for direct combustion. Application of a bio-refinery concept could increase the economical value of the U. lactuca biomass as well as improve its suitability for production...

  12. A relative contribution of carbon from green tide algae Cladophora glomerata and Ulva intestinalis in the coastal food webs in the Neva Estuary (Baltic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubkov, Sergey M; Berezina, Nadezhda A; Gubelit, Yulia I; Demchuk, Anna S; Golubkov, Mikhail S; Tiunov, Alexei V

    2018-01-01

    We analyzed stable isotope composition of carbon and nitrogen of suspended organic matter (seston) and tissues of macroalgae, macroinvertebrates and fish from the coastal area of the highly eutrophic Neva Estuary to test a hypothesis that organic carbon of macroalgae Cladophora glomerata and Ulva intestinalis produced during green tides may be among primary sources supporting coastal food webs. The Stable Isotope Bayesian mixing model (SIAR) showed that consumers poorly use organic carbon produced by macroalgae. According to the results of SIAR modeling, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish mostly rely on pelagic derived carbon as a basal resource for their production. Only some species of macroinvertebrates consumed macroalgae. Fish used this resource directly consuming zooplankton or indirectly via benthic macroinvertebrates. This was consistent with the results of the gut content analysis, which revealed a high proportion of zooplankton in the guts of non-predatory fish. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Biosynthesis of 3-Dimethylsulfoniopropionate in Marine Algae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhodes, David

    2000-01-01

    ...) in marine algae, including identification of intermediates and enzymes of the pathway in the macroalgae Enteromorpha Intestinalis, and three diverse marine phytoplankton species; Tetraselmis sp...

  14. Tracking macroalgae introductions in North Atlantic oceanic islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micael, Joana; Parente, Manuela I.; Costa, Ana C.

    2014-06-01

    The Azores archipelago was selected as a case study since there are few studies on macroalgae introduction in oceanic islands. While at a global scale, around 3 % of macroalgae are considered non-indigenous; in the remote oceanic islands of the Azores, over 6 % of the marine algal flora is non-indigenous. The taxa distribution pattern of non-indigenous species in the Azores is significantly different from the distribution pattern in the globe. The most representative group was Rhodophyta species, being 84 % of the total non-indigenous macroalgae, mainly introduced via maritime traffic. This study highlights the vulnerability of remote islands to the introduction of macroalgae and the need to develop further studies on other archipelagos to understand whether the observed vulnerability is generally characteristic of oceanic islands. The development of local monitoring and mitigation programs and the necessity of regulatory and preventive measures for the maritime traffic vector are strongly suggested.

  15. Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta macroalgae: a source of health promoting phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sonia A O; Vilela, Carla; Freire, Carmen S R; Abreu, Maria H; Rocha, Silvia M; Silvestre, Armando J D

    2015-09-15

    A detailed study of the lipophilic composition of Codium tomentosum, Ulva lactuca, Gracilaria vermiculophylla and Chondrus crispus macroalgae cultivated in the Portuguese coast was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry before and after alkaline hydrolysis. Their long-chain aliphatic alcohols and monoglycerides compositions are reported for the first time. Additionally, other new compounds were also identified: phytol and neophytadiene in C. tomentosum, U. lactuca and G. vermiculophylla and stigmasterol, α-tocopherol and 24-methylenecholesterol in C. tomentosum. The lipophilic fraction of the studied macroalgae are mainly constituted by fatty acids (110.1-1030.5mgkg(-1) of dry material) and sterols (14.8-1309.1mgkg(-1) of dry material). C. tomentosum showed to be a valuable source of stigmasterol (1229.0mgkg(-1) of dry material) and α-tocopherol (21.8mgkg(-1) of dry material). These results are a relevant contribution for the valorisation of these macroalgae species as sources of valuable phytochemicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Surfactant assisted disperser pretreatment on the liquefaction of Ulva reticulata and evaluation of biodegradability for energy efficient biofuel production through nonlinear regression modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M Dinesh; Tamilarasan, K; Kaliappan, S; Banu, J Rajesh; Rajkumar, M; Kim, Sang Hyoun

    2018-05-01

    The present study aimed to increase the disintegration potential of marine macroalgae, (Ulva reticulata) through chemo mechanical pretreatment (CMP) in an energy efficient manner. By combining surfactant with disperser, the specific energy input was considerably reduced from 437.1 kJ/kg TS to 264.9 kJ/kg TS to achieve 10.7% liquefaction. A disperser rpm (10,000), pretreatment time (30 min) and tween 80 dosage (21.6 mg/L) were considered as an optimum for effective liquefaction of algal biomass. CMP was designated as an appropriate pretreatment resulting in a higher soluble organic release 1250 mg/L, respectively. Anaerobic fermentation results revealed that the volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration was doubled (782 mg/L) in CMP when compared to mechanical pretreatment (MP) (345 mg/L). CMP pretreated algal biomass was considered as the suitable for biohydrogen production with highest H 2 yield of about 63 mL H 2 /g COD than (MP) (45 mL H 2 /g COD) and control (10 mL H 2 /g COD). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex-dependent effects of ultraviolet radiation on the marine amphipod Ampithoe valida (Ampithoidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiñas, Macarena S; Helbling, E Walter

    2015-06-01

    The combined effects of solar radiation and diet on the marine amphipod Ampithoe valida were investigated exposing individuals to two solar radiation treatments: PAB (>280 nm, PAR+UV-A+UV-B) and P (>400 nm, only PAR), and three diets: poor (Ulva rigida) and rich (Porphyra columbina) in UV-absorbing compounds (UVAC), and mixed diet: (U. rigida+P. columbina). Females of A. valida showed higher food consumption rates when diets contained P. columbina, and preferred this macroalgae rather than U. rigida, resulting in a higher content of UVAC in their bodies. Moreover, the content of UVAC increased in the PAB treatment, thus suggesting the existence of a mechanism to accumulate these compounds under UVR. Although UVR affected the survival, the highest mortality rates were found in those females fed with poor-UVAC diets, which evidence that UVAC provided partial protection against UVR. Males preferred mixed diet, and did not show preference for any particular macroalgae. No differences in mortality were observed between radiation treatments, indicating that UVR did not affect the survival of males, independently if they accumulated UVAC or not. The vulnerability of females to UVR would be partially determined by the type of food consumed, which in turn would be closely related to the macroalgae composition of the intertidal they inhabiting. These effects could be even more pronounced under a global change scenario. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Allelopathic inhibition of photosynthesis in the red tide-causing marine alga, Scrippsiella trochoidea (Pyrrophyta), by the dried macroalga, Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Changpeng; Liao, Heping; Yang, Yufeng

    2014-07-01

    The red tide-causing microalga, Scrippsiella trochoidea was co-cultured with different quantities of dried macroalga Gracilaria lemaneiformis under laboratory conditions, to characterize the allelopathic inhibition effect of the seaweed on photosynthesis of the microalga. Photosynthetic oxygen evolution was measured, and chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence transient O-J-I-P (O, J, I and P point in primary photochemistry reaction curve in photosystem II) curves associated with its specific parameters were determined. A concentration-dependent inhibition of S. trochoidea was observed when the dried seaweed was added. The rate of light-saturated maximum photosynthetic oxygen evolution (Pmax) was markedly decreased, and the O-J-I-P curve coupled with its specific parameters was reduced. The inhibitory effects of the macroalga on the microalga, according to the JIP-test (the relative fluorescence analysis based on O-J-I-P curve) and the activity of oxygen evolution, include a decrease in the number of active reaction centers, the blocking-up of the electron transport chain, and the damage to the oxygen-evolving complex. This study suggests that dried G. lemaneiformis is effective in inhibiting photosynthesis of S. trochoidea, and could thus be a potential candidate for mitigating S. trochoidea blooms.

  19. Exploring bacteria-induced growth and morphogenesis in the green macroalga order Ulvales (Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eWichard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Green macroalgae, such as Ulvales, lose their typical morphology completely when grown under axenic conditions or in the absence of the appropriate microbiome. As a result, slow growing aberrant phenotypes or even callus-like morphotypes are observed in Ulvales. The cross-kingdom interactions between marine algae and microorganisms are hence not only restricted by the exchange of macronutrients, including vitamins and nutrients, but also by infochemicals such as bacterial morphogenetic compounds. The latter are a fundamental trait mediating the mutualism within the chemosphere where the organisms interact with each other via compounds in their surroundings.Approximately 60 years ago, pilot studies demonstrated that certain bacteria promote growth, whereas other bacteria induce morphogenesis; this is particularly true for the order of Ulvales. However, only slow progress was made towards the underlying mechanism due to the complexity of, for example, algal cultivation techniques, and the lack of standardized experiments in the laboratory.A breakthrough in this research was the discovery of the morphogenetic compound thallusin, which was isolated from an epiphytic bacterium and induces normal germination and restores the foliaceous morphotypes of Monostroma. Owing to the low concentration, the purification and structure elucidation of highly biologically active morphogenetic compounds is still challenging. Recently, it was found that only the combination of two specific bacteria from the Rhodobacteraceae and Flavobacteriaceae can completely recover the growth and morphogenesis of axenic Ulva mutabilis cultures forming a symbiotic tripartite community by chemical communication.This review combines literature detailing evidence of bacteria-induced morphogenesis in Ulvales. A set of standardized experimental approaches is further proposed for the preparation of axenic algal tissues, bacteria isolation, co-cultivation experiments, and the analysis of

  20. Exploring bacteria-induced growth and morphogenesis in the green macroalga order Ulvales (Chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Green macroalgae, such as Ulvales, lose their typical morphology completely when grown under axenic conditions or in the absence of the appropriate microbiome. As a result, slow growing aberrant phenotypes or even callus-like morphotypes are observed in Ulvales. The cross-kingdom interactions between marine algae and microorganisms are hence not only restricted by the exchange of macronutrients, including vitamins and nutrients, but also by infochemicals such as bacterial morphogenetic compounds. The latter are a fundamental trait mediating the mutualism within the chemosphere where the organisms interact with each other via compounds in their surroundings. Approximately 60 years ago, pilot studies demonstrated that certain bacteria promote growth, whereas other bacteria induce morphogenesis; this is particularly true for the order of Ulvales. However, only slow progress was made towards the underlying mechanism due to the complexity of, for example, algal cultivation techniques, and the lack of standardized experiments in the laboratory. A breakthrough in this research was the discovery of the morphogenetic compound thallusin, which was isolated from an epiphytic bacterium and induces normal germination restoring the foliaceous morphotypes of Monostroma. Owing to the low concentration, the purification and structure elucidation of highly biologically active morphogenetic compounds are still challenging. Recently, it was found that only the combination of two specific bacteria from the Rhodobacteraceae and Flavobacteriaceae can completely recover the growth and morphogenesis of axenic Ulva mutabilis cultures forming a symbiotic tripartite community by chemical communication. This review combines literature detailing evidences of bacteria-induced morphogenesis in Ulvales. A set of standardized experimental approaches is further proposed for the preparation of axenic algal tissues, bacteria isolation, co-cultivation experiments, and the analysis of the chemosphere

  1. Bioremediation potential, growth and biomass yield of the green seaweed, Ulva lactuca in an integrated marine aquaculture system at the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia at different stocking densities and effluent flow rates

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hafedh, Yousef S.; Alam, Aftab; Buschmann, Alejandro H.

    2014-01-01

    Growth, production and biofiltration rates of seaweed, Ulva lactuca were investigated at two stocking densities (3 kg and 6 kg m-2) and two effluent flow rates (5.4 and 10.8 m3 day-1) to optimize an integrated mariculture system at Saudi Red Sea coast. effluents from fish-rearing tank, stocked with 200 kg fish (Oreochromis spilurus), fed to six seaweed tanks via sedimentation tank. Fish growth (weight gain 1.75 g fish day-1), net production (NP, 10.16 kg m-3) and survival (94.24%) were within acceptable limits. Ulva showed significantly higher (F = 62.62, d.f. 3, 35; P < 0.0001) specific growth rates at lower density compared with higher density and under high flow versus low flow (SGR = 5.78% vs. 2.55% at lower flow and 10.60% vs. 6.26% at higher flow). Biomass yield of Ulva at low- and high-stocking densities (111.11 and 83.2 g wet wt m-2 day-1, respectively) at low flow and (267.44 and 244.19 g wet wt m-2 day-1, respectively) at high flow show that high flow rate and lower density favoured growth. Removal rates of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) (0.26-0.31 g m-2 day-1) and phosphate phosphorus (0.32-0.41 g m-2 day-1) by U. lactuca were not significantly different (F = 1.9, d.f. 3, 59; P = 0.1394 for TAN and F = 0.29, d.f. 3, 59; P = 0.8324 for phosphates) at both the flow rates and stocking densities. Results show that the effluent flow rate has significant impact over the performance of the seaweed than stocking density.

  2. Bioremediation potential, growth and biomass yield of the green seaweed, Ulva lactuca in an integrated marine aquaculture system at the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia at different stocking densities and effluent flow rates

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Hafedh, Yousef S.

    2014-03-19

    Growth, production and biofiltration rates of seaweed, Ulva lactuca were investigated at two stocking densities (3 kg and 6 kg m-2) and two effluent flow rates (5.4 and 10.8 m3 day-1) to optimize an integrated mariculture system at Saudi Red Sea coast. effluents from fish-rearing tank, stocked with 200 kg fish (Oreochromis spilurus), fed to six seaweed tanks via sedimentation tank. Fish growth (weight gain 1.75 g fish day-1), net production (NP, 10.16 kg m-3) and survival (94.24%) were within acceptable limits. Ulva showed significantly higher (F = 62.62, d.f. 3, 35; P < 0.0001) specific growth rates at lower density compared with higher density and under high flow versus low flow (SGR = 5.78% vs. 2.55% at lower flow and 10.60% vs. 6.26% at higher flow). Biomass yield of Ulva at low- and high-stocking densities (111.11 and 83.2 g wet wt m-2 day-1, respectively) at low flow and (267.44 and 244.19 g wet wt m-2 day-1, respectively) at high flow show that high flow rate and lower density favoured growth. Removal rates of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) (0.26-0.31 g m-2 day-1) and phosphate phosphorus (0.32-0.41 g m-2 day-1) by U. lactuca were not significantly different (F = 1.9, d.f. 3, 59; P = 0.1394 for TAN and F = 0.29, d.f. 3, 59; P = 0.8324 for phosphates) at both the flow rates and stocking densities. Results show that the effluent flow rate has significant impact over the performance of the seaweed than stocking density.

  3. Biochemical studies in Ulva reticulata Forsskal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    Major metabolites like proteins, carbohydrates and lipids in the alga Ulva reticulata were estimated. Carbohydrate was found to decrease after December which may perhaps be due to the spore formation and extensive growth of the thallus. Protein...

  4. Design and Analysis of Offshore Macroalgae Biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Alexander; Liberzon, Alexander; Vitkin, Edward; Yakhini, Zohar

    2018-03-15

    Displacing fossil fuels and their derivatives with renewables, and increasing sustainable food production are among the major challenges facing the world in the coming decades. A possible, sustainable direction for addressing this challenge is the production of biomass and the conversion of this biomass to the required products through a complex system coined biorefinery. Terrestrial biomass and microalgae are possible sources; however, concerns over net energy balance, potable water use, environmental hazards, and uncertainty in the processing technologies raise questions regarding their actual potential to meet the anticipated food, feed, and energy challenges in a sustainable way. Alternative sustainable sources for biorefineries are macroalgae grown and processed offshore. However, implementation of the offshore biorefineries requires detailed analysis of their technological, economic, and environmental performance. In this chapter, the basic principles of marine biorefineries design are shown. The methods to integrate thermodynamic efficiency, investment, and environmental aspects are discussed. The performance improvement by development of new cultivation methods that fit macroalgae physiology and development of new fermentation methods that address macroalgae unique chemical composition is shown.

  5. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from the Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jianfeng; Hu, Haiyan; Hu, Songnian; Wang, Guangce; Peng, Guang; Sun, Song

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, a green tide broke out before the sailing competition of the 29th Olympic Games in Qingdao. The causative species was determined to be Enteromorpha prolifera ( Ulva prolifera O. F. Müller), a familiar green macroalga along the coastline of China. Rapid accumulation of a large biomass of floating U. prolifera prompted research on different aspects of this species. In this study, we constructed a nonnormalized cDNA library from the thalli of U. prolifera and acquired 10 072 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs). These ESTs were assembled into 3 519 nonredundant gene groups, including 1 446 clusters and 2 073 singletons. After annotation with the nr database, a large number of genes were found to be related with chloroplast and ribosomal protein, GO functional classification showed 1 418 ESTs participated in photosynthesis and 1 359 ESTs were responsible for the generation of precursor metabolites and energy. In addition, rather comprehensive carbon fixation pathways were found in U. prolifera using KEGG. Some stress-related and signal transduction-related genes were also found in this study. All the evidences displayed that U. prolifera had substance and energy foundation for the intense photosynthesis and the rapid proliferation. Phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I revealed that this green-tide causative species is most closely affiliated to Pseudendoclonium akinetum (Ulvophyceae).

  6. CUANTIFICACIÓN DE CARBOHIDRATOS, POLIFENOLES Y SULFATOS EN EXTRACTOS DE MACROALGAS PROMISORIAS PARA LA ACUICULTURA

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, N.; Lengua, R.; Becerra, E.; Bazán, D.; Santome, S.; Córdova, C.

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo, se  determinó el contenido de Carbohidratos, polifenoles y  sulfatos en muestras de macroalgas marinas, las que se recolectaron en la  Bahía de Pisco-Ica y  en la  playa de Barranco. Las muestras estudiadas son las siguientes:    Macrocystis Pyrifera, Ulva Nematoidea, Lessonia Trabeculata, Chondracanthus Chamissoi. Se observó que el alga     Chondracanthus Chamissoi  femenina  es la que tiene mayor cantidad de carbohidratos,  el   alga Macrocystis Pyrifera  es la que  ...

  7. Increased iron availability resulting from increased CO2 enhances carbon and nitrogen metabolism in the economical marine red macroalga Pyropia haitanensis (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Binbin; Zou, Dinghui; Yang, Yufeng

    2017-04-01

    Ocean acidification caused by rising CO 2 is predicted to increase the concentrations of dissolved species of Fe(II) and Fe(III), leading to the enhanced photosynthetic carbon sequestration in some algal species. In this study, the carbon and nitrogen metabolism in responses to increased iron availability under two CO 2 levels (390 μL L -1 and 1000 μL L -1 ), were investigated in the maricultivated macroalga Pyropia haitanensis (Rhodophyta). The results showed that, elevated CO 2 increased soluble carbonhydrate (SC) contents, resulting from enhanced photosynthesis and photosynthetic pigment synthesis in this algae, but declined its soluble protein (SP) contents, resulting in increased ratio of SC/SP. This enhanced photosynthesis performance and carbon accumulation was more significant under iron enrichment condition in seawater, with higher iron uptake rate at high CO 2 level. As a key essential biogenic element for algae, Fe-replete functionally contributed to P. haitanensis photosynthesis. Increased SC fundamentally provided carbon skeletons for nitrogen assimilation. The significant increase of carbon and nitrogen assimilation finally contributed to enhanced growth in this alga. This was also intuitively reflected by respiration that provided energy for cellular metabolism and algal growth. We propose that, in the predicted scenario of rising atmospheric CO 2 , P. haitanensis is capable to adjust its physiology by increasing its carbon and nitrogen metabolism to acclimate the acidified seawater, at the background of global climate change and simultaneously increased iron concentration due to decreased pH levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding the association of Escherichia coli with diverse macroalgae in the lagoon of Venice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, Grazia M.; Fasolato, Luca; Vignaroli, Carla; Luna, Gian Marco

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies provided evidence that the macroalga Cladopohora in lakes hosts associated Escherichia coli, with consequences on the environmental and human health. We expanded these investigations to other macroalgae (Ulva spp., Sargassum muticum and Undaria pinnatifida) widespread in the lagoon of Venice (Italy). Attached E. coli were abundant, accounting up to 3,250 CFU gram-1 of alga. Macroalgal-associated isolates belonged to all E. coli phylogroups, including pathogenic ones, and to Escherichia cryptic clades. Attached E. coli showed potential to grow even at in situ temperature on macroalgal extracts as only source of carbon and nutrients, and ability to produce biofilm in vitro. The genotypic diversity of the attached isolates was high, with significant differences between algae and the overlying water. Our evidences suggest that attached populations consist of both resident and transient strains, likely resulting from the heterogeneous input of fecal bacteria from the city. We report that cosmopolitan and invasive macroalgae may serve as source of E. coli, including pathogenic genotypes, and that this habitat can potentially support their growth. Considering the global diffusion of the macroalgae here studied, this phenomenon is likely occurring in other coastal cities worldwide and deserves further investigations from either the sanitary and ecological perspectives.

  9. Understanding the association of Escherichia coli with diverse macroalgae in the lagoon of Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, Grazia M; Fasolato, Luca; Vignaroli, Carla; Luna, Gian Marco

    2015-06-04

    Recent studies provided evidence that the macroalga Cladopohora in lakes hosts associated Escherichia coli, with consequences on the environmental and human health. We expanded these investigations to other macroalgae (Ulva spp., Sargassum muticum and Undaria pinnatifida) widespread in the lagoon of Venice (Italy). Attached E. coli were abundant, accounting up to 3,250 CFU gram(-1) of alga. Macroalgal-associated isolates belonged to all E. coli phylogroups, including pathogenic ones, and to Escherichia cryptic clades. Attached E. coli showed potential to grow even at in situ temperature on macroalgal extracts as only source of carbon and nutrients, and ability to produce biofilm in vitro. The genotypic diversity of the attached isolates was high, with significant differences between algae and the overlying water. Our evidences suggest that attached populations consist of both resident and transient strains, likely resulting from the heterogeneous input of fecal bacteria from the city. We report that cosmopolitan and invasive macroalgae may serve as source of E. coli, including pathogenic genotypes, and that this habitat can potentially support their growth. Considering the global diffusion of the macroalgae here studied, this phenomenon is likely occurring in other coastal cities worldwide and deserves further investigations from either the sanitary and ecological perspectives.

  10. Biogas from Macroalgae: is it time to revisit the idea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Adam D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The economic and environmental viability of dedicated terrestrial energy crops is in doubt. The production of large scale biomass (macroalgae for biofuels in the marine environment was first tested in the late 1960’s. The culture attempts failed due to the engineering challenges of farming offshore. However the energy conversion via anaerobic digestion was successful as the biochemical composition of macroalgae makes it an ideal feedstock. The technology for the mass production of macroalgae has developed principally in China and Asia over the last 50 years to such a degree that it is now the single largest product of aquaculture. There has also been significant technology transfer and macroalgal cultivation is now well tried and tested in Europe and America. The inherent advantage of production of biofuel feedstock in the marine environment is that it does not compete with food production for land or fresh water. Here we revisit the idea of the large scale cultivation of macroalgae at sea for subsequent anaerobic digestion to produce biogas as a source of renewable energy, using a European case study as an example.

  11. Study on the Mediterranean coastal seaweed Ulva linza exposed to natural and stressed environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Abd Elmoneim El-Gamal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study Ulva linza (U. linza as macro-alga exposed to different levels of ionizing radiation from the natural background of radioactivity. Methods: Samples of U. linza were collected from two different habitats at the two terminals of the rocky shore of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt. The western terminal at Abu Qir represented an area of normal background radiation while the eastern terminal at Rosetta represented an area of relatively high background radiation. Distinguishing between the algae grown in areas of relatively high and normal background radiation was investigated by using different indicators. Moreover, the ambient water quality was measured and the concentrations of natural radionuclides (238U, 232Th and 40K bio-accumulated in the tested macro-alga were detected. Results: The algae naturally exposed to radionuclides (238U series, 232Th series and 40K were investigated. Radiation dose rates in U. linza inhabiting in Rosetta and Abu Qir were calculated as 70.12 and 42.67 nGy/h, respectively. Chemical analysis of algal samples demonstrated that total pigment contents were 2.21 and 2.19 mg/g on a fresh weight basis for U. linza inhabiting in Rosetta and Abu Qir, respectively. Fatty acid compositions showed comparable profiles for both algal samples with saturated fatty acids as major component. The results of protein profiles confirmed slight differential expression in protein bands. Sequence-related randomly amplified polymorphic DNA provided evidence that both samples were strongly similar. By using transmission electron microscopy, no obvious ultra structural changes in the examined cells were observed. Conclusions: These experimental results demonstrate that radiation doses are not high enough to cause damage or manifest any significant variation in Ulva tissues.

  12. Bioactive Potential of Marine Macroalgae from the Central Red Sea (Saudi Arabia) Assessed by High-Throughput Imaging-Based Phenotypic Profiling

    KAUST Repository

    Kremb, Stephan Georg

    2017-03-20

    Marine algae represent an important source of novel natural products. While their bioactive potential has been studied to some extent, limited information is available on marine algae from the Red Sea. This study aimed at the broad discovery of new bioactivities from a collection of twelve macroalgal species from the Central Red Sea. We used imaging-based High-Content Screening (HCS) with a diverse spectrum of cellular markers for detailed cytological profiling of fractionated algal extracts. The cytological profiles for 3 out of 60 algal fractions clustered closely to reference inhibitors and showed strong inhibitory activities on the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in a single-enzyme biochemical assay, validating the suggested biological target. Subsequent chemical profiling of the active fractions of two brown algal species by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) revealed possible candidate molecules. A database query of these molecules led us to groups of compounds with structural similarities, which are suggested to be responsible for the observed activity. Our work demonstrates the versatility and power of cytological profiling for the bioprospecting of unknown biological resources and highlights Red Sea algae as a source of bioactives that may serve as a starting point for further studies.

  13. Bioactive Potential of Marine Macroalgae from the Central Red Sea (Saudi Arabia) Assessed by High-Throughput Imaging-Based Phenotypic Profiling

    KAUST Repository

    Kremb, Stephan Georg; Mü ller, Constanze; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    Marine algae represent an important source of novel natural products. While their bioactive potential has been studied to some extent, limited information is available on marine algae from the Red Sea. This study aimed at the broad discovery of new bioactivities from a collection of twelve macroalgal species from the Central Red Sea. We used imaging-based High-Content Screening (HCS) with a diverse spectrum of cellular markers for detailed cytological profiling of fractionated algal extracts. The cytological profiles for 3 out of 60 algal fractions clustered closely to reference inhibitors and showed strong inhibitory activities on the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in a single-enzyme biochemical assay, validating the suggested biological target. Subsequent chemical profiling of the active fractions of two brown algal species by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) revealed possible candidate molecules. A database query of these molecules led us to groups of compounds with structural similarities, which are suggested to be responsible for the observed activity. Our work demonstrates the versatility and power of cytological profiling for the bioprospecting of unknown biological resources and highlights Red Sea algae as a source of bioactives that may serve as a starting point for further studies.

  14. Potential Marine Fungi Hypocreaceae sp. as Agarase Enzyme to Hydrolyze Macroalgae Gelidium latifolium (Potensi Jamur Hypocreaceae sp. sebagai Enzim Agarase untuk menghidrolisis Makroalga Gelidium latifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujizat Kawaroe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Agarase dapat mendegradasi agar ke oligosakarida dan memiliki banyak manfaat untuk makanan, kosmetik, dan lain-lain. Banyak spesies pendegradasi agar adalah organismelaut. Beberapa agarase telah diisolasi dari genera yang berbeda dari mikroorganisme yang ditemukan di air dan sedimen laut. Hypocreaceae sp. diisolasi dari air laut Pulau Pari, Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta, Indonesia. Berdasarkan hasil identifikasi gen 16S rDNA dari 500 basis pasangan, isolat A10 memiliki 99% kesamaan dengan Hypocreaceae sp. Enzim agarase ekstraseluler dari Hypocreaceae sp. memiliki pH dan suhu optimum pada 8 TrisHCl (0,148 μ.mL-1 dan 50°C (0,182 μ.mL-1, masing-masing. Enzim Agarase dari Hypocreaceae sp. mencapai kondisi optimum pada aktivitas enzim tertinggi selama inkubasi dalam 24 jam (0,323 μ.mL-1. SDS page mengungkapkan bahwa ada dua band dari protein yang dihasilkan oleh agarase dari Hypocreaceae sp. yang berada di berat molekul 39 kDa dan 44 kDa dan hidrolisis Gelidium latifolium diperoleh 0,88% etanol. Kata kunci: enzim agarase, Hypocreaceae sp., hidrolisis, fungi, rDNA. Agarase can degradedagarto oligosaccharide and has a lot of benefits for food, cosmetics, and others. Many species of agar- degrader are marine-organism. Several agarases have been isolated from different genera of microorganisms found in seawater and marine sediments. Hypocreaceae sp. was isolated from sea water of Pari Islands, Seribu Islands, Jakarta, Indonesia. Based on the results of the 16S rDNA gene identification of 500 base pairs, A10 isolates had 99 % similarity toHypocreaceae sp. The extracellular agarase enzyme from Hypocreaceae sp. have optimum pH and temperature at 8 TrisHCl (0.148 µ.mL-1 and 50 °C (0.182 µ.mL-1, respectively. Agarase enzyme of Hypocreaceae sp. reach an optimum condition at the highest enzyme activity during incubation in 24 hours (0.323 µ.mL-1. SDS Page revealed that there are two bands of protein produced by agarase of Hypocreaceae sp. which are at

  15. The comparative effects of oil dispersants and oil/dispersant conjugates on germination of the marine macroalga Phyllospora comosa (Fucales: Phaeophyta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burridge, T.R.; Shir, M.-A.

    1995-01-01

    Germination inhibition of the marine macrophyte Phyllospora comosa was utilized as a sub-lethal end-point to assess and compare the effects of four oil dispersants and dispersed diesel fuel and crude oil combinations. Inhibition of germination by the water-soluble fraction of diesel fuel increased following the addition of each of the dispersants; the nominal 48-h EC 50 concentration of diesel fuel declined from 6800 to approximately 400 μl 1 -1 nominal for each dispersed combination. This contrasted with crude oil, where the addition of two dispersants resulted in an enhanced germination rate and an increase in nominal EC 50 concentrations from 130 μl 1 -1 for the undispersed crude to 4000 and 2500 μl 1 -1 . The results indicate that, while germination inhibition of P. comosa may be enhanced by the chemical dispersal of oil response varies with type of both oil and oil dispersant. (author)

  16. Valuable biomolecules from nine North Atlantic red macroalgae: Amino acids, fatty acids, carotenoids, minerals and metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Bruhn, Annette; Eybye, Karin Loft

    2016-01-01

    In modern society, novel marine resources are scrutinized pursuing compounds of use in the medical, pharmaceutical, biotech, food or feed industry. Few of the numerous marine macroalgae are currently exploited. In this study, the contents of nutritional compounds from nine common North Atlantic r...

  17. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

  18. Health-promoting ingredients from four selected Azorean macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Lisete; Lima, Elisabete; Neto, Ana Isabel; Marcone, Massimo; Baptista, José

    2016-11-01

    This study presents, for the first time, the nutritional and health promoting aspects of four selected Azorean macroalgae (Ulva compressa, Ulva rigida, Gelidium microdon and Pterocladiella capillacea) in terms of total lipids, fatty acids (FA) profile, n6/n3 and hypocholesterolemic (h)/hypercholesterolemic (H) FA ratios, minerals, total essential amino acids (AA), anti-ageing and anti-phenylketonuria AA content, coenzyme Q 10 , α-tocopherol, total phenolics, antioxidant properties and energy value, on a dry weight basis. The results revealed low lipid content (1.02-4.32%) but significant PUFA content (29.57-69.22% of total FA), suitable FA ratios (0.48-9.49 for n6/n3 and 1.26-4.22 for h/H), balanced macromineral ratios (0.27-1.91 for Na/K and 0.15-1.07 for Ca/Mg), appreciable amount of essential AA (45.27-58.13% of total AA), high amount of anti-ageing AA, low Phe content, coenzyme Q 10 (1.25-8.27μg/g), α-tocopherol (2.61-9.14mg/100g), high total phenolic content (27.70-55.07mg of gallic acid equivalents/g extract), significant free radical scavenging activity (29.32-47.73%) and valuable energy content (6.80-9.80kJ/g). A regular consumption of these algae either directly or through food supplements may improve human health or may have a protective effect on some diseases and ageing process. They can also be used for producing pharmaceuticals and cosmeceuticals with potential economic value. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Effects of Drifting Macroalgae in Eelgrass Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canal Vergés, Paula; Valdemarsen, Thomas Bruun; Kristensen, Erik

    2010-01-01

    and physical damage on eelgrass can occur when macroalgae are drifting as bedload. The ballistic effect of moving macroalgae on surface sediment was tested in the field as well as in a series of annular flume experiments, where simultaneous measurements of macroalgae transport and turbidity were measured...

  20. Cross-shelf transport of sub-thermocline nitrate by the internal tide and rapid (3-6 h) incorporation by an inshore macroalga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladah, Lydia B.; Filonov, Anatoliy; Lavín, Miguel F.; Leichter, James J.; Zertuche-González, José A.; Pérez-Mayorga, Diana M.

    2012-07-01

    During summer in shallow waters off Baja California, Mexico, the internal tide is a dominant thermal feature of the water column. However, its importance for sub-thermocline nutrient provision to benthic macroalgae is unknown. In order to determine if internal motions provide nutrients to macroalgae in summer, Ulva lactuca was outplanted at inshore stations for short (3 and 6 h) intervals, at the surface, 5 and 10 m depth, and tissue nitrogen content was measured before and after each deployment. Concurrently temperature, currents, and nutrients were measured using moored thermistors, current profilers, CTDs, Niskin bottles, and an in-situ UV absorbance nitrate sensor (ISUS). Discrete pulses of cool, nutrient-rich water were horizontally displaced at least 4 km on the shelf and shoaled more than 20 m depth at the semidiurnal frequency, resulting in more than a 10-fold change in the concentration of nitrate. Inshore, tissue nitrogen of Ulva outplants increased significantly during longer exposures to this cool water. At this site, the semidiurnal signal dominates water column temperature fluctuations from April to November, with summer showing the greatest cooling (up to 5 °C) in a one-hour period. We estimated that 11% of the days of a year show internal waves that would cause a significant change in nutrient availability to macroalgae at 5 m depth. This study supports the hypothesis that nitrate can reach and be rapidly incorporated by inshore macroalgae such as Ulva through transport forced by the internal tide, and that even very short (internal tide provides a significant, yet understudied, high frequency nutrient source to inshore primary producers, particularly in summer.

  1. Toxic effects of imidazolium ionic liquids on the green seaweed Ulva lactuca: oxidative stress and DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Trivedi, Nitin; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2011-11-21

    The green credentials of ionic liquids (ILs) are being increasingly questioned due to the growing evidence of their toxicity to aquatic ecosystems, although the mechanisms of toxicity are unknown. This study provides insights into the mechanism of toxicity and biological effects of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [C(n)mim]Br (n = 4 to 16) on the marine macroalga Ulva lactuca. The cell viability of this alga during IL exposure was found to be negatively correlated to the chain length of the alkyl group. The IL ([C(12)mim]Br) exposure triggers the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS viz. O(2)(•-), H(2)O(2), and OH(•)), damage of the membrane and DNA, and inhibition of antioxidant systems in the alga. The enhanced production of ROS and lipid peroxidation in the alga subjected to LC(50) concentration for 4 days was largely attributed to lipoxygenase (LOX) activity coupled with the induction of two LOX isoforms (~80 kDa and ~55 kDa). Pretreatment of the algal thallus with enzyme inhibitors such as diphenylene iodonium, sodium azide, cantharidin, and oxadiazoloquinoxalin-1-one, prior to [C(12)mim]Br exposure showed the regulation of ROS by the activation of membrane bound NADPH-oxidase and cytochrome oxidase. The IL exposure resulted in the accumulation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids at 0.5 LC(50) concentration indicating the induction of desaturase enzymes. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR) were enhanced by 1.3-2.0-fold, while glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) diminished, together with a higher regeneration rate of reduced ascorbate and glutathione. The isoforms of antioxidant enzymes, namely, Mn-SOD (~85 kDa), APX (~125 and 45 kDa), and GR (~135 kDa) regulated differentially to IL exposure. The comet assay performed for the first time for seaweeds revealed the significant induction of DNA damage (>50-70% increase in % tail DNA over control) in alga exposed

  2. Deoxy-liquefaction of three different species of macroalgae to high-quality liquid oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Wang, Guoming; Chen, Ming; Li, Jiedong; Yang, Yaoyao; Zhu, Qiuyan; Jiang, Xiaohuan; Wang, Zonghua; Liu, Haichao

    2014-10-01

    Three species of macroalgae (Ulva lactuca, Laminaria japonica and Gelidium amansii) were converted into liquid oils via deoxy-liquefaction. The elemental analysis, FTIR and GC-MS results showed that the three liquid oils were all mainly composed of aromatics, phenols, alkanes and alkenes, other oxygen-containing compounds, and some nitrogen-containing compounds though there were some differences in terms of their types or contents due to the different constituents in the macroalgae feedstocks. The oxygen content was only 5.15-7.30% and the H/C molar ratio was up to 1.57-1.73. Accordingly, the HHV of the three oils were 42.50, 41.76 and 40.00 MJ/kg, respectively. The results suggested that U. lactuca, L. japonica and G. amansii have potential as biomass feedstock for fuel and chemicals and that deoxy-liquefaction technique may be an effective way to convert macroalgae into high-quality liquid oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Checklist of Macroalgae in Waisai Coast, Raja Ampat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Suryandari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgae are very abundant organisms in Indonesian coastal zone. They comprise 8.6% of the total marine organisms.The aim of the research was to identify macroalgae in Waisai Coast Raja Ampat. The results showed that 38 macroalgae were found in Waisai Coast Raja Ampat but only 29 species of macroalgae can be identified. Macroalgae found in Waisai Coast Raja Ampat are green algae, red algae and brown algae. Green algae found and identified are Caulerpa macra (Weber-van Bosse Draisma & Prud’homme, Caulerpa racemosa var. macrophysa (Sonder wx Kutzing W.R.Taylor,  Caulerpa sertularoides (S. Gmelin Howe f. brevipes (J. Agardh Svedilus, Caulerpa cupressoides (Vahl C. Agardh, Halimeda discoidea Decaisne, Halimeda Opuntia (Linnaeus J.V. Lamoroux, Halimeda tuna (J. Ellis & Solander J.V. Lamoroux, Halimeda cylindraceae Decaisne, Halimeda macroloba Decaisne, Avrainvillea erecta (Berkeley A. Gepp & E.S. Gepp, Codium geppiorum O.C.Schmidt, Boergesenia forbesii (Hardvey Feldmann, Valonia ventricosa J. Agardh, Dictyosphaeria cavernosa (Forsskål Børgesen, Chaetomorpha spiralisOkamura, Anadyomene wrightii Harvey ex. J. E. Gray, Neomeris annulata Dickie. Red algae species found and successfully identified areAcanthophora spicifera (M. Vahl Børgesen, Laurencia papilosa (C. Agardh Greville, Gracilaria salicornia (C. Agardh E.Y. Dawson, Amphiora fragilissima (Linnaeus J.V. Lamoroux, Hypnea pannosa J. Agardh. Brown algae species  found and identified are Hormophysa cuneiformis (J.F. Gmelin P.C. Silva, Sargassum aquifolium (Turner C. Agardh, Sargassum polycystum C. Agardh, Turbinaria ornata (Turner J. Agardh, Padina australis Hauck, Canistrocarpus cervicornis (Kutzing De Paula & De Clerck Hydroclathrus clatratus (C. Agardh M. Howe. The only species found in Indonesia is Sargassum aquifolium.

  4. The utilization of seagrass and macroalgae substrate for settlement of sandfish Holothuria scabra larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fajar Indriana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandfish (Holothuria scabra is one of endangered species, which has high economical value but has not been commonly cultivated. One factor that affects the success of sandfish culture is survival of larvae during attachment phase . In this phase the larvae of H. scabra need a substrate as a place to live. This study investigated the effect of seagrass and macroalgae as the settlement substrates on the survival of H. scabra larvae. The experiment trial was conducted in UPT LPBIL LIPI Mataram using completely randomized design with five replications for each substrate treatment. The settlement substrates used were Ulva sp. (P1, Gracilaria gigas (P2, Enhalus acoroides (P3, and Eucheuma cottoni (P4. Surface area was 14x19 cm2 in each treatment. At the beginning of experiment trial, one thousand larvae were distributed into plastic tank containing 10 L seawater for each tank. After 13 days experimental period, the survival of H. scabra larvae showed significantly different among substrates treatment. The highest survival was achieved by E. acoroides (15.53±2.23%, and followed by Ulva sp. (5.07±0.74%, E. cottoni (2.57±0.25%, and G. gigas (1.96±0.17%. Keywords: settlement, Holothuria scabra, substrate, seagrass, macroalgae  ABSTRAK Teripang pasir (Holothuria scabra adalah salah satu spesies berekonomi tinggi yang terancam punah, tetapi belum banyak dibudidayakan. Salah satu faktor yang mempengaruhi tingkat keberhasilan budidaya teripang pasir adalah sintasan pada fase penempelan. Pada fase tersebut larva H. scabra memerlukan substrat sebagai tempat hidup. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh jenis substrat lamun dan makroalga yang berbeda terhadap sintasan (STS larva teripang pasir pada fase penempelan. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Budidaya UPT LPBIL LIPI Mataram menggunakan metode eksperimental rancangan acak lengkap dengan lima ulangan. Perlakuan jenis substrat, yaitu: Ulva sp. (P1, Gracilaria gigas (P2

  5. The Effect of CO2 Injection on Macroalgae Gelidium latifolium Biomass Growth Rate and Carbohydrate Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujizat Kawaroe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many species of macroalga grow in marine ecosystem and potentially as raw material for bioethanol resource. Bioethanol is a conversion result of carbohydrate, one of macroalgae biomass content. The exploration of macroalgae require information about  growth rate ability to determine availability in the nature. This research analyze growth rate and carbohydrate content of marine macroalga Gelidium latifolium on cultivation using varied injection of carbon dioxide and aeration. The treatments were control (K, 2000 cc CO2 injection and aeration (P1, 3000 cc CO2 injection and aeration (P2, 2000 cc CO2 injection without aeration (P3, and 3000 cc CO2 injection without aeration (P4. Samples weight were 3 gram in early cultivation on laboratorium scale for 42 days observation. The results showed that the daily growth rate Gelidium latifolium during the study ranged from 0.02-1.06%. The highest daily growth rate was 1.06±0.14% (P2. Carbohydrate yield was 18.23% in early cultivation then 19.40% (K and P2, 20.40% (P1, 16.87% (K3, and 16.40% (P4 after cultivation. The high of carbohydrates value may not guarantee the sustainable Gelidium latifolium biomass utilization as raw material for bioethanol production because of the low growth rate, thus it is necessary to modified and encourage cultivation method effectively. Keywords: CO2 injection, growth rate, carbohydrate, macroalgae, Gelidium latifolium

  6. A surface complexation model of YREE sorption on Ulva lactuca in 0.05-5.0 M NaCl solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoll, Alison M.; Schijf, Johan

    2012-11-01

    We present distribution coefficients, log iKS, for the sorption of yttrium and the rare earth elements (YREEs) on BCR-279, a dehydrated tissue homogenate of a marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, resembling materials featured in chemical engineering studies aimed at designing renewable biosorbents. Sorption experiments were conducted in NaCl solutions of different ionic strength (0.05, 0.5, and 5.0 M) at T = 25 °C over the pH range 2.7-8.5. Distribution coefficients based on separation of the dissolved and particulate phase by conventional filtration (3 kDa) using an existing pH-dependent model. Colloid-corrected values were renormalized to free-cation concentrations by accounting for YREE hydrolysis and chloride complexation. At each ionic strength, the pH dependence of the renormalized values is accurately described with a non-electrostatic surface complexation model (SCM) that incorporates YREE binding to three monoprotic functional groups, previously characterized by alkalimetric titration, as well as binding of YREE-hydroxide complexes (MOH2+) to the least acidic one (pKa ∼ 9.5). In non-linear regressions of the distribution coefficients as a function of pH, each pKa was fixed at its reported value, while stability constants of the four YREE surface complexes were used as adjustable parameters. Data for a single fresh U. lactuca specimen in 0.5 M NaCl show generally the same pH-dependent behavior but a lower degree of sorption and were excluded from the regressions. Good linear free-energy relations (LFERs) between stability constants of the YREE-acetate and YREE-hydroxide solution complex and surface complexes with the first and third functional group, respectively, support their prior tentative identifications as carboxyl and phenol. A similar confirmation for the second group is precluded by insufficient knowledge of the stability of YREE-phosphate complexes and a perceived lack of YREE binding in 0.05 M NaCl; this issue awaits further study. The results

  7. Alternative electron transports participate in the maintenance of violaxanthin De-epoxidase activity of Ulva sp. under low irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiujun; Gu, Wenhui; Gao, Shan; Lu, Shan; Li, Jian; Pan, Guanghua; Wang, Guangce; Shen, Songdong

    2013-01-01

    The xanthophyll cycle (Xc), which involves violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) and the zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP), is one of the most rapid and efficient responses of plant and algae to high irradiance. High light intensity can activate VDE to convert violaxanthin (Vx) to zeaxanthin (Zx) via antheraxanthin (Ax). However, it remains unclear whether VDE remains active under low light or dark conditions when there is no significant accumulation of Ax and Zx, and if so, how the ΔpH required for activation of VDE is built. In this study, we used salicylaldoxime (SA) to inhibit ZEP activity in the intertidal macro-algae Ulva sp. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) and then characterized VDE under low light and dark conditions with various metabolic inhibitors. With inhibition of ZEP by SA, VDE remained active under low light and dark conditions, as indicated by large accumulations of Ax and Zx at the expense of Vx. When PSII-mediated linear electron transport systems were completely inhibited by SA and DCMU, alternative electron transport systems (i.e., cyclic electron transport and chlororespiration) could maintain VDE activity. Furthermore, accumulations of Ax and Zx decreased significantly when SA, DCMU, or DBMIB together with an inhibitor of chlororespiration (i.e., propyl gallate (PG)) were applied to Ulva sp. This result suggests that chlororespiration not only participates in the build-up of the necessary ΔpH, but that it also possibly influences VDE activity indirectly by diminishing the oxygen level in the chloroplast.

  8. Alternative electron transports participate in the maintenance of violaxanthin De-epoxidase activity of Ulva sp. under low irradiance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujun Xie

    Full Text Available The xanthophyll cycle (Xc, which involves violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE and the zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP, is one of the most rapid and efficient responses of plant and algae to high irradiance. High light intensity can activate VDE to convert violaxanthin (Vx to zeaxanthin (Zx via antheraxanthin (Ax. However, it remains unclear whether VDE remains active under low light or dark conditions when there is no significant accumulation of Ax and Zx, and if so, how the ΔpH required for activation of VDE is built. In this study, we used salicylaldoxime (SA to inhibit ZEP activity in the intertidal macro-algae Ulva sp. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta and then characterized VDE under low light and dark conditions with various metabolic inhibitors. With inhibition of ZEP by SA, VDE remained active under low light and dark conditions, as indicated by large accumulations of Ax and Zx at the expense of Vx. When PSII-mediated linear electron transport systems were completely inhibited by SA and DCMU, alternative electron transport systems (i.e., cyclic electron transport and chlororespiration could maintain VDE activity. Furthermore, accumulations of Ax and Zx decreased significantly when SA, DCMU, or DBMIB together with an inhibitor of chlororespiration (i.e., propyl gallate (PG were applied to Ulva sp. This result suggests that chlororespiration not only participates in the build-up of the necessary ΔpH, but that it also possibly influences VDE activity indirectly by diminishing the oxygen level in the chloroplast.

  9. Queso untable a base de ulva lactuca

    OpenAIRE

    Moroni, Belén

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la aceptación y valoración de los caracteres organolépticos de un queso untable realizado a base de Ulva lactuca, evaluar la calidad del producto terminado e indagar el grado de información de los alumnos encuestados en referencia a las propiedades nutricionales de las algas. Para ello se elabora una encuesta dirigida a 120 alumnos de una carrera universitaria de Mar del Plata, que cursan en el laboratorio de análisis sensorial de los ali...

  10. Feeding trials of green seaweed Ulva fasciata

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, J.M.; Qasim, R.

    1993-01-01

    For the nutritional evaluation of green seaweed Ulva fasciata, a feeding trial was performed in albino rats. The results indicated that the 20% replacement of seaweed U. fasciata instead of carrot or lettuce in rad diet causes no harmful effects, as evident by a non-significant change in blood constituents and serum enzyme levels. The weight gain observed in rats with U. fasciata diet was same as that of control diet. The true digestibility ratio of U. fasciata was 80.20% with carrot and 83.4...

  11. On the recurrent Ulva prolifera blooms in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Li, Daqiu; Chen, Changsheng; Ge, Jianzhong; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Liu, Junpeng; Yu, Feng; He, Ming-Xia

    2010-05-01

    A massive bloom of the green macroalgae Ulva prolifera (previously known as Enteromorpha prolifera) occurred in June 2008 in the Yellow Sea (YS), resulting in perhaps the largest "green tide" event in history. Using a novel index (Floating Algae Index) and multiresolution remote sensing data from MODIS and Landsat, we show that U. prolifera patches appeared nearly every year between April and July 2000-2009 in the YS and/or East China Sea (ECS), which all originated from the nearshore Subei Bank. A finite volume numerical circulation model, driven by realistic forcing and boundary conditions, confirmed this finding. Analysis of meteorological/environmental data and information related to local aquaculture activities strongly supports the hypothesis that the recurrent U. prolifera in the YS and ECS resulted from aquaculture of the seaweed Porphyra yezoensis (or nori) conducted along the 200 km shoreline of the Subei Bank north of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River mouth. Given the continuous growth in aquaculture efforts in the region, similar macroalgae bloom events, such as the summer 2008 event, are likely to occur in the future, particularly between May and July. This was confirmed by the 2009 bloom event in the same regions and the same period. The profit of the local P. yezoensis aquaculture industry (˜16,000 Ha in 2007) is estimated as U.S. 53 million, yet the cost to manage the impact of the summer 2008 U. prolifera bloom exceeded U.S. 100 million. Therefore, better strategies are required to balance the economic benefit of seaweed aquaculture and the costs of environmental impacts.

  12. Accumulation of platinum group elements by the marine gastropod Littorina littorea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, Rachel [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    The accumulation and trophic transfer of the platinum group elements (PGE): Rh, Pd and Pt; have been studied in short-term (5 day) exposures conducted in aquaria containing the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, and/or the grazing mollusc, Littorina littorea. Metals added to sea water (to concentrations of 20 {mu}g L{sup -1}) were taken up by U. lactuca in the order Rh, Pt > Pd and by L. littorea in the order Pd {>=} Pt {>=} Rh, with greatest metal accumulation in the latter generally occurring in the visceral complex and kidney. When fed contaminated alga, accumulation of Rh and Pd by L. littorea, relative to total available metal, increased by an order of magnitude, while accumulation of Pt was not readily detected. We conclude that the diet is the most important vector for accumulation of Rh and Pd, while accumulation of Pt appears to proceed mainly from the aqueous phase. - Research highlights: > Platinum group elements are accumulated by, Littorina littorea. > The aqueous phase and diet are important vehicles for Rh and Pd accumulation by the snail. > Grazing molluscs may serve as biomonitors of coastal PGE contamination. - Platinum group elements are accumulated by the marine snail, Littorina littorea, from both the aqueous phase and the diet.

  13. A multiresidue approach for the simultaneous quantification of antibiotics in macroalgae by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Sara; Freitas, Andreia; Rosa, João; Barbosa, Jorge; Lemos, Marco F L; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Ramos, Fernando

    2016-10-15

    Together with fish, algae reared in aquaculture systems have gained importance in the last years, for many purposes. Besides their use as biofilters of effluents, macroalgae's rich nutritional profiles have increased their inclusion in human diets but also in animal feeds as sources of fatty acids, especially important for the fish industry. Nonetheless, algae are continuously exposed to environmental contaminants including antibiotics and possess the ability for bioaccumulation of such compounds. Therefore, the present paper describes the development and validation of an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantification of antibiotics in the green macroalgae Ulva lactuca. This multi-residue method enables the determination of 38 compounds distributed between seven classes and was fully validated according to EU Decision 2002/657/EC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of Submarine Groundwater Discharge on Marine Water Quality and Reef Biota of Maui.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W Amato

    Full Text Available Generally unseen and infrequently measured, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD can transport potentially large loads of nutrients and other land-based contaminants to coastal ecosystems. To examine this linkage we employed algal bioassays, benthic community analysis, and geochemical methods to examine water quality and community parameters of nearshore reefs adjacent to a variety of potential, land-based nutrient sources on Maui. Three common reef algae, Acanthophora spicifera, Hypnea musciformis, and Ulva spp. were collected and/or deployed at six locations with SGD. Algal tissue nitrogen (N parameters (δ15N, N %, and C:N were compared with nutrient and δ15N-nitrate values of coastal groundwater and nearshore surface water at all locations. Benthic community composition was estimated for ten 10-m transects per location. Reefs adjacent to sugarcane farms had the greatest abundance of macroalgae, low species diversity, and the highest concentrations of N in algal tissues, coastal groundwater, and marine surface waters compared to locations with low anthropogenic impact. Based on δ15N values of algal tissues, we estimate ca. 0.31 km2 of Kahului Bay is impacted by effluent injected underground at the Kahului Wastewater Reclamation Facility (WRF; this region is barren of corals and almost entirely dominated by colonial zoanthids. Significant correlations among parameters of algal tissue N with adjacent surface and coastal groundwater N indicate that these bioassays provided a useful measure of nutrient source and loading. A conceptual model that uses Ulva spp. tissue δ15N and N % to identify potential N source(s and relative N loading is proposed for Hawai'i. These results indicate that SGD can be a significant transport pathway for land-based nutrients with important biogeochemical and ecological implications in tropical, oceanic islands.

  15. Impact of Submarine Groundwater Discharge on Marine Water Quality and Reef Biota of Maui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Daniel W; Bishop, James M; Glenn, Craig R; Dulai, Henrietta; Smith, Celia M

    2016-01-01

    Generally unseen and infrequently measured, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) can transport potentially large loads of nutrients and other land-based contaminants to coastal ecosystems. To examine this linkage we employed algal bioassays, benthic community analysis, and geochemical methods to examine water quality and community parameters of nearshore reefs adjacent to a variety of potential, land-based nutrient sources on Maui. Three common reef algae, Acanthophora spicifera, Hypnea musciformis, and Ulva spp. were collected and/or deployed at six locations with SGD. Algal tissue nitrogen (N) parameters (δ15N, N %, and C:N) were compared with nutrient and δ15N-nitrate values of coastal groundwater and nearshore surface water at all locations. Benthic community composition was estimated for ten 10-m transects per location. Reefs adjacent to sugarcane farms had the greatest abundance of macroalgae, low species diversity, and the highest concentrations of N in algal tissues, coastal groundwater, and marine surface waters compared to locations with low anthropogenic impact. Based on δ15N values of algal tissues, we estimate ca. 0.31 km2 of Kahului Bay is impacted by effluent injected underground at the Kahului Wastewater Reclamation Facility (WRF); this region is barren of corals and almost entirely dominated by colonial zoanthids. Significant correlations among parameters of algal tissue N with adjacent surface and coastal groundwater N indicate that these bioassays provided a useful measure of nutrient source and loading. A conceptual model that uses Ulva spp. tissue δ15N and N % to identify potential N source(s) and relative N loading is proposed for Hawai'i. These results indicate that SGD can be a significant transport pathway for land-based nutrients with important biogeochemical and ecological implications in tropical, oceanic islands.

  16. The Effect of Various Species of Macroalgae on the Growth, Survival, and Toxicity of Karenia brevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, K. G.; Lovko, V. J.; Henry, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) caused by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis produce toxins that result in negative impacts to both humans and the environment. Little is known about the termination stages of these blooms, and few viable control mechanisms have been suggested. Natural, algae derived compounds have been proposed as a way to limit bloom growth and reduce brevetoxins in the water column. The work presented here examines the ability of macroalgae to inhibit the growth or survival of K. brevis, similar to what has been demonstrated with other red tide species. Additionally, we attempted to determine if macroalgae decreases water column brevetoxins which, to our knowledge, has not been tested with macroalgae but has been demonstrated in other studies with microalgal species. The macroalgae species Dictyota sp. and Gracilaria sp. caused 100% mortality of K. brevis in under 24 hours. Compared to the control, 7 other species significantly decreased the growth rate of K. brevis. The Dictyota treatments showed significant toxin reduction and increase of the antitoxin brevanol. These results indicate that some combination of compounds produced by macroalgae inhibit growth and survival of K. brevis and possibly limit their toxin production. Future studies will attempt to isolate and identify these compounds and test their effects on other marine organisms such as diatoms. Determining the interactions between HAB species K. brevis and macroalgal species will provide insights on the mechanism of bloom termination and a potential control method.

  17. Assessment and Characterisation of Ireland's Green Tides (Ulva Species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Alex H L; Wilkes, Robert J; Heesch, Svenja; Bermejo, Ricardo; Johnson, Mark P; Morrison, Liam

    2017-01-01

    Enrichment of nutrients and metals in seawater associated with anthropogenic activities can threaten aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, nutrient and metal concentrations are parameters used to define water quality. The European Union's Water Framework Directive (WFD) goes further than a contaminant-based approach and utilises indices to assess the Ecological Status (ES) of transitional water bodies (e.g. estuaries and lagoons). One assessment is based upon the abundance of opportunistic Ulva species, as an indication of eutrophication. The objective of this study was to characterise Ireland's Ulva blooms through the use of WFD assessment, metal concentrations and taxonomic identity. Furthermore, the study assessed whether the ecological assessment is related to the metal composition in the Ulva. WFD algal bloom assessment revealed that the largest surveyed blooms had an estimated biomass of 2164 metric tonnes (w/w). DNA sequences identified biomass from all locations as Ulva rigida, with the exception of New Quay, which was Ulva rotundata. Some blooms contained significant amounts of As, Cu, Cr, Pb and Sn. The results showed that all metal concentrations had a negative relationship (except Se) with the Ecological Quality Ratio (EQR). However, only in the case of Mn were these differences significant (p = 0.038). Overall, the metal composition and concentrations found in Ulva were site dependent, and not clearly related to the ES. Nevertheless, sites with a moderate or poor ES had a higher variability in the metals levels than in estuaries with a high ES.

  18. Assessment and Characterisation of Ireland's Green Tides (Ulva Species)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Robert J.; Heesch, Svenja; Bermejo, Ricardo; Johnson, Mark P.; Morrison, Liam

    2017-01-01

    Enrichment of nutrients and metals in seawater associated with anthropogenic activities can threaten aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, nutrient and metal concentrations are parameters used to define water quality. The European Union’s Water Framework Directive (WFD) goes further than a contaminant-based approach and utilises indices to assess the Ecological Status (ES) of transitional water bodies (e.g. estuaries and lagoons). One assessment is based upon the abundance of opportunistic Ulva species, as an indication of eutrophication. The objective of this study was to characterise Ireland’s Ulva blooms through the use of WFD assessment, metal concentrations and taxonomic identity. Furthermore, the study assessed whether the ecological assessment is related to the metal composition in the Ulva. WFD algal bloom assessment revealed that the largest surveyed blooms had an estimated biomass of 2164 metric tonnes (w/w). DNA sequences identified biomass from all locations as Ulva rigida, with the exception of New Quay, which was Ulva rotundata. Some blooms contained significant amounts of As, Cu, Cr, Pb and Sn. The results showed that all metal concentrations had a negative relationship (except Se) with the Ecological Quality Ratio (EQR). However, only in the case of Mn were these differences significant (p = 0.038). Overall, the metal composition and concentrations found in Ulva were site dependent, and not clearly related to the ES. Nevertheless, sites with a moderate or poor ES had a higher variability in the metals levels than in estuaries with a high ES. PMID:28045947

  19. Seasonal and algal diet-driven patterns of the digestive microbiota of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata, a generalist marine herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobet, Angélique; Mest, Laëtitia; Perennou, Morgan; Dittami, Simon M; Caralp, Claire; Coulombet, Céline; Huchette, Sylvain; Roussel, Sabine; Michel, Gurvan; Leblanc, Catherine

    2018-03-27

    Holobionts have a digestive microbiota with catabolic abilities allowing the degradation of complex dietary compounds for the host. In terrestrial herbivores, the digestive microbiota is known to degrade complex polysaccharides from land plants while in marine herbivores, the digestive microbiota is poorly characterized. Most of the latter are generalists and consume red, green, and brown macroalgae, three distinct lineages characterized by a specific composition in complex polysaccharides, which represent half of their biomass. Subsequently, each macroalga features a specific epiphytic microbiota, and the digestive microbiota of marine herbivores is expected to vary with a monospecific algal diet. We investigated the effect of four monospecific diets (Palmaria palmata, Ulva lactuca, Saccharina latissima, Laminaria digitata) on the composition and specificity of the digestive microbiota of a generalist marine herbivore, the abalone, farmed in a temperate coastal area over a year. The microbiota from the abalone digestive gland was sampled every 2 months and explored using metabarcoding. Diversity and multivariate analyses showed that patterns of the microbiota were significantly linked to seasonal variations of contextual parameters but not directly to a specific algal diet. Three core genera: Psychrilyobacter, Mycoplasma, and Vibrio constantly dominated the microbiota in the abalone digestive gland. Additionally, a less abundant and diet-specific core microbiota featured genera representing aerobic primary degraders of algal polysaccharides. This study highlights the establishment of a persistent core microbiota in the digestive gland of the abalone since its juvenile state and the presence of a less abundant and diet-specific core community. While composed of different microbial taxa compared to terrestrial herbivores, the digestive gland constitutes a particular niche in the abalone holobiont, where bacteria (i) may cooperate to degrade algal polysaccharides to

  20. Marine macrophytes of Minicoy (Lakshadweep) coral atoll of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Thirty-seven species of marine algae, belonging to 31 genera 5 seagrass species and one mangrove species, were recorded from Minicoy Atoll. The predominant seaweeds observed were Enteromorpha clathrata, Caulerpa species, Ulva lactuca, Halimeda...

  1. Co-biosorption of copper and glyphosate by Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinelli, María Alcira; Areco, María Mar; Afonso, María dos Santos

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the adsorption of glyphosate (PMG) onto the green algae Ulva lactuca. PMG was not adsorbed by U. lactuca but PMG was adsorbed when the process was mediated by Cu(II) with molar ratios Cu(II):PMG≥1.5:1. U. lactuca was characterized by water adsorption surface area, FTIR, SEM and EDS. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied. Results showed that the biosorption processes for copper and PMG in the presence of copper were described described by the Langmuir model (qmax=0.85±0.09 mmol g(-1), KL=0.55±0.14 l mmol(-1) and qmax=3.65±0.46 mmol g(-1), KL=0.103±0.03 l mmol(-1), respectively). Copper adsorption was greater in the presence of PMG than in the absence of the pesticide and the adsorption can only be represented by the Freundlich model (KF=0.08±0.01, 1/n=1.86±0.07). In all cases studied, the maximum metal uptake (qmax) increased with increasing pH. Surface complexes with a stoichiometry ranging from ≡Cu-PMG-Cu to ≡Cu-PMG-Cu3 are suggested as reaction products of the process. Due to the increasing amounts of PMG applied in Argentina, natural reservoirs present considerable amounts of this herbicide. The value of this work resides in using U. lactuca, a marine seaweed commonly found along coastlines all over the world, as a biosorbent for PMG. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of Radiation Breeding Technology of Macroalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jongil; Park, J. H.; Song, B. S.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, H. J.; Yang, H. Y.

    2013-01-15

    Macroalgae has been utilized as food material from long time ago, and recently newly recognized as functional materials and the source of bio-fuel. But, the study on the macroalgae is just beginning and the study on radiation effect and radiation breeding technology was not reported. In this study, the effect of radiation on the macroalgae Porphyra was investigated for the development of new mutant strains. Prphyra was successively cultivated in the laboratory chamber with optimized growth condition. Also, the radiation sensitivity of Porphyra was determined. To develop the mutant strain, irradiated Porphyra strains were screened for better growth and higher resistance against oxidative stress. The selected Porphyra was further cultivated in ocean site. Also, several genes from mutant Porphyra was heterologous expressed and studied for its dunctionality. This results can provide mutation technology of macroalgae and further contribute in the activation of fishery industry and national health enhancement.

  3. Development of Radiation Breeding Technology of Macroalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jongil; Park, J. H.; Song, B. S.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, H. J.; Yang, H. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Macroalgae has been utilized as food material from long time ago, and recently newly recognized as functional materials and the source of bio-fuel. But, the study on the macroalgae is just beginning and the study on radiation effect and radiation breeding technology was not reported. In this study, the effect of radiation on the macroalgae Porphyra was investigated for the development of new mutant strains. Prphyra was successively cultivated in the laboratory chamber with optimized growth condition. Also, the radiation sensitivity of Porphyra was determined. To develop the mutant strain, irradiated Porphyra strains were screened for better growth and higher resistance against oxidative stress. The selected Porphyra was further cultivated in ocean site. Also, several genes from mutant Porphyra was heterologous expressed and studied for its dunctionality. This results can provide mutation technology of macroalgae and further contribute in the activation of fishery industry and national health enhancement

  4. Macroalgae - Production and Biorefining in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Hou, Xiaoru; Bastianoni, Simone

    Macroalgae is a key biomass for the development of circular economy. This study analyzes the environmental sustainability of a macroalgae production and conversion system in Denmark. A brown algae model based on Laminaria digitata and Saccharina latissima is utilized as feedstock for a biorefinery...... system which produces bioethanol, fish feed and liquid fertilizers. A Life Cycle Assessment was conducted from cradle to grave; i.e. from cultivation and harvest of biomass, to the use phase of the products....

  5. Planctomycetes and macroalgae, a striking association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Maria Lage

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Planctomycetes are part of the complex microbial biofilm community of a wide range of macroalgae. Recently, some studies began to unveil the great diversity of Planctomycetes present in this microenvironment and the interactions between the two organisms. Culture dependent and independent methods revealed the existence of a great number of species but, so far, only less than ten species have been isolated. Planctomycetes comprise the genera Rhodopirellula, Blastopirellula and Planctomyces, Phycisphaera and the uncultured class OM190 and some other taxa have only been found in this association.Several factors favour the colonization of macroalgal surfaces by planctomycetes. Many species possess holdfasts for attachment. The macroalgae secrete various sulphated polysaccharides that are the substrate for the abundant sulfatases produced by planctomycetes. Specificity between planctomycetes and macroalgae seem to exist which may be related to the chemical nature of the polysaccharides produced by each macroalga. Furthermore, the peptidoglycan-free cell wall of planctomycetes allows them to resist the action of several antimicrobial compounds produced by the macroalgae or other bacteria in the biofilm community that are effective against biofouling by other microorganisms.Despite the increase in our knowledge on the successful planctomycetes-macroalgae association, a great effort to fully understand this interaction is needed.

  6. Accumulation of aqueous and dietary thallium by the marine snail, Littorina littorea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Pilsbury, Amy

    2013-09-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose biogeochemical behaviour in the marine environment is poorly understood. The dominant species predicted in sea water (Tl+) is also chemically and biologically analogous to the potassium ion. In this study, the accumulation of Tl(I) by the littorinid snail, Littorina littorea, was examined under carefully controlled laboratory conditions for a period of five days. The snail was exposed to sea water amended with a sub-phytotoxic concentration of Tl (5 μg L-1) and to a food source (the green macroalga, Ulva lactuca) that had been pre-contaminated by Tl in sea water at the same concentration. L. littorina accumulated Tl from sea water relative to food in a ratio of about 20:1 and there were no significant differences in Tl concentrations among the different tissues analysed (head, foot, visceral mass, gonads) for each treatment. When availabilities of Tl in each vector were compared, however, it was found that only 2% of sea water Tl was accumulated compared with about 15% of dietary Tl. Uptake of Tl appears to proceed via both the gills and gut, while at the cellular level accumulation likely involves binding with biomolecules and exchange with K+ in potassium-bearing mineralised granules.

  7. Non-Leaching, Benign Antifouling Multilayer Polymer Coatings for Marine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    oriented. It is caused by the accumulation and settlement of barnacles, macroalgae, microbial slimes, and other micro and macro scale organisms on man...figure 12) (10, 11). Glass test slides for biofouling tests of the green alga Ulva were soaked in a 30 mL tank of recirculating deionized water at...on the experimental coatings was compared with the settlement rates of the controls. Barnacles are then cultivated to a mature size (over two to four

  8. Asexual propagation in the coral reef macroalga Halimeda (Chlorophyta, Bryopsidales) : production, dispersal and attachment of small fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, LJ; Coyer, JA; Hunter, CL; Beach, KS; Vroom, PS

    2002-01-01

    Siphonous, green macroalgae of the genus Halimeda are ubiquitous and ecologically important in tropical and subtropical marine environments. It has been hypothesized that the abundance of Halimeda on coral reefs is in part due to the ability of this genus to propagate asexually via vegetative

  9. Effects of Ocean Acidification and Temperature Increases on the Photosynthesis of Tropical Reef Calcified Macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherner, Fernando; Pereira, Cristiano Macedo; Duarte, Gustavo; Horta, Paulo Antunes; E Castro, Clovis Barreira; Barufi, José Bonomi; Pereira, Sonia Maria Barreto

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is a global phenomenon that is considered an important threat to marine ecosystems. Ocean acidification and increased seawater temperatures are among the consequences of this phenomenon. The comprehension of the effects of these alterations on marine organisms, in particular on calcified macroalgae, is still modest despite its great importance. There are evidences that macroalgae inhabiting highly variable environments are relatively resilient to such changes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate experimentally the effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification and temperature rises on the photosynthesis of calcified macroalgae inhabiting the intertidal region, a highly variable environment. The experiments were performed in a reef mesocosm in a tropical region on the Brazilian coast, using three species of frondose calcifying macroalgae (Halimeda cuneata, Padina gymnospora, and Tricleocarpa cylindrica) and crustose coralline algae. The acidification experiment consisted of three treatments with pH levels below those occurring in the region (-0.3, -0.6, -0.9). For the temperature experiment, three temperature levels above those occurring naturally in the region (+1, +2, +4°C) were determined. The results of the acidification experiment indicate an increase on the optimum quantum yield by T. cylindrica and a decline of this parameter by coralline algae, although both only occurred at the extreme acidification treatment (-0.9). The energy dissipation mechanisms of these algae were also altered at this extreme condition. Significant effects of the temperature experiment were limited to an enhancement of the photosynthetic performance by H. cuneata although only at a modest temperature increase (+1°C). In general, the results indicate a possible photosynthetic adaptation and/or acclimation of the studied macroalgae to the expected future ocean acidification and temperature rises, as separate factors. Such relative resilience may be a result of the

  10. Anti-Phytopathogenic Activities of Macro-Algae Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Ramírez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from nine Chilean marine macro-algae collected at different seasons were examined in vitro and in vivo for properties that reduce the growth of plant pathogens or decrease the injury severity of plant foliar tissues following pathogen infection. Particular crude aqueous or organic extracts showed effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria whereas others displayed important effects against pathogenic fungi or viruses, either by inhibiting fungal mycelia growth or by reducing the disease symptoms in leaves caused by pathogen challenge. Organic extracts obtained from the brown-alga Lessonia trabeculata inhibited bacterial growth and reduced both the number and size of the necrotic lesion in tomato leaves following infection with Botrytis cinerea. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time. Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent. These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens.

  11. Antibacterial activity of extracts of six macroalgae from the northeastern brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima-Filho José Vitor M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexane, chloroform and ethanol extracts of six marine macroalgae (Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta from North Ceará coast (Northeast Brazil were evaluated for antibacterial activity by the single disk method. Best results were shown by the hexane extracts of Amansia multifida against enteric Gram-negative strains such as Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, S. cholerae-suis, Serratia marcescens, Vibrio cholerae and the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

  12. Biomass and Habitat Characteristics of Epiphytic Macroalgae in the Sibuti Mangroves, Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Hasmidah Md; Kamal, Abu Hena Mustafa; Idris, Mohd Hanafi; Rosli, Zamri; Ismail, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Mangroves support diverse macroalgal assemblages as epibionts on their roots and tree trunks. These algae provide nutrients to the primary consumers in the aquatic food web and have been reported to be substantial contributors to marine ecosystems. The species diversity, biomass, and habitat characteristics of mangrove macroalgae were investigated at three stations in the Sibuti mangrove estuary, Sarawak, Malaysia, from November 2012 to October 2013. Three groups of macroalgae were recorded and were found to be growing on mangrove prop roots, namely Rhodophyta ( Caloglossa ogasawaraensis , Caloglossa adhaerens , Caloglossa stipitata , Bostrychia anomala, and Hypnea sp.), Chlorophyta ( Chaetomorpha minima and Chaetomorpha sp.), and Phaeophyta ( Dictyota sp.). The biomass of macroalgae was not influenced ( p >0.05) by the season in this mangrove forest habitat. The macroalgal species Hypnea sp. contributed the highest biomass at both Station 1 (210.56 mg/cm 2 ) and Station 2 (141.72 mg/cm 2 ), while the highest biomass was contributed by B. anomala (185.89 mg/cm 2 ) at Station 3. This study shows that the species distribution and assemblages of mangrove macroalgae were influenced by environmental parameters such as water nutrients, dissolved solids, and salinity in the estuarine mangrove habitats of Sibuti, Sarawak.

  13. Comparative study of the germination of Ulva prolifera gametes on various substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Huixia; Yan, Tian; Zhou, Mingjiang; Liu, Qing

    2015-09-01

    Since 2007, massive green tides have occurred every summer in the southern Yellow Sea (YS), China. They have caused severe ecological consequences and huge economic losses. Ulva prolifera originated from Subei Shoal of the YS was confirmed as causative species of the green tides. The Porphyra yezoensis aquaculture rafts in the Subei Shoal have been highly suspected to be the "seed bed" of the green tides, because U. prolifera abundantly fouled the Porphyra yezoensis aquaculture facilities. Besides, various habitats of aquaculture ponds along the Jiangsu coastline and mudflat in the Subei Shoal were proposed to be possible sources of green tides. To understand the "seed" of the green tides in the southern YS and mitigate the original biomass of the green tide, various materials used as substrates for the germination of U. prolifera gametes were tested in this study. Culture experiments showed the following: 1) materials used in the P. yezoensis rafts (plastic, bamboo, jute rope, plastic rope, nylon netting, and plastic netting) displayed a significantly higher germination rate than those associated with mudflats and aquaculture ponds (mud, sand and rock); 2) plastics were the best substrates for the germination of U. prolifera gametes; 3) poor germination was found on old fronds of U. prolifera,, and rubber showed inhibitory effect on germination. The success in germination on P. yezoensis rafts related materials supports the notion that these mariculture structures may be involved in acting as a seed bed for green tide macroalgae. The lack of germination on rubber surfaces may suggest one way to limit the proliferation of early stages of U. prolifera.

  14. Removal of basic dye methylene blue by using bioabsorbents Ulva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the removal of textile dye methylene blue was studied by adsorption technique using adsorbents such as, alumina, Ulva lactuca and Sargassum (Maine algae). The batch technique was adopted under the optimize condition of amount of adsorbent, stay time, concentration, temperature and pH. By using ...

  15. Ecological studies of Ulva reticulata Forsskal in Chapora bay (Goa)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The patchy occurrence of Ulva reticulata Forskal along the west coast of India lead to its ecological studies. The total annual yield of . reticulata calculated for 3800 sq. m. area of the bay amounts to 6.74 tonnes wet weight and 0.932 tonnes dry...

  16. Antimicrobial activity of Ulva reticulata and its endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, K. I.; Swati, V. I.; Vanka, Kanth Swaroop; Osborne, W. J.

    2016-04-01

    Seaweeds are known to exhibit various antimicrobial properties, since it harbours an enormous range of indigenous bioactive compounds. The emergence of drug resistant strains has directed to the identification of prospective metabolites from seaweed and its endophytes, thereby exploiting the properties in resisting bacterial diseases. The current study was aimed to assess the antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from Ulva reticulate, for which metabolites of Ulva reticulata and its endophytes were extracted and assessed against human pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis. It was observed that the hexane extract of isolate VITDSJ2 was effective against all the tested pathogens but a significant inhibition was observed for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Further, Gas chromatography coupled with Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed the existence of phenol, 3, 5-bis (1, 1-dimethylethyl) in the crude hexane extract which is well-known to possess antibacterial activity. The effective isolate VITDSJ2 was identified to be the closest neighbour of Pseudomonas stutzeri by phenotypic and genotypic methods. The crude extracts of the seaweed Ulva reticulata was also screened for antibacterial activity and the hexane extract was effective in showing inhibition against all the tested pathogens. The compound in the crude extract of Ulva reticulata was identified as hentriacontane using GC-MS. The extracts obtained from dichloromethane did not show significant activity in comparison with the hexane extracts. Hence the metabolites of Ulva reticulata and the bacterial secondary metabolites of the endophytes could be used in the treatment of bacterial infections.

  17. Complex Effects of Ecosystem Engineer Loss on Benthic Ecosystem Response to Detrital Macroalgae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rossi

    Full Text Available Ecosystem engineers change abiotic conditions, community assembly and ecosystem functioning. Consequently, their loss may modify thresholds of ecosystem response to disturbance and undermine ecosystem stability. This study investigates how loss of the bioturbating lugworm Arenicola marina modifies the response to macroalgal detrital enrichment of sediment biogeochemical properties, microphytobenthos and macrofauna assemblages. A field manipulative experiment was done on an intertidal sandflat (Oosterschelde estuary, The Netherlands. Lugworms were deliberately excluded from 1× m sediment plots and different amounts of detrital Ulva (0, 200 or 600 g Wet Weight were added twice. Sediment biogeochemistry changes were evaluated through benthic respiration, sediment organic carbon content and porewater inorganic carbon as well as detrital macroalgae remaining in the sediment one month after enrichment. Microalgal biomass and macrofauna composition were measured at the same time. Macroalgal carbon mineralization and transfer to the benthic consumers were also investigated during decomposition at low enrichment level (200 g WW. The interaction between lugworm exclusion and detrital enrichment did not modify sediment organic carbon or benthic respiration. Weak but significant changes were instead found for porewater inorganic carbon and microalgal biomass. Lugworm exclusion caused an increase of porewater carbon and a decrease of microalgal biomass, while detrital enrichment drove these values back to values typical of lugworm-dominated sediments. Lugworm exclusion also decreased the amount of macroalgae remaining into the sediment and accelerated detrital carbon mineralization and CO2 release to the water column. Eventually, the interaction between lugworm exclusion and detrital enrichment affected macrofauna abundance and diversity, which collapsed at high level of enrichment only when the lugworms were present. This study reveals that in nature the

  18. Complex Effects of Ecosystem Engineer Loss on Benthic Ecosystem Response to Detrital Macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Gribsholt, Britta; Gazeau, Frederic; Di Santo, Valentina; Middelburg, Jack J

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystem engineers change abiotic conditions, community assembly and ecosystem functioning. Consequently, their loss may modify thresholds of ecosystem response to disturbance and undermine ecosystem stability. This study investigates how loss of the bioturbating lugworm Arenicola marina modifies the response to macroalgal detrital enrichment of sediment biogeochemical properties, microphytobenthos and macrofauna assemblages. A field manipulative experiment was done on an intertidal sandflat (Oosterschelde estuary, The Netherlands). Lugworms were deliberately excluded from 1× m sediment plots and different amounts of detrital Ulva (0, 200 or 600 g Wet Weight) were added twice. Sediment biogeochemistry changes were evaluated through benthic respiration, sediment organic carbon content and porewater inorganic carbon as well as detrital macroalgae remaining in the sediment one month after enrichment. Microalgal biomass and macrofauna composition were measured at the same time. Macroalgal carbon mineralization and transfer to the benthic consumers were also investigated during decomposition at low enrichment level (200 g WW). The interaction between lugworm exclusion and detrital enrichment did not modify sediment organic carbon or benthic respiration. Weak but significant changes were instead found for porewater inorganic carbon and microalgal biomass. Lugworm exclusion caused an increase of porewater carbon and a decrease of microalgal biomass, while detrital enrichment drove these values back to values typical of lugworm-dominated sediments. Lugworm exclusion also decreased the amount of macroalgae remaining into the sediment and accelerated detrital carbon mineralization and CO2 release to the water column. Eventually, the interaction between lugworm exclusion and detrital enrichment affected macrofauna abundance and diversity, which collapsed at high level of enrichment only when the lugworms were present. This study reveals that in nature the role of this

  19. Salt tolerance of estuarine benthic macroalgae in the Kattegat-Baltic Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Tolerance of benthic marine macroalgae to low salinities is believed to be a main determinant of their vertical distribution across the marine coastline and their horizontal distribution from oceanic regions into low-saline bays, fjords and estuaries. Salt tolerance should also be important......, Denmark (salinity: 16 psu, tide 10 cm) to maintain photosynthesis after 4 days exposure to declining salinities (16 to 0 psu). Overall, the algal community had a high short-term tolerance to low salinities because 35 of 44 species maintained more than half the photosynthetic capacity at salinities lower...

  20. Eutrophication and warming-driven green tides (Ulva rigida) are predicted to increase under future climate change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guang; Clare, Anthony S; Rose, Craig; Caldwell, Gary S

    2017-01-15

    The incidence and severity of extraordinary macroalgae blooms (green tides) are increasing. Here, climate change (ocean warming and acidification) impacts on life history and biochemical responses of a causative green tide species, Ulva rigida, were investigated under combinations of pH (7.95, 7.55, corresponding to lower and higher pCO 2 ), temperature (14, 18°C) and nitrate availability (6 and 150μmolL -1 ). The higher temperature accelerated the onset and magnitude of gamete settlement. Any two factor combination promoted germination and accelerated growth in young plants. The higher temperature increased reproduction, which increased further in combination with elevated pCO 2 or nitrate. Reproductive success was highest (64.4±5.1%) when the upper limits of all three variables were combined. Biochemically, more protein and lipid but less carbohydrate were synthesized under higher temperature and nitrate conditions. These results suggest that climate change may cause more severe green tides, particularly when eutrophication cannot be effectively controlled. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Metal accumulation and oxidative stress responses in Ulva spp. in the presence of nocturnal pulses of metals from sediment: A field transplantation experiment under eutrophic conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Pereira, Patrícia M R

    2014-03-01

    In aquatic systems under eutrophic conditions, remobilization of metals from sediment to the overlying water may occur. Consequently, adaptive responses of local organisms could result from the accumulation of metals intermittently released from the sediment. In summer 2007, a field transplantation experiment was performed in the Óbidos lagoon (Portugal) with Ulva spp. comprising three short-term exposures (between 15:30-23:30; 23:30-07:30; 07:30-15:30) during a 24-h period. In each period, Ulva spp. was collected at a reference site located in the lower lagoon (LL) and transplanted to a eutrophic site located at the Barrosa branch (BB), characterized by moderate metal contamination. For comparison purposes, macroalgae samples were simultaneously exposed at LL under the same conditions. Both sites were surveyed in short-time scales (2-4 h) for the analysis of the variability of physical-chemical parameters in the water and metal levels in suspended particulate matter. The ratios to Al of particulate Mn, Fe, Cu and Pb increased during the period of lower water oxygenation at the eutrophic site, reaching 751 × 10-4, 0.67, 12 × 10-4, 9.9 × 10-4, respectively, confirming the release of metals from the sediment to water during the night. At the reference site, dissolved oxygen oscillated around 100%, Mn/Al ratios were considerably lower (81 × 10-4-301 × 10-4) compared to BB (234 × 10-4-790 × 10-4), and no increases of metal/Al ratios were found during the night. In general, algae uptake of Mn, Cu, Fe, Pb and Cd was significantly higher at the eutrophic site compared to the reference site. The results confirmed the potential of Ulva spp. as bioindicator of metal contamination and its capability to respond within short periods. An induction of SOD, an inhibition of CAT and the increase of LPO were recorded in Ulva spp. exposed at BB (between 23:30 and 7:30) probably as a response to the higher incorporation of Mn, Fe and Pb in combination with the lack of

  2. Recruitment potential of a green alga Ulva flexuosa Wolfen dark preserved zoospore and its development

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Imchen, T.

    Green Alga Ulva flexuosa Wulfen Dark Preserved Zoospore and Its Development Temjensangba Imchen* National Institute of Oceanography (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Goa, India Abstract The recruitment potential and the ability of Ulva... factors play a role in the process of recruitment. Citation: Imchen T (2012) Recruitment Potential of a Green Alga Ulva flexuosa Wulfen Dark Preserved Zoospore and Its Development. PLoS ONE 7(3): e32651. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032651 Editor: Ross...

  3. Pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for the production of bioethanol - Comparison of five pretreatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Thygesen, Anders; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2013-01-01

    -assisted pretreatment (PAP) and ball milling (BM), to determine effects of the pretreatment methods on the conversion of C. linum into ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). WO and BM showed the highest ethanol yield of 44. g ethanol/100. g glucan, which was close to the theoretical ethanol......A qualified estimate for pretreatment of the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for ethanol production was given, based on the experience of pretreatment of land-based biomass. C. linum was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment (HTT), wet oxidation (WO), steam explosion (STEX), plasma...... yield of 57. g ethanol/100. g glucan. A 64% higher ethanol yield, based on raw material, was reached after pretreatment with WO and BM compared with unpretreated C. linum, however 50% of the biomass was lost during WO. Results indicated that the right combination of pretreatment and marine macroalgae...

  4. Macroalgas submareales de la bahía de Todos Santos, Baja California, México Submareal macroalgae of the Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Aguilar-Rosas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de identificar y caracterizar la composición de especies de la zona submareal de la bahía de Todos Santos, Baja California, México; se realizaron muestreos de macroalgas marinas bentónicas en 7 sitios durante 1995-2000. Como resultado de 25 buceos Scuba entre 3 y 33 m de profundidad se encontraron 150 especies de macroalgas para el área de estudio; 10 son Chlorophyta, 26 Phaeophyta y 114 Rhodophyta. Del total, 47 son registros nuevos para el área de estudio y 2 de éstos, Faucheocolax attenuata Setchell y Minium parvum R.L. Moe, son nuevos para la flora marina del Pacífico de México. Se incluye una revisión de las investigaciones en las que se han considerado las macroalgas presentes en la bahía de Todos Santos y una discusión sobre la composición de las especies encontradas, su distribución vertical y reproducción, así como sobre las especies epífitas y parásitas del área.In order to identify and characterize the species composition of the subtidal zone of the Todos Santos Bay, Baja California, Mexico, benthic marine macroalgae were sampled at 7 sites from 1995 to 2000. As a result of 25 scuba at derds for the study area, of which Faucheocolax attenuata Setchell and R.L Moe Minium parvum are new to the marine flora of Pacific Mexico. We include a research that consider the macroalpths between 3 and 33 m we found a total of 150 species of macroalgae for the study area, of which 10 are Chlorophyta, 26 Phaeophyta and 114 Rhodophyta; 47 species represent new recogae in the Todos Santos Bay and a discussion on the composition of species found, its vertical distribution and reproduction, particularly the species epiphytes and parasites present in the study area.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of macroalgae: methane potentials, pre-treatment, inhibition and co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H B; Heiske, S

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we tested four macroalgae species--harvested in Denmark--for their suitability of bioconversion to methane. In batch experiments (53 degrees C) methane yields varied from 132 ml g volatile solids(-1) (VS) for Gracillaria vermiculophylla, 152 mi gVS(-1) for Ulva lactuca, 166 ml g VS(-1) for Chaetomorpha linum and 340 ml g VS(-1) for Saccharina latissima following 34 days of incubation. With an organic content of 21.1% (1.5-2.8 times higher than the other algae) S. latissima seems very suitable for anaerobic digestion. However, the methane yields of U. lactuca, G. vermiculophylla and C. linum could be increased with 68%, 11% and 17%, respectively, by pretreatment with maceration. U. lactuca is often observed during 'green tides' in Europe and has a high cultivation potential at Nordic conditions. Therefore, U. lactuca was selected for further investigation and co-digested with cattle manure in a lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactor. A 48% increase in methane production rate of the reactor was observed when the concentration of U. lactuca in the feedstock was 40% (VS basis). Increasing the concentration to 50% had no further effect on the methane production, which limits the application of this algae at Danish centralized biogas plant.

  6. Effects of Seaweed Substitution on Breadmaking. : (IV) Ulva pertusa

    OpenAIRE

    筒井, 知己; 金井, 節子; 牛腸, ヒロミ; 小見山, 二郎; ツツイ, トモミ; カナイ, セツコ; ゴチョウ, ヒロミ; コミヤマ, ジロウ; TOMOMI, TSUTSUI; SETSUKO, KANAI; HIROMI, GOCHO; JIRO, KOMIYAMA

    2003-01-01

    Physical properties of wheat flour replaced with 0.5 to 1.5 % of seaweed Ulva pertusa (WFRS) and baking properties of them were estimated. Water absorption capacity of WFRS increased gradually as seaweed level increased. Among the bread made from WFRS, the bread made from wheat flour replaced with 0.5% of seaweed showed better loaf volume and also showed better sensory evaluation score. Electronic nose analysis concurred with sensory descriptor ratings.

  7. Adaption of Ulva pertusa to multiple-contamination of heavy metals and nutrients: Biological mechanism of outbreak of Ulva sp. green tide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Changzi; Yu, Xiru; Kan, Manman; Qu, Chunfeng

    2017-12-15

    The multiple-contamination of heavy metals and nutrients worsens increasingly and Ulva sp. green tide occurs almost simultaneously. To reveal the biological mechanism for outbreak of the green tide, Ulva pertusa was exposed to seven-day-multiple-contamination. The relation between pH variation (V pH ), Chl a content, ratio of (Chl a content)/(Chl b content) (R chla/chlb ), SOD activity of U. pertusa (A SOD ) and contamination concentration is [Formula: see text] (pcontamination concentrations of seawaters where Ulva sp. green tide occurred and the contamination concentrations set in the present work, U. pertusa can adapt to multiple-contaminations in these waters. Thus, the adaption to multiple-contamination may be one biological mechanism for the outbreak of Ulva sp. green tide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modelling the effects of drifting macroalgae in coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canal Vergés, Paula; Jørgensen, Charlotte; Flindt, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    It is well-known that opportunistic macroalgae starts to drift at low current velocities (Flindt et al. 2007) and that the nutrient transport in many aquatic systems are dominated by this process. New studies have shown, that at this current velocities, macroalgae moves as bedload transport creat...... obtained by flume experiments and field observations in protected and semi-protected shallow estuarine waters....

  9. Comparative bioavailability of radionuclides in macroalgae from Black sea coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, A.; Nonova, Tz.; Christoskova, M.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide and heavy metal content is measured by gamma spectroscopy and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in the commonest species of the Black Sea red, brown, and green macroalgae, sampled in the period 1996 - 2002. Radionuclide content was measured in ten different macrophytic algae species (five green: Cladophora vagabunda, Ulva rigida, Enteromorpha intestinal, Chaetomorpha gracilis, Bryopsis plumosa; two brown: Cystoseira crinita and Cystoseira barbata; three red: Ceramium rubrum, Callithamnium corymbosum, Corallina officinalis) from eleven sampling locations for eight consecutive years. The measured concentrations of artificial and natural gamma emitters in algae depend on the alga species. The obtained range for 137 Cs in algae is 1.2 - 26 Bq/kg. The average values for the natural nuclides are 238 U - 13 Bq/kg; 232 Th - 6 Bq/kg and for 226 Ra - 8 Bq/kg. The measured natural nuclides in the species Bryopsis plumosa are with two orders of magnitude higher than other species at the same location. Significant differences in Cs-137 concentrations were found among different species growing under similar environmental conditions at same locations, suggesting that uptake does not follow physical levels but influenced by allometric parameters and physiological mechanisms. Cs-137 content in collected sea algae follows the descending order: Ceramium rubrum , Cladophora vagabunda, Cystoseira barbata, Cystoseira crinita, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva rigida, Callithamnium corymbosum, Corallina officinalis, Chaetomorpha gracilis. A comparison of the stations studied indicated that the accumulation degree is also dependent on the geomorphology of the specific area. Higher levels are obtained in the northern part of the Black Sea basin due to current circulation originating from the outflow of the rivers Danube, Dnyepr and Dnester, also at the south part of the Black sea coast. It is concluded that the general dispersion of Cs-137 results from the water circulation regime

  10. In vitro exposure of Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta) to gasoline - Biochemical and morphological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatti, Fernanda Kokowicz; Ramlov, Fernanda; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Débora Tomazi; Costa, Christopher; de Oliveira, Eva Regina; Bauer, Cláudia M; Rocha, Miguel; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-08-01

    Refined fuels have considerable share of pollution of marine ecosystems. Gasoline is one of the most consumed fuel worldwide, but its effects on marine benthic primary producers are poorly investigated. In this study, Ulva lactuca was chosen as a biological model due to its cosmopolitan nature and tolerance to high levels and wide range of xenobiotics and our goal was to evaluate the effects of gasoline on ultrastructure and metabolism of that seaweed. The experimental design consisted of in vitro exposure of U. lactuca to four concentrations of gasoline (0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0%, v/v) over 30 min, 1 h, 12 h, and 24 h, followed by cytochemical, SEM, and biochemical analysis. Increase in the number of cytoplasmic granules, loss of cell turgor, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and alterations in the mucilage were some of the ultrastructural alterations observed in thalli exposed to gasoline. Decrease in carotenoid and polyphenol contents, as well as increase of soluble sugars and starch contents were associated with the time of exposure to the xenobiotic. In combination, the results revealed important morphological and biochemical alterations in the phenotype of U. lactuca upon acute exposure to gasoline. This seaweed contain certain metabolites assigned as candidates to biomarkers of the environmental stress investigated and it is thought to be a promise species for usage in coastal ecosystems perturbation monitoring system. In addition, the findings suggest that U. lactuca is able to metabolize gasoline hydrocarbons and use them as energy source, acting as bioremediator of marine waters contaminated by petroleum derivatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Protective effect of Ulva lactuca extract during hepatic cold preservation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchichi, Henda; Bacha, Sarra; Kourda, Nadia; Melaouhia, Salma; Gaies, Emna; Lakhal, Mohamed; Klouz, Anis; Trabelsi, S; Salouage, Issam

    2016-04-01

    Introduction In recent years, many marine resources have drew attention in the research for bio-active compounds to develop new drugs and health foods. (1) Marine algae are now considered as a rich source of antioxidants (2). It is known that seaweeds contain numerous bioactive substances that have the ability to lower cholesterol, reduce blood pressure, promote healthy digestion; and antioxidant activity (3). Natural antioxidants are interesting compounds due to their properties which help prevent oxidative stress (4), among other potentially beneficial actions. For instance, several biological effects have been attributed to flavonoids, such as anti-tumoral, anti-inflammatory, anti-ischemic and anti-aggregate plaquetary activities. These activities are believed to be in part related to the antioxidant properties of the compounds, namely in scavenging radical oxygen species (ROS). (5, 6) The cold ischemia constitute a situation of oxidative stress in touch with liberation of oxygenated radicals, these situations incited the researchers to find means for the improvement of the conservation of organs allowing to prolong the durations of the cold ischemia of certain organs (in particular the liver) with conservation of the maximum functional value. However, the constant efforts led by the teams of transplantation to develop transplants, the conservation of organs remains a problem to be resolved. (7) Conservation solution of organ appears as being a stemming to remedy the fatal effects of the ischemia-reperfusion. For our part, we think that seaweeds have not delivered their secrets and yet especially that the marine environment of the Tunisian coast still remains little exploited in spite of the big variety of the fauna and the flora of the coast. We envisage in this work, to study a sort of seaweed collected on the Tunisian quotation in the region of "Chott Meriem" (North West of Tunisia). The purpose of our work is to estimate the capacity of extracts stemming

  12. Platform construction of molecular breeding for utilization of brown macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Toshiyuki; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2018-01-01

    Brown macroalgae are characterized by a large size and high productivity without requiring arable land, fresh water, and fertilizer. Furthermore, since brown macroalgae contain little or no lignin, simple biorefinery processing can efficiently produce sugars from this material. Therefore, brown macroalgae have attracted attention as an alternative feedstock for bioethanol production. However, the utilization of biotechnologies previously developed for terrestrial biomass processing results in difficulties in the bioconversion of brown macroalgae. Recently, several studies have developed biotechnologies for using major carbohydrates of brown macroalgae, such as laminarin, mannitol, and alginate. This review focuses on these fermentation biotechnologies using natural or engineered microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Meiofaunal assemblages associated with native and non-indigenous macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Puri; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Rubal, Marcos

    2016-07-01

    Meiofauna is a useful tool to detect effects of different disturbances; however, its relevance in the frame of biological invasions has been almost fully neglected. Meiofaunal assemblages associated with the invasive macroalga Sargassum muticum were studied and compared with those associated with two native macroalgae (Bifurcaria bifurcata and Chondrus crispus). We used a linear mixed model to determine the influence of habitat size (i.e. macroalgal biomass) in shaping meiofaunal assemblages. Results showed that habitat size (i.e. macroalgal biomass) shaped meiofaunal assemblages influencing its abundance, richness and structure. However, the identity of macroalga (i.e. species) appears also to play a significant role, particularly the differences of complexity among the studied species may shape their meiofaunal assemblages. Finally, the invasive macroalga appears to influence positively species richness. Our results highlight the need of including different faunal components to achieve a comprehensive knowledge on effects of invasive macroalgae and that meiofaunal assemblages may be a valuable tool to examine them.

  14. A link between lead and cadmium kinetic speciation in seawater and accumulation by the green alga Ulva lactuca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muse, J.O.; Carducci, C.N.; Stripeikis, J.D.; Tudino, M.B.; Fernandez, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, studies on the bioaccumulation of Cd and Pb by Ulva lactuca at different sites of Gulf San Jorge (Patagonia, Argentina) are presented. Higher values of bioaccumulated Cd were found in Punta Maqueda - a site believed to serve as a control - in comparison to those in Punta Borja, a place highly exposed to urban and industrial activities. Consequently; the labile fractions of Cd and Pb in seawater were determined with a flow injection-preconcentration manifold interfaced to a graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-GFAAS). The results obtained by kinetic speciation showed that the variable that correctly explains heavy metals accumulation in the alga, is the labile metal fraction in seawater. We propose to use an enhancement ratio - on the basis of the kinetically labile metal fraction - for calculation of the metal accumulated by the alga relative to its environment. - Metal kinetic speciation can overcome CF limitations for the evaluation of marine pollution

  15. Influence of seaweed liquid fertilizer of ulva lactuca on the seed germination, growth, productivity of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisarla Divya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation is an attempt to study the influence of seaweed liquid fertiliger (SLF extracted from the marine green algae ulva lactuca on the growth parameters of Abelmoschus esculentus (l medikus. The seeds were soaked in different concentrations of SLF viz., 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 20% and control for 6h. The foliar spry was applied twice at four concentrations of seaweed extract. The maximum growth was recorded at 5% concentration viz., seed germination, shoot length, root length, no. of flowers, no. of fruits, fresh weight and dry weight when compare to control and remaining concentrations of seaweed extract. The seaweed extract are found effective in increasing the growth parameters.

  16. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by nonliving Ulva seaweed as biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Kametani, Takuji; Maruyama, Toshiroh

    2005-05-01

    The growth of dense green seaweed mats of Ulva spp. is an increasing problem in estuaries and coasts worldwide. The enormous amount of Ulva biomass thus becomes a troublesome waste disposal problem. On the other hand, it has been revealed that nonliving seaweed biomass, particularly brown seaweeds, has a high capacity for assimilating heavy metals. In this study, the possibility of using Ulva seaweed biomass as a biosorbent for the removal of heavy metals was examined. After processing, the biomass material was very easy to separate from the aqueous solution using a mesh. The sorption capacity of Cd on Ulva biomass increased upon pretreatment with alkali solution. The outstanding function of the biosorbent was demonstrated at around pH 8. On the basis of the Langmuir isotherms of Cd, Zn and Cu using the alkali-pretreated biomass, the parameters q(m) and b were determined to be within the narrow range of 60-90 mg/g and 0.03-0.04 L/mg, respectively, for each metal. Given the q(m) and b values, Ulva seaweed is a good biosorbent material for removing heavy metals. In an experiment using artificial wastewater containing Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni, it was possible to remove each metal simultaneously using Ulva biomass. Adsorption by Ulva biomass is effective for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater.

  17. Effects of sewage contamination on macro-algae and shellfish at Moa Point, New Zealand, using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been used to characterise sewage discharge and effects on seaweed (Ulva lactuca L.), blue mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), and limpets (Cellana denticulata) from Moa Point Bay, New Zealand. The nitrogen ( 15 N / 14 N) ratio is shown to be a good tracer of sewage pollution in Ulva lactuca and associated grazers (Cellana denticulata) as a result of the increased contribution of urea and ammonia to the surrounding marine environment from the sewage outfall. The carbon ( 13 C / 12 C) ratio is suggested as a more appropriate sewer tracer for mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), which filter feed the particulate organic matter from the effluent. Lower carbon : nitrogen ratios were found in U. lactuca sampled from the outfall region, compared to uncontaminated control sites, however carbon : nitrogen ratios do not vary significantly amongst shellfish species. (author). 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Methanosarcina Play an Important Role in Anaerobic Co-Digestion of the Seaweed Ulva lactuca: Taxonomy and Predicted Metabolism of Functional Microbial Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie A FitzGerald

    Full Text Available Macro-algae represent an ideal resource of third generation biofuels, but their use necessitates a refinement of commonly used anaerobic digestion processes. In a previous study, contrasting mixes of dairy slurry and the macro-alga Ulva lactuca were anaerobically digested in mesophilic continuously stirred tank reactors for 40 weeks. Higher proportions of U. lactuca in the feedstock led to inhibited digestion and rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids, requiring a reduced organic loading rate. In this study, 16S pyrosequencing was employed to characterise the microbial communities of both the weakest (R1 and strongest (R6 performing reactors from the previous work as they developed over a 39 and 27-week period respectively. Comparing the reactor communities revealed clear differences in taxonomy, predicted metabolic orientation and mechanisms of inhibition, while constrained canonical analysis (CCA showed ammonia and biogas yield to be the strongest factors differentiating the two reactor communities. Significant biomarker taxa and predicted metabolic activities were identified for viable and failing anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca. Acetoclastic methanogens were inhibited early in R1 operation, followed by a gradual decline of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Near-total loss of methanogens led to an accumulation of acetic acid that reduced performance of R1, while a slow decline in biogas yield in R6 could be attributed to inhibition of acetogenic rather than methanogenic activity. The improved performance of R6 is likely to have been as a result of the large Methanosarcina population, which enabled rapid removal of acetic acid, providing favourable conditions for substrate degradation.

  19. Methanosarcina Play an Important Role in Anaerobic Co-Digestion of the Seaweed Ulva lactuca: Taxonomy and Predicted Metabolism of Functional Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Jamie A; Allen, Eoin; Wall, David M; Jackson, Stephen A; Murphy, Jerry D; Dobson, Alan D W

    2015-01-01

    Macro-algae represent an ideal resource of third generation biofuels, but their use necessitates a refinement of commonly used anaerobic digestion processes. In a previous study, contrasting mixes of dairy slurry and the macro-alga Ulva lactuca were anaerobically digested in mesophilic continuously stirred tank reactors for 40 weeks. Higher proportions of U. lactuca in the feedstock led to inhibited digestion and rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids, requiring a reduced organic loading rate. In this study, 16S pyrosequencing was employed to characterise the microbial communities of both the weakest (R1) and strongest (R6) performing reactors from the previous work as they developed over a 39 and 27-week period respectively. Comparing the reactor communities revealed clear differences in taxonomy, predicted metabolic orientation and mechanisms of inhibition, while constrained canonical analysis (CCA) showed ammonia and biogas yield to be the strongest factors differentiating the two reactor communities. Significant biomarker taxa and predicted metabolic activities were identified for viable and failing anaerobic digestion of U. lactuca. Acetoclastic methanogens were inhibited early in R1 operation, followed by a gradual decline of hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Near-total loss of methanogens led to an accumulation of acetic acid that reduced performance of R1, while a slow decline in biogas yield in R6 could be attributed to inhibition of acetogenic rather than methanogenic activity. The improved performance of R6 is likely to have been as a result of the large Methanosarcina population, which enabled rapid removal of acetic acid, providing favourable conditions for substrate degradation.

  20. Development and Characterization of Somatic Hybrids of Ulva reticulata Forsskål (× Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.Doty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal eGupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulvophycean species with diverse trait characteristics provide an opportunity to create novel allelic recombinant variants. The present study reports the development of seaweed variants with improved agronomic traits through protoplast fusion between Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz. Doty and Ulva reticulata Forsskål. A total of 12 putative hybrids were screened based on the variations in morphology and total DNA content over the fusion partners. DNA-fingerprinting by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis confirmed genomic introgression in the hybrids. The DNA fingerprint revealed sharing of parental alleles in regenerated hybrids and a few alleles that were unique to hybrids. The epigenetic variations in hybrids estimated in terms of DNA methylation polymorphism also revealed sharing of methylation loci with both the fusion partners. The functional trait analysis for growth showed a hybrid with heterotic trait (DGR%= 36.7±1.55% over the fusion partners U. reticulata (33.2±2.6% and M. oxyspermum (17.8±1.77%, while others were superior to the mid-parental value (25.2±2.2% (p<0.05. The fatty acid (FA analysis of hybrids showed notable variations over fusion partners. Most hybrids showed increased polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs compared to saturated FAs (SFAs and mainly includes the nutritionally important linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, oleic acid, stearidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. The other differences observed include superior cellulose content and antioxidative potential in hybrids over fusion partners. The hybrid varieties with superior traits developed in this study unequivocally demonstrate the significance of protoplast fusion technique in developing improved varients of macroalgae.

  1. Development and Characterization of Somatic Hybrids of Ulva reticulata Forsskål (×) Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.)Doty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Kumari, Puja; Reddy, CRK

    2015-01-01

    Ulvophycean species with diverse trait characteristics provide an opportunity to create novel allelic recombinant variants. The present study reports the development of seaweed variants with improved agronomic traits through protoplast fusion between Monostroma oxyspermum (Kutz.) Doty and Ulva reticulata Forsskål. A total of 12 putative hybrids were screened based on the variations in morphology and total DNA content over the fusion partners. DNA-fingerprinting by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis confirmed genomic introgression in the hybrids. The DNA fingerprint revealed sharing of parental alleles in regenerated hybrids and a few alleles that were unique to hybrids. The epigenetic variations in hybrids estimated in terms of DNA methylation polymorphism also revealed sharing of methylation loci with both the fusion partners. The functional trait analysis for growth showed a hybrid with heterotic trait (DGR% = 36.7 ± 1.55%) over the fusion partners U. reticulata (33.2 ± 2.6%) and M. oxyspermum (17.8 ± 1.77%), while others were superior to the mid-parental value (25.2 ± 2.2%) (p < 0.05). The fatty acid (FA) analysis of hybrids showed notable variations over fusion partners. Most hybrids showed increased polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) compared to saturated FAs (SFAs) and mainly includes the nutritionally important linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, oleic acid, stearidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid. The other differences observed include superior cellulose content and antioxidative potential in hybrids over fusion partners. The hybrid varieties with superior traits developed in this study unequivocally demonstrate the significance of protoplast fusion technique in developing improved varients of macroalgae. PMID:25688248

  2. Methane production from marine, green macro-algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, G.

    1983-01-01

    Fermentation studies have been carried out to produce methane from green algae native to Scandinavian water and suitable for large scale cultivation. Long term semi-continuous fermentations during mesophilic and thermophilic conditions were performed as well as batch fermentations in flasks and syringes. A mixed inoculum was prepared from sediments, rotting seaweed, sewage sludge and rumen contents. Methane production from the seaweed substrate, consisting of ground green algae without any nutrient additions, started immediately in this culture, mesophilicly as well as thermophilicly. Fermentations were carried out with retention times from 27 to 11 days and loading rates from 1.1 to 2.6 g volatile solids (VS added) per litre per day. In the mesophilic fermentation, gas yields were 250-350 ml CH/sub 4//g VS added and the VS-reduction was around 50-55% at all tested retention times and loading rates. The level of volatile fatty acids was very low in this system. In the thermophilic digestor, gas yields were somewhat lower although the VS-reduction was around 50% also in this systems. The VFA-levels were higher and the culture more sensitive to disturbances. Thus no advantages were found with the thermophilic fermentation. In mesophilic batch fermentations the gas production was rather rapid and almost completed after 12-15 days, in agreement with the continuous fermentations. The gas yields in batch experiments were high, 350-480 ml CH/sub 4//g VS added. (Refs. 20).

  3. Nutraceutical properties of the marine macroalga Gayralia oxysperma

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pise, N.M.; Verlecar, X.N.; Gaikwad, D.K.; Jagtap, T.G.

    We analyzed Gayralia oxysperma (Monostromataceae, Ulvales) from coastal waters in India for nutrients and biochemicals including nutritionally important fatty acids and active radical scavenging properties. This seaweed had moderately high lipid...

  4. Checklist of the benthic marine macroalgae from Algeria. I. Phaeophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ould-Ahmed, Nora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The seaweed diversity of the Mediterranean is still not completely known, especially in some areas of its African coasts. As an effort to complete a more detailed catalogue to fill such gap, an updated checklist of the brown seaweeds (Phaeophyceae from Algeria, based on updated literature records, is provided using as starting point the checklist of Perret- Boudouresque & Seridi published in 1989. As a result, the total number of taxa at specific and infraspecific levels accepted for Algeria, under current taxonomy and nomenclature, is 93.La diversidad de las algas marinas del Mediterráneo no es del todo conocida, especialmente en algunas áreas de su costa africana. Como parte de un esfuerzo para completar un catálogo más detallado, que permita reducir esta carencia, se aporta una lista crítica de las algas pardas (Phaeophyceae de Argelia mediante la recopilación y actualización de todas las citas publicadas, tomando como punto de partida la de Perret-Boudou - resque & Seridi publicada el año 1989. Como resultado, el número total de táxones, a nivel específico e infraespecífico, aceptado para las costas de Argelia es de 93, de acuerdo con la taxonomía y la nomenclatura actuales

  5. Herbivory on macro-algae affects colonization of beach-cast algal wrack by detritivores but not its decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Eereveld

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial subsidies have increasingly been considered significant sources of matter and energy to unproductive ecosystems. However, subsidy quality may both differ between subsidizing sources and vary over time. In our studies, sub-littoral herbivory by snails or isopods on red or brown macro-algae induced changes in algal tissues that affected colonization of beach-cast algal wrack by supra-littoral detritivores (amphipods. However, microbial decay and decomposition through the joint action of detritivores and microbes of algal wrack in the supra-littoral remained unaffected by whether or not red or brown algae had been fed upon by snails or isopods. Thus, herbivory on marine macro-algae affects the cross-system connection of sub-littoral and supra-littoral food webs transiently, but these effects diminish upon ageing of macro-algal wrack in the supra-littoral zone.

  6. Morphological and ultrastructural studies on Ulva flexuosa subsp. pilifera (Chlorophyta from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Messyasz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ulva flexuosa subsp. pilifera (Kütz. M. J. Wynne 2005 (= Enteromorpha pilifera Kützing 1845 was previously found in Argentina, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia and Sweden, recently also in Poland. The genus Ulva was first time described as Enteromorpha. Interestingly, Enteromorpha is used nowadays as a synonym for Ulva, a development which is based on molecular data. The morphologies of both young and mature specimens were studied, and most life cycle stages could be observed. Further, the formation of calcium carbonate crystals on the surface of Ulva thalli seems to influence the arrangement of the cells. A detailed ultrastructural (TEM analysis of cell walls is presented. The TEM reveals in great details highly complex, irregular structures with stratification lines.

  7. Methods for the induction of reproduction in a tropical species of filamentous ulva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Carl

    Full Text Available The green seaweed Ulva is a major fouling organism but also an edible aquaculture product in Asia. This study quantified for the first time the effect of key factors on the reproduction of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva (Ulva sp. 3. The controlled timing of release of swarmers (motile reproductive bodies was achieved when experiments were initiated in the early afternoon by exposing the thalli to a temperature shock (4°C for 10 min and subsequently placing them into autoclaved filtered seawater under a 12 h light: 12 h dark photoperiod at 25°C. The release of swarmers then peaked two days after initiation. In contrast, segmentation, dehydration, salinity or time of initiation of experiments had no effect of any magnitude on reproduction. The released swarmers were predominantly biflagellate (95%, negatively phototactic and germinated without complementary gametes. This indicates that Ulva sp. 3 has a simple asexual life history dominated by biflagellate zoids.

  8. Methods for the induction of reproduction in a tropical species of filamentous ulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Christina; de Nys, Rocky; Lawton, Rebecca J; Paul, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    The green seaweed Ulva is a major fouling organism but also an edible aquaculture product in Asia. This study quantified for the first time the effect of key factors on the reproduction of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva (Ulva sp. 3). The controlled timing of release of swarmers (motile reproductive bodies) was achieved when experiments were initiated in the early afternoon by exposing the thalli to a temperature shock (4°C) for 10 min and subsequently placing them into autoclaved filtered seawater under a 12 h light: 12 h dark photoperiod at 25°C. The release of swarmers then peaked two days after initiation. In contrast, segmentation, dehydration, salinity or time of initiation of experiments had no effect of any magnitude on reproduction. The released swarmers were predominantly biflagellate (95%), negatively phototactic and germinated without complementary gametes. This indicates that Ulva sp. 3 has a simple asexual life history dominated by biflagellate zoids.

  9. Potential adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution using green macroalgaePosidonia oceanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouche, F.-N.; Yassaa, N.

    2018-03-01

    The use of inexpensive biological materials, such as marine algae for removing dyes from contaminated industrial effluents appears as a potential alternative method. The aim of this study is to investigate the aptitude of marine macroalgae Posidonia Oceanica local biomass abundant on the coasts of Algeria for selective sorption of methylene blue (MB) from an aqueous solution in batch experiments at 20 °C. A maximum percentage removal of Posidonia oceanica occurs at pH 5. Equilibrium isotherm data were analyzed using the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption equilibrium of methylene blue was best describe by Langmuir model than the Freundlich model. The maximum sorption capacity was 357 mgg-1at pH 5. The sorption data were very well described by the pseudo-second-order model. Keywords: Posidonia oceanica, Methylene blue (MB), Biosorption, Isotherm Equilibrium, Kinetics; Modelling.

  10. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of four Algerian marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cmi

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... and antifungal activities of the extracts of marine algae from southern coast of India. Botanica marina. 40: 507-515. Patra JK, Patra AP, Mahapatra NK, Thatoi HN, Das S, Sahu, RK, Swain. GC (2009). Antimicrobial activity of organic solvent extracts of three marine macroalgae from Chilika Lake, Orissa, India.

  11. The fast expansion of Pyropia aquaculture in ;Sansha; regions should be mainly responsible for the Ulva blooms in Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianheng; Zhao, Peng; Huo, Yuanzi; Yu, Kefeng; He, Peimin

    2017-04-01

    Massive Ulva blooms became an environmental disaster in the Yellow Sea from 2007 to 2015. In this study, field shipboard observations indicated that Ulva blooms originated in Pyropia aquaculture area, and the morphology of initial floating Ulva seaweed have the structure of rhizoid, which is similar with the attached Ulva on the Pyropia rafts. The spatial distribution of Ulva microscopic propagules in the southern Yellow Sea also supported that the blooms originated in the Pyropia aquaculture area. Besides, numerical model was used in this study, showing the origin of macroalgal blooms was traced to "Sansha" regions which accounted for almost 70% of the total Pyropia aquaculture area. We conclude that the significant biomass (4252 tons) of Ulva species on the Pyropia rafts during the harvesting season in "Sansha" regions played an important role in the early rapid development of blooms in the Yellow Sea.

  12. Oxidative stress and enzymatic scavenging of superoxide radicals induced by solar UV-B radiation in Ulva canopies from southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Bischof

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and scavenging of the superoxide radical by superoxide dismutase (SOD was studied in mat-like canopies of the green macroalga Ulva rotundata Bliding in a tidal brine pond system in southern Spain. Artificial canopies were covered with different cut-off filters, generating different radiation conditions. ROS and SOD were assessed after three days of exposure. ROS induced lipid peroxidation depended on the position of individual thalli within the canopy and on radiation conditions. Samples exposed to the full solar spectrum were most affected, whereas samples either exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR alone or UV radiation without PAR exhibited fewer peroxidation products. The activity of SOD appeared to be controlled by the impinging UV-A and UV-B radiation and also increased in response to oxidative stress. The results provide evidence for additive effects of high PAR and UV-B under field conditions and support the previously proposed hypothesis that UV-B effects are mediated by an inhibition of the xanthophyll cycle, which increases ROS production and, consequently, causes oxidative damage to components of the photosynthetic machinery, such as proteins and pigments.

  13. Ulva blooms in the southwestern Gulf of California: Reproduction and biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Sánchez, Tonatiuh; Piñón-Gimate, Alejandra; Serviere-Zaragoza, Elisa; López-Bautista, Juan Manuel; Casas-Valdez, Margarita

    2018-01-01

    Ulvacean blooms are generally characterized by one or more Ulva species, some of which are common to blooms across a broad geographic range. In tropical environments the identified stimuli that induce reproductive development of Ulva are restricted to temperature, salinity, dehydration and fragmentation. Culture studies have been prolific in describing the reproduction of Ulva species, but its reproductive changes in natural environment have not been described yet. Hence, seasonal changes were described in reproductive stages and their relationship with biomass and environmental factors of Ulva species at four macroalgal blooms in a subtropical bay. Eight Ulva species were found: U. acanthophora, U. clathrata, U. flexuosa, U. intestinalis, U. lactuca, U. lobata, U. nematoidea and U. rigida. Reproductive stage and biomass varied according to site and season. Five species showed four reproductive stages (vegetative, thallus with fully differentiated zooids in formation and empty cells after zooids release); for the remaining species only vegetative thalli were found. Ulva rigida showed the highest biomass values, followed by U. acanthophora, following a seasonal pattern.

  14. Cadmium effects on growth and physiology of Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markham, J.W.; Kremer, B.P.; Sperling, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    The chlorophycean Ulva lactuca L. was grown in the laboratory in unialgal culture to sufficient size so that up to 70 discs, 24 mm in diameter, could be punched out of a single plant. Using such discs, U. lactuca was then tested with various concentrations of Cd under continuous-flow conditions. A concentration of 4.5 ppm Cd was lethal to U. lactuca within 6 days. Control discs in unpolluted water increased in diameter at a rate of 8 to 13% day/sup -1/ over a 6-day period. At sublethal concentration of Cd a sharp reduction in growth rate was observed at increasing concentrations up to approximately 0.3 ppm Cd, whereas from 0.3 ppm Cd to the lethal concentrations the reduction of the growth rate was significantly less. Reduction in photosynthetic performance corresponded closely to the recuction in growth rate. At ambient concentrations of 0.8 ppm Cd, the plants concentrated Cd by a factor of approximately 50 in 6 days. Much higher concentration factors were attained in lower ambient concentrations. After removal from Cd-polluted water into flow-through culture in unpolluted water, a subsequent loss of Cd was indicated and the plants recovered rapidly. Plants exposed up to 3 d to 0.7 ppm Cd recovered sufficiently to produce viable gametes 7 days after removal from Cd. Because it has a relatively short life span and apparently loses Cd subsequent to exposure to Cd-polluted water, Ulva lactuca is not recommended as an alga for monitoring in-situ environmental pollution.

  15. Characterisation of estuarine intertidal macroalgae by laser-induced fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gameiro, Carla; Utkin, Andrei B.; Sousa Dias Cartaxana, Paulo Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The article reports the application of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for the assessment of macroalgae communities of estuarine intertidal areas. The method was applied for the characterisation of fifteen intertidal macroalgae species of the Tagus estuary, Portugal, and adjacent coastal area...... spectra were determined by differences in the main fluorescing pigments: phycoerythrin, phycocyanin and chlorophyll a (Chl a). In the green and brown macroalgae groups, the relative significance of the two emission maxima seems to be related to the thickness of the photosynthetic layer. In thick...... macroalgae, like Codium tomentosum or Fucus vesiculosus, the contribution of the far-red emission fluorescence peak was more significant, most probably due to re-absorption of the emitted red Chl a fluorescence within the dense photosynthetic layer. Similarly, an increase in the number of layers of the thin...

  16. Transuranium elements in macroalgae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Ballestra, S.; Lopez, J.J.; Barci-Funel, G.; Ardisson, G.

    1991-01-01

    The atmospheric deposition and transfer of transuranium elements (TU) to macroalgae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident has been studied. The deposition of TU was small compared to most fission products: 239+240 Pu and 241 Am could not be detected in water or algae, 242 Cm was the dominant α emitter detected in Chernobyl fallout. Concentration factors of TU for the macroalgae are estimated

  17. Sewage pollution in Negril, Jamaica: effects on nutrition and ecology of coral reef macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, B. E.; Thacker, K.; Hanson, C.; Getten, L.

    2011-07-01

    Coral reefs in the Negril Marine Park (NMP), Jamaica, have been increasingly impacted by nutrient pollution and macroalgal blooms following decades of intensive development as a major tourist destination. A baseline survey of DIN and SRP concentrations, C:N:P and stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of abundant reef macroalgae on shallow and deep reefs of the NMP in 1998 showed strong P-limitation and evidence of increasing sewage pollution. In 1999, a sewage collection and treatment project began diverting wastewater from the resort and urban areas to a pond system that discharged partially-treated effluent into the South Negril River (SNR). These sewage discharges significantly increased concentrations of NH{4/+} and SRP (N:P ˜13) in the SNR, which flows into Long Bay and around Negril's "West End". Concentrations of SRP, the primary limiting nutrient, were higher on shallow reefs of the West End in 2001 compared to 1998. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of abundant reef macroalgae on both shallow and deep reefs of the West End in 2002 were significantly higher than baseline values in 1998, indicating an escalating impact of sewage nitrogen pollution over this timeframe. The increased nutrient concentrations and δ15N enrichment of reef macroalgae correlated with blooms of the chlorophyte Chaetomorpha linum in shallow waters of Long Bay and Codium isthmocladum and Caulerpa cupressoides on deep reefs of the West End. Sewage treatment systems adjacent to coral reefs must include nutrient removal to ensure that DIN and SRP concentrations, after dilution, are below the low thresholds noted for these oligotrophic ecosystems.

  18. The Hawaiian freshwater algae biodiversity survey (2009–2014): systematic and biogeographic trends with an emphasis on the macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A remarkable range of environmental conditions is present in the Hawaiian Islands due to their gradients of elevation, rainfall and island age. Despite being well known as a location for the study of evolutionary processes and island biogeography, little is known about the composition of the non-marine algal flora of the archipelago, its degree of endemism, or affinities with other floras. We conducted a biodiversity survey of the non-marine macroalgae of the six largest main Hawaiian Islands using molecular and microscopic assessment techniques. We aimed to evaluate whether endemism or cosmopolitanism better explain freshwater algal distribution patterns, and provide a baseline data set for monitoring future biodiversity changes in the Hawaiian Islands. Results 1,786 aquatic and terrestrial habitats and 1,407 distinct collections of non-marine macroalgae were collected from the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Lanai and Hawaii from the years 2009–2014. Targeted habitats included streams, wet walls, high elevation bogs, taro fields, ditches and flumes, lakes/reservoirs, cave walls and terrestrial areas. Sites that lacked freshwater macroalgae were typically terrestrial or wet wall habitats that were sampled for diatoms and other microalgae. Approximately 50% of the identifications were of green algae, with lesser proportions of diatoms, red algae, cyanobacteria, xanthophytes and euglenoids. 898 DNA sequences were generated representing eight different markers, which enabled an assessment of the number of taxonomic entities for genera collected as part of the survey. Forty-four well-characterized taxa were assessed for global distribution patterns. This analysis revealed no clear biogeographic affinities of the flora, with 27.3% characterized as “cosmopolitan”, 11.4% “endemic”, and 61.3% as intermediate. Conclusions The Hawaiian freshwater algal biodiversity survey represents the first comprehensive effort to characterize the non-marine

  19. Ulva lactuca hydroethanolic extract suppresses experimental arthritis via its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Ulva lactuca hydroethanolic extract on rheumatoid arthritis in male Wistar rats. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of 200 µl Freund’s complete adjuvant into a footpad of the right hind leg of male rats at two consecutive days. Arthritic rats were orally treated with Ulva lactuca hydroethanolic extract at dose level of 100 mg/kg b.wt /day for 1, 2 and 3 weeks and were compared with corresponding arthritic control at the same periods. The increased right hind paw circumference at tarsal pad, deleteriously affected ankle joint histological architecture, articular inflammatory cell infiltration and focal necrosis in arthritic rats were counteracted by hydroethanolic extract treatment at the three tested periods. Elevated leukocytes count in arthritic rats connected with changes of spleen and thymus histological architecture, extramedullary megakaryocytes, lymphoblasts activation and mitotic figures were significantly improved by Ulva lactuca hydroethanolic extract treatment at the three tested peroids. The elevated rheumatoid factor (RF, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-17 (IL-17 and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β levels and the lowered interleukin-4 (IL-4 level in arthritic rats were markedly ameliorated as a result of Ulva lactuca administration. The lowered glutathione level and glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities as well as the elevated lipid peroxides level in serum of arthritic rats were potentially alleviated as a result of Ulva lactuca treatment. In conclusion, Ulva lactuca could have anti-arthritic efficacies which may be mediated via its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant potentials. Keywords: Ulva lactuca, Joints, Spleen, Thymus, Rheumatoid arthritis, Inflammation, Oxidative stress

  20. Influence of macroalgae diversity on radionuclide and heavy metal accumulation in Bulgarian Black Sea ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonova, Tz.; Strezov, A.; Ivanov, D.; Stankov, D.

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclides and toxic metals in Black Sea green, brown and red macroalgae were investigated using Low-level Gamma Spectroscopy and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry AAS (FAAS, ETAAS). All algae samples were collected along the whole Bulgarian coast during the period 1996 - 2004. The obtained data show that radionuclide and metal concentrations depend on the macrophytes type and are higher in red Ceramium species. Tendencies in the concentration pollutants variations during the studied period are examined and all data give information about different macrophytic species ability to accumulate certain elements from one and the same sampling location The possibilities to use Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta algae phylums as bioindicators in marine environment are investigated. All obtained results show that use of macroalgae reduces the need of complex studies on chemical speciation of aquatic contaminants and makes algae valuable indicators for the seawater quality assessment. Higher levels are obtained at the northern part of the Black Sea due to seawater current circulation, originating from Danube, Dnyeper and Dnester river outflow and also at the southern part of the coast. All data show that there is no serious contamination along the Bulgarian coast

  1. Analyzing redox balance in a synthetic yeast platform to improve utilization of brown macroalgae as feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Contador

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Macroalgae have high potential to be an efficient, and sustainable feedstock for the production of biofuels and other more valuable chemicals. Attempts have been made to enable the co-fermentation of alginate and mannitol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae to unlock the full potential of this marine biomass. However, the efficient use of the sugars derived from macroalgae depends on the equilibrium of cofactors derived from the alginate and mannitol catabolic pathways. There are a number of strong metabolic limitations that have to be tackled before this bioconversion can be carried out efficiently by engineered yeast cells.An analysis of the redox balance during ethanol fermentation from alginate and mannitol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae using metabolic engineering tools was carried out. To represent the strain designed for conversion of macroalgae carbohydrates to ethanol, a context-specific model was derived from the available yeast genome-scale metabolic reconstructions. Flux balance analysis and dynamic simulations were used to determine the flux distributions. The model indicates that ethanol production is determined by the activity of 4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronate (DEHU reductase (DehR and its preferences for NADH or NADPH which influences strongly the flow of cellular resources. Different scenarios were explored to determine the equilibrium between NAD(H and NADP(H that will lead to increased ethanol yields on mannitol and DEHU under anaerobic conditions. When rates of mannitol dehydrogenase and DehRNADH tend to be close to a ratio in the range 1–1.6, high growth rates and ethanol yields were predicted. The analysis shows a number of metabolic limitations that are not easily identified through experimental procedures such as quantifying the impact of the cofactor preference by DEHU reductase in the system, the low flux into the alginate catabolic pathway, and a detailed analysis of the redox balance. These results show that

  2. Microphytobenthos and benthic macroalgae determine sediment organic matter composition in shallow photic sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardison, A.K.; Canuel, E.A/; Anderson, I.C.; Tobias, C.R.; Veuger, B.; Waters, M.N.

    2013-01-01

    Microphytobenthos and benthic macroalgae play an important role in system metabolism within shallow coastal bays. However, their independent and interactive influences on sediment organic matter (SOM) are not well understood. We investigated the influence of macroalgae and microphytobenthos on SOM

  3. Ulva and Enteromorpha (Ulvaceae, Chlorophyta) from two sides of the Yellow Sea: analysis of nuclear rDNA ITS and plastid rbcL sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Nan; Jiang, Peng; Boo, Sung Min; Lee, Wook Jae; Cui, Yulin; Lin, Hanzhi; Zhao, Jin; Liu, Zhengyi; Qin, Song

    2010-07-01

    Ulvacean green seaweeds are common worldwide; they formed massive green tides in the Yellow Sea in recent years, which caused marine ecological problems as well as a social issue. We investigated two major genera of the Ulvaceae, Ulva and Enteromorpha, and collected the plastid rbcL and nuclear ITS sequences of specimens of the genera in two sides of the Yellow Sea and analyzed them. Phylogenetic trees of rbcL data show the occurrence of five species of Enteromorpha ( E. compressa, E. flexuosa, E. intestinalis, E. linza and E. prolifera) and three species of Ulva ( U. pertusa, U. rigida and U. ohnoi). However, we found U. ohnoi, which is known as a subtropical to tropical species, at two sites on Jeju Island, Korea. Four ribotypes in partial sequences of 5.8S rDNA and ITS2 from E. compressa were also found. Ribotype network analysis revealed that the common ribotype, occurring in China, Korea and Europe, is connected with ribotypes from Europe and China/Japan. Although samples of the same species were collected from both sides of the Yellow Sea, intraspecific genetic polymorphism of each species was low among samples collected worldwide.

  4. New records of marine water mites (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Pontarachnidae) from the Pujada Bay (West Pacific Ocean) and the Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pesic, V.; Chatterjee, T.; Troch, M. de; Ingole, B.S.

    sabangensis Viets, 1984 are known from India and the Philippines, respectively. Materials examined in the present study were collected among sea grasses Thalassia hemprichii (Pujada Bay) and marine macroalgae, Padina (Andaman Sea). The collected sea grasses...

  5. Thermal pyrolysis characteristics of macroalgae Cladophora glomerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenhua; Chen, Kefu; Zeng, Jinsong; Xu, Jun; Wang, Bin

    2017-11-01

    The Cladophora glomerata (C. glomerata) is a kind of widely distributed macroalgae in the freshwater ecosystems. It primarily consists of carbohydrates that can be converted into biofuel by pyrolysis. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate the thermal behavior and kinetics of C. glomerata during the pyrolysis process. The results showed that heating rates slightly affect the decomposition properties of C. glomerata; with the heating rates increasing, the maximum peak of weight loss rate shifted to higher temperatures. The activation energies of C. glomerata pyrolysis reaction were 244.25 and 238.07kJ/mol, respectively, as calculated by Friedman and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) methods. The pre-exponential factor and reaction order were determined by Coats-Redfern model, and applied to simulate the pyrolysis process of C. glomerata. The model calculated data and experimental data were consistent. This study could provide theoretical supports for designing C. glomerata conversion processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Technical and Economic Evaluation of Macroalgae Cultivation for Fuel Production (Draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinberg, D. A.; Hock, S. M.

    1985-04-01

    The potential of macroalgae as sources of renewable liquid and gaseous fuels is evaluated. A series of options for production of macroalgae feedstock is considered. Because of their high carbohydrate content, the fuel products for which macroalgae are most suitable are methane and ethanol. Fuel product costs were compared with projected fuel costs in the year 1995.

  7. Nutritional value of green seaweed (Ulva lactuca for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaeldein M. Abudabos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current work aimed to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca as an alternative ingredient in broiler chicken diets. The effect of substituting 1.0 or 3.0% of corn with U. lactuca on performance, carcass characteristics, serum constituents and nutrients retention of broilers from 12 to 33 d of age was evaluated. Three treatments were distributed in a RCBD design: T1 = control diet (0% U. lactuca; T2 = 1.0 % U. lactuca; T3 = 3.0 % U. lactuca. Cumulative feed intake (FI, body weight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR and nutrients retention from 12 to 33 d of age were not affected by treatment (P>0.05. Birds which had received T3 had a higher dressing percentage and breast muscle yield compared to those which had received T1 or T2. Serum total lipid, cholesterol and uric acid concentrations were significantly lower in birds which had received T2 and T3 (P<0.05. Serum enzymes and electrolytes were not influenced by any dietary treatment except for alanine transaminase (ALT which was significantly lower for the treated groups. Based on presented evidences, it is recommended to substitute 3.0% of corn with green seaweed (U. lactuca.

  8. Subsequent influences of feeding intact green seaweed Ulva lactuca to growing lambs on the seminal and testicular characteristics in rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, E M; Okab, A B; Abdoun, K A; El-Waziry, A M; Al-Haidary, A A

    2013-12-01

    The present experiment was designed to investigate the subsequent influences of supplementing different levels of intact green seaweed Ulva lactuca (0%, 3%, and 5% DM) to growing sexually immature lambs during the growth period (74 d) on the seminal and testicular characteristics of sexually mature rams. Ulva lactuca was manually collected, adequately prepared, and then incorporated into lambs' diets. Eighteen male 3-mo-old lambs of the Awassi breed with a mean BW of 22.57 kg (SD = 1.08) were randomly assigned into treatments. The obtained results indicate that offering Ulva lactuca at the level of 3% or 5% DM to lambs during the growth period had no subsequent impacts (P > 0.05) on liver and kidney functions as well as blood water balance in rams, thereby suggesting that Ulva lactuca can be safely supplemented to lambs during growing. However, our findings point out that feeding a lamb diet supplemented with intact Ulva lactuca failed to demonstrate any subsequent benefit (P > 0.05) on the growth performance, thermoregulatory responses, and plasma oxidative status in rams. Above all, it was clearly evident that supplementing intact Ulva lactuca to lambs had demonstrated subsequent negative influences (P Ulva lactuca during the growth period compared to control rams. The deleterious impacts of feeding intact Ulva lactuca on spermatogenesis and germ cell loss were proven to be attributed to the dysfunction of Sertoli cells. Collectively, these results provide novel insights on the subsequent influences of dietary supplementation of intact Ulva lactuca to lambs. The consistent evidence of profound negative impacts on seminal and testicular characteristics as well as the resulting data of no improvement of subsequent growth, thermoregulation, and plasma oxidative status in rams prompts us to tentatively recommend the avoidance of feeding intact Ulva lactuca to lambs.

  9. Nitrogen fixation rates associated with the invasive macroalgae Sargassum horneri around Catalina Island, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLiberto, A.

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen fixation is an important process which allows organisms access to biologically unavailable dinitrogen gas. Bacteria, known as diazotrophs use the enzyme nitrogenase to convert N2 to NH3. These bacteria, including certain species of heterotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria, can be symbiotically associated with marine macroalgae, facilitating nutrient cycling in oligotrophic regions. As many species within the genera Sargassum are associated with nitrogen fixation, this study hypothesized that nitrogenase activity would be associated with the benthic invasive Sargassum horneri on Catalina Island. In the past decade, Sargassum horneri, an invasive from Japan, has spread throughout the waters around Catalina Island. Using the acetylene reduction procedure using flame ionization detection, initial nitrogenase activity of S. horneri sampled from Indian Rock was observed. Nitrogen fixation rates increased with decomposition, particularly in dark/anaerobic treatments, suggesting the presence of heterotrophic bacteria. In addition, acetate additions greatly increase nitrogen fixation rates, once again indicating heterotrophic nitrogen fixing bacteria.

  10. Changes in N cycling induced by Ulva detritus enrichment of sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils

    2013-01-01

    Macroalgal accumulation and decomposition in shallow water environments typically result in an increase in the organic matter content of the sediment, affecting both benthic metabolism and nutrient dynamics. The present study investigates how a pulse addition of Ulva detritus to estuarine sediment...... of oxygen and nitrate. Nitrification increased significantly in response to enhanced NH4 + supply from decomposition of the Ulva detritus. Aerobic ammonia oxidation exceeded rates of nitrite oxidation, leading to accumulation of NO2 − in the oxic zone of the sediment. Nitrite and NO3 − produced via...... nitrification diffused up to the sediment surface, inducing a net efflux to the water column, and downwards, supporting a high rate of denitrification coupled to nitrification. The present study shows that organic enrichment with Ulva detritus enhances sediment oxygen uptake, nitrification and denitrification...

  11. A Comparison of Lignin, Macroalgae, Wood and Straw Fast Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    these biomasses. The fast pyrolysis of macroalgae showed a promising result with a bio-oil yield of 65 wt% dry ash free basis (daf) and 76 % energy recovery in the bio-oil while the lignin fast pyrolysis provides a bio-oil yield of 47 wt% daf and energy recovery in bio-oil of 45 %. The physiochemical properties...... of the bio-oils were characterized with respect to higher heating value (HHV), molecular mass distribution, viscosity, pH, density, thermal behaviors, elemental concentrations, phase separation and aging. The lignin and macroalgae oil properties were different compared to those of the wood and straw oils......A fast pyrolysis study on lignin and macroalgae (non-conventional biomass) and wood and straw (conventional biomass) were carried out in a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor at pyrolysis temperature of 550 ºC. The product distributions and energy recoveries were measured and compared among...

  12. Bioremediation capacity, nutritional value and biorefining of macroalga Saccharina latissima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva Marinho, Goncalo

    Macroalgae have the ability to assimilate and convert waste nutrients (N and P) into valuable biomass. In this context, they have been extensively studied for their bioremediation potential for integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA). With a global aquaculture production of 23.8 million tonnes...... attention as sustainable feedstock for biorefinery. Nevertheless, macroalgae resources are still very little explored in western countries. The aim of this study was fulfilled by the investigation of the bioremediation potential of the macroalga Saccharina latissima cultivated at a reference site (control...... two growing seasons enhanced the biomass yield and thus value, but not the bioremediation capacity. Harvest time had a significant impact in overall chemical composition, while cultivation site did not generally result in marked differences. The growth of epiphytic organisms from July to November...

  13. Macroalgae Extracts From Antarctica Have Antimicrobial and Anticancer Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane M. Martins

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Macroalgae are sources of bioactive compounds due to the large number of secondary metabolites they synthesize. The Antarctica region is characterized by extreme weather conditions and abundant aggregations of macroalgae. However, current knowledge on their biodiversity and their potential for bio-prospecting is still fledging. This study evaluates the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of different extracts of four macroalgae (Cystosphaera jacquinotii, Iridaea cordata, Himantothallus grandifolius, and Pyropia endiviifolia from the Antarctic region against cancer and non-cancer cell lines.Methods: The antimicrobial activity of macroalgae was evaluated by the broth microdilution method. Extracts were assessed against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 19095, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 4083, Escherichia coli ATCC29214, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Candida albicans ATCC 62342, and the clinical isolates from the human oral cavity, namely, C. albicans (3, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. lipolytica, and C. famata. Cytotoxicity against human epidermoid carcinoma (A-431 and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3 cell lines was evaluated with MTT colorimetric assay.Results: An ethyl acetate extract of H. grandifolius showed noticeable antifungal activity against all fungal strains tested, including fluconazole-resistant samples. Cytotoxicity investigation with a cancer cell line revealed that the ethyl acetate extract of I. cordata was highly cytotoxic against A-431 cancer cell line, increasing the inhibitory ratio to 91.1 and 95.6% after 24 and 48 h exposure, respectively, for a concentration of 500 μg mL−1. Most of the algal extracts tested showed little or no cytotoxicity against fibroblasts.Conclusion: Data suggest that macroalgae extracts from Antarctica may represent a source of therapeutic agents.HIGHLIGHTSDifferent macroalgae samples from Antarctica were collected and the lyophilized biomass of each macroalgae was extracted

  14. Natural and anthropogenic nitrogen uptake by bloom-forming macroalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornber, Carol S.; DiMilla, Peter; Nixon, Scott W.; McKinney, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    The frequency and duration of macroalgal blooms have increased in many coastal waters over the past several decades. We used field surveys and laboratory culturing experiments to examine the nitrogen content and δ 15 N values of Ulva and Gracilaria, two bloom-forming algal genera in Narragansett Bay, RI (USA). The northern end of this bay is densely populated with large sewage treatment plant nitrogen inputs; the southern end is more lightly populated and opens to the Atlantic Ocean. Field-collected Ulva varied in δ 15 N among sites, but with two exceptions had δ 15 N above 10 per mille , reflecting a significant component of heavy anthropogenic N. This variation was not correlated with a north-south gradient. Both Ulva and Gracilaria cultured in water from across Narragansett Bay also had high signals (δ 15 N = ∼14-17 per mille and 8-12 per mille , respectively). These results indicate that inputs of anthropogenic N can have far-reaching impacts throughout estuaries

  15. Natural and anthropogenic nitrogen uptake by bloom-forming macroalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornber, Carol S. [Department of Biological Sciences, 100 Flagg Road, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States)], E-mail: thornber@uri.edu; DiMilla, Peter; Nixon, Scott W. [Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, South Ferry Road, Narragansett, RI 02881 (United States); McKinney, Richard A. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Atlantic Ecology Division, 27 Tarzwell Drive, Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    The frequency and duration of macroalgal blooms have increased in many coastal waters over the past several decades. We used field surveys and laboratory culturing experiments to examine the nitrogen content and {delta}{sup 15}N values of Ulva and Gracilaria, two bloom-forming algal genera in Narragansett Bay, RI (USA). The northern end of this bay is densely populated with large sewage treatment plant nitrogen inputs; the southern end is more lightly populated and opens to the Atlantic Ocean. Field-collected Ulva varied in {delta}{sup 15}N among sites, but with two exceptions had {delta}{sup 15}N above 10 per mille , reflecting a significant component of heavy anthropogenic N. This variation was not correlated with a north-south gradient. Both Ulva and Gracilaria cultured in water from across Narragansett Bay also had high signals ({delta}{sup 15}N = {approx}14-17 per mille and 8-12 per mille , respectively). These results indicate that inputs of anthropogenic N can have far-reaching impacts throughout estuaries.

  16. Natural and anthropogenic nitrogen uptake by bloom-forming macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornber, Carol S; DiMilla, Peter; Nixon, Scott W; McKinney, Richard A

    2008-02-01

    The frequency and duration of macroalgal blooms have increased in many coastal waters over the past several decades. We used field surveys and laboratory culturing experiments to examine the nitrogen content and delta(15)N values of Ulva and Gracilaria, two bloom-forming algal genera in Narragansett Bay, RI (USA). The northern end of this bay is densely populated with large sewage treatment plant nitrogen inputs; the southern end is more lightly populated and opens to the Atlantic Ocean. Field-collected Ulva varied in delta(15)N among sites, but with two exceptions had delta(15)N above 10 per thousand, reflecting a significant component of heavy anthropogenic N. This variation was not correlated with a north-south gradient. Both Ulva and Gracilaria cultured in water from across Narragansett Bay also had high signals (delta(15)N= approximately 14-17 per thousand and 8-12 per thousand, respectively). These results indicate that inputs of anthropogenic N can have far-reaching impacts throughout estuaries.

  17. Contributions to the study of the marine algae inhabiting Umluj Seashore, Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraheem Borie Mohammad Ibraheem

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The marine algal flora of the Umluj city received no attention about the marine macroalgae. In this paper a total of 19 species are reported for the first time as occurring in the Umluj coast of Saudi Arabia. These species related to Chlorophyta (1, Phaeophyceae (6 and Rhodophyceae (12.

  18. Content of polyphenol compound in mangrove and macroalga extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarina, N. D.; Patria, M. P.

    2017-07-01

    Polyphenol or phenolic are compounds containing one or more hydroxyl group of the aromatic ring [1]. These compounds have some activities like antibacterial, antiseptic, and antioxidants. Natural resources like mangrove and macroalga were known containing these compounds. The purpose of the research was to investigate polyphenol content in mangrove and macroalga. Materials used in this research were mangrove (Avicennia sp.) leaves and the whole part of macroalga (Caulerpa racemosa). Samples were dried for 5 days then macerated in order to get an extract. Maceration were done using methanol for 48 hours (first) and 24 hours (second) continously. Polyphenol content was determined using phytochemical screening on both extracts. The quantitative test was carried out to determine catechin and tannin as polyphenol compound. The result showed that catechin was observed in both extracts while tannin in mangrove extract only. According to quantitative test, mangrove has a higher content of catechin and tannin which were 12.37-13.44 % compared to macroalga which was 2.57-4.58 %. Those indicated that both materials can be the source of polyphenol compound with higher content on mangrove. Moreover, according to this result, these resources can be utilized for advanced studies and human needs like medical drug.

  19. Effective production of fermentable sugars from brown macroalgae biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Damao; Kim, Do Hyoung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2016-11-01

    Brown macroalgae are renewable and sustainable biomass resources for the production of biofuels and chemicals, owing to their high levels of carbohydrates and low levels of lignin. To increase the biological usage of brown macroalgae, it is necessary to depolymerize the polysaccharides that generate macroalgal monomeric sugars or sugar derivatives and to convert them into fermentable sugars for the production of biofuels and chemicals. In this review, we discuss the chemical and enzymatic saccharification of the major carbohydrates found in brown macroalgae and the use of the resulting constituents in the production of biofuels and chemicals, as well as high-value health-benefiting functional oligosaccharides and sugars. We also discuss recently reported experimental results, novel enzymes, and technological breakthroughs that are related to polysaccharide depolymerization, fermentable sugar production, and the biological conversion of non-favorable sugars for fermentation using industrial microorganisms. This review provides a comprehensive perspective of the efficient utilization of brown macroalgae as renewable resources for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

  20. An economic model for offshore cultivation of macroalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Wim; Schoot, van der Jan Rinze; Edwards, Maeve; Queguineur, Benoit; Champenois, Jennifer; Mooney, Karen; Barrento, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Algae biomass is considered as a potential non-fossil source of raw materials to produce fuel, feed, chemicals and materials. For this purpose microalgae as well as macroalgae can be used, and in this report we focus on the latter. More than 99% of the world production of aquatic plants is produced

  1. Growth responses of Ulva prolifera to inorganic and organic nutrients: Implications for macroalgal blooms in the southern Yellow Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Yongyu; Han, Xiurong; Shi, Xiaoyong; Rivkin, Richard B.; Legendre, Louis

    2016-05-01

    The marine macrophyte Ulva prolifera is the dominant green-tide-forming seaweed in the southern Yellow Sea, China. Here we assessed, in the laboratory, the growth rate and nutrient uptake responses of U. prolifera to different nutrient treatments. The growth rates were enhanced in incubations with added organic and inorganic nitrogen [i.e. nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), urea and glycine] and phosphorus [i.e. phosphate (PO43-), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P)], relative to the control. The relative growth rates of U. prolifera were higher when enriched with dissolved organic nitrogen (urea and glycine) and phosphorus (ATP and G-6-P) than inorganic nitrogen (NO3- and NH4+) and phosphorus (PO43-). In contrast, the affinity was higher for inorganic than organic nutrients. Field data in the southern Yellow Sea showed significant inverse correlations between macroalgal biomass and dissolved organic nutrients. Our laboratory and field results indicated that organic nutrients such as urea, glycine and ATP, may contribute to the development of macroalgal blooms in the southern Yellow Sea.

  2. Lipid Composition, Fatty Acids and Sterols in the Seaweeds Ulva armoricana, and Solieria chordalis from Brittany (France): An Analysis from Nutritional, Chemotaxonomic, and Antiproliferative Activity Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendel, Melha; Wielgosz-Collin, Gaëtane; Bertrand, Samuel; Roussakis, Christos; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Bedoux, Gilles

    2015-09-02

    Lipids from the proliferative macroalgae Ulva armoricana (Chlorophyta) and Solieria chordalis (Rhodophyta) from Brittany, France, were investigated. The total content of lipids was 2.6% and 3.0% dry weight for U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The main fractions of S. chordalis were neutral lipids (37%) and glycolipids (38%), whereas U. armoricana contained mostly neutral lipids (55%). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) represented 29% and 15% of the total lipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. In both studied algae, the phospholipids were composed of PUFA for 18%. In addition, PUFA were shown to represent 9% and 4.5% of glycolipids in U. armoricana and S. chordalis, respectively. The essential PUFA were 16:4n-3, 18:4n-3, 18:2n-3, 18:2n-6, and 22:6n-3 in U. armoricana, and 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 in S. chordalis. It is important to notice that six 2-hydroxy-, three 3-hydroxy-, and two monounsaturated hydroxy fatty acids were also identified and may provide a chemotaxonomic basis for algae. These seaweeds contained interesting compounds such as squalene, α-tocopherol, cholest-4-en-3-one and phytosterols. The antiproliferative effect was evaluated in vitro on human non-small-cell bronchopulmonary carcinoma line (NSCLC-N6) with an IC50 of 23 μg/mL for monogalactosyldiacylglycerols isolated from S. chordalis and 24 μg/mL for digalactosyldiacylglycerols from U. armoricana. These results confirm the potentialities of valorization of these two species in the fields of health, nutrition and chemotaxonomy.

  3. TOXICITY PROPENSITIES OF SOME MARINE AND FRESH-WATERALGAE AS THEIR CHEMICAL DEFENSE

    OpenAIRE

    ORHAN, İlkay; WISESPONGPAND, Puntip; ATICI, Tahir; ŞENER, Bilge

    2003-01-01

    Five species of the marine brown-algae, namely Halopteris scoparia (L.) Sauvagau, Padina vickersiae Hoyt, Dictyota dichotoma (Huds) Lam., Scinaia furcellata L., and Sargassum natans (L.) J. Meyer, a species of the marine green-alga, Ulva lactuca L., a species of the sea grass, Posidonia oceanica L., six species of fresh-water green-algae, namely Vaucheria sessilis (Vauch.) De Candolle, Zygnema pectinatum (Vauch.) C.A. Agardh, Maugeotia sp. (C.A. Agardh) Wittrock, Cladophora fracta (Dilw.) Kti...

  4. Changes in N cycling induced by Ulva detritus enrichment of sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Risgaard-Petersen, Nils

    2013-01-01

    Macroalgal accumulation and decomposition in shallow water environments typically result in an increase in the organic matter content of the sediment, affecting both benthic metabolism and nutrient dynamics. The present study investigates how a pulse addition of Ulva detritus to estuarine sedimen...

  5. Growth and Cell Cycle of ULVA Compressa (Ulvophyceae) under Led Illumination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuwano, K.; Abe, N.; Nishi, Y.; Seno, H.; Nishihara, G.N.; Iima, M.; Zachleder, Vilém

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2014), s. 744-752 ISSN 0022-3646 Grant - others:Ministry of Education, Science and Culture(JP) 22580379 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : cell cycle * ulva * elongation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.844, year: 2014

  6. Production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol from biomass of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der H.; Sperber, B.L.H.M.; Houweling-Tan, G.B.N.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Lopez Contreras, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Green seaweed Ulva lactuca harvested from the North Sea near Zeeland (The Netherlands) was characterized as feedstock for acetone, ethanol and ethanol fermentation. Solubilization of over 90% of sugars was achieved by hot-water treatment followed by hydrolysis using commercial cellulases. A

  7. Fate and effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine coastal ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderhorst, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary results are reported from field and laboratory studies on the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on marine organisms of Northwest Pacific coastal ecosystems. Chemical methods for the characterization of test solutions for specific hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene, and heptodecane) were developed concurrently with population and community studies of the effects of short-term and chronic exposures. Results are reported from studies on algae (Ulva), clams (protothaca staminea), crustaceans (Anomyx and Neomysis) and burrowing worms

  8. The seeding and cultivation of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva for algal biomass production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Carl

    Full Text Available Filamentous species of Ulva are ideal for cultivation because they are robust with high growth rates and maintained across a broad range of environments. Temperate species of filamentous Ulva are commercially cultivated on nets which can be artificially 'seeded' under controlled conditions allowing for a high level of control over seeding density and consequently biomass production. This study quantified for the first time the seeding and culture cycle of a tropical species of filamentous Ulva (Ulva sp. 3 and identified seeding density and nursery period as key factors affecting growth and biomass yield. A seeding density of 621,000 swarmers m(-1 rope in combination with a nursery period of five days resulted in the highest growth rate and correspondingly the highest biomass yield. A nursery period of five days was optimal with up to six times the biomass yield compared to ropes under either shorter or longer nursery periods. These combined parameters of seeding density and nursery period resulted in a specific growth rate of more than 65% day(-1 between 7 and 10 days of outdoor cultivation post-nursery. This was followed by a decrease in growth through to 25 days. This study also demonstrated that the timing of harvest is critical as the maximum biomass yield of 23.0 ± 8.8 g dry weight m(-1 (228.7 ± 115.4 g fresh weight m(-1 was achieved after 13 days of outdoor cultivation whereas biomass degraded to 15.5 ± 7.3 g dry weight m(-1 (120.2 ± 71.8 g fresh weight m(-1 over a longer outdoor cultivation period of 25 days. Artificially seeded ropes of Ulva with high biomass yields over short culture cycles may therefore be an alternative to unattached cultivation in integrated pond-based aquaculture systems.

  9. Direct evidence for coastal iodine particles from Laminaria macroalgae – linkage to emissions of molecular iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. McFiggans

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewal of ultrafine aerosols in the marine boundary layer may lead to repopulation of the marine distribution and ultimately determine the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Thus the formation of nanometre-scale particles can lead to enhanced scattering of incoming radiation and a net cooling of the atmosphere. The recent demonstration of the chamber formation of new particles from the photolytic production of condensable iodine-containing compounds from diiodomethane (CH2I2, (O'Dowd et al., 2002; Kolb, 2002; Jimenez et al., 2003a; Burkholder and Ravishankara, 2003, provides an additional mechanism to the gas-to-particle conversion of sulphuric acid formed in the photo-oxidation of dimethylsulphide for marine aerosol repopulation. CH2I2 is emitted from seaweeds (Carpenter et al., 1999, 2000 and has been suggested as an initiator of particle formation. We demonstrate here for the first time that ultrafine iodine-containing particles are produced by intertidal macroalgae exposed to ambient levels of ozone. The particle composition is very similar both to those formed in the chamber photo-oxidation of diiodomethane and in the oxidation of molecular iodine by ozone. The particles formed in all three systems are similarly aspherical. When small, those formed in the molecular iodine system swell only moderately when exposed to increased humidity environments, and swell progressively less with increasing size; this behaviour occurs whether they are formed in dry or humid environments, in contrast to those in the CH2I2 system. Direct coastal boundary layer observations of molecular iodine, ultrafine particle production and iodocarbons are reported. Using a newly measured molecular iodine photolysis rate, it is shown that, if atomic iodine is involved in the observed particle bursts, it is of the order of at least 1000 times more likely to result from molecular iodine photolysis than diiodomethane photolysis. A hypothesis for molecular

  10. Stress proteins and auxiliary anti-stress compounds in intertidal macroalgae Proteínas de estrés y compuestos anti-estrés auxiliares en algas marinas intermareales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Cruces

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intertidal macroalgae are exposed to strong variation in the physical environment and thus, diverse anti-stress mechanisms are displayed by these organisms. Stress proteins (also called heat shock proteins, HSPs have been invoked as potential protective mechanism, especially during stressful action of temperature and solar radiation. Therefore, macroalgae have not normally been used as model organisms in studies of these molecules. The present study compiles the existing information from intertidal species in the context of major factors that have been reported to induce them, e.g. temperature, enhanced solar radiation, contaminants, etc. Additionally, in order to address the question whether the expression of these proteins operates in intertidal macroalgae complementarily with other protective mechanisms, a case study of induction of HSPs after exposure to UV radiation and high temperature in two upper littoral species, Ulva sp. and Porphyra columbina, from southern Chile is presented. In parallel, two well-known responses to stress, photoinhibition of photochemical reactions (Fv/Fm and ROS scavenging were measured. The results indicated that, although stress proteins were detected in a time span between 3 and 24 h, the responses were not correlated with photochemical and antioxidative response. Overall, the study outlines a potential role of stress proteins in ecophysiological responses developed to cope mainly with high temperature and UV radiation. However, other rapid metabolic adjustments (e.g. high thermo-tolerance of photosynthesis and efficient ROS scavenging, together with other biomolecules (mycosporines, phenols, polyamines, etc. and morpho-functional adaptations to the intertidal life (e.g. small size, high area/volume ratio are also important.Las macroalgas marinas intermareales están expuestas a extrema variación en las condiciones ambientales y por ello desarrollan una serie de mecanismos anti-estrés. Las proteínas de estr

  11. De novo sequencing and analysis of the Ulva linza transcriptome to discover putative mechanisms associated with its successful colonization of coastal ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaowen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The green algal genus Ulva Linnaeus (Ulvaceae, Ulvales, Chlorophyta is well known for its wide distribution in marine, freshwater, and brackish environments throughout the world. The Ulva species are also highly tolerant of variations in salinity, temperature, and irradiance and are the main cause of green tides, which can have deleterious ecological effects. However, limited genomic information is currently available in this non-model and ecologically important species. Ulva linza is a species that inhabits bedrock in the mid to low intertidal zone, and it is a major contributor to biofouling. Here, we presented the global characterization of the U. linza transcriptome using the Roche GS FLX Titanium platform, with the aim of uncovering the genomic mechanisms underlying rapid and successful colonization of the coastal ecosystems. Results De novo assembly of 382,884 reads generated 13,426 contigs with an average length of 1,000 bases. Contiguous sequences were further assembled into 10,784 isotigs with an average length of 1,515 bases. A total of 304,101 reads were nominally identified by BLAST; 4,368 isotigs were functionally annotated with 13,550 GO terms, and 2,404 isotigs having enzyme commission (EC numbers were assigned to 262 KEGG pathways. When compared with four other full sequenced green algae, 3,457 unique isotigs were found in U. linza and 18 conserved in land plants. In addition, a specific photoprotective mechanism based on both LhcSR and PsbS proteins and a C4-like carbon-concentrating mechanism were found, which may help U. linza survive stress conditions. At least 19 transporters for essential inorganic nutrients (i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulphur were responsible for its ability to take up inorganic nutrients, and at least 25 eukaryotic cytochrome P450s, which is a higher number than that found in other algae, may be related to their strong allelopathy. Multi-origination of the stress related proteins

  12. Large-scale bioprospecting of cyanobacteria, micro- and macroalgae from the Aegean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvão, Sofia; Demirel, Zeliha; Devi, Prabha; Lombardi, Valter; Hongisto, Vesa; Perälä, Merja; Hattara, Johannes; Imamoglu, Esra; Tilvi, Supriya Shet; Turan, Gamze; Dalay, Meltem Conk; Tammela, Päivi

    2016-05-25

    Marine organisms constitute approximately one-half of the total global biodiversity, being rich reservoirs of structurally diverse biofunctional components. The potential of cyanobacteria, micro- and macroalgae as sources of antimicrobial, antitumoral, anti-inflammatory, and anticoagulant compounds has been reported extensively. Nonetheless, biological activities of marine fauna and flora of the Aegean Sea have remained poorly studied when in comparison to other areas of the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, we screened the antimicrobial, antifouling, anti-inflammatory and anticancer potential of in total 98 specimens collected from the Aegean Sea. Ethanol extract of diatom Amphora cf capitellata showed the most promising antimicrobial results against Candida albicans while the extract of diatom Nitzschia communis showed effective results against Gram-positive bacterium, S. aureus. Extracts from the red alga Laurencia papillosa and from three Cystoseira species exhibited selective antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines and an extract from the brown alga Dilophus fasciola showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity as measured in primary microglial and astrocyte cell cultures as well as by the reduction of proinflammatory cytokines. In summary, our study demonstrates that the Aegean Sea is a rich source of species that possess interesting potential for developing industrial applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation of mangrove macroalgae as biomonitors of estuarine metal contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melville, Felicity [Department of Environmental Sciences/Institute of Water and Environmental Resource Management, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway NSW 2007 (Australia)], E-mail: f.melville@cqu.edu.au; Pulkownik, Alex [Department of Environmental Sciences/Institute of Water and Environmental Resource Management, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2007-11-15

    This study examined the potential use of macroalgae epiphytic on mangrove aerial roots as biomonitors of estuarine contamination. The metal concentrations of macroalgae were investigated in four estuaries in the vicinity of Sydney, Australia, and compared to water and sediment metal concentrations over three seasonal surveys. Macroalgal metal concentrations (copper, zinc, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, manganese and iron) appeared to be more associated with sediment metal concentrations than water concentrations, suggesting they may be useful biomonitors of estuarine sediment contamination. Algae in the more contaminated estuaries generally contained higher metal concentrations. However, concentrations of iron, nickel and manganese appeared to be similar in the algae despite the varying sediment concentrations, while accumulation of copper, zinc, lead and chromium appeared to be associated with ambient environmental concentrations. The uptake of metals also varied among the different species, suggesting that algal parameters, such as morphology, may also influence metal uptake and accumulation.

  14. Alien macroalgae in Denmark - a broad-scale national perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mads S.; Wernberg, Thomas; Stæhr, Peter Anton

    2007-01-01

    Most studies documenting the importance of alien macroalgae relative to native species are based on smaller-scale sampling programmes. Between 1989 and 2003, a Danish monitoring programme collected data on the percentage cover of macroalgae at more than 600 locations throughout the country. We...... examined this data set to estimate the relative abundance of alien species in the algal flora on large spatiotemporal scales, i.e. across depth ranges, regions and years. Of the 10 alien macroalgal species known to inhabit Danish coastal waters, nine were found in the survey. Most of the alien species were...... only present in low quantities (alien species, Sargassum muticum and Bonnemaisonia hamifera, constituted 2-7% of the assemblages, depending on depth, region and year. Sargassum muticum was abundant from 0 to 5 m in the northwestern region...

  15. Alien macroalgae in Denmark - A broad-scale national perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M. S.; Wernberg, T.; Stæhr, P.

    2007-01-01

    Most studies documenting the importance of alien macroalgae relative to native species are based on smaller-scale sampling programmes. Between 1989 and 2003, a Danish monitoring programme collected data on the percentage cover of macroalgae at more than 600 locations throughout the country. We...... examined this data set to estimate the relative abundance of alien species in the algal flora on large spatiotemporal scales, i.e. across depth ranges, regions and years. Of the 10 alien macroalgal species known to inhabit Danish coastal waters, nine were found in the survey. Most of the alien species were...... only present in low quantities (alien species, Sargassum muticum and Bonnemaisonia hamifera, constituted 2-7% of the assemblages, depending on depth, region and year. Sargassum muticum was abundant from 0 to 5 m in the northwestern region...

  16. Macroalgae and macrozoobenthos of the Pčinja river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Vladica M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During autumn and spring periods of 1998, 1999 and 2000, 4 taxa of macroalgae (divisions of Cyanophyta, Rhodophyta, Chrysophyta and Chlorophyta and 78 taxa of macrozoobenthos were found in 10 localities of Pčinja River, in a part of its watercourse through Serbia. Macroalga Cladophora glomerata was the most numerous among representatives. The find of red alga Lemanea sp. which was recorded for the first time at this biotope in Serbia, is significant. From representatives of macrozoobenthos the greatest number of species was found in the groups of Epheromeroptera, Trichoptera and larvae of Diptera. Majority of species of macrozoobenthos have wide geographic distribution, and in relation to ecological factors they are mainly eurivalent forms.

  17. Macroalgae Decrease Growth and Alter Microbial Community Structure of the Reef-Building Coral, Porites astreoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Thurber, Rebecca; Burkepile, Deron E.; Correa, Adrienne M. S.; Thurber, Andrew R.; Shantz, Andrew A.; Welsh, Rory; Pritchard, Catharine; Rosales, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    With the continued and unprecedented decline of coral reefs worldwide, evaluating the factors that contribute to coral demise is of critical importance. As coral cover declines, macroalgae are becoming more common on tropical reefs. Interactions between these macroalgae and corals may alter the coral microbiome, which is thought to play an important role in colony health and survival. Together, such changes in benthic macroalgae and in the coral microbiome may result in a feedback mechanism that contributes to additional coral cover loss. To determine if macroalgae alter the coral microbiome, we conducted a field-based experiment in which the coral Porites astreoides was placed in competition with five species of macroalgae. Macroalgal contact increased variance in the coral-associated microbial community, and two algal species significantly altered microbial community composition. All macroalgae caused the disappearance of a γ-proteobacterium previously hypothesized to be an important mutualist of P. astreoides. Macroalgal contact also triggered: 1) increases or 2) decreases in microbial taxa already present in corals, 3) establishment of new taxa to the coral microbiome, and 4) vectoring and growth of microbial taxa from the macroalgae to the coral. Furthermore, macroalgal competition decreased coral growth rates by an average of 36.8%. Overall, this study found that competition between corals and certain species of macroalgae leads to an altered coral microbiome, providing a potential mechanism by which macroalgae-coral interactions reduce coral health and lead to coral loss on impacted reefs. PMID:22957055

  18. Macroalgae decrease growth and alter microbial community structure of the reef-building coral, Porites astreoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Vega Thurber

    Full Text Available With the continued and unprecedented decline of coral reefs worldwide, evaluating the factors that contribute to coral demise is of critical importance. As coral cover declines, macroalgae are becoming more common on tropical reefs. Interactions between these macroalgae and corals may alter the coral microbiome, which is thought to play an important role in colony health and survival. Together, such changes in benthic macroalgae and in the coral microbiome may result in a feedback mechanism that contributes to additional coral cover loss. To determine if macroalgae alter the coral microbiome, we conducted a field-based experiment in which the coral Porites astreoides was placed in competition with five species of macroalgae. Macroalgal contact increased variance in the coral-associated microbial community, and two algal species significantly altered microbial community composition. All macroalgae caused the disappearance of a γ-proteobacterium previously hypothesized to be an important mutualist of P. astreoides. Macroalgal contact also triggered: 1 increases or 2 decreases in microbial taxa already present in corals, 3 establishment of new taxa to the coral microbiome, and 4 vectoring and growth of microbial taxa from the macroalgae to the coral. Furthermore, macroalgal competition decreased coral growth rates by an average of 36.8%. Overall, this study found that competition between corals and certain species of macroalgae leads to an altered coral microbiome, providing a potential mechanism by which macroalgae-coral interactions reduce coral health and lead to coral loss on impacted reefs.

  19. Macroalgae - an environmental problem or a resource from an eMergy perspective?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Østergård, Hanne; Bastianoni, Simone

    Eutrophication is an environmental problem in a majority of shallow water basins all over the world. The flow of nutrients into the water basin leads to an undesired flowering of macroalgae and their decomposition decreases dissolved oxygen which hampers heterothrophic organisms from breathing....... Could the macroalgae biomass be harvested and used for biofuels in a sustainable way? Two case studies are analyzed: Orbetello Lagoon, Italy, and Køge bay, Denmark. Today, macroalgae are collected and stored in landfills to limit the problem. This study models a scenario where the macroalgae are used...

  20. Selecting reliable and robust freshwater macroalgae for biomass applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Lawton

    Full Text Available Intensive cultivation of freshwater macroalgae is likely to increase with the development of an algal biofuels industry and algal bioremediation. However, target freshwater macroalgae species suitable for large-scale intensive cultivation have not yet been identified. Therefore, as a first step to identifying target species, we compared the productivity, growth and biochemical composition of three species representative of key freshwater macroalgae genera across a range of cultivation conditions. We then selected a primary target species and assessed its competitive ability against other species over a range of stocking densities. Oedogonium had the highest productivity (8.0 g ash free dry weight m⁻² day⁻¹, lowest ash content (3-8%, lowest water content (fresh weigh: dry weight ratio of 3.4, highest carbon content (45% and highest bioenergy potential (higher heating value 20 MJ/kg compared to Cladophora and Spirogyra. The higher productivity of Oedogonium relative to Cladophora and Spirogyra was consistent when algae were cultured with and without the addition of CO₂ across three aeration treatments. Therefore, Oedogonium was selected as our primary target species. The competitive ability of Oedogonium was assessed by growing it in bi-cultures and polycultures with Cladophora and Spirogyra over a range of stocking densities. Cultures were initially stocked with equal proportions of each species, but after three weeks of growth the proportion of Oedogonium had increased to at least 96% (±7 S.E. in Oedogonium-Spirogyra bi-cultures, 86% (±16 S.E. in Oedogonium-Cladophora bi-cultures and 82% (±18 S.E. in polycultures. The high productivity, bioenergy potential and competitive dominance of Oedogonium make this species an ideal freshwater macroalgal target for large-scale production and a valuable biomass source for bioenergy applications. These results demonstrate that freshwater macroalgae are thus far an under-utilised feedstock with

  1. Stable nitrogen isotopes in coastal macroalgae: Geographic and anthropogenic variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, Inés G.; Bode, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Growing human population adds to the natural nitrogen loads to coastal waters. Both anthropogenic and natural nitrogen is readily incorporated in new biomass, and these different nitrogen sources may be traced by the measurement of the ratio of stable nitrogen isotopes (δ 15 N). In this study δ 15 N was determined in two species of macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus), and in nitrate and ammonium to determine the relative importance of anthropogenic versus natural sources of nitrogen along the coast of NW Spain. Both algal species and nitrogen sources showed similar isotopic enrichment for a given site, but algal δ 15 N was not related to either inorganic nitrogen concentrations or δ 15 N in the water samples. The latter suggests that inorganic nitrogen inputs are variable and do not always leave an isotopic trace in macroalgae. However, a significant linear decrease in macroalgal δ 15 N along the coast is consistent with the differential effect of upwelling. Besides this geographic variability, the influence of anthropogenic nitrogen sources is evidenced by higher δ 15 N in macroalgae from rias and estuaries compared to those from open coastal areas and in areas with more than 15 × 10 3 inhabitants in the watershed. These results indicate that, in contrast with other studies, macroalgal δ 15 N is not simply related to either inorganic nitrogen concentrations or human population size but depends on other factors as the upwelling or the efficiency of local waste treatment systems. - Highlights: ► Anthropogenic versus upwelling nitrogen effect on macroalgal δ 15 N was studied. ► The influence of populations and upwelling has not been made before on macroalgal δ 15 N. ► Natural variability has not been taken into account in most biomonitoring studies. ► Upwelling explains most of the variability in δ 15 N in macroalgae

  2. Stable nitrogen isotopes in coastal macroalgae: Geographic and anthropogenic variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Inés G., E-mail: ines.gonzalez@co.ieo.es; Bode, Antonio

    2013-01-15

    Growing human population adds to the natural nitrogen loads to coastal waters. Both anthropogenic and natural nitrogen is readily incorporated in new biomass, and these different nitrogen sources may be traced by the measurement of the ratio of stable nitrogen isotopes (δ{sup 15}N). In this study δ{sup 15}N was determined in two species of macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus), and in nitrate and ammonium to determine the relative importance of anthropogenic versus natural sources of nitrogen along the coast of NW Spain. Both algal species and nitrogen sources showed similar isotopic enrichment for a given site, but algal δ{sup 15}N was not related to either inorganic nitrogen concentrations or δ{sup 15}N in the water samples. The latter suggests that inorganic nitrogen inputs are variable and do not always leave an isotopic trace in macroalgae. However, a significant linear decrease in macroalgal δ{sup 15}N along the coast is consistent with the differential effect of upwelling. Besides this geographic variability, the influence of anthropogenic nitrogen sources is evidenced by higher δ{sup 15}N in macroalgae from rias and estuaries compared to those from open coastal areas and in areas with more than 15 × 10{sup 3} inhabitants in the watershed. These results indicate that, in contrast with other studies, macroalgal δ{sup 15}N is not simply related to either inorganic nitrogen concentrations or human population size but depends on other factors as the upwelling or the efficiency of local waste treatment systems. - Highlights: ► Anthropogenic versus upwelling nitrogen effect on macroalgal δ{sup 15}N was studied. ► The influence of populations and upwelling has not been made before on macroalgal δ{sup 15}N. ► Natural variability has not been taken into account in most biomonitoring studies. ► Upwelling explains most of the variability in δ{sup 15}N in macroalgae.

  3. Macroalgae-Derived Ingredients for Cosmetic Industry—An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa B. Pimentel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a natural and progressive declining physiological process that is influenced by multifactorial aspects and affects individuals’ health in very different ways. The skin is one of the major organs in which aging is more evident, as it progressively loses some of its natural functions. With the new societal paradigms regarding youth and beauty have emerged new concerns about appearance, encouraging millions of consumers to use cosmetic/personal care products as part of their daily routine. Hence, cosmetics have become a global and highly competitive market in a constant state of evolution. This industry is highly committed to finding natural sources of functional/bioactive-rich compounds, preferably from sustainable and cheap raw materials, to deliver innovative products and solutions that meet consumers’ expectations. Macroalgae are an excellent example of a natural resource that can fit these requirements. The incorporation of macroalgae-derived ingredients in cosmetics has been growing, as more and more scientific evidence reports their skin health-promoting effects. This review provides an overview on the possible applications of macroalgae as active ingredients for the cosmetic field, highlighting the main compounds responsible for their bioactivity on skin.

  4. Effects of sodium bicarbonate concentration on growth, photosynthesis, and carbonic anhydrase activity of macroalgae Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Sui, Zhenghong; Wang, Jinguo; Hu, Yiyi; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Hong, Hye Ran; Niaz, Zeeshan; Wei, Huihui; Du, Qingwei; Peng, Chong; Mi, Ping; Que, Zhou

    2016-06-01

    There is potential for bicarbonate to improve crop yields and economic efficiency of marine algae. However, few studies have focused on the effect of bicarbonate on the growth, photosynthesis, and enzyme activity associated with carbon utilization, especially in commercial macroalgae. Here, the addition of bicarbonate (up to 420 mg L(-1)) to macroalgal cultures has been evaluated for Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae with respect to growth rate, photosynthetic activity, carbonic anhydrase activity, and biochemical composition. The results showed that the effects of NaHCO3 on growth, chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, photosynthetic oxygen evolution, photochemical parameters of PSI and PSII, carbonic anhydrase activity, and nitrogen content were significant (P 336 mg L(-1) for Gp. lemaneiformis and >420 mg L(-1) for the other two species). Moreover, species-specific differences induced by supplementation with bicarbonate were discovered during culture. Optimal concentrations of NaHCO3 used in this study were 252 mg L(-1) for Gp. lemaneiformis and 336 mg L(-1) for G. vermiculophylla and G. chouae. These results suggest that an adequate supplementation of sodium bicarbonate is a viable strategy for promoting growth and photosynthetic activity in some macroalgae as well as for improving biochemical composition. The study will help to accelerate the growth rate of algae and improve the quality of thalli, and will also be useful for enhancing the understanding of carbon utilization in macroalgae.

  5. Low-molecular-weight organoiodine and organobromine compounds released by polar macroalgae--the influence of abiotic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laturnus, F; Giese, B; Wiencke, C; Adams, F C

    2000-01-01

    The influence of temperature, light, salinity and nutrient availability on the release of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons was investigated in the Antarctic red macroalgal species Gymnogongrus antarcticus Skottsberg. Compared to standard culture condition, an increase in the release rates of iodocompounds was generally found for the exposure of the alga to altered environmental conditions. Macroalgae exhibited higher release rates after adaptation for two months to the changed factors, than after short-term exposure. Monitoring the release rates during a 24 h incubation period (8.25 h light, 15.75 h darkness) showed that changes between light and dark periods had no influence on the release of volatile halocarbons. Compounds like bromoform and 1-iodobutane exhibited constant release rates during the 24 h period. The formation mechanisms and biological role of volatile organohalogens are discussed. Although marine macroalgae are not considered to be the major source of biogenically-produced volatile organohalogens, they contribute significantly to the bromine and iodine cycles in the environment. Under possible environmental changes like global warming and uncontrolled entrophication of the oceans their significance may be increase.

  6. Iron Deficiency in Seagrasses and Macroalgae in the Red Sea Is Unrelated to Latitude and Physiological Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Anton, Andrea; Hendriks, Iris E.; Marbà , Nú ria; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Garcias Bonet, Neus; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2018-01-01

    Iron can limit primary production in shallow marine systems, especially in tropical waters characterized by carbonated sediments, where iron is largely trapped in a non-available form. The Red Sea, an oligotrophic ecosystem characterized by a strong N-S latitudinal nutrient gradient, is a suitable setting to explore patterns in situ of iron limitation in macrophytes and their physiological performance under different iron regimes. We assessed the interactions between environmental gradients and physiological parameters of poorly-studied Red Sea macrophytes. Iron concentration, chlorophyll a concentration, blade thickness, and productivity of 17 species of macrophytes, including seven species of seagrasses and 10 species of macroalgae, were measured at 21 locations, spanning 10 latitude degrees, along the Saudi Arabian coast. Almost 90% of macrophyte species had iron concentrations below the levels indicative of iron sufficiency and more than 40% had critically low iron concentrations, suggesting that iron is a limiting factor of primary production throughout the Red Sea. We did not identify relationships between tissue iron concentration, chlorophyll a concentration and physiological performance of the 17 species of seagrass and macroalgae. There was also no latitudinal pattern in any of the parameters studied, indicating that the South to North oligotrophication of the Red Sea is not reflected in iron concentration, chlorophyll a concentration or productivity of Red Sea macrophytes.

  7. Iron Deficiency in Seagrasses and Macroalgae in the Red Sea Is Unrelated to Latitude and Physiological Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Anton, Andrea

    2018-03-06

    Iron can limit primary production in shallow marine systems, especially in tropical waters characterized by carbonated sediments, where iron is largely trapped in a non-available form. The Red Sea, an oligotrophic ecosystem characterized by a strong N-S latitudinal nutrient gradient, is a suitable setting to explore patterns in situ of iron limitation in macrophytes and their physiological performance under different iron regimes. We assessed the interactions between environmental gradients and physiological parameters of poorly-studied Red Sea macrophytes. Iron concentration, chlorophyll a concentration, blade thickness, and productivity of 17 species of macrophytes, including seven species of seagrasses and 10 species of macroalgae, were measured at 21 locations, spanning 10 latitude degrees, along the Saudi Arabian coast. Almost 90% of macrophyte species had iron concentrations below the levels indicative of iron sufficiency and more than 40% had critically low iron concentrations, suggesting that iron is a limiting factor of primary production throughout the Red Sea. We did not identify relationships between tissue iron concentration, chlorophyll a concentration and physiological performance of the 17 species of seagrass and macroalgae. There was also no latitudinal pattern in any of the parameters studied, indicating that the South to North oligotrophication of the Red Sea is not reflected in iron concentration, chlorophyll a concentration or productivity of Red Sea macrophytes.

  8. Antibacterial activity of Ulva reticulata from southwest coast of Kanyakumari, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaram Ravikumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Ulva reticulata species collected from the Kanyakumari coast of India to determine their potential for bioactivity. Methods: The algal extract was prepared using n-butanol for evaluating the antibacterial activity of Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Results: It was observed that the n-butanolic extract of the seaweed powder of Ulva reticulata (25–100 mg/mL exerted notable antibacterial activity against tested bacterial strains. The maximum antibacterial activity was exhibited against Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus in all concentrations. Conclusions: The results obtained in the present investigation supported the traditional use of the seaweeds against various infections. However, further investigation has been carried out to elucidate the exact mechanism and isolation of active principle.

  9. KERTAS SENI BERBAHAN LIMBAH PEWARNA ALAM RUMPUT LAUT JENIS SARGASSUM, ULVA DAN PELEPAH PISANG ABAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guring Briegel Mandegani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKKertas seni merupakan kerajinan tangan dengan bahan dasar berbagai macam tanaman berserat. Serat pisang abaka, serat jerami dan serat padi telah mampu diolah menjadi kertas seni secara mandiri tanpa bahan perekat tambahan. Selama ini industri kertas seni yang ada sebagian besar menggunakan bahan baku pelepah pisang raja, pisang abaka, jerami, serat padi dan sebagainya. Oleh karena itu, perlu adanya peningkatan keanekaragaman bahan baku, di antaranya dengan memanfaatkan material dari rumput laut maupun limbah rumput laut limbah pewarna alam tekstil. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui karakter kertas seni yang terbuat dari limbah pewarna alam dari rumput laut Sargassum sp. dan Ulva serta kombinasinya dengan material serat pisang abaka. Bahan baku pelepah pisang abaka dan limbah rumput laut diolah dengan cara pencacahan dengan ukuran 2-3 cm, direbus dengan soda api selama 2 jam, kemudian disaring dan didinginkan. Bahan kemudian saling dikombinasi dan dijadikan pulp menggunakan mesin blender. Pulp kemudian dicetak dan dianalisis secara fisik. Limbah rumput laut jenis Sargassum sp. dan Ulva dalam keadaan murni (100% tidak dapat digunakan sebagai bahan pembuatan produk kertas seni, dikarenakan kandungan selulosa yang masih di bawah 40% sehingga kertas yang dihasilkan dari proses pencetakan bersifat rapuh, mudah sobek dan tidak rekat antara satu dengan yang lain. Sedangkan kertas dengan campuran serat pisang abaka, menghasilkan kualitas kertas seni dengan kekuatan fisik yang lebih baik daripada kertas seni murni dari rumput laut Sargassum sp. dan Ulva. Kata Kunci: kertas seni, rumput laut, Sargassum sp., Ulva, pisang abaka  ABSTRACTPaper art is a craft that uses a wide variety of fibrous plants. Abaca, straw and rice fibers can be processed into paper art independently without additional adhesive material. During this time, the existing art paper industries use many raw materials such as banana, abaca, etc., Therefore, it is

  10. Trend in coral-algal phase shift in the Mandapam group of islands, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machendiranathan, M.; Senthilnathan, L.; Ranith, R.; Saravanakumar, A.; Thangaradjou, T.; Choudhry, S. B.; Sasamal, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    The present study revealed proliferation of macro-algae modifying coral reef ecosystems in a different manner due to diseases and sedimentations in the Mandapam group of islands in the Gulf of Mannar. Benthic surveys were conducted with major attack of seven coral reefs diseases with high sedimentation rate, nine species of fleshy macro-algae ( Turbinaria ornata, Turbinaria conaides, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Caulerpa racemosa, Kappaphycus alvarezii, Padina gymnosphora, Sargassum wightii, Ulva reticulata and Calurpa lentillifera) proliferation against major corals life forms (Acropora branching, Acropora digitate, Acropora tabulate, coral massive, coral submassive, coral foliose and coral encrusting). The results confirm that diseased corals most favor to macro-algae growth (15.27%) rather than the sedimentation covered corals (8.24 %). In the degradation of coral life forms, massive corals were more highly damaged (7.05%) than any other forms. Within a short period of time (May to September), coral coverage shrank to 17.4% from 21.9%, macro-algae increased 23.51% and the average sedimentation rate attained 77.52 mg cm-2d-1 with persisting coral reef diseases of 17.59%. The Pearson correlation showed that the coral cover decreased with increasing macro-algae growth, which was statistically significant ( r = -0.774, n = 100, P K. alvarezii, P. gymnosphora and C. lentillifera increased with percentages of 6.0, 5.8, 5.7, 4.9, 4.2, 3.7, 2.7 and 1.9, respectively. If this trend continues, the next generation of new recruit corals will undoubtedly lead to a phase shift in Gulf of Mannar corals.

  11. Cloning and characterization of nitrate reductase gene in Ulva prolifera (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Wang, Hao Zhe; Wu, Chun Hui; Fu, Hui Hui; Jiang, Peng

    2017-10-01

    Ulva spp. dominates green tides around the world, which are occurring at an accelerated rate. The competitive nitrogen assimilation efficiency in Ulva is suggested to result in ecological success against other seaweeds. However, molecular characterization of genes involved in nitrogen assimilation has not been conducted. Here, we describe the identification of the nitrate reductase (NR) gene from a green seaweed Ulva prolifera, an alga which is responsible for the world's largest green tide in the Yellow Sea. Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends and genome walking, the NR gene from U. prolifera (UpNR) was cloned, which consisted of six introns and seven exons encoding 863 amino acids. According to sequence alignment, the NR in U. prolifera was shown to possess all five essential domains and 21 key invariant residues in plant NRs. The GC content of third codon position of UpNR (82.75%) was as high as those of green microalgae, and the intron number supported a potential loss issue from green microalga to land plant. Real-time quantitative PCR results showed that UpNR transcript level was induced by nitrate and repressed by ammonium, which could not be removed by addition of extra nitrate, indicating that U. prolifera preferred ammonium to nitrate. Urea would not repress NR transcription by itself, while it weakened the induction effect of nitrate, implying it possibly inhibited nitrate uptake rather than nitrate reduction. These results suggest the use of UpNR as a gene-sensor to probe the N assimilation process in green tides caused by Ulva. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  12. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,AFU.; Portela,MCC.; Sousa,MB.; Martins,FS.; Rocha,FC.; Farias,DF.; Feitosa,JPA.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF). Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis) and interesting physico-chemical properties: water reten...

  13. Subtidal eelgrass/macroalgae surveys for the proposed breakwaters at the US Coast Guard Station at Ediz Hook, Washington, March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shreffler, D.K. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (US)

    1993-05-01

    In 1993, the US Coast Guard proposed to construct two breakwaters and a debris boom to protect its existing pier and moored vessels inside Ediz Hook in Port Angeles Harbor, Washington. To assist the US Army Corps of Engineers -- Seattle District in determining the potential environmental impacts of the proposed breakwaters, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory performed subtidal SCUBA surveys as specified in the Washington Department of Fisheries intermediate eelgrass/macroalgae habitat survey guidelines. The objectives of the subtidal surveys were to (1) quantify the shoot densities of eelgrass; (2) provide percent cover estimates for non-eelgrass macroalgae species; (3) develop a site map indicating the qualitative distribution of eelgrass/macroalgae species, substrate characterization, approximate depth contours, and the approximate location of the proposed project features; and (4) document the time and date of the surveys, turbidity/visibility, presence of invertebrate/vertebrate species, and anecdotal observations pertinent to habitat characterization of the project site. A total of 14 dives along 12 transects (T1--T12) were successfully completed between March 15 and March 17, 1993. Eelgrass was observed on all of the transects except T7 and T8 at the western debris barrier and T12 along the waterward margin of the existing T-pier. The vicinity of the proposed east breakwater had the highest eelgrass shoot densities (up to 89 shoots/m{sup 2}) observed by the divers. Macroalgae and invertebrate species diversity were also highest at the east breakwater site. The low eelgrass densities observed at the west debris barrier site (0 to 14 shoots/m{sup 2}) can be attributed mostly to the lack of suitable substrate. The existing layer of wood debris armoring the bottom at the west project site currently limits, and in the areas of heaviest deposition probably precludes, the growth of eelgrass. As was expected, no eelgrass was observed at the south breakwater site.

  14. Inhibition of hydrogen peroxide induced injuring on human skin fibroblast by Ulva prolifera polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chuner; Guo, Ziye; Yang, Yayun; Geng, Zhonglei; Tang, Langlang; Zhao, Minglin; Qiu, Yuyan; Chen, Yifan; He, Peimin

    2016-10-01

    Ulva prolifera can protect human skin fibroblast from being injured by hydrogen peroxide. This work studied the composition of Ulva prolifera polysaccharide and identified its physicochemical properties. The results showed that the cell proliferation of 0.5mg/mL crude polysaccharide was 154.4% of that in negative control group. Moreover, ROS detection indices, including DCFH-DA, GSH-PX, MDA and CAT, indicated that crude polysaccharide could improve cellular ability to scavenge free radical and decrease the injury on human skin fibroblast by hydrogen peroxide. In purified polysaccharide, the activity of fraction P1-1 was the highest, with 174.6% of that in negative control group. The average molecular weight of P1-1 was 137kD with 18.0% of sulfate content. This work showed the inhibition of hydrogen peroxide induced injuries on human skin fibroblast by Ulva prolifera polysaccharide, which may further evaluate the application of U. prolifera on cosmetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cross-kingdom signalling: exploitation of bacterial quorum sensing molecules by the green seaweed Ulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint, Ian; Tait, Karen; Wheeler, Glen

    2007-07-29

    The green seaweed Ulva has been shown to detect signal molecules produced by bacteria. Biofilms that release N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) attract zoospores--the motile reproductive stages of Ulva. The evidence for AHL involvement is based on several independent lines of evidence, including the observation that zoospores are attracted to wild-type bacteria that produce AHLs but are not attracted to mutants that do not produce signal molecules. Synthetic AHL also attracts zoospores and the attraction is lost in the presence of autoinducer inactivation (AiiA) protein. The mechanism of attraction is not chemotactic but involves chemokinesis. When zoospores detect AHLs, the swimming rate is reduced and this results in accumulation of cells at the source of the AHL. It has been demonstrated that the detection of AHLs results in calcium influx into the zoospore. This is the first example of a calcium signalling event in a eukaryote in response to bacterial quorum sensing molecules. The role of AHLs in the ecology of Ulva is discussed. It is probable that AHLs act as cues for the settlement of zoospores, rather than being directly involved as a signalling mechanism.

  16. Fast pyrolysis of lignin, macroalgae and sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinh, N.T.

    2013-04-15

    Non-conventional biomass feedstock may also be applicable for fast pyrolysis processes. Among the forms of non-conventional biomasses, macroalgae, lignin (industrial residue) and sewage sludge may be attractive materials due to their low price, non-competitiveness with food crops and the possible utilization of solid wastes. Besides, a fast pyrolysis process can be used as a process to densify the biomass and produce bioslurry, a mixture of bio-oil and pyrolytic char. The bioslurry is found to be a possible feedstock for pressurized gasification plants. Thus, the aims of this project are to investigate fast pyrolysis properties of lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae on a lab scale PCR and characterize their bio-oil properties. Bioslurry properties with respect to use as a feedstock for pressurized gasification is also investigated. Lignin and sewage sludge PCR pyrolysis provided bio-oil yields of 47 and 54 wt% daf, and oil energy recovery of 45 and 50 %, respectively. While the macroalgae PCR pyrolysis showed promising results with an organic oil yield of 65 wt% daf and an oil energy recovery of 76 %. The HHV of the lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae oils were 29.7, 25.7 and 25.5 MJ/kg db respectively, and that are higher than that of typical bioiv oil from conventional biomasses (23-24 MJ/kg db). Almost all metals feedstock contents were contained in the chars at temperatures of 550 - 575 deg. C for lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae PCR pyrolysis. Due to high feedstock nitrogen and sulfur contents, also a high level of nitrogen and sulfur of macroalgae and sewage sludge oils were observed compared to conventional bio-oil and this may limit their further industrial applications. The lignin char had a high proportion of small size particles, a HHV of 21 MJ/kg db and were almost free of chloride and sulfur, thus it is considered as a promising fuel for gasification or combustion; whereas macroalgae and sewage sludge chars containing high amounts of

  17. Sulfated Polysaccharides in the Freshwater Green Macroalga Cladophora surera Not Linked to Salinity Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Paula X; Alberghina, Josefina; Confalonieri, Viviana; Errea, María I; Estevez, José M; Ciancia, Marina

    2017-01-01

    The presence of sulfated polysaccharides in cell walls of seaweeds is considered to be a consequence of the physiological adaptation to the high salinity of the marine environment. Recently, it was found that sulfated polysaccharides were present in certain freshwater Cladophora species and some vascular plants. Cladophora (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) is one of the largest genera of green algae that are able to grow in both, seas and freshwater courses. Previous studies carried out on the water-soluble polysaccharides of the marine species C. falklandica established the presence of sulfated xylogalactoarabinans constituted by a backbone of 4-linked β-L-arabinopyranose units partially sulfated mainly on C3 and also on C2 with partial glycosylation, mostly on C2, with terminal β-D-xylopyranose or β-D-galactofuranose units. Besides, minor amounts of 3-, 6- and/or 3,6-linked β-D-galactan structures, with galactose in the pyranosic form were detected. In this work, the main water soluble cell wall polysaccharides from the freshwater alga Cladophora surera were characterized. It was found that this green alga biosynthesizes sulfated polysaccharides, with a structure similar to those found in marine species of this genus. Calibration of molecular clock with fossil data suggests that colonization of freshwater environments occurred during the Miocene by its ancestor. Therefore, the presence of sulfated polysaccharides in the freshwater green macroalga C. surera could be, in this case, an adaptation to transient desiccation and changes in ionic strength. Retention of sulfated polysaccharides at the cell walls may represent a snapshot of an evolutionary event, and, thus constitutes an excellent model for further studies on the mechanisms of sulfation on cell wall polysaccharides and environmental stress co-evolution.

  18. Sulfated Polysaccharides in the Freshwater Green Macroalga Cladophora surera Not Linked to Salinity Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula X. Arata

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of sulfated polysaccharides in cell walls of seaweeds is considered to be a consequence of the physiological adaptation to the high salinity of the marine environment. Recently, it was found that sulfated polysaccharides were present in certain freshwater Cladophora species and some vascular plants. Cladophora (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta is one of the largest genera of green algae that are able to grow in both, seas and freshwater courses. Previous studies carried out on the water-soluble polysaccharides of the marine species C. falklandica established the presence of sulfated xylogalactoarabinans constituted by a backbone of 4-linked β-L-arabinopyranose units partially sulfated mainly on C3 and also on C2 with partial glycosylation, mostly on C2, with terminal β-D-xylopyranose or β-D-galactofuranose units. Besides, minor amounts of 3-, 6- and/or 3,6-linked β-D-galactan structures, with galactose in the pyranosic form were detected. In this work, the main water soluble cell wall polysaccharides from the freshwater alga Cladophora surera were characterized. It was found that this green alga biosynthesizes sulfated polysaccharides, with a structure similar to those found in marine species of this genus. Calibration of molecular clock with fossil data suggests that colonization of freshwater environments occurred during the Miocene by its ancestor. Therefore, the presence of sulfated polysaccharides in the freshwater green macroalga C. surera could be, in this case, an adaptation to transient desiccation and changes in ionic strength. Retention of sulfated polysaccharides at the cell walls may represent a snapshot of an evolutionary event, and, thus constitutes an excellent model for further studies on the mechanisms of sulfation on cell wall polysaccharides and environmental stress co-evolution.

  19. Radionuclide accumulation in green and brown macroalgae at the Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, A.; Nonova, T.

    2005-01-01

    The concentration of technogenic and natural radionuclides were measured in brown and green macroalgae from the Bulgarian Black Sea coast for the period 1996 and 2003 using low-level gamma spectroscopy. Mean values and concentration range for the studied species enables the comparison of the nuclide content in macroalgae showing that brown algae accumulate the studied radionuclides to a higher extent. (author)

  20. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... soil and water with heavy metals (Nriagu 1990). Heavy metals have ... Cells were treated with 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 µM CdCl2 at late logarithmic ..... In marine macroalgae Ulva fasciata the activities of APX and catalase ...

  1. Stable nitrogen isotopes in coastal macroalgae: geographic and anthropogenic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Inés G; Bode, Antonio

    2013-01-15

    Growing human population adds to the natural nitrogen loads to coastal waters. Both anthropogenic and natural nitrogen is readily incorporated in new biomass, and these different nitrogen sources may be traced by the measurement of the ratio of stable nitrogen isotopes (δ(15)N). In this study δ(15)N was determined in two species of macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus), and in nitrate and ammonium to determine the relative importance of anthropogenic versus natural sources of nitrogen along the coast of NW Spain. Both algal species and nitrogen sources showed similar isotopic enrichment for a given site, but algal δ(15)N was not related to either inorganic nitrogen concentrations or δ(15)N in the water samples. The latter suggests that inorganic nitrogen inputs are variable and do not always leave an isotopic trace in macroalgae. However, a significant linear decrease in macroalgal δ(15)N along the coast is consistent with the differential effect of upwelling. Besides this geographic variability, the influence of anthropogenic nitrogen sources is evidenced by higher δ(15)N in macroalgae from rias and estuaries compared to those from open coastal areas and in areas with more than 15×10(3) inhabitants in the watershed. These results indicate that, in contrast with other studies, macroalgal δ(15)N is not simply related to either inorganic nitrogen concentrations or human population size but depends on other factors as the upwelling or the efficiency of local waste treatment systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Macroalgae as a Biomass Feedstock: A Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, Guritno; Jones, Susanne B.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2010-09-26

    A thorough of macroalgae analysis as a biofuels feedstock is warranted due to the size of this biomass resource and the need to consider all potential sources of feedstock to meet current biomass production goals. Understanding how to harness this untapped biomass resource will require additional research and development. A detailed assessment of environmental resources, cultivation and harvesting technology, conversion to fuels, connectivity with existing energy supply chains, and the associated economic and life cycle analyses will facilitate evaluation of this potentially important biomass resource.

  3. Screening of antimicrobial activity of macroalgae extracts from the Moroccan Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Wahidi, M; El Amraoui, B; El Amraoui, M; Bamhaoud, T

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work is the screening of the antimicrobial activity of seaweed extracts against pathogenic bacteria and yeasts. The antimicrobial activity of the dichloromethane and ethanol extracts of ten marine macroalgae collected from the Moroccan's Atlantic coast (El-Jadida) was tested against two Gram+ (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram- (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) human pathogenic bacteria, and against two pathogenic yeasts (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans) using the agar disk-diffusion method. Seven algae (70%) of ten seaweeds are active against at least one pathogenic microorganisms studied. Five (50%) are active against the two studied yeast with an inhibition diameter greater than 15 mm for Cystoseira brachycarpa. Six (60%) seaweeds are active against at least one studied bacteria with five (50%) algae exhibiting antibacterial inhibition diameter greater than 15 mm. Cystoseira brachycarpa, Cystoseira compressa, Fucus vesiculosus, and Gelidium sesquipedale have a better antimicrobial activity with a broad spectrum antimicrobial and are a potential source of antimicrobial compounds and can be subject of isolation of the natural antimicrobials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Spread of Alsidium corallinum C. Ag. in a Tyrrhenian eutrophic lagoon dominated by opportunistic macroalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzi, Mauro; Gennaro, Paola; Renzi, Monia; Persia, Emma; Porrello, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In 2007, Alsidium corallinum bloomed in Orbetello lagoon replacing other macroalgae. ► The main cause hypothesized was a transient low eutrophic level of the ecosystem. ► The results showed unusually low dissolved nitrogen in 2007. ► Dissolved N:P atomic ratio was much lower in 2007 than in the past and 2008. ► The observations suggest that the cycle of sediment OM determines vegetation cycles. - Abstract: In 2007, the Rhodophyceae Alsidium corallinum C. Ag., a marine taxon, bloomed in the eutrophic lagoon of Orbetello (Tuscany, Italy) for the first time, becoming the dominant species in spring and summer. In November, its biomass collapsed. The hypothesis examined in this study is that the bloom expressed a relatively low eutrophic level of the ecosystem after intense disposal of accumulated sedimentary organic matter (OM) by dystrophic processes in the two years preceding the bloom. To verify the hypothesis, we compared water physical–chemical variables, sediment redox (Eh) and OM, and standing crops of macroalgae and seagrass from the database of routine monitoring between 2005 and 2008. We also used dissolved nutrient data obtained in 2007 and 2008, as well as data on chlorophyll and total suspended matter in the water column during the microalgal bloom of 2007, and C, N and P content in thalli of the Chlorophycea Chaetomorpha linum and the Rhodophyceae Gracilariopsis longissima and A. corallinum obtained in 2007. In 2007, unusually low values of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) were recorded. Combined with stable values of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRPs), low DIN led to a reduction of about one order of magnitude in the DIN:SRP atomic ratio with respect to the past and to 2008. G. longissima accumulated C, N and P more than the other species and A. corallinum proved to be less demanding. Sediment OM was lower in the autumn of years characterized by dystrophy, confirming that summer dystrophic events coincided with maximum energy

  5. Pretreatment of macroalgae for volatile fatty acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Nhan; Um, Youngsoon; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2013-10-01

    In this study, a novel method was proposed for the biological pretreatment of macroalgae (Laminaria japonica, Pachymeniopsis elliptica, and Enteromorpha crinita) for production of volatile fatty acid (VFA) by anaerobic fermentation. The amount of VFA produced from 40 g/L of L. japonica increased from 8.3 g/L (control) to 15.6 g/L when it was biologically pretreated with Vibrio harveyi. The biological treatment of L. japonica with Vibrio spp. was most effective likely due to the alginate lyase activity of Vibrio spp. However, a considerable effect was also observed after biological pretreatment of P. elliptica and E. crinita, which are red and green algae, respectively. Alkaline pretreatment of 40 g/L of L. japonica with 0.5 N NaOH resulted in an increase of VFA production to 12.2 g/L. These results indicate that VFA production from macroalgae can be significantly enhanced using the proposed biological pretreatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioremediation for coal-fired power stations using macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Bird, Michael I; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-15

    Macroalgae are a productive resource that can be cultured in metal-contaminated waste water for bioremediation but there have been no demonstrations of this biotechnology integrated with industry. Coal-fired power production is a water-limited industry that requires novel approaches to waste water treatment and recycling. In this study, a freshwater macroalga (genus Oedogonium) was cultivated in contaminated ash water amended with flue gas (containing 20% CO₂) at an Australian coal-fired power station. The continuous process of macroalgal growth and intracellular metal sequestration reduced the concentrations of all metals in the treated ash water. Predictive modelling shows that the power station could feasibly achieve zero discharge of most regulated metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in waste water by using the ash water dam for bioremediation with algal cultivation ponds rather than storage of ash water. Slow pyrolysis of the cultivated algae immobilised the accumulated metals in a recalcitrant C-rich biochar. While the algal biochar had higher total metal concentrations than the algae feedstock, the biochar had very low concentrations of leachable metals and therefore has potential for use as an ameliorant for low-fertility soils. This study demonstrates a bioremediation technology at a large scale for a water-limited industry that could be implemented at new or existing power stations, or during the decommissioning of older power stations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary results on laboratory simulations of the decomposition of the green algae Ulva rigida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavoltsos, S.; Scoullous, M.; Kaberi, H.

    1999-01-01

    The Ulva Rigida is a cosmopolitan green algae characteristic of many eutrophic and mesotrophic coastal environments. The effect of its growth and decomposition on the cycle of trace metals has been studied by using enclosures in the site Loutropyrgos over a number of years. The present study is a continuation of that research. Its main aim was to simulate a number of the field experiments in the laboratory, under more controlled conditions and understand better the impact of the decomposition of algae on sea water and sediment

  8. On-line purge-and-trap-gas chromatography with flame ionization detection as an alternative analytical method for dimethyl sulphide trace release from marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Careri, M.; Musci, M.; Bianchi, F.; Mucchino, C. [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica; Azzoni, R.; Viaroli, P. [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali

    2001-10-01

    The release of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) by the seaweed Ulva spp at trace level was studied in aqueous solutions at different salinities, temperature and light intensities. For this purpose, the purge-and-trap technique combined with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection was used. The analytical method was evaluated in terms of linearity range, limit of detection, precision and accuracy by considering 10% (w/v) and 30% (w/v) synthetic seawater as aqueous matrices. Calculation of the recovery function evidenced a matrix influence. The method of standard addition was then used for an accurate determination of DMS in synthetic seawater reproduction the matrix effect. DMS fluxes were analysed in batch cultures of Ulva spp reproducing the conditions which usually occur in the Sacca di Goro lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy). [Italian] Il rilascio di dimetilsolfuro (DMS) in tracce da parte della macroalga Ulva spp e' stato studiato in soluzioni acquose di differente salinita' mediante la tecnica purge-and-trap accoppiata on-line alla gascromatografia con rivelazione a ionizzazione di fiamma (GC-FID). Il metodo analitico e' stato validato in termini di linearita' di risposta, di limite di rivelabilita', precisione e accuratezza considerando come matrice acqua di mare sintetica a diversa salinita' (10%0 m/v e 30%0 m/v). Il calcolo della funzione di recupero ha consentito di verificare la presenza di errori sistematici dovuti all'effetto matrice. Il metodo sviluppato e' stato quindi applicato a matrici ambientali allo scopo di verificare il rilascio di DMS da parte di Ulva spp, operando in condizioni ambientali simili a quelle che si verificano nella Sacca di Goro (Ferrara, Italia).

  9. Microphytobenthos and benthic macroalgae determine sediment organic matter composition in shallow photic sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Hardison

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Microphytobenthos and benthic macroalgae play an important role in system metabolism within shallow coastal bays. However, their independent and interactive influences on sediment organic matter (SOM are not well understood. We investigated the influence of macroalgae and microphytobenthos on SOM quantity and quality in an experimental mesocosm system using bulk and molecular level (total hydrolyzable amino acids, THAA; phospholipid linked fatty acids, PLFA; pigment analyses. Our experiment used an incomplete factorial design made up of two factors, each with two levels: (1 light (ambient vs. dark and (2 macroalgae (presence vs. absence of live macroalgae. Over the course of the 42-day experiment, total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN increased under ambient light by 173 ± 14 and 141 ± 7%, respectively, compared to in the dark (78 ± 29 and 39 ± 22%. THAA comprised a substantial fraction of SOM (~ 16% of TOC, 35% of TN and followed TOC and TN accumulation patterns. Mole percent composition of the THAA pool indicated that SOM was composed of more labile organic material (e.g., L-glutamic acid, phenylalanine under ambient light conditions while SOM in dark treatments was more degraded, with higher proportions of glycine and D-alanine. PLFA content, which represents viable biomass, made up ~ 1% of TOC and contained high levels of algal fatty acids in the light, particularly PLFA derived from diatoms. In the presence of microphytobenthos (i.e., light and macroalgae treatments, SOM lability increased, resulting in the observed increases in bacterial PLFA concentrations. Macroalgae, which were added to half of the light treatments, decreased SOM accumulation compared to light treatments without macroalgae, with TOC and TN increasing by only 130 ± 32 and 94 ± 24%, respectively. This decrease likely resulted from shading by macroalgae, which reduced production of microphytobenthos. The presence of macroalgae decreased SOM lability as

  10. Microphytobenthos and benthic macroalgae determine sediment organic matter composition in shallow photic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardison, A. K.; Canuel, E. A.; Anderson, I. C.; Tobias, C. R.; Veuger, B.; Waters, M. N.

    2013-08-01

    Microphytobenthos and benthic macroalgae play an important role in system metabolism within shallow coastal bays. However, their independent and interactive influences on sediment organic matter (SOM) are not well understood. We investigated the influence of macroalgae and microphytobenthos on SOM quantity and quality in an experimental mesocosm system using bulk and molecular level (total hydrolyzable amino acids, THAA; phospholipid linked fatty acids, PLFA; pigment) analyses. Our experiment used an incomplete factorial design made up of two factors, each with two levels: (1) light (ambient vs. dark) and (2) macroalgae (presence vs. absence of live macroalgae). Over the course of the 42-day experiment, total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) increased under ambient light by 173 ± 14 and 141 ± 7%, respectively, compared to in the dark (78 ± 29 and 39 ± 22%). THAA comprised a substantial fraction of SOM (~ 16% of TOC, 35% of TN) and followed TOC and TN accumulation patterns. Mole percent composition of the THAA pool indicated that SOM was composed of more labile organic material (e.g., L-glutamic acid, phenylalanine) under ambient light conditions while SOM in dark treatments was more degraded, with higher proportions of glycine and D-alanine. PLFA content, which represents viable biomass, made up ~ 1% of TOC and contained high levels of algal fatty acids in the light, particularly PLFA derived from diatoms. In the presence of microphytobenthos (i.e., light and macroalgae treatments), SOM lability increased, resulting in the observed increases in bacterial PLFA concentrations. Macroalgae, which were added to half of the light treatments, decreased SOM accumulation compared to light treatments without macroalgae, with TOC and TN increasing by only 130 ± 32 and 94 ± 24%, respectively. This decrease likely resulted from shading by macroalgae, which reduced production of microphytobenthos. The presence of macroalgae decreased SOM lability as well, which

  11. Macroalgae Analysis A National GIS-based Analysis of Macroalgae Production Potential Summary Report and Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, Guritno; Coleman, Andre M.; Judd, Chaeli; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Thom, Ronald M.; Buenau, Kate E.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Ward, Jeffrey A.

    2011-12-01

    The overall project objective is to conduct a strategic analysis to assess the state of macroalgae as a feedstock for biofuels production. The objective in FY11 is to develop a multi-year systematic national assessment to evaluate the U.S. potential for macroalgae production using a GIS-based assessment tool and biophysical growth model developed as part of these activities. The initial model development for both resource assessment and constraints was completed and applied to the demonstration areas. The model for macroalgal growth was extended to the EEZ off the East and West Coasts of the United States, and a plan to merge the findings for an initial composite assessment was developed. In parallel, an assessment of land-based, port, and offshore infrastructure needs based on published and grey literature was conducted. Major information gaps and challenges encountered during this analysis were identified. Also conducted was an analysis of the type of local, state, and federal requirements that pertain to permitting land-based facilities and nearshore/offshore culture operations

  12. Ethanol Extract from Ulva prolifera Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation Response in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulva prolifera is the major causative species in the green tide, a serious marine ecological disaster, which bloomed in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea of China. However, it is also a popular edible seaweed and its extracts exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The present study investigated the effects of ethanol extract of U. prolifera (EUP on insulin sensitivity, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress in high-fat-diet- (HFD- treated mice. HFD-treated mice obtained drinking water containing 2% or 5% EUP. The results showed that EUP supplementation significantly prevented HFD-induced weight gain of liver and fat. EUP supplementation also improved glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD-treated mice. Moreover, EUP supplementation prevented the increased expression of genes involved in triglyceride synthesis and proinflammatory genes and the decreased expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in liver of HFD-treated mice. Furthermore, EUP supplementation decreased reactive oxygen species content, while increasing glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity in HFD-treated mice. In conclusion, our results showed that EUP improved insulin resistance and had antilipid accumulation and anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects on HFD-treated mice. We suggested that U. prolifera extracts may be regarded as potential candidate for the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  13. Optimization study on the hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and production of bioethanol from seaweed Ulva prolifera biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinping; Cui, Jiefen; Zhang, Gaoli; Liu, Zhengkun; Guan, Huashi; Hwang, Hueymin; Aker, Winfred G; Wang, Peng

    2016-08-01

    The seaweed Ulva prolifera, distributed in inter-tidal zones worldwide, contains a large percentage of cellulosic materials. The technical feasibility of using U. prolifera residue (UPR) obtained after extraction of polysaccharides as a renewable energy resource was investigated. An environment-friendly and economical pretreatment process was conducted using hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide pretreatment improved the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. The resulting yield of reducing sugar reached a maximum of 0.42g/g UPR under the optimal pretreatment condition (hydrogen peroxide 0.2%, 50°C, pH 4.0, 12h). The rate of conversion of reducing sugar in the concentrated hydrolysates to bioethanol reached 31.4% by Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation, which corresponds to 61.7% of the theoretical maximum yield. Compared with other reported traditional processes on Ulva biomass, the reducing sugar and bioethanol yield are substantially higher. Thus, hydrogen peroxide pretreatment is an effective enhancement of the process of bioethanol production from the seaweed U. prolifera. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of nitric oxide in settlement and adhesion of zoospores of the green alga Ulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie E M; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that elevated nitric oxide (NO) reduces adhesion in diatom, bacterial and animal cells. This article reports experiments designed to investigate whether elevated NO reduces the adhesion of zoospores of the green alga Ulva, an important fouling species. Surface-normalised values of NO were measured using the fluorescent indicator DAF-FM DA and parallel hydrodynamic measurements of adhesion strength were made. Elevated levels of NO caused by the addition of the exogenous NO donor SNAP reduced spore settlement by 20% and resulted in lower adhesion strength. Addition of the NO scavenger cPTIO abolished the effects of SNAP on adhesion. The strength of attachment and NO production by spores in response to four coatings (Silastic T2; Intersleek 700; Intersleek 900 and polyurethane) shows that reduced adhesion is correlated with an increase in NO production. It is proposed that in spores of Ulva, NO is used as an intracellular signalling molecule to detect how conducive a surface is for settlement and adhesion. The effect of NO on the adhesion of a range of organisms suggests that NO-releasing coatings could have the potential to control fouling.

  15. Enzymatic hydrolysis and production of bioethanol from common macrophytic green alga Ulva fasciata Delile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Nitin; Gupta, Vishal; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2013-12-01

    The green seaweed Ulva which proliferates fast and occurs abundantly worldwide was used as a feedstock for production of ethanol following enzymatic hydrolysis. Among the different cellulases investigated for efficient saccharification, cellulase 22119 showed the highest conversion efficiency of biomass into reducing sugars than Viscozyme L, Cellulase 22086 and 22128. Pre-heat treatment of biomass in aqueous medium at 120°C for 1h followed by incubation in 2% (v/v) enzyme for 36 h at 45°C gave a maximum yield of sugar 206.82±14.96 mg/g. The fermentation of hydrolysate gave ethanol yield of 0.45 g/g reducing sugar accounting for 88.2% conversion efficiency. These values are substantially higher than those of reported so far for both agarophytes and carrageenophytes. It was also confirmed that enzyme can be used twice without compromising on the saccharification efficiency. The findings of this study reveal that Ulva can be a potential feedstock for bioethanol production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diatom Control - Production of Macroalgae for Human Consumption in the Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This proposal will focus on the production of fresh macroalgae in a land-based system. This type of production system avoids the regulatory and permitting issues...

  17. Proximate - Production of Macroalgae for Human Consumption in the Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This proposal will focus on the production of fresh macroalgae in a land-based system. This type of production system avoids the regulatory and permitting issues...

  18. Growth - Production of Macroalgae for Human Consumption in the Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This proposal will focus on the production of fresh macroalgae in a land-based system. This type of production system avoids the regulatory and permitting issues...

  19. Nitrous oxide emission from Ulva lactuca incubated in batch cultures is stimulated by nitrite, nitrate and light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Bruhn, Annette; Ambus, Per

    2013-01-01

    oxide (N2O) may be produced by green algae. We investigated the N2O emissions in the green alga Ulva lactuca. Significant N2O emissions, along with CO2 uptake, were demonstrated from vital U. lactuca material from different natural populations incubated in the laboratory with nitrite (NO2−) and nitrate...

  20. True identity of the European freshwater Ulva (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae) revealed by a combined molecular and morphological approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jan; Leskinen, E.; Sitkowska, M.; Skácelová, O.; Blomster, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2011), 1177-1192 ISSN 0022-3646 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : green algae * taxonomy * Ulva Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.071, year: 2011

  1. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.

    OpenAIRE

    Ganapathy Selvam G.; Balamurugan M.; Thinakaran T.; Sivakumar K

    2013-01-01

    The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

  2. Recent developments on biofuels production from microalgae and macroalgae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Kanhaiya; Ghosh, Supratim; Angelidaki, Irini

    2016-01-01

    and infrastructure requirement. Hydrogen production by microalgae through biophotolysis seems interesting as it directly converts the solar energy into hydrogen. However, the process has not been scaled-up till today. Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is more promising due to handling of wet biomass at moderate......Biofuels from algae are considered as promising alternatives of conventional fossil fuels, as they can eliminate most of the environmental problems. The present study focuses on all the possible avenues of biofuels production through biochemical and thermochemical conversion methods in one place......, bringing together both microalgae and macroalgae on the same platform. It provides a brief overview on the mechanism of different biofuel production from algae. Factors affecting the biofuel process and the associated challenges have been highlighted alongwith analysis of techno-economic study available...

  3. The plastid genome of the red macroalga Grateloupia taiwanensis (Halymeniaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S DePriest

    Full Text Available The complete plastid genome sequence of the red macroalga Grateloupia taiwanensis S.-M.Lin & H.-Y.Liang (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta is presented here. Comprising 191,270 bp, the circular DNA contains 233 protein-coding genes and 29 tRNA sequences. In addition, several genes previously unknown to red algal plastids are present in the genome of G. taiwanensis. The plastid genomes from G. taiwanensis and another florideophyte, Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liui, are very similar in sequence and share significant synteny. In contrast, less synteny is shared between G. taiwanensis and the plastid genome representatives of Bangiophyceae and Cyanidiophyceae. Nevertheless, the gene content of all six red algal plastid genomes here studied is highly conserved, and a large core repertoire of plastid genes can be discerned in Rhodophyta.

  4. The Plastid Genome of the Red Macroalga Grateloupia taiwanensis (Halymeniaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePriest, Michael S.; Bhattacharya, Debashish; López-Bautista, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    The complete plastid genome sequence of the red macroalga Grateloupia taiwanensis S.-M.Lin & H.-Y.Liang (Halymeniaceae, Rhodophyta) is presented here. Comprising 191,270 bp, the circular DNA contains 233 protein-coding genes and 29 tRNA sequences. In addition, several genes previously unknown to red algal plastids are present in the genome of G. taiwanensis. The plastid genomes from G. taiwanensis and another florideophyte, Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liui, are very similar in sequence and share significant synteny. In contrast, less synteny is shared between G. taiwanensis and the plastid genome representatives of Bangiophyceae and Cyanidiophyceae. Nevertheless, the gene content of all six red algal plastid genomes here studied is highly conserved, and a large core repertoire of plastid genes can be discerned in Rhodophyta. PMID:23894297

  5. The effects of feedstock pre-treatment and pyrolysis temperature on the production of biochar from the green seaweed Ulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; de Nys, Rocky

    2016-03-15

    Green seaweeds from the genus Ulva are a promising feedstock for the production of biochar for carbon (C) sequestration and soil amelioration. Ulva can be cultivated in waste water from land-based aquaculture and Ulva blooms ("green tides") strand millions of tons of biomass on coastal areas of Europe and China each year. The conversion of Ulva into biochar could recycle C and nutrients from eutrophic water into agricultural production. We produce biochar from Ulva ohnoi, cultivated in waste water from an aquaculture facility, and characterize its suitability for C sequestration and soil amelioration through bio-chemical analyses and plant growth experiments. Two biomass pre-treatments (fresh water rinsing to reduce salt, and pelletisation to increase density) were crossed with four pyrolysis temperatures (300-750 °C). Biomass rinsing decreased the ash and increased the C content of the resulting biochar. However, biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass had a higher proportion of fixed C and a higher yield. C sequestration decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures due to the combination of lower yield and lower total C content of biochar produced at high temperatures. Biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass at 300 °C had the greatest gravimetric C sequestration (110-120 g stable C kg(-1) seaweed). Biochar produced from un-pelletised Ulva enhanced plant growth three-fold in low fertility soils when the temperature of pyrolysis was less than 450 °C. The reduced effectiveness of the high-temperature biochars (>450 °C) was due to a lower N and higher salt content. Soil ameliorated with biochar produced from pelletised biomass had suppressed plant germination and growth. The most effective biochar for C sequestration and soil amelioration was produced from un-rinsed and un-pelletised Ulva at 300 °C. The green tide that occurs annually along the Shandong coastline in China generates sufficient biomass (200,000 tons dry weight) to ameliorate 12,500

  6. Eelgrass re-establishment in shallow estuaries is affected by drifting macroalgae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canal-Verges, Paula; Potthoff, M.; Hansen, F. T.

    2014-01-01

    surface sediment. Furthermore, drifting macroalgae ballistically damage eelgrass beds and increase seedling mortality. The frequency and impact of drifting macroalgae in Odense Fjord was evaluated with an agent-based model. The aims of this model were to understand and predict the mobility...... resuspension in bare bottoms and on rooted vegetation due to ballistic impacts in areas affected by algae drift. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. Modelling potential production of macroalgae farms in UK and Dutch coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van der Molen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in macroalgae farming in European waters for a range of applications, including food, chemical extraction for biofuel production. This study uses a 3-D numerical model of hydrodynamics and biogeochemistry to investigate potential production and environmental effects of macroalgae farming in UK and Dutch coastal waters. The model included four experimental farms in different coastal settings in Strangford Lough (Northern Ireland, in Sound of Kerrera and Lynn of Lorne (north-west Scotland and in the Rhine plume (the Netherlands, as well as a hypothetical large-scale farm off the UK north Norfolk coast. The model could not detect significant changes in biogeochemistry and plankton dynamics at any of the farm sites averaged over the farming season. The results showed a range of macroalgae growth behaviours in response to simulated environmental conditions. These were then compared with in situ observations where available, showing good correspondence for some farms and less good correspondence for others. At the most basic level, macroalgae production depended on prevailing nutrient concentrations and light conditions, with higher levels of both resulting in higher macroalgae production. It is shown that under non-elevated and interannually varying winter nutrient conditions, farming success was modulated by the timings of the onset of increasing nutrient concentrations in autumn and nutrient drawdown in spring. Macroalgae carbohydrate content also depended on nutrient concentrations, with higher nutrient concentrations leading to lower carbohydrate content at harvest. This will reduce the energy density of the crop and thus affect its suitability for conversion into biofuel. For the hypothetical large-scale macroalgae farm off the UK north Norfolk coast, the model suggested high, stable farm yields of macroalgae from year to year with substantial carbohydrate content and limited environmental effects.

  8. Modelling potential production of macroalgae farms in UK and Dutch coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Johan; Ruardij, Piet; Mooney, Karen; Kerrison, Philip; O'Connor, Nessa E.; Gorman, Emma; Timmermans, Klaas; Wright, Serena; Kelly, Maeve; Hughes, Adam D.; Capuzzo, Elisa

    2018-02-01

    There is increasing interest in macroalgae farming in European waters for a range of applications, including food, chemical extraction for biofuel production. This study uses a 3-D numerical model of hydrodynamics and biogeochemistry to investigate potential production and environmental effects of macroalgae farming in UK and Dutch coastal waters. The model included four experimental farms in different coastal settings in Strangford Lough (Northern Ireland), in Sound of Kerrera and Lynn of Lorne (north-west Scotland) and in the Rhine plume (the Netherlands), as well as a hypothetical large-scale farm off the UK north Norfolk coast. The model could not detect significant changes in biogeochemistry and plankton dynamics at any of the farm sites averaged over the farming season. The results showed a range of macroalgae growth behaviours in response to simulated environmental conditions. These were then compared with in situ observations where available, showing good correspondence for some farms and less good correspondence for others. At the most basic level, macroalgae production depended on prevailing nutrient concentrations and light conditions, with higher levels of both resulting in higher macroalgae production. It is shown that under non-elevated and interannually varying winter nutrient conditions, farming success was modulated by the timings of the onset of increasing nutrient concentrations in autumn and nutrient drawdown in spring. Macroalgae carbohydrate content also depended on nutrient concentrations, with higher nutrient concentrations leading to lower carbohydrate content at harvest. This will reduce the energy density of the crop and thus affect its suitability for conversion into biofuel. For the hypothetical large-scale macroalgae farm off the UK north Norfolk coast, the model suggested high, stable farm yields of macroalgae from year to year with substantial carbohydrate content and limited environmental effects.

  9. Growth and metal bioconcentration by conspecific freshwater macroalgae cultured in industrial waste water

    OpenAIRE

    Michael B. Ellison; Rocky de Nys; Nicholas A. Paul; David A. Roberts

    2014-01-01

    The bioremediation of industrial waste water by macroalgae is a sustainable and renewable approach to the treatment of waste water produced by multiple industries. However, few studies have tested the bioremediation of complex multi-element waste streams from coal-fired power stations by live algae. This study compares the ability of three species of green freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium, isolated from different geographic regions, to grow in waste water for the bioremediation...

  10. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. Macroalgae Biomass: Selective Hydrothermal Liquefaction Process for Bio-Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M.; Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Fuentes-Caraballo, Mariela; Robles, Isis V.; Jena, Umakanta; Das, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the eff...

  11. Characterization of sediment trapped by macroalgae on a Hawaiian reef flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamski, Rebecca E.; Field, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    Reef researchers studying community shifts in the balance between corals and fleshy macroalgae have noted that algae are often covered with sediment. This study characterizes sediment trapping by macroalgae within a Hawaiian reef habitat and constrains the controls on this process. Sediment-laden macroalgae were sampled and macroalgal cover was assessed on a wide (˜1 km) reef flat off south-central Molokai. Macroalgae trapped a mean of 1.26 (±0.91 SD) grams of sediment per gram of dry weight biomass and that sediment was dominantly terrigenous mud (59% by weight). It was determined that biomass, as a proxy for algal size, and morphology were not strict controls on the sediment trapping process. Over 300 metric tons of sediment were estimated to be retained by macroalgae across 5.75 km 2 of reef flat (54 g m -2), suggesting that this process is an important component of sediment budgets. In addition, understanding the character of sediment trapped by macroalgae may help constrain suspended sediment flux and has implications for nutrient dynamics in reef flat environments.

  12. Mercury in marine organisms of the Tay region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A M; Jones, Y; Stewart, W D.P.

    1972-07-21

    The problem of mercury pollution in the Tay region of the United Kingdom is discussed with emphasis on mercury concentration within marine algae and invertebrates. High levels of Hg were found in Broughty Ferry algae while there was no detectable mercury in any of the samples collected from north of Arbroath. Most was found in the thallose algae, Ulva lactuca and Porphyra umbilicalis, and in Ceramium rubrum. In studies carried out on molluscs, high levels were found in the lamellibranch, Mytilus edulis and in the gastropods Littorina littoralis and Nucella lapillus. 12 references, 3 tables.

  13. An integrated process for the extraction of fuel and chemicals from marine macroalgal biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Nitin; Baghel, Ravi S.; Bothwell, John; Gupta, Vishal; Reddy, C. R. K.; Lali, Arvind M.; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-07-01

    We describe an integrated process that can be applied to biomass of the green seaweed, Ulva fasciata, to allow the sequential recovery of four economically important fractions; mineral rich liquid extract (MRLE), lipid, ulvan, and cellulose. The main benefits of our process are: a) its simplicity and b) the consistent yields obtained from the residual biomass after each successive extraction step. For example, dry Ulva biomass yields ~26% of its starting mass as MRLE, ~3% as lipid, ~25% as ulvan, and ~11% as cellulose, with the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of the final cellulose fraction under optimized conditions producing ethanol at a competitive 0.45 g/g reducing sugar. These yields are comparable to those obtained by direct processing of the individual components from primary biomass. We propose that this integration of ethanol production and chemical feedstock recovery from macroalgal biomass could substantially enhance the sustainability of marine biomass use.

  14. Radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki

    2001-01-01

    The concentration and accumulation of radionuclides in marine organisms were explained in this paper. Secular change of the radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs in seaweed in coastal area of Japan showed more than 5Bq/kg-fresh in the first half of 1960, but decreased less than 1 Bq/kg-fresh after then and attained to less than 0.1 Bq/kg-fresh in 1990s. However, the value increased a while in 1986, which indicated the effect of Chernobyl accident. The accident increased 137 Cs of shellfish near Japan. The concentration of 239+240 Pu was the lowest value in muscles of fish, but increased from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt in seaweed in 1999. 99 Tc concentration of seaweed showed from 100 to 1000 times as much as that of seawater. Radionuclides in the Irish Sea are originated from Sellafield reprocessing plant. The concentration factors of macro-algae and surface water fish (IAEA,1985) were shown. Analytical results of U in 61 kinds of marine organs showed that the concentration was different in the part of organ. The higher concentration of U was observed in hard tissue of fish. The concentration factor was different between chemical substances with the same radionuclides. (S.Y.)

  15. Quantitative, molecular and growth analyses of Ulva microscopic propagules in the coastal sediment of Jiangsu province where green tides initially occurred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Pang, Shao Jun; Zhao, Xiao Bo; Hu, Chuan Ming

    2012-03-01

    From 2007 to 2011, large-scale green tides formed by unattached filamentous alga, Ulva prolifera in Ulva linza-procera-prolifera complex, have initially occurred in Jiangsu coasts of China. The real niche or the substrate(s) on which U. prolifera attaches before it starts to float is still under debate. However, great numbers of Ulva propagules would be supposed to exist in the microscopic, overwintering stage for the next spring's bloom in coastal environments. This study was designed to confirm the above prediction and investigate abundance, species composition and growth characteristics of Ulva propagules in the sediments. Quantification result showed that Ulva propagules widely distributed in the sediments and the abundance of these isolates did not change much over a 3-month testing period at low temperature in darkness. Molecular data based on three DNA markers revealed that four Ulva species existed in the sediments, among which green-tide forming alga, U. prolifera, was included. Elevated levels of temperature, irradiance as well as nutrients in seawater greatly facilitated recovery and growth of propagules. Results of this investigation indicated the possibility of microscopic propagules turning directly into floating biomass in season when temperature, irradiance and nutrients together meet the required levels in questioned coastal water area. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structure, conformation in aqueous solution and antimicrobial activity of ulvan extracted from green seaweed Ulva reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Thanh Van; Truong, Hai Bang; Tran, Nguyen Ha Vy; Quach, Thi Minh Thu; Nguyen, Thi Nu; Bui, Minh Ly; Yuguchi, Yoshiaki; Thanh, Thi Thu Thuy

    2017-12-04

    The aim of this study is to elucidate the structure and investigate the antimicrobial activity of an ulvan obtained by water extraction from green seaweed Ulva reticulata collected at Nha Trang sea of Vietnam by using IR, NMR, SEC-MALLS and SAXS methods. The ulvan is composed of rhamnose, galactose, xylose, manose and glucose (mole ratio Rha: Gal: Xyl: Man: Glu = 1:0.12:0.1:0.06:0.03), uronic acid (22.5%) and sulphate groups (17.6%). Chemically structural determination showed that the ulvan mainly composed of disaccharide [→4)β-D-GlcA(1→4)α-L-Rha3S-(1→]. The results from SAXS indicated that ulvan under study has a rod-like bulky chain conformation. Ulvan from U. reticulata showed high antimicrobial activity, with inhibition zone diameter of 20 mm against Enterobacter cloace and 18 mm against Escherichia coli.

  17. Production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol from biomass of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Hetty; Sperber, Bram L H M; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Bakker, Robert R C; Brandenburg, Willem; López-Contreras, Ana M

    2013-01-01

    Green seaweed Ulva lactuca harvested from the North Sea near Zeeland (The Netherlands) was characterized as feedstock for acetone, ethanol and ethanol fermentation. Solubilization of over 90% of sugars was achieved by hot-water treatment followed by hydrolysis using commercial cellulases. A hydrolysate was used for the production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii. Hydrolysate-based media were fermentable without nutrient supplementation. C. beijerinckii utilized all sugars in the hydrolysate and produced ABE at high yields (0.35 g ABE/g sugar consumed), while C. acetobutylicum produced mostly organic acids (acetic and butyric acids). These results demonstrate the great potential of U. lactuca as feedstock for fermentation. Interestingly, in control cultures of C. beijerinckii on rhamnose and glucose, 1,2 propanediol was the main fermentation product (9.7 g/L). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. In intro antioxidant activities of different sulfated polysaccharides from chlorophytan seaweeds Ulva fasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ping; Chen, Meng; Pei, Yaping; Sun, Peilong

    2013-08-01

    Four different molecular weight sulfated polysaccharides (UFP1, UFP2, UFP3 and UFP4) were extracted and separated from Ulva fasciata by hot water extraction and ultrafiltration. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of superoxide radical assay, hydroxyl radical assay, ABTS radical assay, and reducing power assay. The results showed that four polysaccharides exhibited antioxidant properties, and UFP2 and UFP3, which have lower content of sulfate showed higher antioxidant activities than UFP1 and UFP4, which have higher content of sulfate. Besides, the content of protein, uronic acid and molecular weights of polysaccharides also influence their antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activities of UFP were not a function of a single factor but a combination of several factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary Supplementation of Seaweed (Ulva lactuca to alleviate the Impact of Heat Stress in Growing Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kkalid A. Abdoun, Aly B. Okab, Ahmed M. El-Waziry, Emad M. Samara and Ahmed A. Al-Haidary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several environmental and nutritional management approaches have been used to mitigate heat stress and improve performance of farm animals in semi-arid and arid regions. The present study was designed with the intention to alleviate the negative effects of heat stress and to promote the performance of growing lambs reared under hot environmental conditions. The study was conducted on 18 male Naimey lambs with average body weight of 22.78±0.49 kg, and 4-5 months old. The animals were randomly divided into 3 equal groups (A, B and C, and fed diets containing different concentrations of seaweed (Ulva lactuca for 90 days. Group A served as control and was offered diet containing 0.0% seaweed. Groups B and C served as treated groups and were offered diets containing 3.0 and 5.0% seaweed, respectively. Dietary inclusion of seaweed to the diet of growing lambs exposed to heat stress (max Ta 43.9oC, max RH 81.1%, max THI 84.6 neither influenced (P>0.05 the thermo-physiological parameters (rectal and skin temperatures, nor affected (P>0.05 the performance parameters (feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency. Furthermore, dietary seaweed supplementation did not alter (P>0.05 blood constituents or blood antioxidant capacity. However, dietary seaweed supplementation significantly (P<0.05 reduced respiratory rate, and increased serum potassium concentration. Based on the data of the present study, seaweed (Ulva lactuca supplementation to the diets of growing lambs reared under heat stress conditions did not show any indication of promoting their production performance or heat tolerance.

  20. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for studying extracellular organic substances of Ulva rigida C. Ag; Analisi spettroscopica per fluorescenza sincrona nello studio delle sostanze organiche extracellulari dell`Ulva rigida C. Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, G.M. [IRSA, Marine Environment Unit, Ispra (Italy). Centro Comune di Ricerca; Targa, C. [Univ. degli studi, Venice (Italy). Dip. di scienze ambientali

    1996-01-01

    Experiments performed using Ulva rigida thalli and enriched culture solutions demonstrated that Ulva emits extra-cellular organic substances the complexity of which can be monitored by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that synchronous peak intensities hA (excitation at 270-280 nm), hB (340-350 nm) and hC (390-400 nm) varies in relation to the age of the thallus and the quality of the emitted substances by the alga. The peak height ratio hA/hB display an inverse relationship with the age of the alga and a direct relationship with the slope of the absorption curves. That occurs since hA, after a first increase, tends to diminish in correspondence to a progressive increase of the peaks hB and hC due to the emission of the more and more complex fluorescent organic substances.

  1. Chemical Structures and Bioactivities of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Stephen Ewart

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives from marine macroalgae have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. The present paper will review the recent progress in research on the structural chemistry and the bioactivities of these marine algal biomaterials. In particular, it will provide an update on the structural chemistry of the major sulfated polysaccharides synthesized by seaweeds including the galactans (e.g., agarans and carrageenans, ulvans, and fucans. It will then review the recent findings on the anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antiviral, immuno-inflammatory, antilipidemic and antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application.

  2. Ulva Lactuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Peri Rossi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available She looked loathingly at the spoon. It was a metal spoon, dark, with a small engraving on its handle – a sharp taste. “Open your mouth, slowly, eaaaasy, like a little birdie in its nest,” he said, bringing the spoon to her mouth. He hated spoons; they had seemed despicable little things since he was small. Why did he now find himself having to wield it, full of soup, having to usher it now into this young child’s mouth, as his parents had done to him, as surely as his parents’ parents had also done? If they even had spoons then, if some fool had already invented them. He had to find himself an encyclopedia and figure out when the first spoon had been forged; he had to get his hands on an encyclopedia, a source of infinite knowledge by which he might survive. Spoon: A piece of silverware with a concave scoop at its end; typically used for carrying liquids to the mouth.

  3. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biofuel Production from Macroalgae (Seaweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Soleymani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A techno-economic evaluation of bioenergy production from macroalgae was carried out in this study. Six different scenarios were examined for the production of different energy products and by-products. Seaweed was produced either via the longline method or the grid method. Final products of these scenarios were either ethanol from fermentation, or electricity from anaerobic digestion (AD. By-products were digestate for AD, and animal feed, or electricity and digestate, for the fermentation pathway. Bioenergy breakeven selling prices were investigated according to the cost components and the feedstock supply chain, while suggestions for potential optimization of costs were provided. The lowest production level of dry seaweed to meet 0.93 ($/L for ethanol fuel and 0.07 $/kW-h for electricity was found to be 0.68 and 3.7 million tonnes (dry basis, respectively. At the moment, biofuel production from seaweed has been determined not to be economically feasible, but achieving economic production may be possible by lowering production costs and increasing the area under cultivation.

  4. Cyanobacteria and macroalgae in ecosystem of the Neva estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikulina V. N.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea and Neva estuary are plagued by coastal eutrophication. In order to estimate the scale of the problem, quantitative estimates of phytoplankton and macroalgal mats were determined in the Neva estuary. Long-term monitoring (1982–2009 of phytoplankton showed changes in its species composition and abundance. Summer phytoplankton biomass increased significantly in the 1990s, with concomitant changes in species composition, despite a decline of nutrients in the Neva estuary. The cyanobacteria Planktothrix agardhii became a dominant species. The summer biomass of phytoplankton reached a maximum of 5.2 ± 0.4 mg·L-1 in 2002–2004. Monitoring of macroalgal community in the coastal area of the Neva estuary from 2002 to 2009 showed the dominance of the filamentous green alga Cladophora glomerata in the phytobenthos. Average biomass of macroalgae in inner and outer estuary differed significantly at 132 ± 29 and 310 ± 67 g DW·m-2, respectively. This study showed, that fluctuations in macroalgal biomass reflected human influence on estuary, although it was less sensitive to human impact than the phytoplankton community. Thus qualitative and quantitative characteristics of phytoplankton and macroalgal blooms can indicate anthropogenic influence on the ecosystem, and help to better manage the Neva estuary.

  5. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biofuel Production from Macroalgae (Seaweed).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Mohsen; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2017-11-26

    A techno-economic evaluation of bioenergy production from macroalgae was carried out in this study. Six different scenarios were examined for the production of different energy products and by-products. Seaweed was produced either via the longline method or the grid method. Final products of these scenarios were either ethanol from fermentation, or electricity from anaerobic digestion (AD). By-products were digestate for AD, and animal feed, or electricity and digestate, for the fermentation pathway. Bioenergy breakeven selling prices were investigated according to the cost components and the feedstock supply chain, while suggestions for potential optimization of costs were provided. The lowest production level of dry seaweed to meet 0.93 ($/L) for ethanol fuel and 0.07 $/kW-h for electricity was found to be 0.68 and 3.7 million tonnes (dry basis), respectively. At the moment, biofuel production from seaweed has been determined not to be economically feasible, but achieving economic production may be possible by lowering production costs and increasing the area under cultivation.

  6. Pathway of /sup 14/Co/sub 2/ fixation in marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, G V; Karekar, M D [Shivaji Univ., Kolhapur (India). Dept. of Botany

    1973-08-01

    Marine plants have a different metabolic environment which is likely to affect pathways of CO/sub 2/ fixation. It has been observed that in marine alga, Ulva lactuca, during short term light fixation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, besides PGA, an appreciable amount of activity was located in aspartate. This curious observation can now be explained on the basis of Hatch, Slack and Kortschak pathway of CO/sub 2/ fixation. In order to trace pathways of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in marine algae, a wide variety of algal specimens were exposed to NaH/sup 14/CO/sub 3/ in light and the products were analyzed. The algae selected were Ulva lactuca, Sargassum ilicifolium, Sphacelaria sp., Padina tetrastromatica, Chaetomorpha media and Enteromorpha tubulosa. It has been found that the pathways of CO/sub 2/ in the above marine algae differ from the conventional pattern recorded in Chlorella. The early labelling of aspartate and its subsequent utilization indicates that HSK pathway is operative in the marine algae. Malate synthesis is inhibited due to the effect of saline environment on the activity of malic dehydrogenase. Appreciable label in PGA is suggestive of the fact that Calvin and Bassham pathway as well as the HSK route are simultaneously operating. (auth)

  7. Algal bioremediation of waste waters from land-based aquaculture using ulva: selecting target species and strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Lawton

    Full Text Available The optimised reduction of dissolved nutrient loads in aquaculture effluents through bioremediation requires selection of appropriate algal species and strains. The objective of the current study was to identify target species and strains from the macroalgal genus Ulva for bioremediation of land-based aquaculture facilities in Eastern Australia. We surveyed land-based aquaculture facilities and natural coastal environments across three geographic locations in Eastern Australia to determine which species of Ulva occur naturally in this region and conducted growth trials at three temperature treatments on a subset of samples from each location to determine whether local strains had superior performance under local environmental conditions. DNA barcoding using the markers ITS and tufA identified six species of Ulva, with U. ohnoi being the most common blade species and U. sp. 3 the most common filamentous species. Both species occurred at multiple land-based aquaculture facilities in Townsville and Brisbane and multiple strains of each species grew well in culture. Specific growth rates of U. ohnoi and U. sp. 3 were high (over 9% and 15% day(-1 respectively across temperature treatments. Within species, strains of U. ohnoi had higher growth in temperatures corresponding to local conditions, suggesting that strains may be locally adapted. However, across all temperature treatments Townsville strains had the highest growth rates (11.2-20.4% day(-1 and Sydney strains had the lowest growth rates (2.5-8.3% day(-1. We also found significant differences in growth between strains of U. ohnoi collected from the same geographic location, highlighting the potential to isolate and cultivate fast growing strains. In contrast, there was no clearly identifiable competitive strain of filamentous Ulva, with multiple species and strains having variable performance. The fast growth rates and broad geographical distribution of U. ohnoi make this an ideal species to

  8. Ulva biomass as a co-substrate for stable anaerobic digestion of spent coffee grounds in continuous mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaai; Kim, Hakchan; Lee, Changsoo

    2017-10-01

    Ulva biomass was evaluated as a co-substrate for anaerobic digestion of spent coffee grounds at varying organic loads (0.7-1.6g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/Ld) and substrate compositions. Co-digestion with Ulva (25%, COD basis) proved beneficial for SCG biomethanation in both terms of process performance and stability. The beneficial effect is much more pronounced at higher organic and hydraulic loads, with the highest COD removal and methane yield being 51.8% and 0.19L/g COD fed, respectively. The reactor microbial community structure changed dynamically during the experiment, and a dominance shift from hydrogenotrophic to aceticlastic methanogens occurred with increase in organic loading rate. Network analysis provides a comprehensive view of the microbial interactions involved in the system and confirms a direct positive correlation between Ulva input and methane productivity. A group of populations, including Methanobacterium- and Methanoculleus-related methanogens, was identified as a possible indicator for monitoring the biomethanation performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sulphur fate and anaerobic biodegradation potential during co-digestion of seaweed biomass (Ulva sp.) with pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peu, P; Sassi, J-F; Girault, R; Picard, S; Saint-Cast, Patricia; Béline, F; Dabert, P

    2011-12-01

    Seaweed (Ulva sp.) stranded on beaches were utilized as co-substrate for anaerobic digestion of pig slurry in three-month co-digestion tests in pilot scale anaerobic digesters in the laboratory. The methanogenic potential of Ulva sp. was low compared to that of other potential co-substrates available for use by farmers: 148 N m3CH4/t of volatile solids or 19 N m3CH4/t of crude product. When used as a co-substrate with pig manure (48%/52% w/w), Ulva sp. seaweed did not notably disrupt the process of digestion; however, after pilot stabilisation, biogas produced contained 3.5% H2S, making it unsuitable for energy recovery without treatment. Sequentially addition of the sulphate reduction inhibitor, potassium molybdate, to a final concentration of 3mM, temporarily reduced H2S emissions, but was unable to sustain this reduction over the three-month period. According to these pilot tests, the use of seaweed stranded on beaches as co-substrate in farm-based biogas plants shows some limitations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Saturating light and not increased carbon dioxide under ocean acidification drives photosynthesis and growth in Ulva rigida (Chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenberger, Ralf; Fernández, Pamela A; Strittmatter, Martina; Heesch, Svenja; Cornwall, Christopher E; Hurd, Catriona L; Roleda, Michael Y

    2015-01-01

    Carbon physiology of a genetically identified Ulva rigida was investigated under different CO2(aq) and light levels. The study was designed to answer whether (1) light or exogenous inorganic carbon (Ci) pool is driving growth; and (2) elevated CO2(aq) concentration under ocean acidification (OA) will downregulate CAext-mediated dehydration and alter the stable carbon isotope (δ13C) signatures toward more CO2 use to support higher growth rate. At pHT 9.0 where CO2(aq) is Ulva found putative light-dependent transporters to which the remaining NPS can be attributed. The shift in δ13C signatures from –22‰ toward –10‰ under saturating light but not under elevated CO2(aq) suggest preference and substantial use to support photosynthesis and growth. U. rigida is Ci saturated, and growth was primarily controlled by light. Therefore, increased levels of CO2(aq) predicted for the future will not, in isolation, stimulate Ulva blooms. PMID:25750714

  11. Isolation of a lactic acid bacterium and yeast consortium from a fermented material of Ulva spp. (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, M; Murata, M

    2004-01-01

    Microbiota in a fermented culture of Ulva spp. was examined with the objective to characterize the type of fermentation and to obtain starter microbes for performing seaweed fermentation. Fermented Ulva spp. cultures which were obtained and transferred in a laboratory were examined for their microbiota. With phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis based on rRNA gene nucleotide sequences, the predominant micro-organisms were identified as Lactobacillus brevis, Debaryomyces hanseni var. hansenii, and a Candida zeylanoides-related specimen, suggesting that the observed fermentation can be categorized to lactic acid and ethanol fermentation. Inoculating the individually cultured cell suspensions of the three kinds of micro-organisms with cellulase induced the fermentation in various kinds of seaweed. A microbial consortium composed of a lactic acid bacterium, L. brevis, and yeasts, D. hansenii and a C. zeylanoides-related specimen, were predominant in a fermented culture of Ulva spp. Lactic acid and ethanol fermentation could be induced in various kinds of seaweed by adding this microbial consortium along with cellulase. This is the first report of lactic acid and ethanol fermentation in seaweed, which is expected to provide a new material for food and dietary applications.

  12. Behaviour of technetium in marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Kirchmann, R.; Van Baelen, J.; Hurtger, C.; Cogneau, M.; Van der Ben, D.; Verthe, C.; Bouquegneau, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Uptake and distribution of technetium were studied in several green (Acetabularia acetabulum, Boergesenia forbesii, Ulva lactuca) and brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, Fucus spiralis and Fucus vesiculosus) marine algae. Technetium was supplied to the algae as Tc-95m-pertechnetate. Under laboratory conditions, the algae were capable of accumulating technetium, with the exception, however, of Boergesenia, which showed concentration factors (C.F.) comprised between 0.28 and 0.71. The concentration of technetium-99 in Fucus spiralis, collected along the Belgian coast, was measured by a radiochemical procedure. The intracellular distribution of technetium was studied by differential centrifugation in Acetabularia and by the puncturing technique in Boergesenia. The chemical forms of technetium penetrated into the cells were investigated by selective chemical extractions, molecular sieving and thin layer chromatography

  13. Behaviour of technetium in marine algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, S.; Kirchmann, R.; Baelen, J. van; Hurtgen, C.; Cogneau, M.; Ben, D. van der; Verthe, C.; Bouquegneau, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Uptake and distribution of technetium were studied in several green (Acetabularia acetabulum, Boergesenia forbesii, Ulva lactuca) and brown (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, Fucus spiralis and Fucus vesiculosus) marine algae. Technetium was supplied to the algae as Tc-95-pertechnetate. Under laboratory conditions, the algae were capable of accumulating technetium, with the exception, however, of Boergesenia, which showed concentration factors (C.F.) comprised between 0.28 and 0.71. The concentration of technetium-99 in Fucus spiralis, collected along the Belgian coast, was measured by a radiochemical procedure. The intracellular distribution of technetium was studied by differential centrifugation in Acetabularia and by the puncturing technique in Boergesenia. The chemical forms of technetium penetrated into the cells were investigated by selective chemical extractions, molecular sieving and thin layer chromatography. (author)

  14. First record of Ostreopsis cfr. ovata on macroalgae in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti, Marina; Minocci, Marco; Beran, Alfred; Ivesa, Ljiljana

    2007-01-01

    Ostreopsis ovata is an epiphytic potentially toxic dinoflagellate. It has a world-wide distribution, normally associated with other epiphytic or benthic dinoflagellates. In tropical seas O. ovata is often associated with the genera Gambierdiscus, Coolia and Prorocentrum, causing cinguatera fish poisoning. Recently, Ostreopsis spp. blooms in the Tyrrhenian and southern Adriatic Sea have been related to human health problems, such as breathing and skin irritation. Here we report the first record of Ostreopsis cfr. ovata in the Northern Adriatic Sea. O. cfr. ovata was isolated from macroalgae in two areas, the Gulf of Trieste (Italy) and close to Rovinj (Croatia). The microalga was identified by scanning electron microscopy and by fluorescence light microscopy. Size range and thecal pore structure were similar to those described for O. cfr. ovata in previous studies. Ostreopsis cfr. ovata was present on all the macroalgae collected, particularly browns and reds. The microalgal association on macroalgae was mostly composed of Ostreopsis sp., Coolia monotis and Coscinodiscus sp

  15. Biofuel potential production from the Orbetello lagoon macroalgae: A comparison with sunflower feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastianoni, Simone; Coppola, Fazio; Tiezzi, Enzo [Department of Chemical and Biosystems Sciences, Siena University, via della Diana, 2A, 53100 Siena (Italy); Colacevich, Andrea; Borghini, Francesca; Focardi, Silvano [Department of Environmental Sciences, Siena University, via Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena (Italy)

    2008-07-15

    The diversification of different types and sources of biofuels has become an important energy issue in recent times. The aim of this work is to evaluate the use of two kinds of renewable feedstocks in order to produce biodiesel. We have analyzed the potential production of oil from two species of macroalgae considered as waste coming out from a lagoon system involved in eutrophication and from sunflower seeds. We have tested oil extraction yields of both feedstock. Furthermore, a comparison has been carried out based on the emergy approach, in order to evaluate the sustainability and environmental performance of both processes. The results show that, under present conditions, considering oil extraction yields, the production of oil from sunflower seeds is feasible, because of the lower value of transformity of the final product with respect to macroalgae. On the other hand, the results demonstrate that with improvements of oil extraction methodology, macroalgae could be considered a good residual biomass usable for biofuel production. (author)

  16. First record of Ostreopsis cfr. ovata on macroalgae in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, Marina [Department of Biological Oceanography, National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics, Via Auguste Piccard 54, 34010 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: mmonti@inogs.it; Minocci, Marco [Department of Biological Oceanography, National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics, Via Auguste Piccard 54, 34010 Trieste (Italy); Beran, Alfred [Department of Biological Oceanography, National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics, Via Auguste Piccard 54, 34010 Trieste (Italy); Ivesa, Ljiljana [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Center for Marine Research, G. Paliaga 5, 52210 Rovinj (Croatia)

    2007-05-15

    Ostreopsis ovata is an epiphytic potentially toxic dinoflagellate. It has a world-wide distribution, normally associated with other epiphytic or benthic dinoflagellates. In tropical seas O. ovata is often associated with the genera Gambierdiscus, Coolia and Prorocentrum, causing cinguatera fish poisoning. Recently, Ostreopsis spp. blooms in the Tyrrhenian and southern Adriatic Sea have been related to human health problems, such as breathing and skin irritation. Here we report the first record of Ostreopsis cfr. ovata in the Northern Adriatic Sea. O. cfr. ovata was isolated from macroalgae in two areas, the Gulf of Trieste (Italy) and close to Rovinj (Croatia). The microalga was identified by scanning electron microscopy and by fluorescence light microscopy. Size range and thecal pore structure were similar to those described for O. cfr. ovata in previous studies. Ostreopsis cfr. ovata was present on all the macroalgae collected, particularly browns and reds. The microalgal association on macroalgae was mostly composed of Ostreopsis sp., Coolia monotis and Coscinodiscus sp.

  17. Molluscs associated with the macroalgae of the genus Gracilaria (Rhodophyta): importance of algal fronds as microhabitat in a hypersaline mangrove in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, R N M; Dias, T L P

    2014-08-01

    The fronds of marine macroalgae play an important role in coastal ecosystems because the algae banks are utilized as a microhabitat by different taxa, including molluscs, one of the most abundant and diverse animals of marine ecosystems. In this study, we characterized the malacofauna associated with the macroalgae Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing) Sonder ex Dickie 1874 and Gracilaria cuneata Areschoug 1854 of a hypersaline mangrove on the northern coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil. The first alga dominates in the rainy season and it is substituted by second one in the dry period. A total of 1,490 molluscs were surveyed, representing 56 species in 29 families: 1,081 were associated with G. domingensis and 409 with G. cuneata, the latter showing the greater diversity (H'=1.25). Columbellidae, Neritidae, Pyramidellidae and Cerithiidae were among the most representative families in the number of species and individuals. The micromolluscs were dominant in the algal microhabitat, constituting 74.63% of the malacofauna recorded. The columbellid Parvanachis obesa (C. B. Adams, 1845) was the dominant species followed by the neritid Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758) in both algae. In spite of the annual alternated succession of the algae species, at least 15 mollusc species are common for these algae. Furthermore, juveniles of P. obesa were recorded in both seasons, indicating a continuous reproduction. Possible reasons for difference in abundance, diversity and dominance of molluscs living on these algae are discussed. Both species of substrate-algae represent an important microhabitat for refuge, feeding and the reproduction of small-sized mollusc species during rainy and dry seasons.

  18. Molluscs associated with the macroalgae of the genus Gracilaria (Rhodophyta: importance of algal fronds as microhabitat in a hypersaline mangrove in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RNM Queiroz

    Full Text Available The fronds of marine macroalgae play an important role in coastal ecosystems because the algae banks are utilized as a microhabitat by different taxa, including molluscs, one of the most abundant and diverse animals of marine ecosystems. In this study, we characterized the malacofauna associated with the macroalgae Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing Sonder ex Dickie 1874 and Gracilaria cuneata Areschoug 1854 of a hypersaline mangrove on the northern coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil. The first alga dominates in the rainy season and it is substituted by second one in the dry period. A total of 1,490 molluscs were surveyed, representing 56 species in 29 families: 1,081 were associated with G. domingensis and 409 with G. cuneata, the latter showing the greater diversity (H′=1.25. Columbellidae, Neritidae, Pyramidellidae and Cerithiidae were among the most representative families in the number of species and individuals. The micromolluscs were dominant in the algal microhabitat, constituting 74.63% of the malacofauna recorded. The columbellid Parvanachis obesa(C. B. Adams, 1845 was the dominant species followed by the neritid Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758 in both algae. In spite of the annual alternated succession of the algae species, at least 15 mollusc species are common for these algae. Furthermore, juveniles of P. obesa were recorded in both seasons, indicating a continuous reproduction. Possible reasons for difference in abundance, diversity and dominance of molluscs living on these algae are discussed. Both species of substrate-algae represent an important microhabitat for refuge, feeding and the reproduction of small-sized mollusc species during rainy and dry seasons.

  19. Topical Benefits of Two Fucoidan-Rich Extracts from Marine Macroalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Helen Fitton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two concentrated and well-characterized fucoidan-rich extracts were investigated to determine their benefits in topical applications. An Undaria pinnatifida extract, containing 85% fucoidan, and a Fucus vesiculosus co-extract, containing 60% fucoidan and 30% polyphenol, were assessed in a number of in vitro assays to measure the effect of the extracts on enzyme inhibition, glycation, antioxidant activity and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 protein expression. Double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies were also conducted to measure soothing, protection, wrinkle depth, brightness and skin spot intensity. Both extracts demonstrated marked inhibitory effects on processes linked to skin aging, including the increased expression of SIRT1 in vitro. Clinical testing established the efficacy of the extracts in a range of the tested applications, relative to placebo. The Fucus vesiculosus extract with high polyphenol content demonstrated additional in vitro antioxidant activity, as well as improved efficacy in skin brightening applications, relative to placebo. The major effects of the Undaria pinnatifida extract aided skin immunity, soothing and protection, while the Fucus vesiculosus extract most significantly affected age spot reduction and increased brightness, soothing and protection.

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Production from Marine Macroalgae: a Latvian Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilicka, Iluta; Blumberga, Dagnija; Romagnoli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    There is potential environmental benefit to be gained from the use of algae because of their ability to fix CO2, no need for direct land use and utilization of bio-waste (rich in potassium, phosphate and nitrogen based compounds) as a nutrients. The aim of the research is to assess the impact of biogas production and the final use in a cogeneration unit system from a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in comparison with a similar reference system using a non-renewable source (e.g. natural gas). The paper is intended to be a preliminary study for understanding the implementation of this novel technology in a Latvian context.

  1. Molecular analysis of physiological responses to changes in nitrogen in a marine macroalga, Porphyra yezoensis (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinuma, M; Coury, D A; Nakamoto, C; Sakaguchi, K; Amano, H

    2008-12-01

    The rhodophyte seaweed Porphyra yezoensis, known more commonly world-wide as "nori", is an important commercial crop in Japan. Cultivation of nori in Japan is often affected by outbreaks of "iroochi", a discoloration of the thalli due to a decrease in inorganic nutrients in the culture area that in turn decreases the amount of photosynthetic pigments in the thalli. Treating thalli with inorganic nitrogen can reverse iroochi. In this paper, we report on the characterization of three P. yezoensis genes, a nitrate transporter (PyNRT2) and two urea transporters (PyUT1 and PyUT2), which may be involved in reversing iroochi. The predicted length of the PyNRT2 protein was 479 amino acids (AA), while PyUT1 and PyUT2 were 740 and 680 AA, respectively. PyNRT2 was more similar to NRT2 from a chromophyte than to NRTs from Chlamydomonas and higher plants. The two P. yezoensis UTs had 56% AA identity to each other, and showed the closest relationship to higher plant and yeast DUR3 proteins which formed a subfamily of the sodium-solute symporter protein family. Hydrophobicity plots of the AA sequences showed that the PyNRT2, PyUT1, and PyUT2 included 12, 15, and 16 transmembrane domains, respectively. Southern blot analysis indicated that the P. yezoensis genome has a single NRT2-encoding gene and at least four UT-encoding genes. Expression analysis of PyNRT2 and PyUT genes showed that the messenger RNA level of the PyNRT2 gene reached a maximum after 48 h in the nitrate starvation condition and was then restored to the constitutive level, while expression of the PyUT genes was induced in proportion to treatment times in the nitrate starvation condition. These results suggest that the PyNRT2 and PyUT are responsible for the high-affinity nitrate/urea transport systems that operate under low external nitrate concentrations.

  2. Differential expression of rubisco in sporophytes and gametophytes of some marine macroalgae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubisco (ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, a key enzyme of photosynthetic CO(2 fixation, is one of the most abundant proteins in both higher plants and algae. In this study, the differential expression of Rubisco in sporophytes and gametophytes of four seaweed species--Porphyra yezoensis, P. haitanensis, Bangia fuscopurpurea (Rhodophyte and Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae--was studied in terms of the levels of transcription, translation and enzyme activity. Results indicated that both the Rubisco content and the initial carboxylase activity were notably higher in algal gametophytes than in the sporophytes, which suggested that the Rubisco content and the initial carboxylase activity were related to the ploidy of the generations of the four algal species.

  3. Spatio-temporal patterns of Ulva prolifera blooms and the corresponding influence on chlorophyll-a concentration in the Southern Yellow Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Wu, Mengquan; Xing, Qianguo; Song, Xiaodong; Zhao, Deheng; Han, Qianqian; Zhang, Guangzong

    2018-06-04

    The world's largest macroalgal blooms (MABs) caused by the Ulva prolifera outbreaks have occurred every summer since 2007 in the Southern Yellow Sea, China. Accumulating evidence showed that MABs may deteriorate the regional marine environment and influence the growth of some primary producers such as phytoplankton. In this study, we investigated the spatio-temporal patterns of U. prolifera green tides and chlorophyll-a concentration in the Southern Yellow Sea in 2015 using satellite images obtained from HJ-1 CCD, MODIS, and GOCI. The correlation between the distributions of U. prolifera abundance and chlorophyll-a concentration was analyzed quantitatively by setting up a series of 5 × 5 km experimental grids, and we also discussed the possible mechanisms about the influence of U. prolifera blooms on the other floating microalgae. The results showed that the development of U. prolifera blooms in the Southern Yellow Sea in 2015 could be featured as "appearance - development - outbreak - decline - disappearance", while the concentration of chlorophyll-a showed "increase - sharp decline - slow recovery - stabilization" from April to August. We also found that the concentration of chlorophyll-a had the following relationships with U. prolifera temporally: (1) the concentration of chlorophyll-a increased with the growth of U. prolifera from April to mid-May; (2) the chlorophyll-a concentration decreased sharply with the dramatically increased coverage of U. prolifera in June; and (3) the chlorophyll-a concentration slowly recovered and finally stabilized as U. prolifera decreased in July. Generally, there was a negative correlation between the occurrence of U. prolifera and chlorophyll-a concentration in the Southern Yellow Sea, China. Our results showed that the outbreak of U. prolifera does have a certain impact on the growth and reproduction of planktonic microalgae, and it suggests that U. prolifera blooms have potentially altered the ecological balance in

  4. Very Green Photosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles by a Living Aquatic Plant: Photoreduction of AuIII by the Seaweed Ulva armoricana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhoro, Ofhani C; Roos, Wiets D; Jaffer, Mohammed; Bolton, John J; Stillman, Martin J; Beukes, Denzil R; Antunes, Edith

    2018-02-01

    Light-assisted in vivo synthesis of gold nanoparticles (NPs) from aqueous solutions of dilute Au III salts by a living green marine seaweed (Ulva armoricana) is reported for the first time. NPs synthesised using typical procedures have many associated environmental hazards. The reported methods involve green, nontoxic, eco-friendly synthetic procedures. The formation of AuNPs was extremely rapid (≈15 min) following illumination of the living U. armoricana, while the rate of NP formation in the dark was very slow (over 2 weeks). The properties of the AuNPs formed were confirmed using a battery of spectroscopic techniques. U. armoricana were found to be very efficient in Au 0 uptake, and this, together with the rapid formation of AuNPs under illumination, indicated that the seaweed remained living during NP formation. The TEM images supported this, revealing that the thylakoid membranes and cell structure remained intact. The AuNPs formed on the surface of U. armoricana thallus, along the cell walls and in the chloroplasts. Without further workup, the dried, U. armoricana-supported AuNPs were efficient in the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol, demonstrating the completely green cycle of AuNP formation and catalytic activity. The results mean that an aquatic plant growing in water rich in gold salts could bio-accumulate AuNPs from its aquatic environment, simply with the activation of sunlight. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Radionuclide uptake in red macroalgae from the Bulgarian Black Sea coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonova, Tz.; Strezov, A.

    2005-01-01

    Technogenic and natural radionuclide content in red macroalgae (Ceramium rubrum, Corallina officinalis and Callithamnion corymbosum) from the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, collected in the period 1992-2003, was studied by low-level gamma-spectrometry. The data show that the nuclide concentrations depend on macroalgae species and coast locations. The highest nuclide content was measured in Ceramium rubrum species. The 137 Cs mean value is 9.8 Bq/kg, 19.6 Bq/kg for 226 Ra and 17 Bq/kg for 210 Pb. The radionuclide pollution is considerably small due to the absence of nuclear facilities along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast. (author)

  6. Macroalgae-Derived Biofuel: A Review of Methods of Energy Extraction from Seaweed Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Milledge

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential of algal biomass as a source of liquid and gaseous biofuels is a highly topical theme, but as yet there is no successful economically viable commercial system producing biofuel. However, the majority of the research has focused on producing fuels from microalgae rather than from macroalgae. This article briefly reviews the methods by which useful energy may be extracted from macroalgae biomass including: direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, trans-esterification to biodiesel, hydrothermal liquefaction, fermentation to bioethanol, fermentation to biobutanol and anaerobic digestion, and explores technical and engineering difficulties that remain to be resolved.

  7. Potencial de cultivo da macroalga Kappaphycus alvarezii no litoral de Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Alex Alves dos

    2014-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Aqüicultura, Florianópolis, 2014. Os cultivos da macroalga K. alvarezii em monocultivo ou integrados com moluscos (Crassostrea gigas e Perna perna) podem proporcionar benefícios ambientais e econômicos. Este trabalho avaliou o potencial de cultivo da macroalga Kappaphycus alvarezii no parque aquícola de Santa Catarina. O primeiro trabalho identificou a capacidade do parque e...

  8. Optimization of enzymatic saccharification of Chaetomorpha linum biomass for the production of macroalgae-based third generation bioethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Slaheddine Masmoudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of marine macro-algae Chaetomorpha linum as a potential biofuel resource, the effects of the enzymatic treatment conditions on sugar yield were evaluated using a three factor three level Box-Behnken design. The hydrothermally pretreated C. linum biomass was treated with Aspergillus niger cellulase at various liquid to solid ratios (50–100 mL/g, enzyme concentrations (10–60 U/g and incubations times (4–44 h. Data obtained from the response surface methodology were subjected to the analysis of variance and analyzed using a second order polynomial equation. The fitted model was found to be robust and was used to optimize the sugar yield (% during enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimum saccharification conditions were: L/S ratio 100 mL/g; enzyme concentration 52 U/g; and time 44 h. Their application led to a maximum sugar yield of 30.2 g/100g dry matter. Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of the algal hydrolysate provided 8.6 g ethanol/100g dry matter. These results showed a promising future of applying C. linum biomass as potential feedstock for third generation bioethanol production.

  9. Potential of using tropical brown macroalgae sargassum cristaefolium meal in the diets for juvenile white shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryono, A.; Sukardi, P.; Yudiarti, E.; Hardi, E. H.; Hastuti, S.; Susilowati, T.

    2018-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of different dietary levels of tropical marine brown macroalgae, Sargassum cristaefolium meal (SCM) on growth performance and feed utilization efficiency of juvenile white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (mean initial weight 2.65±0.1 g). The algae were collected from Bandengan Coast, Jepara, Indonesia. The study used a completely randomized design with 5 treatments of dietary different S. cristaefolium meal levels (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 g algae meal/kg feed) in triplicates. The results showed that the different levels of dietary SCM did not significantly affect (P>0.05) average daily growth (ADG;.204-224 mg/day) and survival (80-97%) of the shrimp after a 42-day feeding period. However, the test diets significantly affected (P<0.05) feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and protein efficiency ratio (PER). Better FCR (2.13) and PER (1.34) was found by the diet with 2% SCM compared to the control diet (no SCM) (FCR 3.42 and PER 0.81). This finding indicates that the supplement of dietary 2% SCM (20 g/kg feed) can increase the feed utilization efficiency up to 62% or reduce the FCR up to 38% without any adverse in growth performance.

  10. Sulfur isotope variability of oceanic DMSP generation and its contributions to marine biogenic sulfur emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduro, Harry; Van Alstyne, Kathryn L; Farquhar, James

    2012-06-05

    Oceanic dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is the precursor to dimethylsulfide (DMS), which plays a role in climate regulation through transformation to methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and non-seasalt sulfate (NSS-SO(4)(2-)) aerosols. Here, we report measurements of the abundance and sulfur isotope compositions of DMSP from one phytoplankton species (Prorocentrum minimum) and five intertidal macroalgal species (Ulva lactuca, Ulva linza, Ulvaria obscura, Ulva prolifera, and Polysiphonia hendryi) in marine waters. We show that the sulfur isotope compositions (δ(34)S) of DMSP are depleted in (34)S relative to the source seawater sulfate by ∼1-3‰ and are correlated with the observed intracellular content of methionine, suggesting a link to metabolic pathways of methionine production. We suggest that this variability of δ(34)S is transferred to atmospheric geochemical products of DMSP degradation (DMS, MSA, and NSS-SO(4)(2-)), carrying implications for the interpretation of variability in δ(34)S of MSA and NSS-SO(4)(2-) that links them to changes in growth conditions and populations of DMSP producers rather than to the contributions of DMS and non-DMS sources.

  11. Methyl Jasmonate-Induced Lipidomic and Biochemical Alterations in the Intertidal Macroalga Gracilaria dura (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Puja; Reddy, C R K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-10-01

    The role of exogenously added methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a lipid-derived signaling compound, in inducing oxidative stress in the marine red macroalga Gracilaria dura was investigated. MeJA at a concentration of 1-100 µM was a strong stimulant of reactive oxygen species (H(2)O(2), HO· and O(2) (·-)) (P < 0.05) causing considerable oxidative stress in G. dura. This further led to lipid peroxidation and degradation of the pigments Chl a and phycocyanin, with a concomitant increase in phycoerythrin. The MeJA-induced oxidative burst also led to the induction of a fatty acid oxidation cascade, resulting in the synthesis of hydroxy-oxylipins and the up-regulation of the 13-lipoxygenase pathway. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomic analysis revealed that monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (a chloroplastic glycerolipid) and phosphatidylcholine (extrachloroplastidic phopholipid) were the most affected lipid classes. The degradation of 18:3-fatty acid-containing monogalactosyldiacylglycerol inferred that it provided fatty acyl chains for the biosynthesis of 13-hydroperoxylinolenic acid, which was further directed towards either the jasmonate pathway or other alternative pathways of the fatty acid oxidation cascade, analogous to higher plants. Also, G. dura modulated the lipid acyl chains in such a way that no significant change was observed in the fatty acid profile of the treated thalli as compared with those of the control, except for C16:0, C16:1 (n-9), C20:3 (n-6) and C20:4 (n-6) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, MeJA caused the accumulation of phenolic compounds and the up-regulation of enzymes involved in secondary metabolism such as polyphenol oxidase, shikimate dehydrogenase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, indicating a shift towards secondary metabolism as a defense strategy to combat the induced oxidative stress. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For

  12. Diversity and abundance of the bacterial community of the red Macroalga Porphyra umbilicalis: did bacterial farmers produce macroalgae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilibeth N Miranda

    Full Text Available Macroalgae harbor microbial communities whose bacterial biodiversity remains largely uncharacterized. The goals of this study were 1 to examine the composition of the bacterial community associated with Porphyra umbilicalis Kützing from Schoodic Point, ME, 2 determine whether there are seasonal trends in species diversity but a core group of bacteria that are always present, and 3 to determine how the microbial community associated with a laboratory strain (P.um.1 established in the presence of antibiotics has changed. P. umbilicalis blades (n = 5, fall 2010; n = 5, winter 2011; n = 2, clonal P.um.1 were analyzed by pyrosequencing over two variable regions of the 16 S rDNA (V5-V6 and V8; 147,880 total reads. The bacterial taxa present were classified at an 80% confidence threshold into eight phyla (Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Firmicutes, and the candidate division TM7. The Bacteroidetes comprised the majority of bacterial sequences on both field and lab blades, but the Proteobacteria (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria were also abundant. Sphingobacteria (Bacteroidetes and Flavobacteria (Bacteroidetes had inverse abundances on natural versus P.um.1 blades. Bacterial communities were richer and more diverse on blades sampled in fall compared to winter. Significant differences were observed between microbial communities among all three groups of blades examined. Only two OTUs were found on all 12 blades, and only one of these, belonging to the Saprospiraceae (Bacteroidetes, was abundant. Lewinella (as 66 OTUs was found on all field blades and was the most abundant genus. Bacteria from the Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes that are known to digest the galactan sulfates of red algal cell walls were well-represented. Some of these taxa likely provide essential morphogenetic and beneficial nutritive factors to P. umbilicalis and may have had

  13. Sediment and Nutrient Sources as well as Interspecific Competition Control Growth of 2 Common Species of Coral Reef Macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T.; Fong, P.; Cuker, B.

    2016-02-01

    Aquatic communities worldwide are increasingly subjected to multiple anthropogenic stressors that often result in shifts in structure and function. On coral reefs, human impacts have been associated with phase-shifts from coral to algal domination. We hypothesized that the proliferation of these algal communities, especially on fringing reefs, may be facilitated by human alterations in nutrient enrichment and input of sediments from developed watersheds, which may also influence competitive outcomes among dominant algal species. To evaluate how changes in these abiotic stressors as well as competition may affect the growth of 2 common species of calcifying coral reef algae, Galaxaura fasciculata and Padina boryana, we conducted 3 separate 2 factor mesocosm experiments modeling fringing reefs in Moorea, French Polynesia. In the first experiment, we varied sediment source (marine vs. terrestrial) and water column nutrients (ambient vs. enriched) for each species separately and measured growth after 7 days. While both algae grew faster in enriched compared to ambient nutrients, P. boryana performed best with marine sediment (+27% change in biomass) and G. fasciculata with terrestrial sediment (+14% change in biomass). Next, we varied sediment source (as above) as well as sediment nutrients (ambient/enriched) for each species. While P. boryana lost 44% biomass in the eutrophic terrestrial sediment treatment, G. fasciculata performed the best and gained 19% biomass. Finally, we varied competition (alone/together) and terrestrial sediment nutrients (ambient/enriched). Over the 7 day period, P. boryana lost 64% biomass when in competition with G. fasciculata in the enriched treatment while G. fasciculata gained 38% biomass when in competition with P. boryana in the ambient treatment. These results indicate that, while growth of both species of macroalgae was regulated by nutrients, sediments, and competition, each responded uniquely to these controlling factors.

  14. Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelecom, Alphonse

    2002-03-01

    After 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. Since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. On the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. Studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. Although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. Nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. Among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.

  15. Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELECOM ALPHONSE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. Since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. On the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. Studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. Although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. Nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. Among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.

  16. Monitoring of radioactivity in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologa, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The necessity of radioactivity monitoring in the marine environment was imposed by the increasing development of nuclear power and its world-wide use in many different segments of economic and social life. Both natural and artificial radioactivity play an important role in marine ecology and human health. In this respect three major facts continue to prevail in Romania. The fallout, the presence of the Danube river and the expectations for future energy production. Spatial and temporal monitoring of marine radioactivity along the Romanian Black Sea shore has been systematically performed in the Romanian Marine Research Institute in close co-operation with the Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology since 1981. Marine emerged and submerged sediments, coastal and offshore sea water, macroalgae, in vertebrates and fish off the Danube mouths and/or along the coast are monitored for natural and artificial radioactivity by means of beta gross measurements and gamma spectrometry. Concentrations of radionuclides as K-40, Cs-134, Cs-137 in abiotic and biotic samples, environmental distributions coefficients and concentrations factors (CF), as well as experimentally-derived CFs in marine biota as radioecological bioindicators are assessed and stored for a national data base. (author) 3 tabs., 18 refs

  17. Radioactive monitoring of the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologa, A. S.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactivity monitoring of marine environment was required by the development of nuclear power and the worldwide use of ionizing radiations in many different activities. Both natural and artificial radioactivity play an important role in marine ecology and human health. In respect of this, three major facts prevail, namely: the fallout, the proximity of Danube River and the future nuclear power production. Spatial and temporal monitoring of marine radioactivity along the Romanian Black Sea shore has been systematically performed in Romanian Marine Research Institute in close cooperation with Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology since 1981. Marine emerged and submerged sediments, coastal and offshore sea water, macroalgae, invertebrates and fish of Danube mouths and/or along the coast are monitored for natural and artificial radioactivity by means of gross beta measurements and gamma spectrometry. Concentrations of radionuclides such as: K-40, Cs-134 and Cs-137 in abiotic and biotic samples, environmental distribution coefficients and concentration factors (CFs) as well as experimentally derived CFs in marine biota as radioecological bioindicators are assessed and stored in a national data base. (author)

  18. Actinide isotopes in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Fukai, R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of actinide isotopes in the environment are important not only from the viewpoint of their radiological effects on human life, but also from the fact that they act as excellent biochemical and geochemical tracers especially in the marine environment. For several of the actinide isotopes there is still a lack of basic data on concentration levels and further investigations on their chemical and physical speciation are required to understand their behaviour in the marine environment. The measured and estimated activity concentration levels of artificial actinides are at present in general a few orders of magnitude lower than those of the natural ones and their concentration factors in biota are relatively low, except in a few species of macroalgae and phytoplankton. The contribution from seafood to total ingestion of actinides by the world population is a few per cent and, therefore, the dose to man from these long-lived radionuclides caused by seafood ingestion is usually low. (orig.)

  19. Antioxidant Potential of ulva rigida c. Agardh Extract: Protection from Oxidative Stress Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TAŞ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of Ulva rigida C. Agardh, one of the green algae, on and antioxidative system in the propylthiouracil (PTU-induced hypothyroid rats. Thirty-two rats randomly divided into four groups: control (C, control+U. rigida extract (C+UR, hypothyroid (H and hypothyroid+U. rigida extract (H+UR. U. rigida (2% was administered in drinking water for 5 weeks after the induction of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroid rats were under oxidative stress as reflected by icreased plasma and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA levels. U. rigida reduced serum total cholesterol and,- triglyceride levels and plasma and heart skeletal muscle, liver and,- kidney tissue MDA levels in the H+UR group. Serum total cholesterol and tissues MDA levels were reduced in the C+UR group. Whole blood glutathione peroxidase and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were increased in the H+UR and C+UR groups compared with those of te respective control groups. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were lower in the H group and U. rigida increased paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in C+UR and H+UR groups. We conclude that hypothyroidism is associated with oxidative stress and, U. rigida extract might have a potential use as a protective antioxidant agent in hypothroidism.

  20. Comparative studies of the pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naihao Ye

    Full Text Available Seaweed has attracted considerable attention as a potential biofuel feedstock. The pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa were studied and compared using heating rates of 10, 30 and 50°C min(-1 under an inert atmosphere. The activation energy, and pre-exponential factors were calculated by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS and Popescu methods. The kinetic mechanism was deduced by the Popescu method. The results indicate that there are three stages to the pyrolysis; dehydration, primary devolatilization and residual decomposition. There were significant differences in average activation energy, thermal stability, final residuals and reaction rates between the two materials. The primary devolatilization stage of U. pertusa can be described by the Avramic-Erofeev equation (n=3, whereas that of maize straw can be described by the Mampel Power Law (n=2. The average activation energy of maize straw and U. pertusa were 153.0 and 148.7 KJ mol(-1, respectively. The pyrolysis process of U.pertusa would be easier than maize straw. And co-firing of the two biomass may be require less external heat input and improve process stability. There were minor kinetic compensation effects between the pre-exponential factors and the activation energy.

  1. Characteristics and antioxidant of Ulva intestinalis sulphated polysaccharides extracted with different solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peasura, Napassorn; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Wanlapa, Sorada

    2015-11-01

    Ulva intestinalis, a tubular green seaweed, is a rich source of nutrient, especially sulphated polysaccharides. Sulphated polysaccharides from U. intestinalis were extracted with distilled water, 0.1N HCl, and 0.1N NaOH at 80°C for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24h to study the effect of the extraction solvent and time on their chemical composition and antioxidant activity. Different types of solvents and extraction time had a significant influence on the chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity (pMonosaccharide composition and FT-IR spectra analyses revealed that sulphated polysaccharides from all solvent extractions have a typical sugar backbone (glucose, rhamnose, and sulphate attached at C-2 or C-3 of rhamnose). Sulphated polysaccharides extracted with acid exhibited greater antioxidant activity than did those extracted with distilled water and alkali. The results indicated that solvent extraction could be an efficacious method for enhancing antioxidant activity by distinct molecular weight and chemical characteristic of sulphated polysaccharides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A F U; Portela, M C C; Sousa, M B; Martins, F S; Rocha, F C; Farias, D F; Feitosa, J P A

    2009-08-01

    This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF). Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis) and interesting physico-chemical properties: water retention capacity of 8.74 g/water.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 0.90 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), lipid adsorption capacity of 4.52 g/oil.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 5.70 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), intrinsic viscosity of 2.4 dl.g-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract) and cation exchange capacity of 3.51 Eq.kg-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract). The diet containing seaweed meal was able to keep rats' total cholesterol (TC) down without causing any undesirable increase in LDL-C fraction. No evidence of toxic and/or antinutritional components in the seaweed meal was detected. Rats showed a fecal volume much greater (13 g) than that fed on cellulose diet (7 g) (p seaweed the potential to be used in food technology for the acquisition of low-calorie food and might be important in body weight control, reduction of blood TC and LDL-C as well as in prevention of gastrointestinal diseases.

  3. Isolation, expression and characterization of rbcL gene from Ulva prolifera J. Agardh (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhanru; Li, Wei; Guo, Hui; Duan, Delin

    2015-12-01

    Ulva prolifera is a typical green alga in subtidal areas and can grow tremendously fast. A highly efficient Rubisco enzyme which is encoded by UpRbcL gene may contribute to the rapid growth. In this study, the full-length UpRbcL open reading frame (ORF) was identified, which encoded a protein of 474 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of UpRbcL sequences revealed that Chlorophyta had a closer genetic relationship with higher plants than with Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta. The two distinct residues (aa11 and aa91) were presumed to be unique for Rubisco catalytic activity. The predicted three-dimensional structure showed that one α/β-barrel existed in the C-terminal region, and the sites for Mg2+ coordination and CO2 fixation were also located in this region. Gene expression profile indicated that UpRbcL was expressed at a higher level under light exposure than in darkness. When the culture temperature reached 35°C, the expression level of UpRbcL was 2.5-fold lower than at 15°C, and the carboxylase activity exhibited 13.8-fold decrease. UpRbcL was heterologously expressed in E. coli and was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The physiological and biochemical characterization of recombinant Rubisco will be explored in the future.

  4. Physical stability of R-(+)-Limonene emulsions stabilized by Ulva fasciata algae polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ping; Ma, Huiling; Qiu, Qiang; Jing, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    The physical stability of R-(+)-Limonene emulsions stabilized by Ulva fasciata polysaccharide (UFP) was investigated in this study. Emulsion physical stability was evaluated under different polysaccharide concentrations (1%-5%, wt/wt) and pH values (3.0-11.0). The stability of R-(+)-Limonene emulsions was demonstrated by droplet size distribution, rheological properties, zeta potential and visual phase separation. R-(+)-Limonene emulsions displayed monomodal droplet size distributions, high absolute values of zeta potential and good storage stability when 3% (wt/wt) UFP was used. The rheological properties and stability of R-(+)-Limonene emulsions appeared to be dependent on polysaccharide concentration. The emulsion stability was impacted by pH. Higher zeta potential (-52.6mV) and smaller mean droplet diameter (2.45μm) were achieved in neutral liquid environment (pH 7.0). Extreme acidity caused the flocculation of emulsions, which was manifested as phase separation, while emulsions were quite stable in an alkaline environment. Through comparing the stabilities of emulsions stabilized by different emulsifiers (i.e. UFP, GA and Gelatin), the result suggested that UFP was the best emulsifying agent among them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Guaiane sesquiterpenes from seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile and their antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Lipton, A P; Paulraj, R; Chakraborty, Rekha D

    2010-06-01

    Two new guaiane sesquiterpene derivatives, guai-2-en-10alpha-ol (1) and guai-2-en-10alpha-methanol (2), were chromatographically purified as major constituents of the CHCl3/CH3OH (1:1, v/v) soluble fraction of Ulva fasciata. Acetylation of 2 furnished guai-2-en-10alpha-methyl methanoate (3) with acetyl group at C11 position. The structures of the compounds were elucidated using one and two-dimensional NMR and mass spectrometric analysis. Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited significant inhibition to the growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 25 and 35 microg/mL, respectively. The electronegative C10 acetyl group with high polarisability (7.02x10(-24) cm3) in 3 appeared to withdraw electron cloud from substituted cycloheptyl ring and (R)-3-methylcyclohept-1-ene moiety, thus acting as the nucleophilic center of the molecule resulting in high bioactivity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Genomic structure and evolution of the mating type locus in the green seaweed Ulva partita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Ichihara, Kensuke; Suzuki, Ryogo; Oshima, Kenshiro; Miyamura, Shinichi; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sugano, Sumio; Hattori, Masahira; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2017-09-15

    The evolution of sex chromosomes and mating loci in organisms with UV systems of sex/mating type determination in haploid phases via genes on UV chromosomes is not well understood. We report the structure of the mating type (MT) locus and its evolutionary history in the green seaweed Ulva partita, which is a multicellular organism with an isomorphic haploid-diploid life cycle and mating type determination in the haploid phase. Comprehensive comparison of a total of 12.0 and 16.6 Gb of genomic next-generation sequencing data for mt - and mt + strains identified highly rearranged MT loci of 1.0 and 1.5 Mb in size and containing 46 and 67 genes, respectively, including 23 gametologs. Molecular evolutionary analyses suggested that the MT loci diverged over a prolonged period in the individual mating types after their establishment in an ancestor. A gene encoding an RWP-RK domain-containing protein was found in the mt - MT locus but was not an ortholog of the chlorophycean mating type determination gene MID. Taken together, our results suggest that the genomic structure and its evolutionary history in the U. partita MT locus are similar to those on other UV chromosomes and that the MT locus genes are quite different from those of Chlorophyceae.

  7. Rheology and characteristics of sulfated polysaccharides from chlorophytan seaweeds Ulva fasciata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ping; Qin, Minpu; Han, Longfei; Sun, Peilong

    2014-11-26

    The rheological characteristics of polysaccharides which were extracted and separated from Ulva fasciata (UFP) were investigated in aqueous solutions under conditions of concentration, temperature, solution pH and salt concentrations. It was described by the power-law model with a consistency index (k) and a flow behavior index (n). The rheology results showed UFP exhibited as a shear-thickening fluid and a possible mechanism was proposed to explain this phenomenon that might be the collapse of UFP necklace-type structures. UFP characteristics were evaluated by determining the chemical analysis and zeta potential. The findings indicated UFP may consist of partially ulvan, as the results were in accordance with the ulvan structure. Additionally, a rod-climbing effect and cold-set gelation were observed in the UFP semidilute solution. Therefore, the cold-set gelling properties and unique shear-thickening fluid properties in this work could be valuable for the exploration of U. fasciata as a new source of water-soluble gelling polysaccharides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of partial desulfation on antioxidant and inhibition of DLD cancer cell of Ulva fasciata polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ping; Pei, Yaping; Fang, Zhongxian; Sun, Peilong

    2014-04-01

    Ulva fasciata belonging to the family Ulvaceae, commonly known as 'sea lettuce', is an abundantly growing green seaweed in coastal seashore of South China. Three different molecular weight sulfated polysaccharides (UFP1, UFP2 and UFP3) were extracted and separated from U. fasciata by hot water extraction and ultrafiltration. The three native UFP fractions had partial desulfurization by solvolytic desulfation respectively and the effect of sulfate content on the exhibition of the antioxidant and anti-tumor capacities had been evaluated and compared. The results showed that each native polysaccharide (UFP1, UFP2, UFP3) with high sulfate content exhibited better antioxidant activities compared with the partial desulfated polysaccharides (DS-UFP1, DS-UFP2, DS-UFP3). Specifically, UFP2 with relatively high sulfate content, molecular weight and uronic acid content had consistently excellent antioxidant performances. However, UFP2 demonstrated the minimal inhibitory effects on growth of DLD intestinal cancer cells. Instead, DS-UFP3 with the lowest sulfate content but highest uronic acid content and molecular weight exhibited the best antitumor activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative studies of the pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Naihao; Li, Demao; Chen, Limei; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong

    2010-09-10

    Seaweed has attracted considerable attention as a potential biofuel feedstock. The pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa were studied and compared using heating rates of 10, 30 and 50°C min(-1) under an inert atmosphere. The activation energy, and pre-exponential factors were calculated by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Popescu methods. The kinetic mechanism was deduced by the Popescu method. The results indicate that there are three stages to the pyrolysis; dehydration, primary devolatilization and residual decomposition. There were significant differences in average activation energy, thermal stability, final residuals and reaction rates between the two materials. The primary devolatilization stage of U. pertusa can be described by the Avramic-Erofeev equation (n=3), whereas that of maize straw can be described by the Mampel Power Law (n=2). The average activation energy of maize straw and U. pertusa were 153.0 and 148.7 KJ mol(-1), respectively. The pyrolysis process of U.pertusa would be easier than maize straw. And co-firing of the two biomass may be require less external heat input and improve process stability. There were minor kinetic compensation effects between the pre-exponential factors and the activation energy.

  10. Metabolic regulatory oscillations in intertidal green seaweed Ulva lactuca against tidal cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Kushwaha, Hemant R

    2017-11-27

    The survival of wetland plant species largely relies on physiological adaptations essential for submergence and desiccation. Intertidal seaweeds, unlike terrestrial plants, have unique adaptations to submergence and can also sustain desiccation arising from tidal rhythms. This study determined the differential metabolic regulations in the inter-tidal seaweed species Ulva lactuca against the submergence and desiccation. During desiccation, the relative water content of the algal thalli declined with concomitant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless, the trends reversed during recovery on re-submergence and attained homeostasis. Metabolite profiling of U. lactuca revealed desiccation induced balance in energy reserve utilization by adjusting carbohydrate metabolism and switch over to ammonia metabolism. Upon re-submergence, thalli showed an increase in fermentative metabolites, pyruvate-alanine conversion, and the GABA shunt. Prolonged submergence induced substrate level phosphorylation mediated sugar biosynthesis while continuing the alternative carbon flux through fermentative metabolism, an increase in osmoprotectants glycine and betaine, sulfur bearing compounds cysteine and hypotaurine, and phenolic compound coniferaldehyde. The determined metabolic regulations in U. lactuca for submergence tolerance provide insights into potential evolutionarily conserved protective mechanisms across the green lineage and also highlights the possible role of sulfur oxoforms as strong free radical scavengers.

  11. Structure and cytotoxic activity of ulvan extracted from green seaweed Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Thi Thu Thuy; Quach, Thi Minh Thu; Nguyen, Thi Nu; Vu Luong, Dang; Bui, Minh Ly; Tran, Thi Thanh Van

    2016-12-01

    The structure of an ulvan obtained by water extraction from green seaweed Ulva lactuca was elucidated by using IR, NMR, SEC-MALL and ESIMS methods. The ulvan was also evaluated for its cytotoxic effects on three human cancer cell lines. The results showed that the ulvan was composed of rhamnose, galactose, xylose, manose, glucose (with a mole ratio of Rha: Gal: Xyl: Man: Glu equal to 1: 0.03: 0.07: 0.01: 0.06), uronic acid (21.5%) and sulfate content (18.9%) with a molecular weight of 347000. This ulvan mainly consists of disaccharide [→4)-β-d-GlcA-(1→4)-α-l-Rha3S-(1→] and other minor disaccharide β-GlcA-(1→2)-α-Xyl and β-GlcA-(→2)-α-Rha. The ulvan showed a significant cytotoxic activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (IC 50 29.67±2.87μg/ml), human breast cancer (IC 50 25.09±1.36μg/ml), and cervical cancer (IC 50 36.33±3.84μg/ml). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of Nutritional Composition of The Dried Seaweed Ulva lactuca from Pameungpeuk Waters, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasyid, Abdullah

    2017-07-01

    The nutritional composition of the dried seaweed Ulva lactuca from Pameungpeuk waters, including proximate, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and heavy metal has been carried out. The objective of this present study is to know the nutritional composition of the dried seaweed U. lactuca for utilisation in human nutrition in the future. Results show that carbohydrate was the major component in the proximate analysis of U. lactuca in the present study. The carbohydrate content was 58.1%. Moisture, ash, protein and fat content were 16.9%, 11.2%, 13.6% and 0.19% respectively, while dietary fibre was 28.4%. The vitamin A content was examined in this study less than 0.5 IU/100 mg while vitamin B1 (thiamine) and vitamin B2 (riboflavin) were 4.87 mg/kg and 0.86 mg/kg respectively. The calcium content was 1828 mg/100 g higher than other minerals. The heavy metal content examined in this study were lower than the limit of the quality criteria applied to edible seaweeds sold in Indonesia. Based on the results of this study show that U. lactuca has potential to be developed as an alternative source of a healthy food for human in the future.

  13. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2011-05-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  14. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF BENTHIC MARINE ALGAE EXTRACTS FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN COAST OF MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaâ Zbakh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. The Moroccan marine biodiversity including macroalgae remains partially unexplored in term of their potential bioactivities. Antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts from 20 species of macroalgae (9 Chlorophyta, 3 Phaeophyta and 8 Rhodophyta collected from Moroccan Mediterranean coasts was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The extracts of the studied Rhodophyceae inhibited considerably the growth of the three tested bacterial strains and gave inhibition zones between 20 and 24 mm. The results indicate that these species of seaweed present a significant capacity of antibacterial activities, which makes them interesting for screening for natural products.

  15. Optimum Fermentation Process for Red Macroalgae Gelidium latifolium and Gracillaria verrucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujizat Kawaroe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Red macroalgae have the potential to be processed into bioethanol due to their high carbohydrate and low lignin content. Gelidium latifolium and Gracilaria verrucosa are red macroalgae commonly found in Indonesian seas. Sometimes an over-supply of red macroalgae is rejected by the food industry, which opens up opportunities for others uses, e.g. for producing bioethanol. The objectives of this research were to analyze the influence of sulfuric acid concentration on hydrolysis of G. latifolium and G. verrucosa and to calculate the optimum fermentation process to produce bioethanol. G. latifolium and G. verrucosa were hydrolyzed using H2SO4 at concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%, at a temperature of 121 °C and a pressure of 1.5 bar for 45 minutes. The process of fermentation was done using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in anaerobic conditions for 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. The results show that the optimum H2SO4 concentrations to hydrolyze G. latifolium and G. verrucosa were 1% and 2% respectively. The number of S. cerevisiae cells in hydrolysate G. latifolium and G. verrucosa increased in the third adaptation. S. cerevisiae can convert sugar from G. latifolium and G. verrucosa into bioethanol through fermentation. The highest bioethanol yields were achieved on days five and six. Therefore, red macroalgae can be seen as a potential raw material for bioethanol production.

  16. Distribution of vascular plants and macroalgae along salinity and elevation gradients in Oregon tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sea level rise due to global climate change may affect the spatial distribution of plants and macroalgae within tidal estuaries. We present preliminary results from on-going research in Oregon to determine how these potential abiotic drives correlate with the presence or absence...

  17. Contribution of residual proteins to the thermomechanical performance of cellulosic nanofibrils isolated from green macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaqi Guo; Khan Mohammad Ahsan Uddin; Karl Mihhels; Wenwen Fang; Päivi Laaksonen; J. Y. Zhu; Orlando J. Rojas

    2017-01-01

    Cellulosic nanofibrils (CNFs) were isolated from one of the most widespread freshwater macroalgae, Aegagropila linnaei. The algae were first carboxylated with a recyclable dicarboxylic acid, which facilitated deconstruction into CNFs via microfluidization while preserving the protein component. For comparison, cellulosic fibrils were also isolated by chemical treatment...

  18. Reduced cover of drifting macroalgae following nutrient reduction in Danish coastald waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jonas Ribergaard; Dromph, Karsten Mikael; Göke, Cordula

    2015-01-01

    conditions and environmental characteristics. The cover of drifting algae was positively related to total nitrogen concentration and Secchi depth but negatively related to exposure, salinity and mean summer temperature. The cover of drifting macroalgae showed significant declines over the past two decades...

  19. Natural capacity of radioactivity fixing by marine components in the Romanian sector of the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrascu, V.

    1992-01-01

    The natural capacity of radioactivity fixing by marine components is determined from a qualitative viewpoint by using concentration factors. Estimates are made for 271 samples of sediment macro-algae, molluscs and fish, collected from the Danube Mouths - Mangalia area, during 1983 - 1991. Natural and artificial radionuclides are studied (K-40, Ac-228, Ra-226, Co-60, Ag-110 m, Ru-106, Cs-135, and Cs-137). (Author)

  20. Spatial distribution of macroalgae along the shores of Kongsfjorden (West Spitsbergen using acoustic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruss Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification of macroalgal beds is a crucial component for the description of fjord ecosystems. Direct, biological sampling is still the most popular investigation technique but acoustic methods are becoming increasingly recognized as a very efficient tool for the assessment of benthic communities. In 2007 we carried out the first acoustic survey of the littoral areas in Kongsfjorden. A 2.68 km2 area comprised within a 12.40 km2 euphotic zone was mapped along the fjord’s coast using single- and multi-beam echosounders. The singlebeam echosounder (SBES proved to be a very efficient and reliable tool for macroalgae detection in Arctic conditions. The multibeam echosounder (MBES was very useful in extending the SBES survey range, even though it’s ability in discriminating benthic communities was limited. The final result of our investigation is a map of the macroalgae distribution around the fjord, showing 39% macroalgae coverage (1.09 km2 of investigated area between isobaths -0.70 m and -30 m. Zonation analysis showed that most of the studied macroalgae areas occur up to 15 m depth (93%. These results were confirmed by biological sampling and observation in key areas. The potential of acoustic imaging of macrophytes, and a proposed methodology for the processing of acoustic data, are presented in this paper along with preliminary studies on the acoustic reflectivity of macroalgae, also highlighting differences among species. These results can be applied to future monitoring of the evolution of kelp beds in different areas of the Arctic, and in the rest of the world.

  1. Culture and hybridization experiments on an ulva clade including the Qingdao strain blooming in the yellow sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Hiraoka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of 2008, immediately prior to the Beijing Olympics, a massive green tide of the genus Ulva covered the Qingdao coast of the Yellow Sea in China. Based on molecular analyses using the nuclear encoded rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS region, the Qingdao strains dominating the green tide were reported to be included in a single phylogenetic clade, currently regarded as a single species. On the other hand, our detailed phylogenetic analyses of the clade, using a higher resolution DNA marker, suggested that two genetically separate entities could be included within the clade. However, speciation within the Ulva clade has not yet been examined. We examined the occurrence of an intricate speciation within the clade, including the Qingdao strains, via combined studies of culture, hybridization and phylogenetic analysis. The two entities separated by our phylogenetic analyses of the clade were simply distinguished as U. linza and U. prolifera morphologically by the absence or presence of branches in cultured thalli. The inclusion of sexual strains and several asexual strains were found in each taxon. Hybridizations among the sexual strains also supported the separation by a partial gamete incompatibility. The sexually reproducing Qingdao strains crossed with U. prolifera without any reproductive boundary, but a complete reproductive isolation to U. linza occurred by gamete incompatibility. The results demonstrate that the U. prolifera group includes two types of sexual strains distinguishable by crossing affinity to U. linza. Species identification within the Ulva clade requires high resolution DNA markers and/or hybridization experiments and is not possible by reliance on the ITS markers alone.

  2. Culture and Hybridization Experiments on an Ulva Clade Including the Qingdao Strain Blooming in the Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Masanori; Ichihara, Kensuke; Zhu, Wenrong; Ma, Jiahai; Shimada, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    In the summer of 2008, immediately prior to the Beijing Olympics, a massive green tide of the genus Ulva covered the Qingdao coast of the Yellow Sea in China. Based on molecular analyses using the nuclear encoded rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the Qingdao strains dominating the green tide were reported to be included in a single phylogenetic clade, currently regarded as a single species. On the other hand, our detailed phylogenetic analyses of the clade, using a higher resolution DNA marker, suggested that two genetically separate entities could be included within the clade. However, speciation within the Ulva clade has not yet been examined. We examined the occurrence of an intricate speciation within the clade, including the Qingdao strains, via combined studies of culture, hybridization and phylogenetic analysis. The two entities separated by our phylogenetic analyses of the clade were simply distinguished as U. linza and U. prolifera morphologically by the absence or presence of branches in cultured thalli. The inclusion of sexual strains and several asexual strains were found in each taxon. Hybridizations among the sexual strains also supported the separation by a partial gamete incompatibility. The sexually reproducing Qingdao strains crossed with U. prolifera without any reproductive boundary, but a complete reproductive isolation to U. linza occurred by gamete incompatibility. The results demonstrate that the U. prolifera group includes two types of sexual strains distinguishable by crossing affinity to U. linza. Species identification within the Ulva clade requires high resolution DNA markers and/or hybridization experiments and is not possible by reliance on the ITS markers alone. PMID:21573216

  3. Effect of dietary seaweed (Ulva lactuca) supplementation on growth performance of sheep and on in vitro gas production kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    EL-WAZIRY, Ahmed; AL-HAIDARY, Ahmed; OKAB, Aly; SAMARA, Emad; ABDOUN, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of dietary seaweed (Ulva lactuca) supplementation on growth performance of sheep, in vitro gas production, estimated energy, and microbial protein synthesis. A total of 18 Naimey male sheep with average live weight of 22.78 ± 0.24 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups. Sheep in group 1 were fed a diet containing commercial feed without seaweed as a control diet, sheep in group 2 were fed the control diet with 3% seaweed, and sheep in group 3...

  4. Analysis of Environmental Physical-Chemical Factors and Macroalga Species In The Coastal Water of Nusalaut, Central Maluku - Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Melsasail

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical-chemical factors of environment are very influential on the presence and the growth of macrolaga in waters. Well-maintained water habitat is a good environment for the growth of macroalgae. A research has been conducted on the physicochemical environmental factors and the macroalgae species in the coastal waters of Nusalaut Island using transect method, and it was a survey research on four different observation stations. The results of the research showed that station I (Amet Village has the best physicochemical factors for the presence and the growth of macroalgae, compared to station II (Nalahia Village, station III (Sila Village and station IV (Leinitu Village. The most widely found macro algae are from the Rhodophyta class, with a total of 17 species of macroalgae, of which 15 species are found in station I.

  5. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFU. Carvalho

    Full Text Available This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF. Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis and interesting physico-chemical properties: water retention capacity of 8.74 g/water.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal and 0.90 (seaweed carbohydrate extract, lipid adsorption capacity of 4.52 g/oil.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal and 5.70 (seaweed carbohydrate extract, intrinsic viscosity of 2.4 dl.g-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract and cation exchange capacity of 3.51 Eq.kg-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract. The diet containing seaweed meal was able to keep rats' total cholesterol (TC down without causing any undesirable increase in LDL-C fraction. No evidence of toxic and/or antinutritional components in the seaweed meal was detected. Rats showed a fecal volume much greater (13 g than that fed on cellulose diet ( 7 g (p < 0.05. These properties confer on the seaweed the potential to be used in food technology for the acquisition of low-calorie food and might be important in body weight control, reduction of blood TC and LDL-C as well as in prevention of gastrointestinal diseases.

  6. Cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles containing a polysaccharide from Ulva fasciata with potent antihyperlipidaemic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza A. Matloub

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study involves the preparation of cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles (cubsomes for liver targeting to assess the potential of a formulated bioactive polysaccharide isolated from the hot aqueous extract of Ulva fasciata as an alternative natural agent with anti-hyperlipidaemic activity. Cubosomal nanoparticles were prepared by disrupting the cubic gel phase of the polysaccharide and water in the presence of a surfactant. Different lipid matrices and stabilizers were tested. All the formulations were in the nanosize range and showed sufficient negative charge to inhibit the aggregation of the cubosomes. Drug entrapment efficiencies (EEs% were determined and in vitro release studies were performed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and differential scanning calorimetry were used to analyze the loaded cubosomal nanoparticles containing glyceryl monostearate (GMO 2.25 g, poloxamer 407 (0.25 g and 50 mg of the polysaccharide. A preclinical study comparing the cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles containing polysaccharide to fluvastatin as a reference drug in hyperlipidaemic rats was conducted. The rats treated with the polysaccharide- loaded cubosomes showed significant decreases in total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG and total lipid (TL compared to the untreated HL rats. In addition, oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers were measured in the HL rats. Compared to the untreated HL rats, the cubosome treated rats showed a significant reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA, whereas insignificant changes were detected in nitric oxide (NO, glutathione (GSH levels and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. Further, vascular and intercellular adhesion molecules (VCAM, ICAM, and myeloperoxidase were demonstrated. A histopathological examination was conducted to study the alterations in histopathological lesions and to document the biochemical results. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the superiority of using a natural lipid

  7. Immunomodulating activities of acidic sulphated polysaccharides obtained from the seaweed Ulva rigida C. Agardh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiro, José M; Castro, Rosario; Arranz, Jon A; Lamas, Jesús

    2007-07-01

    Water-soluble acidic polysaccharides from the cell walls of Ulva rigida are mainly composed of disaccharides that contain glucuronic acid and sulphated rhamnose. The structure of disaccharides resembles that of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) as they both contain glucuronic acid and sulphated sugars. Glycosaminoglycans occur in the extracellular matrix of animal connective tissues but can also be produced by leucocytes at inflammatory sites. Certain types of GAGs can even activate macrophages and therefore the acidic polysaccharides from U. rigida probably modulate macrophage activity. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of U. rigida polysaccharides on several RAW264.7 murine macrophage activities, including expression of inflammatory cytokines and receptors, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) production, and nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS-2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression. U. rigida acidic polysaccharides induced a more than two-fold increase in the expression of several chemokines (chemokine (C motif) ligand 1, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 14 (Cxcl14)) and in the expression of IL6 signal transducer and IL12 receptor beta 1. Incubation of macrophages with U. rigida polysaccharides also induced an increase in nitrite production, although this effect decreased considerably after desulphation of polysaccharides, suggesting that the sulphate group is important for the stimulatory capacity of these molecules. U. rigida polysaccharides also stimulated macrophage secretion of PGE(2) and induced an increase in COX-2 and NOS-2 expression. The results indicate that U. rigida acid polysaccharide can be used as an experimental immunostimulant for analysing inflammatory responses related to macrophage functions. In addition, these polysaccharides may also be of clinical interest for modifying certain macrophage activities in diseases where macrophage function is impaired or needs

  8. Biorefinery of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca to produce animal feed, chemicals and biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikker, Paul; van Krimpen, Marinus M; van Wikselaar, Piet; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Scaccia, Nazareno; van Hal, Jaap W; Huijgen, Wouter J J; Cone, John W; López-Contreras, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    The growing world population demands an increase in animal protein production. Seaweed may be a valuable source of protein for animal feed. However, a biorefinery approach aimed at cascading valorisation of both protein and non-protein seaweed constituents is required to realise an economically feasible value chain. In this study, such a biorefinery approach is presented for the green seaweed Ulva lactuca containing 225 g protein ( N  × 4.6) kg -1 dry matter (DM). The sugars in the biomass were solubilised by hot water treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and centrifugation resulting in a sugar-rich hydrolysate (38.8 g L -1 sugars) containing glucose, rhamnose and xylose, and a protein-enriched (343 g kg -1 in DM) extracted fraction. This extracted fraction was characterised for use in animal feed, as compared to U. lactuca biomass. Based on the content of essential amino acids and the in vitro N (85 %) and organic matter (90 %) digestibility, the extracted fraction seems a promising protein source in diets for monogastric animals with improved characteristics as compared to the intact U. lactuca . The gas production test indicated a moderate rumen fermentation of U. lactuca and the extracted fraction, about similar to that of alfalfa. Reduction of the high content of minerals and trace elements may be required to allow a high inclusion level of U. lactuca products in animal diets. The hydrolysate was used successfully for the production of acetone, butanol, ethanol and 1,2-propanediol by clostridial fermentation, and the rhamnose fermentation pattern was studied.

  9. Isolation, structure, and surfactant properties of polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca L. from South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Yin, Xueqiong; Zeng, Qinghuan; Zhu, Li; Chen, Junhua

    2015-08-01

    Two polysaccharides (ULP1 and ULP2) were isolated through ultrasonic-assisted extraction from green seaweed Ulva lactuca L. which was collected from the South China Sea. The highest yield of 17.57% was obtained under the conditions of 2% NaOH, 90 °C, material/water mass ratio 1:80, liquid extraction 5h and subsequent ultrasound-assisted extraction 1h. The structure of ULPs were characterized with periodate oxidation followed by Smith degradation, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR spectroscopy, FTIR, and GPC. The molecular weights of ULP1 and ULP2 were 189 kDa and 230 kDa, respectively. The structural characteristics of ULP1 and ULP2 were quite similar. They were composed of rhamnose, xylose, glucose, and glucuronic acid. The content of rhamnose, xylose, glucose, glucuronic acid, sulfate was 51.2%, 12.3%, 20.1%, 16.4%, 12.0% for ULP1, respectively, and 60.8%, 14.2%, 8.2%, 16.8%, 26.8%, respectively, for ULP2. Both ULP1 and ULP2 showed good surface activity. 5 mg/mL ULP1 (2.62×10(-2) mmol/L) decreased the water surface tension to 51.63 mN/m. The critical micellar concentration of ULP1 and ULP2 was 1.01 mg/mL (5.3×10(-3) mmol/L) and 1.14 mg/mL (5.0×10(-3) mmol/L), respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of macroalgae, with emphasis on Sargassum spp., on coral reef recruitment processes in Martinique (French West Indies)

    OpenAIRE

    Thabard, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Many coral reef ecosystems have undergone profound ecological changes over the past decades leading sometimes to a shift from coral to macroalgal-dominated areas. In Martinique (Caribbean region), the proliferation of macroalgae is an important phenomenon. Coral reef resilience, involving reef building species recruitment, might be modified by macroalgal presence. This work aimed at understanding reef recruitment processes in areas dominated either by macroalgae, coral or intermediate, based ...

  11. KAROTENOID DARI MAKROALGAE DAN MIKROALGAE: POTENSI KESEHATAN APLIKASI DAN BIOTEKNOLOGI [Carotenoids from Macroalgae and Microalgae: Health Potential, Application and Biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Leenawaty Limantara3); Budhi Prasetyo1); AB. Susanto2); Helly de Fretes1)*

    2012-01-01

    Algae, both micro and macroalgae, is one of the largest producers of carotenoids. The major composition of carotenoid on algae are β-carotene, astaxanthin, luthein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and fucoxanthin which have important roles for human health. Carotenoids were produced by several microalgae species such as Dunaliella sallina, Haemotococcus pluvialis, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Spirulina platensis, Nannnochloropsis oculata, and also from some macroalgae species such as Kappaphycus alvarez...

  12. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in various macroalgal species from north Atlantic and tropical seas

    OpenAIRE

    van Ginneken, Vincent JT; Helsper, Johannes PFG; de Visser, Willem; van Keulen, Herman; Brandenburg, Willem A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In this study the efficacy of using marine macroalgae as a source for polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with the prevention of inflammation, cardiovascular diseases and mental disorders, was investigated. Methods The fatty acid (FA) composition in lipids from seven sea weed species from the North Sea (Ulva lactuca, Chondrus crispus, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus serratus, Undaria pinnatifida, Palmaria palmata, Ascophyllum nodosum) and two from tropical seas (...

  13. Comparison of marine macrophytes for their contributions to blue carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevathan-Tackett, Stacey M; Kelleway, Jeffrey; Macreadie, Peter I; Beardall, John; Ralph, Peter; Bellgrove, Alecia

    2015-11-01

    Many marine ecosystems have the capacity for long-term storage of organic carbon (C) in what are termed "blue carbon" systems. While blue carbon systems (saltmarsh, mangrove, and seagrass) are efficient at long-term sequestration of organic carbon (C), much of their sequestered C may originate from other (allochthonous) habitats. Macroalgae, due to their high rates of production, fragmentation, and ability to be transported, would also appear to be able to make a significant contribution as C donors to blue C habitats. In order to assess the stability of macroalgal tissues and their likely contribution to long-term pools of C, we applied thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to 14 taxa of marine macroalgae and coastal vascular plants. We assessed the structural complexity of multiple lineages of plant and tissue types with differing cell wall structures and found that decomposition dynamics varied significantly according to differences in cell wall structure and composition among taxonomic groups and tissue function (photosynthetic vs. attachment). Vascular plant tissues generally exhibited greater stability with a greater proportion of mass loss at temperatures > 300 degrees C (peak mass loss -320 degrees C) than macroalgae (peak mass loss between 175-300 degrees C), consistent with the lignocellulose matrix of vascular plants. Greater variation in thermogravimetric signatures within and among macroalgal taxa, relative to vascular plants, was also consistent with the diversity of cell wall structure and composition among groups. Significant degradation above 600 degrees C for some macroalgae, as well as some belowground seagrass tissues, is likely due to the presence of taxon-specific compounds. The results of this study highlight the importance of the lignocellulose matrix to the stability of vascular plant sources and the potentially significant role of refractory, taxon-specific compounds (carbonates, long-chain lipids, alginates, xylans, and sulfated

  14. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Ulva fasciata (Green Seaweed Extract and Evaluation of Its Cytoprotective and Antigenotoxic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idania Rodeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and biological properties of Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract were examined. Five components were identified in one fraction prepared from the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and palmitic acid and its ethyl ester accounted for 76% of the total identified components. Furthermore, we assessed the extract’s antioxidant properties by using the DPPH, ABTS, and lipid peroxidation assays and found that the extract had a moderate scavenging effect. In an experiment involving preexposition and coexposition of the extract (1–500 µg/mL and benzo[a]pyrene (BP, the extract was found to be nontoxic to C9 cells in culture and to inhibit the cytotoxicity induced by BP. As BP is biotransformed by CYP1A and CYP2B subfamilies, we explored the possible interaction of the extract with these enzymes. The extract (25–50 µg/mL inhibited CYP1A1 activity in rat liver microsomes. Analysis of the inhibition kinetics revealed a mixed-type inhibitory effect on CYP1A1 supersome. The effects of the extract on BP-induced DNA damage and hepatic CYP activity in mice were also investigated. Micronuclei induction by BP and liver CYP1A1/2 activities significantly decreased in animals treated with the extract. The results suggest that Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract inhibits BP bioactivation and it may be a potential chemopreventive agent.

  15. Levels of essential and toxic elements in Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. from San Jorge Gulf, Patagonia Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Adriana Angela; Farias, Silvia Sara; Strobl, Analia Mabel; Perez, Laura Beatriz; Lopez, Clara Magdalena; Pineiro, Adriana; Roses, Otmaro; Fajardo, Maria Angelica

    2007-01-01

    Baseline concentration levels of As, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Se, V, and Zn were determined for Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. collected from three locations along San Jorge Gulf, in Patagonia Argentina. Elements were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, with the exception of lead and cadmium in some samples which were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Three stations with different exposure degree to human activities, Bahia Solano, the mouth of Arroyo La Mata stream and Punta Maqueda, were selected as sampling points. The results showed a wide range of metal retention capacity between the two studied species. Regarding the levels of pollutants found in the researched sites, Punta Maqueda seemed to be less influenced by anthropogenic activities than the other two sites except for Cd. Taking into account their toxicities seasonal variations in Pb and Cd levels were studied in both algae in Punta Maqueda. Maximum concentrations of Cd (9.8 μg g -1 dry wt.) were observed in P. columbina during winter, and maximum levels of Pb (0.82 μg g -1 dry wt.) were detected in Ulva sp. during summer. Legislative and health safety aspects were evaluated for Cd and Pb

  16. The appearance of Ulva laetevirens (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) in the northeast coast of the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yunxiang; Kim, Jang Kyun; Wilson, Roderick; Yarish, Charles

    2014-10-01

    Introduced species may outcompete or hybridize with native species, resulting in the loss of native biodiversity or even alteration of ecosystem processes. In this study, we reported an alien distromatic Ulva species, which was found in an embayment (Holly Pond) connected with Long Island Sound, USA. The morphological and anatomical observations in combination with molecular data were used for its identification to species. Anatomy of collected specimens showed that the cell shape in rhizoidal and basal regions was round and the marginal teeth along the basal and median region were not found. These characteristics were primarily identical to the diagnostic characteristics of Ulva laetevirens Areschoug (Chlorophyta). The plastid-encoding tufA and nucleusencoding ITS1 were used for its molecular identification. Phylogenetic analysis for the tufA gene placed the specimens from Holly Pond in a well-supported clade along with published sequences of U. laetevirens identified early without any sequence divergence. In ITS tree, the sample also formed well-supported clades with the sequences of U. laetevirens with an estimated sequence divergence among the taxa in these clades as low as 1%. These findings confirmed the morpho-anatomical conclusion. Native to Australia, this species was reported in several countries along the Mediterranean coast after the late of 1990s. This is the first time that U. laetevirens is found in the northeast coast of United States and the second record for Atlantic North America.

  17. Levels of essential and toxic elements in Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. from San Jorge Gulf, Patagonia Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Adriana Angela [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina); Farias, Silvia Sara [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Gerencia de Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Strobl, Analia Mabel [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina); Perez, Laura Beatriz [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina); Lopez, Clara Magdalena [Catedra de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pineiro, Adriana [Catedra de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Roses, Otmaro [Catedra de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fajardo, Maria Angelica [Catedras de Toxicologia y Quimica Legal, Biologia y Bromatologia y Nutricion, Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, Chubut (Argentina)]. E-mail: copipat@sinectis.com.ar

    2007-04-15

    Baseline concentration levels of As, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Se, V, and Zn were determined for Porphyra columbina and Ulva sp. collected from three locations along San Jorge Gulf, in Patagonia Argentina. Elements were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, with the exception of lead and cadmium in some samples which were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Three stations with different exposure degree to human activities, Bahia Solano, the mouth of Arroyo La Mata stream and Punta Maqueda, were selected as sampling points. The results showed a wide range of metal retention capacity between the two studied species. Regarding the levels of pollutants found in the researched sites, Punta Maqueda seemed to be less influenced by anthropogenic activities than the other two sites except for Cd. Taking into account their toxicities seasonal variations in Pb and Cd levels were studied in both algae in Punta Maqueda. Maximum concentrations of Cd (9.8 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry wt.) were observed in P. columbina during winter, and maximum levels of Pb (0.82 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry wt.) were detected in Ulva sp. during summer. Legislative and health safety aspects were evaluated for Cd and Pb.

  18. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Ulva fasciata (Green Seaweed) Extract and Evaluation of Its Cytoprotective and Antigenotoxic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeiro, Idania; Olguín, Sitlali; Santes, Rebeca; Herrera, José A; Pérez, Carlos L; Mangas, Raisa; Hernández, Yasnay; Fernández, Gisselle; Hernández, Ivones; Hernández-Ojeda, Sandra; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael; Valencia-Olvera, Ana; Espinosa-Aguirre, Jesús Javier

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological properties of Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract were examined. Five components were identified in one fraction prepared from the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and palmitic acid and its ethyl ester accounted for 76% of the total identified components. Furthermore, we assessed the extract's antioxidant properties by using the DPPH, ABTS, and lipid peroxidation assays and found that the extract had a moderate scavenging effect. In an experiment involving preexposition and coexposition of the extract (1-500 µg/mL) and benzo[a]pyrene (BP), the extract was found to be nontoxic to C9 cells in culture and to inhibit the cytotoxicity induced by BP. As BP is biotransformed by CYP1A and CYP2B subfamilies, we explored the possible interaction of the extract with these enzymes. The extract (25-50 µg/mL) inhibited CYP1A1 activity in rat liver microsomes. Analysis of the inhibition kinetics revealed a mixed-type inhibitory effect on CYP1A1 supersome. The effects of the extract on BP-induced DNA damage and hepatic CYP activity in mice were also investigated. Micronuclei induction by BP and liver CYP1A1/2 activities significantly decreased in animals treated with the extract. The results suggest that Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract inhibits BP bioactivation and it may be a potential chemopreventive agent.

  19. Nutritional profile of edible red marine seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Guedes Costa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine biodiversity represents an exceptional source of natural resources. Their use in a sustainable way may ensure alternative food sources for human consumption, which scarcity is anticipated. Macroalgae, also known as seaweed, are an outstanding example of this biodiversity and are considered an excellent source of a wide number of chemical compounds with beneficial health effects [1]. According to their pigmentation, they can be distinguished in green (Chlorophytaea, brown (Phaeophytaea and red (Rhodophytaea, showing differences in nutritional and chemical compositions [1]. Some macroalgae are widely used as food ingredients in oriental countries as a good source of fiber and protein. Alternatively, they are also considered a source of nutraceuticals, providing health benefits such as anti-inflamatory, anti-allergic, antimutagenic, antitumor, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antihyperthensive and neuroprotective properties [2]. Indeed, macroalgae are a very attractive material for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. According to some studies red seaweeds seem to be the most suitable source of proteins for human nutrition [3]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile of the most consumed species of red seaweed that are commercially available in the market. Red species as Palmaria palmata (Dulse, Porphyra tenera (Nori and Eisenia bicyclis (Arame, were analyzed. Moisture determination was performed using a Scaltec SMO01 moisture analyzer. The ashes were obtained by incineration at 500ºC. The protein content was determined using the Kjeldahl procedure and total fat was measured through Soxhlet method. The carbohydrates were calculated indirectly by difference. In addition, chlorides were volumetrically determined and vitamin E profile was analysed by HPLC/DAD/FLD. The algae samples are commercialized dry, so the moisture content was very low, around 10%. The ash content was around 10-17%. Protein levels ranged from

  20. Effects of different drying conditions on the rehydration ratio and water holding capacity properties in three different species of algae Ulva lactuca, Codium vermilara and Codium tomentosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marques Nunes

    2014-06-01

    In this work, it was concluded that higher drying temperature conditions originate lower rehydration ratio and consequent lower water holding capacity possibly due to a higher physical damage in the algae tissues. It was also observed that both Codium species have higher values for these two parameters than Ulva lactuca, under the same rehydration conditions.

  1. Efecto de la macroalga Caulerpa sertularioides en el desarrollo del camarón Penaeus californiensis (Decapoda: Peneidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Porchas Cornejo

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de la macroalga Caulerpa sertularioides sobre el crecimiento, sobrevivencia y producción en cautiverio del camarón café Penaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900 a temperaturas invernales (14 a 21°C se estudió en La Paz, B.C.S., México. Se utilizaron nueve unidades experimentales (Tres por el tratamiento consistiendo en tanques plásticos de150 l de capacidad. El crecimiento del camarón con la presencia directa de la macroalga fue de 3.98 ± 0.4 g después de 10 semanas de cultivo, la sobrevivencia fue del 100 % y el rendimiento de 36.24 ± 4.3 g. Estos resultados fueron significativamente más altos que los obtenidos en presencia indirecta, y en ausencia de la macroalga, los cuales no presentaron diferencias significativas entre sí. El crecimiento, sobrevivencia y producción en la presencia indirecta de la macroalga fueron de 0.73 ± 0.4 g, 75± 10% and 7.8 + 1.2 g respectivamente. En ausencia de la macroalga, se obtuvieron valores de 0.46 ± 0.4 g, 68.7 ± 12% y 5.6 ±1.1 g. La presencia directa de la macroalga tiene un efecto positivo y significativo en el desarrollo del camarón café en cautiverio.The effect of the macroalga Caulerpa sertularioides on the growth, survival and yield of captive yellowleg shrimp Penaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900 at winter temperatures (14 to 21°C was studied at La Paz, B.C.S., México. Nine experimental units (three per treatment consisting in 150 l-fiberglass tanks were used. Shrimp growth with macroalgal presence was 3.98 ± 0.4 g after 10 weeks, survival was 100% and yield 36.24 ± 4.3 g. These results were better than those obtained with indirect presence, and absence of the macroalga, which were not different among themselves. Under indirect macroalgal presence growth, survival and yield were 0.73 ± 0.4 g, 75± 10% and 7.8 ± 1.2 g. Without macroalgae, corresponding values were 0.46 ± 0.4 g, 68.7 ± 12% and 5.6 ±1.1 g. Significant differences were found between "absence" and "indirect

  2. Diversidad de macroalgas asociada con un manto de rodolitos tropical de Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Amado-Filho, GM; Maneveldt, GW; Pereira-Filho, GH; Manso, RCC; Bahia, RG.; Barros-Barreto, MB; Guimarães, SMPB

    2010-01-01

    Se describen las poblaciones de las macroalgas submareales predominantemente tropicales que crecen sobre rodolitos entre 4 y 18 m de profundidad en la parte sur del estado de Espirito Santo (Brasil). Muestreos cualitativos y cuantitativos revelaron comunidades ricas en especies de algas, incluyendo 167 especies. Tres especies de rodofitas son nuevas adiciones a la flora marina de Brasil (Lithothamnion muelleri, Scinaia aborealis y Mesophyllum engelhartii). Las marcadas diferencias estacionale...

  3. Macroalgae for CO2 Capture and Renewable Energy - A Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, Kristine [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2011-01-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate, at a pilot scale, the beneficial use of carbon dioxide (CO2) through a technology designed to capture CO2 from fossil-fuel fired power plant stack gas, generating macroalgae and converting the macroalgae at high efficiency to renewable methane that can be utilized in the power plant or introduced into a natural gas pipeline. The proposed pilot plant would demonstrate the cost-effectiveness and CO2/ NOx flue-gas removal efficiency of an innovative algal scrubber technology where seaweeds are grown out of water on specially-designed supporting structures contained within greenhouses where the plants are constantly bathed by recycled nutrient sprays enriched by flue gas constituents. The work described in this document addresses Phase 1 of the project only. The scope of work for Phase 1 includes the completion of a preliminary design package; the collection of additional experimental data to support the preliminary and detailed design for a pilot scale utilization of CO2 to cultivate macroalage and to process that algae to produce methane; and a technological and economic analysis to evaluate the potential of the system. Selection criteria for macroalgae that could survive the elevated temperatures and potential periodic desiccation of near desert project sites were identified. Samples of the selected macroalgae species were obtained and then subjected to anaerobic digestion to determine conversions and potential methane yields. A Process Design Package (PDP) was assembled that included process design, process flow diagram, material balance, instrumentation, and equipment list, sizes, and cost for the Phase 2 pilot plant. Preliminary economic assessments were performed under the various assumptions made, which are purposely conservative. Based on the results, additional development work should be conducted to delineate the areas for improving efficiency, reducing

  4. A vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase in the marine red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty displays clear substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenarska, Zornitsa; Taniguchi, Tomokazu; Ohsawa, Noboru; Hiraoka, Masanori; Itoh, Nobuya

    2007-05-01

    Bromoperoxidase activity was initially detected in marine macroalgae belonging to the Solieriaceae family (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta), including Solieria robusta (Greville) Kylin, Eucheuma serra J. Agardh and Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty, which are important industrial sources of the polysaccharide carrageenan. Notably, the purification of bromoperoxidase was difficult because due to the coexistence of viscoid polysaccharides. The activity of the partially purified enzyme was dependent on the vanadate ion, and displayed a distinct substrate spectrum from that of previously reported vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidases of marine macroalgae. The enzyme was specific for Br- and I- ions and inactive toward F- and Cl-. The K(m) values for Br- and H2O2 were 2.5x10(-3) M and 8.5x10(-5) M, respectively. The halogenated product, dibromoacetaldehyde, that accumulated in K. alvarezii was additionally determined.

  5. Cancer Preventive Efficacy of Marine Carotenoid Fucoxanthin: Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamaraiselvan Rengarajan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological investigations have shown that overcoming the risk of cancer is related to the consumption of green vegetables and fruits. Many compounds from different origins, such as terrestrial plants and marine and microbial sources, have been reported to have therapeutic effects of which marine sources are the most important because the diversity of marine life is more varied than other sources. Fucoxanthin is one important compound with a marine origin and belongs to the group of carotenoids; it can be found in marine brown seaweeds, macroalgae, and diatoms, all of which have remarkable biological properties. Numerous studies have shown that fucoxanthin has considerable medicinal potential and promising applications in human health. In this review, we summarize the anticancer effects of fucoxanthin through several different mechanisms including anti-proliferation, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and anti-angiogenesis, and its possible role in the treatment of cancer.

  6. Efficient ethanol production from brown macroalgae sugars by a synthetic yeast platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist-Newman, Maria; Faust, Ann Marie E; Bravo, Daniel D; Santos, Christine Nicole S; Raisner, Ryan M; Hanel, Arthur; Sarvabhowman, Preethi; Le, Chi; Regitsky, Drew D; Cooper, Susan R; Peereboom, Lars; Clark, Alana; Martinez, Yessica; Goldsmith, Joshua; Cho, Min Y; Donohoue, Paul D; Luo, Lily; Lamberson, Brigit; Tamrakar, Pramila; Kim, Edward J; Villari, Jeffrey L; Gill, Avinash; Tripathi, Shital A; Karamchedu, Padma; Paredes, Carlos J; Rajgarhia, Vineet; Kotlar, Hans Kristian; Bailey, Richard B; Miller, Dennis J; Ohler, Nicholas L; Swimmer, Candace; Yoshikuni, Yasuo

    2014-01-09

    The increasing demands placed on natural resources for fuel and food production require that we explore the use of efficient, sustainable feedstocks such as brown macroalgae. The full potential of brown macroalgae as feedstocks for commercial-scale fuel ethanol production, however, requires extensive re-engineering of the alginate and mannitol catabolic pathways in the standard industrial microbe Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we present the discovery of an alginate monomer (4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronate, or DEHU) transporter from the alginolytic eukaryote Asteromyces cruciatus. The genomic integration and overexpression of the gene encoding this transporter, together with the necessary bacterial alginate and deregulated native mannitol catabolism genes, conferred the ability of an S. cerevisiae strain to efficiently metabolize DEHU and mannitol. When this platform was further adapted to grow on mannitol and DEHU under anaerobic conditions, it was capable of ethanol fermentation from mannitol and DEHU, achieving titres of 4.6% (v/v) (36.2 g l(-1)) and yields up to 83% of the maximum theoretical yield from consumed sugars. These results show that all major sugars in brown macroalgae can be used as feedstocks for biofuels and value-added renewable chemicals in a manner that is comparable to traditional arable-land-based feedstocks.

  7. French Brittany macroalgae screening: composition and methane potential for potential alternative sources of energy and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jard, G; Marfaing, H; Carrère, H; Delgenes, J P; Steyer, J P; Dumas, C

    2013-09-01

    Macroalgae are biomass resources that represent a valuable feedstock to be used entirely for human consumption or for food additives after some extractions (mainly colloids) and/or for energy production. In order to better develop the algal sector, it is important to determine the capacity of macroalgae to produce these added-values molecules for food and/or for energy industries on the basis of their biochemical characteristics. In this study, ten macroalgae obtained from French Brittany coasts (France) were selected. The global biochemical composition (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, fibers), the presence and characteristics of added-values molecules (alginates, polyphenols) and the biochemical methane potential of these algae were determined. Regarding its biochemical composition, Palmaria palmata is interesting for food (rich in nutrients) and for anaerobic digestion (0.279 LCH4/gVS). Saccharina latissima could be used for alginate extraction (242 g/kgTS, ratio between mannuronic and guluronic acid M/G=1.4) and Sargassum muticum for polyphenol extraction (19.8 g/kgTS). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Profiling of the Molecular Weight and Structural Isomer Abundance of Macroalgae-Derived Phlorotannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Heffernan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phlorotannins are a group of complex polymers of phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene unique to macroalgae. These phenolic compounds are integral structural components of the cell wall in brown algae, but also play many secondary ecological roles such as protection from UV radiation and defense against grazing. This study employed Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC with tandem mass spectrometry to investigate isomeric complexity and observed differences in phlorotannins derived from macroalgae harvested off the Irish coast (Fucus serratus, Fucus vesiculosus, Himanthalia elongata and Cystoseira nodicaulis. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content assays were used as an index for producing phlorotannin fractions, enriched using molecular weight cut-off dialysis with subsequent flash chromatography to profile phlorotannin isomers in these macroalgae. These fractions were profiled using UPLC-MS with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM and the level of isomerization for specific molecular weight phlorotannins between 3 and 16 monomers were determined. The majority of the low molecular weight (LMW phlorotannins were found to have a molecular weight range equivalent to 4–12 monomers of phloroglucinol. The level of isomerization within the individual macroalgal species differed, resulting in substantially different numbers of phlorotannin isomers for particular molecular weights. F. vesiculosus had the highest number of isomers of 61 at one specific molecular mass, corresponding to 12 phloroglucinol units (PGUs. These results highlight the complex nature of these extracts and emphasize the challenges involved in structural elucidation of these compounds.

  9. Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2–ARE pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Increased amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in many pathological conditions, including cancer. The major machinery that the cell employs to neutralize excess ROS is through the activation of the antioxidant-response element (ARE) that controls the activation of many phase II detoxification enzymes. The transcription factor that recognizes the ARE, Nrf2, can be activated by a variety of small molecules, most of which contain an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl system. In the pursuit of chemopreventive agents from marine organisms, we built, fractionated, and screened a library of 30 field-collected eukaryotic algae from Florida. An edible green alga, Ulva lactuca, yielded multiple active fractions by ARE–luciferase reporter assay. We isolated three monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) derivatives as active components, including a new keto-type C18 fatty acid (1), the corresponding shorter chain C16 acid (2), and an amide derivative (3) of the C18 acid. Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and mass spectrometry. All three contain the conjugated enone motif between C7 and C9, which is thought to be responsible for the ARE activity. Subsequent biological studies focused on 1, the most active and abundant ARE activator isolated. C18 acid 1 induced the expression of ARE-regulated cytoprotective genes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, heme oxygenase 1, thioredoxin reductase 1, both subunits of the glutamate–cysteine ligase (catalytic subunit and modifier subunit), and the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter, in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Its cellular activity requires the presence of Nrf2 and PI3K function, based on RNA interference and pharmacological inhibitor studies, respectively. Treatment with 1 led only to Nrf2 activation, and not the increase in production of NRF2 mRNA. To test its ARE activity and cytoprotective potential in vivo, we treated mice with a single dose of a U. lactuca fraction that was enriched

  10. Enzymatic regulation of photosynthetic and light-independent carbon fixation in Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta and Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta Regulación enzimática de la fotosíntesis y la fijación de carbono en obscuridad por Laminaria setchellii (Phaeophyta, Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta e Iridaea cordata (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO CABELLO-PASINI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbon is acquired through photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic processes in marine algae. However, little is known about the biochemical regulation of these metabolic pathways along the thallus of seaweeds. Consequently, the objective of this study was to assess the distribution of in vivo carboxylation pathways and to relate them to the in vitro activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RUBISCO, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC in the Phaeophyte Laminaria setchellii, the Chlorophyte Ulva lactuca, and the Rhodophyte Iridaea cordata. Chlorophyll-a levels did not vary in U. lactuca and I. cordata. However, pigment levels were significantly lower in the meristematic region of L. setchellii probably as a result of a lack of differentiation of the chloroplasts in this region. Similarly, net photosynthesis did not vary in the thallus of U. lactuca and I. cordata, while it increased from the stipe and meristem towards the lamina of L. setchellii. In contrast to photosynthesis, light-independent carbon fixation rates were significantly greater in the meristematic region of L. setchellii suggesting a compensating mechanism for carbon incorporation in photosynthetically limited tissue. The activity of RUBISCO and PEPCK followed a pattern similar to that of in vivo carboxylation processes indicating that in vivo carbon assimilation is regulated by the activity of the carboxylating enzymes throughout the thallus of L. setchelliiLa incorporación de carbono en algas marinas se lleva a cabo mediante procesos fotosintéticos y no-fotosintéticos. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre la regulación bioquímica de estas rutas metabólicas en el tejido de algas marinas. En consecuencia, el objetivo de este estudio fue el de evaluar la distribución de la carboxilación in vivo y relacionarlas a la actividad in vitro de ribulosa 1,5-bisfosfato carboxilasa/oxigenasa (RUBISCO, fosfoenolpiruvato

  11. Thermo-Acidic Pretreatment of Beach Macroalgae from Rügen to Optimize Biomethane Production--Double Benefit with Simultaneous Bioenergy Production and Improvement of Local Beach and Waste Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-09-03

    Eutrophication is a phenomenon which can rapidly generate masses of marine macroalgae, particularly in areas with high nutrient pollution. Washed ashore, this biomass impairs coastal tourism and negatively affects the coastal ecosystem. The present study evaluates the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of a macroalgae mix (Rügen-Mix, RM (RM = Rügen-Mix)) originating from Rügen, Germany. To improve biomethane recovery, thermo-acidic pretreatment was applied to the biomass prior to biomethanation to disintegrate the biomass macrostructure. Acid hydrolysis was successfully triggered with 0.2 M industry-grade HCl at 80 °C for a 2 h period, increasing biomethane recovery by +39%, with a maximum BMP of 121 mL·g(-1) volatile solids (VS). To reduce the necessity for input material, HCl was replaced by the acidic waste product flue gas condensate (FGC). Improved performance was achieved by showing an increase in biomethane recovery of +24% and a maximum BMP of 108 mL·g(-1) VS. Continuous anaerobic digestion trials of RM were conducted for three hydraulic retention times, showing the feasibility of monodigestion. The biomethane recovery was 60 mL and 65 mL·g(-1) VS·d(-1) for thermophilic and mesophilic operation, respectively. The quality of biomethanation performance aligned to the composition of the source material which exhibited a low carbon/nitrogen ratio and an increased concentration of sulfur compounds.

  12. Thermo-Acidic Pretreatment of Beach Macroalgae from Rügen to Optimize Biomethane Production—Double Benefit with Simultaneous Bioenergy Production and Improvement of Local Beach and Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Nicolas Barbot

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication is a phenomenon which can rapidly generate masses of marine macroalgae, particularly in areas with high nutrient pollution. Washed ashore, this biomass impairs coastal tourism and negatively affects the coastal ecosystem. The present study evaluates the biochemical methane potential (BMP of a macroalgae mix (Rügen-Mix, RM (RM = Rügen-Mix originating from Rügen, Germany. To improve biomethane recovery, thermo-acidic pretreatment was applied to the biomass prior to biomethanation to disintegrate the biomass macrostructure. Acid hydrolysis was successfully triggered with 0.2 M industry-grade HCl at 80 °C for a 2 h period, increasing biomethane recovery by +39%, with a maximum BMP of 121 mL·g−1 volatile solids (VS. To reduce the necessity for input material, HCl was replaced by the acidic waste product flue gas condensate (FGC. Improved performance was achieved by showing an increase in biomethane recovery of +24% and a maximum BMP of 108 mL·g−1 VS. Continuous anaerobic digestion trials of RM were conducted for three hydraulic retention times, showing the feasibility of monodigestion. The biomethane recovery was 60 mL and 65 mL·g−1 VS·d−1 for thermophilic and mesophilic operation, respectively. The quality of biomethanation performance aligned to the composition of the source material which exhibited a low carbon/nitrogen ratio and an increased concentration of sulfur compounds.

  13. Design and economic analysis of a macroalgae-to-butanol process via a thermochemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoli, Chinedu O.; Adams, Thomas A.; Brigljević, Boris; Liu, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel macroalgae-to-butanol plants are designed and assessed for U.S. and S. Korea. • The lowest MBSP of 1.97 $/L was obtained for the S. Korean natural gas import plant. • S. Korean plant with no fossil utilities had lowest CO_2 avoided cost of 620 $/tCO_2e. • Macroalgae-to-butanol plants CO_2 avoided costs are competitive with other biofuels. • CO_2 avoided costs of assessed plants are most sensitive to changes in gasoline price. - Abstract: In this work, a first of its kind assessment of butanol production from macroalgae through a thermochemical route is carried out. Different process configurations were designed and simulated in Aspen Plus to quantify their mass and energy balances. Furthermore, economic and environmental metrics such as the minimum butanol selling price (MBSP), and cost of CO_2 equivalent emissions (CO_2e) avoided were used to assess the potential of the different configurations under different market scenarios, with comparisons carried out amongst the configurations as well as against standard literature references of similar processes. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was used to assess the impact that changes in key parameters have on the considered metrics. The results show that configurations which import natural gas and electricity as utility sources alongside the macroalgae feedstock offer the lowest MBSP, however they do poorly when cost of CO_2e avoided is considered. On the other hand, the configurations which utilize only macroalgae offer the best potential for cost of CO_2e avoided but have the poorest values for MBSP. In addition, the cost of CO_2e avoided obtained for the best configurations are in line with literature references. However, the MBSP values are higher than literature references for butanol derived from cellulosic feedstock primarily due to the high ash content in seaweed. The sensitivity analyses results show that changes in gasoline prices have a very significant effect on the plant

  14. Can macroalgae provide promising anti-tumoral compounds? A closer look at Cystoseira tamariscifolia as a source for antioxidant and anti-hepatocarcinoma compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Vizetto-Duarte

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are a prolific source of drug leads in a variety of therapeutic areas. In the last few years, biomedical, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries have shown growing interest in novel compounds from marine organisms, including macroalgae. Cystoseira is a genus of Phaeophyceae (Fucales macroalgae known to contain bioactive compounds. Organic extracts (hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts from three Cystoseira species (C. humilis, C. tamariscifolia and C. usneoides were evaluated for their total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radicals, and antiproliferative activity against a human hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2 cells. C. tamariscifolia had the highest TPC and RSA. The hexane extract of C. tamariscifolia (CTH had the highest cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 2.31 µg/mL, and was further tested in four human tumor (cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa; gastric adenocarcinoma AGS; colorectal adenocarcinoma HCT-15; neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y, and two non-tumor (murine bone marrow stroma S17 and human umbilical vein endothelial HUVEC cell lines in order to determine its selectivity. CTH strongly reduced viability of all tumor cell lines, especially of HepG2 cells. Cytotoxicity was particularly selective for the latter cells with a selectivity index = 12.6 as compared to non-tumor cells. Incubation with CTH led to a 2-fold decrease of HepG2 cell proliferation as shown by the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation assay. CTH-treated HepG2 cells presented also pro-apoptotic features, such as increased Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI binding and dose-dependent morphological alterations in DAPI-stained cells. Moreover, it had a noticeable disaggregating effect on 3D multicellular tumor spheroids. Demethoxy cystoketal chromane, a derivative of the meroditerpenoid cystoketal, was identified as the active compound

  15. Marine ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

  16. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaiges, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants

  17. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew David; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...

  18. Biosorption of bovine serum albumin by Ulva lactuca biomass from industrial wastewater: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathinam, Aravindhan [Chemical Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India); Zou, Linda, E-mail: linda.zou@unisa.edu.au [SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    Batch biosorption experiments have been carried out for the removal of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from simulated industrial wastewater onto Ulva lactuca seaweed. Various vital parameters influencing the biosorption process such as initial concentration of BSA, pH of the solution, adsorbent dosage and temperature have been determined. The biosorption kinetics follows a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium isotherm studies demonstrate that the biosorption followed the Freundlich isotherm model, which implies a heterogeneous sorption phenomenon. Various thermodynamic parameters such as changes in enthalpy, free energy and entropy have been calculated. The positive value of {Delta}H{sup o} and the negative value of {Delta}G{sup o} show that the sorption process is endothermic and spontaneous. The positive value of change in entropy {Delta}S{sup o} shows increased randomness at the solid-liquid interface during the biosorption of BSA onto U. lactuca seaweed.

  19. Biosorption of bovine serum albumin by Ulva lactuca biomass from industrial wastewater: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathinam, Aravindhan; Zou, Linda

    2010-12-15

    Batch biosorption experiments have been carried out for the removal of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from simulated industrial wastewater onto Ulva lactuca seaweed. Various vital parameters influencing the biosorption process such as initial concentration of BSA, pH of the solution, adsorbent dosage and temperature have been determined. The biosorption kinetics follows a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium isotherm studies demonstrate that the biosorption followed the Freundlich isotherm model, which implies a heterogeneous sorption phenomenon. Various thermodynamic parameters such as changes in enthalpy, free energy and entropy have been calculated. The positive value of ΔH° and the negative value of ΔG° show that the sorption process is endothermic and spontaneous. The positive value of change in entropy ΔS° shows increased randomness at the solid-liquid interface during the biosorption of BSA onto U. lactuca seaweed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biosorption of bovine serum albumin by Ulva lactuca biomass from industrial wastewater: Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathinam, Aravindhan; Zou, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Batch biosorption experiments have been carried out for the removal of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from simulated industrial wastewater onto Ulva lactuca seaweed. Various vital parameters influencing the biosorption process such as initial concentration of BSA, pH of the solution, adsorbent dosage and temperature have been determined. The biosorption kinetics follows a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium isotherm studies demonstrate that the biosorption followed the Freundlich isotherm model, which implies a heterogeneous sorption phenomenon. Various thermodynamic parameters such as changes in enthalpy, free energy and entropy have been calculated. The positive value of ΔH o and the negative value of ΔG o show that the sorption process is endothermic and spontaneous. The positive value of change in entropy ΔS o shows increased randomness at the solid-liquid interface during the biosorption of BSA onto U. lactuca seaweed.

  1. New insights on the species-specific allelopathic interactions between macrophytes and marine HAB dinoflagellates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hela Ben Gharbia

    Full Text Available Macrophytes are known to release allelochemicals that have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of their competitors. Here, we investigated the effects of the fresh leaves of two magnoliophytes (Zostera noltei and Cymodocea nodosa and thalli of the macroalgae Ulva rigida on three HAB-forming benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima, and Coolia monotis. The effects of C. nodosa and U. rigida were also tested against the neurotoxic planktonic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum Litaker sp. nov (former Alexandrium catenella. Co-culture experiments were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions and potential allelopathic effects of the macrophytes on the growth, photosynthesis and toxin production of the targeted dinoflagellates were evaluated. Results showed that U. rigida had the strongest algicidal effect and that the planktonic A. pacificum was the most vulnerable species. Benthic dinoflagellates seemed more tolerant to potential allelochemicals produced by macrophytes. Depending on the dinoflagellate/macrophyte pairs and the weight of leaves/thalli tested, the studied physiological processes were moderately to heavily altered. Our results suggest that the allelopathic activity of the macrophytes could influence the development of HAB species.

  2. New insights on the species-specific allelopathic interactions between macrophytes and marine HAB dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Gharbia, Hela; Kéfi-Daly Yahia, Ons; Cecchi, Philippe; Masseret, Estelle; Amzil, Zouher; Herve, Fabienne; Rovillon, Georges; Nouri, Habiba; M'Rabet, Charaf; Couet, Douglas; Zmerli Triki, Habiba; Laabir, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Macrophytes are known to release allelochemicals that have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of their competitors. Here, we investigated the effects of the fresh leaves of two magnoliophytes (Zostera noltei and Cymodocea nodosa) and thalli of the macroalgae Ulva rigida on three HAB-forming benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima, and Coolia monotis). The effects of C. nodosa and U. rigida were also tested against the neurotoxic planktonic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum Litaker sp. nov (former Alexandrium catenella). Co-culture experiments were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions and potential allelopathic effects of the macrophytes on the growth, photosynthesis and toxin production of the targeted dinoflagellates were evaluated. Results showed that U. rigida had the strongest algicidal effect and that the planktonic A. pacificum was the most vulnerable species. Benthic dinoflagellates seemed more tolerant to potential allelochemicals produced by macrophytes. Depending on the dinoflagellate/macrophyte pairs and the weight of leaves/thalli tested, the studied physiological processes were moderately to heavily altered. Our results suggest that the allelopathic activity of the macrophytes could influence the development of HAB species.

  3. Photosynthetic responses to UV-radiation of intertidal macroalgae from the Strait of Magellan (Chile Respuestas fotosintéticas a la radiación UV en algas intermareales del Estrecho de Magallanes (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALF RAUTENBERGER

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, the photosynthetic performance of field-grown macroalgae from the Magellan Strait was evaluated with respect to their photoadaptation in the field and acclimation potential to ultraviolet radiation. Five macroalgal species were collected in the eulittoral and the upper sublittoral: Ulva intestinalis, Porphyra columbina, Adenocystis utricularis, Desmarestia confervoides and D. ligulata. Photosynthesis vs. irradiance (P-I curves of macroalgae cultivated in the laboratory under low white light intensities more than a week were used to assess the acclimation potential to irradiance conditions in the field. Both, photosynthetic parameters referred to as maximum electron transport rate (ETRmax and light saturation points of photosynthesis (Ik were species-specific and did not correlate with the position on the shore. Ik ranging between 80 and 215 μmol photons m-2 s-1 was indicative of moderate sun-adaptation in all studied species. The acclimation potential to UV-radiation was determined as the extent and the rates (m inh of PSII inhibition (resulting from decreased maximum PSII-quantum yield (Fv/Fm after four hours of UV-exposure and as the subsequent rates of recovery (m in dim PAR. The results suggest that photosynthesis of each species during UV-exposure was transiently down regulated rather than damaged. Furthermore, no reductions in ETRmax were detected after 4 h exposure to UV-A and UV-B-radiation, and consequently the Calvin cycle could not be affected. Thus, Fv/Fm was a more sensitive parameter than ETRmax explaining the photosynthetic UV acclimation. Both, the rates of inhibition and the rates of recovery were not correlated with the morpho-functional groups of macroalgae nor to their vertical distribution. Thus, although the capacity to acclimate to UV-radiation varied among the different species, data suggest that such responses are based on metabolic adjustments or possibly photoprotective strategies. In conclusion

  4. KAROTENOID DARI MAKROALGAE DAN MIKROALGAE: POTENSI KESEHATAN APLIKASI DAN BIOTEKNOLOGI [Carotenoids from Macroalgae and Microalgae: Health Potential, Application and Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leenawaty Limantara3

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Algae, both micro and macroalgae, is one of the largest producers of carotenoids. The major composition of carotenoid on algae are β-carotene, astaxanthin, luthein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, and fucoxanthin which have important roles for human health. Carotenoids were produced by several microalgae species such as Dunaliella sallina, Haemotococcus pluvialis, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Spirulina platensis, Nannnochloropsis oculata, and also from some macroalgae species such as Kappaphycus alvarezii, Sargassum sp, and Caulerpa sp. Carotenoids from algae has been proven as a powerful antioxidant and may prevent some degenerative diseases, cardiovascular, and cancer. Carotenoid also has been applied as a natural dye and dietary supplements. Biotechnology has been developed to increase the production of carotenoids from micro- and macroalgae. The large-scale cultivation of microalgae, either in open or closed system are shown to increase carotenoid production. During cultivation, some stress conditions can be specifically manipulated to optimize carotenoid production from microalgae.

  5. The Middle Triassic marine reptile biodiversity in the Germanic Basin, in the centre of the Pangaean world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2012-03-01

    The Middle Triassic fossil reptile localities near Bayreuth (Bavaria, southern Germany) consist of shallow marine autochthonous glauconitic marls and terebratulid-rich tempestite carbonates of the newly defined Bindlach and Hegnabrunn formations. Single bones and incomplete skeletons of marine reptiles have been recorded in bone beds within in the Illyrian and Fassanian stages. These include the remains of the sauropterygians Neusticosaurus sp., Lariosaurus cf. buzzii [1], Nothosaurus mirabilis [2], Paranothosaurus giganteus [2], Placodus gigas [3], Cyamodus rostratus [4], Cyamodus münsteri [5], Pistosaurus longaevus [6], and ichthyosaurs Omphalosaurus sp., and Shastasaurus sp. or proterosaur Tanystrophaeus conspicuus [7]. New skeletal reconstructions are based on the osteological analysis of three dimensionally preserved bones and skeletal remains. The large number of marine endemic placodont macroalgae feeders ( P. gigas) in the Bayreuth sites coincides with the presence of invertebrate palaeocommunities that are characteristic of macroalgae meadow paleoenvironments. Most of the reptile species and genera from the Bayreuth localities also occur in beds of similar ages from the Monte San Giorgio (Switzerland/Italy) or Perledo (Italy) lagoonal areas. Ichthyosaurs and pistosaurs were adapted for open marine conditions, and may have migrated from the Panthalassa Oceans into the shallow marine Germanic Basin to reproduce, whereas placodonts and many other sauropterygians seem to have lived permanently in those shallow marine habitats, with large squamates and thecodont or smaller archosaurs in coastal areas.

  6. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities exhibited by endophytic fungi from the Brazilian marine red alga Bostrychia tenella (Ceramiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Felício

    Full Text Available Abstract Marine environment is one of the most important sources regarding natural products research. Besides, marine microorganisms have been denominated as a talented natural source for discovery of new leads. Although the association of macroalgae and fungi has been described regarding ecological issues, there is a lack of studies about marine seaweed endophytic fungi. In this context, the goal of this study was to evaluate cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from the Brazilian marine seaweed Bostrychia tenella (J.V. Lamouroux J. Agardh (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta. Forty-five endophytic microorganism strains were isolated from B. tenella. Crude extracts and organic fractions of ten selected strains were obtained after growth in rice medium. Samples were evaluated for cytotoxicity, antifungal and antibacterial assays. Penicillium strains showed positive results in a diversity of assays, and other five strains were active in at least one test. In addition, cytochalasin D was isolated from Xylaria sp. This alga is composed of a microbiological potential, since its endophytic strains exhibited remarkable biological properties. Moreover, cytochalasin D isolation has confirmed chemical potential of marine endophytic strains. This is the first study in which cultured fungi isolates from the Brazilian macroalga B. tenella were evaluated concerning biological properties. Results corroborated that this species could be a pharmaceutical source from marine environment. Furthermore, Acremonium implicatum is being firstly described as marine endophyte and Xylaria sp., Trichoderma atroviride and Nigrospora oryzae as marine seaweed endophytes. Thus, this work reports the first study relating detailed isolation, cultivation and biological evaluation (cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial of endophytes Penicillium decaturense and P. waksmanii from the Brazilian marine red alga B. tenella. We are also reporting the

  7. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. Macroalgae Biomass: Selective Hydrothermal Liquefaction Process for Bio-Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M., E-mail: limdiaz@uprrp.edu; Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Fuentes-Caraballo, Mariela; Robles, Isis V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico Río Piedras Campus, San Juan, PR (United States); Jena, Umakanta [Bioenergy Laboratory, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States); Das, K. C. [College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-02-11

    Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the effect of different demineralization treatments of Sargassum spp. biomass, subsequent hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), and bio-oil characterization. Demineralization constituted five different treatments: nanopure water, nitric acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, and acetic acid. Performance of demineralization was evaluated by analyzing both demineralized biomass and HTL products by the following analyses: total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ash content, caloric content, metals analysis, Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and GCMS analysis. HTL of Sargassum spp. before and after citric acid treatment was performed in a 1.8 L batch reactor system at 350°C with a holding time of 60 min and high pressures (5–21 MPa). Demineralization treatment with nitric acid was found the most effective in reducing the ash content of the macroalgae biomass from 27.46 to 0.99% followed by citric acid treatment that could reduce the ash content to 7%. Citric acid did not show significant leaching of organic components such as carbohydrates and proteins, and represented a less toxic and hazardous option for demineralization. HTL of untreated and citric acid treated Sargassum spp. resulted in bio-oil yields of 18.4 ± 0.1 and 22.2 ± 0.1% (ash-free dry basis), respectively.

  8. Macroalgas e seus usos – alternativas para as indústrias brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Monique de Freitas Vasconcelos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As macroalgas marinhas são divididas em três grandes grupos: algas verdes, pardas e vermelhas. Elas vêm sendo utilizadas há milênios pelos povos orientais como parte importante de sua dieta alimentar. Os teores de nutrientes diferem de acordo com o grupo aos qual pertencem, no entanto, suas características nutricionais justificam o incremento desses vegetais na alimentação humana. O alto teor proteico, o elevado conteúdo de fibras e ainda o grande número de minerais são extremamente importantes para suplementação das necessidades nutricionais humanas. No entanto, além de seu uso como alimento, as algas têm sido utilizadas como suplemento de rações para diversos animais, adubos sólidos ou líquidos, no desenvolvimento de diversos cosméticos, como xampus, hidratantes, cremes anti-idade e fontes de produtos químicos diversos, dentre os quais se destacam certas mucilagens conhecidas como ficocolóides, ou colóides de algas. Estas últimas substâncias são classificadas em três grupos básicos em função de sua estrutura química e propriedades reológicas: os ágares (ágar-ágar ou agaranas, as carragenanas e os alginatos. O objetivo deste artigo é atualizar o leitor sobre as pesquisas realizadas nos últimos anos com macroalgas marinhas, abrangendo várias áreas na qual as macroalgas tem se destacado.

  9. Gene expression patterns of the coral Acropora millepora in response to contact with macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, T. L.; Rasher, D. B.; Snell, T. W.; Hay, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Contact with macroalgae often causes coral mortality, but the roles of abrasion versus shading versus allelopathy in these interactions are rarely clear, and effects on gene expression are unknown. Identification of gene expression changes within corals in response to contact with macroalgae can provide insight into the mode of action of allelochemicals, as well as reveal transcriptional strategies of the coral that mitigate damage from this competitive interaction, enabling the coral to survive. Gene expression responses of the coral Acropora millepora after long-term (20 days) direct contact with macroalgae ( Chlorodesmis fastigiata, Dictyota bartayresiana, Galaxaura filamentosa, and Turbinaria conoides) and short-term (1 and 24 h) exposure to C. fastigiata thalli and their hydrophobic extract were assessed. After 20 days of exposure, T. conoides thalli elicited no significant change in visual bleaching or zooxanthellae PSII quantum yield within A. millepora nubbins, but stimulated the greatest alteration in gene expression of all treatments. Chlorodesmis fastigiata, D. bartayresiana, and G. filamentosa caused significant visual bleaching of coral nubbins and reduced the PSII quantum yield of associated zooxanthellae after 20 days, but elicited fewer changes in gene expression relative to T. conoides at day 20. To evaluate initial molecular processes leading to reduction of zooxanthella PSII quantum yield, visual bleaching, and coral death, short-term exposures to C. fastigiata thalli and hydrophobic extracts were conducted; these interactions revealed protein degradation and significant changes in catalytic and metabolic activity within 24 h of contact. These molecular responses are consistent with the hypothesis that allelopathic interactions lead to alteration of signal transduction and an imbalance between reactive oxidant species production and antioxidant capabilities within the coral holobiont. This oxidative imbalance results in rapid protein degradation

  10. Modelling Macroalgae Productivity In An Estuary. A Biorremediation To Nutrient Discharges In The Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvera-Azcárate, A.; Ferreira, J. G.; Nunes, J. P.

    Enhanced nutrient load to estuaries and coastal waters due to anthropogenic activities is damaging aquatic ecosystems, resulting in water pollution and eutrophication prob- lems. It is important to quantify the production of photosynthetic organisms, as they play an important role in controlling nitrogen removal and nitrogen fluxes between the sediments and the water column. In turbid estuaries, such as those on the NE Atlantic coast of Europe, benthic primary producers such as macroalgae may play an important part in carbon fixation and nutrient removal, since pelagic production is often strongly light-limited. Estuarine seaweeds are primarily located in intertidal areas, which are characterised by shallow waters and strong tidal currents. Due to high concentrations of suspended particulate matter in the water column, light is rapidly attenuated, limiting macroal- gae production during part of the tidal cycle. An accurate representation of sediment dynamics is essential for the determination of the light energy available for the algae, which is a key factor in reliable primary production estimates. In tidal flats, the sedi- ment dynamics is made more complex by the formation of tidal pools during low tide, where water quickly becomes clear, allowing more light to penetrate through the water column. In the present work a model is developed to calculate macroalgae production in the intertidal areas of estuaries, considering the factors mentioned above. The model is tested for the Tagus estuary (Portugal), and a Gross Primary Production of 3300 g m-2 y-1 was obtained. That results in a total nitrogen removal of 440 gN m-2 y-1. The results show that the macroalgae community plays an impor- tant role in the nitrogen cycle in estuaries and nutrient export to the open sea, acting as a biorremediation for the increased nutrient loading problem.

  11. Growth and metal bioconcentration by conspecific freshwater macroalgae cultured in industrial waste water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Ellison

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The bioremediation of industrial waste water by macroalgae is a sustainable and renewable approach to the treatment of waste water produced by multiple industries. However, few studies have tested the bioremediation of complex multi-element waste streams from coal-fired power stations by live algae. This study compares the ability of three species of green freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium, isolated from different geographic regions, to grow in waste water for the bioremediation of metals. The experiments used Ash Dam water from Tarong power station in Queensland, which is contaminated by multiple metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn and metalloids (As and Se in excess of Australian water quality guidelines. All species had consistent growth rates in Ash Dam water, despite significant differences in their growth rates in “clean” water. A species isolated from the Ash Dam water itself was not better suited to the bioremediation of that waste water. While there were differences in the temporal pattern of the bioconcentration of metals by the three species, over the course of the experiment, all three species bioconcentrated the same elements preferentially and to a similar extent. All species bioconcentrated metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd and Zn more rapidly than metalloids (As, Mo and Se. Therefore, bioremediation in situ will be most rapid and complete for metals. Overall, all three species of freshwater macroalgae had the ability to grow in waste water and bioconcentrate elements, with a consistent affinity for the key metals that are regulated by Australian and international water quality guidelines. Together, these characteristics make Oedogonium a clear target for scaled bioremediation programs across a range of geographic regions.

  12. Nutrient and metal pollution of the eastern Gulf of Finland coastline: Sediments, macroalgae, microbiota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubelit, Yulia; Polyak, Yulia; Dembska, Grazyna; Pazikowska-Sapota, Grazyna; Zegarowski, Lukasz; Kochura, Dmitry; Krivorotov, Denis; Podgornaya, Elena; Burova, Olga; Maazouzi, Chafik

    2016-01-01

    The anthropogenic pollution along the coastline of the eastern Gulf of Finland was studied through a range of methods, including analyses of metal contamination in water, surface sediments, accumulated algal biomass and its correlation with resistant microbiota. According to concentrations, the main pollutants in water were copper and manganese. Influence of Nuclear Power Plant was remarkable in adjacent areas and was expressed in high concentrations of molybdenum, nickel, copper and other elements in the water. Relatively high concentrations of copper, lead and zinc were found in sediments. Microbial tolerance appeared to be correlated with the concentration of the metals in sediments. Higher tolerance levels were found in sediment samples from more polluted stations. Macroalgae, which were massively developed in the coastal zone, had shown high level of metal bioaccumulation. Analyses of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus content of algal tissues allowed the estimation of additional nutrient loading from accumulated decaying algal biomass on the coastal zone of the eastern Gulf of Finland. Mass development of algae in coastal area may contribute to accumulation of organic matter and associated metals. In our study the highest metal concentrations in sediments were found at the sites with dense and continuous layer of fresh and decaying macroalgal biomass, accompanied by hypoxic conditions. Also our study has shown that accumulated biomass may be a significant source of nutrients in the coastal ecosystem. - Highlights: • We studied heavy metal pollution in the coastline of the eastern Gulf of Finland. • Sediments, water, mass macroalgae and microbiota were included into analyses. • Eutrophication and nutrient loading remain the main problem of the studied area. • Macroalgae contribute to accumulation of organic matter, nutrient, and heavy metal. • Pollution in the studied area is caused by a combination of different factors.

  13. Nutrient and metal pollution of the eastern Gulf of Finland coastline: Sediments, macroalgae, microbiota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubelit, Yulia, E-mail: Gubelit@list.ru [Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Polyak, Yulia [Scientific Research Center for Ecological Safety of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Dembska, Grazyna; Pazikowska-Sapota, Grazyna; Zegarowski, Lukasz [Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Department of Environmental Protection, Gdansk (Poland); Kochura, Dmitry; Krivorotov, Denis; Podgornaya, Elena; Burova, Olga [Research Institute of Hygiene, Occupational Pathology and Human Ecology (RIHOPHE), Federal Medical Biological Agency, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Maazouzi, Chafik [Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Laboratoire d' Écologie des Hydrosystèmes Naturels et Anthropisés (LEHNA), Lyon (France)

    2016-04-15

    The anthropogenic pollution along the coastline of the eastern Gulf of Finland was studied through a range of methods, including analyses of metal contamination in water, surface sediments, accumulated algal biomass and its correlation with resistant microbiota. According to concentrations, the main pollutants in water were copper and manganese. Influence of Nuclear Power Plant was remarkable in adjacent areas and was expressed in high concentrations of molybdenum, nickel, copper and other elements in the water. Relatively high concentrations of copper, lead and zinc were found in sediments. Microbial tolerance appeared to be correlated with the concentration of the metals in sediments. Higher tolerance levels were found in sediment samples from more polluted stations. Macroalgae, which were massively developed in the coastal zone, had shown high level of metal bioaccumulation. Analyses of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus content of algal tissues allowed the estimation of additional nutrient loading from accumulated decaying algal biomass on the coastal zone of the eastern Gulf of Finland. Mass development of algae in coastal area may contribute to accumulation of organic matter and associated metals. In our study the highest metal concentrations in sediments were found at the sites with dense and continuous layer of fresh and decaying macroalgal biomass, accompanied by hypoxic conditions. Also our study has shown that accumulated biomass may be a significant source of nutrients in the coastal ecosystem. - Highlights: • We studied heavy metal pollution in the coastline of the eastern Gulf of Finland. • Sediments, water, mass macroalgae and microbiota were included into analyses. • Eutrophication and nutrient loading remain the main problem of the studied area. • Macroalgae contribute to accumulation of organic matter, nutrient, and heavy metal. • Pollution in the studied area is caused by a combination of different factors.

  14. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. Macroalgae Biomass: Selective Hydrothermal Liquefaction Process for Bio-Oil Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M.; Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Fuentes-Caraballo, Mariela; Robles, Isis V.; Jena, Umakanta; Das, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the effect of different demineralization treatments of Sargassum spp. biomass, subsequent hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), and bio-oil characterization. Demineralization constituted five different treatments: nanopure water, nitric acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, and acetic acid. Performance of demineralization was evaluated by analyzing both demineralized biomass and HTL products by the following analyses: total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ash content, caloric content, metals analysis, Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and GCMS analysis. HTL of Sargassum spp. before and after citric acid treatment was performed in a 1.8 L batch reactor system at 350°C with a holding time of 60 min and high pressures (5–21 MPa). Demineralization treatment with nitric acid was found the most effective in reducing the ash content of the macroalgae biomass from 27.46 to 0.99% followed by citric acid treatment that could reduce the ash content to 7%. Citric acid did not show significant leaching of organic components such as carbohydrates and proteins, and represented a less toxic and hazardous option for demineralization. HTL of untreated and citric acid treated Sargassum spp. resulted in bio-oil yields of 18.4 ± 0.1 and 22.2 ± 0.1% (ash-free dry basis), respectively.

  15. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. macroalgae biomass: selective hydrothermal liquefaction process for bio-oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz M Díaz-Vázquez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the effect of different demineralization treatments of Sargassum spp. biomass, subsequent hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL and bio-oil characterization. Demineralization constituted five different treatments: nanopure water, nitric acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, and acetic acid. Performance of demineralization was evaluated by analyzing both demineralized biomass and HTL products by the following analyses: total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ash content, caloric content, metals analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared - Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and GCMS analysis. HTL of Sargassum spp. before and after citric acid treatment, was performed in a 1.8 L batch reactor system at 350°C with a holding time of 60 min and high pressures (5-21 MPa. Demineralization treatment with nitric acid was found the most effective in reducing the ash content of the macroalgae biomass from 27.46% to 0.99% followed by citric acid treatment that could reduce the ash content to 7%. Citric acid did not show significant leaching of organic components such as carbohydrates and proteins, and represented a less toxic and hazardous option for demineralization. HTL of untreated and citric acid treated Sargassum spp. resulted in bio-oil yields of 18.4±0.1 % and 22.2±0.1 % (ash free dry basis, respectively.

  16. Growth and metal bioconcentration by conspecific freshwater macroalgae cultured in industrial waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Michael B; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A; Roberts, David A

    2014-01-01

    The bioremediation of industrial waste water by macroalgae is a sustainable and renewable approach to the treatment of waste water produced by multiple industries. However, few studies have tested the bioremediation of complex multi-element waste streams from coal-fired power stations by live algae. This study compares the ability of three species of green freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium, isolated from different geographic regions, to grow in waste water for the bioremediation of metals. The experiments used Ash Dam water from Tarong power station in Queensland, which is contaminated by multiple metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) and metalloids (As and Se) in excess of Australian water quality guidelines. All species had consistent growth rates in Ash Dam water, despite significant differences in their growth rates in "clean" water. A species isolated from the Ash Dam water itself was not better suited to the bioremediation of that waste water. While there were differences in the temporal pattern of the bioconcentration of metals by the three species, over the course of the experiment, all three species bioconcentrated the same elements preferentially and to a similar extent. All species bioconcentrated metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd and Zn) more rapidly than metalloids (As, Mo and Se). Therefore, bioremediation in situ will be most rapid and complete for metals. Overall, all three species of freshwater macroalgae had the ability to grow in waste water and bioconcentrate elements, with a consistent affinity for the key metals that are regulated by Australian and international water quality guidelines. Together, these characteristics make Oedogonium a clear target for scaled bioremediation programs across a range of geographic regions.

  17. Macroalgae fouling community as quality element for the evaluation of the ecological status in Vela Luka Bay, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorana Jelic Mrcelic

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One year qualitative and quantitative study of communities of three major taxonomic groups has been carried out at test panles placed in the upper infarlittoral zone of coastal area of Vela Luka Bay, Croatia. A list of 44 taxa was recorded. Chaetomorpha sp., Ulva sp., Fosliella farinosa, Sphacelaria cirrosa, Polysiphonia scopulorum were the most frequent dominant taxa. Among 27 algal taxa with noticeable presence only three were classified as ESG (Ecological State Groups I. Low diversity and species richness together with massive presence of the green algae (as Ulva sp. and negligible presence of ESG I taxa, may lead to erroneous conclusion that Vela Luka Bay is eutrophicated area. Low values of biomass and R/P (Rhodophyceae by Phaeophyceae ratio Index together with dominance of Phaeophyta also support conclusion that there is no negative impact of nutrient enrichment on macrophyta fouling community in Vela Luka Bay.

  18. Contribution of arsenic species in unicellular algae to the cycling of arsenic in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Elliott G; Maher, William A; Foster, Simon D

    2015-01-06

    This review investigates the arsenic species produced by and found in marine unicellular algae to determine if unicellular algae contribute to the formation of arsenobetaine (AB) in higher marine organisms. A wide variety of arsenic species have been found in marine unicellular algae including inorganic species (mainly arsenate--As(V)), methylated species (mainly dimethylarsenate (DMA)), arsenoribosides (glycerol, phosphate, and sulfate) and metabolites (dimethylarsenoethanol (DMAE)). Subtle differences in arsenic species distributions exist between chlorophyte and heterokontophyte species with As(V) commonly found in water-soluble cell fractions of chlorophyte species, while DMA is more common in heterokontophyte species. Additionally, different arsenoriboside species are found in each phyla with glycerol and phosphate arsenoribosides produced by chlorophytes, whereas glycerol, phosphate, and sulfate arsenoribosides are produced by heterokontophytes, which is similar to existing data for marine macro-algae. Although arsenoribosides are the major arsenic species in many marine unicellular algal species, AB has not been detected in unicellular algae which supports the hypothesis that AB is formed in marine animals via the ingestion and further metabolism of arsenoribosides. The observation of significant DMAE concentrations in some unicellular algal cultures suggests that unicellular algae-based detritus contains arsenic species that can be further metabolized to form AB in higher marine organisms. Future research establishing how environmental variability influences the production of arsenic species by marine unicellular algae and what effect this has on arsenic cycling within marine food webs is essential to clarify the role of these organisms in marine arsenic cycling.

  19. Macroalgas marinas afectadas por flotas de arrastre de camarón en el Mar Caribe de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennin Flórez-Leiva

    2005-07-01

    en ambas sitios de estudio. La biomasa de macroalgas registradas en cada lance fue mucho menor que la registrada de camarones y descartes. La evidencia que presenta este estudio sobre la existencia de macroalgas en la captura acompañante de la flota de arrastre de camarón y la acción prolongada de esta pesquería en el mar Caribe de Colombia, indican que es urgente implementar modificaciones en las redes para disminuir su efecto abrasivo sobre los fondos.

  20. Homogalactanas sulfatadas da macroalga verde Codium isthmocladum: aspectos estruturais e farmacológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, Eduardo Henrique Cunha de [UNIFESP

    2011-01-01

    Galactanas e o termo utilizado para designar polissacarideos que contem galactose. Homogalactanas sulfatadas, SG 1 e SG 2, foram extraidas de macroalga marinha verde Codium isthmocladum apos proteolise, fracionamento por acetona a frio e cromatografia de troca-ionica. A massa molecular foi determinada por cromatografia de gel-filtracao em HPLC e deteccao por indice de refracao e UV, sendo que SG 1 apresenta massa molecular media ao redor de 12 kDa e SG 2 de 15,0 kDa. Analises estruturais empr...

  1. Effects of filamentous macroalgae on growth and survival of eelgrass, Zostera marina, seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jonas; Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Olesen, Birgit

    of oxygen and sulphide and their diurnal variations in the mats were measured using microelectrodes. Seedling growth rates declined 99 % from controls to the high C. linum cover treatment and 55 % to the high imitation algae treatment. But due to high water flow rates anoxic conditions failed to develop...... on a 2-factorial laboratory experiment. Eelgrass seedlings were grown with three different heights and two different types of algae mats: Chaetomorpha linum and artificial macroalgae. The two types of mats were used to separate the physical and metabolic effects of algal presence. Concentrations...

  2. HPLC fucoxanthin profiles of a microalga, a macroalga and a pure fucoxanthin standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Chern Foo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Data in this article illustrate representative fucoxanthin chromatograms of a microalga, Chaetoceros calcitrans; a macroalga, Saccharina japonica and; a pure fucoxanthin standard. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC eluted fucoxanthin at the 7.008±0.024th min. This data article refers to the research article ‘‘Antioxidant capacities of fucoxanthin-producing algae as influenced by their carotenoid and phenolic contents’’ Foo et al. [1]; where a more comprehensive data interpretation and analysis is explained.

  3. Ethanol production from marine algal hydrolysates using Escherichia coli KO11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nag-Jong; Li, Hui; Jung, Kwonsu; Chang, Ho Nam; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2011-08-01

    Algae biomass is a potential raw material for the production of biofuels and other chemicals. In this study, biomass of the marine algae, Ulva lactuca, Gelidium amansii,Laminaria japonica, and Sargassum fulvellum, was treated with acid and commercially available hydrolytic enzymes. The hydrolysates contained glucose, mannose, galactose, and mannitol, among other sugars, at different ratios. The Laminaria japonica hydrolysate contained up to 30.5% mannitol and 6.98% glucose in the hydrolysate solids. Ethanogenic recombinant Escherichia coli KO11 was able to utilize both mannitol and glucose and produced 0.4g ethanol per g of carbohydrate when cultured in L. japonica hydrolysate supplemented with Luria-Bertani medium and hydrolytic enzymes. The strategy of acid hydrolysis followed by simultaneous enzyme treatment and inoculation with E. coli KO11 could be a viable strategy to produce ethanol from marine alga biomass. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical and biological evaluation of the nutritive value of Algerian green seaweed Ulva lactuca using in vitro gas production technique fior ruminant animals

    OpenAIRE

    Zitouni, Hind; Arhab, Rabah; Boudry, Christelle; Bousseboua, Hacène; Beckers, Yves

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the nutritive value of seaweed Ulva lactuca collected from the Algerian coast by estimation of its chemical composition and fermentation characteristics, comparatively to vetch-oat hay (control), using in vitro gas production technique. Seaweed and control were incubated with rumen liquor taken from fistulated and non lactating cows. Gas production was recorded at: 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72h. The in vitro rumen fermentation parameters were measured after 24h ...

  5. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  6. Reduction of nitrogen in the excretion on Japanese flounder using Ulva and Capitellid; Anaaosa to itogokai ni yoru hirame haisetsubutsuchu no chisso shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, H.; Kikuchi, K.; Sakaguchi, I. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    To develop the culture residue treatment technique using aquatic organisms, the ammonia and nitrate uptake rates of seaweed Ulva and the nitrogen reduction rate of polychaeta annelid Captella sp. with organic sediment predaceous ability were examined in the excretion of Japanese flounder. Nitrogen uptake rate of Ulva was affected by water temperature. It was highest at 20degC, followed at 15degC and 25degC in the order. It was not affected by light intensity between 1500 and 6000 lux. Ammonia and nitrate uptake rates by Ulva were estimated to be 28.2 and 14.6 {mu}g-N/g/h at 20degC under 3000 lux, respectively. Proportion of feces excreted from Capitellid to ingested sediments was 0.38. At 25degC, Capitellid population of one thousand individuals ingested-N at the rate of 24 mg-N/day, and excreted the feces-N of Capitellid at the rate of 7 mg-N/day. About 70% of nitrogen in the sediment was reduced through this process. 15 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.