WorldWideScience

Sample records for marika mikkor defended

  1. Taas tublisid Melbourne´i noori : Kylie Mikkor / Sirje Jõgi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgi, Sirje

    2006-01-01

    fotol Melbourne´i Eesti Maja esimehe Arnold ja Asta Mikkori poja Kuno tütar Kylie Mikkor, kes lõpetas edukalt ülikooli ja sai Bachelor of Engineering (Aerospace Engineering) with honours 1st class ja Bachelor of Business (Business Administration) with distinction

  2. Taas tublisid Melbourne´i noori : Kylie Mikkor / Sirje Jõgi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgi, Sirje

    2006-01-01

    fotol Melbourne´i Eesti Maja esimehe Arnold ja Asta Mikkori poja Kuno tütar Kylie Mikkor, kes lõpetas edukalt ülikooli ja sai Bachelor of Engineering (Aerospace Engineering) with honours 1st class ja Bachelor of Business (Business Administration) with distinction

  3. 1930. aastad Kaukaasias "Edasi" kolhoosis põllumehe silmade läbi ja ajalehe "Edasi" veergudel / Marika Mikkor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikkor, Marika, 1963-

    2005-01-01

    Stalinlike repressioonide kajastumine August Rootsi päevikus (aastatest 1929-1942), Kaukaasia eestlaste mälestustes ja ka Nõukogude ajalooteaduses. Järg.: nr. 3, lk. 55-74 ; nr. 4, lk. 82-93 ; (2006) nr. 1, lk. 88-102 ; nr, 2, lk. 74-94

  4. 1930. aastad Kaukaasias "Edasi" kolhoosis põllumehe silme läbi ja ajalehe "Edasi" veergudel. I-III / Marika Mikkor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikkor, Marika, 1963-

    2005-01-01

    Kaukaasias Eesti-Rohuaias elanud August Rootsi päevaraamatust 1929-1942 aastatest ja Leningradis ilmunud ajalehe "Edasi" kirjutistest stalinlike repressioonide, kollektiviseerimise ja eestlaste eluolu kohta Kaukaasias

  5. 1930. aastad Kaukaasias "Edasi" kolhoosis põllumehe silme läbi ja ajalehe "Edasi" veergudel. IV-V / Marika Mikkor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikkor, Marika, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    Kaukaasias Eesti-Rohuaias elanud August Rootsi päevaraamatust 1929-1942 aastatest ja Leningradis ilmunud ajalehe "Edasi" kirjutistest stalinlike repressioonide, kollektiviseerimise ja eestlaste eluolu kohta Kaukaasias

  6. Marika Elmi lammastest said hindajate lemmikud / Harda Roosna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosna, Harda, 1956-

    2004-01-01

    Hiiumaa kataloogi nõukogu määras kataloogi kaanekujunduse konkursi esikohapreemia Marika Elmile. Teise preemia said Ott Lambing ja Kristjan Paljasma ning kolmanda preemia Liia Lüdig-Algvere ja Maris Lindoja

  7. Marika Elmi lammastest said hindajate lemmikud / Harda Roosna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roosna, Harda, 1956-

    2004-01-01

    Hiiumaa kataloogi nõukogu määras kataloogi kaanekujunduse konkursi esikohapreemia Marika Elmile. Teise preemia said Ott Lambing ja Kristjan Paljasma ning kolmanda preemia Liia Lüdig-Algvere ja Maris Lindoja

  8. Ozsvath, Zsuzsanna: "When the Danube Ran Red"; Mandel, Eva Marika: "Le Livre de Mana"; Roth, Marika: "All the Pretty Shoes; A Memoir of Survival and the Feminine Spirit".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Blaikie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozsvath, Zsuzsanna. When the Danube Ran Red. Syracuse University Press, 2010,171 pp., Illus.Mandel, Eva Marika. Le Livre de Mana. Paris, Glyphe 2009, 231 pp., Illus.Roth, Marika. All the Pretty Shoes; A Memoir of Survival and the Feminine SpiritWyatt McKenzy 2010, 254 pp., Illus.Reviewed by Evi Blaikie, Freelance Writer.

  9. Tallinna lasteaiad arenevad / Imbi Viisma, Anne Targem, Marika Pettai, Pille Kibur...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Tallinna lasteaianduse hetkeseisu arutasid vestlusringis linna haridusameti alushariduse peaspetsialist Imbi Viisma, vanemspetsialistid Anne Targem ja Marika Pettai, Tallinna Mahtra Lasteaia juhataja Pille Kibur ning Kadrioru Lasteaia juhataja Larissa Kot℗تatova / vahendas Anu Mõttus.

  10. Priske: olen lähtunud ainult riigi huvidest / Marika Priske ; intervjueerinud Andrus Karnau ; kommenteerinud Triin Bergmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Priske, Marika, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Kaitsepolitseiamet ja riigiprokuratuur uurivad seoses riigi tee-ehitushangetega majandus- ja kommunikatsioonimisteeriumi kantslerit Marika Prisket ja maanteeameti juhti Tamur Tsäkkot. Kommenteerib Triin Bergmann

  11. Priske: olen lähtunud ainult riigi huvidest / Marika Priske ; intervjueerinud Andrus Karnau ; kommenteerinud Triin Bergmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Priske, Marika, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Kaitsepolitseiamet ja riigiprokuratuur uurivad seoses riigi tee-ehitushangetega majandus- ja kommunikatsioonimisteeriumi kantslerit Marika Prisket ja maanteeameti juhti Tamur Tsäkkot. Kommenteerib Triin Bergmann

  12. Defending climate science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-01-01

    The National Center for Science Education (NCSE), which has long been in the lead in defending the teaching of evolution in public schools, has expanded its core mission to include defending climate science, the organization announced in January. “We consider climate change a critical issue in our own mission to protect the integrity of science education,” said NSCE executive director Eugenie Scott. “Climate affects everyone, and the decisions we make today will affect generations to come. We need to teach kids now about the realities of global warming and climate change so that they're prepared to make informed, intelligent decisions in the future.”

  13. Defendants' Rights in Criminal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ralph C., II; Keeley, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the protections afforded by the Constitution for defendants in criminal trials. These include the right to a jury trial (in cases of possible incarceration), an impartial jury, and the requirement of a unanimous verdict. Defends the use of plea bargaining as essential to an efficient criminal justice system. (MJP)

  14. THE INDEFENSIBLE DUTY TO DEFEND

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neal Devins; Saikrishna Prakash

    2012-01-01

    .... First, the duties to enforce and defend lack any sound basis in the Constitution. Hence, while President Obama is right to refuse to defend the Defense of Marriage Act, he is wrong to continue to enforce a law he believes is unconstitutional...

  15. Õppekavategu võtab õpetajad võhmale / Sirje Pärismaa, Marika Šadeiko, Hannes Mets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärismaa, Sirje, 1958-

    2014-01-01

    Väljundupõhilistele õppekavadele üleminekust kutsehariduses. Küsimusele, kuidas edeneb teie koolis õppekavade reform, vastavad Olustvere Teenindus- ja Maamajanduskooli projekti- ja arendusjuht Marika Šadeiko ja Ida-Virumaa Kutsehariduskeskuse direktor Hannes Mets

  16. Defendant Characteristics and Juridic Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Ronald L.; Snodgrass, Stephan R.

    1980-01-01

    Attractiveness of defendant's traits and their relevance to the likelihood of acting criminally were varied. Results supported a causal inference explanation for deciding guilt and a liking-leniency explanation for deciding punishment. (Author/CS)

  17. MARIKA - A model revision system using qualitative analysis of simulations. [of human orientation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groleau, Nicolas; Frainier, Richard; Colombano, Silvano; Hazelton, Lyman; Szolovits, Peter

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes portions of a novel system called MARIKA (Model Analysis and Revision of Implicit Key Assumptions) to automatically revise a model of the normal human orientation system. The revision is based on analysis of discrepancies between experimental results and computer simulations. The discrepancies are calculated from qualitative analysis of quantitative simulations. The experimental and simulated time series are first discretized in time segments. Each segment is then approximated by linear combinations of simple shapes. The domain theory and knowledge are represented as a constraint network. Incompatibilities detected during constraint propagation within the network yield both parameter and structural model alterations. Interestingly, MARIKA diagnosed a data set from the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Vestibular Laboratory as abnormal though the data was tagged as normal. Published results from other laboratories confirmed the finding. These encouraging results could lead to a useful clinical vestibular tool and to a scientific discovery system for space vestibular adaptation.

  18. A Faithful Defender of Patriarchy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨双菊

    2010-01-01

    The hero in the masterpiece of Charlotte Bronte Jane Eyre--Edward Rochester acts as a faithful defender on the matter of his marriage with Bertha Mason.His compliance with the patriarchal rules mostly displays in three aspects,that is,male dominant household,men's superiority to women in law,and man's supremacy in marriage.

  19. Victims and their defenders : A dyadic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sainio, Miia; Veenstra, René; Huitsing, Gijs; Salmivalli, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on the dyadic defending relationships of victimized children in grades 3, 4, and 5 (N = 7481 children from 356 school classes, mean ages 10-12 years). Most of the victims (72.3%) had at least one defender. Being defended was positively related to victims' adjustment and social sta

  20. Defendants previous history and mock sentencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, D A; Pasewark, R A

    1984-05-01

    Six hundred forty-four undergraduates served as mock judges in sentencing male or female defendants convicted of homicide, child molestation, embezzlement, fraudulent issuance of checks, heroin possession, and consensual homosexuality. Defendants had a reported history of psychiatric hospitalization, imprisonment, or neither hospitalization nor incarceration. Results indicated: (1) those defendants with a mental health history were more likely to be accorded a disposition that involved mandatory health treatment; (2) dispositions of persons with a mental health history tended to be more restrictive than those of defendants with neither a mental health nor criminal history; and (3) sex of defendant of mock judge influenced sentencing disposition only in child molestation cases.

  1. STS Interventions: Preparing, Defending, Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intervening in the Australian vaccination debate, I found that STS perspectives helped me understand the controversy but gave little guidance on how to defend against attacks. Max Liboiron comments that preparation, including support networks, should precede interventions. I was well supported in my involvement in the vaccination debate, but those who openly advocate a stigmatized view may have difficulty gaining support. Teun Zuiderent-Jerak asks what is being learned when interventions reinforce existing categories. Controversy participants can learn by being exposed to STS perspectives; controversy researchers, when attacked, can gain new information and develop new research ideas.

  2. Landauer defended: Reply to Norton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladyman, James; Robertson, Katie

    2013-08-01

    Ladyman, Presnell, and Short (2007) proposed a model of the implementation of logical operations by physical processes in order to clarify the exact statement of Landauer's Principle, and then offered a new proof of the latter based on the construction of a thermodynamic cycle, arguing that if Landauer's Principle were false it would be possible to harness a machine that violated it to produce a violation of the second law of thermodynamics. In a recent paper in this journal, John Norton (2011) directly challenges the consistency of that proof. In the present paper we defend the proof given by Ladyman et al. against his critique. In particular, contrary to what Norton claims, we argue that the processes used in the proof cannot be used to construct a cycle that enacts erasure in a thermodynamically reversible way, and that he does not show that the processes used in the proof violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

  3. Defending basic research in Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    « Research without a budget means a Europe without a future » On Wednesday 25th August 2010, 871 of you signed the Staff Council petition which carried this message. This is a resounding success for a month of August. Staff members and pensioners, you showed by your presence your mass support for our appeal to defend research budgets in Europe. The participation and messages of support from our colleagues in other European scientific organizations is confirmation that budget cuts in research are common practice far beyond the confines of CERN. If research had benefited from the promises made by the European Union in 2000 to increase investment in research and development (R&D) from 1.8% to 3% of GDP by 2010, the scientific community would more readily accept the current cuts. However, we are now in 2010 and the rate of 1.8% has remained the same. So, we have been hit twice: not only have we not had the good weather we were promised, we now find ourselves in the middl...

  4. Designing Interference-Robust Wireless Mesh Networks Using a Defender-Attacker-Defender Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) are interconnected systems of wireless access points (APs...2004). Channel surfing and spatial retreats: defenses against wireless denial of service. Proceedings of 3rd ACM Workshop on Wireless Security, 80...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA DESIGNING INTERFERENCE-ROBUST WIRELESS MESH NETWORKS USING A DEFENDER-ATTACKER-DEFENDER MODEL

  5. Defending the structural concept of representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas BARTELS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper defends the structural concept of representation, defined by homomorphisms, against the main objections that have been raised against it: Logical objections, the objection from misrepresentation, the objection from failing necessity, and the copy theory objection. Homomorphic representations are not necessarily ‘copies’ of their representanda, and thus can convey scientific insight.

  6. “NGOs” Defending Migrant Workers’ Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Froissart, Chloé

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of trade union freedoms, “NGOs” have emerged to defend migrant workers’ rights. This article takes a close look at the mobilisation of such organisations, assesses their short-term impact, and examines their role in China’s political system. NGOs display a new form of activism based on pragmatic positioning and technical knowhow, especially in legal matters, all the while testing political boundaries. While such organisations act as a real counterweight within the system whose ...

  7. Defending legitimate epidemiologic research: combating Lysenko pseudoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enstrom, James E

    2007-10-10

    This analysis presents a detailed defense of my epidemiologic research in the May 17, 2003 British Medical Journal that found no significant relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and tobacco-related mortality. In order to defend the honesty and scientific integrity of my research, I have identified and addressed in a detailed manner several unethical and erroneous attacks on this research. Specifically, I have demonstrated that this research is not "fatally flawed," that I have not made "inappropriate use" of the underlying database, and that my findings agree with other United States results on this relationship. My research suggests, contrary to popular claims, that there is not a causal relationship between ETS and mortality in the U.S. responsible for 50,000 excess annual deaths, but rather there is a weak and inconsistent relationship. The popular claims tend to damage the credibility of epidemiology. In addition, I address the omission of my research from the 2006 Surgeon General's Report on Involuntary Smoking and the inclusion of it in a massive U.S. Department of Justice racketeering lawsuit. I refute erroneous statements made by powerful U.S. epidemiologists and activists about me and my research and I defend the funding used to conduct this research. Finally, I compare many aspect of ETS epidemiology in the U.S. with pseudoscience in the Soviet Union during the period of Trofim Denisovich Lysenko. Overall, this paper is intended to defend legitimate research against illegitimate criticism by those who have attempted to suppress and discredit it because it does not support their ideological and political agendas. Hopefully, this defense will help other scientists defend their legitimate research and combat "Lysenko pseudoscience."

  8. THE PUBLIC DEFENDER OFFICE IN THE NEW CIVIL PROCEDURE CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Barros dos Reis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is objective and descriptive study about the main forecasts of the New Code of Civil Procedure on the Public Defender Office, as well as their influences and consequences in the work of the Public Defender in the civil lawsuit. Starting from the analysis of the Public Defender Office as essential to justice institution with the task of promoting the rights of the needy, the study is to discuss the importance of the institution as a subject standalone process, its function as a special curator, as well as systematize the prerogatives and responsibilities of Public Defender in the New Code of Civil Procedure

  9. Defending spaceflight: The echoes of Apollo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovetto, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    This paper defends, and emphasizes the importance of, spaceflight, broadly construed to include human and unmanned spaceflight, space science, exploration and development. Within this discourse, I provide counter-replies to remarks by physicist Dr. Steven Weinberg against my previous support of human spaceflight. In this defense of peaceful spaceflight I draw upon a variety of sources. Although a focus is human spaceflight, human and unmanned modes must not be treated as an either-or opposition. Rather, each has a critical role to play in moving humanity forward as a spacefaring species. In the course of this communication, I also stress the perennial role of space agencies as science and technology-drivers, and their function to provide a stable and unified platform for space programs.

  10. AN APPROACH OF DEFENDING AGAINST DDOS ATTACK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhijun; Duan Haixin; Li Xing

    2006-01-01

    An approach of defending against Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack based on flow model and flow detection is presented. The proposed approach can protect targets from DDoS attacking, and allow targets to provide good service to legitimate traffic under DDoS attacking, with fast reaction. This approach adopts the technique of dynamic comb filter, yields a low level of false positives of less than 1.5%,drops similar percentage of good traffic, about 1%, and passes neglectable percentage of attack bandwidth to the victim, less than 1.5%. The prototype of commercial product, D-fighter, is developed by implementing this proposed approach on Intel network processor platform IXP 1200.

  11. What is Russia trying to defend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Yakovlev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the focus on the events of the last two years (2014–2015 associated with the accession of Crimea to Russia and military conflict in Eastern Ukraine, in this study, I stress that serious changes in Russian domestic policy (with strong pressure on political opposition, state propaganda and sharp anti-Western rhetoric, as well as the fight against “foreign agents’ became visible in 2012. Geopolitical ambitions to revise the “global order” (introduced by the USA after the collapse of the USSR and the increased role of Russia in “global governance” were declared by leaders of the country much earlier, with Vladimir Putin's famous Munich speech in 2007. These ambitions were based on the robust economic growth of the mid-2000s, which encouraged the Russian ruling elite to adopt the view that Russia (with its huge energy resources is a new economic superpower. In this paper, I will show that the concept of “Militant Russia” in a proper sense can be attributed rather to the period of the mid-2000s. After 2008–2009, the global financial crisis and, especially, the Arab Spring and mass political protests against electoral fraud in Moscow in December 2011, the Russian ruling elite made mostly “militant” attempts to defend its power and assets.

  12. Modeling attacker-defender interactions in information networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Michael Joseph

    2010-09-01

    The simplest conceptual model of cybersecurity implicitly views attackers and defenders as acting in isolation from one another: an attacker seeks to penetrate or disrupt a system that has been protected to a given level, while a defender attempts to thwart particular attacks. Such a model also views all non-malicious parties as having the same goal of preventing all attacks. But in fact, attackers and defenders are interacting parts of the same system, and different defenders have their own individual interests: defenders may be willing to accept some risk of successful attack if the cost of defense is too high. We have used game theory to develop models of how non-cooperative but non-malicious players in a network interact when there is a substantial cost associated with effective defensive measures. Although game theory has been applied in this area before, we have introduced some novel aspects of player behavior in our work, including: (1) A model of how players attempt to avoid the costs of defense and force others to assume these costs; (2) A model of how players interact when the cost of defending one node can be shared by other nodes; and (3) A model of the incentives for a defender to choose less expensive, but less effective, defensive actions.

  13. Resistance maximization principle for defending networks against virus attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angsheng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Pan, Yicheng

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the defending of networks against virus attack. We define the resistance of a network to be the maximum number of bits required to determine the code of the module that is accessible from random walk, from which random walk cannot escape. We show that for any network G, R(G) =H1(G) -H2(G) , where R(G) is the resistance of G, H1(G) and H2(G) are the one- and two-dimensional structural information of G, respectively, and that resistance maximization is the principle for defending networks against virus attack. By using the theory, we investigate the defending of real world networks and of the networks generated by the preferential attachment and the security models. We show that there exist networks that are defensible by a small number of controllers from cascading failure of any virus attack. Our theory demonstrates that resistance maximization is the principle for defending networks against virus attacks.

  14. Defending the Joint Force: Lessons Learned from Joint Base Balad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    the enemy’s aerial power by destroying his nests and eggs on the ground than to hunt his flying birds in the air.”1 This concept is reflected in Air...in defending its own assets and those of the joint force.  1. Giulio Douhet, The Command of the Air, trans. Dino Ferrari (1942; new imprint

  15. Templeton Prize winner defends Christianity's credibility in a scientific age

    CERN Multimedia

    Heffern, Rich

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Templeton Prize has gone to the Rev. John C. Polkinghome, a British mathematical physicist and Anglican priest, and a key spokesperson for belief in God in an age of science, defending the ideal that faith is not against science but inconcert with it

  16. Defending a New Domain: The Pentagon’s Cyberstrategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Defending a New Domain The Pentagons ~ , -., -, ,o’ C.~. be1 sn ategy IN zooS , the U.8. Department of Defense suffered a significant compromise of...professionals annually as a few years, ago. Follo’adng industry practices, the Pentagon’s nem~ork administrators are now trained in " ethical hacking," which

  17. A Functional Approach to Televised Political Spots: Acclaiming, Attacking, Defending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Pier, P. M.; Blaney, Joseph R.

    1997-01-01

    Articulates a theoretical framework for understanding the fundamental functions of political advertising (acclaiming, attacking, defending) which occur on the twin grounds of policy considerations and character. Applies this theory of political discourse to presidential general election television spots from 1980-1996, finding that Democrats and…

  18. Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific Century: Force 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-24

    sophisticated partnership. 96 Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific Century: Force 2030 Defence White Paper 2009 11.22 The Lombok Treaty on Security...auspices of the Lombok Treaty on Security Cooperation. We have also worked with other regional neighbours, such as Singapore and the Philippines. Defence

  19. Kumu täidavad rahvuslikud sümbolid, rasked valikud ja elav haridustöö / Marika Valk, Tiina Abel, Eha Komissarov...[jt.] ; interv. Ave Randviir

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstimuuseumi direktor Marika Valk, Kumu hariduskeskuse kunstnik-metoodik Anu Purre, Kumu kuraatorid Tiina Abel (püsiväljapanek Eesti kunsti klassikast ) ja Eha Komissarov (püsiväljapanek Eesti kunstist Teise Maailmasõja lõpust taasiseseisvumiseni) ning Kumu auditooriumi programmijuht-kuraator Maria-Kristiina Soomre uue muuseumi rollist, väljapanekutest, haridusprogrammidest. Lõpus "Pärle Kumu kuraatorite valikul"

  20. Renaissance Humanists:Defenders of Medieval Christian worldview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玥婷

    2006-01-01

    The Renaissance is a new golden age of intellectual achievement with a sharp contrast with the Middle Ages.Though new secular and scientific values begin to supplant traditional religious belief,there exists the continuity between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance,and humanists bear strong Christian character.They never change their devotion to Christianity and keep making their effort to maintain the primacy of Jesus.Humanists in Renaissance are defenders of medieval Christian view of the world.

  1. Attacking and Defending Covert Channels and Behavioral Models

    CERN Document Server

    Crespi, Valentino; Giani, Annarita

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present methods for attacking and defending $k$-gram statistical analysis techniques that are used, for example, in network traffic analysis and covert channel detection. The main new result is our demonstration of how to use a behavior's or process' $k$-order statistics to build a stochastic process that has those same $k$-order stationary statistics but possesses different, deliberately designed, $(k+1)$-order statistics if desired. Such a model realizes a "complexification" of the process or behavior which a defender can use to monitor whether an attacker is shaping the behavior. By deliberately introducing designed $(k+1)$-order behaviors, the defender can check to see if those behaviors are present in the data. We also develop constructs for source codes that respect the $k$-order statistics of a process while encoding covert information. One fundamental consequence of these results is that certain types of behavior analyses techniques come down to an {\\em arms race} in the sense that th...

  2. Strategies for defending a dribbler: categorisation of three defensive patterns in 1-on-1 basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Yamashita, Daichi; Yoshioka, Shinsuke; Isaka, Tadao; Kouzaki, Motoki

    2014-09-01

    To clarify the defending-dribbler mechanism, the interaction between the dribbler and defender should be investigated. The purposes of this study were to identify variables that explain the outcome (i.e. 'penetrating' and 'guarding') and to understand how defenders stop dribblers by categorising defensive patterns. Ten basketball players participated as 24 dribbler-defender pairs, who played a real-time, 1-on-1 sub-phase of the basketball. The trials were categorised into penetrating trials, where a dribbler invaded the defended area behind the defender, and guarding trials, where the defender stopped the dribbler's advance. Our results demonstrated that defenders in guarding trials initiated their movements earlier and moved quicker than the defenders in penetrating trials. Moreover, linear discriminant analysis revealed that the differences in initiation time and medio-lateral peak velocity between the defenders and dribblers were critical parameters for explaining the difference between penetrating and guarding trials. Lastly, guarding trials were further categorised into three process patterns during 1-on-1 basketball (i.e. 'early initiation' trials, 'quick movement' trials, and 'dribbler's stop' trials). The results suggest that there are three defending strategies and that one strategy would be insufficient to explain the defending-dribbler mechanism, because both players' anticipation and reactive movement must be considered.

  3. [Publications of medical thesis defended in Lille school of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotmane, Ilies; Glatz, Nicolas; Bihan, Solenn; Legrand, Fanny; Gosset, Didier; Boulanger, Eric

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the future, in terms of scientific publication, of medical thesis (MT) defended in the Medical School of Lille 2 University (MSL2U) between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2007. The collection of MT published as a corresponding scientific article was realized from PubMed(®). For every corresponding article, we determined the journal Impact Factor (IF), the language of publication and the rank of the student and his MT director in the author list. Analyses were also realized according to the group of speciality of the TM. In all, 11.3% of the 2150 MT defended in the MSL2U were followed up by a scientific publication. The average IF was 2.32 with a median at 1.75 and extreme values from 0 to 14.78. Seventy percent of the articles were published in English. The rank of the student was placed before his MT director (2.06 vs. 3.15). The MT defended by students in the field of medical specialities presented the highest rate of publication (25.1%). The general medicine was the second speciality the most productive in term of number of published articles (n=49) after medical specialities (n=103). The MT director and the PhD students must be more motivated to publish their results. The value of 11.3% could be considered as weak but, because of a huge lack of references, it is impossible to compare our results to those of other French medical schools. It remains important to reform the objectives and the modalities of the writing of a MT: should we not have to turn to thesis called "on article"? Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. The Defender’s Dilemma: Charting a Course Toward Cybersecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    defenders rarely let known holes go unpatched for very long,2 the success of a hacker often depends on finding an unknown (or at least unwatched) hole ...known holes go unpatched for very long,1 the success of a hacker often depends on finding an unknown (or at least unwatched) hole —tantamount to a...Security concerns on the Internet began with the introduction of the Morris worm in November 1988,1 and since that time we have wit- nessed the

  5. Erivajadustega lapsed / Marika Veisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veisson, Marika, 1949-

    2008-01-01

    Vaimupuudega laste arengu ja kasvatuse iseärasustest, ülevaade ka lastest, kellele on pandud Downi sündroomi ja autismi diagnoos ning tserebraalparalüüsi, tähelepanupuudulikkuse ja hüperaktiivsusega lastest

  6. Erivajadustega lapsed / Marika Veisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veisson, Marika, 1949-

    2008-01-01

    Vaimupuudega laste arengu ja kasvatuse iseärasustest, ülevaade ka lastest, kellele on pandud Downi sündroomi ja autismi diagnoos ning tserebraalparalüüsi, tähelepanupuudulikkuse ja hüperaktiivsusega lastest

  7. Annid merest / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2011-01-01

    Toiduks tarvitatavatest koorikloomadest ja molluskitest: krabi, krevett, garneel, homaar e merivähk, jõe- e väärisvähk, signaal- e tähnikvähk, langust e ogajas merivähk, auster, kammkarp, rannakarp, kaheksajalg, kalmaar, seepia e tindikala, meritigu e tõrikodalane, viinamäe- e burgundia tigu, merisiilik ning kalatootest surimi e makra

  8. Inimeseks olemisest / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2006-01-01

    Res Publica naissaadikud Ela Tomson ja Elle Kull ei hääletanud Riigikogus tasuta koolitoidu ega pensionide tõstmise poolt. Vastukaja Elle Kulli ja Ela Tomsoni artiklile "Oma sõnades üht-, tegudes teistmoodi" 25. novembri 2005. a. SL Õhtulehes

  9. Imekliinik Brasiilias / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Brasiilia Abadiania väikelinnas asuvast Casa de Dom Inacio tervendamiskeskusest, kus meediumi vahendusel toimuvad meditatsioonid ja "operatsioonid" ning inimesed paranevad lühikese ajaga rasketest haigustest. Seal ravil käinud Eesti naise kogetust

  10. Imekliinik Brasiilias / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Brasiilia Abadiania väikelinnas asuvast Casa de Dom Inacio tervendamiskeskusest, kus meediumi vahendusel toimuvad meditatsioonid ja "operatsioonid" ning inimesed paranevad lühikese ajaga rasketest haigustest. Seal ravil käinud Eesti naise kogetust

  11. A Case of Culture: Defendant Gender and Juror Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Susan; Maeder, Evelyn M

    2015-07-29

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of cultural evidence toward an automatism defense, and whether such evidence would be detrimental or beneficial to a male versus a female defendant. U.S. participants (N = 208), recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk, read a fictional spousal homicide case in which the defendant claimed to have blacked out during the crime. We manipulated the gender of the defendant and whether a culture-specific issue was claimed to have precipitated the defendant's blackout. ANOVAs revealed that cultural evidence positively affected perceived credibility for the female defendant, whereas there were no differences for the male defendant. Results also demonstrated that when cultural evidence was presented, the female defendant was seen as less in control of her actions than was the male defendant. Furthermore, lower credibility and higher perceived defendant control predicted harsher verdict decisions. This investigation may aid scholars in discussing concerns regarding a clash between multicultural and feminist objectives in the courtroom. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Racial disparity in capital punishment and its impact on family members of capital defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A review of the literature was conducted to explore the continuing racial disparity in capital punishment and its effects on family members of African American capital defendants. Statistical studies conducted on both the state and national level conclude that racial bias influences all stages of the death penalty process, with race of the victim being one of the most significant factors. This racial bias places an added burden on family members of African American capital defendants. While research has explored the impact of capital punishment on family members of capital defendants, the unique experiences of family members of African American defendants has not been addressed in the research literature.

  13. Defending the Concept of Time in the Hebrew Bible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundvad, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Due to the scarcity of reflection on time as an independent subject in the Hebrew Bible, there has been a scholarly tendency to consider biblical time conception more limited than our own, perhaps even nonexistent. This article confronts the scholarly skepticism regarding the ability...... of the biblical authors to think about time, defending the presence of time conceptualization in the Hebrew Bible. In the article I discuss central research contributions to the subject of biblical time, in particular Sacha Stern’s thesis that the concept of time is entirely absent from the Hebrew Bible and from...... ancient Judaism more widely. I explore linguistic and anthropological assumptions which underpin large parts of the discussion on time within biblical studies, arguing that one cannot assume on the basis of either that the biblical authors lacked a concept of time. Finally, I suggest that the ability...

  14. An Adaptive Approach for Defending against DDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhai Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In various network attacks, the Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS attack is a severe threat. In order to deal with this kind of attack in time, it is necessary to establish a special type of defense system to change strategy dynamically against attacks. In this paper, we introduce an adaptive approach, which is used for defending against DDoS attacks, based on normal traffic analysis. The approach can check DDoS attacks and adaptively adjust its configurations according to the network condition and attack severity. In order to insure the common users to visit the victim server that is being attacked, we provide a nonlinear traffic control formula for the system. Our simulation test indicates that the nonlinear control approach can prevent the malicious attack packets effectively while making legitimate traffic flows arrive at the victim.

  15. Defending the Concept of Time in the Hebrew Bible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundvad, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Due to the scarcity of reflection on time as an independent subject in the Hebrew Bible, there has been a scholarly tendency to consider biblical time conception more limited than our own, perhaps even nonexistent. This article confronts the scholarly skepticism regarding the ability of the bibli......Due to the scarcity of reflection on time as an independent subject in the Hebrew Bible, there has been a scholarly tendency to consider biblical time conception more limited than our own, perhaps even nonexistent. This article confronts the scholarly skepticism regarding the ability...... of the biblical authors to think about time, defending the presence of time conceptualization in the Hebrew Bible. In the article I discuss central research contributions to the subject of biblical time, in particular Sacha Stern’s thesis that the concept of time is entirely absent from the Hebrew Bible and from...

  16. Gut microbes may facilitate insect herbivory of chemically defended plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Tobin J; Bowers, M Deane

    2015-09-01

    The majority of insect species consume plants, many of which produce chemical toxins that defend their tissues from attack. How then are herbivorous insects able to develop on a potentially poisonous diet? While numerous studies have focused on the biochemical counter-adaptations to plant toxins rooted in the insect genome, a separate body of research has recently emphasized the role of microbial symbionts, particularly those inhabiting the gut, in plant-insect interactions. Here we outline the "gut microbial facilitation hypothesis," which proposes that variation among herbivores in their ability to consume chemically defended plants can be due, in part, to variation in their associated microbial communities. More specifically, different microbes may be differentially able to detoxify compounds toxic to the insect, or be differentially resistant to the potential antimicrobial effects of some compounds. Studies directly addressing this hypothesis are relatively few, but microbe-plant allelochemical interactions have been frequently documented from non-insect systems-such as soil and the human gut-and thus illustrate their potential importance for insect herbivory. We discuss the implications of this hypothesis for insect diversification and coevolution with plants; for example, evolutionary transitions to host plant groups with novel allelochemicals could be initiated by heritable changes to the insect microbiome. Furthermore, the ecological implications extend beyond the plant and insect herbivore to higher trophic levels. Although the hidden nature of microbes and plant allelochemicals make their interactions difficult to detect, recent molecular and experimental techniques should enable research on this neglected, but likely important, aspect of insect-plant biology.

  17. Defending victimized peers : Opposing the bully, supporting the victim, or both?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijntjes, Albert; Vermande, Marjolijn; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits A; Aleva, Liesbeth; van der Meulen, Matty

    2016-01-01

    To reduce bullying, more knowledge on children defending their victimized peers is critical. In previous work, predominantly cross-sectional in nature, defending has typically been operationalized as one single, broad construct. However, there are good reasons to assume that attacking the bully (bul

  18. Bystander Behavior in Bullying Situations: Basic Moral Sensitivity, Moral Disengagement and Defender Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert; Jungert, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how basic moral sensitivity in bullying, moral disengagement in bullying and defender self-efficacy were related to different bystander behaviors in bullying. Therefore, we examined pathways that linked students' basic moral sensitivity, moral disengagement, and defender self-efficacy to different…

  19. Bystander Behavior in Bullying Situations: Basic Moral Sensitivity, Moral Disengagement and Defender Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert; Jungert, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how basic moral sensitivity in bullying, moral disengagement in bullying and defender self-efficacy were related to different bystander behaviors in bullying. Therefore, we examined pathways that linked students' basic moral sensitivity, moral disengagement, and defender self-efficacy to different…

  20. The verdict on jury trials for juveniles: the effects of defendant's age on trial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warling, Diane; Peterson-Badali, Michele

    2003-01-01

    With the progression to more adult-like policies and procedures for youth in the justice system, the right to a jury trial has been extended to young offenders. These youth would not be tried by a jury of their peers, however, but by a jury of adults. The concern is that adult jurors may hold negative attitudes about youth that might influence their decision making in a case involving a young defendant. Two studies examined whether and under what conditions defendant's age affects jurors' decisions about the guilt and sentencing of an accused. In study 1, data were gathered from two samples of jury eligible adults: one university sample and one public sample. Mock jurors read written transcripts of a trial involving a defendant who was presented as either 13, 17, or 25 years of age. Results indicated that the defendant's age had no effect on mock jurors' verdict or their ratings of defendant guilt. However, younger defendants were granted shorter sentences than the adult defendants. In study 2, mock jurors read the same trial presented in study 1 but were asked to deliberate about the case and render group verdicts. These group verdicts did not differ significantly by defendant's age. Age-related themes that emerged from group deliberations were identified, and results indicated that age tended to be used as a mitigating factor in favor of youth rather than against them. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for youth justice policy and practice.

  1. Involuntary medication treatment for competency restoration of 22 defendants with delusional disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, Bryon L; Stelmach, Hans

    2007-01-01

    There are no published data on the rates of competency restoration for adjudicated incompetent felony criminal defendants diagnosed with delusional disorder. A retrospective record review was conducted of all incompetent defendants with the principal diagnosis of delusional disorder who had undergone involuntary medication treatment for competency restoration during a 13-year period at a federal psychiatric prison hospital. Of the 181 defendants who were involuntarily medicated for competency restoration during this period, 22 had delusional disorder. Seventeen (77%) of the defendants with delusional disorder improved sufficiently for the forensic evaluators to opine that they had been restored to competency after involuntary treatment with antipsychotic medication. These results are similar to the published data of the relatively high rates of competency restoration for incompetent defendants with diagnosed schizophrenia.

  2. The exploitation of an ant-defended host plant by a shelter-building herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, Micky D; Nesci, Kimberly A; Petersen, Mette K; Liu, Zhiwei; Sanchez, Horacio Bonfil

    1997-02-01

    Larvae of a Polyhymno species (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) feed on the ant-defended acacia, Acacia cornigera, in the tropical lowlands of Veracruz, Mexico. Polyhymno larvae construct sealed shelters by silking together the pinna or pinnules of acacia leaves. Although larval density and larval survival are higher on acacias not occupied by ants, shelters serve as a partial refuge from the ant Pseudomyrmex ferruginea (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which defends A. cornigera plants; thus, shelters provide Polyhymno larvae access to an ant-defended host plant. P. ferruginea ants act as the primary antiherbivore defense of A. cornigera plants, which lack the chemical and mechanical defenses of non-ant-defended acacias. Thus, defeating the ant defense of A. cornigera provides Polyhymno larvae access to an otherwise poorly defended host plant. Damage caused by Polyhymno larval feeding reaches levels which can kill A. cornigera plants.

  3. A Proposed Model for Assessing Defendant Competence to Self-Represent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mitzi M S; Gutheil, Thomas G

    2016-12-01

    The increasing number of criminal defendants who are choosing to self-represent poses special challenges for legal systems with regard to the types of limits that should be placed on a defendant's basic human right to defend himself without the assistance of counsel. While courts strive to respect the dignity and autonomy of the defendant that are encompassed in this right, they also want to ensure that justice is delivered and the dignity of the courtroom is maintained. The Supreme Court of the United States, in its opinion in Indiana v. Edwards (2008), held that while the right to self-represent recognized in Faretta v. California (1975) remains, states and trial judges can place limits on a defendant's right to self-representation when a defendant lacks the mental capacities needed to prepare and conduct an adequate defense. Following the court's lead, we first examine the types and range of tasks that a defendant who chooses to self-represent must perform. Based on this analysis, we propose a five-part model that forensic practitioners can use as a conceptual framework for assessing whether a defendant has deficits that would affect his competence to perform critical self-representation tasks. The five areas that the model recommends practitioners assess are whether a defendant can engage in goal-directed behaviors, has sufficient communication skills, can engage in constructive social intercourse, can control his emotions in an adversarial arena, and has the cognitive abilities needed to argue his case adequately. It is recommended that practitioners use the model in their testimony to provide the trier of fact with a comprehensive report of the areas in which a defendant has deficits that will prevent him from protecting his interests in receiving a fair and equitable trial. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  4. Reframing the disease debate and defending the biostatistical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    Similarly to other accounts of disease, Christopher Boorse's Biostatistical Theory (BST) is generally presented and considered as conceptual analysis, that is, as making claims about the meaning of currently used concepts. But conceptual analysis has been convincingly critiqued as relying on problematic assumptions about the existence, meaning, and use of concepts. Because of these problems, accounts of disease and health should be evaluated not as claims about current meaning, I argue, but instead as proposals about how to define and use these terms in the future, a methodology suggested by Quine and Carnap. I begin this article by describing problems with conceptual analysis and advantages of "philosophical explication," my favored approach. I then describe two attacks on the BST that also question the entire project of defining "disease." Finally, I defend the BST as a philosophical explication by showing how it could define useful terms for medical science and ethics. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Defending Against Advanced Persistent Threats Using Game-Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Sandra; Schauer, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Advanced persistent threats (APT) combine a variety of different attack forms ranging from social engineering to technical exploits. The diversity and usual stealthiness of APT turns them into a central problem of contemporary practical system security, since information on attacks, the current system status or the attacker’s incentives is often vague, uncertain and in many cases even unavailable. Game theory is a natural approach to model the conflict between the attacker and the defender, and this work investigates a generalized class of matrix games as a risk mitigation tool for an advanced persistent threat (APT) defense. Unlike standard game and decision theory, our model is tailored to capture and handle the full uncertainty that is immanent to APTs, such as disagreement among qualitative expert risk assessments, unknown adversarial incentives and uncertainty about the current system state (in terms of how deeply the attacker may have penetrated into the system’s protective shells already). Practically, game-theoretic APT models can be derived straightforwardly from topological vulnerability analysis, together with risk assessments as they are done in common risk management standards like the ISO 31000 family. Theoretically, these models come with different properties than classical game theoretic models, whose technical solution presented in this work may be of independent interest. PMID:28045922

  6. Defending the indefensible? Psychiatry, assisted suicide and human freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    The siege guns of the forces for change to euthanasia and assisted suicide laws have been pounding for decades, but the longstanding proscription on these practices has held out in all but a few jurisdictions. A few psychiatrists have enlisted with the challengers, but many remain on the battlements, defending the impermissibility of active assistance in dying. Given the long history of the separation of church and state and the significant secularisation of society; the recognition by the law of both acts and omissions as legal causes; lenient sentences for mercy killers; critiques of the "psychiatriatisation" of different aspects of life; and the consistency of public opinion, this recalcitrant stand bespeaks undercurrents and positions that are often by rationalised or camouflaged, and which call for exploration. In this paper, I examine connections between psychiatry and conceptualisations of harm, suffering and natural death; medicalisation, psychiatrisation and medical paternalism; decision-making capacity, rationality and diagnosis; recent legal developments; social pluralism; and religious intuitionism. I conclude that psychiatrists and the psychiatry profession, concerned as they are with enlarging the province of human freedom, should begin a more transparent rapprochement with those they would repel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Leptin Raises Defended Body Temperature without Activating Thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alexander W; Hoefig, Carolin S; Abreu-Vieira, Gustavo; de Jong, Jasper M A; Petrovic, Natasa; Mittag, Jens; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2016-02-23

    Leptin has been believed to exert its weight-reducing action not only by inducing hypophagia but also by increasing energy expenditure/thermogenesis. Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice have correspondingly been thought to be thermogenically limited and to show hypothermia, mainly due to atrophied brown adipose tissue (BAT). In contrast to these established views, we found that BAT is fully functional and that leptin treatment did not increase thermogenesis in wild-type or in ob/ob mice. Rather, ob/ob mice showed a decreased but defended body temperature (i.e., were anapyrexic, not hypothermic) that was normalized to wild-type levels after leptin treatment. This was not accompanied by increased energy expenditure or BAT recruitment but, instead, was mediated by decreased tail heat loss. The weight-reducing hypophagic effects of leptin are, therefore, not augmented through a thermogenic effect of leptin; leptin is, however, pyrexic, i.e., it alters centrally regulated thresholds of thermoregulatory mechanisms, in parallel to effects of other cytokines. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A media discursive genre: The defender of the viewer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Alfonso Barragán Escarpeta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents the progress of the research called “A media discursive genre: The defender of the viewer” and has the objective to characterize this particular genre. This research is based on the ideas of Bajtin (1982, Carranza (2012 as well as Social-Communicative Perspective of Charaudeau (2012 about genres, in the way that they give theoretical and methodological elements to the establishment of this characterization, and, in the same way, for being perspectives that emphasize on the social component of texts, let us to understand aspects such as relations between participants and the influence of these in discourse. To do this, our methodology analyzes two different programs of public television channels through making transcripts and images, selected from the establishment of the following categories: the field of social practice, the overall situation of communication (SGC and the specific situation of communication (SEC; also discursive properties and the formal properties; flexible frameworks and the subject agent. In this way, this article makes a practical-theoretical exercise of an inductive nature which rescues how categories of the communicative situation and the analysis of elements such as supports allow a greater deepening of different dimensions in the media discursive practices (social relation, themes, etc. as well as observing to what extent we are talking about discursive genders and sub genders in daily life.

  9. Defending Against Advanced Persistent Threats Using Game-Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rass, Stefan; König, Sandra; Schauer, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Advanced persistent threats (APT) combine a variety of different attack forms ranging from social engineering to technical exploits. The diversity and usual stealthiness of APT turns them into a central problem of contemporary practical system security, since information on attacks, the current system status or the attacker's incentives is often vague, uncertain and in many cases even unavailable. Game theory is a natural approach to model the conflict between the attacker and the defender, and this work investigates a generalized class of matrix games as a risk mitigation tool for an advanced persistent threat (APT) defense. Unlike standard game and decision theory, our model is tailored to capture and handle the full uncertainty that is immanent to APTs, such as disagreement among qualitative expert risk assessments, unknown adversarial incentives and uncertainty about the current system state (in terms of how deeply the attacker may have penetrated into the system's protective shells already). Practically, game-theoretic APT models can be derived straightforwardly from topological vulnerability analysis, together with risk assessments as they are done in common risk management standards like the ISO 31000 family. Theoretically, these models come with different properties than classical game theoretic models, whose technical solution presented in this work may be of independent interest.

  10. Alveolar epithelial type II cell: defender of the alveolus revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehrenbach Heinz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1977, Mason and Williams developed the concept of the alveolar epithelial type II (AE2 cell as a defender of the alveolus. It is well known that AE2 cells synthesise, secrete, and recycle all components of the surfactant that regulates alveolar surface tension in mammalian lungs. AE2 cells influence extracellular surfactant transformation by regulating, for example, pH and [Ca2+] of the hypophase. AE2 cells play various roles in alveolar fluid balance, coagulation/fibrinolysis, and host defence. AE2 cells proliferate, differentiate into AE1 cells, and remove apoptotic AE2 cells by phagocytosis, thus contributing to epithelial repair. AE2 cells may act as immunoregulatory cells. AE2 cells interact with resident and mobile cells, either directly by membrane contact or indirectly via cytokines/growth factors and their receptors, thus representing an integrative unit within the alveolus. Although most data support the concept, the controversy about the character of hyperplastic AE2 cells, reported to synthesise profibrotic factors, proscribes drawing a definite conclusion today.

  11. A Dutch Confederate: Charles Liernur Defends Slavery in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Douma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1850s and 1860s, Dutch immigrants in America struggled to square their racial views with the politics of slavery in their new country. The historiography of the Dutch world would benefit from incorporating this story, because it is often in moments of conflict when the most explicit expressions of ideology present themselves. The letters of Charles Liernur, a Dutch-born Confederate, provide a unique insight into the mind of an explicit supporter of slavery in an American context. How and why a Dutchman could defend slavery is the primary question this article addresses. Building on Liernur’s story, this article also challenges the standard view that Dutch Americans were natural opponents of slavery. Instead, they held diverse and ambiguous views, shaped in part by the circumstances of their settlement.Een Nederlandse Confederate: Charles Liernur verdedigt slavernij in AmerikaIn de jaren vijftig en zestig van de negentiende eeuw hadden Nederlandse immigranten in Amerika grote moeite een standpunt in te nemen met betrekking tot de slavernij. Een analyse daarvan lijkt van belang voor de Nederlandse geschiedschrijving, omdat ideologische overtuigingen vaak tijdens conflicten op scherpe wijze uitgedragen worden. De brieven van Charles Liernur, een Nederlandse ‘Confederate’, bieden een unieke blik op de denkwereld van eenuitgesproken voorstander van de slavernij. Hoe en waarom kon een Nederlander zo fel de slavernij verdedigen? Dat is de centrale vraag waarop dit artikel een antwoord probeert te geven. Het verhaal van Liernur laat zien dat de gangbare visie, dat Nederlandse Amerikanen van nature tegenstanders van de slavernij waren, niet klopt. Immigranten hadden veeleer uiteenlopende en ambigue meningen over slavernij, bepaald door de omstandigheden waarmee ze in hun nieuwe vaderland te maken kregen.

  12. The expression of stereotypes of criminals and human rights defenders: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos E. Pereira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate, between Brazilian and Spanish participants, the stereotypes of criminals and human rights defenders, and the extent to which this assessment is affected by the type of crime and the implicit theories adopted to explain criminal behavior. Even though the results indicated differences in the attribution of stereotypes to criminals and human rights defenders, it was not possible to identify any effect on the expression of stereotypes from the type of crime or the implicit theories. Although a certain homogeneity in the stereotypes of criminals can be demonstrated, in the case of human rights defenders the stereotypical representation is more complex and contradictory.

  13. Competency to stand trial and defendants who lack insight into their mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Andrew D; Piel, Jennifer; Makey, Miller

    2013-01-01

    Forensic evaluators often assess patients who lack insight into their mental illnesses. This lack of insight can have a significant impact on the defendant's ability to make legal strategy decisions that rely on their acceptance of their mental illness. In this article, the relationship between refusing an insanity plea and competency to stand trial will be explored in the context of defendants who lack insight into their mental illness. The authors argue that an adequate competency assessment should take into account the defendant's ability to consider his available pleas rationally. Such evaluations may have the effect of negating the necessity of a Frendak inquiry in those jurisdictions that can impose the insanity defense on defendants.

  14. Jurors' locus of control and defendants' attractiveness in death penalty sentencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Crystal M; Spray, Beverly J; Pietz, Christina A

    2007-06-01

    The authors examined the relationship between jurors' locus of control and defendants' attractiveness in death penalty sentencing. Ninety-eight participants voluntarily served as mock jurors. The authors administered J. B. Rotter's (1966) Internal-External Locus of Control Scale to participants and then randomly assigned them to a group with either an attractive or an unattractive defendant (represented by photographs). Participants read a murder vignette and selected a punishment--either a lifetime jail sentence or the death penalty-for the defendant. Results indicated that neither jurors' locus of control nor defendants' attractiveness influenced sentencing. However, jurors' age and gender significantly influenced sentencing. Men, with the exception of the youngest men, were more likely than women to choose the death penalty. Additionally, young women were more likely than older women to select the death penalty. The authors discuss the implications of these results for the study of jury behavior and bias.

  15. Local government under the defenders of the constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svirčević Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the development of local government under the rule of the constitution defenders 1842-1858. The author describes the historical facts that led to the abdication of Prince Miloš and the establishment of an oligarchic government of chieftains assembled in a council (Toma Vučić Perišić, Avram Petronijević, Hadji Milutin Garašanin and his son Ilija Stojan and Aleksa Simić, as well as the process of building a modern state administration and cultural identity, an integral part of which was a narrower process of constituting local government. A distinct role in the latter process was played by the Austrian-born Serbs, the only intelligentsia in the Principality of Serbia which was still under Turkish suzerainty. Special attention is given to the analysis of two local government acts instituting centralized local authorities with an enhanced law enforcement role in the districts, counties and communes. Those are District Prefectural System and of County Prefect Office Act of 12 May 1839 and Communal System Act of 13 July the same year. Of great importance was the former law, one of the longest-lived in the history of nineteenth-century Serbian constitutionalism. It was in force in 1839-88 and 1894-1903. Every autocratic regime in Serbia was to rely on it. Its distinctive feature is that it subordinated district and county prefects to the central authority and to the minister of internal affairs. They were reduced to mere police agents deprived of any freedom of action. Thus the local officials assumed the character of rigid administrators looking down on the common people. A natural continuation of this law was the other law of communal organization which turned the lowest local units into mere executive agencies of counties. Thus local government took on the form of a mere transmission of the central government, functioning according to a principle similar to the medieval lord-vassal system: my vassal's vassal is not my

  16. Modeling Resources Allocation in Attacker-Defender Games with "Warm Up" CSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Peiqiu; Zhuang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Like many other engineering investments, the attacker's and defender's investments may have limited impact without initial capital to "warm up" the systems. This article studies such "warm up" effects on both the attack and defense equilibrium strategies in a sequential-move game model by developing a class of novel and more realistic contest success functions. We first solve a single-target attacker-defender game analytically and provide numerical solutions to a multiple-target case. We compare the results of the models with and without consideration of the investment "warm up" effects, and find that the defender would suffer higher expected damage, and either underestimate the attacker effort or waste defense investment if the defender falsely believes that no investment "warm up" effects exist. We illustrate the model results with real data, and compare the results of the models with and without consideration of the correlation between the "warm up" threshold and the investment effectiveness. Interestingly, we find that the defender is suggested to give up defending all the targets when the attack or the defense "warm up" thresholds are sufficiently high. This article provides new insights and suggestions on policy implications for homeland security resource allocation.

  17. Extended defense systems :I. adversary-defender modeling grammar for vulnerability analysis and threat assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkle, Peter Benedict

    2006-03-01

    Vulnerability analysis and threat assessment require systematic treatments of adversary and defender characteristics. This work addresses the need for a formal grammar for the modeling and analysis of adversary and defender engagements of interest to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Analytical methods treating both linguistic and numerical information should ensure that neither aspect has disproportionate influence on assessment outcomes. The adversary-defender modeling (ADM) grammar employs classical set theory and notation. It is designed to incorporate contributions from subject matter experts in all relevant disciplines, without bias. The Attack Scenario Space U{sub S} is the set universe of all scenarios possible under physical laws. An attack scenario is a postulated event consisting of the active engagement of at least one adversary with at least one defended target. Target Information Space I{sub S} is the universe of information about targets and defenders. Adversary and defender groups are described by their respective Character super-sets, (A){sub P} and (D){sub F}. Each super-set contains six elements: Objectives, Knowledge, Veracity, Plans, Resources, and Skills. The Objectives are the desired end-state outcomes. Knowledge is comprised of empirical and theoretical a priori knowledge and emergent knowledge (learned during an attack), while Veracity is the correspondence of Knowledge with fact or outcome. Plans are ordered activity-task sequences (tuples) with logical contingencies. Resources are the a priori and opportunistic physical assets and intangible attributes applied to the execution of associated Plans elements. Skills for both adversary and defender include the assumed general and task competencies for the associated plan set, the realized value of competence in execution or exercise, and the opponent's planning assumption of the task competence.

  18. Main and moderated effects of moral cognition and status on bullying and defending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravita, Simona C S; Gini, Gianluca; Pozzoli, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the relations of two dimensions of moral cognition (i.e., acceptance of moral transgression and moral disengagement) and two forms of status in the peer group (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity) with bullying and defending among 235 primary-school children and 305 middle-school early adolescents. Social status was tested as a moderator of the associations between moral cognition and bullying and defending. Participants completed self-reports assessing the two dimensions of moral cognition and peer nominations for status, bullying, and defending. Both acceptance of moral transgression and moral disengagement were associated to bullying among early adolescents only, whereas in childhood moral disengagement was linked to defending among girls. Social status moderated the associations between morality dimensions and bullying and defending. The moderating effects of status were discussed considering status as a magnifying lens for the relations between individual characteristics and social behavior. The results were also discussed with reference to age and gender differences in the associations.

  19. Friendship selection and influence in bullying and defending: effects of moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J; Rambaran, J Ashwin; Caravita, Simona C S; Gini, Gianluca

    2014-08-01

    The current study examined the development of bullying and defending over a 1-year period as related to friends' influence and individual and friends' moral disengagement (i.e., self-justification mechanisms that allow one to avoid moral self-censure of transgressive actions) in children and young adolescents. Via longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena), it was tested whether similarity between friends in bullying and defending developed over time due to friends' influence, while controlling for friendship selection processes, and whether there were differences in these processes between children (age 9-10 years; n = 133; 42.9% girls) and young adolescents (age 11-14 years; n = 236; 40.6% girls). Results showed that individuals selected peers as friends who were similar in bullying and became more similar to friends in bullying over time, but only in early adolescence. Moreover, there was marginal support that friends' influence was stronger in young adolescents with higher moral disengagement. In early adolescence, bullying was also indirectly influenced through friends' moral disengagement, with different effects for boys and girls. With regard to defending, young adolescents maintained friendships with peers who were similar in defending, and became more similar to friends in terms of defending over time. These findings suggest important differences between late childhood and early adolescence in socialization processes and indicate that in early adolescence, friends' influence on the development of bullying is partially affected by moral disengagement. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. IS MISS SYMPATHY A CREDIBLE DEFENDANT ALLEGING INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN A TRIAL FOR MURDER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Expósito

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Current research has postulated that judicial inferencing and judgement-making are subject to biased appraisals. This study assessed the factors reported in the literature associated to the appraisal of criminality in a mock case of a battered woman standing trial for murdering her husband, and who pleaded legitimate self-defence in response to an instance of intimate partner violence. A nationwide sample of 169 police officers from different cities in Spain freely volunteered to participate in the study. Using a mock trial design, the defendant´s prototypicality (prototypical vs. non-prototypical, and physical attractiveness (attractive vs. unattractive were manipulated. Participants were required to assess the criminality (credibility, responsibility, and controllability of a battered woman accused of murdering her husband, and who alleged legitimate self-defence in response to an incident of intimate partner violence. The results showed that a defendant perceived as the prototype of a battered woman was judged as having less or no control of the situation; physical attractiveness increased the perception of the defendant´s responsibility in committing the crime; and an interaction between prototypicality and attractiveness in assigning credibility to the defendant´s testimony. Moreover, hostile sexism mediated the relationship between the defendant´s prototypicality and controllability. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for judicial judgement making in cases of battered women who kill their aggressors.

  1. ¿POR QUÉ DEFENDER LA CIENCIA EN COLOMBIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Forero González

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Un grupo de nuestros más destacados científicos le cuenta a la sociedad colombiana por qué es necesario defender la ciencia en el país, demuestra con lujo de detalles porqué este tema se considera importante y se refiere a la forma como los países más avanzados del mundo han alcanzado esos niveles de desarrollo gracias a sus inversiones en educación, ciencia y tecnología. También, llama la atención sobre el hecho que la clase política tiene el deber ético de hacer políticas sobre ciencia, tecnología e innovación fundamentándose en los planteamientos de los académicos. En efecto, cuando se definen políticas como las contenidas en el documento Conpes de Competitividad, Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación sin la participación de la comunidad académica, el resultado siempre es deficiente. Adicionalmente, así como el documento Conpes no deja tranquila a la comunidad científica, el Sistema Nacional de Regalías también produce muchas dudas y preocupaciones, por lo cual se sugiere que se piense desde el Senado en una reforma a ese sistema para que, por ejemplo, la evaluación y posterior aprobación de los proyectos de ciencia, tecnología e innovación sean definidas sobre una base académica, no política. Para comenzar, da la impresión que, en general, las políticas gubernamentales ignoran por completo a la comunidad académica. En días recientes recibí una invitación por parte del Departamento Nacional de Planeación para el lanzamiento del Plan Maestro de la Orinoquia, ‘una estrategia integral con proyección para el año 2030, para el desarrollo regional, con un enfoque diferenciado que involucra la articulación Nación-Territorio’, pero entre los conferencistas invitados no había ni un sólo representante de la comunidad científica o académica. Sin embargo, cabe señalar que no hay área de importancia para el país que no sea impactada por las contribuciones de las ciencias básicas: la salud, el medio

  2. How sick is the defendant? Forensic and emergency medical aspects at trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, C; Peters, M

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of a defendant's ability to stand trial is a core task in the field of legal medicine as a supportive instrument of jurisprudence. Before the trial, the court-appointed expert informs him-/herself regarding existing somatic and psychological illness(-es) within the context of preparing an expert evaluation, then composing the written expert evaluation, which reflects the condition of the subject at the time of the examination and arrives at an assessment of the ability to stand trial. The decompensation or aggravation of illnesses - in particular in stressful situations, as is to be expected for the defendant in the courtroom - can thus be taken into consideration such that alongside the current evaluation of the defendant's health condition, emergency medical treatment may also become necessary in court at times. We present three case reports about forensic and emergency medical aspects at trial, considering how the forensic expert can be able to meet the subsequent challenges.

  3. Defending behaviors, bullying roles, and their associations with mental health in junior high school students: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Chi; Luu, Shyuemeng; Luh, Dih-Ling

    2016-10-10

    Students should be encouraged to help prevent or stop bullying. However, defending victims of bullying can impact on mental health. It is not only bystanders who may defend victims, but bullies, victims and bully-victims can also have defending behaviors. Nevertheless, most studies of defending behaviors have been limited to an examination of the reactions of bystanders or those not involved in bullying and have ignored the other players. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between defending behaviors and mental health among bullies, victims, bully-victims and bystanders. Associations among defending behaviors, mental health (including depressive symptoms and social anxiety), and bullying experiences were cross-sectionally examined in 3441 students (13-15 years old.) from 20 randomly selected junior high schools in Taiwan using a self-report questionnaire. SAS 9.3 Survey Analysis procedures were used to conduct descriptive analysis and multiple regression models. Defending behaviors were associated with bullying roles and were higher in victims than in bullies or bystanders. Defending behaviors were positively associated with social anxiety and depressive symptoms. After stratifying by bullying roles, defending behaviors were positively associated with social anxiety in bystanders, and were positively associated with depressive symptoms in victims and bystanders. However, defending behaviors were not significantly associated with mental health indicators in bullies. The associations between defending behaviors and mental health varied according to bullying roles. The results suggest that bystanders and victims experience more mental health effects than bullies. Intervention programs aimed at preventing bullying should focus on strategies that minimize social anxiety and depression in victims and bystanders, and urge students to help vulnerable peers during bullying events.

  4. MMPI Profiles and Code Types of Responsible and Non-Responsible Criminal Defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlychek, Robert T.; Jordan, L.

    1980-01-01

    Compared MMPI profiles and two-point code types of criminal defendants (N=50) pleading a defense of "not responsible due to mental disease or defect." A sign test was computed, treating the clinical scales as matched pairs, and a significant difference was found; the nonresponsible group profile was more elevated. (Author)

  5. Friendship Selection and Influence in Bullying and Defending: Effects of Moral Disengagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Rambaran, J. Ashwin; Caravita, Simona C. S.; Gini, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the development of bullying and defending over a 1-year period as related to friends' influence and individual and friends' moral disengagement (i.e., self-justification mechanisms that allow one to avoid moral self-censure of transgressive actions) in children and young adolescents. Via longitudinal social network…

  6. Friendship Selection and Influence in Bullying and Defending : Effects of Moral Disengagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J; Rambaran, J Ashwin; Caravita, Simona C S; Gini, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the development of bullying and defending over a 1-year period as related to friends' influence and individual and friends' moral disengagement (i.e., self-justification mechanisms that allow one to avoid moral self-censure of transgressive actions) in children and young a

  7. Friendship selection and influence in bullying and defending : Effects of moral disengagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J.J.; Rambaran, J.A.; Caravita, S.C.S.; Gini, G.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the development of bullying and defending over a 1-year period as related to friends’ influence and individual and friends’ moral disengagement (i.e., self-justification mechanisms that allow one to avoid moral self-censure of transgressive actions) in children and young

  8. Friendship Selection and Influence in Bullying and Defending : Effects of Moral Disengagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J; Rambaran, J Ashwin; Caravita, Simona C S; Gini, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the development of bullying and defending over a 1-year period as related to friends' influence and individual and friends' moral disengagement (i.e., self-justification mechanisms that allow one to avoid moral self-censure of transgressive actions) in children and young

  9. Paralegals: A Resource for Public Defenders and Correctional Services. Prescriptive Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, John Hollister

    Addressed to leaders of defender offices and inmate legal services programs, this document provides information with which to implement the paralegal concept. Stated objectives of the manual are as follows: (1) To tell administrators where successful projects are, (2) to steer administrators to other sources of information, (3) to describe optimum…

  10. Expression of defender against apoptotic death (DAD-1) in iris and dianthus petals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, van der D.A.M.; Ruys, G.; Dees, D.; Schoot, van der C.; Boer, de A.D.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2003-01-01

    The gene defender against apoptotic death (DAD-1) prevents programmed cell death in animal cells. We investigated the expression pattern of DAD-1 in petals of iris (Iris x hollandica cv. Blue Magic) and carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Etarro). DAD-1 expression in Iris petals was strongly reduce

  11. Bystanders matter: Associations between reinforcing, defending, and the frequency of bullying behavior in classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmivalli, C.; Voeten, M.J.M.; Poskiparta, E.H.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether the bystanders’ behaviors (reinforcing the bully vs. defending the victim) in bullying situations are related to the frequency of bullying in a classroom. The sample consisted of 6,764 primary school children from Grades 3 to 5 (9–11 years of age), who were nested wit

  12. Red knots give up flight capacity and defend food processing capacity during winter starvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, Maurine W.; Piersma, Theunis; Williams, Tony

    2007-01-01

    During the last phase of starvation, animals depend mainly on protein breakdown. All organs are a potential protein source. Do starving animals prevent particular organs from being catabolized in order to defend certain functions? In this study we investigated if starving birds maintain locomotion a

  13. 40 CFR 312.28 - Specialized knowledge or experience on the part of the defendant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specialized knowledge or experience on... knowledge or experience on the part of the defendant. (a) Persons to whom this part is applicable per § 312.1(b) must take into account, their specialized knowledge of the subject property, the...

  14. Empathy, Social Dominance Orientation, Mortality Salience, and Perceptions of a Criminal Defendant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Crawley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In two studies, participants completed measures of trait empathy and social dominance orientation, read a summary of a hit and run trial, and provided reactions to the case. In Study 1, the three randomly assigned conditions included a prompt to empathize with the victims, the empathy prompt with a mortality salience manipulation, and a control condition. Participants high in trait empathy were harsher in their judgments of the defendant than were low empathy participants, particularly after having read the mortality salience prompt. The results indicated that mortality salience had triggered personality differences. Participants high in social dominance assigned harsher sentences across conditions. Study 2 involved the same paradigm, but the prompts were presented on behalf of the defendant. Despite the pro-defendant slant, the pattern of results was similar to Study 1. Differences by trait empathy were more apparent among participants experiencing mortality salience, and social dominance was related to sentence choices. There were no indications in either study of mortality salience increasing bias against defendants in general or increasing racial bias.

  15. Defending Childhood: Keeping the Promise of Early Education. Early Childhood Education Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Beverly, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book brings together a group of extraordinary educators and scholars who offer important insights about what we can do to defend childhood from societal challenges. The authors explain new findings from neuroscience and psychology, as well as emerging knowledge about the impact on child development of cultural and linguistic diversity,…

  16. Bullying and defending behavior: The role of explicit and implicit moral cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Tiziana; Gini, Gianluca; Thornberg, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Research on bullying has highlighted the role of morality in explaining the different behavior of students during bullying episodes. However, the research has been limited to the analysis of explicit measures of moral characteristics and moral reasoning, whereas implicit measures have yet to be fully considered. To overcome this limitation, this study investigated the association between bullying and defending, on one hand, and both explicit (moral disengagement, self-importance of moral values) and implicit (immediate affect toward moral stimuli [IAMS]) moral components, on the other hand. Young adolescents (N=279, mean age=11years, 9months, 44.4% girls) completed a series of self-report scales and individually performed a computer task investigating the IAMS. Two hierarchical regressions (bootstrapping method) were performed. Results showed that moral disengagement was associated with bullying and defending behavior at high levels of IAMS, however not when IAMS was low. In contrast, self-importance of moral values was not significantly associated to the two behaviors when IAMS was high whereas both associations were significant at low levels of IAMS. These results significantly expand previous knowledge about the role of morality in bullying and defending behavior. In particular, they highlight the role of the interaction between explicit and implicit moral dimensions in predicting bullying and defending behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 13 CFR 142.41 - How does SBA protect the rights of defendants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does SBA protect the rights of defendants? 142.41 Section 142.41 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Decisions and Appeals § 142.41 How does SBA protect the rights...

  18. 13 CFR 142.12 - How does a defendant respond to the complaint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does a defendant respond to the complaint? 142.12 Section 142.12 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Procedures Following Service of A Complaint § 142.12 How...

  19. 13 CFR 142.13 - What happens if a defendant fails to file an answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What happens if a defendant fails to file an answer? 142.13 Section 142.13 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Procedures Following Service of A Complaint § 142.13...

  20. Arbitrariness and the death penalty: how the defendant's appearance during trial influences capital jurors' punishment decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the defendant's appearance during the trial on capital jurors' punishment decision. The data used in this analysis were gathered by the Capital Jury Project (CJP), a national program of research on the decision-making of capital jurors. A series of multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted using four aggravating circumstances related to the killing and eight defendant appearance variables as predictors of jurors' punishment decision at three points during the capital trial: (1) after the punishment phase ended, but before formal deliberation began; (2) when the first vote was taken on punishment at jury deliberations; and (3) at the final vote on punishment. Results indicated that when the defendant appeared emotionally involved during the trial (i.e. sorry and sincere) jurors either favored a life sentence or were undecided about punishment; however, when the defendant appeared emotionally uninvolved during the trial (i.e. bored) jurors either sought a death sentence or remained undecided. Policy implications will be discussed.

  1. TÜ, TPÜ ja EHI uusi magistreid / Eda Tursk, Hille Roots, Heidi Meier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tursk, Eda

    2004-01-01

    Tartu ülikooli eesti ja soome-ugri keeleteaduse osakonnas ning kirjanduse ja rahvaluule osakonnas kaitsesid 2003.a. magistritööd Niina Aasmäe, Piret Voll, Larissa Degel, Reet Hendrikson, Tiina Pai, Petar Kehayov, Anna Baidullina, Katrin Ennus, Kristi Jõesaar, Ell Vahtramäe, Lauri Sommer, Andreas Kalkun, Mirjam Hinrikus, Kristel Nõlvak. Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikoolis kaitsesid 2003.a. magistritööd Sirje Nootre, Merike Mägedi, Tiiu Koovit, Heidi Meier, Jaanika Stackhouse, Lilian Ossi, Annika Vamper, Marika Mikkor, Piret Õunapuu, Helin Puksand, Taimi Rosenberg. Eesti Humanitaarinstituudis kaitses 2003.a. magistritööd Merilin Miljan

  2. The participation of juvenile defendants in the youth court. A comparative study of juvenile justice procedures in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rap, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    This study revolves around the issue of the participation of juvenile defendants in the youth court. The European Court of Human Rights has put forward the notion that defendants should be able to participate effectively in a court hearing. Moreover, in international children’s rights law it is stip

  3. Sukeldumisharjutused prantslaste fotopeol / Marika Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Marika

    2006-01-01

    37. fotofestivalist Arles'is Prantsusmaal, mille peakuraatoriks oli fotograaf ja kineast Raymond Depardon. Näitusel on esitatud tema vanade sõprade David Angeli, Guy Le Querrec'i, Jean Gaumy ja David Burnetti töid, aga ka kaasaegset ühiskonda peegeldavate fotograafide Gilles Leimdorferi, Philippe Chanceli, Olivier Jobardi jt töid

  4. Kergitajad, paksendajad, tarretajad / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2012-01-01

    Nii looduslikest (alginiinhape, guarkummi e guarjahu, jaanileivapuujahu, karrageen, ksantaankummi, kummiaraabik, pektiin) kui tööstuslikult toodetud paksendajatest, tarretajatest ja kergitusainetest

  5. Arenguindeks = Development index / Marika Kivilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivilaid, Marika

    2005-01-01

    Kokkuvõte kohalike omavalitsusüksuste arenguindeksi, mis on kolme näitaja (ettevõtete realiseerimise netokäive elaniku kohta, üksikisiku tulumaksu laekumine elaniku kohta, registreeritud töötuse määr) pingeridade kohapunktide summa, arvutamise tulemustest

  6. Sukeldumisharjutused prantslaste fotopeol / Marika Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Marika

    2006-01-01

    37. fotofestivalist Arles'is Prantsusmaal, mille peakuraatoriks oli fotograaf ja kineast Raymond Depardon. Näitusel on esitatud tema vanade sõprade David Angeli, Guy Le Querrec'i, Jean Gaumy ja David Burnetti töid, aga ka kaasaegset ühiskonda peegeldavate fotograafide Gilles Leimdorferi, Philippe Chanceli, Olivier Jobardi jt töid

  7. Vananemise vastu toiduga / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2012-01-01

    Toitumisteaduste magistri David Wolfe poolt soovitatud vananemise märke aeglustavatest ning pidurdavatest supertoitudest ja toidulisanditest: kasekäsn e must pässik, reishi-seen,kakao, assai, avokaado, brokoli, sidrun, õun, õunamahl, õunasiider, õunaäärikas, maka e mugulkress, goji ja mooruspuu marjad; vetikad klorella ja spirulina; toidulisandid EDTA – etüleendiamiin-tetraäädikhape (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), humiin- või fulvohape, MSM – metüülsulfonüülmetaan

  8. Arenguindeks = Development index / Marika Kivilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivilaid, Marika

    2005-01-01

    Kokkuvõte kohalike omavalitsusüksuste arenguindeksi, mis on kolme näitaja (ettevõtete realiseerimise netokäive elaniku kohta, üksikisiku tulumaksu laekumine elaniku kohta, registreeritud töötuse määr) pingeridade kohapunktide summa, arvutamise tulemustest

  9. Kivid sinu sees / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2011-01-01

    Sapi- ja neerukivide tekke põhjustest, ravist nii tavameditsiini kui ka Steineri poolt loodud antroposoofilise meditsiini vahenditega ning mida saab teha, et kividest hoiduda. Nõuannavad Ida-Tallinna Keskhaigla kirurgid Rein Lumiste ja Toomas Tamm ning perearstikeskuse Medicum perearst Pille Soone

  10. Vananemise vastu toiduga / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2012-01-01

    Toitumisteaduste magistri David Wolfe poolt soovitatud vananemise märke aeglustavatest ning pidurdavatest supertoitudest ja toidulisanditest: kasekäsn e must pässik, reishi-seen,kakao, assai, avokaado, brokoli, sidrun, õun, õunamahl, õunasiider, õunaäärikas, maka e mugulkress, goji ja mooruspuu marjad; vetikad klorella ja spirulina; toidulisandid EDTA – etüleendiamiin-tetraäädikhape (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), humiin- või fulvohape, MSM – metüülsulfonüülmetaan

  11. THE EDUCATION AND SOCIALIZATION CONCEPT OF THE DEFENDANTS IN RUSSIAN CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav T. Volov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to present the authors’ rehabilitation and development concept of identity of the defendant. Modern penal system instead of resocialization initiates person desocialization, i.e. isolation of the people who have offended against the law, does not promote their rehabilitation and reeducation. Due to external macro-isolation the defendant at all desire can not be isolated from criminogenic micro-society of the custodial institution, where he/she serves the sentence. Long stay in such position often leads to destruction of the person’s standard-valuable sphere and recidivism of asocial behaviour. Providing defendants with possibility of distant vocational training in a higher educational institution as one of the possible variants of positive socialization in extreme conditions of the restraint is given by the authors of this paper. Methods. Longitudinal method has been used during the long experiment on defendants’ socialization providing them with higher education. Quantitative measures have been carried out on the basis of monitoring and the statistic data of comparative analysis of its standard-valuable characteristics of the trainable and non-trainable defendants. Expert estimations of correctional officers and teachers or tutors of the higher school (the Modern University for the Humanities and in-depth interviews with former defendants ended high school have been used too. Results and scientific novelty. The phenomenon essence of penal isolation is found out. The external and internal factors defining the process of defendants’ socialization/desocialization in correctional institution are mentioned. Religion and penal education are highlighted as the most effective and positive factors. The principles of person’s rehabilitation on the basis of getting higher education by defendants are formulated: the extremity principle, the congruence principal, the balance principle between the personal isolation and

  12. Bystanders matter: associations between reinforcing, defending, and the frequency of bullying behavior in classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmivalli, Christina; Voeten, Marinus; Poskiparta, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether the bystanders' behaviors (reinforcing the bully vs. defending the victim) in bullying situations are related to the frequency of bullying in a classroom. The sample consisted of 6,764 primary school children from Grades 3 to 5 (9-11 years of age), who were nested within 385 classrooms in 77 schools. The students filled out Internet-based questionnaires in their schools' computer labs. The results from multilevel models showed that defending the victim was negatively associated with the frequency of bullying in a classroom, whereas the effect of reinforcing the bully was positive and strong. The results suggest that bystander responses influence the frequency of bullying, which makes them suitable targets for antibullying interventions.

  13. Study on group air to ground attack-defends hierarchical dynamic decision-making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As to oppositional,multi-objective and hierarchical characteristic of air formation to ground attack-defends campaign,and using dynamic space state model of military campaign,this article establishes a principal and subordinate hierarchical interactive decision-making way,the Nash-Stackelberg-Nash model,to solve the problems in military operation,and find out the associated best strategy in hierarchical dynamic decision-making.The simulating result indicate that when applying the model to air formation to ground attack-defends decision-making system,it can solve the problems of two hierarchies'dynamic oppositional decision-making favorably,and reach preferable effect in battle.It proves that the model can provide an effective way for analyzing a battle.

  14. Defending to the Four Directions Evolving Uechi-ryu’s Hojoundo Exercises for Advanced Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihor Rymaruk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces “Defending to the Four Directions,” techniques that add challenge to Uechi-ryu while incorporating and building upon the traditional katas which have formed the basis of the style. Making changes within a style’s training methods just to be different without any other purpose is of little value and actually destructive to the system. This article describes a meaningful and realistic addition to the practice of hojoundo, the formal exercises incorporating basic movements. “Defending to the Four Directions” is intended for advanced students who have mastered Uechi-ryu’s foundamentals. In addition, the practice is well-suited for adaptation and adoption into other martial art styles.

  15. Putting polluters in jail: the imposition of criminal sanctions on corporate defendants under environmental statutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Congress included criminal sanctions in several current environmental statutes in an attempt to punish those who jeopardize the public's health and well being by polluting. After exploring how criminal sanctions are actually employed by the courts against corporate defendants, the author argues that these sanctions are ineffective deterrents. Special problems which exist for the prosecutor or judge who attempts to invoke criminal sanctions against a corporate defendant raise questions about the feasibility and propriety of punishing the corporate entities and difficulties associated with proceeding against a corporate official or responsible individual within the corporate organization. The only way to make the sanctions effective is to use them and to impose both fines and jail sentences on the guilty parties.

  16. Competency restoration treatment: differences between defendants declared competent or incompetent to stand trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advokat, Claire D; Guidry, Devan; Burnett, Darla M R; Manguno-Mire, Gina; Thompson, John W

    2012-01-01

    Archival data of inpatient defendants referred for competency restoration were used to make comparisons between those who were restored to competency (CST; n = 43) and those who remained incompetent (IST; n = 15). The groups did not differ on demographic variables, intellectual capacity, type of offense (violent versus nonviolent), clinical diagnoses, substance abuse, or psychotic symptomatology, as measured by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. However, the CST group performed significantly better than the IST group on both the initial and final Georgia Court Competency Test and Global Assessment of Functioning scale. Psychotic symptom severity decreased significantly only in the CST group, and the CST group was discharged significantly sooner (7.7 ± 8.6 months) than the IST group (17.9 ± 7.0 months). While consistent with prior research, this is the first study to compare both psycholegal comprehension and specific clinical symptoms in defendants before and after competency restoration treatment.

  17. Lay people in court: the experience of defendants, eyewitnesses and victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Nigel G

    2013-06-01

    The article considers the effect of criminal trial procedures on the experience at court of victims, witnesses and defendants. Trials for offences involving physical violence were observed, and interviews conducted with those involved. The article highlights communication problems lay people encountered relating to courtroom conventions, discusses alternative procedures granting more room for narrative testimony, and draws parallels between such an approach and principles of research methods directed to securing valid, reliable data. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  18. Race, law, and health: Examination of 'Stand Your Ground' and defendant convictions in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Nicole; Goodman, Melody S; Gilbert, Keon; Arroyo-Johnson, Cassandra; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-10-01

    Previous analyses of Stand Your Ground (SYG) cases have been primarily descriptive. We examine the relationship between race of the victim and conviction of the defendant in SYG cases in Florida from 2005 to 2013. Using a regression analytic approach, we allow for simultaneous examination of multiple factors to better understand existing interrelationships. Data was obtained from the Tampa Bay Times SYG database (237 cases) which was supplemented with available online court documents and/or news reports. After excluding cases which were, still pending as of January 2015; had multiple outcomes (because of multiple suspects); and missing information on race of victim and weapon of victim, our final analytic sample has 204 cases. We chose whether the case resulted in a conviction as the outcome. We develop logistic regression models using significant bivariate predictors as candidates. These include race of the victim (White, non-White), whether the defendant could have retreated from the situation, whether the defendant pursued the victim, if the victim was unarmed, and who was the initiator of the confrontation. We find race of the victim to be a significant predictor of case outcome in this data set. After controlling for other variables, the defendant is two times (OR = 2.1, 95% CI [1.07, 4.10]) more likely to be convicted in a case that involves White victims compared to those involving non-White victims. Our results depict a disturbing message: SYG legislation in Florida has a quantifiable racial bias that reveals a leniency in convictions if the victim is non-White, which provides evidence towards unequal treatment under the law. Rather than attempting to hide the outcomes of these laws, as was done in Florida, other states with SYG laws should carry out similar analyses to see if their manifestations are the same as those in Florida, and all should remediate any injustices found.

  19. Data defenders

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Uniting High-Energy Physics institutes, experimental collaborations and funding agencies, the HEP Data Preservation Initiative (DPHEP) has set out to change the way we save “information”.   When we talk about preserving physics results, our minds first turn to preserving raw data. But data preservation is much more than just the keeping of bits; it also involves saving the software used. Data needs to be available once experiments end, and it needs to be interpretable. Suppose a new theory or discovery arises and we need to revisit previous data sets with our new understanding. This could occur five, ten, fifty years from now... how can we ensure that the full potential of our data will be accessible then? Back in 2009, collaborations at CERN, DESY, SLAC and FNAL had a similar revelation. Colliders were coming to the end of their life and, if no action was taken, the data would effectively be lost forever. To tackle this issue, laboratories and experiments worldwide establish...

  20. Defending Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Television audiences around the country were shocked on November 21,2009, when national broadcaster China Central Television showed clips of two families violently fighting lawenforcement officials who were evicting them from their homes. The first incident being broadcast happened in June 2008, when Pan Rong and her husband stood on the roof of their four-story house to confront a demolition crew that consisted of police officers, firefighters and a bulldozer. Their family home stood in the way of a Shanghai Hongqiao Airport expansion project. Pan shouted into a loudspeaker,"If you don't have a court verdict, you are violating our property rights."

  1. Defending Collegiality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In his provocatively titled recent book, "The No Asshole Rule: Building a Civilized Workplace and Surviving One That Isn't", Robert I. Sutton argues for zero tolerance of "bullies, creeps, jerks, weasels, tormentors, tyrants, serial slammers, despots, [and] unconstrained egomaniacs" in the workplace. These individuals systematically prey on their…

  2. Defending Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A much-anticipated law protecting homeowners’ rights is on the horizon Television audiences around the country were shocked on November 21,2009,when national broadcaster China Central Television showed clips of two families violently fighting lawenforcement officials who were evicting them from their homes.

  3. Racial bias in mock juror decision-making: a meta-analytic review of defendant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tara L; Haw, Ryann M; Pfeifer, Jeffrey E; Meissner, Christian A

    2005-12-01

    Common wisdom seems to suggest that racial bias, defined as disparate treatment of minority defendants, exists in jury decision-making, with Black defendants being treated more harshly by jurors than White defendants. The empirical research, however, is inconsistent--some studies show racial bias while others do not. Two previous meta-analyses have found conflicting results regarding the existence of racial bias in juror decision-making (Mazzella & Feingold, 1994, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 1315-1344; Sweeney & Haney, 1992, Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 10, 179-195). This research takes a meta-analytic approach to further investigate the inconsistencies within the empirical literature on racial bias in juror decision-making by defining racial bias as disparate treatment of racial out-groups (rather than focusing upon the minority group alone). Our results suggest that a small, yet significant, effect of racial bias in decision-making is present across studies, but that the effect becomes more pronounced when certain moderators are considered. The state of the research will be discussed in light of these findings.

  4. Essential Balm: A Strong Repellent Against Foraging and Defending Red Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yuzhen; Ma, Tao; Chen, Xuan; Liu, Zhitao; Zhu, Chengqi; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Strecker, Rachel; Henderson, Gregg; Hooper-Bùi, Linda M; Chen, Xiaoyang; Sun, Zhaohui; Wen, Xiujun; Wang, Cai

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, the repellent effects of essential balm, a traditional medicine product in China, was tested against foraging and defending red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, under laboratory and field conditions. The laboratory study showed that both band- (width = 1 cm) and patch-smearing of essential balm at each concentration (0.5, 1, or 2 μl/cm(2)) significantly decreased the number of S. invicta foragers within the 6-h observation period. Moreover, band-smearing of 2 μl/cm(2) essential balm and patch-smearing of 0.5, 1, and 2 μl/cm(2) essential balm inhibited most S. invicta foraging activity at 3, 6, 6, and 24 h into the experiment, respectively. The field study showed that after a disturbance was created on the S. invicta mound, there were significantly less defending ants on the substance treated (patch-smeared) with 0.5, 1, and 2 μl/cm(2) essential balm than the controls, but the number of ants on the substance of these three concentrations was similar. Our study suggested that essential balm is a strong repellent against foraging and defending S. invicta and could be applied when temporary protection from S. invicta is needed.

  5. Defending or Challenging the Status Quo: Position Effects on Biased Intergroup Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma A. Bäck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The default ideological position is status quo maintaining, and challenging the status quo is associated with increased efforts and risks. Nonetheless, some people choose to challenge the status quo. Therefore, to challenge the status quo should imply a strong belief in one’s position as the correct one, and thus efforts may be undertaken to undermine the position of others. Study 1 (N = 311 showed that challengers undermined, by ascribing more externality and less rationality, the position of defenders to a larger extent than defenders did of challengers’ position. Studies 2 (N = 135 and 3 (N = 109 tested if these effects were driven by the implied minority status of the challenging position. Results revealed no effects of experimentally manipulated numerical status, but challengers were again more biased than defenders. Study 3 also revealed that challengers felt more negatively toward their opponents (possibly due to greater social identification with like-minded others, and these negative emotions in turn predicted biased attributions. Results are important as they add to the understanding of how intergroup conflict may arise, providing explanations for why challengers are less tolerant of others’ point of view.

  6. The relation between the substantial law and procedural law in defending subjective rights and legitimate interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela-Adriana Cernat

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account that the Romanian Constitution mentions the "state of law" and "constitutional democracy", concomitantly specifying the essential values- human dignity, citizens' rights and freedoms, the free development of human personality, justice and political pluralism- defended by the domestic legal order, it seems of a real practical interest to notice the concrete means established in order to protect the above mentioned values. As it has been mentioned before, the contentious administrative represents one of the most efficient ways under which the values constitutionally affirmed are guaranteed and defended. The contentious administrative basically answers the old question: "Quis custodiet custodes?", question that comprises one of the most difficult obstacles against the state of law actualization: to find the most efficient procedural ways for the state bodies able to use, directly or indirectly, the coercion force in order to make the citizens observe the laws, to be in their turn under the situation to observe the same laws. As the contentious administrative represents the courts of law activity meant to settle the conflicts whereas at least one of the parties is a public authority, we will try, while evoking procedural aspects, procedural means available for someone prejudiced by a public authority, to stress the weight of the procedural rules in guarantying and defending effectively the citizens' rights and legitimate interests.

  7. Effect of criminal defendant's history of childhood sexual abuse and personality disorder diagnosis on juror decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ebony; Jacquin, Kristine

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether a defendant's history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and/or personality disorder (PD) diagnosis affected juror decision making in a child sexual abuse trial. The PDs in the study were borderline PD and antisocial PD. Participants were 385 college students, 121 men and 264 women, who read a summary of a mock criminal trial and then made various juror decisions. Trial summaries were prepared by the principal investigator and were all uniform in content, length and detail. For the trial, both the defendant's gender and victim's gender were specified. The defendant was male, and the alleged victim was female. When the verdict was assessed, the results yielded that when the defendant's CSA history was presented, juror guilt ratings were higher than when there was no history of CSA. Similarly, when the defendant had a PD diagnosis, there were higher guilt ratings than when there was no PD diagnosis. CSA history and PD diagnosis were significant predictors of guilt ratings, suggesting that jurors perceive defendants more negatively if they have either been sexually abused as a child or have borderline or antisocial PD.

  8. Juror Decision-making in Death Penalty Sentencing when Presented with Defendant's History of Child Abuse or Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell Holleran, Lisa L; Vaughan, Tyler J; Vandiver, Donna M

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have found aggravating, mitigating, and null effects of defendant histories of abuse and neglect on punishment preferences in capital sentencing. Perceiving these defendants as more dangerous, jurors may be more likely to favor the death penalty when such evidence is presented. This is counter to the intuition that abuse or neglect reduces culpability, and therefore mitigates the severity of punishment. We investigated the effect of defendant childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect on the probability of a prospective juror preferring the death penalty in an between-subject experimental design. Using vignettes and two large samples (students and jurors), defendant histories were found to mitigate the probability that the hypothetical defendant received the death penalty, with sexual abuse having the most salient effect. Further, the effects were conditioned by preference for the death penalty - larger mitigating effects were observed among individuals who favor the death penalty. These findings suggest that initial judgments of abuse and neglect are related to juror leniency, and further research on the interaction of jury instructions and defendant histories is needed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Early adolescents' motivations to defend victims in school bullying and their perceptions of student-teacher relationships: A self-determination theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungert, Tomas; Piroddi, Barbara; Thornberg, Robert

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether various dimensions of student-teacher relationships were associated with different types of motivation to defend victims in bullying and to determine the association between these types of motivations and various bystander behaviors in bullying situations among early adolescents in Italy. Data were collected from 405 Italian adolescents who completed a survey in their classroom. Results showed that warm student-teacher relationships were positively associated with defending victims and with autonomous motivation to defend victims. In contrast, conflictual student-teacher relationships were positively associated with passive bystanding and with extrinsic motivation to defend victims. Different forms of motivation to defend were found to be mediators between student-teacher relationship qualities and bystander behaviors in school bullying. Our findings suggest that teachers should build warm and caring student-teacher relationships to enhance students' autonomous motivation to defend victims of bullying as well as their inclination to defend the victims in practice.

  10. Proposed New Mechanism to Detect and Defend the Malicious Attackers in AODV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In MANETs to protect a network layer from malicious attacks is an important and challenging security issue. In this paper, A new mechanism has been proposed to detect and defend the network against such attack which may be launched cooperatively by a set of malicious nodes. The proposed algorithm has been incorporated on AODV routing protocol. The proposed algorithm does not use any cryptographic primitives on the routing messages. But, it is protecting the network by detecting and deactivating the malicious activities of node. Simulations have been carried out using NS2. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm encouraging results.

  11. The Top Ten Errors of Martial Artists Defending Against a Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McCurry

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are ten deadly errors which make most empty-handed martial-arts techniques against a knife ineffective. The principal error stems from the fact that few present-day martial systems teach the blade. The premise of this article is that to effectively defend against a knife, you need to know how to use one. The purpose of this article is to motivate martial arts instructors to analyze more critically their unarmed knife defense techniques based on a clear understanding of the use of the knife, and to reawaken interest in the blade arts in the martial arts community.

  12. The New Product Development Improvement Motives and Practices of Miles and Snow's Prospectors, Analysers and Defenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugen, Bjørge Timenes; Boer, Harry; Acur, Nuran

    2006-01-01

    Marketing, strategic management and contingency theory suggest that different strategies require different practices. The new product development (NPD) literature, however, hardly addresses the product development practices needed to support different strategies. An analysis of eight prospectors......, twenty-seven analysers and seven defenders (Miles and Snow, 1978) suggests that the NPD improvement motives and practices of these three types of strategies are less different than we expected. Our explanation for this finding is that the three strategic types are growing towards each other, forced...

  13. Law & psychiatry: Treatment of incompetent, dangerous criminal defendants: parsing the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2012-07-01

    The case of Jared Lee Loughner, who killed or wounded 19 people in a shooting rampage in Tucson, demonstrates the confusion inherent in current rules for the treatment of defendants with mental illness. Found incompetent to stand trial and committed for treatment, Jared Loughner refused medication. However, when he became dangerous and suicidal, the facility treated him. Loughner's attorneys objected, arguing that the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Sell v. United States entitled him to a judicial hearing. The lack of clarity over the rules that should govern such cases stems from the court's failure to make explicit the rationale for its landmark decision.

  14. Securing the virtual environment how to defend the enterprise against attack

    CERN Document Server

    Ottenheimer, Davi

    2012-01-01

    A step-by-step guide to identifying and defending against attacks on the virtual environment As more and more data is moved into virtual environments the need to secure them becomes increasingly important. Useful for service providers as well as enterprise and small business IT professionals the book offers a broad look across virtualization used in various industries as well as a narrow view of vulnerabilities unique to virtual environments. A companion DVD is included with recipes and testing scripts. Examines the difference in a virtual model versus traditional computing models an

  15. Defender of the Faith – hagiography’s topos in the Orthodox Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Dżega

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author wanted to show the specific for Orthodoxy – topos Her defender. As demonstratedby this topos is universal for any kind of holiness. Starting from the Martyrs ending the Hierarchs and Ascetics, inthe Orthodox Church, there is a never-ending battle for Purity of the Faith in Christ. In this paper author have shown thethree main determinants for the Fight of Faith: 1 Holy Zeal, 2 Holy Pride and 3 Holy Insubordination. To confirm histhesis the author gives some examples from the history of the Eastern Orthodox Church. At the same time author usingthe patristic and liturgical texts.

  16. Detection, advice, and referral to services (DARTS) procedures among clients with public defenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mericle, Amy A; Belenko, Steven; Festinger, David S

    2011-01-01

    Although screening and brief intervention techniques have been found to be efficacious in a variety of medical settings, their use in the criminal justice system has been limited. We present data from Chief Public Defenders (PDs) in 24 Pennsylvania counties who were surveyed about their approach to substance-using clients and their attitudes toward treatment and talking to clients about substance use. A random subsample (n = 8) participated in an additional semistructured interview. Results provide preliminary support for the use of Detection, Advice, and Referral to Services (DARTS) procedures by PDs and identify potential barriers to its implementation.

  17. Defendant Statistics as Indicators of Crime Trends in Turkey from 1986 to 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Topçuoğlu, Tuba

    2014-01-01

    AbstractThis study uses official statistics on defendants based on the numberof cases filed at the Criminal Courts to investigate the evolution ofthe crime trends in Turkey during the twenty-six-year period between1986 and 2011. Because of the legislative changes that occurred in 2005,as well as the changes in the counting rule used by the General Directorateof Criminal Records and Statistics in 2009, the analyses were carriedout separately for three periods: 1986-2005, 2006-2008 and 2009-201...

  18. An investigation of the Attenuation Provided by the Surefire EP3 Sonic Defender (Trademark) Earplug

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Surefire chez cinq hommes et cinq femmes . Selon le fabricant, un orifice percé dans le bouchon permet aux sons dont le niveau est sans danger de...dispositif avec l’orifice ouvert et fermé en l’absence de bruits impulsifs. Cinq hommes et cinq femmes y ont participé. Le seuil d’audibilité de chaque...déterminé l’atténuation du son fournie par le bouchon d’oreille EP3 Sonic DefenderMC de Surefire chez cinq hommes et cinq femmes . Selon le fabricant

  19. Helman defends decision to pull VA sponsorship of Veterans day parade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Sharon Helman, Phoenix VA Director, defended her decision to cancel VA sponsorship of the annual Phoenix Veterans Day Parade in a 4/10/13 email to VA employees. Helman said that VA sponsorship was cancelled because of “…priorities in the organization (specifically access, and heightened awareness over liability concerns which VA Legal Counsel brought forward”. She concluded her letter by warning “… that all media inquiries should be forwarded to Paul Coupaud, Acting Public Affairs Officer”. VA officials initially said fear of litigation prompted the review of VA support. Last year, a float carrying wounded Veterans in a Midland, Texas, parade collided with a freight train, killing four and injuring 17. Crash victims and their families filed lawsuits in Texas against Union Pacific Railroad and the float owner. The VA was not a defendant, and the VA has not issued any national directives on liability as a result of the tragedy.In…

  20. Determining a Criminal Defendant's Competency to Proceed With an Extradition Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Jennifer; Finkle, Michael J; Giske, Megan; Leong, Gregory B

    2015-06-01

    When a criminal defendant flees from one state (often referred to as the requesting state) to another (often referred to as the asylum state), the requesting state can demand that the asylum state return the defendant through a process called extradition. Only a handful of states have considered a fugitive's right to be competent to proceed with an extradition hearing. Those states fall into three categories. Some states apply the same standard as in criminal trial competency cases. Others apply a more limited competency standard. Two have found that a fugitive has no right to be competent to proceed in an extradition hearing. The particular legal test adopted affects the nature and scope of the competency evaluation conducted by the psychiatrist or psychologist in the extradition hearing. In addition, we are not aware of any state that has considered what happens to the fugitive if he is ultimately found not competent to proceed. Legislation, either state by state or through amendments to the Uniform Criminal Extradition Act, can provide the legal and psychiatric communities with guidance in assessing competency initially and in taking appropriate steps if the fugitive is ultimately found not competent.

  1. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The United States spends approximately four million dollars each year searching for near-Earth objects (NEOs). The objective is to detect those that may collide with Earth. The majority of this funding supports the operation of several observatories that scan the sky searching for NEOs. This, however, is insufficient in detecting the majority of NEOs that may present a tangible threat to humanity. A significantly smaller amount of funding supports ways to protect the Earth from such a potential collision or "mitigation." In 2005, a Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect 90 percent of NEOs with diameters of 140 meters of greater by 2020. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies identifies the need for detection of objects as small as 30 to 50 meters as these can be highly destructive. The book explores four main types of mitigation including civil defense, "slow push" or "pull" methods, kinetic impactors and nuclear explosions. It also asserts that responding effectively to hazards posed by NEOs requires national and international cooperation. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies is a useful guide for scientists, astronomers, policy makers and engineers.

  2. Jurors' perceptions of juvenile defendants: the influence of intellectual disability, abuse history, and confession evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdowski, Cynthia J; Bottoms, Bette L; Vargas, Maria C

    2009-01-01

    Understanding jurors' perceptions of juvenile defendants has become increasingly important as more and more juvenile cases are being tried in adult criminal court rather than family or juvenile court. Intellectual disability and child maltreatment are overrepresented among juvenile delinquents, and juveniles (particularly disabled juveniles) are at heightened risk for falsely confessing to crimes. In two mock trial experiments, we examined the effects of disability, abuse history, and confession evidence on jurors' perceptions of a juvenile defendant across several different crime scenarios. Abused juveniles were treated more leniently than nonabused juveniles only when the juvenile's crime was motivated by self-defense against the abuser. Jurors used disability as a mitigating factor, making more lenient judgments for a disabled than a nondisabled juvenile. Jurors also completely discounted a coerced confession for a disabled juvenile, but not for a nondisabled juvenile. In fact, compared with when it was portrayed as voluntary, jurors generally discounted a juvenile's coerced confession. Implications for public policy and directions for future research are discussed.

  3. Wave Defending Effects of V-Type Bottom-Mounted Breakwaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Guo-ping; CHENG Jian-sheng; YOU Yun-xiang; WANG Jing-quan

    2005-01-01

    An analytical method is developed for the study of the wave defending effects of the V-type bottom-mounted breakwater. The breakwater is assumed to be rigid, thin, impermeable and vertically located in water of constant depth. The fluid domain is divided into three sub-regions by an imaginary interface. The velocity potential in each region is expanded by eigenfunctions. By satisfying the corresponding boundary conditions and natching conditions in and between sub-regions, a set of linear algebraic equations can be obtained to determine the unknown coefficients for the eigenfunction ex pansions for each sub-region. The accuracy of the present model is verified by a comparison with existing results for the case of an isolated breakwater. Numerical results, in the form of contour maps of the relative wave amplitude around the breakwater, are presented for a range of wave and breakwater parameters. The results show that the V-type bottommounted breakwater is generally effective in defending against waves. In general, the wave height in the protected area is about 20 ~ 50 percent of the incident wave height.

  4. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The United States spends approximately four million dollars each year searching for near-Earth objects (NEOs). The objective is to detect those that may collide with Earth. The majority of this funding supports the operation of several observatories that scan the sky searching for NEOs. This, however, is insufficient in detecting the majority of NEOs that may present a tangible threat to humanity. A significantly smaller amount of funding supports ways to protect the Earth from such a potential collision or "mitigation." In 2005, a Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect 90 percent of NEOs with diameters of 140 meters of greater by 2020. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies identifies the need for detection of objects as small as 30 to 50 meters as these can be highly destructive. The book explores four main types of mitigation including civil defense, "slow push" or "pull" methods, kinetic impactors and nuclear explosions. It also asserts that responding effectively to hazards posed by NEOs requires national and international cooperation. Defending Planet Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies is a useful guide for scientists, astronomers, policy makers and engineers.

  5. Effects of Mental Health and Neuroscience Evidence on Juror Perceptions of a Criminal Defendant: the Moderating Role of Political Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowle, Elyse N; Edens, John F; Clark, John W; Sörman, Karolina

    2016-11-01

    Several recent studies have examined the effects of mental health and neuroscientific evidence on attitudes toward criminal defendants, suggesting that these factors may influence juror decision-making in meaningful ways. Few studies to date have manipulated both of these variables while also considering theoretically important individual difference variables (e.g., political orientation). Using a criminal case simulation, this study manipulated the presence of evidence concerning mental disorders (psychopathy and schizophrenia) and increasing levels of neuroscientific detail regarding a defendant's brain injury, and examined verdicts and sentencing recommendations in over 400 persons attending jury duty. Main effects were detected for mental health testimony and political orientation, although interactions were noted as well. More negative reactions to defendants labeled as psychopaths were relatively consistent, whereas participants who identified as liberal generally were less punitive towards a defendant identified as schizophrenic than were more conservative jurors. Consistent with other recent research, juror perceptions of the defendant's level of psychopathic traits (independent of the effects of the experimental manipulations) predicted guilty verdicts and longer sentencing recommendations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Formulation of a Cooperative-Confinement-Escape problem of multiple cooperative defenders against an evader escaping from a circular region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose and formulate the Cooperative-Confinement-Escape (CCE) problem of multiple cooperative defenders against an evader escaping from a circular region, in which the defenders are moving on the circle with attempt to prevent possible escape of a single evader who is initially located inside the circle. The main contributions are summarized as follows: (1) we first provide an effective formulation of the CCE problem, which is an emphasis of this paper, with design of two nonlinear control strategies for the cooperative defenders and the adversarial evader, respectively. Particularly, we consider to include a proper interaction between each pair of the nearest-neighbor defenders, and an adaptive trajectory prediction mechanism in the strategies of the defenders to increase the chance of successful confinement. (2) For the first attempt on analyzing the CCE dynamics which is unavoidably strongly nonlinear, we analyze the minimum energy of the evader for possible escape. (3) For understanding of the behaviors of the system under different parameters, (i) we illustrate the effectiveness of the confinement strategy using the adaptive trajectory prediction mechanism, and (ii) the physical roles of the system parameters with respect to the system dynamics, some of which may be unexpected or not straightforward. A separate paper will be presented for systematic analysis of the agents' behaviors with respect to the large intervals of the parameter settings.

  7. Classroom norms of bullying alter the degree to which children defend in response to their affective empathy and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peets, Kätlin; Pöyhönen, Virpi; Juvonen, Jaana; Salmivalli, Christina

    2015-07-01

    This study examined whether the degree to which bullying is normative in the classroom would moderate associations between intra- (cognitive and affective empathy, self-efficacy beliefs) and interpersonal (popularity) factors and defending behavior. Participants were 6,708 third- to fifth-grade children (49% boys; Mage = 11 years) from 383 classrooms. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that children were more likely to defend in response to their affective empathy in classrooms with high levels of bullying. In addition, popular students were more likely to support victims in classrooms where bullying was associated with social costs. These findings highlight the importance of considering interactions among individual and contextual influences when trying to understand which factors facilitate versus inhibit children's inclinations to defend others.

  8. Reliability of a Field Test of Defending and Attacking Agility in Australian Football and Relationships to Reactive Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Warren B; Murray, Mitch P

    2017-02-01

    Young, WB and Murray, MP. Reliability of a field test of defending and attacking agility in Australian football and relationships to reactive strength. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 509-516, 2017-Defending and attacking agility tests for Australian football do not exist, and it is unknown whether any physical qualities correlate with these types of agility. The purposes of this study were to develop new field tests of defending and attacking agility for Australian Rules football, to determine whether they were reliable, and to describe the relationship between the agility tests to determine their specificity. Because the reactive strength (RS) of the lower limb muscles has been previously correlated with change-of-direction speed, we also investigated the relationship between this quality and the agility tests. Nineteen male competitive recreational-level Australian Rules football players were assessed on the agility tests and a drop jump test to assess RS. Interday and interrater reliability was also assessed. The agility tests involved performing 10 trials of one-on-one agility tasks against 2 testers (opponents), in which the objective was to be in a position to tackle (defending) or to evade (attacking) the opponent. Both agility tests had good reliability (intraclass correlation > 0.8, %CV 0.05], and interrater reliability was very high [r = 0.997, p < 0.001]). The common variance between the agility tests was 45%, indicating that they represented relatively independent skills. There was a large correlation between RS and defending agility (r = 0.625, p = 0.004), and a very large correlation with attacking agility (r = 0.731, p < 0.001). Defending and attacking agility have different characteristics, possibly related to the footwork, physical, and cognitive demands of each. Nonetheless, RS seems to be important for agility, especially for attacking agility.

  9. 必须保卫社会%Ⅱ faut Defender la Societe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家琪

    2002-01-01

    本文据米歇尔·福柯(Michel Foucault)的同名讲演录《必须保卫社会》(IL faut defender La societe)写就,讨论了"9·11"事件、正在进行的阿富汗并逐步扩及全球的"反恐战争",意在通过对"恐怖主义"、"种族矛盾"、"文明冲突"的重新定义来理解世界秩序中的人权与主权、人道主义与民族主义这不同的话语对我们所具有的现实意义.

  10. Study on air formation to ground attack-defends decision making in fuzzy condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With the development of modern military technology, uncertain decision-making problems become more and more exigent to be solved in military command and control. Based on game theory, and taking air formation to ground attack-defends campaign as the background, this paper established an opposed dynamic decision-making model. As to the problems in military decision-making in fuzzy condition in uncertainty, this paper put forward a fuzzy-influence-factor, which reflects the fuzzy influence on battle units, and establishes a fuzzy opposed decision-making model in anticipant value and in correlative chance way farther to get strategy equilibrium. It can be seen from the simulating results that the model disposes the fuzzy status in battlefield reasonably, analyzes the fighting results objectively, and offers a powerful decision-making support for military operation. The method is practically and effectively.

  11. Cognitive Architecture and the Epistemic Gap: Defending Physicalism without Phenomenal Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The novel approach presented in this paper accounts for the occurrence of the epistemic gap and defends physicalism against anti-physicalist arguments without relying on so-called phenomenal concepts. Instead of concentrating on conceptual features, the focus is shifted to the special...... characteristics of experiences themselves. To this extent, the account provided is an alternative to the Phenomenal Concept Strategy. It is argued that certain sensory representations, as accessed by higher cognition, lack constituent structure. Unstructured representations could freely exchange their causal...... to pose a serious problem for contemporary physicalism. I conclude that if those concepts which are related to the phenomenal character of conscious experience are special in any way, their characteristics are derivative of and can be accounted for in terms of the cognitive and representational features...

  12. CSAIO: exchanging experience to better defend the interests of the staff

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Two representatives of the CERN Staff Association took part in the 15th Annual Conference of Staff Associations of International Organizations (CSAIO), which took place on Thursday 16th and Friday 17th of October in one of the centres of the European Space Agency (ESA) in Frascati (Italy). The CSAIO brings together staff representatives from international organizations based in Europe, as well as institutions of the European Union, in order to promote and defend the interests of their personnel. This allows the CERN Staff Association to follow the evolution of working and social conditions in other organizations. This year, 51 delegates from about 30 organizations travelled to Frascati to attend the conference. Themes addressed at the conference were: Salary adjustment method presentations: European Commission, CERN, European Council, and FICSA (Federation of International Civil Servants’ Association). Performance evaluation presentations: OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and...

  13. 'Case reporting of rare adverse events in otolaryngology': can we defend the case report?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dias, Andrew

    2012-01-31

    The study of errors in medicine has proliferated since the publication of The Institute of Medicine Report \\'TO ERR IS HUMAN\\' in 2000. Case nuances and process of care issues are valuable areas to explore if the goal is to provide the health care worker with the knowledge to avoid future errors. Meta-analysis and randomized controlled trials provide a large data base of evidence towards improvement and opportunities, but it is suggested that case reports can still provide valuable clinical information. The aim is to use the published literature to produce a series of rare harm case reports in E.N.T. The methods include systematic literature review. Journals searched in PUBMED were 60. Rare harm case obtained from the search were 5,322. Rare harm case reports not reported in any other form of evidence-based medicine were 40. Yes, the case report can be defended as it is an important pillar of evidence-based medicine.

  14. Attitudinal and individual differences influence perceptions of mock child sexual assault cases involving gay defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Tisha R A; Bottoms, Bette L

    2013-01-01

    Many people hold negative attitudes and stereotypes about gay men, including the stereotype that gay men are likely to be child molesters. This article explored the implications of this stereotype for judgments made in a hypothetical legal case involving child sexual abuse accusations against a male teacher by either a male or female victim. Mock jurors who held the most anti-gay attitudes and those who endorsed the stereotype of gay men as child molesters made the most pro-prosecution judgments in scenarios involving gay defendants. A new scale (the Stereotypes about Gays and Child Abuse scale) was developed to assess the extent to which participants endorsed the stereotype of gay men as being likely to sexually abuse children. This scale was a stronger predictor of case judgments than existing, more general scales measuring biases against homosexuality.

  15. Novel Mechanism to Defend DDoS Attacks Caused by Spam

    CERN Document Server

    Nagamalai, Dhinaharan; Lee, Jae-Kwang

    2010-01-01

    Corporate mail services are designed to perform better than public mail services. Fast mail delivery, large size file transfer as an attachments, high level spam and virus protection, commercial advertisement free environment are some of the advantages worth to mention. But these mail services are frequent target of hackers and spammers. Distributed Denial of service attacks are becoming more common and sophisticated. The researchers have proposed various solutions to the DDOS attacks. Can we stop these kinds of attacks with available technology? These days the DDoS attack through spam has increased and disturbed the mail services of various organizations. Spam penetrates through all the filters to establish DDoS attacks, which causes serious problems to users and the data. In this paper we propose a novel approach to defend DDoS attack caused by spam mails. This approach is a combination of fine tuning of source filters, content filters, strictly implementing mail policies,educating user, network monitoring ...

  16. Multi Layer Approach to Defend DDoS Attacks Caused by Spam

    CERN Document Server

    Nagamalai, Dhinaharan; Lee, Jae Kwang

    2010-01-01

    Corporate mail services are designed to perform better than public mail services. Fast mail delivery, large size file transfer as an attachments, high level spam and virus protection, commercial advertisement free environment are some of the advantages worth to mention. But these mail services are frequent target of hackers and spammers. Distributed Denial of service attacks are becoming more common and sophisticated. The researchers have proposed various solutions to the DDOS attacks. Can we stop these kinds of attacks with available technology? These days the DDoS attack through spam has increased and disturbed the mail services of various organizations. Spam penetrates through all the filters to establish DDoS attacks, which causes serious problems to users and the data. In this paper we propose a multilayer approach to defend DDoS attack caused by spam mails. This approach is a combination of fine tuning of source filters, content filters, strictly implementing mail policies, educating user, network monit...

  17. Vivisecting Major: a Victorian gentleman scientist defends animal experimentation, 1876-1885.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddice, Rob

    2011-06-01

    Through an investigation of the public, professional, and private life of the Darwinian disciple George John Romanes, this essay seeks a better understanding of the scientific motivations for defending the practice of vivisection at the height of the controversy in late Victorian Britain. Setting aside a historiography that has tended to focus on the arguments of antivivisectionists, it reconstructs the viewpoint of the scientific community through an examination of Romanes's work to help orchestrate the defense of animal experimentation. By embedding his life in three complicatedly overlapping networks-the world of print, interpersonal communications among an increasingly professionalized body of scientific men, and the intimacies of private life-the essay uses Romanes as a lens with which to focus the physiological apprehension of the antivivisection movement. It is a story of reputation, self-interest, and affection.

  18. Nuclear Medical Science Officers: Army Health Physicists Serving and Defending Their Country Around the Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Mark; Bosley, William; Santiago, Jodi; Hamilton, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Tracing their distinguished history back to the Manhattan Project that developed the world's first atomic bomb, the Nuclear Medical Science Officers are the Army's experts on radiation and its health effects. Serving around the globe, these commissioned Army officers serve as military health physicists that ensure the protection of Soldiers and those they defend against all sources of radiation, military and civilian. This poster will highlight the various roles and responsibilities that Nuclear Medical Science Officers fill in defense of the Nation. Areas where these officers serve include medical health physics, deployment health physics, homeland defense, emergency response, radiation dosimetry, radiation research and training, along with support to the Army's corporate radiation safety program and international collaborations. The poster will also share some of the unique military sources of radiation such as depleted uranium, which is used as an anti-armor munition and in armor plating because of its unique metallurgic properties. )

  19. When Can Forensic Psychologists Comment on the Credibility of Criminal Defendants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Flores de Apodaca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forensic psychological examiners are often confronted with assessments in the guilt phase of criminal cases in which a Defendant denies his/her charged conduct, but the existing evidence clearly contradicts their account. This happens often in cases involving charges of violence, sex offending and or substance abuse (Langton, Barbaree, Harkins, Arenovich, McNamee & Peacock, 2008. What is the proper role of the examiner in such instances?; granting the benefit of the doubt and accepting the Defendant’s account, using the one contained in the differing evidence, or making an independent judgment about which is more likely to be true? Does accepting any version mean the expert is offering an opinion on the Ultimate Issue in the case, and encroaching on the role of the Trier of Fact? The Federal Rules of Evidence (FREE dictate that judgments about Ultimate Issues belong solely to the Trier of Fact, yet the DSM-5 Manual (APA, 2013 instructs us to consider Malingering in every forensic situation; i.e. is the Defendant being honest about his mental state, and by implication, his/her credibility?  Our recommendation is that examiners offer no opinions about which conflicting version in a criminal case is the more credible during the guilt phase, and instead, offer “if, then” assessments about a Defendant’s propensity for violence or sexual offending; i.e. if the charges are true, then s/he poses certain levels of risk going forward, for reasons detailed in the report. Such a stance avoids experts “taking sides” during the guilt phase of a case and allows them to fully inform the adversarial, legal process as it deliberates on possible Plea Bargains or Sentencing decisions. We argue that this impartial approach serves a useful function in legal proceedings while adhering to our Ethical Guidelines (APA, 2010.

  20. Feigned Symptoms among Defendants Claiming Psychiatric Problems: Survey of 45 Malingerers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Saberi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In many jurisdictions, psychiatric problems are intended for commutation. Therefore, a forensic psychiatrist has an important role in detection of malingering. While several studies evaluate diagnostic tests, it is less known what symptoms are more likely to be imitated by malingerers.Method: In a prospective study [t1] 45 [t2] malingerers, who were diagnosed according to interviews by two forensic psychiatrists, from defendants [t3] with a judicial order for evaluation of mental status and criminal responsibility during a period of eighteen months were examined in legal medicine center of Tehran.[t4] [t5] Participants were assessed in another interview to determine symptoms. Dichotomous symptoms in felony and misdemeanor groups were analyzed using fisher’s exact test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. [t6] Results: Thirty-eight malingerers were charged with misdemeanors and seven with felonies. Behavioral symptoms were most frequently faked by 35 participants (77.8%. Participants charged with criminal accusation had a significantly lower mean age (P=0.032 and a higher level of education (P=0.008 than other non-criminal defendants. A statistically significant increase in memory function problems was demonstrated in the misdemeanor group (P=0.040. With regard to dual symptom imitation, statistically significant correlations were observed between thought content and perceptual symptoms (P=0.048 for felonies and mood & affect and thought process symptoms (P=0.034, mood & affect and behavioral symptoms (P=0.000 and cognitive function and behavioral symptoms (P=0.039 for misdemeanors. In general, many simulators attempted to mimic simple symptoms of behavioral disorders. Probably felony offenses need less accurate programming; therefore, their rates are higher in older, less educated participants.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that differences between presenting symptoms among different offenses may not be

  1. Attorney Questions Predict Jury-eligible Adult Assessments of Attorneys, Child Witnesses, and Defendant Guilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugno, Allison P; Klemfuss, J Zoe; Lyon, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Children are often the primary source of evidence in maltreatment cases, particularly cases of child sexual abuse, and may be asked to testify in court. Although best-practice protocols for interviewing children suggest that interviewers ask open-ended questions to elicit detailed responses from children, during in-court testimony, attorneys tend to rely on closed-ended questions that elicit simple (often "yes" or "no") responses (e.g., Andrews, Lamb, & Lyon, ; Klemfuss, Quas, & Lyon, ). How then are jurors making decisions about children's credibility and ultimately the case outcome? The present study examined the effect of two attorney-specific factors (e.g., temporal structure and questioning phase) on mock jurors' perceptions of attorney performance, child witness credibility, storyline clarity, and defendant guilt. Participants were randomly assigned to read a trial excerpt from one of eight conditions and were then asked to evaluate the attorney, child witness, and the case. Selected excerpts were from criminal court case transcripts and contained either high attorney temporal structure (e.g., use of temporal markers) or low temporal structure (e.g., frequent topic switching), involved direct or cross-examination, and represented cases resulting in a conviction or acquittal. Child responses were kept consistent across all excerpts. Results showed that participants perceived the attorney's performance and child's credibility more favorably and thought the storyline was clearer when attorneys provided high rather than low temporal structure and when the excerpt contained direct rather than cross-examination. Participants who read a direct rather than cross-examination excerpt were also more likely to think the defendant was guilty. The study highlights the impact of attorney questioning style on mock jurors' perceptions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The Utility of the MMPI-2 Malingering Discriminant Function Index in the Detection of Malingering: A Study of Criminal Defendants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Joseph A.; Kucharski, L. Thomas; Duncan, Scott

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2's (MMPI-2) malingering discriminant function index (M-DFI), recently developed by Bacchiochi and Bagby, in the detection of malingering in a forensic sample. Criminal defendants were divided into "malingering" and "not malingering" groups using…

  3. Unique and Interactive Effects of Moral Emotions and Moral Disengagement on Bullying and Defending among School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert; Pozzoli, Tiziana; Gianluca, Gini; Jungert, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to examine in a single model how moral disengagement and moral emotions were related to bullying and defending behavior among schoolchildren. The second aim was to test whether the two moral dimensions interacted with each other to explain behavior in bullying situations. Data were collected from 561 Swedish…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of the Associations between Moral Disengagement and Active Defending versus Passive Bystanding during Bullying Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doramajian, Caroline; Bukowski, William M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective association between moral disengagement and bystander behaviors in bullying situations, including both defending and passive bystanding. A diverse sample of Canadian school children (N = 130; 68 boys and 62 girls; mean age = 11.36 years) participated in a three-wave longitudinal study over a 4-month period.…

  5. Battling for the household's category buck : Can economy private labels defend supermakets against the hard-discounter threat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, M.J.J.; Gijsbrechts, Els; Campo, K.

    Traditional grocery retailers often use price-based strategies to defend against hard-discounters (HDs). One increasingly-popular approach is the introduction of an economy private label (EPL), which provides similar or even larger price advantages over national brands than HD products. However, the

  6. A Longitudinal Study of the Associations between Moral Disengagement and Active Defending versus Passive Bystanding during Bullying Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doramajian, Caroline; Bukowski, William M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective association between moral disengagement and bystander behaviors in bullying situations, including both defending and passive bystanding. A diverse sample of Canadian school children (N = 130; 68 boys and 62 girls; mean age = 11.36 years) participated in a three-wave longitudinal study over a 4-month period.…

  7. Behind bullying and defending: same-sex and other-sex relations and their associations with acceptance and rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, René; Verlinden, Marina; Huitsing, Gijs; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Relatively little is known about bullying and defending behaviors of children in early elementary school. However, this period is crucial for children's development as at this age they start to participate in a stable peer group, and difficulties in social interactions can be detected early by professionals. An interactive animated web-based computer program was used in this study to assess peer relationships among young children. The computerized assessment was conducted among 2,135 children in grades 1-2 from 22 elementary schools to examine the association of bullying, victimization, and defending with being accepted or rejected. Same-sex and other-sex peer relations were distinguished using dyadic data. Both boys and girls were more likely to accept same-sex classmates than other-sex classmates, and boys were more often nominated than girls as perpetrators of bullying against both boys and girls. It was found that bullies were rejected by those for whom they posed a potential threat, and that defenders were preferred by those classmates for whom they were a potential source of protection. Bullies chose victims who were rejected by significant others, but contrary to expectations, children who bullied boys scored low on peer affection. It is possible that these bullies were not strategic enough to select the "right" targets. Overall, the current findings provide evidence for strategies involved in bullying and defending at early age.

  8. Behind bullying and defending : Same-sex and other-sex relations and their associations with acceptance and rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, René; Verlinden, Marina; Huitsing, Gijs; Verhulst, Frank; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Relatively little is known about bullying and defending behaviors of children in early elementary school. However, this period is crucial for children's development as at this age they start to participate in a stable peer group, and difficulties in social interactions can be detected early by profe

  9. Active Defending and Passive Bystanding Behavior in Bullying: The Role of Personal Characteristics and Perceived Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Tiziana; Gini, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of pro-victim attitudes, personal responsibility, coping responses to observations of bullying, and perceived peer normative pressure in explaining defending the victim and passive bystanding behavior in bullying. A total of 462 Italian early adolescents (mean age = 13.4 years, SD = 9 months) participated in the study.…

  10. Unique and Interactive Effects of Moral Emotions and Moral Disengagement on Bullying and Defending among School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert; Pozzoli, Tiziana; Gianluca, Gini; Jungert, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to examine in a single model how moral disengagement and moral emotions were related to bullying and defending behavior among schoolchildren. The second aim was to test whether the two moral dimensions interacted with each other to explain behavior in bullying situations. Data were collected from 561 Swedish…

  11. Crime and Punishment: the Impact of Skin Color and Socioeconomic Status of Defendants and Victims in Jury Trials in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rogério Ferreira; Oliveira Lima, Marcus Eugênio

    2016-11-14

    Social judgments are often influenced by racism. Voluntary crimes against life, and in particular the crime of homicide, may be the most critical situations of the impact of racism in social judgments. We analyzed 114 homicide trials conducted by the 1st Jury Court, in a Brazilian judicial capital, concluded between 2003 and 2007, for the purpose of investigating the effects of skin color and the socioeconomic status of the defendant and the victim of homicides in the jury trial court's decision. The results indicate that the social and economic profile of defendants and victims of homicide is identical. They are almost all poor (more than 70%), with low education (more than 73%) and frequently non-Whites (more than 88%). We found that judges assign longer sentences to black (β = .34, p = .01) and poor defendants (β = .23, p < .05). We even verified that the poorer the defendant, the higher was the corresponding conviction rate (Wald's Test = 5.90, p < .05). The results are discussed based on theories of social psychology and criminological sociology, which consider the relationship between skin color and socioeconomic status in social judgments and in discrimination.

  12. Formal Criteria for the Concept of Human Flourishing: The First Step in Defending Flourishing as an Ideal Aim of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbert, Lynne S.; de Ruyter, Doret J.; Schinkel, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Human flourishing is the topic of an increasing number of books and articles in educational philosophy. Flourishing should be regarded as an ideal aim of education. If this is defended, the first step should be to elucidate what is meant by flourishing, and what exactly the concept entails. Listing formal criteria can facilitate reflection on the…

  13. Battling for the household's category buck : Can economy private labels defend supermakets against the hard-discounter threat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, M.J.J.; Gijsbrechts, Els; Campo, K.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional grocery retailers often use price-based strategies to defend against hard-discounters (HDs). One increasingly-popular approach is the introduction of an economy private label (EPL), which provides similar or even larger price advantages over national brands than HD products. However, the

  14. Addressing the Needs of the Criminal Defendant with Mental Retardation: The Special Educator as a Resource to the Criminal Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everington, Caroline; Luckasson, Ruth

    1989-01-01

    The expertise of special educators can aid in providing justice for criminal defendants with mental retardation in such areas as identification of mental retardation, evaluations and habilitation concerning competence to stand trial or enter plea agreements, and provision of services to defendants in corrections programs. (Author/DB)

  15. Defending Continuous Variable Teleportation: Why a laser is a clock, not a quantum channel

    CERN Document Server

    Wiseman, H M

    2004-01-01

    It has been argued [T. Rudolph and B.C. Sanders, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 87}, 077903 (2001)] that continuous-variable quantum teleportation at optical frequencies has not been achieved because the source used (a laser) was not `truly coherent'. Van Enk, and Fuchs [Phys. Rev. Lett, {\\bf 88}, 027902 (2002)], while arguing against Rudolph and Sanders, also accept that an `absolute phase' is achievable, even if it has not been achieved yet. I will argue to the contrary that `true coherence' or `absolute phase' is always illusory, as the concept of absolute time (at least for frequencies beyond direct human experience) is meaningless. All we can ever do is to use an agreed time standard. In this context, a laser beam is fundamentally as good a `clock' as any other. I explain in detail why this claim is true, and defend my argument against various objections. In the process I discuss super-selection rules, quantum channels, and the ultimate limits to the performance of a laser as a clock. For this last topic I use so...

  16. AT2A: Defending Unauthenticated Broadcast Attacks in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisam Kamarei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a Mobile Wireless Sensor Network (MWSN, mobile sensor nodes move freely at the network environment. So, a large number of attacks threaten this network. Unauthenticated broadcast attack is a common attack which worsens the network congestion as well as energy consumption. In this paper, an efficient method for defending unauthenticated broadcast ATTAcks, AT2A, in MWSN has been proposed. AT2A method keeps sending history of each node in transmission table of nodes to make decision about each incoming packet, i.e., packet should be dropped or forwarded. After receiving a new packet in each node, AT2Amethod forwards the packet with probability of 1-p, i.e.,AT2Amethod detects unauthenticated packet and drops it with probability of p. Indeed, AT2Amethod does not process incoming packets for unauthenticated packet detection; rather AT2Amethod considers sender node behavior to packet drop/forward. Simulation results which have been implemented using NS-2 simulator show thatAT2Amethod detects 98% unauthenticated packets by three nodes while it increases filtering efficiency compared with previous methods

  17. Propagation Modeling and Defending of a Mobile Sensor Worm in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Wu, Qun; Wen, Sheng; Cai, Yiqiao; Tian, Hui; Chen, Yonghong; Wang, Baowei

    2017-01-01

    WSANs (Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks) are derived from traditional wireless sensor networks by introducing mobile actuator elements. Previous studies indicated that mobile actuators can improve network performance in terms of data collection, energy supplementation, etc. However, according to our experimental simulations, the actuator’s mobility also causes the sensor worm to spread faster if an attacker launches worm attacks on an actuator and compromises it successfully. Traditional worm propagation models and defense strategies did not consider the diffusion with a mobile worm carrier. To address this new problem, we first propose a microscopic mathematical model to describe the propagation dynamics of the sensor worm. Then, a two-step local defending strategy (LDS) with a mobile patcher (a mobile element which can distribute patches) is designed to recover the network. In LDS, all recovering operations are only taken in a restricted region to minimize the cost. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our model estimations are rather accurate and consistent with the actual spreading scenario of the mobile sensor worm. Moreover, on average, the LDS outperforms other algorithms by approximately 50% in terms of the cost. PMID:28098748

  18. Eating chemically defended prey: alkaloid metabolism in an invasive ladybird predator of other ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloggett, J J; Davis, A J

    2010-01-15

    By comparison with studies of herbivore physiological adaptation to plant allelochemicals, work on predator physiological adaptation to potentially toxic prey has been very limited. Such studies are important in understanding how evolution could shape predator diets. An interesting question is the specificity of predator adaptation to prey allelochemicals, given that many predators consume diverse prey with different chemical defences. The ladybird Harmonia axyridis, an invasive species in America, Europe and Africa, is considered a significant predatory threat to native invertebrates, particularly other aphid-eating ladybirds of which it is a strong intraguild predator. Although ladybirds possess species-specific alkaloid defences, H. axyridis exhibits high tolerance for allospecific ladybird prey alkaloids. Nonetheless, it performs poorly on species with novel alkaloids not commonly occurring within its natural range. We examined alkaloid fate in H. axyridis larvae after consumption of two other ladybird species, one containing an alkaloid historically occurring within the predator's native range (isopropyleine) and one containing a novel alkaloid that does not (adaline). Our results indicate that H. axyridis rapidly chemically modifies the alkaloid to which it has been historically exposed to render it less harmful: this probably occurs outside of the gut. The novel, more toxic alkaloid persists in the body unchanged for longer. Our results suggest metabolic alkaloid specialisation, in spite of the diversity of chemically defended prey that the predator consumes. Physiological adaptations appear to have made H. axyridis a successful predator of other ladybirds; however, limitations are imposed by its physiology when it eats prey with novel alkaloids.

  19. Defendants' liability for pure mental harm to third parties in Australia: still a work in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Danuta

    2009-10-01

    In Australia, both common and statutory law allows compensation for negligently occasioned recognised psychiatric injury, but distinguishes between pure mental harm and consequential mental harm. This column briefly discusses the concept of pure "mental harm" and the major Australian cases relating to defendants' liability to third parties for causing them pure mental harm (Jaensch v Coffey (1984) 155 CLR 549; Tame v New South Wales; Annetts v Australian Stations Pty Ltd (2002) 211 CLR 317; Sullivan v Moody (2001) 207 CLR 562; and Gifford v Strang Patrick Stevedoring Pty Ltd (2003) 214 CLR 269). The analysis focuses on judicial approaches to determining liability in these cases, especially causation. Lack of guiding principles and precise tests for attribution of liability are illustrated by Kemp v Lyell McEwin Health Service (2006) 96 SASR 192. This case is analysed first in the context of common law, and then in the light of the reform legislation contained in the Civil Liability Act 1936 (SA) and similar provisions in other jurisdictions.

  20. THE DYNAMIC NONCE BASED AUTHENTICATION SCHEME TO DEFEND INTERMEDIARY ATTACK FOR WEB SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elangovan Uma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Web services have used drastically for various online applications like banking, e-bill processing. All online services need robust security architecture for handling sensitive data like user name, password. But, The Web service has security problems that need to be solved. The existing security scheme lacks to defend the attacks from replay and password guessing attacks. In this study we proposed a new scheme for a secure authentication procedure for the web service to enhance the security of the existing schemes. The proposed system has been implemented with the Dynamic Nonce for validating the user with username and password which is embedded with WS-Security. The Dynamic Nonce has been implemented with the user’s mouse movement by satisfying the condition given in the proposed scheme. It has changed for every session because it is generated from user’s mouse movements. The system has analyzed with possible attacks. The proposed dynamic nonce based authentication scheme is suitable for lower.

  1. Acoustic Aposematism and Evasive Action in Select Chemically Defended Arctiine (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) Species: Nonchalant or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Nicolas J; Conner, William E

    2016-01-01

    Tiger moths (Erebidae: Arctiinae) have experienced intense selective pressure from echolocating, insectivorous bats for over 65 million years. One outcome has been the evolution of acoustic signals that advertise the presence of toxins sequestered from the moths' larval host plants, i.e. acoustic aposematism. Little is known about the effectiveness of tiger moth anti-bat sounds in their natural environments. We used multiple infrared cameras to reconstruct bat-moth interactions in three-dimensional (3-D) space to examine how functional sound-producing organs called tymbals affect predation of two chemically defended tiger moth species: Pygarctia roseicapitis (Arctiini) and Cisthene martini (Lithosiini). P. roseicapitis and C. martini with intact tymbals were 1.8 and 1.6 times less likely to be captured by bats relative to those rendered silent. 3-D flight path and acoustic analyses indicated that bats actively avoided capturing sound-producing moths. Clicking behavior differed between the two tiger moth species, with P. roseicapitis responding in an earlier phase of bat attack. Evasive flight behavior in response to bat attacks was markedly different between the two tiger moth species. P. roseicapitis frequently paired evasive dives with aposematic sound production. C. martini were considerably more nonchalant and employed evasion in fewer interactions. Our results show that acoustic aposematism is effective at deterring bat predation in a natural context and that this strategy is likely to be the ancestral function of tymbal organs within the Arctiinae.

  2. Defending against Key Abuse Attacks in KP-ABE Enabled Broadcast Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shucheng; Ren, Kui; Lou, Wenjing; Li, Jin

    Key-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (KP-ABE) is a promising cryptographic primitive which enables fine-grained access control over sensitive data. However, key abuse attacks in KP-ABE may impede its wide application especially in copyright-sensitive systems. To defend against this kind of attacks, this paper proposes a novel KP-ABE scheme which is able to disclose any illegal key distributor’s ID when key abuse is detected. In our scheme, each bit of user ID is defined as an attribute and the user secret key is associated with his unique ID. The tracing algorithm fulfills its task by tricking the pirate device into decrypting the ciphertext associated with the corresponding bits of his ID. Our proposed scheme has the salient property of black box tracing, i.e., it traces back to the illegal key distributor’s ID only by observing the pirate device’s outputs on certain inputs. In addition, it does not require the pirate device’s secret keys to be well-formed as compared to some previous work. Our proposed scheme is provably secure under the Decisional Bilinear Diffie-Hellman (DBDH) assumption and the Decisional Linear (DL) assumption.

  3. DEFENDER: Detecting and Forecasting Epidemics Using Novel Data-Analytics for Enhanced Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Thapen

    Full Text Available In recent years social and news media have increasingly been used to explain patterns in disease activity and progression. Social media data, principally from the Twitter network, has been shown to correlate well with official disease case counts. This fact has been exploited to provide advance warning of outbreak detection, forecasting of disease levels and the ability to predict the likelihood of individuals developing symptoms. In this paper we introduce DEFENDER, a software system that integrates data from social and news media and incorporates algorithms for outbreak detection, situational awareness and forecasting. As part of this system we have developed a technique for creating a location network for any country or region based purely on Twitter data. We also present a disease nowcasting (forecasting the current but still unknown level approach which leverages counts from multiple symptoms, which was found to improve the nowcasting accuracy by 37 percent over a model that used only previous case data. Finally we attempt to forecast future levels of symptom activity based on observed user movement on Twitter, finding a moderate gain of 5 percent over a time series forecasting model.

  4. Defending the social value of knowledge as a safeguard for public trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Felicitas S

    2017-09-01

    The 'socially valuable knowledge' (SVK) principle has been widely acknowledged as one of the most important guiding principles for biomedical research involving human subjects. The principle states that the potential of producing socially valuable knowledge is a necessary requirement, although not sufficient, for the ethical conduct of research projects. This is due to the assumption that the social value of knowledge avoids exploitation of research subjects and justifies the use of health resources. However, more recently, several authors have started interrogating the validity of SVK in research and offered various lines of argument against the SVK principle as a necessary constraint to research. In this article, I will reconstruct the main arguments of this discussion between defenders and debunkers of the SVK principle and offer a third way to consider the social value of knowledge in research studies. I will argue that the social value of knowledge can be supported by an independent justification. This justification of the SVK principle addresses the rationality and common interest of researchers. Thus, I will introduce the SVK principle as a safeguarding principle for public trust based on a conceptual framework by Alex John London. My approach justifies keeping the principle as a precautionary and rational requirement for human health research that all rational stakeholders can agree upon. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Disease Resistance in Maize and the Role of Molecular Breeding in Defending Against Global Threat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farhan Ali; Jianbing Yan

    2012-01-01

    Diseases are a potential threat to global food security but plants have evolved an extensive array of methodologies to cope with the invading pathogens.Non-host resistance and quantitative resistance are broad spectrum forms of resistance,and all kinds of resistances are controlled by extremely diverse genes called “R-genes”.R-genes follow different mechanisms to defend plants and PAMP-induced defenses in susceptible host plants are referred to as basal resistance.Genetic and phenotypic diversity are vital in maize (Zea mays L.); as such,genome wide association study (GWAS)along with certain other methodologies can explore the maximum means of genetic diversity.Exploring the complete genetic architecture to manipulate maize genetically reduces the losses from hazardous diseases.Genomic studies can reveal the interaction between different genes and their pathways.By confirming the specific role of these genes and protein-protein interaction (proteomics) via advanced molecular and bioinformatics tools,we can shed a light on the most complicated and abstruse phenomena of resistance.

  6. State-Propagated Narratives about a National Defender in Central Asian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Marat

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between narratives propagated by the state about a historical national hero and a contemporary soldier's professional ideology in the post-Soviet Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. It argues that while elite-maintained mass publishing of cohesive narratives about a vividly drawn historical persona, male and warrior, trigger at raising a loyal soldier unified with his compatriots on the basis of cultural values and objects of loyalty, state elites seek to link a contemporary army recruit with his historical predecessors who fought for unity, integrity, and  dominance of the nation. But the link inevitably merges with ethno-centric ideas of protecting the cultural community identified with the narrative, as opposed to a physical entity within the state borders. State elites  reinforce the significance of military experience of the titular ethnic entity in accordance with their own political interests. Narratives about a national defender articulate what the political elites expect from the military service but are restrained from depicting in official policy documents. In order to reach effective results, the Central Asian states retained the same Soviet tools of cultivating patriotism as the basis for the army's internal discipline, but primordial characters have also been incorporated into the indoctrination.

  7. The 'common knowledge' of Quebecers: quantifying the evidence of historians testifying for defendant tobacco companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callard, Cynthia

    2016-09-01

    The 'common knowledge' defence is a legal strategy which has been successfully used by defendant tobacco companies to avoid legal responsibility for the harms caused by smoking. Tobacco companies have hired professional historians to try to persuade courts about a longstanding high level of public awareness regarding the risks of tobacco use. To support this argument, they have used archival news clippings and media reports. Two historians were hired by tobacco companies to offer this defence during a recent class action trial in Canada, following which they were required to submit to the court the collection of media materials which had been gathered by history students to assist their testimony. Included in this collection were tobacco advertisements and other news items about tobacco products which the students had inadvertently also collected. Quantifying this collection reveals that even by the tobacco industry's own construct, the information environment surrounding Quebec smokers in the middle 20th century included more prosmoking messages than information about the risks of smoking.

  8. Propagation Modeling and Defending of a Mobile Sensor Worm in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Wu, Qun; Wen, Sheng; Cai, Yiqiao; Tian, Hui; Chen, Yonghong; Wang, Baowei

    2017-01-13

    WSANs (Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks) are derived from traditional wireless sensor networks by introducing mobile actuator elements. Previous studies indicated that mobile actuators can improve network performance in terms of data collection, energy supplementation, etc. However, according to our experimental simulations, the actuator's mobility also causes the sensor worm to spread faster if an attacker launches worm attacks on an actuator and compromises it successfully. Traditional worm propagation models and defense strategies did not consider the diffusion with a mobile worm carrier. To address this new problem, we first propose a microscopic mathematical model to describe the propagation dynamics of the sensor worm. Then, a two-step local defending strategy (LDS) with a mobile patcher (a mobile element which can distribute patches) is designed to recover the network. In LDS, all recovering operations are only taken in a restricted region to minimize the cost. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our model estimations are rather accurate and consistent with the actual spreading scenario of the mobile sensor worm. Moreover, on average, the LDS outperforms other algorithms by approximately 50% in terms of the cost.

  9. Evaluation of risk from acts of terrorism :the adversary/defender model using belief and fuzzy sets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2006-09-01

    Risk from an act of terrorism is a combination of the likelihood of an attack, the likelihood of success of the attack, and the consequences of the attack. The considerable epistemic uncertainty in each of these three factors can be addressed using the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty from the Dempster/Shafer theory of evidence. The adversary determines the likelihood of the attack. The success of the attack and the consequences of the attack are determined by the security system and mitigation measures put in place by the defender. This report documents a process for evaluating risk of terrorist acts using an adversary/defender model with belief/plausibility as the measure of uncertainty. Also, the adversary model is a linguistic model that applies belief/plausibility to fuzzy sets used in an approximate reasoning rule base.

  10. How common is "common knowledge" about child witnesses among legal professionals? Comparing interviewers, public defenders, and forensic psychologists with laypeople.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Julie A; Warren, Amye R; Bruck, Maggie; Kuehnle, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluates the knowledge of jury-eligible college students (n = 192), investigative interviewers (n = 44), forensic psychologists (n = 39), and public defenders (n = 137) in regard to the research on interviewing children. These groups' knowledge was compared with the scientific research on the impact of interview techniques and practices on the accuracy of child witnesses. Jury-eligible students were the least knowledgeable, but their accuracy varied widely across items. Both interviewers and public defenders performed better than jury-eligible students, but they lacked substantial knowledge about the research on interviewing children on certain topics (e.g., using anatomically detailed dolls); forensic psychologists were the most knowledgeable. These findings suggest that professionals in the legal system need substantial professional development regarding the research on interviewing strategies with child witnesses. They also highlight the need for experts to provide case-relevant information to juries who lack basic information about the validity and reliability of children's reports.

  11. Indirect benefits of symbiotic coccoids for an ant-defended myrmecophytic tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Elizabeth G; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Gordon, Deborah M

    2011-01-01

    The net benefits of mutualism depend directly on the costs and effectiveness of mutualistic services and indirectly on the interactions that affect those services. We examined interactions among Cordia alliodora myrmecophytic trees, their symbiotic ants Azteca pittieri, coccoid hemipterans, and foliar herbivores in two Neotropical dry forests. The tree makes two investments in symbiotic ants: it supplies nesting space, as domatia, and it provides phloem to coccoids, which then produce honeydew that is consumed by ants. Although higher densities of coccoids should have higher direct costs for trees, we asked whether higher densities of coccoids can also have higher indirect benefits for trees by increasing the effectiveness of ant defense against foliar herbivores. We found that trees benefited from ant defense against herbivores. Ants defended trees effectively only when colonies reached high densities within trees, and ant and coccoid densities within trees were strongly positively correlated. The benefits of reduced foliar herbivory by larger ant colonies were therefore indirectly controlled by the number of coccoids. Coccoid honeydew supply also affected per capita ant aggression against tree herbivores. Ants experimentally fed a carbohydrate-rich diet, analogous to sugar obtained from coccoids, were more aggressive against caterpillars per capita than ants fed a carbohydrate-poor diet. Ant defense was more effective on more valuable and vulnerable young leaves than on older leaves. Young domatia, associated with young leaves, contained higher coccoid densities than older domatia, which suggests that coccoids may also drive spatially favorable ant defense of the tree. If higher investments by one mutualistic partner are tied to higher benefits received from the other, there may be positive feedback between partners that will stabilize the mutualism. These results suggest that higher investment by trees in coccoids leads to more effective defense by ants against

  12. Plants attract parasitic wasps to defend themselves against insect pests by releasing hexenol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant volatiles play an important role in defending plants against insect attacks by attracting their natural enemies. For example, green leaf volatiles (GLVs and terpenoids emitted from herbivore-damaged plants were found to be important in the host location of parasitic wasps. However, evidence of the functional roles and mechanisms of these semio-chemicals from a system of multiple plants in prey location by the parasitoid is limited. Little is known about the potential evolutionary trends between herbivore-induced host plant volatiles and the host location of their parasitoids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study includes hierarchical cluster analyses of plant volatile profiles from seven families of host and non-host plants of pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis, and behavioral responses of a naive parasitic wasp, Opius dissitus, to some principal volatile compounds. Here we show that plants can effectively pull wasps, O. dissitus, towards them by releasing a universally induced compound, (Z-3-hexenol, and potentially keep these plants safe from parasitic assaults by leafminer pests, L. huidobrensis. Specifically, we found that volatile profiles from healthy plants revealed a partly phylogenetic signal, while the inducible compounds of the infested-plants did not result from the fact that the induced plant volatiles dominate most of the volatile blends of the host and non-host plants of the leafminer pests. We further show that the parasitoids are capable of distinguishing the damaged host plant from the non-host plant of the leafminers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that, as the most passive scenario of plant involvement, leafminers and mechanical damages evoke similar semio-chemicals. Using ubiquitous compounds, such as hexenol, for host location by general parasitoids could be an adaptation of the most conservative evolution of tritrophic interaction. Although for this, other compounds may be

  13. Defend an electricity trolley construction technique%防电作业台车施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖鹏

    2011-01-01

    Take off to want:The city widely ups north route a passenger car contact line especially the big bridge adopt a 1~15 ms the just-reached form crosses over a current city to widely up north route line in a row and go car density big,start construction difficulty.But the adoption defend an electricity car can under the condition that not break off go a car and get in touch with a net don't the power is off completed to just reach a bridge construction,promised a construction safety.This text passes to the summary that defends the electricity trolley construction process and introduced the craft and method of defending the electricity trolley construction.%京广上行客车联络线特大桥采用1~15 m连续刚构的形式跨越既有的京广上行线,行车密度大,施工困难。而采用防电作业车可在不中断行车、接触网不停电的条件下完成钢构桥施工,保证了施工安全。本文通过对防电作业台车施工过程的总结,介绍了防电作业台车施工的工艺和方法。

  14. Third Graders' Perceptions on Moral Behaviour on Bullying If They Had the Infinite Powers of Superhero Defenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Johansson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a serious moral concern affecting the victim's welfare and achievement in school. Lately, research on bullying phenomenon has led to successful procedures in which passive bystanders are asked to become defenders of the victims of bullying. This case study explores children's perceptions on moral behaviour on bullying and, moreover, what type of moral voice they would express if they had the infinite powers and means of superhero defenders. Children created masks, posters, and flags for ideal superheroes and described their personalities. In addition, they drew comic strips about the skills they wish to teach new hero students in superhero school. The results indicate that children's moral voices can be divided primarily into justice and care. In addition, some expressed also the dark voice of the vigilante. Findings suggest that superheroes offer one tool for educators and children to ponder about the role of defenders for the victims of bullying. The topic focuses on the core of school life, relationships between pupils, and their moral development. Sixteen third grade children (aged 9-10 from a primary school in Finland took part in the study. The results for two of the children are presented in detail as the basis for discussion.

  15. About the Dissertations in Geological Sciences defended at Dissertation Committee Д 212.189.01 of the Perm State National Research University in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gershanok

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the information about the candidate’s dissertations in geological sciences defended at the Dissertation Committee of Perm State National Research University in 2013. The annotations of these works are presented as well.

  16. Defending strong tobacco packaging and labelling regulations in Uruguay: transnational tobacco control network versus Philip Morris International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Sosa, Particia; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-03-23

    Describe the process of enacting and defending strong tobacco packaging and labelling regulations in Uruguay amid Philip Morris International's (PMI) legal threats and challenges. Triangulated government legislation, news sources and interviews with policy-makers and health advocates in Uruguay. In 2008 and 2009, the Uruguayan government enacted at the time the world's largest pictorial health warning labels (80% of front and back of package) and prohibited different packaging or presentations for cigarettes sold under a given brand. PMI threatened to sue Uruguay in international courts if these policies were implemented. The Vazquez administration maintained the regulations, but a week prior to President Vazquez's successor, President Mujica, took office on 1 March 2010 PMI announced its intention to file an investment arbitration dispute against Uruguay in the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes. Initially, the Mujica administration announced it would weaken the regulations to avoid litigation. In response, local public health groups in Uruguay enlisted former President Vazquez and international health groups and served as brokers to develop a collaboration with the Mujica administration to defend the regulations. This united front between the Uruguayan government and the transnational tobacco control network paid off when Uruguay defeated PMI's investment dispute in July 2016. To replicate Uruguay's success, other countries need to recognise that strong political support, an actively engaged local civil society and financial and technical support are important factors in overcoming tobacco industry's legal threats to defend strong public health regulations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Liikumine kui kadumise poeesia / Marika Tomberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tomberg, Marika

    1999-01-01

    Amsterdami - Maastrichti suveülikooli juures toimunud kursusest "Tantsu improvisatsiooni tehnoloogiast." Pikemalt Rudolf von Labani liikumissüsteemist ja William Forsytheþi koreograafilisest mõtlemisest

  18. Eesti seadused kolivad igaveseks internetti / Marika Seppius

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seppius, Marika, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    1. jaanuarist 2007 on elektrooniline Riigi Teataja ainus ametlik väljaanne. Sama ka: Põhjarannik 26. juuli 2005, lk. 2 ; Virumaa Teataja 28. juuli 2005, lk. 7 ; Võrumaa Teataja 30. juuli 2005, lk. 2 ; Sakala 4. aug. 2005, lk. 2 ; Pärnu Postimees 4. aug. 2005, lk. 15 ; Vooremaa 4. aug. 2005, lk. 2 ; Valgamaalane 11. aug. 2005, lk. 2 ; Koit 13. aug. 2005, lk. 6

  19. Alaealise õigus abordile / Marika Žmenja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Žmenja, Marika

    2014-01-01

    1. jaanuaril 2009 jõustusid raseduse katkestamise ja steriliseerimise seaduse muudatused, mille järgi alaealise raseduse katkestamiseks on vaja lisaks tema enda sooviavaldusele saada ka eestkostja nõusolek või kohtu luba. Alaealise õigusest eraelu kaitsele inimõiguste ja põhivabaduste kaitse konventsiooni ja Euroopa Kohtu praktika alusel

  20. Ebavõrdne vanemapalk / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 14. okt. lk. 2, Vali Uudised 15. okt. lk. 5, Vooremaa 16. okt. lk.2, Elva Postipoiss, Nädaline 18. okt. lk. 4, Koit 21. okt. lk. 6, Sakala 24. okt. lk. 2, Hiiu Leht 28. okt. lk. 2, Pärnu Postimees 12. nov. lk. 15. Autor kritiseerib vanemahüvitist käsitlevat seaduseelnõu

  1. Liival etenduvad vangide elulood / Marika Raiski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raiski, Marika

    2000-01-01

    Merle Karusoo 12 vangi elulugu käsitlevast dokumentaallavastusest "Save Our Souls", mis tuleb ettekandele 31. mail Tallinnas Liiva keskuses. Etenduses osalevad Vene Draamateatri ja Narva Teatri Ilmarine näitlejad. Eestvedajaks on VAT Teater

  2. Protest heaoluühiskonnast / Marika Vernik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vernik, Marika

    1998-01-01

    3 rootsi kunstniku näitusest Rakvere galeriis: Hans Tjörnerydi installatsioon 'Limbusation Expedition', Riitta Tjörnerydi 32 põletatud ja raamitud kanga- ja paberitükki, Christer Lindé abstraktsed õlimaalid.

  3. Reis kosmosesse : [Floating-kambrist] / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2011-01-01

    Ameerika psühholoogi John C. Lilly poolt kasutusele võetud Floating-kambrist ehk hõljumisvannist, mis aeglustab ajulaineid ning seeläbi aitab vähendada lihaspinget, stressi, ärevust, peavalusid, vererõhku ning parandada und, selgroo- ja kaelavigastusi, suurendada loovust ja heaolu jne

  4. Eesti seadused kolivad igaveseks internetti / Marika Seppius

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seppius, Marika, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    1. jaanuarist 2007 on elektrooniline Riigi Teataja ainus ametlik väljaanne. Sama ka: Põhjarannik 26. juuli 2005, lk. 2 ; Virumaa Teataja 28. juuli 2005, lk. 7 ; Võrumaa Teataja 30. juuli 2005, lk. 2 ; Sakala 4. aug. 2005, lk. 2 ; Pärnu Postimees 4. aug. 2005, lk. 15 ; Vooremaa 4. aug. 2005, lk. 2 ; Valgamaalane 11. aug. 2005, lk. 2 ; Koit 13. aug. 2005, lk. 6

  5. "Ravimiohutus - rahva tervise kaitseks" / Marika Gordon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gordon, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Ajakirja “Apteeker” ja Eesti Akadeemilise Farmaatsia Seltsi kevadkonverentsi ettekandeid kommenteerivad MEDA Pharma SIA Eesti juhataja Anu Adermann, Apteekide infotehnoloogia OÜ juhataja Siim Uibokand, Pärnu Lõvi apteegi juhataja Kärt Kambla ja Eesti Haigekassa ravimiosakonna peaspetsialist Erki Laidmäe

  6. Tõde pensionide kojukande kohta / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2008-01-01

    Pensionide kojukande muudatustest ning vastuseks 28. oktoobri ajalehes ilmunud Heljo Pikhofi artiklile "Pensioniraha jõuab igaüheni". Ilmunud ka Harju Ekspress 7. nov. 2008, lk. 9 ; Põhjarannik 6. nov. 2008, lk. 2 ; Võrumaa Teataja 8. nov. 2008, lk. 2 ; Pärnu Postimees 6. nov. 2008, lk. 11 ; Vooremaa 13. nov. 2008, lk. 2 ; Virumaa Teataja 21. nov. 2008, lk. 11, pealkiri kujul: veel pensionide kojukandest ; Sõnumitooja 12. nov. 2008, lk. 2

  7. "Ravimiohutus - rahva tervise kaitseks" / Marika Gordon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gordon, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Ajakirja “Apteeker” ja Eesti Akadeemilise Farmaatsia Seltsi kevadkonverentsi ettekandeid kommenteerivad MEDA Pharma SIA Eesti juhataja Anu Adermann, Apteekide infotehnoloogia OÜ juhataja Siim Uibokand, Pärnu Lõvi apteegi juhataja Kärt Kambla ja Eesti Haigekassa ravimiosakonna peaspetsialist Erki Laidmäe

  8. Siledaks ja saledaks skalpellita / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2013-01-01

    Eestis enamlevinud protsetuuridest kortsude silumiseks, naha noorendamiseks, keha salendamiseks ja juuste kohendamiseks: botox-süstid, hüaloroonhappesüstid, fotonoorendus, lasernoorendus, velashape tselluliidihooldus, kavitatsioon, tahe magic botox vananemisvastane juuksehooldus

  9. Reis kosmosesse : [Floating-kambrist] / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2011-01-01

    Ameerika psühholoogi John C. Lilly poolt kasutusele võetud Floating-kambrist ehk hõljumisvannist, mis aeglustab ajulaineid ning seeläbi aitab vähendada lihaspinget, stressi, ärevust, peavalusid, vererõhku ning parandada und, selgroo- ja kaelavigastusi, suurendada loovust ja heaolu jne

  10. Tõde pensionide kojukande kohta / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2008-01-01

    Pensionide kojukande muudatustest ning vastuseks 28. oktoobri ajalehes ilmunud Heljo Pikhofi artiklile "Pensioniraha jõuab igaüheni". Ilmunud ka Harju Ekspress 7. nov. 2008, lk. 9 ; Põhjarannik 6. nov. 2008, lk. 2 ; Võrumaa Teataja 8. nov. 2008, lk. 2 ; Pärnu Postimees 6. nov. 2008, lk. 11 ; Vooremaa 13. nov. 2008, lk. 2 ; Virumaa Teataja 21. nov. 2008, lk. 11, pealkiri kujul: veel pensionide kojukandest ; Sõnumitooja 12. nov. 2008, lk. 2

  11. Eesti tervishoid - Euroopa punane latern / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Nädaline 3. märts lk. 4, Elva Postipoiss 5. märts lk. 4, Valgamaalane 12. märts lk. 2, Hiiu Leht 8. apr. lk. 2. Autori sõnul on Eesti tervishoiu rahastamise poolest Euroopas viimasel kohal, kulutades selleks alla 5% SKP-st

  12. Alaealise õigus abordile / Marika Žmenja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Žmenja, Marika

    2014-01-01

    1. jaanuaril 2009 jõustusid raseduse katkestamise ja steriliseerimise seaduse muudatused, mille järgi alaealise raseduse katkestamiseks on vaja lisaks tema enda sooviavaldusele saada ka eestkostja nõusolek või kohtu luba. Alaealise õigusest eraelu kaitsele inimõiguste ja põhivabaduste kaitse konventsiooni ja Euroopa Kohtu praktika alusel

  13. Frequency and Detection of Malingering in Homicide Defendants Undergoing Criminal Responsibility Evaluations Using the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade C. Myers

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study reports on (a the prevalence of malingering in a sample of 20 homicide defendants seen in jail settings for criminal responsibility evaluations, and (b the feasibility of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP for malingering detection in this sample. Based on previous non-clinical simulation research, it was hypothesized that the SNAP validity scales would predict group membership for homicide defendants malingering psychopathology. Those with intellectual disabilities or psychotic disorders were excluded. Diagnostically, nearly one half of the sample had Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR personality and substance use disorders. Point prevalence of malingering was 30%. Using the criterion of any SNAP validity scale score in the clinical range (T ≥ 65, a reasonable sensitivity was demonstrated in the detection of malingering (83%, yet this outcome was hindered by a high false positive rate (64%. This study suggests further exploration of the SNAP for assessing malingering in forensic populations is warranted.

  14. Use of a television crime-drama series to promote legal understanding in mentally ill, incompetent defendants: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, John; Brooks, Martin H

    2005-03-01

    Videotaped material is used for educational purposes in many areas of medicine. In forensic facilities, programs designed to restore competency to stand trial (CST) in incompetent, mentally ill defendants have utilized videotaped courtroom proceedings as learning tools. This pilot study reviewed the progress of incompetent defendants (N = 15) who participated in a program that utilized videotaped segments of the television crime-drama "Law & Order", among other techniques, to promote CST in individuals deemed unfit to stand trial. The authors hypothesized that participation in at least one cycle of the Competency Restoration Group (CRG)'s curriculum would be associated with improvement in the areas of understanding, reasoning and appreciation. In order to assess whether the group was beneficial to the patient's treatment goal of competency restoration, patients were screened using the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA) prior to starting the group and after completing a cycle of the group's curriculum. The Wilcoxon signed ranks test was employed to analyze the results from the pre- and post-group MacCAT-CA testing. The tests yielded significant (p series, can be effective in facilitating learning in competency restoration programs. Limitations of this study include its lack of a control group and small population.

  15. BreastDefend enhances effect of tamoxifen in estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shujie; Castillo, Victor; Welty, Matt; Alvarado, Mark; Eliaz, Isaac; Temm, Constance J; Sandusky, George E; Sliva, Daniel

    2017-02-16

    Tamoxifen (TAM) has been widely used for the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer and its combination with other therapies is being actively investigated as a way to increase efficacy and decrease side effects. Here, we evaluate the therapeutic potential of co-treatment with TAM and BreastDefend (BD), a dietary supplement formula, in ER-positive human breast cancer. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined in ER-positive human breast cancer cells MCF-7 by MTT assay, quantitation of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragments and expression of cleaved PARP, respectively. The molecular mechanism was identified using RNA microarray analysis and western blotting. Tumor tissues from xenograft mouse model were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Our data clearly demonstrate that a combination of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) with BD lead to profound inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. This effect is consistent with the regulation of apoptotic and TAM resistant genes at the transcription and translation levels. Importantly, TAM and BD co-treatment significantly enhanced apoptosis, suppressed tumor growth and reduced tumor weight in a xenograft model of human ER-positive breast cancer. BD sensitized ER-positive human breast cancer cells to 4-OHT/TAM treatment in vitro and in vivo. BreastDefend can be used in an adjuvant therapy to increase the therapeutic effect of tamoxifen in patients with ER-positive breast cancer.

  16. Reprogramming of defended body weight after Roux-En-Y gastric bypass surgery in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zheng; Mumphrey, Michael B; Townsend, R Leigh; Morrison, Christopher D; Münzberg, Heike; Ye, Jianping; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2016-03-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) results in sustained lowering of body weight in most patients, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to obtain support for the notion that reprogramming of defended body weight, rather than passive restriction of energy intake, is a fundamental mechanism of RYGB. Male C57BL6J mice reaching different degrees of obesity on a high-fat diet either with ad libitum access or with caloric restriction (weight-reduced) were subjected to RYGB. RYGB-induced weight loss and fat mass loss were proportional to pre-surgical levels, with moderately obese mice losing less body weight and fat compared with very obese mice. Remarkably, mice that were weight-reduced to the level of chow controls before surgery immediately gained weight after surgery, exclusively accounted for by lean mass gain. The results provide additional evidence for reprogramming of a new defended body weight as an important principle by which RYGB lastingly suppresses body weight. RYGB appears to selectively abolish defense of a higher fat mass level, while remaining sensitive to the defense of lean mass. The molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying this reprogramming remain to be elucidated. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  17. The Panoptic Theatre: A Foucauldian Reading of Victoria Brittain and Gillian Slovo’s Guantanamo: Honor Bound to Defend Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Ali Mahmoud AbdelFattah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panoptic Theatre: A Foucauldian Reading of Victoria Brittain and Gillian Slovo’s Guantanamo: Honor Bound to Defend Freedom Springing from the affinity between the architectural design of the Panopticon, which had been invented  by Jeremy Bentham in the eighteenth century in France, and Guantanamo Prison--the notorious American prison where hundreds of detainees (including the five British Muslims who are the protagonists of the play had been imprisoned with no trial--the research paper aims to analyze Victoria Brittain and Gillian Slovo’s Guantanamo: Honor Bound to Defend Freedom (2004 in the light of the theory of the French poststructuralist philosopher Michel Foucault’s “The Panopticism” mentioned in his book Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison.  Michel Foucault has traced how the disciplinary and punitive techniques had developed historically from the imposition of blockades on the leprosy-infected villages to the strict organization of inmates in separate cells in the Panopticon, and from the severe punishment (Damiens’ amende honorable, to the abolition of the “spectacle” and the strive to preserve the bodies of the convicts. In retrospect, in the eighteenth century France, the disciplinary powers like monarchy, church, hospital, and prison all imposed strict laws on groups of people, whether they are ordinary people, prayers, patients, or prison inmates. The study proposes that the “War on Terror”--that had been initiated by the United States to impose a new set of rules on any country or a group of people suspected of organizing terrorism after September eleventh--is the new disciplinary power. In the productions of the Guantanamo: Honor Bound to Defend Freedom, real wire cages are built on the stage, creating an illusion of a play-within-a-play mode. Building on that, the play will be examined in the light of its metatheatricality, along with the protagonists’ technique of diegetizing the

  18. Lawyer of defendant and his role in the criminal process from the viewpoint of the European Convention on Human Rights and the Albanian criminal procedural legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klodjan Skenderaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A guarantee for real ensuring of defendant’s rights is the qualified legal assistance by the side of the lawyer, chosen or assigned by the proceeding body. Providing legal protection to defendants was an important achievement in the long and difficult efforts to democratize the criminal proceedings. It was initially achieved in developed countries which promulgated the fundamental rights and freedoms and on this basis the major laws of activity of justice’s bodies were enforced. The role of lawyer in the criminal proceeding gradually increased and became an important factor in the fight against violations of law and injustice. The lawyer became a respected procedural figure, standing in front of prosecution, as the opposing party able to develop a cross-examination and to influence in a fair solution of case. However in practice, it is not rare the violation of rights of defendants by proceeding organs. So, it is right to make this question: What will be done with their rights and how will they be protected? In practice there were different opinions in terms of guaranteeing the rights of these defendants and how far the rights of lawyers of the defendants are extended. This is the reason why this paper will bring in attention the position, procedural guarantees of lawyers, the actions that can take and the exercise of their main rights in defending the interest of defendant, taking into account the main phases of criminal proceedings. Special attention will be devoted to case law of European Court of Human Rights (ECHR in terms of guaranteeing the rights of defendants, the orientations of the Albanian Constitutional Court and that of Supreme Court. At the end, this paper will reach in some conclusions through which proposals and amendments will be made to the code of criminal procedure, starting from the principle that the rights and procedural guarantees of defendants should be guaranteed at the maximum, because it’s the only way to

  19. Network-Behavior Dynamics in Bullying and Defending : A Multilevel Network Analysis of Single-Grade versus Multi-Grade Classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rambaran, Johannes; McFarland, Daniel; Veenstra, David

    2017-01-01

    The social networks in which children participate in are strongly associated with their involvement in bullying and defending (Juvonen & Graham, 2014; Salmivalli, 2010). It is likely that peer effects – referring to selection and influence processes – explain this association. Children seek out

  20. A defende-lo mar: resistencia y lucha por la legitimidad en las orillas del mar de Arousa durante el franquismo

    OpenAIRE

    Oubiña Martínez, Narciso

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación tuvo como objeto explorar los discursos y métodos que grupos con diferente posición económica y social han utilizado para confrontarse y defender sus intereses en la comarca de Arousa durante el franquismo, así como la memor

  1. Network-Behavior Dynamics in Bullying and Defending : A Multilevel Network Analysis of Single-Grade versus Multi-Grade Classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rambaran, Johannes; McFarland, Daniel; Veenstra, David

    2017-01-01

    The social networks in which children participate in are strongly associated with their involvement in bullying and defending (Juvonen & Graham, 2014; Salmivalli, 2010). It is likely that peer effects – referring to selection and influence processes – explain this association. Children seek out frie

  2. Efarm. Dīmos. Dikaiou 2013, , (Animal Defenders International v UK: App no 48876/08: Political Advertising Bans and Freedom of Expression)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Ó Fathaigh

    2013-01-01

    In Animal Defenders International v UK, the 17-judge Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the UK’s ban on political advertising on television, as applied to an animal rights organisation, did not violate freedom of expression. The Court divided nine votes to eight, with the

  3. The Misconception of Corporal Punishment: A Rejoin to Albrecht's "Drop and Give Us 20, Seifried: A Practical Response to Defending the Use of Punishment by Coaches"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifried, Chad

    2010-01-01

    Dr. Rick Albrecht's article, titled "Drop and Give Us 20, Seifried: A Practical Response to Defending the Use of Punishment by Coaches," argued that I held a disregard for the unintended negative consequences of punishment and pointed out several items of concern he felt obligated to communicate to the scholarly and professional community to…

  4. The problems of defending the interests of juveniles in legal cases of domestic disputes during the divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terekhina S.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In our article we analyze the problems connected to the judicial scenario of settling domestic disputes over children during the divorce and located at the interfaces between law and psychology. We examine the issues of defending rights and interests of juveniles during civil proceedings in the context of regulations of National strategy of actions in the interests of children 2012-2017. We indicate modern civil legal procedure's main peculiarities which prevent the principle of prioritizing maintenance of "the best interests of a child" from practical realization during settlements of domestic disputes. We cover the issues connected to different forms of using special knowledge in psychology during civil legal procedure in settling domestic disputes. We list difficulties which arise during practical realization of children's rights to participate in the process of making decisions which affect their interests during the divorce. We outlined steps to improve the organization of civil proceedings in the direction of creating justice which would be friendly towards children.

  5. Auditing a court assessment and advice service for defendants with mental health difficulties: utilizing electronic patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Karen; Magness, Laura; Winstanley, Julia

    2012-07-01

    This study is an audit of the Somerset Court Advice and Assessment Service (CAAS) throughout its first year of implementation. It reports that the service successfully met the six desired objectives as set out in its Service Level Agreement. Further to this, it reports that the use of National Health Service electronic patient records within a court setting facilitated the provision of apposite and timely information to the court. Specific findings were that deliberate self-harm/suicidal ideation and mood disorders were the primary reasons for a person requiring CAAS involvement. Violence against the person, breach of orders and theft were the most prevalent categories of offending within this referred group. The prevalence of previous psychiatric history was significantly higher than found in comparable audits. It is likely that this is due to the efficacy of proactive and in vivo utilization of electronic patient records. Conclusions include the need to work in partnership with drug and alcohol agencies and the importance of recognizing that these services have significant clinical benefits for defendants with mental health problems, and the court system in terms of financial savings. We suggest ongoing audit is necessary to guide the development of other schemes in this pioneering service area.

  6. Defending body mass during food restriction in Acomys russatus: a desert rodent that does not store food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Roee; Choshniak, Itzhak; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2006-04-01

    Golden spiny mice, which inhabit rocky deserts and do not store food, must therefore employ physiological means to cope with periods of food shortage. Here we studied the physiological means used by golden spiny mice for conserving energy during food restriction and refeeding and the mechanism by which food consumption may influence thermoregulatory mechanisms and metabolic rate. As comparison, we studied the response to food restriction of another rocky desert rodent, Wagner's gerbil, which accumulates large seed caches. Ten out of 12 food-restricted spiny mice (resistant) were able to defend their body mass after an initial decrease, as opposed to Wagner's gerbils (n = 6). Two of the spiny mice (nonresistant) kept losing weight, and their food restriction was halted. In four resistant and two nonresistant spiny mice, we measured heart rate, body temperature, and oxygen consumption during food restriction. The resistant spiny mice significantly (P < 0.05) reduced energy expenditure and entered daily torpor. The nonresistant spiny mice did not reduce their energy expenditure. The gerbils' response to food restriction was similar to that of the nonresistant spiny mice. Resistant spiny mice leptin levels dropped significantly (n = 6, P < 0.05) after 24 h of food restriction, and continued to decrease throughout food restriction, as did body fat. During refeeding, although the golden spiny mice gained fat, leptin levels were not correlated with body mass (r(2) = 0.014). It is possible that this low correlation allows them to continue eating and accumulate fat when food is plentiful.

  7. The preparatory state of ground reaction forces in defending against a dribbler in a basketball 1-on-1 dribble subphase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Yoshioka, Shinsuke; Isaka, Tadao; Kouzaki, Motoki

    2015-03-01

    We previously demonstrated the relationship between sidestepping performance and the preparatory state of ground reaction forces (GRFs). The present study investigated the effect of the preparatory state of GRFs on defensive performance in 1-on-1 subphase of basketball. Ten basketball players participated in 1-on-1 dribble game of basketball. The outcomes (penetrating and guarding) and the preparatory state of GRFs (non-weighted and weighted states, i.e. vertical GRFs below and above 120% of body weight, respectively) were assessed by separating the phases. In the non-weighted state and the weighted state to determine the outcome, the probability of successful guarding was 78.8% and 29.6%, respectively. The non-weighted state prevented delay of the defensive step in the determination phase. Both the non-weighted and weighted states, immediately before the determination phase, were likely to change to the weighted state in the determination phase; during this time, the defender's preparatory state would be destabilised, presumably by the dribbler's movement. These results revealed that the preparatory GRFs before the defensive step help to explain the outcome of the 1-on-1 subphase, and suggest a better way to prevent delaying initiation of the defensive step and thereby to guard more effectively against a dribbler.

  8. Tääksi Mats ja Marta said tantsust osa juba enne oma sündimist / Anneli Aasmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aasmäe, Anneli, 1973-

    2011-01-01

    Noorte laulu- ja tantsupeol "Maa ja ilm" osalevast perekonnast: Tääksi Põhikooli segarühmas, mida juhendab Anu Mikkor, tantsib Marta Mikkor, Viljandi C. R. Jakobsoni nim. Gümnaasiumi segarühmas tantsib Mats Mikkor, Margus Mikkor õpetab noortepeo ajal lauluväljakul Ehtekoja telgis huvilistele sõlgede valmistamist

  9. "Racial bias in mock juror decision-making: A meta-analytic review of defendant treatment": Correction to Mitchell et al. (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Reports an error in "Racial Bias in Mock Juror Decision-Making: A Meta-Analytic Review of Defendant Treatment" by Tara L. Mitchell, Ryann M. Haw, Jeffrey E. Pfeifer and Christian A. Meissner (Law and Human Behavior, 2005[Dec], Vol 29[6], 621-637). In the article, all of the numbers in Appendix A were correct, but the signs were reversed for z' in a number of studies, which are listed. Also, in Appendix B, some values were incorrect, some signs were reversed, and some values were missing. The corrected appendix is included. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2006-00971-001.) Common wisdom seems to suggest that racial bias, defined as disparate treatment of minority defendants, exists in jury decision-making, with Black defendants being treated more harshly by jurors than White defendants. The empirical research, however, is inconsistent--some studies show racial bias while others do not. Two previous meta-analyses have found conflicting results regarding the existence of racial bias in juror decision-making (Mazzella & Feingold, 1994, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 1315-1344; Sweeney & Haney, 1992, Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 10, 179-195). This research takes a meta-analytic approach to further investigate the inconsistencies within the empirical literature on racial bias in juror decision-making by defining racial bias as disparate treatment of racial out-groups (rather than focusing upon the minority group alone). Our results suggest that a small, yet significant, effect of racial bias in decision-making is present across studies, but that the effect becomes more pronounced when certain moderators are considered. The state of the research will be discussed in light of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Rebamipide helps defend against nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs induced gastroenteropathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoheng; Qing, Qing; Bai, Yang; Mao, Hua; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Qikui; Zhang, Yali; Chen, Ye

    2013-07-01

    Gastrointestinal toxicity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been perplexing most clinicians and users of NSAIDs. Rebamipide is increasingly advocated as a candidate option for the prevention of NSAIDs induced gastrointestinal mucosal injury. To assess the efficacy and the safety of rebamipide for the prevention and treatment of NSAID-induced gastroenteropathy. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Google Scholar, the Cochrane Library, Japan Science and Technology Information Aggregator, and China Biology Medicine Disc were searched up to December 2011. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) recruiting subjects with co-prescriptions of NSAIDs and rebamipide were eligible. Efficacy and safety of rebamipide were reevaluated, and dichotomous data were pooled to obtain relative risk (RR) with a 95 % confidence interval. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed by the inconsistency index statistic and funnel plot analysis, respectively. The search identified 338 citations, and 15 RCTs including 965 individuals were eligible. In general, rebamipide acted better than placebo against short-term NSAID-induced gastroduodenal injury. Separate studies showed rebamipide was equal to or not superior to traditional strategies (including PPIs, H2RA and misoprostol treatment). Especially, rebamipide showed a beneficial effect against the small bowel damage (total RR = 2.70, 95 % confidence interval = 1.02-7.16, P = 0.045) when compared with placebo group. The average incidence of adverse events was about 36.1 % (0-70.0 %) but no serious event was recorded. Current evidences show rebamipide is effective and safe for defending against NSAID-induced gastroduodenal and lower-gastrointestinal injuries. However, more well-designed trials should be conducted to fully confirm the practical value of rebamipide.

  11. FROM VICTIMS TO DEFENDANT, UPSIDE DOWN TRIAL: SURUÍ AIKEWÁRA VS. DIVINO ETERNO - ANTHROPOLOGICAL ARBITRAL REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane felipe Beltrão

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Discussion of conflicts arising from infra-structure projects in state and federal roads which cross Indian Territory Sororó (AIS, land of the Suruí Aikewára, in southeast Pará, Brazil. After 30 years of inconvenience caused by the OP-2 later PA-253 and currently BR-153 opened by the Brazilian Army at the time of conflict with those fighting in the Araguaia Guerrilla, the Suruí Aikewára, with the aid of Federal Attorney Office, anthropological expert opinion and environmental impact study (EIA, to settle the matter with the Pará State Government to mitigate losses due to the road construction. Some of the items of the agreement, though, have not been complied with despite of the Federal Attorney Office mediation – a fact of great dislike to the Indian population who have been left with no other option, but to protest by closing the road once and again, in attempts to call attention of the State authorities. During the latest of the protests in March 2003 – provoked by the finding of a corpse in Indian Territory –truck driver, Divino Eterno, ran into young Surui who obstructed the road and protected the entrance to their village. In defense of those threatened, the Indians in the scene, detained the driver and his female companion at the time. Much to the dislike of the Indians and against their will – especially that of the Indian mothers who had their children threatened by the driver action -, the detainees were released by Funai (Indian National Foundation representatives. Once free, Divino Eterno registered a complaint at São Geraldo Police Station against three Suruí Aikewará. The action of Funai representatives has generated an upside down trial by reversing the position of the Indians from victims to the status of defendants.

  12. Permanence can be Defended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Andrew; Gardiner, Dale

    2017-03-01

    In donation after the circulatory-respiratory determination of death (DCDD), the dead donor rule requires that the donor be dead before organ procurement can proceed. Under the relevant limb of the Uniform Determination of Death Act 1981 (USA), a person is dead when the cessation of circulatory-respiratory function is 'irreversible'. Critics of current practice in DCDD have argued that the donor is not dead at the time organs are procured, and so the procurement of organs from these donors violates the dead donor rule. We offer a new argument here in defence of current DCDD practice, and, in particular, of the interpretation of the requirement of 'irreversibility' as permanence.

  13. Belief in a just world and well-being of bullies, victims and defenders: a study with Portuguese and Indian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Isabel; Kamble, Shanmukh V; Dalbert, Claudia

    2009-10-01

    Previous findings characterize the belief in a just world (BJW) as a valuable resource for maintaining positive well-being and assimilating injustice. The present cross-sectional study applies just world research to school bullying and tested the hypotheses that the personal BJW is positively correlated with subjective well-being, here particularly school distress. In this paper the generalizability of this association is tested in victims, bullies, and defenders, and across gender and also two countries with different cultures, Portugal and India. We will test if BJW can best be interpreted as a personal resource (main effect) or a buffer (moderator) for the distress of victims, bullies and defenders of the victims. The participants were 465 school students (Portuguese sample: 187 students aged between 12 and 18 years; Indian sample: 278 Indian students aged between 14 and 17 years). Overall, the results of the study supported the personal resource hypothesis. The stronger the adolescents' endorsements of the BJW the less they felt distressed at school, and this was true independent of their bullying behavior and within both sexes and across both samples, although boys, bullies, and Portuguese adolescents experienced more distress and defenders experienced less distress at school.

  14. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1993 to 31 December 1993 (NODC Accession 0000389)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1993 to December 31, 1993. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  15. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1994 to 31 December 1994 (NODC Accession 0000390)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1994. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  16. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1995 to 31 December 1995 (NODC Accession 0000391)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 1995. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  17. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1992 to 31 December 1992 (NODC Accession 0000388)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1992 to December 31, 1992. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  18. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1997 to 31 December 1997 (NODC Accession 0000393)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 1997. Data were submitted by the Institut Francais De...

  19. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1991 to 31 December 1991 (NODC Accession 0000387)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1991 to December 31, 1991. Data were submitted by the Institut Francais De...

  20. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1999 to 31 December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 1999. Data were submitted by the Institut Francais De...

  1. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1996 to 31 December 1996 (NODC Accession 0000392)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 1996. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  2. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1990 to 31 December 1990 (NODC Accession 0000386)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  3. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1998 to 31 December 1998 (NODC Accession 0000394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 1998. Data were submitted by the Institut Francais De...

  4. Electronic voting systems for defending free will and resisting bribery and coercion based on ring anonymous signcryption scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chih Hsiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vote by ballot is the feature in a democratic society and the process of decision-making, tending to achieve the philosophy of democratic politics by having the public who are eligible to vote for competent candidates or leaders. With the rapid development of technologies and network applications, electronization has been actively promoted globally during the social transformation period that the concept of electronic voting is further derived. The major advantages of electronic voting, comparing with traditional voting, lie in the mobility strength of electronic voting, reducing a large amount of election costs and enhancing the convenience for the public. Electronic voting allows voters completing voting on the Internet that not only are climate and location restrictions overcome, but the voter turnout is also increased and the voting time is reduced for the public. With the development in the past three decades, electronic voting presents outstanding performance theoretically and practically. Nevertheless, it is regrettable that electronic voting schemes still cannot be completely open because of lures by money and threats. People to lure by money and threats would confirm the voters following their instructions through various methods that more factors would appear on election results, affecting the quality and fairness of the election. In this study, this project aims to design an electronic voting scheme which could actually defend voters’ free will so that lure of money and threats would fail. Furthermore, an electronic voting system based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography is proposed to ensure the efficiency and security, and Ring Signature and Signcryption are applied to reducing the computing costs. Moreover, this project also focuses on applying voting system to mobile devices. As the system efficiency and security are emphasized, voters do not need to participate in the election, but simply complete voting with smart phones, i

  5. The United States’ European Phased Adaptive Approach Missile Defense System: Defending Against Iranian Missile Threats Without Diluting the Russian Deterrent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    responsible move by the U.S. president.”16 Then–Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin , echoing this sentiment, said, “The latest decision by the Obama...2020, a new arms race will begin.”26 Similarly, Russian President Putin said in a statement in August 2012, “ Russia is open to new joint initiatives...Publications, Inc., 1971. Boyer, Dave, “Obama Defends Russia ‘Reset’ Despite Strained Ties with Putin ,” Washington Times, September 4, 2013. As of

  6. Providing a Distance Bounding Protocol Named Pasargad in order to Defend against Relay Attacks on RFID-Based Electronic Voting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arjmand

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The most important characteristic of RFID-based electronic voting system compared to traditional votingsystem is that votes in the electronic system are as contactless smart cards in place of paper ballots. Forcasting ballots, voters use a computer terminal to write their choices (their chosen candidates intocontactless smart cards and then put the smart card inside the box. The most important threat forRFIDsystems is information robbery and relay attacks. In this article, by designing a protocol calledDistance Bounding Protocol it is tried to defend these systems against relay attacks.

  7. Defending the Absurd: The Iconoclast's Guide to Section 47(1 of the Superior Courts Act 10 of 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haneen McCreath

    2014-12-01

    immunity which the section affords South African judges is a mechanism for sparing them the nuisance of having to deal with frivolous litigation, either as defendant or as adjudicator. Every specious suit against a judge, per definitionem, represents an incursion into judicial impartiality by urging that the court give credence to a claim which does not qualify for curial adjudication. In this regard, the doctrine of leave to sue seeks to ensure that judges do not have to adjudicate claims which resort beyond the compass of their judicial capacity. It is a doctrine which operates to protect and advance the unimpeachable principle of judicial impartiality.

  8. China Youth Basketball Defenders Shallow Light Passing Ability Training%浅淡青少年篮球后卫队员传球能力的训练

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冼镜坤

    2012-01-01

    Aimed at young defenders in the shortcoming of the passing through their teaching experience and training of relative literature material,and combined with basketball teaching material of the theoretical knowledge of senior players passing ability of teenagers defender comprehensive analysis,in passing consciousness,passing technology and passing skills training three aspects,puts forward some feasible methodS.%文章针对青少年后卫队员在传球方面技术水平的不足,通过自己的教学训练经验并查阅相关的文献资料,并结合篮球运动高级教材的理论知识对青少年后卫队员传球能力进行综合的分析,在传球意识、传球技术与传球技巧三方面的训练提出可行性的训练方法。为提高青少年篮球后卫传球技术水平提供理论依据。

  9. Defendable Space Theory and New Rural Community Planning%可防卫空间理论与新农村社区规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周术; 温亚斌; 姜文化; 李文忠

    2011-01-01

    By analysis of the first prize for competition on rural dwelling project designs for Shandong Province in 2008, this paper makes discussion on the strategies of rural community planning for safety-defending perspective. Under the theoretical background of dependable space, a comparison of defense features is made between the traditional and modern vernacular dwellings. Furthermore, it is pointed out that the social factors and economic features should be integrated to make a new rural community planning, and it is the key, for the rural residents, to improve the social relationship by the design of physical environment so as to defend as a whole.%论文目的在于以安全防卫的视角探讨新农村社区规划,从分析可防卫空间理论的演化、比较我国传统和现代民居中的可防御性特点入手,并以2008年山东省新农村住宅竞赛一等奖方案为例,提出新农村建设应该综合考虑农村环境的社会因素和经济特征,通过物质环境设计改善社会关系,使居民作为一个整体共同负担防卫责任是新农村社区安全的关键.

  10. [The analysis of the theses for the scientific degree in "forensic medicine" and related medical disciplines defended during the period from 2010 till 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisov, V A; Gusarov, A A; Kuprina, T A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the results of research reported in the theses for the degree in "forensic medicine" defended in different dissertation committees during the 5 year period (from 2010 till 2014) and to summarize and compartmentalize the main research areas in which the authors carried out their study and thereby make the data obtained more readily available for the wide circles of readers. A total of 55 theses for the scientific degree in "forensic medicine" (14.03.05) were defended during the period from 2010 till 2014 including 18 (32.7%) ones for the degree in two disciplines, the second being either "pathological anatomy" (n=6) or "stomatology" (n=4). Despite the great variety of the problems resolved in the studies conducted during the five year period, the subject matter of most research was on the whole consistent with the main lines of activities of the institutions with which the degree-seeking workers were affiliated. The same refers to the choice of the tutors and scientific advisers. the authors emphasize the necessity of centralized planning of research in compliance with the list of priority investigations having practical significance and coordination of cooperative studies carried out based on the state bureau of forensic medical expertise (SBFME) and departments of forensic medical expertise of medical universities.

  11. Research on Integrated Lightning Defending Technology of Air Automatic Monitoring Station%空气自动监测站综合防雷技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁铁军

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses lightning form and its damage to electronic equipment, discusses internal and external integrated lightning defending technology on the basis of integrated lightning defending system of air automatic monitoring station of DanDong Bearing Corporation Ltd. The system is useful to decrease failure rate of monitoring equipment and hurt of person.%基于建筑物雷击风险评估方法,得出本地可能遭受到的雷击形式和雷电破坏电子设备途径。以丹东轴承有限公司空气自动监测站综合防雷系统工程设计与施工为基础,对空气自动监测站外部、内部综合防雷技术体系进行阐述,通过现代防雷技术方法,有效降低监测设备因雷击而产生的故障率、最大限度预防和减少雷击所发生的人身伤亡和国家财产损失。

  12. Controlled Architecture of Dual-Functional Block Copolymer Brushes on Thin-Film Composite Membranes for Integrated "Defending" and "Attacking" Strategies against Biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Gang; Lee, Jongho; Perreault, François; Elimelech, Menachem

    2015-10-21

    We report a new macromolecular architecture of dual functional block copolymer brushes on commercial thin-film composite (TFC) membranes for integrated "defending" and "attacking" strategies against biofouling. Mussel-inspired catechol chemistry is used for a convenient immobilization of initiator molecules to the membrane surface with the aid of polydopamine (PDA). Zwitterionic polymer brushes with strong hydration capacity and quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) polymer brushes with bactericidal ability are sequentially grafted on TFC membranes via activators regenerated by electron transfer-atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET-ATRP), an environmentally benign and controlled polymerization method. Measurement of membrane intrinsic transport properties in reverse osmosis experiments shows that the modified TFC membrane maintains the same water permeability and salt selectivity as the pristine TFC membrane. Chemical force microscopy and protein/bacterial adhesion studies are carried out for a comprehensive evaluation of the biofouling resistance and antimicrobial ability, demonstrating low biofouling propensity and excellent bacterial inactivation for the modified TFC membrane. We conclude that this polymer architecture, with complementary "defending" and "attacking" capabilities, can effectively prevent the attachment of biofoulants and formation of biofilms and thereby significantly mitigate biofouling on TFC membranes.

  13. IMPACTS OF MESOGRAZERS ON EPIPHYTE AND ENDOPHYTE GROWTH ASSOCIATED WITH CHEMICALLY DEFENDED MACROALGE FROM THE WESTERN ANTARCTIC PENINSULA: A MESOCOSM EXPERIMENT(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumack, Craig F; Amsler, Charles D; McClintock, James B; Baker, Bill J

    2011-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that the extensive mesograzer community along the western Antarctic Peninsula regulates epiphytic algae as well as emergent filaments from endophytic species. Should grazing limit growth of fouling or potentially pathogenic microphytes, then Antarctic macrophytes may actually benefit from the remarkably high densities of mesograzer amphipods that occur in these waters. Although initially counterintuitive, the negative impacts of epi/endophyte fouling may outweigh stresses caused by limited amphipod grazing on chemically defended macrophytes by reducing stress from endo/epiphyte biomass. If so, then alleviating mesograzing stress should result in significant increases in endo/epiphytic biomass. To test this hypothesis, a mesocosm experiment was conducted. Individuals representing four common species of Antarctic macroalgae were placed in flow-through seawater mesocosms. Amphipods were added to five mesocosms at simulated natural densities, while the other five remained herbivore free. At the end of 7 weeks, endo/epiphytic growth on individual macrophytes was quantified. Most species of macroalgae demonstrated noticeably higher instances of endophyte coverage, epiphytic diversity, and diatom colonization in consumer-free mesocosms than in the presence of amphipods. These data suggest that macroalgae along the western Antarctic Peninsula rely on grazers to control populations of potentially harmful epiphytes. We hypothesize that the chemically defended macroalgal flora lives in mutualism with high densities of mesograzers, providing amphipods with shelter from predation while continually being cleaned of potentially harmful endo/epiphytes.

  14. 五人制足球守门员单刀球防守能力训练分析与示例%Analysis and examples for futsal goal keeperˊs defending ability training in one on one situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑萌

    2014-01-01

    Futsalˊs development begins very late in China,the foreign coaches and players introduced into China were mainly head coaches and field players,so the training for futsal goal keeper is very backward in China. Futsal goal keeperˊs defending can be divided into positional attack defending, set play defending and counterattack defending. Counterattack defending is the most difficult causing most goals in which one on one situation defending occurs often while being the most difficult and demanding for goal keeperˊs basic comprehensive technical ability. According to the characteristics of futsal and dividing goal keeperˊs defending into against the opponentˊs shot and against the opponentˊs technical and tactical behaviors before shot,this article provides some analysis and examples for futsal goal keeperˊs defending ability training in one on one situation combining with concepts differ-entiation of "dead corners around body figure" and "range of the goal frame" for protecting objects in defending. This research referred to the training methods brought by Chinese national futsal teamˊs Brazilian coaches,combined with the authorˊs training practice,expounding analysis,reorgani-zation and further development.%根据五人制足球特点,分防对手射门和防对手射门前技战术行为两个方面,结合“身周死角”和“门框范围”的防守保护对象概念划分,分析并提示了五人制足球守门员单刀球防守能力的训练方法。研究参考了中国五人制国家足球队巴西籍教练带来的训练方法,结合笔者执教实践进行重新分析解读与归纳引申。

  15. On defending strategy for DDoS attack based on nonparametric CUSUM algorithm%基于非参数 CUSUM 算法的 DDoS 攻击防御策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严长虹

    2014-01-01

    分布式拒绝服务攻击(DDoS)具有突发性、攻击主机分布广等特点,对其防御尤显困难。从分析 DDoS 攻击原理及常见的防御策略入手,根据非参数 CUSUM 算法,给出了基于流连接密度时间序列分析的 DDoS 攻击防御策略及其模型,并进行了与理论值比较的实验取证。结果表明:该防御模型能够在很大程度上有效防御 DDoS 攻击。%Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS)has features including burstiness and wide distri_bution of attacked host which makes it difficult to defend it.Starting from analysis on the princi_ple of DDoS attack and common defending strategies,this paper gives defending strategy for DDoS attack based on time series analysis of flow connection density and the model according to nonparametric CUSUM algorithm,and carries out experimental evidence comparing with theo_retical values.Results show that the defending model can defend DDoS attack effectively to a large extent.

  16. Organization of networks with tagged nodes and biased links: a priori distinct communities. The case of Intelligent Design Proponents and Darwinian Evolution Defenders

    CERN Document Server

    Rotundo, G

    2010-01-01

    Among topics of opinion formation it is of interest to observe the characteristics of networks with a priori distinct communities. As an illustration, we report on the citation network(s) unfolded in the recent decades through web available works belonging to selected members of the Neocreationist and Intelligent Design Proponents (IDP) and the Darwinian Evolution Defenders (DED) communities. An adjacency matrix of tagged nodes is first constructed; it is not symmetric. A generalization of considerations pertaining to the case of networks with biased links, directed or undirected, is thus presented. The main characteristic coefficients describing the structure of such partially directed networks with tagged nodes are outlined. The structural features are discussed searching for statistical aspects, equivalence or not of subnetworks through the degree distributions, each network assortativity, the global and local clustering coefficients and the Average Overlap Indices. The various closed and open triangles ma...

  17. 电信移动业务网络风险评估和安全防护%The Security Evaluation and Defending Work of Mobile SMS Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鸣; 常霞

    2013-01-01

    文章针对电信网络安全评估体系做了全面介绍,并结合短消息网的安全评估和防护工作对电信网络的安全评估体系做了深入分析。根据评估的安全漏洞对短消息网进行了安全整治,取得了良好的效果,保证了通信网络的安全可靠运行。%The paper introduces the architecture of telecommunication network security evaluation. According to the security evaluation and defending work of SMS network, the security evaluation architecture of telecommunication network is analysed in-depth. The security vulnerability is repaired in the SMS network, assuring SMS network to work normally.

  18. The influence of scoring targets and outer-floaters on attacking and defending team dispersion, shape and creation of space during small-sided soccer games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellano Julen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of altered game formats on team performances during soccer practice can be harnessed by coaches to stimulate specific tactical behaviours. The aim of the present study was to analyse the influence of using (i small goals [SG], (ii goalkeepers [7G] and (iii floaters [7GF] on the dispersion, shape and available space of teams during small-sided games (SSGs. Twenty-four male soccer players were distributed into four teams composed of five players, two goalkeepers and two floaters that performed six SSG bouts of 6 min, interspersed with 6 min of passive recovery. Offensive and defensive phases were also analysed separately in order to verify the preservation of basic principles of attacking (teams more stretched to create free space and defending (teams more compact to tie-up space during SSGs. The variables used to characterize the collective behaviour were: length [L], width [W], team shape [Sh], and team separateness [TS]. Results revealed that the teams showed different collective behaviours depending on SSG format and a playing phase: a L and W were higher in attack than in defence in all SSGs; b team shapes were more elongated in defence in all SSGs except SG; c the space separating players from their closest opponents (TS was shorter in 7G; and d SG and 7GF elicited greater defensive openness due to increased team width. The results suggest that manipulating task constraints, such as goal size, presence or absence of goalkeepers and floaters can be harnessed by coaches to shape distinct team tactical behaviours in SSGs while preserving the basic principles of attacking and defending.

  19. NBRS:a broadcast authentication scheme in WSN with defending against DoS attacks%WSN中抗DoS攻击的广播认证方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晋; 曹晓梅

    2014-01-01

    针对当前无线传感网( WSN)中广播认证方案的端对端时延较长、基于数字签名的广播认证能耗较大的问题,提出一种新的抗拒绝服务( DoS)攻击的广播认证方案,在基于Nyberg快速单向累加器的广播认证的基础上加入信誉机制,引入邻居信誉值和全局信誉值两个参数对节点的信誉值进行全面评估。通过判断全局信誉值的大小来决定是先转发还是先认证,有效地降低了端对端时延,降低了计算和存储能耗,同时增加了对抗DoS攻击的能力。%For the end-to-end delay of the current broadcast authentication scheme in Wireless Sensor Network ( WSN) is longer, broadcast authentication based on digital signature has a lot of energy consumption, this paper proposed a new broadcast authentication scheme with defending against Deny of Service ( DoS) attacks that added the reputation mechanism to the broadcast authentication based on Nyberg's fasting one-way accumulator, and introduced two parameters, neighbors reputation values and the global reputation values, to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the nodes. By judging the global reputation value, forward-first or certification-first was determined, which effectively reduced the end-to-end delay, and the computing and storage energy, while increasing the ability of defending against DoS attacks.

  20. Thinking aloud during idea generating and planning before written translation: Developmental changes from ages 10 to 12 in expressing and defending opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Matt; Berninger, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    This interdisciplinary research, drawing on cognitive psychology and linguistics, extended to middle childhood past research during early childhood or adulthood on thinking aloud prior to written composing. In year 5 of a longitudinal study of typical writing, when cohort 1 was in grade 5 (n = 110 ten year-olds) and cohort 2 in grade 7 (n = 97 twelve year-olds), a cross-sectional study was conducted. Children were first asked to think aloud while they generated ideas and second while they planned their essays to express and defend their opinions on a controversial topic in the region of the United States where they lived. Third, they wrote their essays. Their think-aloud protocols were audio-recorded and later transcribed into writing for analysis. The authors developed and applied rating scales for quality of idea generating and planning in the written transcriptions and quality of opinion expression, opinion defense, organization, and content in the essays children wrote after thinking aloud; total number of words in essays was also counted. Seventh graders scored significantly higher than fifth graders on quality of idea generation but not planning, and higher on all variables rated for quality in the written essays including length. Quality of expressing opinions and defending opinions were uncorrelated in grade 5, but moderately correlated in grade 7. Whether idea generating or planning quality explained unique variance in essays varied with coded written essay variables and grade. Educational applications of results for assessment, assessment-instruction links, instruction in social studies, and theory of mind in persuasive essay writing are discussed. PMID:28203613

  1. Arsti juures võõras / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Kesknädal 10. august lk. 4-5 täistekst, Pravo i Pravda 13. august lk. 7, Meie Maa 16. august lk. 2, Videvik 22. september lk. 1-3. Riigikogu sotsiaalkomisjoni liikme hinnangul tuleks Eesti tervishoiu kriisist välja toomiseks muuta süsteemi loomise põhimõtteid. Vt. ka Siiri Oviiri märkusi 5. august Postimehes lk. 15 ja 10. august Kesknädalas lk. 4 ning Eiki Nestori kommentaari 10. august Kesknädalas lk. 5

  2. Rahvusvaheline üldmeditsiini kongress oli Eestis esmakordselt / Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kusnets, Marika

    2007-01-01

    8. detsembril peeti Tallinnas rahvusvahelist üldmeditsiini kongressi, kus osalesid mitmete erialade arstid. Kongressil käsitletud teemad - südame-veresoonkonnahaiguste varajane diagnostika, söömisharjumused, metabolism, hüpertoonia, erektsioonihäired, depressioon, 2. tüüpi diabeet ja oftalmoloogia

  3. Maksude äkktõus ja hinnaralli / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vali Uudised, 13. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 20. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 20. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Virumaa Teataja, 21. juuni 2007, lk. 11; Põhjarannik, 21. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Sõnumitooja, 22. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Harjumaa, 26. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 26. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Pärnu Postimees, 27. juuni 2007, lk. 15; Vooremaa : Kallaste Linna Leht, 21. juuli 2007, lk. 2. Autor kritiseerib valitsuskoalitsiooni maksupoliitikat

  4. Ulila perearst jääb alles / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2006-01-01

    Riigikogu sotsiaalkomisjoni liige juhtumist, kus Puhja vallavalitsus kavatses Ulilas perearsti koha kaotada, aga parlamendiliikme ja sotsiaalministeeriumi sekkumisel saab Ulila perearst oma tööd jätkata. Sotsiaalministeeriumis valminud seaduseelnõust, mis ei kohusta perearsti olema ettevõtja

  5. Peeter Kreitzberg esimest korda Hiiumaal / Peeter Kreitzberg ; interv. Marika Rõmmel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreitzberg, Peeter, 1948-2011

    2001-01-01

    Küsimused presidendikandidaat Peeter Kreitzbergile puudutavad osalemist Hiiumaa suurkogul, presidendiks kandideerimist, presidendivalimisi, hädavajalikke muudatusi Eestis, Eesti saari jm. Autor: Keskerakond. Parlamendisaadik

  6. Kaubakategooriate juhtimine annab konkurentide ees eelise / Marika Merilai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Merilai, Marika

    2008-01-01

    Tootekategooriate või ka kaubakategooriate juhtimine on ettevõtte äristrateegia, mis võimaldab jaekaubandusettevõttel saavutada konkurentidest paremaid tulemusi. Kanada turundusprofessori Brent McKenzie sõnul on kaubakategooriate juhtimine keeruline, kuna pole olemas ühte standardset lahendust, kuidas ettevõttes kategooriate juhtimist teostada. Skeem: Kaubakategooriate juhtimise eesmärgid. Kommenteerib ASi A-Selver sortimendijuht Agi Metsandi

  7. Neljandik raviks end meelsasti välismaal / Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kusnets, Marika

    2006-01-01

    Poliitikauuringute Keskuse Praxis 2005. aastal läbi viidud uuringust selgus, et 25% Eesti elanikest eelistaks ravi välismaal. Diagramm: Eelistused arstiabi saamise paiga osas erinevates elanike gruppides (%)

  8. Konverents: Naine ja vähk / Marika Gordon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gordon, Marika

    2008-01-01

    Ülevaade Lääne-Tallinna keskhaigla korraldatud konverentsist, kus ettekannetega esinesid Vähiregistri juhataja Margit Mägi, TÜ kliinikumi naistekliiniku arst-õppejõud Lee Padrik, Põhja-Eesti regionaalhaigla onkoloog-vanemarst Riina Kütner ja Lääne-Tallinna keskhaigla vanemarst-tsütoloog Antonina Selivanova

  9. Naistearstide ja neuroloogide kokkusaamine pakkus osapooltele suurt huvi / Marika Gordon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gordon, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Naistearstide Seltsi ja L. Puusepa nimelise Eesti Neuroloogide ja Neurokirurgide Seltsi ühiskoosolekul kõneldi naiste ja meeste neurobioloogilistest iseärasustest, seksuaaleluhäiretest, rasedusaegsetest peavaludest, epilepsia ravist naistel ja sünnitusabist

  10. Naistearstide ja neuroloogide kokkusaamine pakkus osapooltele suurt huvi / Marika Gordon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gordon, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Naistearstide Seltsi ja L. Puusepa nimelise Eesti Neuroloogide ja Neurokirurgide Seltsi ühiskoosolekul kõneldi naiste ja meeste neurobioloogilistest iseärasustest, seksuaaleluhäiretest, rasedusaegsetest peavaludest, epilepsia ravist naistel ja sünnitusabist

  11. Tähelepanu keskmes on viiruslik hepatiit / Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kusnets, Marika

    2008-01-01

    Ülemaailmsel hepatiidipäeval 19. mail korraldasid Eesti Gastroenteroloogide Selts (EGS) ja Roche Eesti OÜ meediakanalite esindajatele ümarlaua, et aidata teadvustada C-hepatiidi ohtu, testimis- ja ravivõimalusi Eestis

  12. Siddhameditsiin : hästi hoitud saladus / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2013-01-01

    Vestlusest Šveitsis elava siddhatohtri Gitanjali Azariah-Theleniga Indias elavate tamilite filosoofiast kui ka loodusmeditsiinist, mille õpetused on kirja pandud Tamil Nadu osariigi templites asuvates iidsetes tamilikeelsetes ürikutes

  13. Korruptsioon mittetulundusliikumises / Marika K Arendi Elita von Wolsky

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arendi Elita von Wolsky, Marika K.

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Mittetulundusühingute ja Sihtasutuste Liidus toimunud erakorralisest koosolekust, kus arutati artikli autori avaldusi, mis olid ajendatud tema avalikus kirjas esitatud küsimustest Mall Hellamile. Vt. samas: Kesknädal, 5. dets. 2001, lk. 9

  14. Rahvusvaheline üldmeditsiini kongress oli Eestis esmakordselt / Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kusnets, Marika

    2007-01-01

    8. detsembril peeti Tallinnas rahvusvahelist üldmeditsiini kongressi, kus osalesid mitmete erialade arstid. Kongressil käsitletud teemad - südame-veresoonkonnahaiguste varajane diagnostika, söömisharjumused, metabolism, hüpertoonia, erektsioonihäired, depressioon, 2. tüüpi diabeet ja oftalmoloogia

  15. Aino Ugaste doktoritööst / Marika Veisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veisson, Marika

    2005-01-01

    12. veebruaril 2005. aastal kaitses TPÜ dotsent Aino Ugaste Soomes Jyväskylä Ülikoolis kasvatusteaduste doktori kraadi teemal "The Childs' play world at home and the mothers' role in the play - Laste mängumaailm kodus ja ema roll mängus"

  16. EBSCO infopäev Tallinnas / Marika Meltsas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meltsas, Marika

    2008-01-01

    16. aprillil 2008 toimus Tallinnas EBSCO (Elton B. Stephens Company) infopäev, kus maailma suurim elektrooniliste ja trükiajakirjade vahendaja tutvustas oma tooteid ja teenuseid Eesti raamatukogudele. Kommentaar korraldajalt Tiina Nurmilt

  17. TEH võrgustik - viis aastat Eestis / Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kusnets, Marika

    2005-01-01

    Eestis on tervist edendavate haiglate (TEH) võrgustik tegutsenud juba viis aastat, sellega on liitunud 22 haiglat. Tänavust konverentsi peeti teemal "Tervise edendamine ja kvaliteedi tagamine haiglas: standardid ja praktika"

  18. Richard Avedon ja Annie Leibovitz laulsid kaanonit / Marika Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Marika

    2008-01-01

    Richard Avedoni (1923-2004) retrospektiivnäitusest (fotod aastatest 1946-2004) kuraator Helle Crenzien (Lousiana Kaasaegse Kunsti muuseum Taanis), millega kaasnes ka Helen Whitney film "Richard Avedon : darkness and light" ja Annie Leibovitzi (1949) suurprojektist "A photographer's life 1990-2005" Pariisis

  19. Siddhameditsiin : hästi hoitud saladus / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2013-01-01

    Vestlusest Šveitsis elava siddhatohtri Gitanjali Azariah-Theleniga Indias elavate tamilite filosoofiast kui ka loodusmeditsiinist, mille õpetused on kirja pandud Tamil Nadu osariigi templites asuvates iidsetes tamilikeelsetes ürikutes

  20. Konverents: Naine ja vähk / Marika Gordon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gordon, Marika

    2008-01-01

    Ülevaade Lääne-Tallinna keskhaigla korraldatud konverentsist, kus ettekannetega esinesid Vähiregistri juhataja Margit Mägi, TÜ kliinikumi naistekliiniku arst-õppejõud Lee Padrik, Põhja-Eesti regionaalhaigla onkoloog-vanemarst Riina Kütner ja Lääne-Tallinna keskhaigla vanemarst-tsütoloog Antonina Selivanova

  1. Pension on prioriteetide küsimus / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Elva Postipoiss 30. apr. lk. 2, Vooremaa 3. mai lk. 2, Kesknädal 4. mai lk. 4, Valgamaalane 7. mai lk. 2, Videvik 12. mai lk. 3, Järva Teataja 24. mai lk. 2, Lääne Elu, Pärnu Postimees 26. mai lk. 2,15. Parlamendiliige uuest pensioni seaduseelnõust

  2. Kaubakategooriate juhtimine annab konkurentide ees eelise / Marika Merilai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Merilai, Marika

    2008-01-01

    Tootekategooriate või ka kaubakategooriate juhtimine on ettevõtte äristrateegia, mis võimaldab jaekaubandusettevõttel saavutada konkurentidest paremaid tulemusi. Kanada turundusprofessori Brent McKenzie sõnul on kaubakategooriate juhtimine keeruline, kuna pole olemas ühte standardset lahendust, kuidas ettevõttes kategooriate juhtimist teostada. Skeem: Kaubakategooriate juhtimise eesmärgid. Kommenteerib ASi A-Selver sortimendijuht Agi Metsandi

  3. Uued võimalused kardiovaskulaarses kaitses / Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kusnets, Marika

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Hüpertensiooni Ühingu, Eesti Kardioloogide Seltsi ja Eesti Nefroloogide Seltsi korraldatud sümpoosionil tutvustati ONTARGET uuringu tulemusi. Väljavõtteid prof. Margus Viigimaa, dr. Merike Luman ja dr. Tiina Ristimäe ettekannetest

  4. HIV-infektsioon on seotud nakkuslike haigustega / Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kusnets, Marika

    2004-01-01

    TÜ arstiteaduskonna täienduskeskuse kolmepäevasel kursusel Tallinnas olid kõneks HIV-nakkuse seosed bakteriaalsete ja viiruslike nahahaigustega, parasitaarsete ja seenhaigustega, samuti nakkushaiguste ja seksuaalsel teel edasiantavate haigustega

  5. Tähelepanu keskmes on viiruslik hepatiit / Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kusnets, Marika

    2008-01-01

    Ülemaailmsel hepatiidipäeval 19. mail korraldasid Eesti Gastroenteroloogide Selts (EGS) ja Roche Eesti OÜ meediakanalite esindajatele ümarlaua, et aidata teadvustada C-hepatiidi ohtu, testimis- ja ravivõimalusi Eestis

  6. Richard Avedon ja Annie Leibovitz laulsid kaanonit / Marika Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Marika

    2008-01-01

    Richard Avedoni (1923-2004) retrospektiivnäitusest (fotod aastatest 1946-2004) kuraator Helle Crenzien (Lousiana Kaasaegse Kunsti muuseum Taanis), millega kaasnes ka Helen Whitney film "Richard Avedon : darkness and light" ja Annie Leibovitzi (1949) suurprojektist "A photographer's life 1990-2005" Pariisis

  7. Maksude äkktõus ja hinnaralli / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vali Uudised, 13. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 20. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 20. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Virumaa Teataja, 21. juuni 2007, lk. 11; Põhjarannik, 21. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Sõnumitooja, 22. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Harjumaa, 26. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 26. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Pärnu Postimees, 27. juuni 2007, lk. 15; Vooremaa : Kallaste Linna Leht, 21. juuli 2007, lk. 2. Autor kritiseerib valitsuskoalitsiooni maksupoliitikat

  8. TEH võrgustik - viis aastat Eestis / Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kusnets, Marika

    2005-01-01

    Eestis on tervist edendavate haiglate (TEH) võrgustik tegutsenud juba viis aastat, sellega on liitunud 22 haiglat. Tänavust konverentsi peeti teemal "Tervise edendamine ja kvaliteedi tagamine haiglas: standardid ja praktika"

  9. Valitsus hämab liikluskindlustuse seadusega / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vooremaa, 12. veebr. 2004, lk. 2; Elva Postipoiss, 14. veebr. 2004, lk. 4; Meie Maa, 20. veebr. 2004, lk. 2; Vali Uudised, 20. veebr. 2004, lk. 2; Põhjarannik, 21. veebr. 2004, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 21. veebr. 2004, lk. 2; Kesknädal, 25. veebr. 2004, lk. 2; Valgamaalane, 16. märts 2004, lk. 6. Kriitiliselt liikluskindlustuse seaduse eelnõust. Liikluskindlustuse seaduse eelnõu arutelust Riigikogus

  10. EBSCO infopäev Tallinnas / Marika Meltsas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meltsas, Marika

    2008-01-01

    16. aprillil 2008 toimus Tallinnas EBSCO (Elton B. Stephens Company) infopäev, kus maailma suurim elektrooniliste ja trükiajakirjade vahendaja tutvustas oma tooteid ja teenuseid Eesti raamatukogudele. Kommentaar korraldajalt Tiina Nurmilt

  11. Peeter Kreitzberg esimest korda Hiiumaal / Peeter Kreitzberg ; interv. Marika Rõmmel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreitzberg, Peeter, 1948-2011

    2001-01-01

    Küsimused presidendikandidaat Peeter Kreitzbergile puudutavad osalemist Hiiumaa suurkogul, presidendiks kandideerimist, presidendivalimisi, hädavajalikke muudatusi Eestis, Eesti saari jm. Autor: Keskerakond. Parlamendisaadik

  12. Pensionide tulevik on hädaohus / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vali UUdised 8. veebr., lk. 2. Autor kritiseerib võimulolevat valitsust, kes ei pane riigieelarve ülejääki enam pensionikassasse, mille tõttu tuleb aprilli pensionite väljamaksmiseks võtta lisa reservist

  13. Korruptsioon mittetulundusliikumises / Marika K Arendi Elita von Wolsky

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arendi Elita von Wolsky, Marika K.

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Mittetulundusühingute ja Sihtasutuste Liidus toimunud erakorralisest koosolekust, kus arutati artikli autori avaldusi, mis olid ajendatud tema avalikus kirjas esitatud küsimustest Mall Hellamile. Vt. samas: Kesknädal, 5. dets. 2001, lk. 9

  14. Muutuvad identiteedid Eestis ja Euroopas / Marika Kirch, Aksel Kirch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kirch, Marika, 1951-

    2004-01-01

    Autorite hinnangul on avaliku arvamuse positiivsemaks muutumine EL-i suhtes avaneva ühiskonna, teiseneva identiteedi ning sellega tihedalt seotud uute väärtushinnangute ja sotsiaalsete normide koosmõju tulemus. Diagrammid

  15. The defender against apoptotic cell death 1 gene is required for tissue growth and efficient N-glycosylation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifan; Cui, Chang; Lai, Zhi-Chun

    2016-12-01

    How organ growth is regulated in multicellular organisms is a long-standing question in developmental biology. It is known that coordination of cell apoptosis and proliferation is critical in cell number and overall organ size control, while how these processes are regulated is still under investigation. In this study, we found that functional loss of a gene in Drosophila, named Drosophila defender against apoptotic cell death 1 (dDad1), leads to a reduction of tissue growth due to increased apoptosis and lack of cell proliferation. The dDad1 protein, an orthologue of mammalian Dad1, was found to be crucial for protein N-glycosylation in developing tissues. Our study demonstrated that loss of dDad1 function activates JNK signaling and blocking the JNK pathway in dDad1 knock-down tissues suppresses cell apoptosis and partially restores organ size. In addition, reduction of dDad1 triggers ER stress and activates unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling, prior to the activation of JNK signaling. Furthermore, Perk-Atf4 signaling, one branch of UPR pathways, appears to play a dual role in inducing cell apoptosis and mediating compensatory cell proliferation in this dDad1 knock-down model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of brief messages on HSV-2 screening uptake among female defendants in a court setting: a randomized controlled trial utilizing prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alexis M; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Dodge, Brian; Reece, Michael; Certo, David; Zimet, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic data demonstrate that women involved with the criminal justice system in the United States are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections, including herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Female defendants were recruited from a misdemeanor court to assess whether brief framed messages utilizing prospect theory could encourage testing for HSV-2. Participants were randomly assigned to a message condition (gain, loss, or control), completed an interviewer-administered survey assessing factors associated with antibody test uptake/refusal and were offered free point-of-care HSV-2 serologic testing. Although individuals in the loss-frame group accepted testing at the highest rate, an overall statistical difference in HSV-2 testing behavior by group (p ≤ .43) was not detected. The majority of the sample (74.6%) characterized receiving a serological test for HSV-2 as health affirming. However, this did not moderate the effect of the intervention nor was it significantly associated with test acceptance (p ≤ .82). Although the effects of message framing are subtle, the findings have important theoretical implications given the participants' characterization of HSV-2 screening as health affirming despite being a detection behavior. Implications of study results for health care providers interested in brief, low cost interventions are also explored.

  17. What Counts as Rape? The Effect of Offense Prototypes, Victim Stereotypes, and Participant Gender on How the Complainant and Defendant are Perceived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKimmie, Blake M; Masser, Barbara M; Bongiorno, Renata

    2014-08-01

    Jurors rely on a range of schemas when evaluating allegations of rape and sexual assault. For example, they may be influenced by the prototypicality of the alleged offense, the stereotypicality of the victim, or gender-related stereotypes. These schemas have often been conflated however, making it difficult to determine the unique impact of each on jurors' perceptions. To be able to effectively counter any schema-related misconceptions, we must first identify which beliefs are important and when. An experiment (N = 420) examined the independent effects of offense prototypicality and victim stereotypicality on mock jurors' perceptions. As expected, victim stereotypicality had a greater effect on judgments in the counter-prototypical (acquaintance) assault scenario than in the prototypical (stranger) assault scenario. When the complainant was described as being a counter-stereotypical victim in the acquaintance rape scenario, the defendant was seen as less likely to be guilty and evaluated more positively and the complainant less positively compared with when the complainant was described as being a stereotypical victim. Analysis of the qualitative data suggested a focus on different factors in reaching verdicts in the stranger and acquaintance rape scenarios. Results were interpreted as evidence that jurors "step down" through a hierarchy of schemas in their attempts to determine what happened in cases of rape and sexual assault.

  18. Solving Defender-Attacker-Defender Models for Infrastructure Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    estimation step is often referred to as “trip generation”; for example, see Van Zuylen and Willumsen [72], and Mannering et al. [52, pp. 293–298]. As described...Act of 2001. U.S. Government, Washington, DC, 2001. [72] H. J. Van Zuylen and L. G. Willumsen . The most likely trip matrix estimated from traffic

  19. A homologue of the defender against the apoptotic death gene (dad1) in UV-exposed Chlamydomonas cells is downregulated with the onset of programmed cell death

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swati Moharikar; Jacinta S D’souza; Basuthkar J Rao

    2007-03-01

    We report here the isolation of a homologue of the potential anti-apoptotic gene, defender against apoptotic death (dad1) from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we investigated its expression in the execution process of programmed cell death (PCD) in UV-C exposed dying C. reinhardtii cells. Reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR showed that C. reinhardtii dad1 amplification was drastically reduced in UV-C exposed dying C. reinhardtii cells. We connect the downregulation of dad1 with the upregulation of apoptosis protease activating factor-1 (APAF-1) and the physiological changes that occur in C. reinhardtii cells upon exposure to 12 J/m2 UV-C in order to show a reciprocal relationship between proapoptotic and inhibitor of apoptosis factors. The temporal changes indicate a correlation between the onset of cell death and dad1 downregulation. The sequence of the PCR product of the cDNA encoding the dad1 homologue was aligned with the annotated dad1 (C_20215) from the Chlamydomonas database (http://genome.jgi-psf.org:8080/annotator/servlet/jgi.annotation.Annotation?pDb=chlre2); Annotation?pDb=chlre2); this sequence was found to show 100% identity, both at the nucleotide and amino acid level. The 327 bp transcript showed an open reading frame of 87 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of the putative C. reinhardtii DAD1 homologue showed 54% identity with Oryza sativa, 56% identity with Drosophila melanogaster, 66% identity with Xenopus laevis, and 64% identity with Homo sapiens, Sus scrofa, Gallus gallus, Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus.

  20. Oral-derived bacterial flora defends its domain by recognizing and killing intruders--a molecular analysis using Escherichia coli as a model intestinal bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuesong; Tian, Yan; Guo, Lihong; Lux, Renate; Zusman, David R; Shi, Wenyuan

    2010-10-01

    Within the same human gastrointestinal tract, substantial differences in the bacterial species that inhabit oral cavity and intestinal tract have been noted. Previous research primarily attributed the differences to the influences of host environments and nutritional availabilities ("host habitat" effect). Our recent study indicated that, other than the host habitat effect, an existing microbial community could impose a selective pressure on incoming foreign bacterial species independent of host-mediated selection ("community selection" effect). In this study, we employed in vitro microbial floras representing microorganisms that inhabit the oral cavities and intestinal tract of mice in combination with Escherichia coli as a model intestinal bacterium and demonstrated that E. coli displays a striking community preference. It thrived when introduced into the intestinal microbial community and survived poorly in the microbial flora of foreign origin (oral community). A more detailed examination of this phenomenon showed that the oral community produced oxygen-free radicals in the presence of wild-type E. coli while mutants deficient in lipopolysaccharides (LPS) did not trigger significant production of these cell-damaging agents. Furthermore, mutants of E. coli defective in the oxidative stress response experienced a more drastic reduction in viability when cocultivated with the oral flora, while the exogenous addition of the antioxidant vitamin C was able to rescue it. We concluded that the oral-derived microbial community senses the E. coli LPS and kills the bacterium with oxygen-free radicals. This study reveals a new mechanism of community invasion resistance employed by established microflora to defend their domains.

  1. After a cold conditioning swim, UCP2-deficient mice are more able to defend against the cold than wild type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, Ramy E; Kovács, Katalin J; Nunez, Myra G; Larson, Alice A

    2014-08-01

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is widely distributed throughout the body including the brain, adipose tissue and skeletal muscles. In contrast to UCP1, UCP2 does not influence resting body temperature and UCP2-deficient (-/-) mice have normal thermoregulatory responses to a single exposure to cold ambient temperatures. Instead, UCP2-deficient mice are more anxious, exhibit anhedonia and have higher circulating corticosterone than wild type mice. To test the possible role of UCP2 in depressive behavior we exposed UCP2-deficient and wild type mice to a cold (26°C) forced swim and simultaneously measured rectal temperatures during and after the swim. The time that UCP2-deficient mice spent immobile did not differ from wild type mice and all mice floated more on day 2. However, UCP2-deficient mice were more able to defend against the decrease in body temperature during a second daily swim at 26°C than wild type mice (area under the curve for wild type mice: 247.0±6.4; for UCP2-deficient mice: 284.4±3.8, Pswim at 26°C correlated with their greater immobility whereas defense against the warmth during a swim at 41°C correlated better with greater immobility of UCP2-deficient mice. Together these data indicate that while the lack of UCP2 has no acute effect on body temperature, UCP2 may inhibit rapid improvements in defense against cold, in contrast to UCP1, whose main function is to promote thermogenesis.

  2. 浏览器中拦截Web攻击的研究%The Research of Defending Web-based Attack in Browser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 钱文祥

    2015-01-01

    The browser is an important entrance of the Internet .Its vulnerability directly affects users ’ data and property safety .Three kinds of common attack methods via web browser were presented and analyzed , i.e.Cross Site Scripting attack , Cross Site Request Forgery attack and Click -jacking attack .According to the attacker's attack mode , three corresponding methods of defending attacks were proposed so as to strengthen safety of the browser .The self-made browser was achieved by using the WebBrower control .Webpage script prefiltering and other related module were installed and loaded , the defense function was realized .Through related experiments , the systems using the proposed method can block attacks .The method effectively improves the browser safety and reduces the risk of network .%浏览器是互联网的重要入口,其脆弱性直接影响到用户数据和财产的安全。本文在分析跨站脚本攻击、跨站请求攻击以及点击劫持的攻击方法和成因的基础上,提出相应的动态检测和拦截方式,从而加强浏览器的安全性。通过使用WebBrowser 控件实现自定义浏览器,载入网页脚本预过滤等相关模块,实现防御功能。相关实验证明,本方案将有效提升浏览器安全性,减少网络风险。

  3. Defending Science Denial in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenau, J.

    2013-12-01

    Blogs, Facebook, Twitter, and other social media have proven themselves powerful vectors for science denial. Left unchecked, these attacks on foundational sciences like evolution and climate change undermine public confidence in science and spawn attacks on science-based policy and science education. Scientists can blunt such attacks by being vigorous advocates for their own research and their discipline's core findings, by seeking wide and unexpected audiences for discussions of their science, and by understanding and addressing the social, political, and cultural roots of science denial.

  4. Bad Arguments Defending Racial Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Professor Cohen describes the arduous path to the passage of Proposition 2 in Michigan in 2006. In considering the reasons for its victory, he shows how claims (sometimes well-intended) "for" preferences rest on truly bad arguments. (Contains 8 footnotes.)

  5. Do the Physcians Defend Euthanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarık Gündüz

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, after the definition and short historical development of Euthanasia, a questionnaire was given to 510 medical staff; 208 of whom are medical students who are in the 5th form and 302 of whom are physcians. In this questionnaire 6 multiple choice questions were asked about the knowledge level, social groups to comment and argue on the subject, the right of person to decide about his/her own life, opinions about current applications of euthanasia, whether he/she would agree on the application of the process and whether he would accept to get a responsibility in it or not. It was determined that among the people who attended the questionnaire, one third didn't have enough knowledge about the subject while 325 (63.72 % of them supported the application, still 351 (68.82 % of them refused to get a responsibility in the application of euthanasia, even if the process becomes legal. Opinions of the people who are with and against the idea were collected and summarized, it was determined that although passive euthanasia is not legal it is currently being applied when it is necessary and that physcians are biased to the legalization of the subject while they refuse to take a role in the application. Keywords : Euthanasia, Self Deliverance, Right to Life, Mercy Killing, Informed Consent

  6. Lithuania defends currency / Adam Mullett

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mullett, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Leedulased kiirustavad oma pangasäästusid vahetama eurode vastu, kuna kardetakse raha devalveerimist. Valitsus aga kinnitab, et vaatamata Leedu pangandussektoris esinevatele probleemidele pole lähiajal devalveerimist kavas

  7. Lithuania defends currency / Adam Mullett

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mullett, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Leedulased kiirustavad oma pangasäästusid vahetama eurode vastu, kuna kardetakse raha devalveerimist. Valitsus aga kinnitab, et vaatamata Leedu pangandussektoris esinevatele probleemidele pole lähiajal devalveerimist kavas

  8. Foucault Must Not be Defended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    This paper responds to and comments on many of the themes of the book under consideration concerning Foucault and neoliberalism. In doing so, it offers reflections on the relation between the habitus of the intellectual and the political contexts of action and engagement in the case of Foucault...... such as the French “Second Left” of the 1970s. It examines the legacy of Foucault in “governmentality studies” and argues for attentiveness to the different intellectual positions, and their potentially divergent political consequences, within this school of thought. It concludes by suggesting that the discussion...

  9. Cybersecurity: Defending the New Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Engineering and Material Technology Manufacturing Production and O&S Solution Development Development Deployment Analysis IOT &E Step 1 Step 2...tions for improved production and deployment of enhanced capabilities to the warfighter. Dubbed “Shift Left” (see this author’s article in the...be supported by a certification plan , a risk analysis of the AIS in its operational environment, an evaluation of the security safeguards and a

  10. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  11. Probiotics: defenders of gastrointestinal habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desh D. Singh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota play an important role in maintaining normal gastrointestinal (GI function and ensuring that changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota can promote GI function. The digestive tract is full of bacteria and many of these, including probiotics, are necessary for optimal digestive function. During bacterial gastroenteritis, harmful bacteria invade the digestive tract causing unpleasant symptoms and upsetting the balance between good and bad bacteria. Supplemental probiotics can help restore this balance. Studies have demonstrated that probiotics can often help reduce the severity of symptoms such as diarrhea and may help accelerate recovery. Probiotics are therapeutic preparations of live microorganisms administered in sufficient dosage to be beneficial to health. The therapeutic effects of these microorganisms appear to be strain specific. Primal Defense®, a unique, probiotic, bacterial compound, contains probiotics that support gut flora balance, promote consistent bowel function, control stomach acid levels to quickly eliminate burning sensation in the stomach and maintain immune system response. The probiotics in Primal Defense® maximize the benefits of a healthy diet by supporting normal absorption and assimilation of nutrients in the gut. Nearly 75% of our immune defenses are located in the digestive tract, so maintaining a favorable bacterial balance in the intestines (ideally 80% good or neutral bacteria to 20% bad or harmful bacteria is crucial to achieving and maintaining optimum health.

  12. Sõrve 2008 / Nicholas Wurm, Steven Buchert, Mai Buchert, Sandra Buchert...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    lapsed ja lapsevanemad Austraaliast meenutavad oma viibimist Sõrve lastelaagris: This is a story of a family from Sõrve; Nicholas Wurm - Age 9 (Adelaide); Alan and Debbie Mikkor (Melbourne); Jesse Mikkor's point of view: Age 8; Lauren Mikkor's point of view: Age 13

  13. Sõrve 2008 / Nicholas Wurm, Steven Buchert, Mai Buchert, Sandra Buchert...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    lapsed ja lapsevanemad Austraaliast meenutavad oma viibimist Sõrve lastelaagris: This is a story of a family from Sõrve; Nicholas Wurm - Age 9 (Adelaide); Alan and Debbie Mikkor (Melbourne); Jesse Mikkor's point of view: Age 8; Lauren Mikkor's point of view: Age 13

  14. 4层横向运动板防护长细杆的数值分析%Numerical Analysis of Four-Layer Plates with Transverse Motion Defending a Slender Rod

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史忠鹏; 李治源; 孙立志

    2011-01-01

    多层横向运动板对垂直来侵长细杆的挤压、剪切能够使长细杆发生挤压和剪切变形,进而降低长细杆后续的侵彻能力,增强装甲的防护效果.利用LS-DYNA软件对多层横向、邻层反向运动的钢装甲板防护钨合金长细杆进行运动板速度和运动板的厚度分配的相关仿真计算.通过对计算结果中开坑形状、后效板侵深和装甲效能进行分析发现,随着板运动速度的增加,后效板开坑深度减小和开坑形状的非对称性加剧,运动板的干扰作用增强及防护效能提高;在运动板总厚度相同的情况下,板的层数越少,防护性能越好.%The shearing and squeezing impact on the slender rod caused by multi-layer plates with transverse motion results in the deformation of slender rod which normally penetrates into plates,decreasing the subsequent penetrating ability of the slender rod, then increasing the defending effect of armor. In the process that multi-layer steel armor plates with reverse transverse motion defend the tungsten alloy slender rod,the speed and thickness allocation of plates is simulated by LS-DYNA code. By analyzing the shape of crater and the penetrating depth in target plate and the effectiveness of armor,conclusion is obtained that as the speed of plates increases, the crater of target plate appears more asymmetric and is of smaller depth,the disturbing effect and the defending efficiency of plates are greatly increased; as the layers decrease,the defending efficiency of plates becomes better when the total thickness of plates is the same.

  15. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores generated from the MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF test booklets: internal structure comparability in a sample of criminal defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Alosco, Michael L; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Wood, Arcangela; Luna-Jones, Lynn

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the internal structure comparability of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores derived from the MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF booklets in a sample of 320 criminal defendants (229 males and 54 females). After exclusion of invalid protocols, the final sample consisted of 96 defendants who were administered the MMPI-2-RF booklet and 83 who completed the MMPI-2. No statistically significant differences in MMPI-2-RF invalidity rates were observed between the two forms. Individuals in the final sample who completed the MMPI-2-RF did not statistically differ on demographics or referral question from those who were administered the MMPI-2 booklet. Independent t tests showed no statistically significant differences between MMPI-2-RF scores generated with the MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF booklets on the test's substantive scales. Statistically significant small differences were observed on the revised Variable Response Inconsistency (VRIN-r) and True Response Inconsistency (TRIN-r) scales. Cronbach's alpha and standard errors of measurement were approximately equal between the booklets for all MMPI-2-RF scales. Finally, MMPI-2-RF intercorrelations produced from the two forms yielded mostly small and a few medium differences, indicating that discriminant validity and test structure are maintained. Overall, our findings reflect the internal structure comparability of MMPI-2-RF scale scores generated from MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF booklets. Implications of these results and limitations of these findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. 突出攻防练习对提高跆拳道教学效果的研究%On the Effect of Practice through Highlighting the Attacking and Defending in Teaching Taekwondo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓红

    2011-01-01

    With the methods of literature, questionnaire and experimentation, the paper does the survey of the effect of Attacking And Defending practice in teaching Taekwondo, surveys show that in the process of explaining, demonstrating and practicing,combining the practice of Attacking and Defending and binding with the skills can improve students' understanding of the inner cultural connotations and skills of Taekwondo, can increase students learning interests in Taekwondo and improve the teaching quality and the charm of Taekwondo dramatically.%文辛通过查阅文献资料法、问巷调查法和买验法对攻防练习在跆拳道教字中的作用以及所严生的教学效果进行调查分析。结果表明:在跆拳道课的讲解、示范、练习等教学过程中贯穿攻防练习内容,使之与技术动作的教学有机结合,能增进学生对跆拳道文化内涵的深层认识和技术动作的理解,在增加学生学习跆拳道兴趣的同时,明显提高了跆拳道课的教学质量和魅力。

  17. “The same love, the same faith, the same tears”: ecclesial initiatives about the cult of Our Lady of El Quinche to defend the Republic of the Sacred Heart, Ecuador (1883-1889

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Esteban Vizuete Marcillo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the conflict between church and state in the 19th century, the clergy and laymen tried to defend the establishment where the church had hegemony over the state and society. Between 1883 and 1889, Ecuador experienced some ecclesial initiatives to defend which stood for the idea of a Republic of the Sacred Heart. This article studies the case of Our Lady of El Quiche, a colonial massive cult, which was part of a process of re-appropriation and reinterpretation of its history. It also suffered a process of spreading and strengthening of its cult, linking with the image of the Republic, political conflicts and the power of the church. Between politics and religion, the discourses and practices of the clergy and the faithful show the intention of the church to shore up its own idea of a catholic Republic and an organized society. In this article, the use of manuscripts and printed sources give information to contrast multiple voices and multiple religious acts which performed a new local Mariology about El Quinche and a reaction to a context in which the religious hegemony and the participation of the clergy in politics were questioned; meanwhile the relations inside the church were recomposing.

  18. Women's Hockey Match Striker and Defender in the Attack With%浅谈女子曲棍球比赛中前锋与后卫在进攻中的配合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红兵; 乔彦虎; 吴熙

    2013-01-01

      随着现代曲棍球的发展,前锋和后卫的打发已经被赋予了新的内容,他不再是单纯进攻和防守分离的模式,在比赛训练中,前锋和后卫的打发更加丰富多彩。现代曲棍球的战术思想,要求更多的人次参与进攻和防守,借以取得人数上的优势,在进攻和防守这一对矛盾中,攻比守更加困难,仅仅依靠前场的几名队员很难打破对方的密集防守,这就需要攻方尽可能多的投入多人次的进攻力量,因此后卫和前锋在整个比赛中的配合就显得更加重要,本文通过以现场统计、录像分析统计、查阅资料以及本人带队参加比赛经历和对运动员的交谈,分析整理现代曲棍球比赛中前锋与后卫在进攻中的配合类型与作用及其意义。%  With the development of modern hockey, Forward and guard sent has been endowed with new content, He is not is blindly simple offensive and defensive separation model, In the training, the striker and defender sent more rich and colorful. Modern hockey tactics thought, demand more people involved in the offense and defense, So as to obtain the number of advantage, On the offensive and defensive this a pair of contradiction, Attack more difficult than keep to depend only on one of the front several players it is difficult to break each other's dense defense, This needs offense as much as possible into much person-time attack power, So the defender and striker in the whole game fit appears more important, This article through to the statistics, Video analysis statistics, Data access and before I take part in the game experience and on the athletes' conversation, Analysis finishing modern hockey game striker and defender in attack with the type and function and significance.

  19. BRINGING YOUTH UP IN BRAVE AND PATRIOTIC SPIRIT BY MEANS OF SPORTS WITH THE SET OF STANDARDS «BE READY TO WORK AND DEFEND YOUR HOMELAND» (GTO STANDARDS SINCE 1917 TO THE 1940-ies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Aleksandrovna Istiagina-Eliseeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considered the Set of Standards for sportive and physical training curricula called « Ready to Work and Defend my Homeland (the USSR» (GTO standards has played the crucial part in the Soviet physical training movement since 1917 to the 1940-ies. In the period prior to the Great Patriotic War the nation had required millions of strong and brave citizens that entailed necessity to set up an integrated physical training strategy meeting new requirements for physical training movement’ advancement. The Set «Ready to Work and Defend my Homeland» (GTO standards enjoyed widespread popularity among the population of the Soviet country. In 1931, 24 thousand athletes were awarded with the GTO badges, while 465 thousand people in 1932, and 835 thousand people in 1933. By the mid-1930-ies, the number of GTO badge-holders had reached 1.2 million people. At the beginning of 1941, the country totaled more than 62 thousand physical training groups (amateur sports teams, including more than 5 million non-professional athletes; and the number of those having passed the ‘1st level GTO’ contest had exceeded 6 million people, as for the ‘2nd level GTO’ requirements, more than 100 thousand people had met them. Millions of Soviet athletes, their coaches and instructors at the physical training institutes completed the Red Army ranks; skier or reconnaissance battalions or guerrilla bands were raised out of these people, they became good snipers or paratroopers. Experience has shown that militarizing mass sports in the 1920-to-1930-ies have not been useless measure, and the defence-applicable purpose of the latter (especially introducing the GTO standards curricula as well.

  20. El Esencialismo Constitucional: la Constitución Española al Servicio de la Unidad Nacional (Constitutional Essentialism: the Use of the Spanish Constitution to Defend National Unity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucìa Payero

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A Constitution is not only the supreme norm of a state: as well as regulating the sources of law, the organisation of state powers, and the establishment of fundamental rights and liberties, Constitutions have an emotional element which transcends the abstract formality of law. The concepts of belief (Ortega y Gasset 1994, social fact (Durkheim 1974, and institutional fact (Searle 1977, 1980, 1997 are useful to understand properly how a Constitution actually works. Firstly, this paper will explore all those concepts; then, an attempt will be made to apply them to constitutional reality.I will focus on the Spanish Constitution of 1978. In Spain the Constitution is used as a weapon in order to defend a specific political option successfully. In the absence of other arguments, some scholars resort to the holy Constitution: thus, what is declared unconstitutional becomes (even morally rejected. It is particularly notable regarding the territorial organisation of the state. This paper will examine the way in which the Constitution is instrumentally used in Spain aiming to champion a particular national conception from –and even against– others. The result is a genuine constitutional essentialism –or fundamentalism–. Una Constitución es algo más que la norma suprema de un Estado: además de regular el sistema de fuentes, la organización básica del Estado y establecer el catálogo de derechos fundamentales, la Constitución presenta un componente emocional que trasciende la mera legalidad formal. El funcionamiento real de una Constitución se entiende mejor acudiendo a los conceptos de creencia (Ortega y Gasset 1994, hecho social (Durkheim 1974 y hecho institucional (Searle 1977, 1980, 1997, que serán analizados en este artículo y aplicados a la realidad constitucional.Para ilustrar esta posición, tomaré como referente la Constitución española de 1978. La Constitución en España se viene utilizando como un arma que busca defender una

  1. The Defendants in cases of intentional crime should not bear the burden of proof of self-defense%公诉案被告人不宜承担正当防卫证明责任

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡忠诚

    2011-01-01

    故意犯罪案件中,侦查、起诉机关承担案件事实的证明责任,已经包括了承担犯罪动机的证明责任。正当防卫事由的实质意义在于对犯罪动机的根本否定。因此,不宜由被告人承担正当防卫事由的证明责任,而应当由侦查、起诉机关承担非正当防卫的证明责任。%For cases of intentional crime,the investigating and prosecuting authorities bear the burden of proof in facts of the case to include the burden of proof in motive for the crime.The real significance of the self-defense is denial of the fundamental motive for the crime.Therefore,the Defendant should not bear the burden of proof of self-defense,but should the Investigating and prosecuting authorities bear the burden of proof of non-self-defense.

  2. Tactical Tasks of Operation P latform Recognition in Situation Assessment for Antiaircraft Defending%对空防御态势分析中敌平台战术任务识别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崇元; 李加祥

    2015-01-01

    针对传统战术任务推理方法难以处理对抗性意图存在欺骗行为的问题,通过变换态势分析人员视角,以敌方指挥员角度建立了基于作战效能最大化的单平台战术任务推理模型。模型首先根据对空防御战场态势构建了执行各战术任务的效能评价指标及其优势函数;进而将此多平台战术任务推理转化为多目标优化问题,并通过连续Hopfield神经网络优化算法对该问题进行求解。最后通过仿真实验对推理模型的可行性与有效性进行了验证。%To solve the problem of traditional tactical tasks reasoning method is difficult to deal with antagonistic intention exists the problem of cheating, from transforming the perspective of situational analysis personnel, the model of tactical tasks reasoning for operation platform based on maximum operation efficiency was built. Firstly, according to the battlefield of anti⁃aircraft defending built the effectiveness evaluation index and the effectiveness advantage function for each tactical tasks. Then, the multi⁃platform tactical tasks reasoning was translated into the multiple target optimization problem, and the Hopfield neural network algorithm was designed to solve the problem. Finally, the simulation results indicate that the reason⁃ing model is feasible and effective.

  3. Reflection on Administrative Reconsideration Organ Being Defendant in Administrative Litigation%行政复议机关在行政诉讼中作被告问题的反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    青锋; 张水海

    2013-01-01

    The situation of the administrative reconsideration organ being defendant is regulated in China’s existing Administration Litigation Law. With the reform of administrative reconsideration system and the deepening of administrative reconsideration work, this situation faces many challenges, such as the high maintenance rate of administrative reconsideration cases, and its adverse influence on the performance of administrative reconsideration relief and supervision function, waiting for being re-examined. There are various opinions on this matter in the theory circle and the practice circle. Analysis and reflection should be conducted from many aspects including function of administrative reconsideration relief, properties of center adjudication and reform of administrative reconsideration system, etc.%  要:我国现行《行政诉讼法》规定了行政复议机关作被告的情形。随着行政复议体制机制的改革,行政复议工作的不断深入,行政复议制度的这一设计面临着行政复议案件高维持率、不利于行政复议救济和监督功能的发挥等诸多挑战,行政复议机关在行政诉讼中作被告的问题需要进行重新审视。理论界和实务界对此有多种观点,我们需要从行政复议的救济功能、居中裁决的性质以及行政复议体制改革等方面进行分析和思考。

  4. Markets China Defends its Index Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JESSY ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    @@ On September 5th, the Singapore Exchange(SGX) launched the world's first index futures based on stocks listed in the Chinese mainland, despite the fact that index compiler FTSE/Xinhua was in the process of being sued by two Chinese companies that manage data for the Chinese stock exchanges.

  5. NEW BEDFORD, PRESS RELEASE: DEFENDANTS AGREE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... l[,::I:!:' t:lllll:!: .il~V:U: i:llmrml:!J[III:!:.nt:" ':I~lllll:!: tilldl.:t:',d I::~al:it!:~ I,i!ll;lra.:i. rI11:t: F,mdll:!:lt:m 1 l[:'m Gll:f:i. {: :KIl.m:cl::ric tCl::lulrl;l,illl[II:~' ,ill]llld iCl:lllt ...

  6. Coordinated Displays to Assist Cyber Defenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-23

    For the first alert, the researcher demonstrated how to collect evidence to make a threat judgement while talking aloud. In completing the second...experimental set. Of the 46 participants in the current sample , two participants, one participant assigned to the uncoordinated condition and one...detected) were compared for the two list conditions using an independent samples t-test and a Mann-Whitney U-test, respectively. The results of the

  7. Defending the jurisdiction of the clinical ethicist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John H

    2014-01-01

    In this essay I suggest that the bioethics profession's jurisdiction over healthcare ethics consultation is in need of reinforcement. I argue that as the profession becomes more successful, competitors will challenge the profession to justify its ethical claims and ask whose ethics the profession represents. This challenge will come more quickly as the profession tries to influence the ethics of healthcare organizations. I propose a method of bolstering jurisdiction that will make the profession less vulnerable to challenge in the future.

  8. Undecidability of Bisimilarity by Defender's Forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jancar, Petr; Srba, Jiri

    2008-01-01

    , referring to the bisimulation games. The idea is simple, yet powerful. We demonstrate its versatility by deriving further results in a uniform way. Firstly, we classify several versions of the undecidable problems for prefix rewrite systems (or pushdown automata) as Pi^0_1-complete or Sigma^1_1-complete....... Secondly, we solve the decidability question for weak bisimilarity on PA (Process Algebra) processes, showing that the problem is undecidable and even Sigma^1_1-complete. Thirdly, we show Sigma^1_1-completeness of weak bisimilarity for so called parallel pushdown (or multiset) automata, a subclass...

  9. Bayesian Based Comment Spam Defending Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Nagamalai, Dhinaharan; Lee, Jae Kwang; 10.5121/ijnsa.2010.2420

    2010-01-01

    Spam messes up user's inbox, consumes network resources and spread worms and viruses. Spam is flooding of unsolicited, unwanted e mail. Spam in blogs is called blog spam or comment spam.It is done by posting comments or flooding spams to the services such as blogs, forums,news,email archives and guestbooks. Blog spams generally appears on guestbooks or comment pages where spammers fill a comment box with spam words. In addition to wasting user's time with unwanted comments, spam also consumes a lot of bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a software tool to prevent such blog spams by using Bayesian Algorithm based technique. It is derived from Bayes' Theorem. It gives an output which has a probability that any comment is spam, given that it has certain words in it. With using our past entries and a comment entry, this value is obtained and compared with a threshold value to find if it exceeds the threshold value or not. By using this concept, we developed a software tool to block comment spam. The experimental...

  10. Defending the beauty of the Invariance Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkana, Itzhak

    2014-01-01

    Customary stability analysis methods for nonlinear nonautonomous systems seem to require a strict condition of uniform continuity. Although extensions of LaSalle's Invariance Principle to nonautonomous systems that mitigate this condition have been available for a long time, they have remained surprisingly unknown or open to misinterpretations. The large scope of the Principle might have misled the prospective users and its application to Control problems has been received with amazing yet clear uneasiness. Counterexamples have been used in order to claim that the Invariance Principle cannot be applied to nonlinear nonautonomous systems. Because the original formulation of the Invariance Principle still imposes conditions that are not necessarily needed, this paper presents a new Invariance Principle that further mitigates previous conditions and thus further expands the scope of stability analysis. A brief comparative review of various alternatives to stability analysis of nonautonomous nonlinear systems and their implications is also presented in order to illustrate that thorough analysis of same examples may actually confirm the efficiency of the Invariance Principle approach when dealing with stability of nonautonomous nonlinear systems problems that may look difficult or even unsolvable otherwise.

  11. Defending against smallpox: a focus on vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Emily A; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A

    2016-09-01

    Smallpox has shaped human history, from the earliest human civilizations well into the 20th century. With high mortality rates, rapid transmission, and serious long-term effects on survivors, smallpox was a much-feared disease. The eradication of smallpox represents an unprecedented medical victory for the lasting benefit of human health and prosperity. Concerns remain, however, about the development and use of the smallpox virus as a biological weapon, which necessitates the need for continued vaccine development. Smallpox vaccine development is thus a much-reviewed topic of high interest. This review focuses on the current state of smallpox vaccines and their context in biodefense efforts.

  12. Play the Immune System Defender Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Laureates Nobel Prizes and Laureates Physics Prize Chemistry Prize Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize in Economic Sciences Quick Facts Nomination Nomination Physics Prize Chemistry Prize Medicine ...

  13. Defendamos nuestra ciudad. / Defend our city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colegio de Arquitectos de Chile (Comisiones

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Las Comisiones del Colegio de Arquitectos de Chile que suscriben este documento, se dirigen a las autoridades y a los habitantes del Gran Santiago protestando por las modificaciones que se pretende realizar al Plan Regulador Metropolitano de Santiago sin participaci��n adecuada de la comunidad. Las Comisiones rechazan las modificaciones a las áreas de interés silvoagropecuario y a las áreas verdes del área metropolitana, e invitan a la comunidad a sumarse a la protesta ciudadana ante estas medidas, gravemente perjudiciales para la ciudad, el nivel de vida de sus habitantes y el medio ambiente./The Committees of the Chilean College of Architects reject modifications of agricultural and forestal zones and of metropolitan green areas, and invite the community to join the citizens' protest.

  14. Multilayer Approach to Defend Phishing Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Dhinakaran, Cynthia; Lee, Jae Kwang

    2011-01-01

    Spam messes up users inbox, consumes resources and spread attacks like DDoS, MiM, phishing etc. Phishing is a byproduct of email and causes financial loss to users and loss of reputation to financial institutions. In this paper we examine the characteristics of phishing and technology used by Phishers. In order to counter anti-phishing technology, phishers change their mode of operation; therefore a continuous evaluation of phishing only helps us combat phisher effectiveness. In our study, we collected seven hundred thousand spam from a corporate server for a period of 13 months from February 2008 to February 2009. From the collected data, we identified different kinds of phishing scams and mode of operation. Our observation shows that phishers are dynamic and depend more on social engineering techniques rather than software vulnerabilities. We believe that this study will develop more efficient anti-phishing methodologies. Based on our analysis, we developed an anti-phishing methodology and implemented in ou...

  15. Diplomats defend Snaige in duty row

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Leedu soovib, et Ukraina tühistaks uued tollimaksud Euroopa Liidus valmistatud kodukaupadele. Leedu kodumasinate tootja Snaige kavatseb hakata eksportima oma tooteid just Ukrainasse ja suurendada müüki Venemaale ja Valgevenesse

  16. Defending the Pittsburgh Waterways Against Catastrophic Disruption

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This thesis develops an Operatorâ s Model that mimics the real-world behavior of coal transport in the Port of Pittsburgh and allows for systematic investigation of â what ifâ disruption scenarios. We model the multi-modal flow of coal using a network of nodes and arcs representing river transport, with support from a surrounding system of rail lines and roads. Each mode of shipment has finite capacities with varying costs. Our model routes flows in order to satisfy contracted...

  17. Defending the Power Grid from Hackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eber, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    A new initiative underway at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is intended to prevent hackers from gaining control of parts of the nation's power grid, potentially damaging electrical equipment and causing localized power outages. Our nation's power grid is evolving to be more responsive to changing power needs, more able to integrate renewable energy, more efficient, and more reliable. One key element of this evolution is adding communication and control devices to the power grid, closer to the end user, so that utilities have greater situational awareness of the grid and can respond quickly to disturbances. But these new devices and their communications requirements can also open up the power grid to potential cyber attacks.

  18. Play the Immune System Defender Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questionnaire The Immune System Play the Immune System Game About the game Granulocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells are immune cells ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  19. Can the neutrino speed anomaly be defended?

    CERN Document Server

    Knobloch, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    The OPERA collaboration reported [1] a measurement of the neutrino velocity exceeding the speed of light by 0.025%. For the 730 km distance from CERN in Geneva to the OPERA experiment an early arrival of the neutrinos of 60.7 ns is measured with an accuracy of \\pm6.9 ns (stat.) and \\pm7.4 ns (sys.). A basic assumption in the analysis is that the proton time structure represents exactly the time structure of the neutrino flux. In this manuscript, we challenge this assumption. We identify two main origins of systematic effects: a group delay due to low pass filters acting on the particular shape of the proton time distribution and a movement of the proton beam at the target during the leading and trailing slopes of the spill.

  20. Diplomats defend Snaige in duty row

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Leedu soovib, et Ukraina tühistaks uued tollimaksud Euroopa Liidus valmistatud kodukaupadele. Leedu kodumasinate tootja Snaige kavatseb hakata eksportima oma tooteid just Ukrainasse ja suurendada müüki Venemaale ja Valgevenesse

  1. A Method to Defend File-Attacking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hongjun; LUO Li; CAO Sihua; FENG Tao; PAN Li; ZOU Zhiji

    2006-01-01

    The paper points out that the deep reason why modern computer system fails to defense malware lies in that user has no right to control the access of information, and proposes an explicit authorization mechanism. Its basic idea is that user explicitly authorizes program the file set it can access, and monitor all file access operations; once program requests to access file out of the authorized file set, refuse it, and this means that the program is malicious or has design errors. Computers based on this novel mechanism can protect information from attacking reliably, and have good software and hardware compatibility. A testing system is presented to validate our theory.

  2. DEFENDING HUMAN RIGHTS FROM DIMENSION COMMUNICATIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiny Beth Torres Barroso

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a reflection about human rights in relation with communication. Try to bring some ideas that permit to interpret the signs of a society of domination, communicational exclusion, and no recognition to the Others and with predominance of capitalist system that supposes the welfare as an opportunity for demand & request of productivity, and not as a capacity dialogue, mutual responsibility and self respect among citizens. The work prebuted during the second research journey of CICI – LUZ, is part of the doctoral thesis named “Communicational responsibility to humanize the politics in Venezuela”, therefore makes emphasis in the humanization idea that necessarily involves the human right defense. This is a cualitive research based on a theoric & conceptual review.

  3. Defending against Browser Based Data Exfiltration Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    The global nature of Internet has revolutionized cultural and commercial interactions while at the same time it has provided opportunities for cyber criminals. Crimeware services now exist that have transformed the nature of cyber crime by making it more automated and robust. Furthermore, these crimeware services are sold as a part of a growing…

  4. Terra Defender Cyber-Physical Wargame

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    system, CPS, cyber -physical system, cyber security , simulation, wargame 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18...services, such as persuading a BLUE team member to degrade or destroy Blue Corporation security The actual strategy used by the RED team was a cyber ...

  5. Defending Against Wormhole Attack in OLSR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Liang; HONG Fan; FU Cai

    2006-01-01

    OLSR (optimal link state routing) is one of the four basic routing protocols used in mobile ad hoc Networks by the MANET working group of IETF(Internet engineering task force). OLSR, a proactive routing protocol, is based on a multipoint relaying flooding technique to reduce the number of topology broadcast. OLSR uses periodic HELLO packets to neighbor detection. As introduced in Reference [1], the wormhole attack can form a serious threat in wireless Networks, especially against many ad hoc Network routing protocols and location-based wireless security systems. Here, a trust model to handle this attack in OLSR is provided and simulated in NS2.

  6. Defending against Browser Based Data Exfiltration Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    The global nature of Internet has revolutionized cultural and commercial interactions while at the same time it has provided opportunities for cyber criminals. Crimeware services now exist that have transformed the nature of cyber crime by making it more automated and robust. Furthermore, these crimeware services are sold as a part of a growing…

  7. Defending Academic Freedom: Advice for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Social studies and history teachers should be free to expose students to controversial ideas and to teach critical thinking skills. But are they free? Do they have the constitutional right--call it academic freedom--to teach what they want and to discuss controversial issues in the classroom? The short answer is "no." In this article,…

  8. Defending The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning

    CERN Document Server

    Stenger, Victor J

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, I published a popular-level book, The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning: Why the Universe is Not Designed for Us. It investigated a common claim found in contemporary religious literature that the parameters of physics and cosmology are so delicately balanced, so "fine-tuned," that any slight change and life in the universe would have been impossible. I concluded that while the precise form of life we find on Earth would not exist with slight changes in these parameters, some form of life could have evolved over a parameter range that is not infinitesimal, as often claimed. Postdoctoral fellow Luke Barnes has written a lengthy, highly technical review [arXiv:1112.4647] of the scientific literature on the fine-tuning problem. I have no significant disagreement with that literature and no prominent physicist or cosmologist has disputed my basic conclusions. Barnes does not invalidate these conclusions and misunderstands and misrepresents much of what is in the book.

  9. 中国男足2011亚洲杯关键失球一对一防守体姿失误分析%Analysis of Chinese Men's Football Team's One on One Defending Posture Errors in Critical Goals Lost in 2011 Asian Cup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑萌

    2013-01-01

    2015年亚洲杯预选赛临近之际,结合中国男足2011亚洲杯小组赛出局关键失球分析,根据一对一防守中距离选择的基本矛盾和国际国内高水平球员防守案例分析比较,提出并分析了一对一防守中上体前趋的攻击性防守体姿,指出一对一防守体姿不合理、攻击性不足等问题是中国男足2011亚洲杯小组出局的重要原因,旨在有助中国男足及其他各级各类球队,含职业俱乐部和梯队、足球学校、普通院校高水平运动队的培养,从细节分析纠偏入手,不断积累提高竞技水平的良好意识与习惯,避免低水平重复.%When 2015 Asian Cup Qualifiers coming near,by analysis of Chinese Men's Football Team's critical goals lost in 2011 Asian Cup,according to the basic problem of distance in one on one defending and the comparison of foreign and national players' defending cases,the paper put forward and analyzed the upper trunk leading offensive defending posture in one on one defending and pointed out that the improper defending posture and lack of offensiveness were the important reasons for Chinese team' s failure to get through the Group Phase of 2011 Asian Cup.Trying to help different levds' football teams including Chinese national team to avoid the mistakes ever been made and cultivate the right awareness habit to improve athletic level by accumulation of detail analysis.

  10. An OTP-Based Mechanism for Defending Application Layer DDoS Attacks%基于动态口令的应用层DDoS攻击防御方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶晰; 温武少; 叶依如

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of OTP-DEF, a kernel extension to protect web servers against application layer DDoS attacks. First of all, according to the load of web server, an OTP-DEF web server should fall into one of three following modes: normal, suspected attack or confirmed attack mode, and the OTP-DEF authentication mechanism shall only be activated when web server is in suspected attack mode. Secondly, we use OTP as our puzzle, which can automatically change at the certain time interval. It makes our proposal can defend copy attacks, replay attacks and Brute-Force Attack. Thirdly, OTP-DEF uses an intermediate stage to identify the IP addresses that ignore the test, and persistently bombard the server with requests despite repeated failures at solving the puzzles. Once these machines are identified, OTP-DEF blocks their requests, turns the tests off, and allows access to legitimate users who are unable or unwilling to solve tests. Finally, OTP-DEF requires no modifications to client software.%研究和设计了使用动态口令技术来保护服务器抵御DDoS攻击的OTP-DEF方案.首先,方案可根据服务器工作负载的不同,分别处于正常、疑似受攻击或确认受攻击3种工作模式之下,而基于动态口令的认证方案只在疑似受攻击工作模式下起作用.其次,由于动态口令会自动变化,故方案可抵御复制、重放和暴力破解攻击.第三,通过记录那些不解决难题并不断发送请求的IP地址来识别客户端是否为攻击者,一旦所有攻击者被识别出来后,OTP-DEF屏蔽其IP地址并停止发布难题,以便正常用户能方便地使用服务.最后,只需在服务器端实施和部署,客户端无需做任何更改.

  11. Inimese papilloomiviiruse vastane vaktsiin imet ei tee, aga kaitseb siiski / Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kusnets, Marika

    2006-01-01

    5. oktoobril korraldas ravimifirma Merck Sharp & Dohme koostöös erialaarstide, Eesti Vähiliidu ja Quattromediga ajakirjanikele ümarlaua, kus räägiti emakakaelavähi põhjustest ja ravist, HPV tüüpidest, nakatumis- ja kaitsemehhanismidest ning uuest Eesti turule jõudvast vaktsiinist

  12. Toidumüüdid & tegelikkus. 1.-2.osa / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2011-01-01

    Söömise, toidu ja tervise kohta liikvel olevate müütide ja legendide tõesusest raamatute "Imeliste arstide õpetused" ja "Üks õun päevas: müüdid, eksiarvamused ja tõde toidu kohta" põhjal. Artikli teises osas vastab küsimustele arst, toitumisterapeut ja psühholoog Anneli Soots, kes on ka Eesti Toitumisteraapia Assotsiatsiooni president ja omanimelise tervisekooli direktor ja õppejõud

  13. Pärast meid tulgu või veeuputus / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Meie Maa, 10. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Molodjozh Estonii, 9. okt. 2007, lk. 5; Koit (avald. lühend.), 9. okt. 2007, lk. 6; Lääne Elu, 9. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Vooremaa, 11. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Harju Ekspress, 12. okt. 2007, lk. 6; Võrumaa Teataja, 16. okt. 2007, lk. 2. Parlamendiliige kritiseerib kolmikliidu pensionipoliitikat

  14. Audentese koolid kolivad väärikatesse majadesse / Marika Karo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karo, Marika

    2002-01-01

    Tartu linnavalitsus otsustas 9. mail 2002.a. müüa Tartus Puiestee tänaval asuva ajaloolise koolikompleksi ASile Audentes, kes kavatseb kinnistul olevatest kahest muinsuskaitse alla kuuluvast koolimajast, tööõpetuse majast, abihoonetest ja spordiplatsist välja arendada campus-tüüpi tänapäevase koolide kompleksi. Hooneid hakkavad kasutama Audentes Mainor Ülikooli Tartu filiaal ja alg- ja põhiharidust pakkuv Audentese Erakool. Koolihoonete kompleksi ajaloost

  15. 400 miljoni eurone programm toetab innovaatilisi ettevõtteid / Marika Roomere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roomere, Marika

    2007-01-01

    2007. aasta sügisel ellu kutsutud Euroopa ettevõtluse toetusprogrammist Eurostars, mille raames toetatakse keskmise suurusega ja väikeettevõtteid 400 miljoni euroga rahvusvahelise teadus- ja arendustegevusega tegelemiseks. Lisa: Mis on Eurostarsi programm?

  16. Parim proosalugeja köitis küpsusega / Marika Rajamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajamäe, Marika, 1952-

    2008-01-01

    Toimus viies üle-eestiline proosalugemine "Hansenist Tammsaareni". Mõtteid võistulugemise kohta avaldavad konkursi algataja Enda Trubok, Järva maavalitsuse haridus- ja kultuuriosakonna peainspektor Anne Viljat, Eesti emakeeleõpetajate seltsi esimees Piret Järvela, žürii esimees Iivi Lepik, konkursil võistelnud Merilin Kulpsoo. Peavõidu sai Sabine Liias, V-VII klasside arvestuses läks I koht Sabine Liiasele, II koht Kristian Käreskile, III koht Kristiina Orasele. VIII-IX arvestuses läks I koht Katriin Altementile, II koht Indrek Jõele, III koht Linda Randojale. X-XII klasside arvestuses võitis Kaire Olesk, II koha saii Sten-Robert Pullerits ning III koha Katrin Ojalill

  17. Excavations on the Coasts of Prehistoric and Medieval Saaremaa / Marika Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Marika, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Viltina võimaliku sadamakoha kaevamistest. Leiti järjekordne 11. sajandi leiukompleks, seekord tüüpilistest Saaremaa naise ehetest. Pällamõisas on inimtegevus saanud alguse ilmselt I aastatuhande keskel, mil see paiknes otse mererannal. Inimtegevus Pällamõisas lakkas ilmselt keskaja alguses. 16. sajandi algul rajati sellele kohale hoonekompleks, mis juba 17. sajandil hüjati. Proovikaevamistest Tammese asulakohal

  18. Intellekt ja selle areng imiku- ja väikelapseeas / Marika Veisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veisson, Marika, 1949-

    1998-01-01

    Kolm ajaloolist lähenemist intellekti uurimisele. Nancy Bayley poolt 1969.a. välja töötatud esimene põhjalikum väikelaste ja imikute intellekti uurimismetoodika - Bayley Imikute Arengu Skaala; psühhomeetriline lähenemine, J. Piaget kognitiivse arengu teooria

  19. Arengukeskkonna mõju lapse intelligentsuse arengule / Marika Veisson, Kristina Nugin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veisson, Marika

    2002-01-01

    Uuringust, mille eesmärgiks oli määratleda 3-4-aastaste laste kasvukeskkonna faktorite mõju lapse intelligentsuse arengule, eraldi on vaadeldud intelligentsuse erinevaid komponente. Uuritavateks olid 1996-2002.a. longituuduuringus osalenud lapsed. Alates 1999.a. võrreldi nende laste arengu näitajaid kontrollgrupiga, mille moodustasid tavalasteaia ja Hea Alguse programmis osalenud lapsed

  20. Excavations on the Coasts of Prehistoric and Medieval Saaremaa / Marika Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Marika, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Viltina võimaliku sadamakoha kaevamistest. Leiti järjekordne 11. sajandi leiukompleks, seekord tüüpilistest Saaremaa naise ehetest. Pällamõisas on inimtegevus saanud alguse ilmselt I aastatuhande keskel, mil see paiknes otse mererannal. Inimtegevus Pällamõisas lakkas ilmselt keskaja alguses. 16. sajandi algul rajati sellele kohale hoonekompleks, mis juba 17. sajandil hüjati. Proovikaevamistest Tammese asulakohal

  1. Bakterite Miss Marple = The Miss Marple of bacteria / Marika Mikelsaar ; interv. Evelin Kivilo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikelsaar, Marika, 1938-

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu Tartu Ülikooli professori, probiootilise piimhappebakteri ME-3 avastajaga, kes pälvis president Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt Eesti Vabariigi 90. aastapäeva puhul Valgetähe III klassi teenetemärgi

  2. Parim proosalugeja köitis küpsusega / Marika Rajamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajamäe, Marika, 1952-

    2008-01-01

    Toimus viies üle-eestiline proosalugemine "Hansenist Tammsaareni". Mõtteid võistulugemise kohta avaldavad konkursi algataja Enda Trubok, Järva maavalitsuse haridus- ja kultuuriosakonna peainspektor Anne Viljat, Eesti emakeeleõpetajate seltsi esimees Piret Järvela, žürii esimees Iivi Lepik, konkursil võistelnud Merilin Kulpsoo. Peavõidu sai Sabine Liias, V-VII klasside arvestuses läks I koht Sabine Liiasele, II koht Kristian Käreskile, III koht Kristiina Orasele. VIII-IX arvestuses läks I koht Katriin Altementile, II koht Indrek Jõele, III koht Linda Randojale. X-XII klasside arvestuses võitis Kaire Olesk, II koha saii Sten-Robert Pullerits ning III koha Katrin Ojalill

  3. Tammsaare-aastat ilmestavad ka raamatud / Marika Rajamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajamäe, Marika, 1952-

    2008-01-01

    Tammsaare muuseumis esitleti kahte raamatut: Tammsaare, Anton Hansen. Siin mägi, seal mägi... Anton Hansen Tammsaare oma koduloodusest : fotoalbum (koostanud Ann Marvet. Tallinn : Huma, 2008) ja Liivak, Age-Li. Tammsaare kirjanduspreemia laureaadid Hugo Hiibuse sulega. (Türi : Saarakiri, 2008)

  4. Inimese papilloomiviiruse vastane vaktsiin imet ei tee, aga kaitseb siiski / Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kusnets, Marika

    2006-01-01

    5. oktoobril korraldas ravimifirma Merck Sharp & Dohme koostöös erialaarstide, Eesti Vähiliidu ja Quattromediga ajakirjanikele ümarlaua, kus räägiti emakakaelavähi põhjustest ja ravist, HPV tüüpidest, nakatumis- ja kaitsemehhanismidest ning uuest Eesti turule jõudvast vaktsiinist

  5. Archaeological excavations at Viltina - a viking age harbour site and meeting place / Marika Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Marika, 1968-

    2007-01-01

    2006 jätkusid kaevamised Viltina viikingiaegsel sadamakohal, millega oli alustatud juba 2004. aastal. Kaevati läbi 327,25 m2. Suuremas osas kaevandites paljandunud kiht on vaieldamatult asulakiht. Viltina asulakihiga aladel leidus tavapärasest asulakihist tunduvalt rohkem metall-leide. Leidudest. Tõenäoliselt oli sadamakoht kasutusajal piiratud taraga

  6. Loodusesõber / Maria Martinez Ros ; küsis Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Martinez Ros, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Intervjuu Tallinnas ja Lilleorus tantsuteraapia kursusi andva mehhiklanna Maria Martinez Rosiga, kes on õppinud permakultuuri disaini, humanistliku psühholoogiat, tanatoloogiat, Feldenkraisi meetodit, tema vaadetest jätkusuutlikule elamise viisile

  7. Näitus Eros külmade kiviseinte vahel / Marika Vernik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vernik, Marika

    2001-01-01

    Tšehhi erootiliste ehete näitusest "Eros" Rakvere muuseumis, lähemalt Blanka Sperkova, Martin Pouzari, Lucie Krejcova, Barbora Kalisova, Jolana Sperkova, Blanka, Ctvrteckova, Jan Haseki, Karol Weisslechneri, Susan Ewingi, Jiri Jahelka ja Michal Novotny töödest

  8. Tammsaare-aastat ilmestavad ka raamatud / Marika Rajamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajamäe, Marika, 1952-

    2008-01-01

    Tammsaare muuseumis esitleti kahte raamatut: Tammsaare, Anton Hansen. Siin mägi, seal mägi... Anton Hansen Tammsaare oma koduloodusest : fotoalbum (koostanud Ann Marvet. Tallinn : Huma, 2008) ja Liivak, Age-Li. Tammsaare kirjanduspreemia laureaadid Hugo Hiibuse sulega. (Türi : Saarakiri, 2008)

  9. The poetics and pragmatics in glenn murcutt's houses. The ball-eastway and marika alderton house

    OpenAIRE

    Lecaro Saborío, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Glenn Murcutt es hoy en día reconocido no sólo por su pericia, sino como uno de los arquitectos más influyentes en materia de diseño medioambiental del siglo. Su conciencia ambiental, junto a un profundo análisis del paisaje australiano y su clima, más su admiración por la arquitectura vernácula, se combinaron hasta formar a uno de los pioneros a nivel mundial del denominado regionalismo crítico. El trabajo de Murcutt, simboliza el equilibrio entre el mundo natural y artificial. Sus diseños p...

  10. Loodusesõber / Maria Martinez Ros ; küsis Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Martinez Ros, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Intervjuu Tallinnas ja Lilleorus tantsuteraapia kursusi andva mehhiklanna Maria Martinez Rosiga, kes on õppinud permakultuuri disaini, humanistliku psühholoogiat, tanatoloogiat, Feldenkraisi meetodit, tema vaadetest jätkusuutlikule elamise viisile

  11. Maagiline Matrix - muutuste võti / Marika Makarova ; kommenteerinud Ainar Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2010-01-01

    USA kiropraktiku Richard Bartletti loodud Matrix Energetics tehnikate alusl Ainar Leppiku poolt loodud Maagilise Maatriksi meetodist, mis õpetab muutuste toomist oma ellu. Vestlustest Maagilise Maatriksi õpetajatega

  12. Faasioni juht Tanel Malk alustas äri garaazhipoes / Tanel Malk ; interv. Marika Tomberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Malk, Tanel

    2004-01-01

    Hiiumaa ehitusmaterjalide kaupluse OÜ Faasion juht Tanel Malk ettevõtte arengust, oma juhtimispõhimõtteist ning suurimatest saavutustest ettevõtte eesotsas. Kommenteerivad Agu Kohari ja Jaanus Kosemaa. Lisa: Tanel Malk

  13. Noor näitleja otsib rollides ennast / Marika Rajamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajamäe, Marika

    2006-01-01

    Tantsuõpetaja Helmi Tohvelmani nimelise liikuvaima näitleja preemia võttis vastu näitleja Tambet Tuisk, Järvamaa maakooli edukaima õpilase preemia aga Annely Tank, kes õpib Koigi Põhikooli 9. klassis

  14. Audentese koolid kolivad väärikatesse majadesse / Marika Karo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karo, Marika

    2002-01-01

    Tartu linnavalitsus otsustas 9. mail 2002.a. müüa Tartus Puiestee tänaval asuva ajaloolise koolikompleksi ASile Audentes, kes kavatseb kinnistul olevatest kahest muinsuskaitse alla kuuluvast koolimajast, tööõpetuse majast, abihoonetest ja spordiplatsist välja arendada campus-tüüpi tänapäevase koolide kompleksi. Hooneid hakkavad kasutama Audentes Mainor Ülikooli Tartu filiaal ja alg- ja põhiharidust pakkuv Audentese Erakool. Koolihoonete kompleksi ajaloost

  15. 400 miljoni eurone programm toetab innovaatilisi ettevõtteid / Marika Roomere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roomere, Marika

    2007-01-01

    2007. aasta sügisel ellu kutsutud Euroopa ettevõtluse toetusprogrammist Eurostars, mille raames toetatakse keskmise suurusega ja väikeettevõtteid 400 miljoni euroga rahvusvahelise teadus- ja arendustegevusega tegelemiseks. Lisa: Mis on Eurostarsi programm?

  16. Maagiline Matrix - muutuste võti / Marika Makarova ; kommenteerinud Ainar Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2010-01-01

    USA kiropraktiku Richard Bartletti loodud Matrix Energetics tehnikate alusl Ainar Leppiku poolt loodud Maagilise Maatriksi meetodist, mis õpetab muutuste toomist oma ellu. Vestlustest Maagilise Maatriksi õpetajatega

  17. Rain Jõgi : Kehtivat trendi on keeruline murda / Rain Jõgi ; interv. Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgi, Rain

    2006-01-01

    TÜ kliinikumi kopsukliiniku juhataja kommenteerib European Community Respiratory Health Survey rahvusvahelist uuringut ja eestlaste suitsetamisharjumusi hingamisteede haiguste riskiteguritena üldisemas plaanis

  18. Pärast meid tulgu või veeuputus / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Meie Maa, 10. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Molodjozh Estonii, 9. okt. 2007, lk. 5; Koit (avald. lühend.), 9. okt. 2007, lk. 6; Lääne Elu, 9. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Vooremaa, 11. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Harju Ekspress, 12. okt. 2007, lk. 6; Võrumaa Teataja, 16. okt. 2007, lk. 2. Parlamendiliige kritiseerib kolmikliidu pensionipoliitikat

  19. Rain Jõgi : Kehtivat trendi on keeruline murda / Rain Jõgi ; interv. Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgi, Rain

    2006-01-01

    TÜ kliinikumi kopsukliiniku juhataja kommenteerib European Community Respiratory Health Survey rahvusvahelist uuringut ja eestlaste suitsetamisharjumusi hingamisteede haiguste riskiteguritena üldisemas plaanis

  20. Leedu ettevõtteid ahvatleb Eesti turg / Gerli Ramler, Marika Roomere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ramler, Gerli

    2007-01-01

    Mitmed Leedu ettevõtted on juba edukalt Eesti turule sisenenud ning oodata on uusi tegijaid. Leedu pitsarestoranide keti Cili ja Double Coffee Estonia plaanidest. Vt. samas: Toiduliidu juhataja Sirje Potisepp. Turg on avatud kõigile; Intervjuu Raimondas Useckasega

  1. Proosa 1997 : tekste ja hoiakuid : [aastaülevaade] / Marika Mikli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikli, Marika, 1947-

    1998-01-01

    Pikemalt järgmistest raamatutest: Unt, Mati. Brecht ilmub öösel; Vint, Toomas. Lõppematu maastik; Sauter, Peeter. Luus; Tode, Emil [Õnnepalu, Tõnu]. Printsess; Traat, Mats. Peremees võtab naise; Nirk, Endel. Siin maa peal III

  2. RAS Ookeani pankrot läks riigile maksma ligi veerand miljardit / Marika Roomere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roomere, Marika

    2007-01-01

    Valitsus eraldas reservist ligi 243 miljonit krooni pankrotis RAS Ookeaniga seotud välispankade kahjunõude katteks, täites sellega Rahvusvahelise Investeeringuvaidluste Lahendamise Keskuse (ICSID) vahekohtu 19. nov. otsuse. Kommenteerivad rahandusminister Ivari Padar, justiitsminister Rein Lang ja pankrotihaldur Arno Mägi

  3. Kasvukeskkonna mõju imiku ja väikelapse intellekti arengule / Marika Veisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veisson, Marika

    2000-01-01

    Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikoolis läbi viidud uuringust "Kasvukeskkonna mõju imiku ja väikelapse intellekti arengule", mille eesmärgiks oli määratleda lapse kasvukeskkonna foktorite mõju väikelapse intellekti arengule

  4. Tööandjate unistuste seaduse autorid olid tegelikult sotsid / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2008-01-01

    Uue töölepingu seaduse eelnõust. Ilmunud ka Virumaa Teataja 29. jaan. 2008, lk. 11 ; Hiiu Leht 29. jaan. 2008, lk. 2 ; Pärnu Postimees 29. jaan. 2008, lk. 15 ; Vali Uudised 30. jaan. 2008, lk. 2, pealkiri kujul: uus orjaaeg ; Meie Maa 29. jaan. 2008, lk. 2 ; Põhjarannik 30. jaan. 2008, lk. 2 ; Lääne Elu 29. jaan. 2008, lk. 2 ; Elva Postipoiss 2. veeb. 2008, lk. 4, pealkiri kujul: Kas uus orjaaeg? ; Kesknädal 6. veeb. 2008, lk. 2 ; Vooremaa 14. veeb. 2008, lk. 2

  5. Intellekt ja selle areng imiku- ja väikelapseeas / Marika Veisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veisson, Marika

    1998-01-01

    Kolm ajaloolist lähenemist intellekti uurimisele. Nancy Bayley poolt 1969.a. välja töötatud esimene põhjalikum väikelaste ja imikute intellekti uurimismetoodika - Bayley Imikute Arengu Skaala; psühhomeetriline lähenemine, J. Piaget kognitiivse arengu teooria

  6. Leedu ettevõtteid ahvatleb Eesti turg / Gerli Ramler, Marika Roomere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ramler, Gerli

    2007-01-01

    Mitmed Leedu ettevõtted on juba edukalt Eesti turule sisenenud ning oodata on uusi tegijaid. Leedu pitsarestoranide keti Cili ja Double Coffee Estonia plaanidest. Vt. samas: Toiduliidu juhataja Sirje Potisepp. Turg on avatud kõigile; Intervjuu Raimondas Useckasega

  7. Rahvakunst Marika ja Heinz Valgu kollektsioonist : Heie Treier soovitab / Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treier, Heie, 1963-

    2000-01-01

    12. märtsini Tarbekunstimuuseumis avatud näitusest, mille on kujundanud Heinz Valk. Soovitatakse külastada Kunstihoones Anu Juuraku näitust 'Tsoon 2', kus tegeldakse identiteedi probleemidega kõrgtehnoloogilisel tasandil.

  8. Tööandjate unistuste seaduse autorid olid tegelikult sotsid / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2008-01-01

    Uue töölepingu seaduse eelnõust. Ilmunud ka Virumaa Teataja 29. jaan. 2008, lk. 11 ; Hiiu Leht 29. jaan. 2008, lk. 2 ; Pärnu Postimees 29. jaan. 2008, lk. 15 ; Vali Uudised 30. jaan. 2008, lk. 2, pealkiri kujul: uus orjaaeg ; Meie Maa 29. jaan. 2008, lk. 2 ; Põhjarannik 30. jaan. 2008, lk. 2 ; Lääne Elu 29. jaan. 2008, lk. 2 ; Elva Postipoiss 2. veeb. 2008, lk. 4, pealkiri kujul: Kas uus orjaaeg? ; Kesknädal 6. veeb. 2008, lk. 2 ; Vooremaa 14. veeb. 2008, lk. 2

  9. 第13届欧洲足球锦标赛冠军球队后卫球员防守技术运用特点研究%A Study on the Characteristics of Defending Technic of the Fullback on the Champion Team in the 13th Europe Championship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小燕

    2012-01-01

    足球被誉为当今世界第一大体育运动,它吸引着众多的球迷。而代表欧洲最高水平的欧洲杯足球赛也成为了各支不同水平、不同风格的球队共同表演的舞台,每次欧洲杯对于足球科研工作者来说都是一次非常好的学习和研究的机会,同时也产生了不少的科研成果。足球比赛主要是由进攻和防守两大战术技术组成,无论是进攻还是防守都是足球比赛永恒的主题。防守的重要性勿庸置疑,在比赛中每一次成功的防守不仅是使对手丧失了控球权和进攻的机会,更重要的是使本队获得了宝贵的进攻机会。以欧洲杯足球赛为代表的高水平比赛中各支球队在防守技术的运用上呈现出一些新的发展趋势。而研究最后的获得冠军的球队在防守技术运用上更具有代表性。通过对2008年欧洲杯比赛资料的收集,统计,利用文献资料法、录像观察法、数据统计法,对中后卫和边后卫在中场和后场防守技术动作的运用进行了讨论与分析井得出结论。从研究中得出:本次欧洲杯冠军球队的中后卫和边后卫在比赛中的防守技术运用中,中后卫在后场和中场的主要防守技术特征是断球技术;边后卫在后场和中场的主要防守技术特征是抢球技术和断球技术。%Nowadays, football is considered as the largest sport in the world, and it is attracting numerous football fans. Thus, the Europe Championship, which represents the most advanced football--playing technic, becomes the performing stage for each team which has their own playing style and level. Also, the Europe Championship is a cherish chance for football researchers to study, and there has been a lot of study results. The two big tactics of attacking and defending composed a whole football match, and both of the attcking and defending tactics are the eternal theme of a football match. There is no need to doubt the

  10. 刑事被追诉人人身权与财产权差别保护研究%Discrimination in Defendant ’s Property Rights and Personal Rights Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙建明

    2016-01-01

    Both the property and personal rights are the basic rights of the accused , however , in coercive dispositions where rights are vulnerable to powers ,the institutional design of China ’s criminal procedure law places more weight on personal rights protection than on property rights protection. This design is not only detrimental to the defendant ’s property rights ,but also hinders the fairness and justice of criminal procedures and the credibility of the law enforcement. The criminal procedure law ’s lack of due emphasis on property rights protection is closely connected with the constitution ’s failure to give equal protection to both personal rights and private property rights. To make up this flaw of China ’s criminal procedure law , it is necessary to establish a judicial review procedure for property coercive disposition;include into the coercive system such disposition actions as distraint ,seizure ,and freezing;more clearly define the essential conditions and set a preliminary time limit for coercive disposition of properties;and establish a new relief mode for property right whereby the coercive disposition can be waived through warrant.%财产权与人身权都是被追诉人的基本权利。然而,在权利易受权力侵害的强制处分中,我国刑事诉讼法却存在重人身权但轻财产权保护的制度设计,这不仅对被追诉人财产权不利,而且有碍刑事诉讼公平正义的实现和执法公信力的提高。我国刑事诉讼法轻财产权保护,这和我国宪法对私有财产权与人身权未给予同等重视密切关联。针对我国刑事诉讼法对被追诉人财产权保护存在的不足,有必要建立对物强制处分司法审查程序;将扣押、查封、冻结等对物强制处分行为纳入强制措施体系,进一步细化对物强制处分的要件;初步设定对物强制处分的期限;构建对物强制处分可以通过担保予以解除的新型财产权救济方式。

  11. The structure of community networks defending the concept of Iceland's financial stability Viðbrögð tengslanets við gagnrýni á fjármálastöðugleika Íslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Þröstur Ólafur Sigurjónsson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Actor-network theory suggests that those responsible for the operations of a complex system have reason to defend the idea of the system’s stability in the face of challengers who suggest the system may have problems. One form this defence can take is the formation of a complex social network that makes it difficult for challengers’ claims to be reasonably considered. This paper illustrates the formation or activation of such a network of Icelandic bankers, analysts, politicians, academics, business executives and newspapers, as well as their rational and emotional public arguments, in defence of the idea of the stability of the Icelandic banking system when challenged by the Danske Bank report of 2006. The analysis shows why it was difficult for the Danish challenge to receive a credible hearing among the Icelandic citizenry, which meant that citizens had a difficult time getting a clear picture of what was happening in their community. This research also shows a wider application for actor-network theory than previously discussed in the literature and draws implications of network formation or activation for policy makers.Félagsnetakenningin gerir ráð fyrir að þeir, sem eru ábyrgir fyrir viðhaldi flókinna kerfa, hafi ástæðu til þess að verjast ef fram kemur gagnrýni á stöðugleika kerfanna. Vörnin getur tekið á sig form tengslanets sem erfitt getur reynst að komast í gegnum. Þessi rannsókn notar félagsnetafræði til að varpa ljósi á það hvernig viðbrögð við gagnrýni á stöðugleika íslensku bankanna árið 2006 gerði gagnrýnendum og almenningi erfitt fyrir að fá raunsanna mynd varðandi stöðu íslensku bankanna. Tengslanetagreining rannsóknarinnar sýnir hvernig þeir, sem ábyrgir voru fyrir fjármálakerfinu, vörðust gagnrýni sem fram kom í skýrslu Danske Bank og hvernig flókið og þéttriðið "varnarnet" varð til. Rannsóknin sýnir að þeir sem efuðust um stöðugleika íslensks fj

  12. Tri-Level Optimization Algorithms for Solving Defender-Attacker-Defender Network Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    linear , integer and binary programs. A common application for the DAD model is a network flow problem. As an example, we formally define the tri-level...analysis is required for unknown budgetary parameters. Vector norm and matrix norm methods are from linear algebra ; optimality gap analysis is adapted...problem. Transportation Science, 9(3), 183-199. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org.libproxy.nps.edu/10.1287/trsc.9.3.183 Leon, S. (2010). Linear algebra

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Offensive and Defensive Techniques of the Main Defenders from Chinese and Foreign Women's Basketball Teams--Taking the 30th Olympic Games in London for Example%中外女篮主力后卫队员攻防技术对比分析--以第30届伦敦奥运会为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊

    2013-01-01

    This article, through literature consultation, video observation, mathematical statistics and comparative analysis, makes a study of the offensive and defensive techniques of the main defenders from Chinese and foreign women’s basketball teams in the 30th Olympic Games in London. Results show that, compared with the powerful teams in the world, the main defenders of the Chinese women’s basketball team need to improve their techniques of shooting, rebounds, stealing the ball, block shots and organization. And when facing the opponents’ oppressive defense, the Chinese basketball players have poor shooting and can not give full play to the peripheral offensive advantage.%  运用文献资料法、录像观察法、数理统计法、对比分析法,对第30届奥运会中外女子篮球主力后卫攻防技术指标进行研究分析。结果表明:与世界强队相比,中国女篮的主力后卫队员在投篮技术运用、篮板球、抢断球、盖帽与组织技术等方面有待提高。而且当面对对手压迫性防守时,进攻投篮命中率较差,并没有充分发挥外围的进攻优势。

  14. 世界高水平女子排球攻防实力评价及进攻战术风格分析%The assessment of attacking and defending strength of international women's high-level volleyball and the analysis of attacking styles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于作军; 郝霖霖

    2016-01-01

    对当今世界排名前16支高水平女排队伍的攻防实力进行评价,并对各队的进攻战术风格进行综合分析。结论:1)进攻方面,中国队与巴西队进攻实力最强,发球、一攻及反击效果非常好,同属1档球队。防守方面,巴西队、意大利队防守实力较强,属于1档球队,而中国队接发球、拦网以及接扣球效果一般,属于3档球队;2)越是技术全面、攻手平衡的球队,攻防综合实力档次越高,巴西队与意大利队同属1档球队,而中国队处于2档水平;3)当今世界高水平女排的进攻战术风格可分为五类,第一类以“快速多变、立体进攻”的打法为主;第二类以“中间掩护、两端拉开”的打法为主;第三类以“高举高打、力量制胜”的打法为主;美国队为第四类,以前排进攻为主,基本不采用后排进攻;日本队为第五类,以前排两翼拉开进攻为主,快攻及后排攻的比例相对较低。%The goal of the paper is to assess attacking and defending strength of 16 women's high-level volleyball teams and analyze the attacking style of each team.Literature review,video record-ing,video observing and mathematical statistics are adopted.Video recording is to utilize Datavolley software to collect the statistics of 6 indexes of attacking and defending and then calculate the overall values.As for mathematical statistics,it involves deviation method,RSR method and clustering a-nalysis.Conclusion:1 )In terms of attacking,China and Cuba rank the highest in serving,first-round attacking and fighting back.They are both listed in the first-class teams.For defending,the first-class teams come from Brazil and Italy.However,the Chinese team,with its mediocre per-formance in receiving the serve and spike and blocking,is considered as a third -class team.2 ) The team with more comprehensive skills and better coordinated attacking and defending strategies always has a

  15. Elu- ja mõtterännakud, minemised ja saatmised / Kaljo Põllu ; interv. Jonathan Roper, Marika Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põllu, Kaljo, 1934-2010

    2007-01-01

    Kaljo Põllu oma kunstiõpingutest, loomingust, tööst Tartu Ülikooli kunstikabineti juhatajana, käikudest soomeugrilaste juurde, soome-ugri ekpeditsioonide korraldamisest kunstiinstituudis, ekspeditsioonide mõjust üliõpilaste mõtteviisile ja kunstile, rühmitusest Ydi, soomeugrilisusest eemaldumisest. Leedsi ülikooli inglise filoloogia lektor Jonathan Rops on käinud koos EKA üliõpilastega ekspeditsioonidel 1998., 1999. ja 2003. aastal

  16. HIV-i võib nakatunud olla iga sajas täiskasvanud eestlane / Marika Raiski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raiski, Marika

    2005-01-01

    Vt. ka Nädaline 27. sept., lk. 7. Vastavalt Maailma Terviseorganisatsiooni (WHO) ja UNAIDS-i hinnangule on Eestis hulgaliselt registreerimata HIV-juhte ning tegelikult võib HIV-nakatunuid olla juba iga sajas täiskasvanud Eesti elanik

  17. Elu- ja mõtterännakud, minemised ja saatmised / Kaljo Põllu ; interv. Jonathan Roper, Marika Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põllu, Kaljo, 1934-2010

    2007-01-01

    Kaljo Põllu oma kunstiõpingutest, loomingust, tööst Tartu Ülikooli kunstikabineti juhatajana, käikudest soomeugrilaste juurde, soome-ugri ekpeditsioonide korraldamisest kunstiinstituudis, ekspeditsioonide mõjust üliõpilaste mõtteviisile ja kunstile, rühmitusest Ydi, soomeugrilisusest eemaldumisest. Leedsi ülikooli inglise filoloogia lektor Jonathan Rops on käinud koos EKA üliõpilastega ekspeditsioonidel 1998., 1999. ja 2003. aastal

  18. 22 tundi tõde ja õigust Anton Hansen Tammsaare moodi / Risto Berendson, Marika Rajamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berendson, Risto, 1975-

    2008-01-01

    30. okt. kirjutati Anton Hansen Tammsaare sünniaastapäeva puhul alla lepingule, mis toob Vargamäele maratonetenduse kogu "Tõe ja õiguse" põhjal. Etendus toimub 21.-22. juunini. Kommenteerib Ülo Tonts

  19. Feng shui väärtus on vaimujõus / Marika Tomberg ; komment. Lea Eermann, komment. Rein Weber

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tomberg, Marika

    1999-01-01

    Feng shui järgi korraldatud Lea Eermanni kodust Nõmmel. Feng shui- ja geobioloogia-alase nõustamisega tegelev arhitekt Rein Weber keskkonna mõjust tervisele, magamistoast. Enda ja maja kaitsmisest halbade mõjude eest. 10 illustratsiooni

  20. Žürii kommenteerib Kultuurkapitali arhitektuuripreemiaid 2008 / Marika Lõoke, Laila Põdra, Liina Jänes... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Peapreemia: Markus Kaasik, Andres Ojari, Ilmar Valdur, Mihkel Tüür, Kalle Komissarov (Pärnu Keskraamatukogu hoone), tegevuspreemia: Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Neeme Külm, Ingrid Ruudi (projekt Gaasitoru 11. Veneetsia arhitektuuribiennaalil), aastapreemia: Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Karli Luik (Tartu Kesklinna Kooli juurdeehitus) ja Peep Jänes (Raudna Põhikooli spordihoone), sisearhitektuuri preemia: Tea Tammelaan, Malle Jürgenson, Krista Lepland, restaureerimispreemia: Mari Hammer, Tiiu Lõhmus, Helve Ilves, Villu Kadakas (Vanalinna Hariduskolleegiumi hoone)

  1. Füüsilisest isikust ettevõtjad maksu- ja tolliameti poolelt vaadatuna / Marika Suvi, Ramses Alliksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suvi, Marika

    2007-01-01

    FIEks registreerimise probleemidest, käibemaksukohustusest, raamatupidamisest, tegevuse peatamisest ja lõpetamisest ning ümberkujundamisest äriühinguks. Lisatud: Maksu- ja tolliameti tähelepanekud

  2. 3-4aastaste eesti laste kõne grammatiline profiil / Marika Padrik, Merit Hallap, Signe Raudik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Padrik, Marika, 1964-

    2016-01-01

    Artiklis kirjeldatakse ja võrreldakse eakohase ja hilistunud kõnearengu grammatilisi profiile ning tuuakse välja tunnused, mille alusel on võimalik eristada kõne arengu poolest riskirühma kuuluvaid lapsi

  3. Eesti merovingi- ja viikingiaegsed rinnanõelad - võõrapärased ja omad / Marika Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Marika

    1997-01-01

    Artiklis käsitletakse Eesti merovingi- ja viikingiaegsete ehtenõelte tüpoloogiat ja kandmisviise. Vaatluse alla on võetud rõngaspeaga, kolmnurkpeaga ja varasemad kaksikristpeaga nõelad, mille dateeringut ja tüpoloogilist arengut on varasemaga võrreldes täpsustatud. Joonised, diagrammid, fotod

  4. Gurmaanlus ruulib / Marika Makarova ; kommenteerinud Anu Tali, René Uusmees, Tõnis Siigur, Hannes Võrno, Dimitri Demjanov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Tulevikutoidu konverentsil Tallinnas esinenud kuulsate kokkade Albert Adria, Fergus Hendersoni ja Claus Meyeri kokakunsti lähtekohtadest ja mõistet gurmaanlus mõtestavad lahti tuntud Eesti inimesed ja kokad

  5. Eesti merovingi- ja viikingiaegsed rinnanõelad - võõrapärased ja omad / Marika Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Marika

    1997-01-01

    Artiklis käsitletakse Eesti merovingi- ja viikingiaegsete ehtenõelte tüpoloogiat ja kandmisviise. Vaatluse alla on võetud rõngaspeaga, kolmnurkpeaga ja varasemad kaksikristpeaga nõelad, mille dateeringut ja tüpoloogilist arengut on varasemaga võrreldes täpsustatud. Joonised, diagrammid, fotod

  6. 3- ja 4-aastaste laste intellektuaalne areng erinevates kasvukeskkondades / Merit Laane, Kristina Nugin, Ingrid Tuisk, Marika Veisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Uuringust, mille eesmärgiks oli selgitada, milline on 3- ja 4-aastaste laste intellektuaalne areng erinevates kasvukeskkondades. Uuringus osalesid longituuduurimuses osalenud lapsed, tavarühma lapsed ja Hea Alguse rühma lapsed

  7. HIV-i võib nakatunud olla iga sajas täiskasvanud eestlane / Marika Raiski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raiski, Marika

    2005-01-01

    Vt. ka Nädaline 27. sept., lk. 7. Vastavalt Maailma Terviseorganisatsiooni (WHO) ja UNAIDS-i hinnangule on Eestis hulgaliselt registreerimata HIV-juhte ning tegelikult võib HIV-nakatunuid olla juba iga sajas täiskasvanud Eesti elanik

  8. Loomepõhine uurimistöö - mida see tähendab? / Claudia Pasquero ; intervjueerinud Marika Valk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pasquero, Claudia, 1974-

    2016-01-01

    Aprilli alguses peeti Eesti Kunstiakadeemia Arhitektuuriteaduskonnas ADAPT-r päeva, kus arutleti loomepõhise uurimistöö metodoloogia üle. Esinejate seas oli ka Londoni Ülikooli kolledži Bartlett`i Arhitektuurikooli õppejõud Claudia Pasquero. Intervjuus ta selgitab oma seisukohti loomepõhise doktorantuuri kohta linnaehituses ja arhitektuuris

  9. 3- ja 4-aastaste laste intellektuaalne areng erinevates kasvukeskkondades / Merit Laane, Kristina Nugin, Ingrid Tuisk, Marika Veisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Uuringust, mille eesmärgiks oli selgitada, milline on 3- ja 4-aastaste laste intellektuaalne areng erinevates kasvukeskkondades. Uuringus osalesid longituuduurimuses osalenud lapsed, tavarühma lapsed ja Hea Alguse rühma lapsed

  10. Marika ja Reemi Vartla Mädapea mõis / Aivar Juhanson, Mare Mikof, Simson Seakülast

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juhanson, Aivar

    2008-01-01

    15 värv. vaadet; fotod: Sven Arbet; saalis on Aivar Juhansoni saržid, väravapostide metallist öökullid tegi Aivar Simson, rohelises toas on Mare Mikofi skulptuurid "Kotipoisid". 2007. a. avati mõisahoones Virumaa Kunstimuuseum

  11. Feng shui väärtus on vaimujõus / Marika Tomberg ; komment. Lea Eermann, komment. Rein Weber

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tomberg, Marika

    1999-01-01

    Feng shui järgi korraldatud Lea Eermanni kodust Nõmmel. Feng shui- ja geobioloogia-alase nõustamisega tegelev arhitekt Rein Weber keskkonna mõjust tervisele, magamistoast. Enda ja maja kaitsmisest halbade mõjude eest. 10 illustratsiooni

  12. Kultuuritehas esitleb uusi tooteid / Karina Talts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talts, Karina

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna endises Polümeeri kummivabrikus ametlikult uksed avanud Kultuuritehasest Polymer. Avamisüritusest Kultuurinädal. Korraldajaks Madis Mikkor. Toimuvad kunstinäitused, õpitoad, kontserdid, teatrietendused, ISEA 2004 multimeediaprojektid

  13. Ot porolona k iskusstvu / Kristiina Verbitskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Verbitskaja, Kristiina

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna endise tehase "Polümeer" ruumides tegutsevad juba kaks aastat muusikud, kunstnikud ja teised kultuuriinimesed. 10. -20. augustini toimuvad kultuuritehase Polymer avamisüritused: teatrietendused, kunstinäitused, kontserdid, filmiseansid. Korraldab Madis Mikkor

  14. Kultuuritehas vallutab vana katlamaja / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2005-01-01

    Kultuuritehase projektijuht Madis Mikkor Tallinna Põhja puiesteel asuva vana elektrijaama tööstusmiljööst ja hoonetest, kuhu kolib kultuuritehas Polymer. Katlamaja plaanitakse avada augustis mitmepäevase festivaliga

  15. Ot porolona k iskusstvu / Kristiina Verbitskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Verbitskaja, Kristiina

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna endise tehase "Polümeer" ruumides tegutsevad juba kaks aastat muusikud, kunstnikud ja teised kultuuriinimesed. 10. -20. augustini toimuvad kultuuritehase Polymer avamisüritused: teatrietendused, kunstinäitused, kontserdid, filmiseansid. Korraldab Madis Mikkor

  16. Kultuuritehas esitleb uusi tooteid / Karina Talts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talts, Karina

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna endises Polümeeri kummivabrikus ametlikult uksed avanud Kultuuritehasest Polymer. Avamisüritusest Kultuurinädal. Korraldajaks Madis Mikkor. Toimuvad kunstinäitused, õpitoad, kontserdid, teatrietendused, ISEA 2004 multimeediaprojektid

  17. Kultuuritehas vallutab vana katlamaja / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2005-01-01

    Kultuuritehase projektijuht Madis Mikkor Tallinna Põhja puiesteel asuva vana elektrijaama tööstusmiljööst ja hoonetest, kuhu kolib kultuuritehas Polymer. Katlamaja plaanitakse avada augustis mitmepäevase festivaliga

  18. ILO--The Defender of Teachers' Rights and Working Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    Proceedings from a seminar in which 86 participants from 60 countries exchanged views on the relationship between the International Labour Office (ILO) and the World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession (WCOTP). Particular attention was devoted to the wide range of services provided in relation to trade union rights, the…

  19. SecureCPS: Defending a nanosatellite cyber-physical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Lance; Vu, Huy; Udrea, Bogdan; Hagar, Hamilton; Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.; Yampolskiy, Mark

    2014-06-01

    Recent inexpensive nanosatellite designs employ maneuvering thrusters, much as large satellites have done for decades. However, because a maneuvering nanosatellite can threaten HVAs on-­orbit, it must provide a level of security typically reserved for HVAs. Securing nanosatellites with maneuvering capability is challenging due to extreme cost, size, and power constraints. While still in the design process, our low-­cost SecureCPS architecture promises to dramatically improve security, to include preempting unknown binaries and detecting abnormal behavior. SecureCPS also applies to a broad class of cyber-­physical systems (CPS), such as aircraft, cars, and trains. This paper focuses on Embry-­Riddle's ARAPAIMA nanosatellite architecture, where we assume any off-­the-­shelf component could be compromised by a supply chain attack.1 Based on these assumptions, we have used Vanderbilt's Cyber Physical -­ Attack Description Language (CP-­ADL) to represent realistic attacks, analyze how these attacks propagate in the ARAPAIMA architecture, and how to defeat them using the combination of a low-­cost Root of Trust (RoT) Module, Global InfoTek's Advanced Malware Analysis System (GAMAS), and Anomaly Detection by Machine Learning (ADML).2 Our most recent efforts focus on refining and validating the design of SecureCPS.

  20. Taylorism, Tylerism, and Performance Indicators: Defending the Indefensible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsby, Gill; Saunders, Murray

    1993-01-01

    Explores the antecedents to the growing interest in the use of educational performance indicators. Discusses this issue in relation to the work of economist F. W. Taylor and evaluator Ralph Tyler. Describes a five-year project that demonstrates the promise of teacher-developed performance indicators. (CFR)

  1. A Combined Arms Approach to Defending Army Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    CEMA is to gain an advantage, protect the...best to accom- plish CEMA integration for the long term. Current plans envision CEMA integrated with- in the operations process via the Cyber-Electro...situational awareness and con- tinually assesses progress toward desired conditions. The first demonstration of the CEMA concept will occur

  2. Defending the scientific integrity of conservation-policy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos; Hartl, Brett; Goldman, Gretchen T; Rohlf, Daniel J; Treves, Adrian; Kerr, Jeremy T; Ritchie, Euan G; Kingsford, Richard T; Gibbs, Katherine E; Maron, Martine; Watson, James E M

    2017-10-01

    Government agencies faced with politically controversial decisions often discount or ignore scientific information, whether from agency staff or nongovernmental scientists. Recent developments in scientific integrity (the ability to perform, use, communicate, and publish science free from censorship or political interference) in Canada, Australia, and the United States demonstrate a similar trajectory. A perceived increase in scientific-integrity abuses provokes concerted pressure by the scientific community, leading to efforts to improve scientific-integrity protections under a new administration. However, protections are often inconsistently applied and are at risk of reversal under administrations publicly hostile to evidence-based policy. We compared recent challenges to scientific integrity to determine what aspects of scientific input into conservation policy are most at risk of political distortion and what can be done to strengthen safeguards against such abuses. To ensure the integrity of outbound communications from government scientists to the public, we suggest governments strengthen scientific integrity policies, include scientists' right to speak freely in collective-bargaining agreements, guarantee public access to scientific information, and strengthen agency culture supporting scientific integrity. To ensure the transparency and integrity with which information from nongovernmental scientists (e.g., submitted comments or formal policy reviews) informs the policy process, we suggest governments broaden the scope of independent reviews, ensure greater diversity of expert input and transparency regarding conflicts of interest, require a substantive response to input from agencies, and engage proactively with scientific societies. For their part, scientists and scientific societies have a responsibility to engage with the public to affirm that science is a crucial resource for developing evidence-based policy and regulations in the public interest. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. The Frontiers Approach: Defending a Sufficientarian Rule of Distributive Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Axelsen, David Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    resources within and between societies are distributed. One important debate concerns which rule of distribution should govern distributive justice. Egalitarians argue that we should strive for equality as the distributive ideal. Others suggest sufficientarianism as the promising alternative, meaning....... Duress, therefore, captures the injustice of someone being below the level of a dignified human life to which they are entitled. Our reconstruction of the sufficientarian approach addresses the injustice of duress directly by suggesting a distributive scheme based on what we shall call frontiers...

  4. Defending networks against denial-of-service attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelenbe, Erol; Gellman, Michael; Loukas, George

    2004-11-01

    Denial of service attacks, viruses and worms are common tools for malicious adversarial behavior in networks. Experience shows that over the last few years several of these techniques have probably been used by governments to impair the Internet communications of various entities, and we can expect that these and other information warfare tools will be used increasingly as part of hostile behavior either independently, or in conjunction with other forms of attack in conventional or asymmetric warfare, as well as in other forms of malicious behavior. In this paper we concentrate on Distributed Denial of Service Attacks (DDoS) where one or more attackers generate flooding traffic and direct it from multiple sources towards a set of selected nodes or IP addresses in the Internet. We first briefly survey the literature on the subject, and discuss some examples of DDoS incidents. We then present a technique that can be used for DDoS protection based on creating islands of protection around a critical information infrastructure. This technique, that we call the CPN-DoS-DT (Cognitive Packet Networks DoS Defence Technique), creates a self-monitoring sub-network surrounding each critical infrastructure node. CPN-DoS-DT is triggered by a DDoS detection scheme, and generates control traffic from the objects of the DDoS attack to the islands of protection where DDOS packet flows are destroyed before they reach the critical infrastructure. We use mathematical modelling, simulation and experiments on our test-bed to show the positive and negative outcomes that may result from both the attack, and the CPN-DoS-DT protection mechanism, due to imperfect detection and false alarms.

  5. No Dark Corners: Defending Against Insider Threats to Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    gathering information are easily dismissed as a rookie’s excusable faux pas. Unless the neophyte does something egregious to excite remark, he or she...This explains why a resource-intensive audit will not be “wasted” on a neophyte who has still not even passed probation. In many, if not most critical

  6. Defend your research corporate wellness programs make us unwell

    OpenAIRE

    Berinato, S.; Spicer, A

    2015-01-01

    The research: André Spicer, a professor at Cass Business School at City University London, conducted a cultural and historical analysis of ideas about wellness in companies (which he published in a recent book, The Wellness Syndrome, coauthored by Stockholm University’s Carl Cederström). He concluded that corporate wellness programs not only provide low returns on investment but actually backfire, making many employees less healthy and more anxious about their jobs. The challenge: Are “fu...

  7. Mario Bunge: Physicist, philosopher and defender of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Matthews

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mario Bunge was born in Argentina in the final year of the First World War. He learnt atomic physics andquantum mechanics from an Austrian refugee who had been a student of Heisenberg. Additionally he taughthimself modern philosophy in an environment that was a philosophical backwater. He was the first SouthAmerican philosopher of science to be trained in science. His publications in physics, philosophy, psychology,sociology and the foundations of biology, are staggering in number, and include a massive 8-volume Treatise onPhilosophy. The unifying thread of his scholarship is the constant and vigorous advancement of theEnlightenment Project, and criticism of cultural and academic movements that deny or devalue the core planksof the project: namely its naturalism, the search for truth, the universality of science, rationality, and respect forindividuals. At a time when specialisation is widely decried, and its deleterious effects on science, philosophy ofscience, educational research and science teaching are recognised – it is salutary to see the fruits of one person’spursuit of the ‘Big’ scientific and philosophical picture.

  8. Defending Symbolic Convergence Theory from an Imaginary Gunn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Ernest G.; Cragan, John F.; Shields, Donald C.

    2003-01-01

    Joshua Gunn calls for the creation of a new post-humanist, -Marxist, -Freudian approach to rhetorical criticism that would combine literary, critical, and psychoanalytic methods in a new "popular imaginary" paradigm. While urging acceptance of his new paradigm, Gunn advances three major criticisms of symbolic convergence theory (SCT): (1) SCT is…

  9. Teachers as Defenders of Democracy for All in Hard Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Liz

    2017-01-01

    Prior to 1984 teaching was a valued commodity in New Zealand. Teachers were, in general, strongly supported by successive governments and by the Department of Education, which was largely staffed by ex-teachers and consulted closely with the profession on most matters. However, since the new right revolution, brought in by the third Labour…

  10. LOWER NORTH BATTERY - DEFENDED PORT OF SIMON'S TOWN

    OpenAIRE

    W.M. Bisset

    2012-01-01

    In 1975 Mr H. C. Willis suggested to the present writer that the SA Navy should mount a bronze plaque similar to those commissioned by the Simon's Town Historical Society and displayed on certain historical buildings in the town at Lower North Battery to make people more aware of its long and fascinating history. Although a number of the Simon's Town Port Record Books have been traced, that for Lower North Battery still cannot be found and important gaps in our knowledge of the battery's hist...

  11. Moral Law and Moral Education: Defending Kantian Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James Scott

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I examine why Kantian ethics has had such a hard time of it. I look at readings of Kant's moral theory that have had great force in the 20th century and conclude that these have much to do with an ensuing confusion, which has led to charges of rigidity, formality and severity. Then I demonstrate that when we make moral judgements we…

  12. Defending the Logic of Significance Testing: A Response to Gorard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Stephen Gorard has outlined strong objections to the use of significance testing in social research. He has argued, first, that as the samples used in social research are almost always non-random it is not possible to use inferential statistical techniques and, second, that even if a truly random sample were achieved, the logic behind…

  13. Intrusion Detection and Forensics for Self-Defending Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    of security protocols for Wireless LAN, as well as the Return Routability of Mobile IPv6 , an emerging lightweight security protocol in new IPv6 ...ICNP), Nov. 2007. 5. Yao Zhao, Yan Chen, Bo Li, and Qian Zhang, Hop ID: A Virtual Coordinate based Routing for Sparse Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, in...IEEE Transaction on Mobile Computing, Volume 6, Number 9, September 2007. 6. Ehab Al-Shaer and Yan Chen, Integrated Fault and Security Management

  14. Defending the Amazon: Conservation, Development and Security in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    at base-lining forest size—SIVAM fills the “the need left by the physical 192 Míriam Leitão, "Rota das drogas ," trans. Open Source Center, Rede...search=wr-91-39 (accessed January 16, 2009). Leitão, Míriam. "Rota das drogas ." Translated by Open Source Center. Rede Globo. August 6, 2008. http

  15. The Decisonal Autonomy Defending the Right to Die With Dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Sobrado de Freitas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to verify the possibility that the terminal patient, provided with decisional autonomy, can claim the right to die with dignity. To achieve the intent, it was done a bibliographic exploratory-explanatory research, qualitative, using the deductive method. Concluding that, even if the subject is polemic, the decisional autonomy deserves to be considered, including in the execution of the right to die with dignity, since it is intended to safeguard the human being in the most intimate aspects of one’s life and, because, choose the death with dignity doesn’t mean to give up from the right to life.

  16. The Decisonal Autonomy Defending the Right to Die With Dignity

    OpenAIRE

    Riva Sobrado de Freitas; Daniela Zilio

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to verify the possibility that the terminal patient, provided with decisional autonomy, can claim the right to die with dignity. To achieve the intent, it was done a bibliographic exploratory-explanatory research, qualitative, using the deductive method. Concluding that, even if the subject is polemic, the decisional autonomy deserves to be considered, including in the execution of the right to die with dignity, since it is intended to safeguard the human being in the most i...

  17. Defending Air Bases in an Age of Insurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Force (RAF) Stations in Canada in August 1940, relieving the Cana - dian army of this duty. The new division of responsibilities between the RCAF and...with a greatly increased depth of FP knowledge. This occupation would be an ideal choice to provide ground extraction teams if Cana - da’s air force...Jean, and Richard H. Gimblett. Operation Friction: The Cana - dian Forces in the Persian Gulf, 1990–1991. Toronto, Ontario: Dundurn Press, 1997. Murray

  18. Portrait of Noeli: A Defender from La Guajira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Natasha

    1997-01-01

    Profiles Noeli Pocaterra, a Venezuelan Wayuu woman, and her roles as community leader, activist in the struggle for indigenous rights, newly elected president of the World Council of Indigenous Peoples, and University of Zulia faculty member. Discusses community work, international networking, her views on cultural and language maintenance, and…

  19. Myeloperoxidase: a front-line defender against phagocytosed microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanoff, Seymour J; Kettle, Anthony J; Rosen, Henry; Winterbourn, Christine C; Nauseef, William M

    2013-02-01

    Successful immune defense requires integration of multiple effector systems to match the diverse virulence properties that members of the microbial world might express as they initiate and promote infection. Human neutrophils--the first cellular responders to invading microbes--exert most of their antimicrobial activity in phagosomes, specialized membrane-bound intracellular compartments formed by ingestion of microorganisms. The toxins generated de novo by the phagocyte NADPH oxidase and delivered by fusion of neutrophil granules with nascent phagosomes create conditions that kill and degrade ingested microbes. Antimicrobial activity reflects multiple and complex synergies among the phagosomal contents, and optimal action relies on oxidants generated in the presence of MPO. The absence of life-threatening infectious complications in individuals with MPO deficiency is frequently offered as evidence that the MPO oxidant system is ancillary rather than essential for neutrophil-mediated antimicrobial activity. However, that argument fails to consider observations from humans and KO mice that demonstrate that microbial killing by MPO-deficient cells is less efficient than that of normal neutrophils. We present evidence in support of MPO as a major arm of oxidative killing by neutrophils and propose that the essential contribution of MPO to normal innate host defense is manifest only when exposure to pathogens overwhelms the capacity of other host defense mechanisms.

  20. Defending Against LDoS Attacks Using Fair AQM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianqin Wang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the instant high rate and high intensity of LDoS attacks, this paper explores using fair queue management mechanism to mitigate their effect. We perform simulation experiments to evaluate the performance of fair AQM FRED and CHOKe under LDoS attacks. The simulation results show that they are able to reduce the impact of the attacks in various degrees. FRED outperforms CHOKe in throttling the attacks, but it is slightly inferior to CHOKe in time performance.

  1. Defending Malicious Script Attacks Using Machine Learning Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayeem Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The web application has become a primary target for cyber criminals by injecting malware especially JavaScript to perform malicious activities for impersonation. Thus, it becomes an imperative to detect such malicious code in real time before any malicious activity is performed. This study proposes an efficient method of detecting previously unknown malicious java scripts using an interceptor at the client side by classifying the key features of the malicious code. Feature subset was obtained by using wrapper method for dimensionality reduction. Supervised machine learning classifiers were used on the dataset for achieving high accuracy. Experimental results show that our method can efficiently classify malicious code from benign code with promising results.

  2. Defending the barrier: Effects of probiotics on endogenous defense mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Lutgendorff, F.

    2009-01-01

    The 24th of January 2008 was the day that the BBC headlined: “Pancreatic deaths trouble Dutch” and the day that the field of probiotic research changed indefinitely. Probiotics, which had not shown any adverse effects in numerous conditions in the past, were for the first time associated with serious adverse events. In the largest study on probiotics to that date, the Dutch Acute Pancreatitis Study Group showed that probiotic treatment was associated with a more than twofold increase in death...

  3. Defending Cultural Assets Against a Cosmic Impact Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, James; Camacho, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Asteroid or comet impacts on Earth have the potential to destroy humanity's cultural heritage, ranging from local regions to total obliteration. Fortunately we now have means to cope with this hazard -- if and only if we devote resources to finding, intercepting and deflecting threatening objects. Early preparations have already begun. Under auspices of the UN's Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) an International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN) and a Space Mission Planning Advisory Group (SMPAG) have been set up. Upon validation of a threat by IAWN and SMPAG, agencies with capacity, funding and authority to launch intercept missions are to act. A model for this is the existing arrangement for organizing and dispatching UN peacekeeping forces. In this paper we describe current technical options and needed policy and legal developments to enable the world to divert threats and, if that fails or is impossible, to save lives through evacuation and civil defense. In parallel with those efforts, we advocate the creation of safe archives as backup for lost cultural treasures.

  4. Who is Responsible for Defending United States Interests in Cyberspace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    results include damage or destruction of property, or death or injury to persons.”13 In between these extreme actions would fall cyber disruptions...authorities fully supports the current duel nature of command as executed by General Keith B. Alexander as the Commander of USCYBERCOM and Director of NSA

  5. Successful invaders are better defended: The example of Gracilaria vermiculophylla

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberger, Florian; Hammann, Mareike; Pohnert, G.; Wang, G. G.; Boo, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of anti-herbivore resistance for algal invasion success we compared resistance traits among specimens of the red macroalga Gracilaria vermiculophylla from six native populations in Korea and China and eight invasive populations in Europe and Mexico that were maintained under identical conditions in the laboratory. Herbivorous snails both from the native range (Littorina brevicula) and from the invaded range (Littorina littorea) consumed significantly less of seaweed...

  6. Defending the Lowly Prokaryotes: New Challenges for "BIOGaia" Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Abour H.; Michel, Linda; Movahedzadeh, Farahnaz; Aron, Robert; Adams, Gerald; Jenkins, Sharron

    2009-01-01

    Many educators agree that effective teaching helps students to think critically, communicate more clearly, learn self-discipline, develop an understanding of themselves and others, and cultivate the habit of self-education. Today's global, multi-cultural environment requires people to work in teams, which in turn requires collaboration and…

  7. Defending the barrier: Effects of probiotics on endogenous defense mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgendorff, F.

    2009-01-01

    The 24th of January 2008 was the day that the BBC headlined: “Pancreatic deaths trouble Dutch” and the day that the field of probiotic research changed indefinitely. Probiotics, which had not shown any adverse effects in numerous conditions in the past, were for the first time associated with seriou

  8. Smart-Guard: Defending User Input from Malware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denzel, Michael; Bruni, Alessandro; Ryan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Trusted input techniques can profoundly enhance a variety of scenarios like online banking, electronic voting, Virtual Private Networks, and even commands to a server or Industrial Control System. To protect the system from malware of the sender’s computer, input needs to be reliably authenticated...

  9. Tri-Level Optimization Models to Defend Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    except those mentioned above, are randomly, uniformly distributed on [0,1] and [1,2] respectively. 48 The XPRESS solver is used within GAMS ( XPRESS ...for LPs and MIPs: XPRESS (v. 16.10) • Absolute and relative termination criterion for MIP: 0.0 • Allowable relative gap between bounds in the...the problem. After 10 hours of execution, the lower bound is still only 0.58 (and not close to proving optimality because the global upper bound is

  10. Defending plasma T3 is a biological priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Sherine M; Bianco, Antonio C

    2014-11-01

    Triiodothyronine (T3), the active form of thyroid hormone is produced predominantly outside the thyroid parenchyma secondary to peripheral tissue deiodination of thyroxine (T4), with thyroid. In healthy individuals, plasma T3 is regulated by the negative feedback loop of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis and by homoeostatic changes in deiodinase expression. Therefore, with the exception of a minimal circadian rhythmicity, serum T3 levels are stable over long periods of time. Studies in rodents indicate that different levels of genetic disruption of the feedback mechanism and deiodinase system are met with increase in serum T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, while serum T3 levels remain stable. These findings have focused attention on serum T3 levels in patients with thyroid disease, with important clinical implications affecting therapeutic goals and choice of therapy for patients with hypothyroidism. Although monotherapy with levothyroxine is the standard of care for hypothyroidism, not all patients normalize serum T3 levels with many advocating for combination therapy with levothyroxine and liothyronine. The latter could be relevant for a significant number of patients that remain symptomatic on monotherapy with levothyroxine, despite normalization of serum TSH levels. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Defending Whose Democracy?\\ud Media Freedom and Media Power

    OpenAIRE

    Fenton, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Rarely has the relationship between media and democracy been so centre-stage. Whether regarding regulatory reform brought about by phone hacking in the UK, concentration of media ownership in Italy, Hungary, Australia to mention but a few; or in relation to social media and the internet as a supposed means to increased access to information and citizen production and circulation of non-mainstream content leading to greater so called media freedom. The debate on whether or not and in what form...

  12. PASSWORD BASED SCHEME AND GROUP TESTING FOR DEFENDING DDOS ATTACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinuthala Sruthi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available DOS ATTACKS ARE ONE OF THE TOP SECURITY PROBLEMS AFFECTING NETWORKS AND DISRUPTING SERVICES TO LEGITIMATE USERS. THE VITAL STEP IN DEALING WITH THIS PROBLEM IS THE NETWORK'S ABILITY TO DETECT SUCH ATTACKS. APPLICATION DDOS ATTACK, WHICH AIMS AT DISRUPTING APPLICATION SERVICE RATHER THAN DEPLETING THE NETWORK RESOURCE. UP TO NOW ALL THE RESEARCHES MADE ON THIS DDOS ATTACKS ONLY CONCENTRATES EITHER ON NETWORK RESOURCES OR ON APPLICATION SERVERS BUT NOT ON BOTH. IN THIS PAPER WE PROPOSED A SOLUTION FOR BOTH THESE PROBLEMS BY AUTHENTICATION METHODS AND GROUP TESTING.

  13. DNA repair: Dynamic defenders against cancer and aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuss, Jill O.; Cooper, Priscilla K.

    2006-04-01

    You probably weren't thinking about your body's cellular DNA repair systems the last time you sat on the beach in the bright sunshine. Fortunately, however, while you were subjecting your DNA to the harmful effects of ultraviolet light, your cells were busy repairing the damage. The idea that our genetic material could be damaged by the sun was not appreciated in the early days of molecular biology. When Watson and Crick discovered the structure of DNA in 1953 [1], it was assumed that DNA is fundamentally stable since it carries the blueprint of life. However, over 50 years of research have revealed that our DNA is under constant assault by sunlight, oxygen, radiation, various chemicals, and even our own cellular processes. Cleverly, evolution has provided our cells with a diverse set of tools to repair the damage that Mother Nature causes. DNA repair processes restore the normal nucleotide sequence and DNA structure of the genome after damage [2]. These responses are highly varied and exquisitely regulated. DNA repair mechanisms are traditionally characterized by the type of damage repaired. A large variety of chemical modifications can alter normal DNA bases and either lead to mutations or block transcription if not repaired, and three distinct pathways exist to remove base damage. Base excision repair (BER) corrects DNA base alterations that do not distort the overall structure of the DNA helix such as bases damaged by oxidation resulting from normal cellular metabolism. While BER removes single damaged bases, nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes short segments of nucleotides (called oligonucleotides) containing damaged bases. NER responds to any alteration that distorts the DNA helix and is the mechanism responsible for repairing bulky base damage caused by carcinogenic chemicals such as benzo [a]pyrene (found in cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust) as well as covalent linkages between adjacent pyrimidine bases resulting from the ultraviolet (UV) component of sunlight. NER can be divided into two classes based on where the repair occurs. NER occurring in DNA that is not undergoing transcription (i.e., most of the genome) is called global genome repair (GGR or GGNER), while NER taking place in the transcribed strand of active genes is called transcription-coupled repair (TCR or TC-NER). We will explore NER in more detail below. Mismatch repair (MMR) is another type of excision repair that specifically removes mispaired bases resulting from replication errors. DNA damage can also result in breaks in the DNA backbone, in one or both strands. Single-strand breaks (SSBs) are efficiently repaired by a mechanism that shares common features with the later steps in BER. Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are especially devastating since by definition there is no intact complementary strand to serve as a template for repair, and even one unrepaired DSB can be lethal [3]. In cells that have replicated their DNA prior to cell division, the missing information can be supplied by the duplicate copy, or sister chromatid, and DSBs in these cells are faithfully repaired by homologous recombination involving the exchange of strands of DNA between the two copies. However, most cells in the body are non-dividing, and in these cells the major mechanism for repairing DSBs is by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), which as the name implies involves joining two broken DNA ends together without a requirement for homologous sequence and which therefore has a high potential for loss of genetic information.

  14. Germans to defend airspace / Marge Tubalkain-Trell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tubalkain-Trell, Marge

    2008-01-01

    Saksamaa lennukid võtsid üle Baltimaade õhuruumi valvamise. Saksa lennuväekontingendi koosseisus hakkab teenima kuni 120 sõjaväelast, kes hakkavad Balti õhuruumi turvama neljal hävitajal F-4F Phantom. Eesti kaitseministeeriumi kommentaarid

  15. How to Defend Ourselves Against Corporate Image and Ideology Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James R.

    Since teachers have been encouraged to give attention to advertising, product advertising has been the subject of study, but because of the large amount of money spent on them, two other aspects of advertising need special attention: corporate-sponsored image (which deals with characteristics and image of the company rather than with products or…

  16. Academe defends its role in Test Ban Treaty monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, J.

    Recent jockeying for control of congressional seismic research funds has left the U.S. scientific research community uneasy about future cooperation with the federal government in the development of comprehensive nuclear test ban monitoring systems.Even though the language in a Defense authorization bill for fiscal year 1995, which cleared the Senate June 30, will likely be toned down in the House and Senate conference, the “aggressive” maneuvering that ensued to tentatively dispose the bulk of power over the interagency seismic network to the Defense Department, critics say, raises new questions about how science policy decisions are made in the United States and how committed the Congress and some federal agencies are to “reinventing” government under the Clinton-Gore plan. And for now, a hefty chunk of funding for academic seismic research is no longer a sure thing.

  17. Estonian president defends imminent euro-accession / Valentina Pop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pop, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves räägib Eesti liitumisest euroalaga, eelarvelisest vastutustundest, e-kaubanduse arendamise tähtsusest, Euroopa Liidu lepingust, WikiLeaksi avaldatud materjalidest, küberkaitsest. Töövisiit Brüsselisse 08.12.2010 - 10.12.2010

  18. Defending Symbolic Convergence Theory from an Imaginary Gunn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Ernest G.; Cragan, John F.; Shields, Donald C.

    2003-01-01

    Joshua Gunn calls for the creation of a new post-humanist, -Marxist, -Freudian approach to rhetorical criticism that would combine literary, critical, and psychoanalytic methods in a new "popular imaginary" paradigm. While urging acceptance of his new paradigm, Gunn advances three major criticisms of symbolic convergence theory (SCT): (1) SCT is…

  19. Integration Defended: Berkeley Unified's Strategy to Maintain School Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Lisa; Frankenberg, Erica

    2009-01-01

    In June 2007, the Supreme Court limited the tools that school districts could use to voluntarily integrate schools. In the aftermath of the decision, educators around the country have sought models of successful plans that would also be legal. One such model may be Berkeley Unified School District's (BUSD) plan. Earlier this year, the California…

  20. Germans to defend airspace / Marge Tubalkain-Trell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tubalkain-Trell, Marge

    2008-01-01

    Saksamaa lennukid võtsid üle Baltimaade õhuruumi valvamise. Saksa lennuväekontingendi koosseisus hakkab teenima kuni 120 sõjaväelast, kes hakkavad Balti õhuruumi turvama neljal hävitajal F-4F Phantom. Eesti kaitseministeeriumi kommentaarid

  1. Defender el idioma de los defensores del idioma

    OpenAIRE

    Valdenebro, Eladio

    2012-01-01

    En “cartas del lector” del mayor diario nacional, leo el afán de alguno, preocupado por la invasión de palabras norteamericanas en la publicidad comercial, en todo medio escrito, en la T.V. Su preocupación no es ninguna novedad. El tema de la defensa del Español siempre ha existido —desde hace mas de quinientos años!— desde un erudito caballero de apellido Nebrija, quien en 1492 había publicado la primera gramática de nuestro idioma. Veamos esta reseña de tan insistente propósi...

  2. An attacker-defender model for IP-based networks

    OpenAIRE

    Barkley, Timothy R.

    2008-01-01

    The Internet Protocol (IP) has emerged as the dominant technology for determining how data is routed across the Internet. Because IP flows are defined essentially in terms of origin-destination (O-D) pairs, we represent IP traffic engineering as a multi-commodity flow problem in which each O-D pair is treated as a separate commodity. We account for the diversity in IP routing by modeling opposite extremes of traffic engineering: "naive" traffic engineering where the IP routes data between...

  3. Cyber Sentries: Preparing Defenders to Win in a Contested Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    the deliberate shortcuts and unintentional errors that adversely impact Department networks. The workforce must develop a conviction to fight through...Brown, and Rodney R. Cocking , eds. with additional material from the Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice and the Commission on

  4. The defender's dilemma charting a course toward cybersecurity

    CERN Document Server

    Libicki, Martin C; Webb, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Cybersecurity is a constant, and, by all accounts growing, challenge. This report, the second in a multiphase study on the future of cybersecurity, reveals perspectives and perceptions from chief information security officers; examines the development of network defense measures-and the countermeasures that attackers create to subvert those measures; and explores the role of software vulnerabilities and inherent weaknesses.

  5. Optimizing Department of Homeland Security Defense Investments: Applying Defender-Attacker (-Defender) Optimization to Terror Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    commercial off-the-shelf integer linear programming software, we can use (and have used) a version of Benders decomposition [e.g., Bazaraa , Jarvis, and...Logistics, 39, pp. 419-435. Bazaraa , M.S., J. Jarvis, and H.D. Sherali, 1990. Linear Programming and Network Flows. John Wiley & Sons. New York

  6. Evaluation on effect of oral cavity health study, pit and fissure sealant, defending periodontal disease and dental caries in schools in Jiufo%九佛开展小学生口腔健康教育及窝沟封闭预防龋病和牙周病效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱容; 陈佩祥; 曾雪红; 彭建民

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of carrying out oral cavity health study, pit and fissure sealant, defending periodontal disease and dental caries in schools. Methods 390 six-year teeth’s pit and fissure sealant students will be divided into two groups, one comparison group and two experiment groups. Due to various reasons, 78 students who lack systematical health education of oral cavity and whose parents don’t agree to make six-year teeth pit and fissure sealant operations will be the comparison group. The rest of 312 students will be automatically divided into two groups. The first group are the students who have systematical health education and meanwhile have an operation of six-year teeth pit and fissure sealant. The second group were students who just need to realize the importance of pit and fissure sealant and can’t get systematical oral cavity health education. After half a year of one year, all the students’oral cavity health knowledge, health behaviors, periodontal and dental caries’s condition will be checked. Results The results showed that the first experiment group have improved more than the first experiment group in the oral cavity health knowledge, behaviors and dental caries’s condition(P<0.05). After having an operation of pit and fissure sealant, both experiment groups don’t suffer from dental caries. Conclusion Carrying out study of oral cavity and operation of pit and fissure sealant based on schools is of great importance to defend periodontal disease and dental caries.%目的:评价在学校开展口腔健康教育及窝沟封闭预防牙周病和龋病的效果。方法将应行六龄齿窝沟封闭的390名学生进行分组,一组对照组及两组实验组。由于各种原因家长不同意实施六龄齿窝沟封闭术,也无系统的开展口腔健康教育活动的78名学生为对照组。把余下的312名学生随机分为两组实验组。实验组一为系统的开展健康教育活动及行六龄齿窝

  7. Söömishäirete spetsialistid kaesid uusi ravivõimalusi / Anu Järv, Kirsti Akkerman ; interv. Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järv, Anu

    2005-01-01

    Vestlus TÜ kliinikumi psühhiaatriakliiniku söömishäirete keskuse juhataja Anu Järvega ja kliinilise psühholoogi Kirsti Akkermanniga, kes osalesid 27.-30. aprillini Kanadas toimunud Academy of Eating Disorders konverentsil

  8. Söömishäirete spetsialistid kaesid uusi ravivõimalusi / Anu Järv, Kirsti Akkerman ; interv. Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järv, Anu

    2005-01-01

    Vestlus TÜ kliinikumi psühhiaatriakliiniku söömishäirete keskuse juhataja Anu Järvega ja kliinilise psühholoogi Kirsti Akkermanniga, kes osalesid 27.-30. aprillini Kanadas toimunud Academy of Eating Disorders konverentsil

  9. Tanel Trööbil hea klapp välispartneritega / Tanel Trööp ; interv. Marika Tomberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Trööp, Tanel, 1971-

    2004-01-01

    Reklaamifirma Jaa Disain juht Tanel Trööp oma senisest karjäärist, juhtimismeetoditest, tegevusest ja eesmärkidest ettevõtte eesotsas. Kommenteerivad Taavi Reigam ja Eno Juul. Lisa: Tanel Trööp

  10. The Optimal Employment of a Deep Seaweb Acoustic Network for Submarine Communications at Speed and Depth Using a Defender-Attacker-Defender Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The peripherals are the mobile nodes (e.g., unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) to include swimmers and crawlers ) and specialized nodes (e.g., bi...specific depth depending largely on the latitude. Refraction focuses the sound waves in the ocean according to Snell’s Law, bending them toward the

  11. Olla laval on ülimalt vägev / Regina Lilleorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lilleorg, Regina

    2007-01-01

    Tsirkusemuusikali "Barnum" katsetest 9. septembril Viimsi Huvikeskuses ( muusikali projektijuht Kalle Erm, lavastaja Raivo Mets, koreograaf Ene Mets, kunstnik Rünno Karna, koormeister ja solistide juhendaja Marika Uus)

  12. Ilmub raamat viikingiajast Saaremaal / Pamela Talzi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talzi, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    Saaremaal viikingiaega uurinud arheoloogi, Tallinna ülikooli humanitaarteaduste instituudi ajaloo, arheoloogia ja kunstiajaloo keskuse vanemteaduri Marika Mägi sulest ilmub raamat "Viikingiaegne Eesti"

  13. Kulturu delajut na zavodah / Alina Zelimhanova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zelimhanova, Alina

    2005-01-01

    Kultuuritehase projektijuht Madis Mikkor Tallinnas Põhja puiesteel asuvast muinsuskaitse all olevast elektrijaama katlamajast, kuhu peatselt kolib kultuuritehas Polymer. Katlamaja plaanitakse avada augustis. Selleks ajaks seatakse sisse valgustus. Hoonete põhjalikum renoveerimine algab 2007. a., kusjuures säilitatakse vana tööstusmiljöö

  14. Kulturu delajut na zavodah / Alina Zelimhanova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zelimhanova, Alina

    2005-01-01

    Kultuuritehase projektijuht Madis Mikkor Tallinnas Põhja puiesteel asuvast muinsuskaitse all olevast elektrijaama katlamajast, kuhu peatselt kolib kultuuritehas Polymer. Katlamaja plaanitakse avada augustis. Selleks ajaks seatakse sisse valgustus. Hoonete põhjalikum renoveerimine algab 2007. a., kusjuures säilitatakse vana tööstusmiljöö

  15. The lives and opinions of Socrates and Stilpo as defended by Plutarch against the insidious yet ignorant attacks of Colotes La vie et l'opinion de Socrate et de Stilpon défendues par Plutarque contre les attaques insidieuses mais ignorantes de Colotès Le vite e le opinioni di Socrate e Stilpo come difesa da Plutarco contro gli attacchi insidiosi ancora ignoranti di Colote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Opsomer

    2013-05-01

    senza analizzarlo in dettaglio. Questo spiegherebbe anche il fatto che l’argomento non faccia alcun uso del resoconto che Platone fa della predicazione nel Sofista.In chapters 17 to 23 of the Adversus Colotem Plutarch defends Socrates and Stilpo against Colotes’ criticism. I examine the embedding of this section in the larger context of the work, the links between the sections on Socrates and Stilpo, Colotes’ criticisms and Plutarch’s counter-arguments and polemical strategies. In doing so, I attempt to disentangle the different layers of this complex text. Socrates is portrayed as an imposter and a sceptic by Colotes. Plutarch argues that Socrates’ philosophy indeed implies a radical distrust of the senses, but that this does not make it impossible for him and his followers to live their daily lives. Socratic philosophy is much to be preferred to Epicureanism. Stilpo, a Megarian, also belongs to the Socratic tradition. Plutarch upholds the high moral reputation of this sharp-witted philosopher against the abuse that he had to suffer from Colotes. The latter also attacked Stilpo’s rejection of all predication except identity predication. Plutarch claims that Stilpo’s argument is a mere dialectical exercise and poses no threat to our daily lives. Plutarch moreover engages in a counter-attack on the Epicurean philosophy of language, more particularly their abolishment of the intermediate level – that of meanings. As Plutarch presents Stilpo’s famous argument, it amounts to a denial of the ontological relation to which ordinary predication corresponds. Plutarch’s conclusion – that Stilpo merely urges us to abandon the use of the verb “to be” as a copula – does not fit the argument as it is presented by him. This mismatch is best explained by the hypothesis that Plutarch copied the argument quite faithfully without analysing it in detail. That would also explain the fact that the argument makes no use of Plato’s account of predication in the

  16. Defending Estonia’s interests in the Court of Justice of the European Union / Lembit Uibo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibo, Lembit

    2010-01-01

    Kohtuotsustest asjades, milles Eesti kaebas Euroopa Komisjoni Euroopa Liidu Kohtusse (vaidlused suhkrutrahvi (kohtuasi T-324/05) ja kasvuhoonegaaside kvootide (kohtuasi T-263/07) üle), esimesest Eestist esitatud eelotsuse menetlusest (Eestis põllumajandustoetuste määramise korra vastavust Euroopa Liidu reeglitele), teistest liikmesriikidest Euroopa Liidu Kohtusse jõudvatest kohtuasjadest, milles tehtav otsus võib vahetult puudutada ka Eesti huve (Rootsi ja Soome ametiühingute ettevõtjatevastast tegevus (kohtuasjad C-341/05 ja C-438/05)

  17. The structure and management of conflict: Fighting or defending the status quo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K.W. de Dreu; E.S. Kluwer; A. Nauta

    2008-01-01

    Although conflict and negotiation studies have examined symmetrical structures in which both parties want change, or asymmetrical structures in which one party wants change and the other to maintain the status quo, no research provided a direct comparison of both structures. Two experiments were con

  18. Natalia Ermakov defended a doctoral thesis on erza lamentations / Ingrid Rüütel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rüütel, Ingrid, 1935-

    2015-01-01

    15. oktoobril 2014. a. kaitses Tallinna Ülikooli Eesti Humanitaarinstituudi doktorant Natalia Ermakov doktoritööd "Ersa itkud: traditsioonid ja tänapäev" ("Эрзянские причитания: традиции бытования и современное состояние")

  19. Guilty but good: defending voluntary active euthanasia from a virtue perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Ann Marie

    2008-07-01

    This article is presented as a defence of voluntary active euthanasia from a virtue perspective and it is written with the objective of generating debate and challenging the assumption that killing is necessarily vicious in all circumstances. Practitioners are often torn between acting from virtue and acting from duty. In the case presented the physician was governed by compassion and this illustrates how good people may have the courage to sacrifice their own security in the interests of virtue. The doctor's action created huge tensions for the nurse, who was governed by the code of conduct and relevant laws. Appraising active euthanasia from a virtue perspective can offer a more compassionate approach to the predicament of practitioners and clients. The tensions arising from the virtue versus rules debate generates irreconcilable difficulties for nurses. A shift towards virtue would help to resolve this problem and support the call for a change in the law. The controversial nature of this position is acknowledged. The argument is put forward on the understanding that many practitioners will not agree with the conclusions reached.

  20. Supplemental nutrients increase the consumption of chemically defended shrubs by free-ranging herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mkhize, Ntuthuko R.; Heitkönig, Ignas M.A.; Scogings, Peter F.; Hattas, Dawood; Dziba, Luthando E.; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Boer, De Willem F.

    2016-01-01

    Large herbivores are purported to continue consuming toxin-containing forages as long as their capacity to neutralize, detoxify and excrete dietary toxins is not exceeded. This capacity depends on the availability of liver enzymes, energy and amino acid precursors. While this may explain increased i

  1. Estonia is better defended than ever / Sven Mikser ; interv. Urmas Vahe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikser, Sven, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Kaitseminister Sven Mikser suhetest Venemaaga, julgeolekualasest rahvusvahelisest koostööst, NATO-ga liitumise vajalikkusest ning võimalikest liitumisega kaasnevatest muutustest Eesti julgeolekupoliitikas

  2. Tradução: Quem defende a criança queer?, de Beatriz Preciado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ferreira Marcondes Nogueira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto, Beatriz Preciado disserta sobre o modo como as crianças são moldadas no cerne das instituições e, ao mesmo tempo, traça uma crítica mordaz à forma como a sociedade contemporânea controla os corpos desses sujeitos. Indispensável para pesquisadoras e pesquisadores das ciências sociais e humanas, o texto em questão foi gentilmente cedido pela revista francesa Libération, onde foi originalmente publicado, e traduzido por Fernanda Nogueira.

  3. Novel weapons testing: are invasive plants more chemically defended than native plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Eric M; Parker, John D

    2010-05-03

    Exotic species have been hypothesized to successfully invade new habitats by virtue of possessing novel biochemistry that repels native enemies. Despite the pivotal long-term consequences of invasion for native food-webs, to date there are no experimental studies examining directly whether exotic plants are any more or less biochemically deterrent than native plants to native herbivores. In a direct test of this hypothesis using herbivore feeding assays with chemical extracts from 19 invasive plants and 21 co-occurring native plants, we show that invasive plant biochemistry is no more deterrent (on average) to a native generalist herbivore than extracts from native plants. There was no relationship between extract deterrence and length of time since introduction, suggesting that time has not mitigated putative biochemical novelty. Moreover, the least deterrent plant extracts were from the most abundant species in the field, a pattern that held for both native and exotic plants. Analysis of chemical deterrence in context with morphological defenses and growth-related traits showed that native and exotic plants had similar trade-offs among traits. Overall, our results suggest that particular invasive species may possess deterrent secondary chemistry, but it does not appear to be a general pattern resulting from evolutionary mismatches between exotic plants and native herbivores. Thus, fundamentally similar processes may promote the ecological success of both native and exotic species.

  4. From expert witness to defendant: abolition of expert witness protection and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Danuta

    2012-12-01

    In Jones v Kaney [2011] 2 AC 398, the United Kingdom Supreme Court held that in England and Wales (but not in Scotland), clients can sue expert witnesses in negligence and/or contract for work performed under their retainer, whether in civil or criminal trials. The duties of expert witnesses in England are regulated by the Civil Procedure Rules and Protocols; the former also regulate the conduct of cases involving expert opinions. The legal context that led to the litigation is examined in the light of these rules, in particular, the nature of the allegations against Dr Kaney, a psychologist retained to provide psychiatric opinion. Jones v Kaney, as a decision of the United Kingdom Supreme Court, is not a binding precedent in Australia. However, unlike statutory enactments, common law judgments are retrospective in their operation, which means that health care practitioners who follow a generally accepted practice today may still be sued for damages by their patients or clients in the future. By definition, the future, including the refusal by the Australian High Court to follow Kaney's abolition of expert witnesses' immunity from suit for breach of duty to their clients, cannot be predicted with certainty. Consequently, health care practitioners in Australia and other countries should be aware of the case, its jurisprudential and practical ramifications.

  5. 'Defending our honour': Authenticity and the framing of resistance in the Iraqi Sunni town of Falluja

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.

    2004-01-01

    In April 2004 a revolt broke out against the American occupation in the Iraqi Sunni town of Falluja. Besides a military confrontation, it was also a war of words how to conceptualise the clash of interests and values of the indigenous population in opposition to those of the American occupation. At

  6. Using exponentially weighted moving average algorithm to defend against DDoS attacks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machaka, P

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ) the effect, on detection-rate, of the alarm threshold α, tuning parameter; (2) the effect, on detection rate, of the EWMA weighting factor β, tuning parameter; (3) the trade-off between detection rate and the false positive rate; (4) the trade-off between... improves. It can be seen that there is a trade-off between detection rate and false positive rate. B. The effect of the EWMA factor (β) In this section we seek to investigate the effect of the value of the EWMA factor (β) on the detection rate...

  7. The inherent weaknesses in industrial control systems devices; hacking and defending SCADA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Louis J.

    The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) is about to enforce their NERC Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) Version Five and Six requirements on July 1st 2016. The NERC CIP requirements are a set of cyber security standards designed to protect cyber assets essential the reliable operation of the electric grid. The new Version Five and Six requirements are a major revision to the Version Three (currently enforced) requirements. The new requirements also bring substations into scope alongside Energy Control Centers. When the Version Five requirements were originally drafted they were vague, causing in depth discussions throughout the industry. The ramifications of these requirements has made owners look at their systems in depth, questioning how much money it will take to meet these requirements. Some owners saw backing down from routable networks to non-routable as a means to save money as they would be held to less requirements within the standards. Some owners saw removing routable connections as a proper security move. The purpose of this research was to uncover the inherent weaknesses in Industrial Control Systems (ICS) devices; to show how ICS devices can be hacked and figure out potential protections for these Critical Infrastructure devices. In addition, this research also aimed to validate the decision to move from External Routable connectivity to Non-Routable connectivity, as a security measure and not as a means of savings. The results reveal in order to ultimately protect Industrial Control Systems they must be removed from the Internet and all bi-directional external routable connections must be removed. Furthermore; non-routable serial connections should be utilized, and these non-routable serial connections should be encrypted on different layers of the OSI model. The research concluded that most weaknesses in SCADA systems are due to the inherent weaknesses in ICS devices and because of these weaknesses, human intervention is the biggest threat to SCADA systems.

  8. Estonia is better defended than ever / Sven Mikser ; interv. Urmas Vahe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikser, Sven, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Kaitseminister Sven Mikser suhetest Venemaaga, julgeolekualasest rahvusvahelisest koostööst, NATO-ga liitumise vajalikkusest ning võimalikest liitumisega kaasnevatest muutustest Eesti julgeolekupoliitikas

  9. Can China Defend A "Core Interest" In The South China Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    issue low-level military threats, bullying its southern neighbors with its existing fleet of ships, submarines, aircraft, and missiles. Such actions may...Singapore, Malaysia , Indonesia, and even Vietnam are procuring submarine forces to hedge against China. Extraregional powers such as Japan and Australia are

  10. From text to talk in criminal court: Prosecuting, defending, and examining the evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, F.; Sneijder, P.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we analyze how prosecutors, lawyers and judges refer to the case file. Because witnesses are rarely heard again in Dutch criminal court, understanding how their written voices are re-animated in court is of importance. Lawyers and prosecutors select quotations and introduce these in

  11. Defendants with Intellectual Disabilities and Mental Health Diagnoses: Faring in a Mental Health Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M. M.; Griggs, M.; Dykens, E. M.; Hodapp, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Begun in the late 1990s, mental health courts are specialty criminal courts developed to address the needs of persons with mental illness. Methods: As many persons with intellectual disabilities (IDs) may overlap in the mental health court system, we used mental health court records to examine the phenomenology and outcomes of 224…

  12. Vozes católicas no Congresso Nacional: aborto, defesa da vida Abortion: defending life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Aldana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Serão analisados neste ensaio alguns dos debates em torno da temática do aborto que ocorreram no Congresso Nacional com a ocasião da Proposta de Emenda Constitucional - central da discussão foi a defesa da vida. Serão identificados os blocos discursivos que apresentam posições contrárias e favoráveis à interrupção da gravidez, os princípios religiosos ou determinismo biológico em que essas posições estão ancoradas e as formas como esses discursos permanecem. Ainda são levantadas as diferentes compreensões do que é vida, decorrentes dos argumentos utilizados nesses discursos, os quais estão alinhados com os posicionamentos da Igreja Católica e do Movimento Feminista, atores sociais protagonistas desse embate.This essay will analyze some of the debates around abortion in the National Congress due to the Constitutional Amendment Bill - PEC25/95, by Deputy Severino Cavalcanti (PPB/PE, where the main issue was precisely life defense. The discursive blocks that present the debate in relation to pregnancy interruption, the religious principles or biological determinism on which those debates are based, and the ways in which such discourses are maintained will be identified. Distinct understandings of life, as a result of the points used in such discourses, which are aligned with the position of the Catholic Church and the Feminist Movement - the social actors of this debate- are also discussed here.

  13. San Diego State U. Defends Its Role in Federal Drug Sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Sara

    2008-01-01

    When a freshman at San Diego State University (SDSU) died of a cocaine overdose last May, the campus police chief decided to pursue a full-scale investigation. In December, he summoned undercover agents from the federal Drug Enforcement Administration to pose as students and roam the campus in search of illegal drugs. According to college…

  14. A Robust Mechanism For Defending Distributed Denial Of Service Attacks On Web Servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydip Sen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS attacks have emerged as a popular means of causing mass targetedservice disruptions, often for extended periods of time. The relative ease and low costs of launching suchattacks, supplemented by the current inadequate sate of any viable defense mechanism, have made themone of the top threats to the Internet community today. Since the increasing popularity of web-basedapplications has led to several critical services being provided over the Internet, it is imperative tomonitor the network traffic so as to prevent malicious attackers from depleting the resources of thenetwork and denying services to legitimate users. This paper first presents a brief discussion on some ofthe important types of DDoS attacks that currently exist and some existing mechanisms to combat theseattacks. It then points out the major drawbacks of the currently existing defense mechanisms andproposes a new mechanism for protecting a web-server against a DDoS attack. In the proposedmechanism, incoming traffic to the server is continuously monitored and any abnormal rise in theinbound traffic is immediately detected. The detection algorithm is based on a statistical analysis of theinbound traffic on the server and a robust hypothesis testing framework. While the detection process ison, the sessions from the legitimate sources are not disrupted and the load on the server is restored to thenormal level by blocking the traffic from the attacking sources. To cater to different scenarios, thedetection algorithm has various modules with varying level of computational and memory overheads fortheir execution. While the approximate modules are fast in detection and involve less overhead, theyprovide lower level of detection accuracy. The accurate modules employ complex detection logic andhence involve more overhead for their execution. However, they have very high detection accuracy.Simulations carried out on the proposed mechanism have produced results that demonstrate effectivenessof the proposed defense mechanism against DDoS attacks.

  15. Educating the public, defending the art: language use and medical education in Hippocrates' The Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Adriaan

    2010-01-01

    The Hippocratic treatise The Art is an epideictic speech in defence of medicine against certain unnamed detractors. The author of The Art is fully aware of the fact that for him, language (as opposed to, say, a live demonstration) is the medium of education. Accordingly, the author shows full command of the main issues of the late fifth century 'sophistic' debate on the nature and the correct and effective use of language. In his views on language, the author seems to adopt a quite positivistic stance. For him, words reflect our perception and interpretation of the visual appearances or eidea of the things that are, and these appearances prove the existence of things in nature. To this extent, language reflects reality, provided that we language users have the expertise to form correct interpretations of what we observe. At the same time, language remains a secondary phenomenon: it is not a 'growth' of nature, but a set of conventional signs that have a basis in reality only if they are applied correctly. There is always the possibility of incorrect interpretation of our perceptions, which will lead to an incorrect use of language that does not reflect real phenomena. Words remain conventional expressions, and not all words can be expected to reflect the truth. In fact, the unnamed detractors of the art are victim to many such incorrect interpretations. Consistent with his view of language as secondary to visual phenomena, the author claims in his peroration that as a medium for the defence of medicine, the spoken word is generally considered less effective than live demonstrations. This modesty, while undoubtedly effective as a means to catch the sympathy of his public, still seems slightly overstated. Our author is fully aware of the powers and limitations of his medium, and shows great sophistication in its use.

  16. Studying How Plants Defend Themselves: A Chemical Weapon Produced by Chilli Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantawanit, Nantawan; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2011-01-01

    Students often prefer to study animals rather than plants, because they see plants as passive, less interesting organisms. This paper proposes a simple hands-on laboratory exercise for high-school students (grade 12) to arouse their interest in learning about plants and to demonstrate to them that plants are active organisms capable of defending…

  17. Defending Tor from Network Adversaries: A Case Study of Network Path Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    routing policy (e.g., using OSPF [29], IS-IS [9], RIP [27], or iBGP [32]) that routes traffic to and from other networks. BGP is a path-vector routing...user behaviors such as web search and webmail on a plausible daily schedule. Over the course of a week, this schedule re- sults in 2632 streams (i.e...estimates for how often a Tor stream flows through the same AS or IX between the client and the guard and between the destination and the exit. When this

  18. Predictors of Student Defenders of Peer Aggression Victims: Empathy and Social Cognitive Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchia, Kirstin; Bussey, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Despite wide recognition of the important role of student bystanders in influencing peer aggression in schools, little is currently known about what influences students to intervene in defense of peer aggression victims. This longitudinal study involving 1,167 primarily white adolescents (aged 12-15 years, 613 females) investigated the role of…

  19. By our history defend the community library Niquía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Movimiento En defensa biblioteca Niquía

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A community process of 40 years, delivered to the education of children and adolescents, an entire neighborhood at risk in the interest of individuals. Community Library Niquia case in the municipality of Bello, Antioquia.

  20. Defending the Freedom to Innovate: Faculty Intellectual Property Rights after "Stanford v. Roche"

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of University Professors, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Tensions over faculty control of the fruits of their scholarship have been slowly building since the 1980s, but they have also intensified since late 2011. There have long been differences of opinion over ownership of patentable inventions, but over the last two years a number of universities have categorically asserted that they own these…