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Sample records for marika mikkor defended

  1. Taas tublisid Melbourne´i noori : Kylie Mikkor / Sirje Jõgi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgi, Sirje

    2006-01-01

    fotol Melbourne´i Eesti Maja esimehe Arnold ja Asta Mikkori poja Kuno tütar Kylie Mikkor, kes lõpetas edukalt ülikooli ja sai Bachelor of Engineering (Aerospace Engineering) with honours 1st class ja Bachelor of Business (Business Administration) with distinction

  2. 1930. aastad Kaukaasias "Edasi" kolhoosis põllumehe silme läbi ja ajalehe "Edasi" veergudel. IV-V / Marika Mikkor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikkor, Marika, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    Kaukaasias Eesti-Rohuaias elanud August Rootsi päevaraamatust 1929-1942 aastatest ja Leningradis ilmunud ajalehe "Edasi" kirjutistest stalinlike repressioonide, kollektiviseerimise ja eestlaste eluolu kohta Kaukaasias

  3. Nauding kehale ja meelele / Marika Aret ; tekst Inna Inanna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aret, Marika

    2014-01-01

    Mustamäel Mustamäe tee 17 avatud Bliss majast, kus muude teenuste kõrval pakutakse buffeeerestoranis ja kohvikus taime- ja toortoitu. Intervjuu Blissi käivitustiimi ja restorani perenaise Marika Aretiga

  4. Defend the Approaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patterson, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    .... territories to provide for better discrimination by Maritime Interdiction Operations (MIO). This paper argues that given the nature of the WMD threat, the United States will be better defended by forces operating closer to U.S...

  5. Defending against speculative attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniëls, T.; Jager, H.; Klaassen, F.

    2009-01-01

    While virtually all currency crisismodels recognise that the fate of a currency peg depends on how tenaciously policy makers defend it, they seldom model how this is done. We incorporate themechanics of speculation and the interest rate defence against it in the model of Morris and Shin (American

  6. Defendants' Rights in Criminal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ralph C., II; Keeley, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the protections afforded by the Constitution for defendants in criminal trials. These include the right to a jury trial (in cases of possible incarceration), an impartial jury, and the requirement of a unanimous verdict. Defends the use of plea bargaining as essential to an efficient criminal justice system. (MJP)

  7. Defendant Characteristics and Juridic Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Ronald L.; Snodgrass, Stephan R.

    1980-01-01

    Attractiveness of defendant's traits and their relevance to the likelihood of acting criminally were varied. Results supported a causal inference explanation for deciding guilt and a liking-leniency explanation for deciding punishment. (Author/CS)

  8. Defending dreamer’s rock

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Günter U.

    2007-01-01

    Defending dreamer’s rock : Geschichte, Geschichtsbewusstsein und Geschichtskultur im Native drama der USA und Kanadas. - Trier : WVT Wiss. Verl. Trier, 2007. - 445 S. - (CDE - Studies ; 14). - Zugl.: Augsburg, Univ., Diss., 2006

  9. Defending basic research in Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    « Research without a budget means a Europe without a future » On Wednesday 25th August 2010, 871 of you signed the Staff Council petition which carried this message. This is a resounding success for a month of August. Staff members and pensioners, you showed by your presence your mass support for our appeal to defend research budgets in Europe. The participation and messages of support from our colleagues in other European scientific organizations is confirmation that budget cuts in research are common practice far beyond the confines of CERN. If research had benefited from the promises made by the European Union in 2000 to increase investment in research and development (R&D) from 1.8% to 3% of GDP by 2010, the scientific community would more readily accept the current cuts. However, we are now in 2010 and the rate of 1.8% has remained the same. So, we have been hit twice: not only have we not had the good weather we were promised, we now find ourselves in the middl...

  10. The psychology of defendant plea decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlich, Allison D; Bibas, Stephanos; Edkins, Vanessa A; Madon, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Every day, thousands of defendants, prosecutors, and defense attorneys must make guilty plea decisions, such as whether to accept a plea offer or proceed to trial. Most defendants opt to plead guilty; approximately 95% of state and federal convictions result from guilty pleas. In light of a newly emerging body of research and recent Supreme Court decisions on guilty pleas, this article asks and answers 2 questions: First, who pleads guilty and why? We describe the characteristics of those who are more or less likely to plead guilty, and examine the reasons why individuals plead guilty instead of proceeding to trial, exploring the cognitive, social influence, and developmental factors that underlie decision making. Second, are defendants' plea decisions valid, in that the decisions are made knowingly, intelligently, voluntarily, and with a factual basis of guilt? That is, do defendants who plead guilty understand and appreciate the conditions and consequences of their pleas, as required by law? Are innocent people induced to plead guilty to crimes they did not commit? We conclude with suggestions to move the field of plea research forward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Homeland Security: Defending U.S. Airspace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolkcom, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    The September 11th attacks drew attention to U.S. air defense, and the 9/11 Commission Report recommended that Congress regularly assess the ability of Northern Command to defend the United States against military threats. Protecting U.S...

  12. Homeland Security: Defending U.S. Airspace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolkcom, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The September 11th attacks drew attention to U.S. air defense, and the 9/11 Commission Report recommended that Congress regularly assess the ability of Northern Command to defend the United States against military threats. Protecting U.S...

  13. Defending one's friends, not one's enemies: A social network analysis of children's defending, friendship, and dislike relationships using XPNet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Beau; Van Duijn, Marijtje; Veenstra, René

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies investigating to what extent students in elementary schools defend their victimized classmates typically treated defending as an individual characteristic. Defending should, however, be seen as a directed dyadic relationship between a victim and a defender, who are embedded multiple positive and negative relationships with each other and their classmates. Accordingly, in the present study defending was investigated using social network analysis. More specifically, it was investigated to what extent defending relationships co-occurred with friendship and dislike relationships involving not only the victim and the defender but also other classmates. Bivariate Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGMs) were used to analyze the defending-friendship and defending-dislike relationships in seven grade-three classrooms. As hypothesized, the results indicated that victimized students were likely to be defended by students who they perceive as friends or who perceive them as friends. Moreover, defending was likely to occur when the victim and (potential) defender had the same friends. Victimized students were unlikely to be defended by classmates whom they disliked or who had indicated to dislike them. Finally, defending was likely to occur between students who disliked the same classmates.

  14. Terra Defender Cyber-Physical Wargame

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    time. However, the WHITE team did not offer game-dollar rewards for these actions and this probably caused low motivation for note-taking. In general...helped to achieve a better understanding of how Army supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system and device security can be modeled and...managed. Terra game players obtained first-hand experience in attacking and defending a live (“operational”) SCADA system that was located in a testbed

  15. Defending spaceflight: The echoes of Apollo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovetto, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    This paper defends, and emphasizes the importance of, spaceflight, broadly construed to include human and unmanned spaceflight, space science, exploration and development. Within this discourse, I provide counter-replies to remarks by physicist Dr. Steven Weinberg against my previous support of human spaceflight. In this defense of peaceful spaceflight I draw upon a variety of sources. Although a focus is human spaceflight, human and unmanned modes must not be treated as an either-or opposition. Rather, each has a critical role to play in moving humanity forward as a spacefaring species. In the course of this communication, I also stress the perennial role of space agencies as science and technology-drivers, and their function to provide a stable and unified platform for space programs.

  16. Ants defend aphids against lethal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Charlotte; Agrawal, Anurag A.; Hajek, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    Social insects defend their own colonies and some species also protect their mutualist partners. In mutualisms with aphids, ants typically feed on honeydew produced by aphids and, in turn guard and shelter aphid colonies from insect natural enemies. Here we report that Formica podzolica ants tending milkweed aphids, Aphis asclepiadis, protect aphid colonies from lethal fungal infections caused by an obligate aphid pathogen, Pandora neoaphidis. In field experiments, bodies of fungal-killed aphids were quickly removed from ant-tended aphid colonies. Ant workers were also able to detect infective conidia on the cuticle of living aphids and responded by either removing or grooming these aphids. Our results extend the long-standing view of ants as mutualists and protectors of aphids by demonstrating focused sanitizing and quarantining behaviour that may lead to reduced disease transmission in aphid colonies. PMID:19923138

  17. What is Russia trying to defend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Yakovlev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the focus on the events of the last two years (2014–2015 associated with the accession of Crimea to Russia and military conflict in Eastern Ukraine, in this study, I stress that serious changes in Russian domestic policy (with strong pressure on political opposition, state propaganda and sharp anti-Western rhetoric, as well as the fight against “foreign agents’ became visible in 2012. Geopolitical ambitions to revise the “global order” (introduced by the USA after the collapse of the USSR and the increased role of Russia in “global governance” were declared by leaders of the country much earlier, with Vladimir Putin's famous Munich speech in 2007. These ambitions were based on the robust economic growth of the mid-2000s, which encouraged the Russian ruling elite to adopt the view that Russia (with its huge energy resources is a new economic superpower. In this paper, I will show that the concept of “Militant Russia” in a proper sense can be attributed rather to the period of the mid-2000s. After 2008–2009, the global financial crisis and, especially, the Arab Spring and mass political protests against electoral fraud in Moscow in December 2011, the Russian ruling elite made mostly “militant” attempts to defend its power and assets.

  18. Modeling attacker-defender interactions in information networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Michael Joseph

    2010-09-01

    The simplest conceptual model of cybersecurity implicitly views attackers and defenders as acting in isolation from one another: an attacker seeks to penetrate or disrupt a system that has been protected to a given level, while a defender attempts to thwart particular attacks. Such a model also views all non-malicious parties as having the same goal of preventing all attacks. But in fact, attackers and defenders are interacting parts of the same system, and different defenders have their own individual interests: defenders may be willing to accept some risk of successful attack if the cost of defense is too high. We have used game theory to develop models of how non-cooperative but non-malicious players in a network interact when there is a substantial cost associated with effective defensive measures. Although game theory has been applied in this area before, we have introduced some novel aspects of player behavior in our work, including: (1) A model of how players attempt to avoid the costs of defense and force others to assume these costs; (2) A model of how players interact when the cost of defending one node can be shared by other nodes; and (3) A model of the incentives for a defender to choose less expensive, but less effective, defensive actions.

  19. Defending majority voting systems against a strategic attacker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell; Ben Haim, Hanoch

    2013-01-01

    Voting systems used in technical and tactical decision making in pattern recognition and target detection, data handling, signal processing, distributed and secure computing etc. are considered. A maxmin two period game is analyzed where the defender first protects and chooses units for participation in voting. The attacker thereafter attacks a subset of units. It is shown that when the defender protects all the voting units, the optimal number of units chosen for voting is either one or the maximal possible odd number. When the defender protects only the units chosen for voting, the optimal number of chosen units increases with the defender resource superiority (i.e., more resources than the attacker) and with probability of providing correct output by any unit. The system success probability always increases in the total number of voting units, the defender–attacker resource ratio, and the probability that each voting unit produces a correct output. The system success probability increases in the attacker–defender contest intensity if the defender achieves per-unit resource superiority, and otherwise decreases in the contest intensity. The presented model and enumerative algorithm allow obtaining optimal voting system defense strategy for any combination of parameters: total number of units, attack and defense resources, unit success probability and contest intensity.

  20. Factors affecting jail detention of defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Annette; Otto, Randy; Finch, Jacquelyn; Ringhoff, Daniel; Kimonis, Eva R

    2010-01-01

    The movement of defendants through the legal process who have been adjudicated incompetent to proceed is little studied, yet it is important. The purpose of this study was to provide empirical data regarding factors that affected the amount of time defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed and ordered to undergo hospitalization remained in jail while awaiting transfer to a state hospital. Statewide data collected in Florida between July 2005 and June 2008 were used to determine the lengths of time incompetent defendants spent at certain stages in the legal process. The addition of forensic bed capacity following media attention and litigation resulted in a significant decrease in the amount of time defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed waited in jail for transfer to a state hospital for treatment. The amount of time it took for completed commitment orders to be submitted to the state mental health authority by the Clerks of Court of each county accounted for a meaningful portion of days defendants spent in jail awaiting transfer to a state hospital, with considerable variation across counties with respect to waiting times. These findings reflect how various stakeholders can affect the amount of time defendants spend in jail while awaiting hospitalization. These issues are discussed in the context of controversy related to Florida's forensic mental health system, as well as issues related to the political process and funding of the state's mental health authority. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Attacker-defender game from a network science perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Peng; Tan, Suo-Yi; Deng, Ye; Wu, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Dealing with the protection of critical infrastructures, many game-theoretic methods have been developed to study the strategic interactions between defenders and attackers. However, most game models ignore the interrelationship between different components within a certain system. In this paper, we propose a simultaneous-move attacker-defender game model, which is a two-player zero-sum static game with complete information. The strategies and payoffs of this game are defined on the basis of the topology structure of the infrastructure system, which is represented by a complex network. Due to the complexity of strategies, the attack and defense strategies are confined by two typical strategies, namely, targeted strategy and random strategy. The simulation results indicate that in a scale-free network, the attacker virtually always attacks randomly in the Nash equilibrium. With a small cost-sensitive parameter, representing the degree to which costs increase with the importance of a target, the defender protects the hub targets with large degrees preferentially. When the cost-sensitive parameter exceeds a threshold, the defender switches to protecting nodes randomly. Our work provides a new theoretical framework to analyze the confrontations between the attacker and the defender on critical infrastructures and deserves further study.

  2. Imekliinik Brasiilias / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Brasiilia Abadiania väikelinnas asuvast Casa de Dom Inacio tervendamiskeskusest, kus meediumi vahendusel toimuvad meditatsioonid ja "operatsioonid" ning inimesed paranevad lühikese ajaga rasketest haigustest. Seal ravil käinud Eesti naise kogetust

  3. Annid merest / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2011-01-01

    Toiduks tarvitatavatest koorikloomadest ja molluskitest: krabi, krevett, garneel, homaar e merivähk, jõe- e väärisvähk, signaal- e tähnikvähk, langust e ogajas merivähk, auster, kammkarp, rannakarp, kaheksajalg, kalmaar, seepia e tindikala, meritigu e tõrikodalane, viinamäe- e burgundia tigu, merisiilik ning kalatootest surimi e makra

  4. Templeton Prize winner defends Christianity's credibility in a scientific age

    CERN Multimedia

    Heffern, Rich

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Templeton Prize has gone to the Rev. John C. Polkinghome, a British mathematical physicist and Anglican priest, and a key spokesperson for belief in God in an age of science, defending the ideal that faith is not against science but inconcert with it

  5. LOWER NORTH BATTERY - DEFENDED PORT OF SIMON'S TOWN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LOWER NORTH BATTERY - DEFENDED. PORT OF SIMON'S TOWN. Lt-Cdr W. M. Bisset*. In 1975 Mr H. C. Willis suggested to the present writer that the SA Navy should mount a bronze plaque similar to those commissioned by the. Simon's Town Historical Society and displayed on certain historical buildings in the town at ...

  6. A Defender-Attacker Optimization of Port Radar Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    security; optimization; attacker-defender “And thence discover how with most advantage They may vex us with shot, or with assault.” Shakespeare , KingHenryVI...1. INTRODUCTION We introduce a new planning tool for locating shore radars and mobile picket boats with radar to maximize the probabil- ity that one

  7. A Functional Approach to Televised Political Spots: Acclaiming, Attacking, Defending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Pier, P. M.; Blaney, Joseph R.

    1997-01-01

    Articulates a theoretical framework for understanding the fundamental functions of political advertising (acclaiming, attacking, defending) which occur on the twin grounds of policy considerations and character. Applies this theory of political discourse to presidential general election television spots from 1980-1996, finding that Democrats and…

  8. Action Foundations! a Comic (Book) Tale of Defending Educational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Isabel; Konkol, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    When defending educational foundations, Isabel Nunez and Pamela Konkol sometimes find themselves responding to the question of "why?"-often phrased, "But WHYYYYY do we have to take a class on this stuff??? (We want to take more methods!)." As distressing as this can be for teacher educators whose own work reveals rather a…

  9. Moral motivation in defending classmates victimized by bullying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kollerová, Lenka; Janošová, Pavlína; Říčan, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2015), s. 297-309 ISSN 1740-5629 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/12/2325 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Adolescence * Defending * Moral motivation * Peer relations * Prosocial behaviour Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2015

  10. Motion patterns and phase-transition of a defender-intruder problem and optimal interception strategy of the defender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangliu; Li, Wei

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we consider a defense-intrusion interaction, in which an intruder is attracted by a protected stationary target but repulsed by a defender; while the defender tries to move towards an appropriate interception position (IP) between the intruder and the target in order to intercept the intruder and expel the intruder away from the target as maximum as possible. Intuitionally, to keep the intruder further away, one may wonder that: is it a better strategy for the defender trying to approach the intruder as near as possible? Unexpectedly and interestingly enough, this is not always the case. We first introduce the flexibility for IP selection, then investigate the system dynamics and the stable motion patterns, and characterize the phase-transition surface for the motion patterns. We show that, the phase-transition surface just defines the optimal interception strategy of the defender for IP selection; and from the perspective of mobility of agents, the optimal strategy just depends on relative mobility of the two agents.

  11. Defending against the Advanced Persistent Threat: An Optimal Control Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengdeng Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The new cyberattack pattern of advanced persistent threat (APT has posed a serious threat to modern society. This paper addresses the APT defense problem, that is, the problem of how to effectively defend against an APT campaign. Based on a novel APT attack-defense model, the effectiveness of an APT defense strategy is quantified. Thereby, the APT defense problem is modeled as an optimal control problem, in which an optimal control stands for a most effective APT defense strategy. The existence of an optimal control is proved, and an optimality system is derived. Consequently, an optimal control can be figured out by solving the optimality system. Some examples of the optimal control are given. Finally, the influence of some factors on the effectiveness of an optimal control is examined through computer experiments. These findings help organizations to work out policies of defending against APTs.

  12. Efficacy of legal judgments for defendants with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pierre, Maria E; Parente, Rick

    2016-06-23

    Literature has compared the frequency of aggressive behaviors of the TBI population and the non-TBI population, suggesting that the TBI population is predisposed to aggressive tendencies because the injury enables impulsivity, loss of self-control, and the inability to modify behaviors. These behavior changes have consequently, been found to lead to criminal involvement. In fact, the majority of the prison population has sustained at least one TBI in their lifetime compared to the prevalence of brain injuries in the general population. However, there is little research investigating the perceptions of criminality and guilt of these individuals. Two experiments were conducted that investigated the perceptions of morality, level of guilt, and appropriate sentencing of crimes committed by defendants with different severities of TBI (i.e., mild, severe, and no TBI). Participants were asked to read scenarios about crimes being committed by the defendant. Experiment 1 used a 1-between (crime), 1-within (TBI) mixed design ANOVA testing three dependent variables (morality, guilt, and sentencing). Using a more in vivo jury approach, Experiment 2 used a 3 (TBI)×2 (crime) independent groups factorial design testing the three dependent measures. Overall, defendants with TBI were found less guilty of their crime, perceived as behaving morally to the crime, and receiving a milder punishment relative to the no-TBI defendants. In the courtroom, the defense attorney should educate the judge and/or the jury on the effects brain injuries have on the cognition, behavior, and emotions of an individual. Thus, this education will ensure the best verdict is being reached.

  13. [Publications of medical thesis defended in Lille school of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotmane, Ilies; Glatz, Nicolas; Bihan, Solenn; Legrand, Fanny; Gosset, Didier; Boulanger, Eric

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the future, in terms of scientific publication, of medical thesis (MT) defended in the Medical School of Lille 2 University (MSL2U) between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2007. The collection of MT published as a corresponding scientific article was realized from PubMed(®). For every corresponding article, we determined the journal Impact Factor (IF), the language of publication and the rank of the student and his MT director in the author list. Analyses were also realized according to the group of speciality of the TM. In all, 11.3% of the 2150 MT defended in the MSL2U were followed up by a scientific publication. The average IF was 2.32 with a median at 1.75 and extreme values from 0 to 14.78. Seventy percent of the articles were published in English. The rank of the student was placed before his MT director (2.06 vs. 3.15). The MT defended by students in the field of medical specialities presented the highest rate of publication (25.1%). The general medicine was the second speciality the most productive in term of number of published articles (n=49) after medical specialities (n=103). The MT director and the PhD students must be more motivated to publish their results. The value of 11.3% could be considered as weak but, because of a huge lack of references, it is impossible to compare our results to those of other French medical schools. It remains important to reform the objectives and the modalities of the writing of a MT: should we not have to turn to thesis called "on article"? Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. An Adaptive Approach for Defending against DDoS Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhai Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In various network attacks, the Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS attack is a severe threat. In order to deal with this kind of attack in time, it is necessary to establish a special type of defense system to change strategy dynamically against attacks. In this paper, we introduce an adaptive approach, which is used for defending against DDoS attacks, based on normal traffic analysis. The approach can check DDoS attacks and adaptively adjust its configurations according to the network condition and attack severity. In order to insure the common users to visit the victim server that is being attacked, we provide a nonlinear traffic control formula for the system. Our simulation test indicates that the nonlinear control approach can prevent the malicious attack packets effectively while making legitimate traffic flows arrive at the victim.

  15. ¿POR QUÉ DEFENDER LA CIENCIA EN COLOMBIA?

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Forero González

    2016-01-01

    Un grupo de nuestros más destacados científicos le cuenta a la sociedad colombiana por qué es necesario defender la ciencia en el país, demuestra con lujo de detalles porqué este tema se considera importante y se refiere a la forma como los países más avanzados del mundo han alcanzado esos niveles de desarrollo gracias a sus inversiones en educación, ciencia y tecnología. También, llama la atención sobre el hecho que la clase política tiene el deber ético de hacer políticas sobre cie...

  16. Environment Canada defends decision to ban PCB waste exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The position of Environment Canada in banning the export of PCB waste to the United States was defended as falling within their jurisdiction under provisions of the the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. The United States had previously banned the import of Canadian PCBs, but when it reversed its decision Environment Canada posted an Interim Order, upholding the ban. The decision to do so was based on protection of the large investment that was made to develop the Canadian PCB incineration facility in Swan Lake, Alberta. Canada also had an obligation under the Basel Convention to reduce it cross boundary movement of hazardous waste and provide adequate destruction facilities in Canada. Legal implications of PCB exports and the uncertainty of continuing access to American facilities were also cited as reasons for issuing the Interim Order

  17. Defending the Concept of Time in the Hebrew Bible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundvad, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Due to the scarcity of reflection on time as an independent subject in the Hebrew Bible, there has been a scholarly tendency to consider biblical time conception more limited than our own, perhaps even nonexistent. This article confronts the scholarly skepticism regarding the ability of the bibli......Due to the scarcity of reflection on time as an independent subject in the Hebrew Bible, there has been a scholarly tendency to consider biblical time conception more limited than our own, perhaps even nonexistent. This article confronts the scholarly skepticism regarding the ability...... of the biblical authors to think about time, defending the presence of time conceptualization in the Hebrew Bible. In the article I discuss central research contributions to the subject of biblical time, in particular Sacha Stern’s thesis that the concept of time is entirely absent from the Hebrew Bible and from...

  18. Gut microbes may facilitate insect herbivory of chemically defended plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Tobin J; Bowers, M Deane

    2015-09-01

    The majority of insect species consume plants, many of which produce chemical toxins that defend their tissues from attack. How then are herbivorous insects able to develop on a potentially poisonous diet? While numerous studies have focused on the biochemical counter-adaptations to plant toxins rooted in the insect genome, a separate body of research has recently emphasized the role of microbial symbionts, particularly those inhabiting the gut, in plant-insect interactions. Here we outline the "gut microbial facilitation hypothesis," which proposes that variation among herbivores in their ability to consume chemically defended plants can be due, in part, to variation in their associated microbial communities. More specifically, different microbes may be differentially able to detoxify compounds toxic to the insect, or be differentially resistant to the potential antimicrobial effects of some compounds. Studies directly addressing this hypothesis are relatively few, but microbe-plant allelochemical interactions have been frequently documented from non-insect systems-such as soil and the human gut-and thus illustrate their potential importance for insect herbivory. We discuss the implications of this hypothesis for insect diversification and coevolution with plants; for example, evolutionary transitions to host plant groups with novel allelochemicals could be initiated by heritable changes to the insect microbiome. Furthermore, the ecological implications extend beyond the plant and insect herbivore to higher trophic levels. Although the hidden nature of microbes and plant allelochemicals make their interactions difficult to detect, recent molecular and experimental techniques should enable research on this neglected, but likely important, aspect of insect-plant biology.

  19. The Optimal Employment of a Deep Seaweb Acoustic Network for Submarine Communications at Speed and Depth Using a Defender-Attacker-Defender Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    location costs of a LRP. Berger, Coullard, and Daskin (2007) utilized a set-partitioning- based formulation of an uncapacitated location-routing...EMPLOYMENT OF A DEEP SEAWEB ACOUSTIC NETWORK FOR SUBMARINE COMMUNICATIONS AT SPEED AND DEPTH USING A DEFENDER-ATTACKER- DEFENDER MODEL by Andrew D...Hendricksen September 2013 Thesis Advisor: W. Matthew Carlyle Thesis Co-Advisor: Joseph A . Rice Second Reader: Robert E. Burks THIS PAGE

  20. The verdict on jury trials for juveniles: the effects of defendant's age on trial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warling, Diane; Peterson-Badali, Michele

    2003-01-01

    With the progression to more adult-like policies and procedures for youth in the justice system, the right to a jury trial has been extended to young offenders. These youth would not be tried by a jury of their peers, however, but by a jury of adults. The concern is that adult jurors may hold negative attitudes about youth that might influence their decision making in a case involving a young defendant. Two studies examined whether and under what conditions defendant's age affects jurors' decisions about the guilt and sentencing of an accused. In study 1, data were gathered from two samples of jury eligible adults: one university sample and one public sample. Mock jurors read written transcripts of a trial involving a defendant who was presented as either 13, 17, or 25 years of age. Results indicated that the defendant's age had no effect on mock jurors' verdict or their ratings of defendant guilt. However, younger defendants were granted shorter sentences than the adult defendants. In study 2, mock jurors read the same trial presented in study 1 but were asked to deliberate about the case and render group verdicts. These group verdicts did not differ significantly by defendant's age. Age-related themes that emerged from group deliberations were identified, and results indicated that age tended to be used as a mitigating factor in favor of youth rather than against them. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for youth justice policy and practice. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Defending victimized peers : Opposing the bully, supporting the victim, or both?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijntjes, Albert; Vermande, Marjolijn; Olthof, Tjeert; Goossens, Frits A; Aleva, Liesbeth; van der Meulen, Matty

    2016-01-01

    To reduce bullying, more knowledge on children defending their victimized peers is critical. In previous work, predominantly cross-sectional in nature, defending has typically been operationalized as one single, broad construct. However, there are good reasons to assume that attacking the bully

  2. The Relation of Empathy and Defending in Bullying: A Meta-Analytic Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Aloe, Ariel M.; Werth, Jilynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized results about the association between empathy and defending in bullying. A total of 20 studies were included, with 22 effect sizes from 6 studies that separated findings by the defender's gender, and 31 effect sizes from 18 studies that provided effects for the total sample were included in the analysis. The weighted…

  3. 40 CFR 312.28 - Specialized knowledge or experience on the part of the defendant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Specialized knowledge or experience on the part of the defendant. 312.28 Section 312.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... knowledge or experience on the part of the defendant. (a) Persons to whom this part is applicable per § 312...

  4. Bystander Behavior in Bullying Situations: Basic Moral Sensitivity, Moral Disengagement and Defender Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert; Jungert, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how basic moral sensitivity in bullying, moral disengagement in bullying and defender self-efficacy were related to different bystander behaviors in bullying. Therefore, we examined pathways that linked students' basic moral sensitivity, moral disengagement, and defender self-efficacy to different…

  5. Criminal defendants' satisfaction with lawyers : Perceptions of procedural fairness and effort of the lawyer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, E.; de Keijser, J. W.; Nieuwbeerta, P.; Dirkzwager, A. J E

    2014-01-01

    At present, procedural justice theory has predominantly been used to explain defendants' satisfaction with the police, courts and prisons. It is unclear to what extent this theory is also applicable to lawyers. This study investigates to what extent (1) criminal defendants are satisfied with their

  6. Judge grants defendant leniency because of risk of rape in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-26

    A gay man convicted of larceny and having a history of sexual abuse has escaped incarceration and was placed on probation because his appearance and mannerism would make him a target for rape. The argument that the defendant's HIV infection would endanger others if he were released was rejected by the judge because no evidence suggested the defendant exhibited harmful behavior to others.

  7. Possibility of death sentence has divergent effect on verdicts for Black and White defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Jack; Martin, Karin D; Kahn, Kimberly B

    2015-12-01

    When anticipating the imposition of the death penalty, jurors may be less inclined to convict defendants. On the other hand, minority defendants have been shown to be treated more punitively, particularly in capital cases. Given that the influence of anticipated sentence severity on verdicts may vary as a function of defendant race, the goal of this study was to test the independent and interactive effects of these factors. We conducted a survey-embedded experiment with a nationally representative sample to examine the effect on verdicts of sentence severity as a function of defendant race, presenting respondents with a triple murder trial summary that manipulated the maximum penalty (death vs. life without parole) and the race of the defendant. Respondents who were told life-without-parole was the maximum sentence were not significantly more likely to convict Black (67.7%) than White (66.7%) defendants. However, when death was the maximum sentence, respondents presented with Black defendants were significantly more likely to convict (80.0%) than were those with White defendants (55.1%). The results indicate that the death penalty may be a cause of racial disparities in criminal justice, and implicate threats to civil rights and to effective criminal justice. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Does Ability to Defend Moderate the Association between Exposure to Bullying and Symptoms of Anxiety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Birkeland Nielsen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the context of workplace bullying, the ability to defend refers to whether or not a target feels able to deal with those negative behaviors that typically constitute bullying. The aim of this study was to determine whether the perceived ability to defend oneself moderates the association between exposure to bullying behaviors at work and symptoms of anxiety as predicted by the definition of workplace bullying. It was hypothesized that exposure to bullying behaviors would be more strongly related to symptoms of anxiety among targets feeling unable to defend oneself than among targets who do feel that they are able to defend themselves in the actual situation. This survey study was based on a probability sample of 1,608 Norwegian employees (response rate 32%. Only respondents exposed to at least one bullying behavior were included (N = 739. In contrast to hypothesis, the findings showed that ability to defend only had a protective effect on the relationship between exposure to bullying behaviors and anxiety in cases of low exposure. In cases of high exposure, there was a stronger increase in anxiety among employees able to defend themselves than among those who generally felt unable to defend. Hence, the ability to defend against exposure to bullying behaviors does not seem to protect high-exposed targets against symptoms of anxiety. Organization should therefore intervene against bullying in early stages rather than relying on the individual resilience of those exposed.

  9. Does Ability to Defend Moderate the Association between Exposure to Bullying and Symptoms of Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Gjerstad, Johannes; Jacobsen, Daniel Pitz; Einarsen, Ståle Valvatne

    2017-01-01

    In the context of workplace bullying, the ability to defend refers to whether or not a target feels able to deal with those negative behaviors that typically constitute bullying. The aim of this study was to determine whether the perceived ability to defend oneself moderates the association between exposure to bullying behaviors at work and symptoms of anxiety as predicted by the definition of workplace bullying. It was hypothesized that exposure to bullying behaviors would be more strongly related to symptoms of anxiety among targets feeling unable to defend oneself than among targets who do feel that they are able to defend themselves in the actual situation. This survey study was based on a probability sample of 1,608 Norwegian employees (response rate 32%). Only respondents exposed to at least one bullying behavior were included ( N = 739). In contrast to hypothesis, the findings showed that ability to defend only had a protective effect on the relationship between exposure to bullying behaviors and anxiety in cases of low exposure. In cases of high exposure, there was a stronger increase in anxiety among employees able to defend themselves than among those who generally felt unable to defend. Hence, the ability to defend against exposure to bullying behaviors does not seem to protect high-exposed targets against symptoms of anxiety. Organization should therefore intervene against bullying in early stages rather than relying on the individual resilience of those exposed.

  10. Predicting delay in residents' decisions on defending v. evacuating through antecedents of decision avoidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNeill, Ilona M.; Dunlop, Patrick D.; Skinner, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    Journal compilation © IAWF 2015. In the event of a wildfire, Australian residents of wildfire-prone areas have a choice to defend their home or evacuate early. However, rather than deciding on and preparing for one of these fire-responses ahead of time, most residents delay deciding on defending ...

  11. Interactive Effects of Guilt and Moral Disengagement on Bullying, Defending and Outsider Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, Angela; Camodeca, Marina; Salmivalli, Christina

    2016-01-01

    We examined the moderating effect of guilt on the associations between moral disengagement and bullying, defending and outsider behaviors in a sample of 404 students (203 boys; M[subscript age] = 11.09 years; SD = 1.48). Bullying, defending and outsider behavior were assessed through peer nominations, whereas guilt and moral disengagement were…

  12. Defending the indefensible? Psychiatry, assisted suicide and human freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    The siege guns of the forces for change to euthanasia and assisted suicide laws have been pounding for decades, but the longstanding proscription on these practices has held out in all but a few jurisdictions. A few psychiatrists have enlisted with the challengers, but many remain on the battlements, defending the impermissibility of active assistance in dying. Given the long history of the separation of church and state and the significant secularisation of society; the recognition by the law of both acts and omissions as legal causes; lenient sentences for mercy killers; critiques of the "psychiatriatisation" of different aspects of life; and the consistency of public opinion, this recalcitrant stand bespeaks undercurrents and positions that are often by rationalised or camouflaged, and which call for exploration. In this paper, I examine connections between psychiatry and conceptualisations of harm, suffering and natural death; medicalisation, psychiatrisation and medical paternalism; decision-making capacity, rationality and diagnosis; recent legal developments; social pluralism; and religious intuitionism. I conclude that psychiatrists and the psychiatry profession, concerned as they are with enlarging the province of human freedom, should begin a more transparent rapprochement with those they would repel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Defending Against Advanced Persistent Threats Using Game-Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rass, Stefan; König, Sandra; Schauer, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Advanced persistent threats (APT) combine a variety of different attack forms ranging from social engineering to technical exploits. The diversity and usual stealthiness of APT turns them into a central problem of contemporary practical system security, since information on attacks, the current system status or the attacker's incentives is often vague, uncertain and in many cases even unavailable. Game theory is a natural approach to model the conflict between the attacker and the defender, and this work investigates a generalized class of matrix games as a risk mitigation tool for an advanced persistent threat (APT) defense. Unlike standard game and decision theory, our model is tailored to capture and handle the full uncertainty that is immanent to APTs, such as disagreement among qualitative expert risk assessments, unknown adversarial incentives and uncertainty about the current system state (in terms of how deeply the attacker may have penetrated into the system's protective shells already). Practically, game-theoretic APT models can be derived straightforwardly from topological vulnerability analysis, together with risk assessments as they are done in common risk management standards like the ISO 31000 family. Theoretically, these models come with different properties than classical game theoretic models, whose technical solution presented in this work may be of independent interest.

  14. Defendant's or convict's competency to stand trial - forensic psychiatric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynkier, Przemysław N

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to draw attention to particularly important aspects of pronouncing forensic psychiatric judgment regarding the accused or convicted individuals' competency to stand trial. The level of a person's mental capacity should be established using a structured psychiatric interview concerning a variety of aspects of a trial. Emphasis should be placed on evaluating the defendant's consciousness of the charges, knowledge of the potential punishment, ability to make significant decisions and be engaged in defense, knowledge about the role that particular people present in the courtroom play, understanding of the meaning of the evidence gathered in the case, the risk of aggression. The analysis should take into account the specificity of the mental disorder, the influence of proceedings on the course of disorder, as well as the presence of reactive disorders. Using testing tools by the expert can facilitate the process of evaluation to a certain degree. Forensic psychiatric evaluations can give rise to difficulties for the experts, what with the changing legal regulations and their interpretations. It would be justified to develop the standards of evaluation in this kind of cases, which would on the one hand apply to experts but which would also be respected by the judicial organ.

  15. A media discursive genre: The defender of the viewer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Alfonso Barragán Escarpeta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents the progress of the research called “A media discursive genre: The defender of the viewer” and has the objective to characterize this particular genre. This research is based on the ideas of Bajtin (1982, Carranza (2012 as well as Social-Communicative Perspective of Charaudeau (2012 about genres, in the way that they give theoretical and methodological elements to the establishment of this characterization, and, in the same way, for being perspectives that emphasize on the social component of texts, let us to understand aspects such as relations between participants and the influence of these in discourse. To do this, our methodology analyzes two different programs of public television channels through making transcripts and images, selected from the establishment of the following categories: the field of social practice, the overall situation of communication (SGC and the specific situation of communication (SEC; also discursive properties and the formal properties; flexible frameworks and the subject agent. In this way, this article makes a practical-theoretical exercise of an inductive nature which rescues how categories of the communicative situation and the analysis of elements such as supports allow a greater deepening of different dimensions in the media discursive practices (social relation, themes, etc. as well as observing to what extent we are talking about discursive genders and sub genders in daily life.

  16. A Dutch Confederate: Charles Liernur Defends Slavery in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Douma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 1850s and 1860s, Dutch immigrants in America struggled to square their racial views with the politics of slavery in their new country. The historiography of the Dutch world would benefit from incorporating this story, because it is often in moments of conflict when the most explicit expressions of ideology present themselves. The letters of Charles Liernur, a Dutch-born Confederate, provide a unique insight into the mind of an explicit supporter of slavery in an American context. How and why a Dutchman could defend slavery is the primary question this article addresses. Building on Liernur’s story, this article also challenges the standard view that Dutch Americans were natural opponents of slavery. Instead, they held diverse and ambiguous views, shaped in part by the circumstances of their settlement.Een Nederlandse Confederate: Charles Liernur verdedigt slavernij in AmerikaIn de jaren vijftig en zestig van de negentiende eeuw hadden Nederlandse immigranten in Amerika grote moeite een standpunt in te nemen met betrekking tot de slavernij. Een analyse daarvan lijkt van belang voor de Nederlandse geschiedschrijving, omdat ideologische overtuigingen vaak tijdens conflicten op scherpe wijze uitgedragen worden. De brieven van Charles Liernur, een Nederlandse ‘Confederate’, bieden een unieke blik op de denkwereld van eenuitgesproken voorstander van de slavernij. Hoe en waarom kon een Nederlander zo fel de slavernij verdedigen? Dat is de centrale vraag waarop dit artikel een antwoord probeert te geven. Het verhaal van Liernur laat zien dat de gangbare visie, dat Nederlandse Amerikanen van nature tegenstanders van de slavernij waren, niet klopt. Immigranten hadden veeleer uiteenlopende en ambigue meningen over slavernij, bepaald door de omstandigheden waarmee ze in hun nieuwe vaderland te maken kregen.

  17. Reaksi Pasar atas Pengukuran Kinerja Akuntansi Perusahaan Prospector dan Defender : Analisis Dengan Pendekatan Life Cycle Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Jatmiko Wahyu P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is an empirical study that intends to examine the difference accounting performance measures between prospector and defender strategies. The study also has objective to examine market reaction for both organizational strategies. Variables that implicated by organizational strategy are income growth, sales growth, dividend pay out, and return on investment. Life cycle theory approach is used to analyze the difference accounting performance measures. Four variables are used to explain strategies between prospector and defender firms are price to book value (PBV ratio, sales to employee ratio, capital expenditure to market equity value ratio, and capital expenditure to total assets ratio. The sample are 30 to prospector firms, and 30 to defender firms derived from 60 manufacturing public firms at Jakarta Stock Exchange, tested by Principal Component Analysis. The result show that income and sales growth of prospector firms are greater than defender firms (significant at 0,01 level. Dividend pay out and return on investment of prospector firms are smaller than defender firms (significant at 0,01 level. While, the market reaction of prospector firms are greater than defender firms, the difference significantly at 0,01 level. Multivariate analysis is used to determine the difference level between prospector and defender firms and it relationship with stock price. The result show that there are significantly difference between income growth, sales growth, dividend pay out, and return on investment to abnormal return.

  18. Defending behaviors, bullying roles, and their associations with mental health in junior high school students: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Wen-Chi; Luu, Shyuemeng; Luh, Dih-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Students should be encouraged to help prevent or stop bullying. However, defending victims of bullying can impact on mental health. It is not only bystanders who may defend victims, but bullies, victims and bully-victims can also have defending behaviors. Nevertheless, most studies of defending behaviors have been limited to an examination of the reactions of bystanders or those not involved in bullying and have ignored the other players. The aim of this study is to invest...

  19. TÜ, TPÜ ja EHI uusi magistreid / Eda Tursk, Hille Roots, Heidi Meier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tursk, Eda

    2004-01-01

    Tartu ülikooli eesti ja soome-ugri keeleteaduse osakonnas ning kirjanduse ja rahvaluule osakonnas kaitsesid 2003.a. magistritööd Niina Aasmäe, Piret Voll, Larissa Degel, Reet Hendrikson, Tiina Pai, Petar Kehayov, Anna Baidullina, Katrin Ennus, Kristi Jõesaar, Ell Vahtramäe, Lauri Sommer, Andreas Kalkun, Mirjam Hinrikus, Kristel Nõlvak. Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikoolis kaitsesid 2003.a. magistritööd Sirje Nootre, Merike Mägedi, Tiiu Koovit, Heidi Meier, Jaanika Stackhouse, Lilian Ossi, Annika Vamper, Marika Mikkor, Piret Õunapuu, Helin Puksand, Taimi Rosenberg. Eesti Humanitaarinstituudis kaitses 2003.a. magistritööd Merilin Miljan

  20. Defending Oneself From Tourists: The Counter-Environmental Bubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortini, Michela; Converso, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    According to the Environmental Bubble Theory, tourists perform a series of strategies in order to remain anchored to their residential spots. The environmental bubble is constituted by a sort of social pellicule able to immunize tourists from the identity/cultural attacks which the visit to a foreign country implies. Such a pellicule is activated by the tourists themselves as they decide to travel in group or, for example, to eat only at the restaurants proposing their own national cuisine, and so on. Generally the potential cultural shock of residents is not taken into consideration in literature, even if it is plausibile to make the hypothesis of a counter-environmental bubble performed by the residents in order to defend their own culture and their identity from the attacks of mass tourism, especially for cities that live on tourism, as, for example, Florence or Siena do. Our study aims at testing the access to local tradition made available in promotional material. The hypothesis we propose is that there should exist a difference in promoting cultural heritage and intimate culture. The intimate culture refers to the living culture, the way of living, comprehending cuisine, education, religion, the way by which the role of females and males are performed, and so on. On the other hand, the cultural heritage, or historical culture, makes reference to a culture meant as belonging to the whole mankind, as it happens, for example, for archeological sites or museums. In more detail, we propose the hypothesis that the intimate culture is maintained unaccessible for tourists' gaze, or at least accessible only in the shape of a spectacularized event, the so called pseudo-event of Boorstin. Using the software NUD * IST we analyzed the promotional material of the city of Siena. Our results confirm Boorstin's theory about pseudo-events realized for tourists. The difference between cultural heritage and intimate culture promotion we have revealed shows an additional lecture

  1. Defending Oneself From Tourists: The Counter-Environmental Bubble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Cortini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Environmental Bubble Theory, tourists perform a series of strategies in order to remain anchored to their residential spots. The environmental bubble is constituted by a sort of social pellicule able to immunize tourists from the identity/cultural attacks which the visit to a foreign country implies. Such a pellicule is activated by the tourists themselves as they decide to travel in group or, for example, to eat only at the restaurants proposing their own national cuisine, and so on. Generally the potential cultural shock of residents is not taken into consideration in literature, even if it is plausibile to make the hypothesis of a counter-environmental bubble performed by the residents in order to defend their own culture and their identity from the attacks of mass tourism, especially for cities that live on tourism, as, for example, Florence or Siena do. Our study aims at testing the access to local tradition made available in promotional material. The hypothesis we propose is that there should exist a difference in promoting cultural heritage and intimate culture. The intimate culture refers to the living culture, the way of living, comprehending cuisine, education, religion, the way by which the role of females and males are performed, and so on. On the other hand, the cultural heritage, or historical culture, makes reference to a culture meant as belonging to the whole mankind, as it happens, for example, for archeological sites or museums. In more detail, we propose the hypothesis that the intimate culture is maintained unaccessible for tourists' gaze, or at least accessible only in the shape of a spectacularized event, the so called pseudo-event of Boorstin. Using the software NUD*IST we analyzed the promotional material of the city of Siena. Our results confirm Boorstin's theory about pseudo-events realized for tourists. The difference between cultural heritage and intimate culture promotion we have revealed shows an

  2. Local government under the defenders of the constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svirčević Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the development of local government under the rule of the constitution defenders 1842-1858. The author describes the historical facts that led to the abdication of Prince Miloš and the establishment of an oligarchic government of chieftains assembled in a council (Toma Vučić Perišić, Avram Petronijević, Hadji Milutin Garašanin and his son Ilija Stojan and Aleksa Simić, as well as the process of building a modern state administration and cultural identity, an integral part of which was a narrower process of constituting local government. A distinct role in the latter process was played by the Austrian-born Serbs, the only intelligentsia in the Principality of Serbia which was still under Turkish suzerainty. Special attention is given to the analysis of two local government acts instituting centralized local authorities with an enhanced law enforcement role in the districts, counties and communes. Those are District Prefectural System and of County Prefect Office Act of 12 May 1839 and Communal System Act of 13 July the same year. Of great importance was the former law, one of the longest-lived in the history of nineteenth-century Serbian constitutionalism. It was in force in 1839-88 and 1894-1903. Every autocratic regime in Serbia was to rely on it. Its distinctive feature is that it subordinated district and county prefects to the central authority and to the minister of internal affairs. They were reduced to mere police agents deprived of any freedom of action. Thus the local officials assumed the character of rigid administrators looking down on the common people. A natural continuation of this law was the other law of communal organization which turned the lowest local units into mere executive agencies of counties. Thus local government took on the form of a mere transmission of the central government, functioning according to a principle similar to the medieval lord-vassal system: my vassal's vassal is not my

  3. Education to defend professional values in the new corporate age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relman, A S

    1998-12-01

    The corporate transformation of medicine raises questions about the basic purposes and values of the profession and the physician's social role that have not been adequately considered in medical school and residency curricula. Medical schools and graduate programs need to make students and trainees more aware of the conflict between traditional professional values and the imperatives of the market, so they will be better prepared to defend these values in the new business climate. Otherwise, medical schools and teaching hospitals could simply become trade schools, turning out sophisticated technicians, future entrepreneurs, and managers. As a starting point for educational reform, the author suggests that students (1) learn the social and political history of the medical profession of the United States over the past 200 years; (2) be introduced to the economic dimensions of health care--where the money comes from and how it is spent; (3) learn the history of health maintenance organizations, and understand the different forms of managed care and how they work; (4) become familiar with the health care reforms proposed by the Clinton Administration in the early 1990s, and understand why they were defeated and what has happened to health care reform since then; (5) examine the conflict between the culture of business managers and that of practicing physicians, and consider the recent efforts to achieve "quality control" as a balance to the emphasis on price; (6) be challenged to think about the important ethical, legal, and professional issues raised by the industrialization of health care; and (7) consider the political and professional options that might preserve the most important principles of medical professionalism while still addressing the social objectives of cost control, community service, and universal access. The author concludes that to prevent medicine from becoming merely a technologic business, the medical profession will have to become more actively

  4. Jurors' locus of control and defendants' attractiveness in death penalty sentencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Crystal M; Spray, Beverly J; Pietz, Christina A

    2007-06-01

    The authors examined the relationship between jurors' locus of control and defendants' attractiveness in death penalty sentencing. Ninety-eight participants voluntarily served as mock jurors. The authors administered J. B. Rotter's (1966) Internal-External Locus of Control Scale to participants and then randomly assigned them to a group with either an attractive or an unattractive defendant (represented by photographs). Participants read a murder vignette and selected a punishment--either a lifetime jail sentence or the death penalty-for the defendant. Results indicated that neither jurors' locus of control nor defendants' attractiveness influenced sentencing. However, jurors' age and gender significantly influenced sentencing. Men, with the exception of the youngest men, were more likely than women to choose the death penalty. Additionally, young women were more likely than older women to select the death penalty. The authors discuss the implications of these results for the study of jury behavior and bias.

  5. Competency to stand trial and defendants who lack insight into their mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Andrew D; Piel, Jennifer; Makey, Miller

    2013-01-01

    Forensic evaluators often assess patients who lack insight into their mental illnesses. This lack of insight can have a significant impact on the defendant's ability to make legal strategy decisions that rely on their acceptance of their mental illness. In this article, the relationship between refusing an insanity plea and competency to stand trial will be explored in the context of defendants who lack insight into their mental illness. The authors argue that an adequate competency assessment should take into account the defendant's ability to consider his available pleas rationally. Such evaluations may have the effect of negating the necessity of a Frendak inquiry in those jurisdictions that can impose the insanity defense on defendants.

  6. Vananemise vastu toiduga / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2012-01-01

    Toitumisteaduste magistri David Wolfe poolt soovitatud vananemise märke aeglustavatest ning pidurdavatest supertoitudest ja toidulisanditest: kasekäsn e must pässik, reishi-seen,kakao, assai, avokaado, brokoli, sidrun, õun, õunamahl, õunasiider, õunaäärikas, maka e mugulkress, goji ja mooruspuu marjad; vetikad klorella ja spirulina; toidulisandid EDTA – etüleendiamiin-tetraäädikhape (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), humiin- või fulvohape, MSM – metüülsulfonüülmetaan

  7. Innovatsiooniosak tuleb appi / Marika Popp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Popp, Marika

    2008-01-01

    Innovatsiooniosak ( innovation vouchers) kujutab endast kinkekaarti ettevõtjale, selle alusel avaneb eriti väike- ja keskmise suurusega ning seni vähe või üldse mitte teadus- ja arendustööga kokku puutunud ettevõtteil saada esimene kogemus ning tekitada juurdepääs teadmiste allikale

  8. Kergitajad, paksendajad, tarretajad / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2012-01-01

    Nii looduslikest (alginiinhape, guarkummi e guarjahu, jaanileivapuujahu, karrageen, ksantaankummi, kummiaraabik, pektiin) kui tööstuslikult toodetud paksendajatest, tarretajatest ja kergitusainetest

  9. Kasvukeskkond ja andekus / Marika Veisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veisson, Marika, 1949-

    2001-01-01

    Imikute ja väikelastega läbi viidud longituuduuringu eesmärgiks oli välja selgitada kasvukeskkonna faktorite mõju väikelapse intellekti arengule. Töös osalesid professorid M. Vikat, V. Kolga, teadur A. Vikat, doktor E. Tomberg, magistrandid M. Laane, K. Nugin ja I. Tuisk ning V. Vallner ja A. Veber

  10. Arenguindeks = Development index / Marika Kivilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivilaid, Marika

    2005-01-01

    Kokkuvõte kohalike omavalitsusüksuste arenguindeksi, mis on kolme näitaja (ettevõtete realiseerimise netokäive elaniku kohta, üksikisiku tulumaksu laekumine elaniku kohta, registreeritud töötuse määr) pingeridade kohapunktide summa, arvutamise tulemustest

  11. Sukeldumisharjutused prantslaste fotopeol / Marika Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Marika

    2006-01-01

    37. fotofestivalist Arles'is Prantsusmaal, mille peakuraatoriks oli fotograaf ja kineast Raymond Depardon. Näitusel on esitatud tema vanade sõprade David Angeli, Guy Le Querrec'i, Jean Gaumy ja David Burnetti töid, aga ka kaasaegset ühiskonda peegeldavate fotograafide Gilles Leimdorferi, Philippe Chanceli, Olivier Jobardi jt töid

  12. Kivid sinu sees / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2011-01-01

    Sapi- ja neerukivide tekke põhjustest, ravist nii tavameditsiini kui ka Steineri poolt loodud antroposoofilise meditsiini vahenditega ning mida saab teha, et kividest hoiduda. Nõuannavad Ida-Tallinna Keskhaigla kirurgid Rein Lumiste ja Toomas Tamm ning perearstikeskuse Medicum perearst Pille Soone

  13. Defending Our Satellites: The Need for Electronic Warfare Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    intercept Allied bombers attacking at night.9 As a result of the electronic warfare advantage that systems like Window and Airborne Cigar be- stowed...74 | Air & Space Power Journal Defending Our Satellites The Need for Electronic Warfare Education and Training Lt Col E. Lincoln Bonner, USAF...expanding education and training in the use of electronic warfare to defend US satellites and improve their survivability. The following discussion

  14. Modeling Resources Allocation in Attacker-Defender Games with "Warm Up" CSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Peiqiu; Zhuang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Like many other engineering investments, the attacker's and defender's investments may have limited impact without initial capital to "warm up" the systems. This article studies such "warm up" effects on both the attack and defense equilibrium strategies in a sequential-move game model by developing a class of novel and more realistic contest success functions. We first solve a single-target attacker-defender game analytically and provide numerical solutions to a multiple-target case. We compare the results of the models with and without consideration of the investment "warm up" effects, and find that the defender would suffer higher expected damage, and either underestimate the attacker effort or waste defense investment if the defender falsely believes that no investment "warm up" effects exist. We illustrate the model results with real data, and compare the results of the models with and without consideration of the correlation between the "warm up" threshold and the investment effectiveness. Interestingly, we find that the defender is suggested to give up defending all the targets when the attack or the defense "warm up" thresholds are sufficiently high. This article provides new insights and suggestions on policy implications for homeland security resource allocation. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Defending psychiatry or defending the trivial effects of therapeutic interventions? A citation content analysis of an influential paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, I A; Naudet, F

    2017-11-29

    about antidepressants, 18 (15%) about antipsychotics. Forty (33%) of the citing papers included data. COIs were reported in 55 papers (46%). Univariate and multivariate regressions showed an association between a quote justifying small or modest effects and the point that treatment effectiveness in psychiatry closely resembles that in general medicine. Our evaluation revealed an overwhelmingly uncritical reception and seemed to indicate that beyond defending psychiatry as a discipline, the paper by Leucht et al. served to lend support and credibility to a therapeutic myth: trivial effects of mental health interventions, most often drugs, are to be expected and therefore accepted. Protocol registration: https://osf.io/9dqat/.

  16. ¿POR QUÉ DEFENDER LA CIENCIA EN COLOMBIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Forero González

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Un grupo de nuestros más destacados científicos le cuenta a la sociedad colombiana por qué es necesario defender la ciencia en el país, demuestra con lujo de detalles porqué este tema se considera importante y se refiere a la forma como los países más avanzados del mundo han alcanzado esos niveles de desarrollo gracias a sus inversiones en educación, ciencia y tecnología. También, llama la atención sobre el hecho que la clase política tiene el deber ético de hacer políticas sobre ciencia, tecnología e innovación fundamentándose en los planteamientos de los académicos. En efecto, cuando se definen políticas como las contenidas en el documento Conpes de Competitividad, Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación sin la participación de la comunidad académica, el resultado siempre es deficiente. Adicionalmente, así como el documento Conpes no deja tranquila a la comunidad científica, el Sistema Nacional de Regalías también produce muchas dudas y preocupaciones, por lo cual se sugiere que se piense desde el Senado en una reforma a ese sistema para que, por ejemplo, la evaluación y posterior aprobación de los proyectos de ciencia, tecnología e innovación sean definidas sobre una base académica, no política.

    Para comenzar, da la impresión que, en general, las políticas gubernamentales ignoran por completo a la comunidad académica. En días recientes recibí una invitación por parte del Departamento Nacional de Planeación para el lanzamiento del Plan Maestro de la Orinoquia, ‘una estrategia integral con proyección para el año 2030, para el desarrollo regional, con un enfoque diferenciado que involucra la articulación Nación-Territorio’, pero entre los conferencistas invitados no había ni un sólo representante de la comunidad científica o académica. Sin embargo, cabe señalar que no hay área de importancia para el país que no sea impactada por las contribuciones de las ciencias básicas: la salud, el

  17. IS MISS SYMPATHY A CREDIBLE DEFENDANT ALLEGING INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN A TRIAL FOR MURDER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Expósito

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Current research has postulated that judicial inferencing and judgement-making are subject to biased appraisals. This study assessed the factors reported in the literature associated to the appraisal of criminality in a mock case of a battered woman standing trial for murdering her husband, and who pleaded legitimate self-defence in response to an instance of intimate partner violence. A nationwide sample of 169 police officers from different cities in Spain freely volunteered to participate in the study. Using a mock trial design, the defendant´s prototypicality (prototypical vs. non-prototypical, and physical attractiveness (attractive vs. unattractive were manipulated. Participants were required to assess the criminality (credibility, responsibility, and controllability of a battered woman accused of murdering her husband, and who alleged legitimate self-defence in response to an incident of intimate partner violence. The results showed that a defendant perceived as the prototype of a battered woman was judged as having less or no control of the situation; physical attractiveness increased the perception of the defendant´s responsibility in committing the crime; and an interaction between prototypicality and attractiveness in assigning credibility to the defendant´s testimony. Moreover, hostile sexism mediated the relationship between the defendant´s prototypicality and controllability. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for judicial judgement making in cases of battered women who kill their aggressors.

  18. Friendship selection and influence in bullying and defending: effects of moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J; Rambaran, J Ashwin; Caravita, Simona C S; Gini, Gianluca

    2014-08-01

    The current study examined the development of bullying and defending over a 1-year period as related to friends' influence and individual and friends' moral disengagement (i.e., self-justification mechanisms that allow one to avoid moral self-censure of transgressive actions) in children and young adolescents. Via longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena), it was tested whether similarity between friends in bullying and defending developed over time due to friends' influence, while controlling for friendship selection processes, and whether there were differences in these processes between children (age 9-10 years; n = 133; 42.9% girls) and young adolescents (age 11-14 years; n = 236; 40.6% girls). Results showed that individuals selected peers as friends who were similar in bullying and became more similar to friends in bullying over time, but only in early adolescence. Moreover, there was marginal support that friends' influence was stronger in young adolescents with higher moral disengagement. In early adolescence, bullying was also indirectly influenced through friends' moral disengagement, with different effects for boys and girls. With regard to defending, young adolescents maintained friendships with peers who were similar in defending, and became more similar to friends in terms of defending over time. These findings suggest important differences between late childhood and early adolescence in socialization processes and indicate that in early adolescence, friends' influence on the development of bullying is partially affected by moral disengagement. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Charitable collaborations in Bronzeville, 1928-1944: the "Chicago Defender" and the Regal Theater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmes, Clovis E

    2011-01-01

    In the twentieth century, race-based residential and commercial segregation that supported racial oppression and inequality became an elemental characteristic of urban black communities. Conflict-ridden, black-white relationships were common. However, the Chicago Defender Charities, Inc., the entity that sponsors the largest African American parade in the country and that emerged in 1947, embodied a tradition of charitable giving, self-help, and community service initiated in 1921 by Chicago Defender newspaper founder and editor, Robert S. Abbott. The foundation of this charitable tradition matured as a result of an early and sustained collaboration between Chicago’s white-owned Regal Theater and the black-owned Chicago Defender newspaper. Thus, in segregated African American communities, black and white commercial institutions, under certain conditions, were able to find important points of collaboration to uplift the African American communities of which they were a part.

  20. Peace with Guarantees of Life and Territory for Colombian Peasants: A Fight That Doesn't Cost Us Our Lives. "Let Us Defend Our Defenders"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Lledín Vitos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article gathers the main findings of a research project the authors conducted as part of the Permanent Committee for the Defense of Human Rights on the situation of human rights defenders (HRDs in Colombia's rural contexts. The research included the following components: interviews with organizations and institutions working on the issue of protection; the implementation of a survey of 174 HRDs from twelve departments of the country; and the implementation of seven regional workshops, with the participation of 150 defenders, where participatory methodologies for risk analysis and research were used. From the analysis of the information, it was concluded that the majority had been victims of some type of aggression by reason of their work. The risks human rights defenders face in Colombia are related with the armed conflict, but also with the struggles for land and territory. The bodies responsible for the assaults were, fundamentally, the paramilitary successors and agents of the State, especially the Army. As a result of the research, it was established that the protection in the rural contexts requires differential responses by the State; these should respond to a combination of individual and collective measures of prevention, protection, and self-protection, which have turned out to be effective from the experience of the people.

  1. Defending behaviors, bullying roles, and their associations with mental health in junior high school students: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Chi; Luu, Shyuemeng; Luh, Dih-Ling

    2016-10-10

    Students should be encouraged to help prevent or stop bullying. However, defending victims of bullying can impact on mental health. It is not only bystanders who may defend victims, but bullies, victims and bully-victims can also have defending behaviors. Nevertheless, most studies of defending behaviors have been limited to an examination of the reactions of bystanders or those not involved in bullying and have ignored the other players. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between defending behaviors and mental health among bullies, victims, bully-victims and bystanders. Associations among defending behaviors, mental health (including depressive symptoms and social anxiety), and bullying experiences were cross-sectionally examined in 3441 students (13-15 years old.) from 20 randomly selected junior high schools in Taiwan using a self-report questionnaire. SAS 9.3 Survey Analysis procedures were used to conduct descriptive analysis and multiple regression models. Defending behaviors were associated with bullying roles and were higher in victims than in bullies or bystanders. Defending behaviors were positively associated with social anxiety and depressive symptoms. After stratifying by bullying roles, defending behaviors were positively associated with social anxiety in bystanders, and were positively associated with depressive symptoms in victims and bystanders. However, defending behaviors were not significantly associated with mental health indicators in bullies. The associations between defending behaviors and mental health varied according to bullying roles. The results suggest that bystanders and victims experience more mental health effects than bullies. Intervention programs aimed at preventing bullying should focus on strategies that minimize social anxiety and depression in victims and bystanders, and urge students to help vulnerable peers during bullying events.

  2. Defending behaviors, bullying roles, and their associations with mental health in junior high school students: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chi Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Students should be encouraged to help prevent or stop bullying. However, defending victims of bullying can impact on mental health. It is not only bystanders who may defend victims, but bullies, victims and bully-victims can also have defending behaviors. Nevertheless, most studies of defending behaviors have been limited to an examination of the reactions of bystanders or those not involved in bullying and have ignored the other players. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between defending behaviors and mental health among bullies, victims, bully-victims and bystanders. Methods Associations among defending behaviors, mental health (including depressive symptoms and social anxiety, and bullying experiences were cross-sectionally examined in 3441 students (13–15 years old. from 20 randomly selected junior high schools in Taiwan using a self-report questionnaire. SAS 9.3 Survey Analysis procedures were used to conduct descriptive analysis and multiple regression models. Results Defending behaviors were associated with bullying roles and were higher in victims than in bullies or bystanders. Defending behaviors were positively associated with social anxiety and depressive symptoms. After stratifying by bullying roles, defending behaviors were positively associated with social anxiety in bystanders, and were positively associated with depressive symptoms in victims and bystanders. However, defending behaviors were not significantly associated with mental health indicators in bullies. Conclusions The associations between defending behaviors and mental health varied according to bullying roles. The results suggest that bystanders and victims experience more mental health effects than bullies. Intervention programs aimed at preventing bullying should focus on strategies that minimize social anxiety and depression in victims and bystanders, and urge students to help vulnerable peers during bullying events.

  3. The Public Defenders of Indians in Tabasco during the Sixteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cunill

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the second half of the sixteenth century, the post of public defender of Indians spread throughout Spanish America, and its missions became more precisely defined, contributing to this effect both the way in which these officers executed their tasks and the publication of legal texts on the matter, conceived by local or metropolitan authorities. By 1591, the protector and defender of Indians or naturales became the essential piece of the recently-created Juzgado General de Indios, an authentic Indian institution that would last until the late colonial period. In order to understand the process, this work analyzes the peculiar evolution of the post of public defender in the Alcaldía Mayor de Tabasco, Gobernación de Yucatán, during the second half of the sixteenth century. Besides revealing the public defenders' identities, status, and wages, the author analyzes their dealings with colonial authorities —the governors of Yucatan, the Royal Audiencias, and the Consejo de Indias–, as well as the Tabaso Indians. All this allows us to understand the central importance this post acquired, not only in the colonial judicial system, but also in the Spanish American government.

  4. MMPI Profiles and Code Types of Responsible and Non-Responsible Criminal Defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlychek, Robert T.; Jordan, L.

    1980-01-01

    Compared MMPI profiles and two-point code types of criminal defendants (N=50) pleading a defense of "not responsible due to mental disease or defect." A sign test was computed, treating the clinical scales as matched pairs, and a significant difference was found; the nonresponsible group profile was more elevated. (Author)

  5. 47 CFR 1.735 - Copies; service; separate filings against multiple defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... overnight delivery service such as, or comparable to, the US Postal Service Express Mail, United Parcel... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies; service; separate filings against... Complaints § 1.735 Copies; service; separate filings against multiple defendants. (a) Complaints may...

  6. 45 CFR 2554.52 - How does the Corporation protect the rights of defendants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does the Corporation protect the rights of... Appeals § 2554.52 How does the Corporation protect the rights of defendants? These procedures separate the functions of the investigating official, reviewing official, and the ALJ, each of whom report to a separate...

  7. 13 CFR 142.41 - How does SBA protect the rights of defendants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does SBA protect the rights of... CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Decisions and Appeals § 142.41 How does SBA protect the rights of defendants? These procedures separate the functions of the investigating official, reviewing official, and...

  8. Expression of defender against apoptotic death (DAD-1) in iris and dianthus petals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, van der D.A.M.; Ruys, G.; Dees, D.; Schoot, van der C.; Boer, de A.D.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2003-01-01

    The gene defender against apoptotic death (DAD-1) prevents programmed cell death in animal cells. We investigated the expression pattern of DAD-1 in petals of iris (Iris x hollandica cv. Blue Magic) and carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. Etarro). DAD-1 expression in Iris petals was strongly

  9. Understanding Cybercrime from Its Stakeholders’ Perspectives: Part 2 - Defenders and Victims

    OpenAIRE

    Arief, Budi; Bin Adzmi, Mohd Azeem

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive model and taxonomy of cybercrime, including all of its stakeholders, would contribute to better cybersecurity. Part 1 of this two-part series, which appeared in the January/February 2015 issue of IEEE Security & Privacy, explored cyberattackers and their motives in detail. Part 2 focuses on the other key stakeholders: defenders and victims of cybercrime.

  10. Arbitrariness and the death penalty: how the defendant's appearance during trial influences capital jurors' punishment decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the defendant's appearance during the trial on capital jurors' punishment decision. The data used in this analysis were gathered by the Capital Jury Project (CJP), a national program of research on the decision-making of capital jurors. A series of multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted using four aggravating circumstances related to the killing and eight defendant appearance variables as predictors of jurors' punishment decision at three points during the capital trial: (1) after the punishment phase ended, but before formal deliberation began; (2) when the first vote was taken on punishment at jury deliberations; and (3) at the final vote on punishment. Results indicated that when the defendant appeared emotionally involved during the trial (i.e. sorry and sincere) jurors either favored a life sentence or were undecided about punishment; however, when the defendant appeared emotionally uninvolved during the trial (i.e. bored) jurors either sought a death sentence or remained undecided. Policy implications will be discussed. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Defending against speculative attacks: A hybrid model of exchange market pressure and crises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels, T.R.; Jager, H.; Klaassen, F.

    2008-01-01

    While virtually all currency crisis models recognise that the fate of a currency peg depends on how tenaciously policy makers defend it, they seldom model how this is done. We incorporate themechanics of speculation and the interest rate defence against it in the model of Morris and Shin (American

  12. The New Product Development Improvement Motives and Practices of Miles and Snow's Prospectors, Analysers and Defenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugen, Bjørge Timenes; Boer, Harry; Acur, Nuran

    2006-01-01

    , twenty-seven analysers and seven defenders (Miles and Snow, 1978) suggests that the NPD improvement motives and practices of these three types of strategies are less different than we expected. Our explanation for this finding is that the three strategic types are growing towards each other, forced...

  13. The impact of cooperation on the rights of defendants before the International Criminal Court

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferioli, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    The present study locates the challenges faced by defendants during cooperation proceedings in the context of the unique structural system of the Court, and the inherent tensions and limitations that characterize the ICC’s functioning. The study is divided into two parts. The first part sets out the

  14. Bullying and defending behavior: The role of explicit and implicit moral cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Tiziana; Gini, Gianluca; Thornberg, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Research on bullying has highlighted the role of morality in explaining the different behavior of students during bullying episodes. However, the research has been limited to the analysis of explicit measures of moral characteristics and moral reasoning, whereas implicit measures have yet to be fully considered. To overcome this limitation, this study investigated the association between bullying and defending, on one hand, and both explicit (moral disengagement, self-importance of moral values) and implicit (immediate affect toward moral stimuli [IAMS]) moral components, on the other hand. Young adolescents (N=279, mean age=11years, 9months, 44.4% girls) completed a series of self-report scales and individually performed a computer task investigating the IAMS. Two hierarchical regressions (bootstrapping method) were performed. Results showed that moral disengagement was associated with bullying and defending behavior at high levels of IAMS, however not when IAMS was low. In contrast, self-importance of moral values was not significantly associated to the two behaviors when IAMS was high whereas both associations were significant at low levels of IAMS. These results significantly expand previous knowledge about the role of morality in bullying and defending behavior. In particular, they highlight the role of the interaction between explicit and implicit moral dimensions in predicting bullying and defending behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Victims, bullies, and their defenders : A longitudinal study of the coevolution of positive and negative networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitsing, Gijs; Snijders, Tom A.B.; Van Duijn, Marijtje A. J.; Veenstra, René

    The complex interplay between bullying/victimization and defending was examined using a longitudinal social network approach (stochastic actor-based models). The (co) evolution of these relations within three elementary schools (Grades 2-5 at Time 1, ages 8-11, N = 354 children) was investigated

  16. Compartmentalization: a conceptual framework for understanding how trees grow and defend themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex L. Shigo

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe a conceptual framework for understanding how trees grow and how they and other perennial plants defend themselves. The concept of compartmentalization has developed over many years, a synthesis of ideas from a number of investigators. It is derived from detailed studies of the gross morphology and cellular anatomy of the wood...

  17. Infants' Use of Force to Defend Toys: The Origins of Instrumental Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Dale F.; Hurst, Sarah-Louise; Waters, Cerith S.; Chadwick, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The two aims of the study were (a) to determine when infants begin to use force intentionally to defend objects to which they might have a claim and (b) to examine the relationship between toddlers' instrumental use of force and their tendencies to make possession claims. Infants' and toddlers' reactions to peers' attempts to take their toys were…

  18. The participation of juvenile defendants in the youth court. A comparative study of juvenile justice procedures in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rap, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    This study revolves around the issue of the participation of juvenile defendants in the youth court. The European Court of Human Rights has put forward the notion that defendants should be able to participate effectively in a court hearing. Moreover, in international children’s rights law it is

  19. Data defenders

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Uniting High-Energy Physics institutes, experimental collaborations and funding agencies, the HEP Data Preservation Initiative (DPHEP) has set out to change the way we save “information”.   When we talk about preserving physics results, our minds first turn to preserving raw data. But data preservation is much more than just the keeping of bits; it also involves saving the software used. Data needs to be available once experiments end, and it needs to be interpretable. Suppose a new theory or discovery arises and we need to revisit previous data sets with our new understanding. This could occur five, ten, fifty years from now... how can we ensure that the full potential of our data will be accessible then? Back in 2009, collaborations at CERN, DESY, SLAC and FNAL had a similar revelation. Colliders were coming to the end of their life and, if no action was taken, the data would effectively be lost forever. To tackle this issue, laboratories and experiments worldwide establish...

  20. Defending to the Four Directions Evolving Uechi-ryu’s Hojoundo Exercises for Advanced Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihor Rymaruk

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces “Defending to the Four Directions,” techniques that add challenge to Uechi-ryu while incorporating and building upon the traditional katas which have formed the basis of the style. Making changes within a style’s training methods just to be different without any other purpose is of little value and actually destructive to the system. This article describes a meaningful and realistic addition to the practice of hojoundo, the formal exercises incorporating basic movements. “Defending to the Four Directions” is intended for advanced students who have mastered Uechi-ryu’s foundamentals. In addition, the practice is well-suited for adaptation and adoption into other martial art styles.

  1. Race, law, and health: Examination of 'Stand Your Ground' and defendant convictions in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Nicole; Goodman, Melody S; Gilbert, Keon; Arroyo-Johnson, Cassandra; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-10-01

    Previous analyses of Stand Your Ground (SYG) cases have been primarily descriptive. We examine the relationship between race of the victim and conviction of the defendant in SYG cases in Florida from 2005 to 2013. Using a regression analytic approach, we allow for simultaneous examination of multiple factors to better understand existing interrelationships. Data was obtained from the Tampa Bay Times SYG database (237 cases) which was supplemented with available online court documents and/or news reports. After excluding cases which were, still pending as of January 2015; had multiple outcomes (because of multiple suspects); and missing information on race of victim and weapon of victim, our final analytic sample has 204 cases. We chose whether the case resulted in a conviction as the outcome. We develop logistic regression models using significant bivariate predictors as candidates. These include race of the victim (White, non-White), whether the defendant could have retreated from the situation, whether the defendant pursued the victim, if the victim was unarmed, and who was the initiator of the confrontation. We find race of the victim to be a significant predictor of case outcome in this data set. After controlling for other variables, the defendant is two times (OR = 2.1, 95% CI [1.07, 4.10]) more likely to be convicted in a case that involves White victims compared to those involving non-White victims. Our results depict a disturbing message: SYG legislation in Florida has a quantifiable racial bias that reveals a leniency in convictions if the victim is non-White, which provides evidence towards unequal treatment under the law. Rather than attempting to hide the outcomes of these laws, as was done in Florida, other states with SYG laws should carry out similar analyses to see if their manifestations are the same as those in Florida, and all should remediate any injustices found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Urgensi Perlindungan Hukum Bagi Pembela Hak Asasi Manusia (Human Rights Defender) Di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rahayu, Rahayu

    2010-01-01

    Human rights defenders are they working and having activities dealing with any effort to promote human rights. They stand in the front tine of struggle and dignifying human rights to utter the victims of human rights violation (the voice of the voiceless). Their existence is obviously recognized in United Nations' Genera! Assembly Nr. 53/144 on "Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organ of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights an...

  3. Defending or Challenging the Status Quo: Position Effects on Biased Intergroup Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma A. Bäck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The default ideological position is status quo maintaining, and challenging the status quo is associated with increased efforts and risks. Nonetheless, some people choose to challenge the status quo. Therefore, to challenge the status quo should imply a strong belief in one’s position as the correct one, and thus efforts may be undertaken to undermine the position of others. Study 1 (N = 311 showed that challengers undermined, by ascribing more externality and less rationality, the position of defenders to a larger extent than defenders did of challengers’ position. Studies 2 (N = 135 and 3 (N = 109 tested if these effects were driven by the implied minority status of the challenging position. Results revealed no effects of experimentally manipulated numerical status, but challengers were again more biased than defenders. Study 3 also revealed that challengers felt more negatively toward their opponents (possibly due to greater social identification with like-minded others, and these negative emotions in turn predicted biased attributions. Results are important as they add to the understanding of how intergroup conflict may arise, providing explanations for why challengers are less tolerant of others’ point of view.

  4. Simulations in Cyber-Security: A Review of Cognitive Modeling of Network Attackers, Defenders, and Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav D. Veksler

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Computational models of cognitive processes may be employed in cyber-security tools, experiments, and simulations to address human agency and effective decision-making in keeping computational networks secure. Cognitive modeling can addresses multi-disciplinary cyber-security challenges requiring cross-cutting approaches over the human and computational sciences such as the following: (a adversarial reasoning and behavioral game theory to predict attacker subjective utilities and decision likelihood distributions, (b human factors of cyber tools to address human system integration challenges, estimation of defender cognitive states, and opportunities for automation, (c dynamic simulations involving attacker, defender, and user models to enhance studies of cyber epidemiology and cyber hygiene, and (d training effectiveness research and training scenarios to address human cyber-security performance, maturation of cyber-security skill sets, and effective decision-making. Models may be initially constructed at the group-level based on mean tendencies of each subject's subgroup, based on known statistics such as specific skill proficiencies, demographic characteristics, and cultural factors. For more precise and accurate predictions, cognitive models may be fine-tuned to each individual attacker, defender, or user profile, and updated over time (based on recorded behavior via techniques such as model tracing and dynamic parameter fitting.

  5. Simulations in Cyber-Security: A Review of Cognitive Modeling of Network Attackers, Defenders, and Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veksler, Vladislav D.; Buchler, Norbou; Hoffman, Blaine E.; Cassenti, Daniel N.; Sample, Char; Sugrim, Shridat

    2018-01-01

    Computational models of cognitive processes may be employed in cyber-security tools, experiments, and simulations to address human agency and effective decision-making in keeping computational networks secure. Cognitive modeling can addresses multi-disciplinary cyber-security challenges requiring cross-cutting approaches over the human and computational sciences such as the following: (a) adversarial reasoning and behavioral game theory to predict attacker subjective utilities and decision likelihood distributions, (b) human factors of cyber tools to address human system integration challenges, estimation of defender cognitive states, and opportunities for automation, (c) dynamic simulations involving attacker, defender, and user models to enhance studies of cyber epidemiology and cyber hygiene, and (d) training effectiveness research and training scenarios to address human cyber-security performance, maturation of cyber-security skill sets, and effective decision-making. Models may be initially constructed at the group-level based on mean tendencies of each subject's subgroup, based on known statistics such as specific skill proficiencies, demographic characteristics, and cultural factors. For more precise and accurate predictions, cognitive models may be fine-tuned to each individual attacker, defender, or user profile, and updated over time (based on recorded behavior) via techniques such as model tracing and dynamic parameter fitting. PMID:29867661

  6. Simulations in Cyber-Security: A Review of Cognitive Modeling of Network Attackers, Defenders, and Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veksler, Vladislav D; Buchler, Norbou; Hoffman, Blaine E; Cassenti, Daniel N; Sample, Char; Sugrim, Shridat

    2018-01-01

    Computational models of cognitive processes may be employed in cyber-security tools, experiments, and simulations to address human agency and effective decision-making in keeping computational networks secure. Cognitive modeling can addresses multi-disciplinary cyber-security challenges requiring cross-cutting approaches over the human and computational sciences such as the following: (a) adversarial reasoning and behavioral game theory to predict attacker subjective utilities and decision likelihood distributions, (b) human factors of cyber tools to address human system integration challenges, estimation of defender cognitive states, and opportunities for automation, (c) dynamic simulations involving attacker, defender, and user models to enhance studies of cyber epidemiology and cyber hygiene, and (d) training effectiveness research and training scenarios to address human cyber-security performance, maturation of cyber-security skill sets, and effective decision-making. Models may be initially constructed at the group-level based on mean tendencies of each subject's subgroup, based on known statistics such as specific skill proficiencies, demographic characteristics, and cultural factors. For more precise and accurate predictions, cognitive models may be fine-tuned to each individual attacker, defender, or user profile, and updated over time (based on recorded behavior) via techniques such as model tracing and dynamic parameter fitting.

  7. Abortion, metaphysics and morality: a review of Francis Beckwith's defending life: a moral and legal case against abortion choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Nathan

    2011-06-01

    In Defending Life: A Moral and Legal Case Against Abortion Choice (2007) and an earlier article in this journal, "Defending Abortion Philosophically"(2006), Francis Beckwith argues that fetuses are, from conception, prima facie wrong to kill. His arguments are based on what he calls a "metaphysics of the human person" known as "The Substance View." I argue that Beckwith's metaphysics does not support his abortion ethic: Moral, not metaphysical, claims that are part of this Substance View are the foundation of the argument, and Beckwith inadequately defends these moral claims. Thus, Beckwith's arguments do not provide strong support for what he calls the "pro-life" view of abortion.

  8. Defending the Military Food Supply Acquisition, Preparation, and Protection of Food at U.S. Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    former KGB official, with polonium - 210 in 2006.25 However, a number of factors make radiological contamination of food unlikely. First, it is...Defense University September 2009 Defending the Military Food Supply Acquisition, Preparation, and Protection of Food at U.S. Military...DATE SEP 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defending the Military Food Supply Acquisition

  9. Effect of criminal defendant's history of childhood sexual abuse and personality disorder diagnosis on juror decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ebony; Jacquin, Kristine

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether a defendant's history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and/or personality disorder (PD) diagnosis affected juror decision making in a child sexual abuse trial. The PDs in the study were borderline PD and antisocial PD. Participants were 385 college students, 121 men and 264 women, who read a summary of a mock criminal trial and then made various juror decisions. Trial summaries were prepared by the principal investigator and were all uniform in content, length and detail. For the trial, both the defendant's gender and victim's gender were specified. The defendant was male, and the alleged victim was female. When the verdict was assessed, the results yielded that when the defendant's CSA history was presented, juror guilt ratings were higher than when there was no history of CSA. Similarly, when the defendant had a PD diagnosis, there were higher guilt ratings than when there was no PD diagnosis. CSA history and PD diagnosis were significant predictors of guilt ratings, suggesting that jurors perceive defendants more negatively if they have either been sexually abused as a child or have borderline or antisocial PD. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Abuse Is Abuse: The Influence of Type of Abuse, Victim Age, and Defendant Age on Juror Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Chelsea L; Pica, Emily; Pozzulo, Joanna D

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of victim age, defendant age, and type of abuse on mock juror decision making. Mock jurors ( N = 556) read a trial transcript in which a soccer coach was accused of sexual abuse or physical abuse against a player. The victim's age (child, adolescent, or young adult), the defendant's age (young, middle age, or older adult), and the type of abuse (sexual or physical) were varied. Mock jurors provided a dichotomous and continuous verdict and rated their perceptions of the victim and the defendant. Although no differences on mock jurors' dichotomous verdict were found due to victim age, defendant age, or type of abuse, mock jurors provided higher guilt ratings when the abuse was sexual and both the victim and defendant were described as young adults. Similarly, mock jurors rated the victim more positively when the victim was described as a young adult (vs. child) for both sexual and physical abuse cases, and rated the defendant more positively when the victim was described as a child compared with young adult in sexual abuse cases. These findings suggest that mock jurors were largely influenced by victim age, particularly when the victim was described as an adult compared with a child.

  11. Juror Decision-making in Death Penalty Sentencing when Presented with Defendant's History of Child Abuse or Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell Holleran, Lisa L; Vaughan, Tyler J; Vandiver, Donna M

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have found aggravating, mitigating, and null effects of defendant histories of abuse and neglect on punishment preferences in capital sentencing. Perceiving these defendants as more dangerous, jurors may be more likely to favor the death penalty when such evidence is presented. This is counter to the intuition that abuse or neglect reduces culpability, and therefore mitigates the severity of punishment. We investigated the effect of defendant childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect on the probability of a prospective juror preferring the death penalty in an between-subject experimental design. Using vignettes and two large samples (students and jurors), defendant histories were found to mitigate the probability that the hypothetical defendant received the death penalty, with sexual abuse having the most salient effect. Further, the effects were conditioned by preference for the death penalty - larger mitigating effects were observed among individuals who favor the death penalty. These findings suggest that initial judgments of abuse and neglect are related to juror leniency, and further research on the interaction of jury instructions and defendant histories is needed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Securing the virtual environment how to defend the enterprise against attack

    CERN Document Server

    Ottenheimer, Davi

    2012-01-01

    A step-by-step guide to identifying and defending against attacks on the virtual environment As more and more data is moved into virtual environments the need to secure them becomes increasingly important. Useful for service providers as well as enterprise and small business IT professionals the book offers a broad look across virtualization used in various industries as well as a narrow view of vulnerabilities unique to virtual environments. A companion DVD is included with recipes and testing scripts. Examines the difference in a virtual model versus traditional computing models an

  13. Defender of the Faith – hagiography’s topos in the Orthodox Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Dżega

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author wanted to show the specific for Orthodoxy – topos Her defender. As demonstratedby this topos is universal for any kind of holiness. Starting from the Martyrs ending the Hierarchs and Ascetics, inthe Orthodox Church, there is a never-ending battle for Purity of the Faith in Christ. In this paper author have shown thethree main determinants for the Fight of Faith: 1 Holy Zeal, 2 Holy Pride and 3 Holy Insubordination. To confirm histhesis the author gives some examples from the history of the Eastern Orthodox Church. At the same time author usingthe patristic and liturgical texts.

  14. The Top Ten Errors of Martial Artists Defending Against a Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McCurry

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are ten deadly errors which make most empty-handed martial-arts techniques against a knife ineffective. The principal error stems from the fact that few present-day martial systems teach the blade. The premise of this article is that to effectively defend against a knife, you need to know how to use one. The purpose of this article is to motivate martial arts instructors to analyze more critically their unarmed knife defense techniques based on a clear understanding of the use of the knife, and to reawaken interest in the blade arts in the martial arts community.

  15. Determining a Criminal Defendant's Competency to Proceed With an Extradition Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Jennifer; Finkle, Michael J; Giske, Megan; Leong, Gregory B

    2015-06-01

    When a criminal defendant flees from one state (often referred to as the requesting state) to another (often referred to as the asylum state), the requesting state can demand that the asylum state return the defendant through a process called extradition. Only a handful of states have considered a fugitive's right to be competent to proceed with an extradition hearing. Those states fall into three categories. Some states apply the same standard as in criminal trial competency cases. Others apply a more limited competency standard. Two have found that a fugitive has no right to be competent to proceed in an extradition hearing. The particular legal test adopted affects the nature and scope of the competency evaluation conducted by the psychiatrist or psychologist in the extradition hearing. In addition, we are not aware of any state that has considered what happens to the fugitive if he is ultimately found not competent to proceed. Legislation, either state by state or through amendments to the Uniform Criminal Extradition Act, can provide the legal and psychiatric communities with guidance in assessing competency initially and in taking appropriate steps if the fugitive is ultimately found not competent. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  16. Cognitive functioning and adjudicative competence: defendants referred for neuropsychological evaluation in a psychiatric inpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Beth C; Marcopulos, Bernice A; Brand, Jesse G; Campbell, Kristen T; Kent, Julie-Ann

    2017-11-01

    A paucity of peer-reviewed research exists regarding the relation between cognitive functioning and adjudicative competence, despite increasing awareness of cognitive deficits associated with serious mental illness. This retrospective study sought to add to and expand upon existing research by considering performance validity and court determinations of competence, when available. We compared demographic and cognitive variables of a group of defendants with presumed valid testing admitted to an inpatient psychiatric facility for evaluation of adjudicative competence and referred for neuropsychological evaluation (n = 45) and compared individuals determined by the evaluator and/or the court to be competent (n = 30) and incompetent (n = 15). Defendants who were incompetent were more likely to be diagnosed with a cognitive disorder, with a medium effect size. There was a difference in tests of immediate and delayed memory as measured by the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), with medium to large effects, and high delayed memory scores were helpful in ruling out incompetence (Negative predictive power = 85.71%). These results provide support for the relationship between cognitive functioning and trial competence, particularly at high and low levels of performance.

  17. The relationship between sympatric defended species depends upon predators' discriminatory behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina G Halpin

    Full Text Available Toxic prey species living in the same environment have long been thought to mutually benefit from having the same warning signal by sharing the education of naïve predators. In contrast, 'saturation theory' predicts that predators are physiologically limited by the amount of toxin that they can eat in a given time period. Therefore, sympatric species that contain the same toxin should mutually benefit from reduced predation even when they are visually distinct, reducing the benefits to visual mimicry. For the first time, we found that mutualism can occur between unequally defended prey that are visually distinct, although the benefits to each prey type depends on the predators' abilities and/or motivation to visually discriminate between them. Furthermore, we found that this variability in predatory behaviour had a significant impact on the benefits of mimicry for unequally defended prey. Our results demonstrate that variability in the foraging decisions of predators can have a significant effect on the benefits of shared toxicity and visual mimicry between sympatric species, and highlights the need to consider how predators exert selection pressures on models and mimics over their entire lifetimes.

  18. Helman defends decision to pull VA sponsorship of Veterans day parade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Sharon Helman, Phoenix VA Director, defended her decision to cancel VA sponsorship of the annual Phoenix Veterans Day Parade in a 4/10/13 email to VA employees. Helman said that VA sponsorship was cancelled because of “…priorities in the organization (specifically access, and heightened awareness over liability concerns which VA Legal Counsel brought forward”. She concluded her letter by warning “… that all media inquiries should be forwarded to Paul Coupaud, Acting Public Affairs Officer”. VA officials initially said fear of litigation prompted the review of VA support. Last year, a float carrying wounded Veterans in a Midland, Texas, parade collided with a freight train, killing four and injuring 17. Crash victims and their families filed lawsuits in Texas against Union Pacific Railroad and the float owner. The VA was not a defendant, and the VA has not issued any national directives on liability as a result of the tragedy.In…

  19. How Systems Engineering and Risk Management Defend Against Murphy's Law and Human Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Michael; Connley, Warren

    2004-01-01

    Systems Engineering and Risk Management processes can work synergistically to defend against the causes of many mission ending failures. Defending against mission ending failures is facilitated by fostering a team that has a healthy respect for Murphy's Law and a team with a of curiosity for how things work, how they can fail, and what they need to know. This curiosity is channeled into making the unknowns known or what is uncertain more certain. Efforts to assure mission success require the expenditure of energy in the following areas: 1. Understanding what defines Mission Success as guided by the customer's needs, objectives and constraints. 2. Understanding how the system is supposed to work and how the system is to be produced, fueled by the curiosity of how the system should work and how it should be produced. 3. Understanding how the system can fail and how the system might not be produced on time and within cost, fueled by the curiosity of how the system might fail and how production might be difficult. 4. Understanding what we need to know and what we need learn for proper completion of the above three items, fueled by the curiosity of what we might not know in order to make the best decisions.

  20. Effects of Mental Health and Neuroscience Evidence on Juror Perceptions of a Criminal Defendant: the Moderating Role of Political Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowle, Elyse N; Edens, John F; Clark, John W; Sörman, Karolina

    2016-11-01

    Several recent studies have examined the effects of mental health and neuroscientific evidence on attitudes toward criminal defendants, suggesting that these factors may influence juror decision-making in meaningful ways. Few studies to date have manipulated both of these variables while also considering theoretically important individual difference variables (e.g., political orientation). Using a criminal case simulation, this study manipulated the presence of evidence concerning mental disorders (psychopathy and schizophrenia) and increasing levels of neuroscientific detail regarding a defendant's brain injury, and examined verdicts and sentencing recommendations in over 400 persons attending jury duty. Main effects were detected for mental health testimony and political orientation, although interactions were noted as well. More negative reactions to defendants labeled as psychopaths were relatively consistent, whereas participants who identified as liberal generally were less punitive towards a defendant identified as schizophrenic than were more conservative jurors. Consistent with other recent research, juror perceptions of the defendant's level of psychopathic traits (independent of the effects of the experimental manipulations) predicted guilty verdicts and longer sentencing recommendations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Crime and Punishment: the Impact of Skin Color and Socioeconomic Status of Defendants and Victims in Jury Trials in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rogério Ferreira; Oliveira Lima, Marcus Eugênio

    2016-11-14

    Social judgments are often influenced by racism. Voluntary crimes against life, and in particular the crime of homicide, may be the most critical situations of the impact of racism in social judgments. We analyzed 114 homicide trials conducted by the 1st Jury Court, in a Brazilian judicial capital, concluded between 2003 and 2007, for the purpose of investigating the effects of skin color and the socioeconomic status of the defendant and the victim of homicides in the jury trial court's decision. The results indicate that the social and economic profile of defendants and victims of homicide is identical. They are almost all poor (more than 70%), with low education (more than 73%) and frequently non-Whites (more than 88%). We found that judges assign longer sentences to black (β = .34, p = .01) and poor defendants (β = .23, p socioeconomic status in social judgments and in discrimination.

  2. How do defendants choose their trial court? Evidence for a heuristic processing account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep K. Dhami

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In jurisdictions with two or more tiers of criminal courts, some defendants can choose the type of trial court to be tried in. This may involve a trade-off between the probability of acquittal/conviction and the estimated severity of sentence if convicted. For instance, in England and Wales, the lower courts have a higher conviction rate but limited sentencing powers, whereas the higher courts have a higher acquittal rate but greater sentencing powers. We examined 255 offenders' choice of trial court type using a hypothetical scenario where innocence and guilt was manipulated. Participants' choices were better predicted by a lexicographic than utility maximization model. A greater proportion of ``guilty'' participants chose the lower court compared to their ``innocent'' counterparts, and estimated sentence length was more important to the former than latter group. The present findings provide further support for heuristic decision-making in the criminal justice domain, and have implications for legal policy-making.

  3. CSAIO: exchanging experience to better defend the interests of the staff

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Two representatives of the CERN Staff Association took part in the 15th Annual Conference of Staff Associations of International Organizations (CSAIO), which took place on Thursday 16th and Friday 17th of October in one of the centres of the European Space Agency (ESA) in Frascati (Italy). The CSAIO brings together staff representatives from international organizations based in Europe, as well as institutions of the European Union, in order to promote and defend the interests of their personnel. This allows the CERN Staff Association to follow the evolution of working and social conditions in other organizations. This year, 51 delegates from about 30 organizations travelled to Frascati to attend the conference. Themes addressed at the conference were: Salary adjustment method presentations: European Commission, CERN, European Council, and FICSA (Federation of International Civil Servants’ Association). Performance evaluation presentations: OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and...

  4. Cognitive Architecture and the Epistemic Gap: Defending Physicalism without Phenomenal Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The novel approach presented in this paper accounts for the occurrence of the epistemic gap and defends physicalism against anti-physicalist arguments without relying on so-called phenomenal concepts. Instead of concentrating on conceptual features, the focus is shifted to the special...... characteristics of experiences themselves. To this extent, the account provided is an alternative to the Phenomenal Concept Strategy. It is argued that certain sensory representations, as accessed by higher cognition, lack constituent structure. Unstructured representations could freely exchange their causal...... to pose a serious problem for contemporary physicalism. I conclude that if those concepts which are related to the phenomenal character of conscious experience are special in any way, their characteristics are derivative of and can be accounted for in terms of the cognitive and representational features...

  5. A novel fiber-optical vibration defending system with on-line intelligent identification function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huijuan; Xie, Xin; Li, Hanyu; Li, Xiaoyu; Wu, Yu; Gong, Yuan; Rao, Yunjiang

    2013-09-01

    Capacity of the sensor network is always a bottleneck problem for the novel FBG-based quasi-distributed fiberoptical defending system. In this paper, a highly sensitive sensing network with FBG vibration sensors is presented to relieve stress of the capacity and the system cost. However, higher sensitivity may cause higher Nuisance Alarm Rates (NARs) in practical uses. It is necessary to further classify the intrusion pattern or threat level and determine the validity of an unexpected event. Then an intelligent identification method is proposed by extracting the statistical features of the vibration signals in the time domain, and inputting them into a 3-layer Back-Propagation(BP) Artificial Neural Network to classify the events of interest. Experiments of both simulation and field tests are carried out to validate its effectiveness. The results show the recognition rate can be achieved up to 100% for the simulation signals and as high as 96.03% in the real tests.

  6. Defending Democracy: Citizen Participation in Election Monitoring in Post-Authoritarian Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Suryani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The collapse of the authoritarian regime in 1998 has made Indonesia as one of the most democratic country in Southeast Asia. To ensure the quality of democracy, in particular electoral democracy, supervision and monitoring of elections has a veryimportant role. Although the Badan Pengawas Pemilu (Bawaslu or Election Supervisory Body of Indonesiahas experienced institutional strengthening, this institution has not yet become effective in supervisingand monitoring the elections. Therefore, electionmonitoring conducted by non-state agencies, particularly the citizens become important to complement the performance of Bawaslu. This article aimsto explore how the election monitoring conducted by citizens in the aftermath of post authoritarian era,affect the quality of Indonesian democracy. This article argues that although the citizen participation in monitoring the elections is likely to decline, but thecrowd sourced method that appeared in the 2014election has succeeded in improving the quality of the electoral process as well as defending the democratic regime in Indonesia.

  7. Vivisecting Major: a Victorian gentleman scientist defends animal experimentation, 1876-1885.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddice, Rob

    2011-06-01

    Through an investigation of the public, professional, and private life of the Darwinian disciple George John Romanes, this essay seeks a better understanding of the scientific motivations for defending the practice of vivisection at the height of the controversy in late Victorian Britain. Setting aside a historiography that has tended to focus on the arguments of antivivisectionists, it reconstructs the viewpoint of the scientific community through an examination of Romanes's work to help orchestrate the defense of animal experimentation. By embedding his life in three complicatedly overlapping networks-the world of print, interpersonal communications among an increasingly professionalized body of scientific men, and the intimacies of private life-the essay uses Romanes as a lens with which to focus the physiological apprehension of the antivivisection movement. It is a story of reputation, self-interest, and affection.

  8. 'Case reporting of rare adverse events in otolaryngology': can we defend the case report?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dias, Andrew

    2012-01-31

    The study of errors in medicine has proliferated since the publication of The Institute of Medicine Report \\'TO ERR IS HUMAN\\' in 2000. Case nuances and process of care issues are valuable areas to explore if the goal is to provide the health care worker with the knowledge to avoid future errors. Meta-analysis and randomized controlled trials provide a large data base of evidence towards improvement and opportunities, but it is suggested that case reports can still provide valuable clinical information. The aim is to use the published literature to produce a series of rare harm case reports in E.N.T. The methods include systematic literature review. Journals searched in PUBMED were 60. Rare harm case obtained from the search were 5,322. Rare harm case reports not reported in any other form of evidence-based medicine were 40. Yes, the case report can be defended as it is an important pillar of evidence-based medicine.

  9. Nuclear Medical Science Officers: Army Health Physicists Serving and Defending Their Country Around the Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Mark; Bosley, William; Santiago, Jodi; Hamilton, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Tracing their distinguished history back to the Manhattan Project that developed the world's first atomic bomb, the Nuclear Medical Science Officers are the Army's experts on radiation and its health effects. Serving around the globe, these commissioned Army officers serve as military health physicists that ensure the protection of Soldiers and those they defend against all sources of radiation, military and civilian. This poster will highlight the various roles and responsibilities that Nuclear Medical Science Officers fill in defense of the Nation. Areas where these officers serve include medical health physics, deployment health physics, homeland defense, emergency response, radiation dosimetry, radiation research and training, along with support to the Army's corporate radiation safety program and international collaborations. The poster will also share some of the unique military sources of radiation such as depleted uranium, which is used as an anti-armor munition and in armor plating because of its unique metallurgic properties. )

  10. When Can Forensic Psychologists Comment on the Credibility of Criminal Defendants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Flores de Apodaca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forensic psychological examiners are often confronted with assessments in the guilt phase of criminal cases in which a Defendant denies his/her charged conduct, but the existing evidence clearly contradicts their account. This happens often in cases involving charges of violence, sex offending and or substance abuse (Langton, Barbaree, Harkins, Arenovich, McNamee & Peacock, 2008. What is the proper role of the examiner in such instances?; granting the benefit of the doubt and accepting the Defendant’s account, using the one contained in the differing evidence, or making an independent judgment about which is more likely to be true? Does accepting any version mean the expert is offering an opinion on the Ultimate Issue in the case, and encroaching on the role of the Trier of Fact? The Federal Rules of Evidence (FREE dictate that judgments about Ultimate Issues belong solely to the Trier of Fact, yet the DSM-5 Manual (APA, 2013 instructs us to consider Malingering in every forensic situation; i.e. is the Defendant being honest about his mental state, and by implication, his/her credibility?  Our recommendation is that examiners offer no opinions about which conflicting version in a criminal case is the more credible during the guilt phase, and instead, offer “if, then” assessments about a Defendant’s propensity for violence or sexual offending; i.e. if the charges are true, then s/he poses certain levels of risk going forward, for reasons detailed in the report. Such a stance avoids experts “taking sides” during the guilt phase of a case and allows them to fully inform the adversarial, legal process as it deliberates on possible Plea Bargains or Sentencing decisions. We argue that this impartial approach serves a useful function in legal proceedings while adhering to our Ethical Guidelines (APA, 2010.

  11. Feigned Symptoms among Defendants Claiming Psychiatric Problems: Survey of 45 Malingerers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Saberi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In many jurisdictions, psychiatric problems are intended for commutation. Therefore, a forensic psychiatrist has an important role in detection of malingering. While several studies evaluate diagnostic tests, it is less known what symptoms are more likely to be imitated by malingerers.Method: In a prospective study [t1] 45 [t2] malingerers, who were diagnosed according to interviews by two forensic psychiatrists, from defendants [t3] with a judicial order for evaluation of mental status and criminal responsibility during a period of eighteen months were examined in legal medicine center of Tehran.[t4] [t5] Participants were assessed in another interview to determine symptoms. Dichotomous symptoms in felony and misdemeanor groups were analyzed using fisher’s exact test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. [t6] Results: Thirty-eight malingerers were charged with misdemeanors and seven with felonies. Behavioral symptoms were most frequently faked by 35 participants (77.8%. Participants charged with criminal accusation had a significantly lower mean age (P=0.032 and a higher level of education (P=0.008 than other non-criminal defendants. A statistically significant increase in memory function problems was demonstrated in the misdemeanor group (P=0.040. With regard to dual symptom imitation, statistically significant correlations were observed between thought content and perceptual symptoms (P=0.048 for felonies and mood & affect and thought process symptoms (P=0.034, mood & affect and behavioral symptoms (P=0.000 and cognitive function and behavioral symptoms (P=0.039 for misdemeanors. In general, many simulators attempted to mimic simple symptoms of behavioral disorders. Probably felony offenses need less accurate programming; therefore, their rates are higher in older, less educated participants.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that differences between presenting symptoms among different offenses may not be

  12. Reis kosmosesse : [Floating-kambrist] / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2011-01-01

    Ameerika psühholoogi John C. Lilly poolt kasutusele võetud Floating-kambrist ehk hõljumisvannist, mis aeglustab ajulaineid ning seeläbi aitab vähendada lihaspinget, stressi, ärevust, peavalusid, vererõhku ning parandada und, selgroo- ja kaelavigastusi, suurendada loovust ja heaolu jne

  13. Liival etenduvad vangide elulood / Marika Raiski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raiski, Marika

    2000-01-01

    Merle Karusoo 12 vangi elulugu käsitlevast dokumentaallavastusest "Save Our Souls", mis tuleb ettekandele 31. mail Tallinnas Liiva keskuses. Etenduses osalevad Vene Draamateatri ja Narva Teatri Ilmarine näitlejad. Eestvedajaks on VAT Teater

  14. Siledaks ja saledaks skalpellita / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2013-01-01

    Eestis enamlevinud protsetuuridest kortsude silumiseks, naha noorendamiseks, keha salendamiseks ja juuste kohendamiseks: botox-süstid, hüaloroonhappesüstid, fotonoorendus, lasernoorendus, velashape tselluliidihooldus, kavitatsioon, tahe magic botox vananemisvastane juuksehooldus

  15. Pensionitõus ja pangad / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Videvik 16. märts lk. 3, Vali Uudised 17. märts lk. 2, Meie Maa 18. märts lk. 2, Virumaa Teataja, Pärnu Postimees, Harjumaa, Põhjarannik, Severnoje Poberezhje 21. märts lk. 11,19,7,2,5, Nädaline 28. märts lk. 3. 1. apr. viiakse läbi teine uue valitsuse erakonnaline pensionitõus. Pangad on laenuandmise vanusepiirangut kergitanud 10 aasta võrra

  16. Appi, pea lõhub / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Vestlusest Ida-Tallinna Keskhaigla neuroloogiaosakonna juhataja ja peavalukeskuse rajaja dr Toomas Toomsooga ning Aurea ajurveeda- ja massaažikeskuse ajurveedaarsti Aleksandr Dreljoviga peavalust: peavalu ravi india ajurveeda seisukohalt, läänemeditsiini peavalu tüübid ning nende ravi jne

  17. "Ravimiohutus - rahva tervise kaitseks" / Marika Gordon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gordon, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Ajakirja “Apteeker” ja Eesti Akadeemilise Farmaatsia Seltsi kevadkonverentsi ettekandeid kommenteerivad MEDA Pharma SIA Eesti juhataja Anu Adermann, Apteekide infotehnoloogia OÜ juhataja Siim Uibokand, Pärnu Lõvi apteegi juhataja Kärt Kambla ja Eesti Haigekassa ravimiosakonna peaspetsialist Erki Laidmäe

  18. Alaealise õigus abordile / Marika Žmenja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Žmenja, Marika

    2014-01-01

    1. jaanuaril 2009 jõustusid raseduse katkestamise ja steriliseerimise seaduse muudatused, mille järgi alaealise raseduse katkestamiseks on vaja lisaks tema enda sooviavaldusele saada ka eestkostja nõusolek või kohtu luba. Alaealise õigusest eraelu kaitsele inimõiguste ja põhivabaduste kaitse konventsiooni ja Euroopa Kohtu praktika alusel

  19. Eesti tervishoid - Euroopa punane latern / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Nädaline 3. märts lk. 4, Elva Postipoiss 5. märts lk. 4, Valgamaalane 12. märts lk. 2, Hiiu Leht 8. apr. lk. 2. Autori sõnul on Eesti tervishoiu rahastamise poolest Euroopas viimasel kohal, kulutades selleks alla 5% SKP-st

  20. Eesti seadused kolivad igaveseks internetti / Marika Seppius

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Seppius, Marika, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    1. jaanuarist 2007 on elektrooniline Riigi Teataja ainus ametlik väljaanne. Sama ka: Põhjarannik 26. juuli 2005, lk. 2 ; Virumaa Teataja 28. juuli 2005, lk. 7 ; Võrumaa Teataja 30. juuli 2005, lk. 2 ; Sakala 4. aug. 2005, lk. 2 ; Pärnu Postimees 4. aug. 2005, lk. 15 ; Vooremaa 4. aug. 2005, lk. 2 ; Valgamaalane 11. aug. 2005, lk. 2 ; Koit 13. aug. 2005, lk. 6

  1. Tõde pensionide kojukande kohta / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2008-01-01

    Pensionide kojukande muudatustest ning vastuseks 28. oktoobri ajalehes ilmunud Heljo Pikhofi artiklile "Pensioniraha jõuab igaüheni". Ilmunud ka Harju Ekspress 7. nov. 2008, lk. 9 ; Põhjarannik 6. nov. 2008, lk. 2 ; Võrumaa Teataja 8. nov. 2008, lk. 2 ; Pärnu Postimees 6. nov. 2008, lk. 11 ; Vooremaa 13. nov. 2008, lk. 2 ; Virumaa Teataja 21. nov. 2008, lk. 11, pealkiri kujul: veel pensionide kojukandest ; Sõnumitooja 12. nov. 2008, lk. 2

  2. Who establishes the presence of a mental disorder in defendants : Medicolegal considerations on a European court of human rights case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijmans, Tijs; Meynen, Gerben

    2017-01-01

    Legal insanity is a peculiar element of criminal law, because it brings together two very different disciplines: psychiatry and psychology on the one hand and the law on the other. One of the basic questions regarding evaluations of defendants concerns the question of who should establish “true

  3. Unique and Interactive Effects of Moral Emotions and Moral Disengagement on Bullying and Defending among School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert; Pozzoli, Tiziana; Gianluca, Gini; Jungert, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to examine in a single model how moral disengagement and moral emotions were related to bullying and defending behavior among schoolchildren. The second aim was to test whether the two moral dimensions interacted with each other to explain behavior in bullying situations. Data were collected from 561 Swedish…

  4. The Utility of the MMPI-2 Malingering Discriminant Function Index in the Detection of Malingering: A Study of Criminal Defendants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Joseph A.; Kucharski, L. Thomas; Duncan, Scott

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2's (MMPI-2) malingering discriminant function index (M-DFI), recently developed by Bacchiochi and Bagby, in the detection of malingering in a forensic sample. Criminal defendants were divided into "malingering" and "not malingering" groups using…

  5. Case note: ECHR (Animal Defenders International v UK: App no 48876/08: Political Advertising Bans and Freedom of Expression)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ó Fathaigh, R.

    2013-01-01

    In Animal Defenders International v UK, the 17-judge Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the UK’s ban on political advertising on television, as applied to an animal rights organisation, did not violate freedom of expression. The Court divided nine votes to eight, with the

  6. Active Defending and Passive Bystanding Behavior in Bullying: The Role of Personal Characteristics and Perceived Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Tiziana; Gini, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of pro-victim attitudes, personal responsibility, coping responses to observations of bullying, and perceived peer normative pressure in explaining defending the victim and passive bystanding behavior in bullying. A total of 462 Italian early adolescents (mean age = 13.4 years, SD = 9 months) participated in the study.…

  7. Battling for the household's category buck : Can economy private labels defend supermakets against the hard-discounter threat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, M.J.J.; Gijsbrechts, Els; Campo, K.

    Traditional grocery retailers often use price-based strategies to defend against hard-discounters (HDs). One increasingly-popular approach is the introduction of an economy private label (EPL), which provides similar or even larger price advantages over national brands than HD products. However, the

  8. Formal Criteria for the Concept of Human Flourishing: The First Step in Defending Flourishing as an Ideal Aim of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbert, Lynne S.; de Ruyter, Doret J.; Schinkel, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Human flourishing is the topic of an increasing number of books and articles in educational philosophy. Flourishing should be regarded as an ideal aim of education. If this is defended, the first step should be to elucidate what is meant by flourishing, and what exactly the concept entails. Listing formal criteria can facilitate reflection on the…

  9. Classroom Norms of Bullying Alter the Degree to Which Children Defend in Response to Their Affective Empathy and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peets, Kätlin; Pöyhönen, Virpi; Juvonen, Jaana; Salmivalli, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether the degree to which bullying is normative in the classroom would moderate associations between "intra"- (cognitive and affective empathy, self-efficacy beliefs) and "inter"personal (popularity) factors and defending behavior. Participants were 6,708 third- to fifth-grade children (49% boys;…

  10. Behind bullying and defending : Same-sex and other-sex relations and their associations with acceptance and rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, René; Verlinden, Marina; Huitsing, Gijs; Verhulst, Frank; Tiemeier, Henning

    Relatively little is known about bullying and defending behaviors of children in early elementary school. However, this period is crucial for children's development as at this age they start to participate in a stable peer group, and difficulties in social interactions can be detected early by

  11. Classroom relationship qualities and social-cognitive correlates of defending and passive bystanding in school bullying in Sweden: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert; Wänström, Linda; Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2017-08-01

    Using the social-ecological and social cognitive theories as integrated guiding frameworks, the present study examined whether moral disengagement and defender self-efficacy at the individual level, and moral disengagement, quality of teacher-student relationships and quality of student-student relationships at the classroom level were associated with passive bystanding and defending in bullying situations. Participants were 900 Swedish students from 43 classrooms, ranging in age from 9 to 13years. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that passive reactions by bystanders were associated with greater moral disengagement and less defender self-efficacy. Defending, in turn, was associated with less moral disengagement and greater defender self-efficacy and classroom student-student relationship quality. Furthermore, students who scored high in moral disengagement were even less prone to defend victims when the classroom student-student relationship quality was low, but more prone to act as defenders when the classroom student-student relationship quality was high. In addition, the negative association between defender self-efficacy and passive bystanding was stronger both in classrooms with higher student-student relationship quality and in those with lower class moral disengagement. Implications for prevention are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. All rights reserved.

  12. State-Propagated Narratives about a National Defender in Central Asian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Marat

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between narratives propagated by the state about a historical national hero and a contemporary soldier's professional ideology in the post-Soviet Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. It argues that while elite-maintained mass publishing of cohesive narratives about a vividly drawn historical persona, male and warrior, trigger at raising a loyal soldier unified with his compatriots on the basis of cultural values and objects of loyalty, state elites seek to link a contemporary army recruit with his historical predecessors who fought for unity, integrity, and  dominance of the nation. But the link inevitably merges with ethno-centric ideas of protecting the cultural community identified with the narrative, as opposed to a physical entity within the state borders. State elites  reinforce the significance of military experience of the titular ethnic entity in accordance with their own political interests. Narratives about a national defender articulate what the political elites expect from the military service but are restrained from depicting in official policy documents. In order to reach effective results, the Central Asian states retained the same Soviet tools of cultivating patriotism as the basis for the army's internal discipline, but primordial characters have also been incorporated into the indoctrination.

  13. Critical review of the equipment hatch of a large dry steel containment. The DEFENDER IMPROVEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantega, F.; Penno, E.; Vanini, P.

    1994-01-01

    Performances of the Containment System under Severe Accident conditions depend on a number of different features and components. The equipment hatch may be considered a critical component because it is a potential main contributor to the total Containment leak rate during a Severe accident and a potential (depending on the design) direct leak path between the containment atmosphere and the environment. The analytical study performed to anticipate the response of the equipment hatch of a large dry steel containment under Severe Accident condition has pointed out some questions of concern. The possible leak tightness failure mechanism are related to: the gaskets elastic characteristics degradation due to thermal and radiological aging; the deformation of the hatch sleeve induced by the containment wall; and the differential expansion between gasket material and steel. Beside, the equipment hatch may be considered a single barrier and although it is equipped with two gaskets, it is not difficult to demonstrate that a backup function cannot be assigned to the external gasket. For these reason it seems to be necessary to realize a wider application of the 'Defence in Depth' criteria in the design of this component. The DEFENDER (DEFENce in Depth Equipment hatch Requalification) might be a solution to increase the margin of safety of the equipment hatch under the Severe Accident condition. (author)

  14. Power, Process, and Protection: Juveniles as Defendants in the Justice System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolard, Jennifer L; Henning, Kristin; Fountain, Erika

    The juvenile court was created in 1899 in part to remedy the unfairness of trying youth in the adult criminal justice system, but its success at rectifying those problems is unclear. One concern is that the vast majority of youth who are adjudicated delinquent are adjudicated after waiving their right to trial and entering a guilty plea. Fairness and equity in the plea bargaining process are premised on the assumption that youth have the capacity to understand and elect between available options and will be given a meaningful opportunity to choose without coercion and deception. In legal terms, the Constitution will only sanction a plea when the defendant makes a knowing, voluntary, and intelligent waiver of her right to trial. In this chapter, we briefly describe the juvenile court process and explain the circumstances of a plea bargain, which constitutes both a waiver of Constitutional rights and an agreement to certain conditions. Then we evaluate the research and practice knowledge regarding the legal components of a valid waiver-that it must be knowing and voluntary. We consider how information, capacity, and circumstance contribute to a knowing waiver. Then we examine how procedural justice, paternalism, and coercion may affect a voluntary waiver. Throughout, we consider whether the people, policies, and practices meant to assess and safeguard that waiver decision fulfill their intended purpose. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. DEFENDER: Detecting and Forecasting Epidemics Using Novel Data-Analytics for Enhanced Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Thapen

    Full Text Available In recent years social and news media have increasingly been used to explain patterns in disease activity and progression. Social media data, principally from the Twitter network, has been shown to correlate well with official disease case counts. This fact has been exploited to provide advance warning of outbreak detection, forecasting of disease levels and the ability to predict the likelihood of individuals developing symptoms. In this paper we introduce DEFENDER, a software system that integrates data from social and news media and incorporates algorithms for outbreak detection, situational awareness and forecasting. As part of this system we have developed a technique for creating a location network for any country or region based purely on Twitter data. We also present a disease nowcasting (forecasting the current but still unknown level approach which leverages counts from multiple symptoms, which was found to improve the nowcasting accuracy by 37 percent over a model that used only previous case data. Finally we attempt to forecast future levels of symptom activity based on observed user movement on Twitter, finding a moderate gain of 5 percent over a time series forecasting model.

  16. Song sparrows Melospiza melodia have a home-field advantage in defending against sympatric malarial parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarquis-Adamson, Yanina

    2016-01-01

    Hosts and parasites interact on both evolutionary and ecological timescales. The outcome of these interactions, specifically whether hosts are more resistant to their local parasites (sympatric) than to parasites from another location (allopatric), is likely to affect the spread of infectious disease and the fitness consequences of host dispersal. We conducted a cross-infection experiment to determine whether song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) have an advantage in dealing with sympatric parasites. We captured birds from two breeding sites 437 km apart, and inoculated them with avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) cultured either from their capture site or from the other site. Infection risk was lower for birds exposed to sympatric than to allopatric Plasmodium lineages, suggesting that song sparrows may have a home-field advantage in defending against local parasite strains. This pattern was more pronounced at one capture site than at the other, consistent with mosaic models of host–parasite interactions. Home-field advantage may arise from evolutionary processes, whereby host populations become adapted to their local parasites, and/or from ecological interactions, whereby host individuals develop resistance to the local parasites through previous immune exposure. Our findings suggest that greater susceptibility to novel parasites may represent a fitness consequence of natal dispersal. PMID:27853596

  17. Defending a single object against an attacker trying to detect a subset of false targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, R.; Zhai, Q.Q.; Levitin, G.

    2016-01-01

    Deployment of false targets can be a very important and effective measure for enhancing the survivability of an object subjected to intentional attacks. Existing papers have assumed that false targets are either perfect or can be detected with a constant probability. In practice, the attacker may allocate part of its budget into intelligence actions trying to detect a subset of false targets. Analogously, the defender can allocate part of its budget into disinformation actions to prevent the false targets from being detected. In this paper, the detection probability of each false target is assumed to be a function of the intelligence and disinformation efforts allocated on the false target. The optimal resource distribution between target identification/disinformation and attack/protection efforts is studied as solutions of a non-cooperative two period min–max game between the two competitors for the case of constrained defense and attack resources. - Highlights: • A defense-attack problem is studied as a two-period min–max game. • Both intelligence contest over false targets and impact contest are considered. • Optimal defense and attack strategies are investigated with different parameters.

  18. Defending the social value of knowledge as a safeguard for public trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Felicitas S

    2017-09-01

    The 'socially valuable knowledge' (SVK) principle has been widely acknowledged as one of the most important guiding principles for biomedical research involving human subjects. The principle states that the potential of producing socially valuable knowledge is a necessary requirement, although not sufficient, for the ethical conduct of research projects. This is due to the assumption that the social value of knowledge avoids exploitation of research subjects and justifies the use of health resources. However, more recently, several authors have started interrogating the validity of SVK in research and offered various lines of argument against the SVK principle as a necessary constraint to research. In this article, I will reconstruct the main arguments of this discussion between defenders and debunkers of the SVK principle and offer a third way to consider the social value of knowledge in research studies. I will argue that the social value of knowledge can be supported by an independent justification. This justification of the SVK principle addresses the rationality and common interest of researchers. Thus, I will introduce the SVK principle as a safeguarding principle for public trust based on a conceptual framework by Alex John London. My approach justifies keeping the principle as a precautionary and rational requirement for human health research that all rational stakeholders can agree upon. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Propagation Modeling and Defending of a Mobile Sensor Worm in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Wu, Qun; Wen, Sheng; Cai, Yiqiao; Tian, Hui; Chen, Yonghong; Wang, Baowei

    2017-01-13

    WSANs (Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks) are derived from traditional wireless sensor networks by introducing mobile actuator elements. Previous studies indicated that mobile actuators can improve network performance in terms of data collection, energy supplementation, etc. However, according to our experimental simulations, the actuator's mobility also causes the sensor worm to spread faster if an attacker launches worm attacks on an actuator and compromises it successfully. Traditional worm propagation models and defense strategies did not consider the diffusion with a mobile worm carrier. To address this new problem, we first propose a microscopic mathematical model to describe the propagation dynamics of the sensor worm. Then, a two-step local defending strategy (LDS) with a mobile patcher (a mobile element which can distribute patches) is designed to recover the network. In LDS, all recovering operations are only taken in a restricted region to minimize the cost. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our model estimations are rather accurate and consistent with the actual spreading scenario of the mobile sensor worm. Moreover, on average, the LDS outperforms other algorithms by approximately 50% in terms of the cost.

  20. Ask the Experts: How Can New Students Defend Behavior Analysis from Misunderstandings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becirevic, Amel

    2014-10-01

    The success of behavior analysis as a field depends on the successes of its students, researchers, practitioners, and advocates. A new generation of graduate students will ultimately speak on the behalf of the field. In order to further promote the field, students must not only learn about what behavior analysis is, but also about what behavior analysis is not. We must prepare ourselves to adequately defend behavior analysis from those who disseminate misperceptions and misunderstandings. As such, an electronic survey designed to glean some information on how behavior analysts would respond to various inaccuracies or misunderstandings of behavior analysis was distributed through behavior-analytic listservs and social media websites. Findings show that the majority of respondents indicate that any graduate student ought to correct the misunderstandings about the field. What do seasoned behavior analysts have to say about the majority opinion about the responsibilities of graduate students and what recommendations do they have for new graduate students who come across misunderstandings about behavior analysis?

  1. Protecting the fair trial rights of mentally disordered defendants in criminal proceedings: Exploring the need for further EU action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Peter; Vermeulen, Gert; Meysman, Michaël; Vander Beken, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Using the new legal basis provided by the Lisbon Treaty, the Council of the European Union has endorsed the 2009 Procedural Roadmap for strengthening the procedural rights of suspected or accused persons in criminal proceedings. This Roadmap has so far resulted in six measures from which specific procedural minimum standards have been and will be adopted or negotiated. So far, only Measure E directly touches on the specific issue of vulnerable persons. This Measure has recently produced a tentative result through a Commission Recommendation on procedural safeguards for vulnerable persons in criminal proceedings. This contribution aims to discuss the need for the introduction of binding minimum standards throughout Europe to provide additional protection for mentally disordered defendants. The paper will examine whether or not the member states adhere to existing fundamental norms and standards in this context, and whether the application of these norms and standards should be made more uniform. For this purpose, the procedural situation of mentally disordered defendants in Belgium and England and Wales will be thoroughly explored. The research establishes that Belgian law is unsatisfactory in the light of the Strasbourg case law, and that the situation in practice in England and Wales indicates not only that there is justifiable doubt about whether fundamental principles are always adhered to, but also that these principles should become more anchored in everyday practice. It will therefore be argued that there is a need for putting Measure E into practice. The Commission Recommendation, though only suggestive, may serve as a necessary and inspirational vehicle to improve the procedural rights of mentally disordered defendants and to ensure that member states are able to cooperate within the mutual recognition framework without being challenged on the grounds that they are collaborating with peers who do not respect defendants' fundamental fair trial rights

  2. Defending Against Opposed Patterns of Resistant: Can Past Cultural Lessons in Armed Conflict Help U.S. Identify, Defend, Adapt, or Exploit Notions of Resistant With New Adversaries Like ISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    experienced in Sri Lanka, the “Birds of Paradise ” women combatants and suicide bombers were successfully able to exploit gender bias...research paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the US government or the Department of Defense. In...contact and how might we defend them or exploit them without compromising our own notions? This research paper evaluates current events and identifies

  3. Evaluation of risk from acts of terrorism :the adversary/defender model using belief and fuzzy sets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2006-09-01

    Risk from an act of terrorism is a combination of the likelihood of an attack, the likelihood of success of the attack, and the consequences of the attack. The considerable epistemic uncertainty in each of these three factors can be addressed using the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty from the Dempster/Shafer theory of evidence. The adversary determines the likelihood of the attack. The success of the attack and the consequences of the attack are determined by the security system and mitigation measures put in place by the defender. This report documents a process for evaluating risk of terrorist acts using an adversary/defender model with belief/plausibility as the measure of uncertainty. Also, the adversary model is a linguistic model that applies belief/plausibility to fuzzy sets used in an approximate reasoning rule base.

  4. Plants attract parasitic wasps to defend themselves against insect pests by releasing hexenol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Wei

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant volatiles play an important role in defending plants against insect attacks by attracting their natural enemies. For example, green leaf volatiles (GLVs and terpenoids emitted from herbivore-damaged plants were found to be important in the host location of parasitic wasps. However, evidence of the functional roles and mechanisms of these semio-chemicals from a system of multiple plants in prey location by the parasitoid is limited. Little is known about the potential evolutionary trends between herbivore-induced host plant volatiles and the host location of their parasitoids.The present study includes hierarchical cluster analyses of plant volatile profiles from seven families of host and non-host plants of pea leafminer, Liriomyza huidobrensis, and behavioral responses of a naive parasitic wasp, Opius dissitus, to some principal volatile compounds. Here we show that plants can effectively pull wasps, O. dissitus, towards them by releasing a universally induced compound, (Z-3-hexenol, and potentially keep these plants safe from parasitic assaults by leafminer pests, L. huidobrensis. Specifically, we found that volatile profiles from healthy plants revealed a partly phylogenetic signal, while the inducible compounds of the infested-plants did not result from the fact that the induced plant volatiles dominate most of the volatile blends of the host and non-host plants of the leafminer pests. We further show that the parasitoids are capable of distinguishing the damaged host plant from the non-host plant of the leafminers.Our results suggest that, as the most passive scenario of plant involvement, leafminers and mechanical damages evoke similar semio-chemicals. Using ubiquitous compounds, such as hexenol, for host location by general parasitoids could be an adaptation of the most conservative evolution of tritrophic interaction. Although for this, other compounds may be used to improve the precision of the host location by the parasitoids.

  5. Ethical Frameworks in Public Health Decision-Making: Defending a Value-Based and Pluralist Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Kalle; Dawson, Angus

    2017-12-01

    A number of ethical frameworks have been proposed to support decision-making in public health and the evaluation of public health policy and practice. This is encouraging, since ethical considerations are of paramount importance in health policy. However, these frameworks have various deficiencies, in part because they incorporate substantial ethical positions. In this article, we discuss and criticise a framework developed by James Childress and Ruth Bernheim, which we consider to be the state of the art in the field. Their framework distinguishes aims, such as the promotion of public health, from constraints on the pursuit of those aims, such as the requirement to avoid limitations to liberty, or the requirement to be impartial. We show how this structure creates both theoretical and practical problems. We then go on to present and defend a more practical framework, one that is neutral in avoiding precommitment to particular values and how they ought to be weighted. We believe ethics is at the very heart of such weightings and our framework is developed to reflect this belief. It is therefore both pluralist and value-based. We compare our new framework to Childress and Bernheim's and outline its advantages. It is justified by its impetus to consider a wide range of alternatives and its tendency to direct decisions towards the best alternatives, as well as by the information provided by the ranking of alternatives and transparent explication of the judgements that motivate this ranking. The new framework presented should be useful to decision-makers in public health, as well as being a means to stimulate further reflection on the role of ethics in public health.

  6. Early adolescents' motivations to defend victims in school bullying and their perceptions of student-teacher relationships: A self-determination theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungert, Tomas; Piroddi, Barbara; Thornberg, Robert

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether various dimensions of student-teacher relationships were associated with different types of motivation to defend victims in bullying and to determine the association between these types of motivations and various bystander behaviors in bullying situations among early adolescents in Italy. Data were collected from 405 Italian adolescents who completed a survey in their classroom. Results showed that warm student-teacher relationships were positively associated with defending victims and with autonomous motivation to defend victims. In contrast, conflictual student-teacher relationships were positively associated with passive bystanding and with extrinsic motivation to defend victims. Different forms of motivation to defend were found to be mediators between student-teacher relationship qualities and bystander behaviors in school bullying. Our findings suggest that teachers should build warm and caring student-teacher relationships to enhance students' autonomous motivation to defend victims of bullying as well as their inclination to defend the victims in practice. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Austerity Urbanism and Olympic Counter-legacies: Gendering, Defending and Expanding the Urban Commons in East London

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Tom; Hardy, Kate; Watt, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This article reflects on an occupation led by single mothers to contest the destruction of social housing in post-Olympics East London. In the process, it argues for a more gendered theorisation of the urban commons. Drawing on auto-ethnography, participant observation and qualitative interviews, the article argues three central points: First, that the occupation demonstrates the gendered nature of the urban commons and the leadership of women in defending them from enclosure; second that the...

  8. Evaluation of MR safety of a set of canine ear defenders (MuttMuffs®) at 1 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that loud noise produced during MR scanning is hazardous for human patients. Although loud noise can also be harmful to canine patients in MRI, ear protection is not routinely provided. The purpose of this study was to test the safety of a set of commercially available canine ear defenders (MuttMuffs ® ) during MRI scanning at 1 T. A metal fastening ring was removed and replaced with a plastic washer prior to testing. Torque, translation, heating and artifact production were tested. No torque, translation, or excessive heating were detected. No artifacts were observed. Clinical use demonstrated additional benefits of improved immobilisation of the dog, with no effect on signal-to-noise ratio. Results from this study indicate that following replacement of the metal ring with one made of plastic, these canine ear defenders are suitable for use at 1 T. The author recommends the use of ear defenders during canine MRI scans in order to reduce the risk of hearing damage, reduce the dose needed for anaesthetic maintenance and reduce the need for repeated MRI sequences due to movement of the dog

  9. Neuropsychological features of indigent murder defendants and death row inmates in relation to homicidal aspects of their crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Robert E; Rubin, Leah H; Jensen, Marie; Daoust, Sarah

    2010-02-01

    Neuropsychological features of 77 indigent murder defendants and death row inmates were examined in relation to criminal variables underlying their homicidal acts. Clinically, the sample was characterized by elevated rates of developmental disorders (49%), personality disorders (54%), Axis I psychiatric disorders (45%), substance abuse (86%), and history of violence (43%). By statute, killing more than one person is an aggravating factor in many jurisdictions that renders a murder defendant eligible for the death penalty. Individuals who committed a single murder were characterized by executive dysfunction, lower intelligence, slower speed of information processing, and a higher frequency of developmental disorders (58%), relative to those charged and/or convicted of killing two or more people, who were characterized by a significantly higher rate of personality disorders (79%) and a lower rate of developmental disorders (34%). Additionally, using the FBI criminal classification system for categorizing homicide by motive, a significant difference in the frequency of psychosis was found among subgroups associated with the following motives: Criminal enterprise; personal cause; and sex. The collective neuropsychological profile of the sample revealed that executive functions were significantly decreased, relative to memory functions, with over half of the sample (55%) demonstrating executive dysfunction.

  10. Frequency and Detection of Malingering in Homicide Defendants Undergoing Criminal Responsibility Evaluations Using the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade C. Myers

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study reports on (a the prevalence of malingering in a sample of 20 homicide defendants seen in jail settings for criminal responsibility evaluations, and (b the feasibility of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP for malingering detection in this sample. Based on previous non-clinical simulation research, it was hypothesized that the SNAP validity scales would predict group membership for homicide defendants malingering psychopathology. Those with intellectual disabilities or psychotic disorders were excluded. Diagnostically, nearly one half of the sample had Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR personality and substance use disorders. Point prevalence of malingering was 30%. Using the criterion of any SNAP validity scale score in the clinical range (T ≥ 65, a reasonable sensitivity was demonstrated in the detection of malingering (83%, yet this outcome was hindered by a high false positive rate (64%. This study suggests further exploration of the SNAP for assessing malingering in forensic populations is warranted.

  11. Keep your bias to yourself: How deliberating with differently biased others affects mock-jurors' guilt decisions, perceptions of the defendant, memories, and evidence interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruva, Christine L; Guenther, Christina C

    2017-10-01

    This experiment explored how mock-jurors' (N = 648) guilt decisions, perceptions of the defendant, memories, and evidence interpretation varied as a function of jury type and pretrial publicity (PTP); utilizing a 2 (jury type: pure-PTP vs. mixed-PTP) × 3 (PTP: defendant, victim, and irrelevant) factorial design. Mock-juries (N = 126) were composed of jurors exposed to the same type of PTP (pure-PTP; e.g., defendant-PTP) or different types of PTP (mixed-PTP; e.g., half exposed to defendant-PTP and half to irrelevant-PTP). Before deliberations jurors exposed to defendant-PTP were most likely to vote guilty; while those exposed to victim-PTP were least likely. After deliberations, jury type and PTP affected jurors' guilt decisions. Specifically, jurors deliberating on pure-PTP juries had verdict distributions that closely resembled the predeliberation distributions. The verdict distributions of jurors on mixed-PTP juries suggested that jurors were influenced by those they deliberated with. Jurors not exposed to PTP appeared to incorporate bias from PTP-exposed jurors. Only PTP had significant effects on postdeliberation measures of memory and evidence interpretation. Mediation analyses revealed that evidence interpretation and defendant credibility assessments mediated the effect of PTP on guilt ratings. Taken together these findings suggest that during deliberations PTP bias can spread to jurors not previously exposed to PTP. In addition, juries composed of jurors exposed to different PTP slants, as opposed to a single PTP slant, can result in less biased decisions. Finally, deliberating with others who do not share similar biases may have little, if any, impact on biased evidence interpretation or memory errors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Mental illness and legal fitness (competence) to stand trial in New York State: expert opinion and criminal defendants' psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eugene; Rosner, Richard; Harmon, Ronnie

    2014-07-01

    Fitness to Stand Trial is a critical concept in the adjudication of justice-involved persons. A retrospective study was conducted to examine criminal defendants' specific psychiatric symptoms and those symptoms' associations with expert opinions on Competence to Stand Trial. One hundred charts were reviewed: 50 Cases (opined as Not Fit) were compared against 50 Controls (opined as Fit) with respect to ratings on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). A significance level of 0.001 was selected a priori. Statistically significant differences were found in seven of the eighteen BPRS symptom constructs (with the highest differences in Conceptual Disorganization and Unusual Thought Content) and two of the four BPRS higher-order syndrome factors (Thinking Disorder and Hostile-Suspiciousness). Consistent with previous reports, psychotic symptoms are found in this study to be inversely associated with Fitness. Validity, reliability, and limitations of this study, as well as directions for future research, are discussed herein. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. The plea bargain as a criminal policy instrument: the tension about the fundamental guarantees of the defendant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Thomas Aires

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research intends to analyze the plea bargaining based on its political-criminal foundation, in order to achieve the tension it maintains in relation to certain fundamental guarantees of the defendant, especially the one who signs the agreement. On this occasion, there will be substantially a contraposition between the legal procedure of collaboration and the principles of the adversary, ample defense, presumption of innocence, and non-self-incrimination. The application of the plea bargain proves extremely controversial not only in the common sense, often conveyed by the media, but mainly in the technical perspective, especially in relation to the scientific debate, which reflects the complexity of the proposed theme. For an effective approach to the theme, the work uses the deductive, historical-evolutionary and dialectical methods, being the bibliographical research the technique fundamentally used.

  14. Lawyer of defendant and his role in the criminal process from the viewpoint of the European Convention on Human Rights and the Albanian criminal procedural legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klodjan Skenderaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A guarantee for real ensuring of defendant’s rights is the qualified legal assistance by the side of the lawyer, chosen or assigned by the proceeding body. Providing legal protection to defendants was an important achievement in the long and difficult efforts to democratize the criminal proceedings. It was initially achieved in developed countries which promulgated the fundamental rights and freedoms and on this basis the major laws of activity of justice’s bodies were enforced. The role of lawyer in the criminal proceeding gradually increased and became an important factor in the fight against violations of law and injustice. The lawyer became a respected procedural figure, standing in front of prosecution, as the opposing party able to develop a cross-examination and to influence in a fair solution of case. However in practice, it is not rare the violation of rights of defendants by proceeding organs. So, it is right to make this question: What will be done with their rights and how will they be protected? In practice there were different opinions in terms of guaranteeing the rights of these defendants and how far the rights of lawyers of the defendants are extended. This is the reason why this paper will bring in attention the position, procedural guarantees of lawyers, the actions that can take and the exercise of their main rights in defending the interest of defendant, taking into account the main phases of criminal proceedings. Special attention will be devoted to case law of European Court of Human Rights (ECHR in terms of guaranteeing the rights of defendants, the orientations of the Albanian Constitutional Court and that of Supreme Court. At the end, this paper will reach in some conclusions through which proposals and amendments will be made to the code of criminal procedure, starting from the principle that the rights and procedural guarantees of defendants should be guaranteed at the maximum, because it’s the only way to

  15. Network-Behavior Dynamics in Bullying and Defending : A Multilevel Network Analysis of Single-Grade versus Multi-Grade Classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rambaran, Johannes; McFarland, Daniel; Veenstra, David

    2017-01-01

    The social networks in which children participate in are strongly associated with their involvement in bullying and defending (Juvonen & Graham, 2014; Salmivalli, 2010). It is likely that peer effects – referring to selection and influence processes – explain this association. Children seek out

  16. Public Response to Wildfire: Is the Australian "Stay and Defend or Leave Early" Approach an Option for Wildfire Management in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. McCaffrey; Alan Rhodes

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, the increasing costs and negative impacts of wildfires are causing fire managers and policymakers to reexamine traditional approaches to fire management including whether mass evacuation of populations threatened by wildfire is always the most appropriate option. This article examines the Australian "stay and defend or leave early" (SDLE...

  17. Abortion: Defending Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Aldana

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay will analyze some of the debates around abortion in the National Congress due to the Constitutional Amendment Bill – PEC25/95, by Deputy Severino Cavalcanti (PPB/PE, where the main issue was precisely life defense. The discursive blocks that present the debate in relation to pregnancy interruption, the religious principles or biological determinism on which those debates are based, and the ways in which such discourses are maintained will be identified. Distinct understandings of life, as a result of the points used in such discourses, which are aligned with the position of the Catholic Church and the Feminist Movement - the social actors of this debate- are also discussed here.

  18. The radiologist as defendant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, A.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    As the diagnostic radiologist has evolved through medical history, his role has changed from one of a technical expert to that of a respected part of the medical team, possessing extraordinary knowledge and skills in use of the most expensive and complex instrumentation in the health care delivery system. The rapid advances in radiological technology and instrumentation have enabled radiologists to assume a more primary role in medical care. Subspecialties such as ultrasound, computed tomography, digital radiography, and magnetic resonance imaging have emerged over the past decade as invaluable resources in medical diagnosis, and the radiologist, as the expert in these fields, has moved into view. As he assumes his rapidly evolving role, so too must he be prepared to bear the legal pressures that will most likely increase in proportion to the technical advances, as well as his changing role

  19. Defending definitions of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, Lucas John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, it has become unpopular to talk about definitions of life, under the assumption that attempts at a precise definition are counterproductive. Recent attempts have failed to meet strict philosophical criteria for definitions and have failed to reach consensus. I argue that provisional definitions are necessary for clear communications. Our current knowledge of biology justifies a number of universal claims about the category of life. Whether or not "life" represents a natural category, it maps to a number of important, observable processes. Given the importance of those processes and the extent of our knowledge, plural explicit definitions of life (and related categories) will be necessary for progress in astrobiology and origin-of-life studies as well as biology in general. I propose concrete categories related to, but not necessarily coextensive with, life for clear communication and hypothesis formation: Woese life, Darwin life, Haldane life.

  20. Defending the F-22

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Day, John

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the critical need for the continued development and introduction of the F-22 Raptor as the air superiority fighter for the joint forces of the United States...

  1. Defending "Am I Blue."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case study about how one Midwestern United States community dealt with a censorship challenge. Discusses how the author recognizes his professional responsibility. Discusses the school district's "materials selection and review policy." Contains a lengthy letter the author sent to school board members, and several epilogues. (SG)

  2. "Racial bias in mock juror decision-making: A meta-analytic review of defendant treatment": Correction to Mitchell et al. (2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Reports an error in "Racial Bias in Mock Juror Decision-Making: A Meta-Analytic Review of Defendant Treatment" by Tara L. Mitchell, Ryann M. Haw, Jeffrey E. Pfeifer and Christian A. Meissner ( Law and Human Behavior , 2005[Dec], Vol 29[6], 621-637). In the article, all of the numbers in Appendix A were correct, but the signs were reversed for z' in a number of studies, which are listed. Also, in Appendix B, some values were incorrect, some signs were reversed, and some values were missing. The corrected appendix is included. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2006-00971-001.) Common wisdom seems to suggest that racial bias, defined as disparate treatment of minority defendants, exists in jury decision-making, with Black defendants being treated more harshly by jurors than White defendants. The empirical research, however, is inconsistent--some studies show racial bias while others do not. Two previous meta-analyses have found conflicting results regarding the existence of racial bias in juror decision-making (Mazzella & Feingold, 1994, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 1315-1344; Sweeney & Haney, 1992, Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 10, 179-195). This research takes a meta-analytic approach to further investigate the inconsistencies within the empirical literature on racial bias in juror decision-making by defining racial bias as disparate treatment of racial out-groups (rather than focusing upon the minority group alone). Our results suggest that a small, yet significant, effect of racial bias in decision-making is present across studies, but that the effect becomes more pronounced when certain moderators are considered. The state of the research will be discussed in light of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. U.S. Policy Towards Cuba as a Two Level Game or: Defending Executive Policy Discretion in the Face of Domestic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Foreign Policy Agenda,” International Security 8:1 (1983): 113-128. Dominguez, Jorge I. “ Taming the Cuban Shrew ,” Foreign Policy 10 (1973): 94-116...CUBA AS A TWO LEVEL GAME OR: DEFENDING EXECUTIVE POLICY DISCRETION IN THE FACE OF DOMESTIC PRESSURE by Kevin G. Werry, JR. March 2008...No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for

  4. Electronic voting systems for defending free will and resisting bribery and coercion based on ring anonymous signcryption scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Chih Hsiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vote by ballot is the feature in a democratic society and the process of decision-making, tending to achieve the philosophy of democratic politics by having the public who are eligible to vote for competent candidates or leaders. With the rapid development of technologies and network applications, electronization has been actively promoted globally during the social transformation period that the concept of electronic voting is further derived. The major advantages of electronic voting, comparing with traditional voting, lie in the mobility strength of electronic voting, reducing a large amount of election costs and enhancing the convenience for the public. Electronic voting allows voters completing voting on the Internet that not only are climate and location restrictions overcome, but the voter turnout is also increased and the voting time is reduced for the public. With the development in the past three decades, electronic voting presents outstanding performance theoretically and practically. Nevertheless, it is regrettable that electronic voting schemes still cannot be completely open because of lures by money and threats. People to lure by money and threats would confirm the voters following their instructions through various methods that more factors would appear on election results, affecting the quality and fairness of the election. In this study, this project aims to design an electronic voting scheme which could actually defend voters’ free will so that lure of money and threats would fail. Furthermore, an electronic voting system based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography is proposed to ensure the efficiency and security, and Ring Signature and Signcryption are applied to reducing the computing costs. Moreover, this project also focuses on applying voting system to mobile devices. As the system efficiency and security are emphasized, voters do not need to participate in the election, but simply complete voting with smart phones, i

  5. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1991 to 31 December 1991 (NODC Accession 0000387)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1991 to December 31, 1991. Data were submitted by the Institut Francais De...

  6. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1998 to 31 December 1998 (NODC Accession 0000394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 1998. Data were submitted by the Institut Francais De...

  7. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1990 to 31 December 1990 (NODC Accession 0000386)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  8. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1997 to 31 December 1997 (NODC Accession 0000393)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 1997. Data were submitted by the Institut Francais De...

  9. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1994 to 31 December 1994 (NODC Accession 0000390)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1994. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  10. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1993 to 31 December 1993 (NODC Accession 0000389)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1993 to December 31, 1993. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  11. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1999 to 31 December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 1999. Data were submitted by the Institut Francais De...

  12. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1992 to 31 December 1992 (NODC Accession 0000388)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1992 to December 31, 1992. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  13. Temperature profile data from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER using bottle, CTD, profiling floats, and XBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1995 to 31 December 1995 (NODC Accession 0000391)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from the SEA-LAND DEFENDER from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 1995. Data were submitted by Institut Francais De Recherche...

  14. Naistearstide ja neuroloogide kokkusaamine pakkus osapooltele suurt huvi / Marika Gordon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gordon, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Naistearstide Seltsi ja L. Puusepa nimelise Eesti Neuroloogide ja Neurokirurgide Seltsi ühiskoosolekul kõneldi naiste ja meeste neurobioloogilistest iseärasustest, seksuaaleluhäiretest, rasedusaegsetest peavaludest, epilepsia ravist naistel ja sünnitusabist

  15. HIV-infektsioon on seotud nakkuslike haigustega / Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kusnets, Marika

    2004-01-01

    TÜ arstiteaduskonna täienduskeskuse kolmepäevasel kursusel Tallinnas olid kõneks HIV-nakkuse seosed bakteriaalsete ja viiruslike nahahaigustega, parasitaarsete ja seenhaigustega, samuti nakkushaiguste ja seksuaalsel teel edasiantavate haigustega

  16. Valitsus hämab liikluskindlustuse seadusega / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vooremaa, 12. veebr. 2004, lk. 2; Elva Postipoiss, 14. veebr. 2004, lk. 4; Meie Maa, 20. veebr. 2004, lk. 2; Vali Uudised, 20. veebr. 2004, lk. 2; Põhjarannik, 21. veebr. 2004, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 21. veebr. 2004, lk. 2; Kesknädal, 25. veebr. 2004, lk. 2; Valgamaalane, 16. märts 2004, lk. 6. Kriitiliselt liikluskindlustuse seaduse eelnõust. Liikluskindlustuse seaduse eelnõu arutelust Riigikogus

  17. Aino Ugaste doktoritööst / Marika Veisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veisson, Marika

    2005-01-01

    12. veebruaril 2005. aastal kaitses TPÜ dotsent Aino Ugaste Soomes Jyväskylä Ülikoolis kasvatusteaduste doktori kraadi teemal "The Childs' play world at home and the mothers' role in the play - Laste mängumaailm kodus ja ema roll mängus"

  18. Maksude äkktõus ja hinnaralli / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vali Uudised, 13. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 20. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 20. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Virumaa Teataja, 21. juuni 2007, lk. 11; Põhjarannik, 21. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Sõnumitooja, 22. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Harjumaa, 26. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 26. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Pärnu Postimees, 27. juuni 2007, lk. 15; Vooremaa : Kallaste Linna Leht, 21. juuli 2007, lk. 2. Autor kritiseerib valitsuskoalitsiooni maksupoliitikat

  19. EBSCO infopäev Tallinnas / Marika Meltsas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meltsas, Marika

    2008-01-01

    16. aprillil 2008 toimus Tallinnas EBSCO (Elton B. Stephens Company) infopäev, kus maailma suurim elektrooniliste ja trükiajakirjade vahendaja tutvustas oma tooteid ja teenuseid Eesti raamatukogudele. Kommentaar korraldajalt Tiina Nurmilt

  20. Siddhameditsiin : hästi hoitud saladus / Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2013-01-01

    Vestlusest Šveitsis elava siddhatohtri Gitanjali Azariah-Theleniga Indias elavate tamilite filosoofiast kui ka loodusmeditsiinist, mille õpetused on kirja pandud Tamil Nadu osariigi templites asuvates iidsetes tamilikeelsetes ürikutes

  1. Korruptsioon mittetulundusliikumises / Marika K Arendi Elita von Wolsky

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arendi Elita von Wolsky, Marika K.

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Mittetulundusühingute ja Sihtasutuste Liidus toimunud erakorralisest koosolekust, kus arutati artikli autori avaldusi, mis olid ajendatud tema avalikus kirjas esitatud küsimustest Mall Hellamile. Vt. samas: Kesknädal, 5. dets. 2001, lk. 9

  2. Rahvusvaheline üldmeditsiini kongress oli Eestis esmakordselt / Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kusnets, Marika

    2007-01-01

    8. detsembril peeti Tallinnas rahvusvahelist üldmeditsiini kongressi, kus osalesid mitmete erialade arstid. Kongressil käsitletud teemad - südame-veresoonkonnahaiguste varajane diagnostika, söömisharjumused, metabolism, hüpertoonia, erektsioonihäired, depressioon, 2. tüüpi diabeet ja oftalmoloogia

  3. Lionsi asepresident kiitis Eesti "lõvisid" / Marika Milve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Milve, Marika, 1968-

    1995-01-01

    Lions klubi Eestis. Vt. ka Meie Maa "Lionsite maailma-assotsiatsiooni teine asepresident Augustino Solivo külastas Saaremaad" 8- juuni, lk. 1, Oma Saar "Augustino Soliva: tavaliselt oskavad inimesed võtta, kuid ei oska anda" 7. juuni, lk. 3

  4. Ulila perearst jääb alles / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2006-01-01

    Riigikogu sotsiaalkomisjoni liige juhtumist, kus Puhja vallavalitsus kavatses Ulilas perearsti koha kaotada, aga parlamendiliikme ja sotsiaalministeeriumi sekkumisel saab Ulila perearst oma tööd jätkata. Sotsiaalministeeriumis valminud seaduseelnõust, mis ei kohusta perearsti olema ettevõtja

  5. Tähelepanu keskmes on viiruslik hepatiit / Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kusnets, Marika

    2008-01-01

    Ülemaailmsel hepatiidipäeval 19. mail korraldasid Eesti Gastroenteroloogide Selts (EGS) ja Roche Eesti OÜ meediakanalite esindajatele ümarlaua, et aidata teadvustada C-hepatiidi ohtu, testimis- ja ravivõimalusi Eestis

  6. Richard Avedon ja Annie Leibovitz laulsid kaanonit / Marika Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alver, Marika

    2008-01-01

    Richard Avedoni (1923-2004) retrospektiivnäitusest (fotod aastatest 1946-2004) kuraator Helle Crenzien (Lousiana Kaasaegse Kunsti muuseum Taanis), millega kaasnes ka Helen Whitney film "Richard Avedon : darkness and light" ja Annie Leibovitzi (1949) suurprojektist "A photographer's life 1990-2005" Pariisis

  7. TEH võrgustik - viis aastat Eestis / Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kusnets, Marika

    2005-01-01

    Eestis on tervist edendavate haiglate (TEH) võrgustik tegutsenud juba viis aastat, sellega on liitunud 22 haiglat. Tänavust konverentsi peeti teemal "Tervise edendamine ja kvaliteedi tagamine haiglas: standardid ja praktika"

  8. Kaubakategooriate juhtimine annab konkurentide ees eelise / Marika Merilai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Merilai, Marika

    2008-01-01

    Tootekategooriate või ka kaubakategooriate juhtimine on ettevõtte äristrateegia, mis võimaldab jaekaubandusettevõttel saavutada konkurentidest paremaid tulemusi. Kanada turundusprofessori Brent McKenzie sõnul on kaubakategooriate juhtimine keeruline, kuna pole olemas ühte standardset lahendust, kuidas ettevõttes kategooriate juhtimist teostada. Skeem: Kaubakategooriate juhtimise eesmärgid. Kommenteerib ASi A-Selver sortimendijuht Agi Metsandi

  9. [The analysis of the theses for the scientific degree in "forensic medicine" and related medical disciplines defended during the period from 2010 till 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisov, V A; Gusarov, A A; Kuprina, T A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the results of research reported in the theses for the degree in "forensic medicine" defended in different dissertation committees during the 5 year period (from 2010 till 2014) and to summarize and compartmentalize the main research areas in which the authors carried out their study and thereby make the data obtained more readily available for the wide circles of readers. A total of 55 theses for the scientific degree in "forensic medicine" (14.03.05) were defended during the period from 2010 till 2014 including 18 (32.7%) ones for the degree in two disciplines, the second being either "pathological anatomy" (n=6) or "stomatology" (n=4). Despite the great variety of the problems resolved in the studies conducted during the five year period, the subject matter of most research was on the whole consistent with the main lines of activities of the institutions with which the degree-seeking workers were affiliated. The same refers to the choice of the tutors and scientific advisers. the authors emphasize the necessity of centralized planning of research in compliance with the list of priority investigations having practical significance and coordination of cooperative studies carried out based on the state bureau of forensic medical expertise (SBFME) and departments of forensic medical expertise of medical universities.

  10. Inter-unit Doctoral Program in Nursing of the University of São Paulo: characterization of graduates and theses defended in a decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, Livia Maria; de Castro Sajioro Azevedo, Ana Lídia; da Silva, Leandra Terezinha Roncolato; Laus, Ana Maria; Chaves, Lucieli Dias Pedreschi; Gualda, Dulce Maria Rosa; Rossi, Lídia Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive study aimed to characterize the graduates of the Inter-unit Doctoral Program in Nursing of the School of Nursing of the University of São Paulo, who defended their theses in the period 1998-2008, in relation to the location they developed their Masters and their pre and post-doctoral employment, also to investigate the theses defended in relation to the thematic areas and methodological approaches used. Data were collected from the Fenix-USP System and the Lattes Curriculum System. Of the 190 graduates, 178 had curricula available online. Of those, 58.4% performed teaching and research activities when they entered the doctoral program, which were activities mainly developed at Federal Universities (34.8%). This predominance was maintained after the conclusion of the doctoral studies. The thematic areas most studied were Women's Health (20.5%) and Adults/Elderly Health (13.2%). Regarding the methodological approach, 68.4% used qualitative methods. The data evidenced the contributions of this Program to research.

  11. Theses in Archaeology for the Degrees of Doctor and Candidate of Historical Sciences Defended at the Sh. Marjani Institute of History, Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuzin Fayaz Sh.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the theses in Archaeology defended in 2013 at the Institute of History named after Sh. Marjani, Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, is presented in the article. Three theses were submitted for the conferment of Doctor’s Degree (I.L. Izmailov, Yu.A. Zeleneyev, A.G. Sitdikov, and seven – for the conferment of Candidate’s Degree (M.L. Pereskokov, M.M. Zubareva, I.V. Molchanov, R.V. Matveyev, M.D. Kalmenov, K.M. Kireeyva, A.V. Lyganov. One thesis was defended specialized in Russian History, which is undoubtedly of interest to archaeologists engaged in Bulgar studies (Sh. R. Mingazov. A brief outline of the content of the submitted theses is offered; basic problems tackled in them are characterized. The latter are predominantly concentrated around issues of ethnogenesis, history and culture of the population of the Volga river region and adjacent territories during the Middle Ages and preceding periods: the Bonze Age and the Early Iron Age.

  12. Insane defendants and forensic convicts: before and after the onset of the new forensic psychiatry network and the criminal justice system reform in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Rodrigo D

    2010-09-01

    Like other Latin American democratic societies, Chile is supposed to respect legal rights of mentally ill people who are in trouble with the law, and provide them protection, treatment and welfare. Therefore, in this decade, the Chilean Criminal Justice and Mental Health System has undergone significant changes. Because this article is related to the recent social features that involve different areas such as justice, mental health assistance and forensic psychiatry systems, and thereby the nonexistence of current literature that reviews this matter from a global perspective and its implications for the mental health population involved in the justice system, its review and analysis seems to be interesting. The 'New Forensic Psychiatry Network' (NFPN) has been putting in relevant efforts to offer proper treatment and forensic assessment taking into account the civil rights of mentally insane people, and the 'Criminal Justice System Reform' (CJSR) is making possible legal conditions for better justice ensuring a more just resolution of insane defendants' and mentally ill convicts' lawsuits. From the author's viewpoint, all these changes are leading to a deep cultural impact on a Chilean's mind, changing their vision of justice and how society should respect insane defendants' and mentally ill convicts' legal rights.

  13. Thinking aloud during idea generating and planning before written translation: Developmental changes from ages 10 to 12 in expressing and defending opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Matt; Berninger, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    This interdisciplinary research, drawing on cognitive psychology and linguistics, extended to middle childhood past research during early childhood or adulthood on thinking aloud prior to written composing. In year 5 of a longitudinal study of typical writing, when cohort 1 was in grade 5 ( n = 110 ten year-olds) and cohort 2 in grade 7 ( n = 97 twelve year-olds), a cross-sectional study was conducted. Children were first asked to think aloud while they generated ideas and second while they planned their essays to express and defend their opinions on a controversial topic in the region of the United States where they lived. Third, they wrote their essays. Their think-aloud protocols were audio-recorded and later transcribed into writing for analysis. The authors developed and applied rating scales for quality of idea generating and planning in the written transcriptions and quality of opinion expression, opinion defense, organization, and content in the essays children wrote after thinking aloud; total number of words in essays was also counted. Seventh graders scored significantly higher than fifth graders on quality of idea generation but not planning, and higher on all variables rated for quality in the written essays including length. Quality of expressing opinions and defending opinions were uncorrelated in grade 5, but moderately correlated in grade 7. Whether idea generating or planning quality explained unique variance in essays varied with coded written essay variables and grade. Educational applications of results for assessment, assessment-instruction links, instruction in social studies, and theory of mind in persuasive essay writing are discussed.

  14. Sõrve 2008 / Nicholas Wurm, Steven Buchert, Mai Buchert, Sandra Buchert...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    lapsed ja lapsevanemad Austraaliast meenutavad oma viibimist Sõrve lastelaagris: This is a story of a family from Sõrve; Nicholas Wurm - Age 9 (Adelaide); Alan and Debbie Mikkor (Melbourne); Jesse Mikkor's point of view: Age 8; Lauren Mikkor's point of view: Age 13

  15. "Too stubborn to ever be governed by enforced insanity": Some therapeutic jurisprudence dilemmas in the representation of criminal defendants in incompetency and insanity cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the importance of the relationship between therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) and the role of criminal defense lawyers in insanity and incompetency-to-stand-trial (IST) cases. That inattention is especially noteworthy in light of the dismal track record of counsel providing services to defendants who are part of this cohort of incompetency-status-raisers and insanity-defense-pleaders. On one hand, this lack of attention is a surprise as TJ scholars have, in recent years, turned their attention to virtually every other aspect of the legal system. On the other hand, it is not a surprise, given the omnipresence of sanism, an irrational prejudice of the same quality and character of other irrational prejudices that cause (and are reflected in) prevailing social attitudes of racism, sexism, homophobia, and ethnic bigotry, that infects both our jurisprudence and our lawyering practices. Sanism is largely invisible and largely socially acceptable, and is based predominantly upon stereotype, myth, superstition, and deindividualization. It is sustained and perpetuated by our use of alleged "ordinary common sense" (OCS) and heuristic reasoning in an unconscious response to events both in everyday life and in the legal process. This paper examines the literature that seeks to apply TJ principles to the criminal law process in general, drawing mostly on the work of Professor David Wexler. It considers why the lack of attention that I have referred to already is surprising (given TJ's mandate and the fact that many TJ issues are inevitably raised in any insanity or IST case). The paper then considers why this lack of attention is not surprising, given the omnipresence of sanism. It will consider some of the actual counseling issues that might arise in these contexts, and offer some suggestions to lawyers representing clients in cases in which mental status issues may be raised. The paper concludes that we must rigorously apply therapeutic

  16. Molecular cloning and responsive expression to injury stimulus of a defender against cell death 1 (DAD1) gene from bay scallops Argopecten irradians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Song, Linsheng; Zhang, Huan; Zhao, Jianmin; Li, Chenghua; Xu, Wei

    2008-06-01

    Apoptosis is an active process of cell death, which is an integral part of growth and development in multicellular organisms. The defender against cell death 1 (DAD1), the regulatory protein to inhibit the apoptosis process, was first cloned from the bay scallop Argopecten irradians by randomly sequencing a whole tissue cDNA library and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE). The full-length cDNA of the A. irradians DAD1 was 607 bp, consist of a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 63 bp, a 3'-terminal UTR of 205 bp with a canonical polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA and a poly (A) tail, and an open reading frame of 339 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence of the A. irradians DAD1 showed 75.5% identity to Araneus ventricosus, 74.5% to Drosophila melanogaster, and 73.6% to Homo sapiens, Sus scrofa, Mesocricetus auratus, Rattus norvegicus and Mus musculus. Excluding the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DAD1 homologue, all animal DAD1 including A. irradians DAD1 homologue formed a subgroup and all plant DAD1 proteins formed another subgroup in the phylogenetic analysis. The A. irradians DAD1 was expressed in all examined tissues including adductor muscle, mantle, gills, digestive gland, gonad and hemolymph, suggesting that A. irradians DAD1 is expressed in most body tissues. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of A. irradians DAD1 gene of hemolymph were particularly high after injury, suggesting that the gene is responsive to injury stimuli.

  17. The impact of brief messages on HSV-2 screening uptake among female defendants in a court setting: a randomized controlled trial utilizing prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alexis M; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Dodge, Brian; Reece, Michael; Certo, David; Zimet, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic data demonstrate that women involved with the criminal justice system in the United States are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections, including herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Female defendants were recruited from a misdemeanor court to assess whether brief framed messages utilizing prospect theory could encourage testing for HSV-2. Participants were randomly assigned to a message condition (gain, loss, or control), completed an interviewer-administered survey assessing factors associated with antibody test uptake/refusal and were offered free point-of-care HSV-2 serologic testing. Although individuals in the loss-frame group accepted testing at the highest rate, an overall statistical difference in HSV-2 testing behavior by group (p ≤ .43) was not detected. The majority of the sample (74.6%) characterized receiving a serological test for HSV-2 as health affirming. However, this did not moderate the effect of the intervention nor was it significantly associated with test acceptance (p ≤ .82). Although the effects of message framing are subtle, the findings have important theoretical implications given the participants' characterization of HSV-2 screening as health affirming despite being a detection behavior. Implications of study results for health care providers interested in brief, low cost interventions are also explored.

  18. Solving Defender-Attacker-Defender Models for Infrastructure Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    persons]; bpp is the total supply of travelers originating at p; cdij length of arc (i, j)∈A under defense option d [kilometers]; qdij “equivalent travel...ensure that all bpp travelers originating at each p∈N arrive at appropriate destinations. The second set of constraints in Y (w) requires that all...1. Node data for DAD modeling of the Königsberg transportation network. Nodes p∈N Supply bpp (persons) Demand −bpi (persons) Aa, Ab, Ac, Ae, 200

  19. Do the Physcians Defend Euthanasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarık Gündüz

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, after the definition and short historical development of Euthanasia, a questionnaire was given to 510 medical staff; 208 of whom are medical students who are in the 5th form and 302 of whom are physcians. In this questionnaire 6 multiple choice questions were asked about the knowledge level, social groups to comment and argue on the subject, the right of person to decide about his/her own life, opinions about current applications of euthanasia, whether he/she would agree on the application of the process and whether he would accept to get a responsibility in it or not. It was determined that among the people who attended the questionnaire, one third didn't have enough knowledge about the subject while 325 (63.72 % of them supported the application, still 351 (68.82 % of them refused to get a responsibility in the application of euthanasia, even if the process becomes legal. Opinions of the people who are with and against the idea were collected and summarized, it was determined that although passive euthanasia is not legal it is currently being applied when it is necessary and that physcians are biased to the legalization of the subject while they refuse to take a role in the application. Keywords : Euthanasia, Self Deliverance, Right to Life, Mercy Killing, Informed Consent

  20. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  1. Probiotics: defenders of gastrointestinal habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desh D. Singh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal microbiota play an important role in maintaining normal gastrointestinal (GI function and ensuring that changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota can promote GI function. The digestive tract is full of bacteria and many of these, including probiotics, are necessary for optimal digestive function. During bacterial gastroenteritis, harmful bacteria invade the digestive tract causing unpleasant symptoms and upsetting the balance between good and bad bacteria. Supplemental probiotics can help restore this balance. Studies have demonstrated that probiotics can often help reduce the severity of symptoms such as diarrhea and may help accelerate recovery. Probiotics are therapeutic preparations of live microorganisms administered in sufficient dosage to be beneficial to health. The therapeutic effects of these microorganisms appear to be strain specific. Primal Defense®, a unique, probiotic, bacterial compound, contains probiotics that support gut flora balance, promote consistent bowel function, control stomach acid levels to quickly eliminate burning sensation in the stomach and maintain immune system response. The probiotics in Primal Defense® maximize the benefits of a healthy diet by supporting normal absorption and assimilation of nutrients in the gut. Nearly 75% of our immune defenses are located in the digestive tract, so maintaining a favorable bacterial balance in the intestines (ideally 80% good or neutral bacteria to 20% bad or harmful bacteria is crucial to achieving and maintaining optimum health.

  2. Defending Science Denial in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenau, J.

    2013-12-01

    Blogs, Facebook, Twitter, and other social media have proven themselves powerful vectors for science denial. Left unchecked, these attacks on foundational sciences like evolution and climate change undermine public confidence in science and spawn attacks on science-based policy and science education. Scientists can blunt such attacks by being vigorous advocates for their own research and their discipline's core findings, by seeking wide and unexpected audiences for discussions of their science, and by understanding and addressing the social, political, and cultural roots of science denial.

  3. Lithuania defends currency / Adam Mullett

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mullett, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Leedulased kiirustavad oma pangasäästusid vahetama eurode vastu, kuna kardetakse raha devalveerimist. Valitsus aga kinnitab, et vaatamata Leedu pangandussektoris esinevatele probleemidele pole lähiajal devalveerimist kavas

  4. Foucault Must Not be Defended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    This paper responds to and comments on many of the themes of the book under consideration concerning Foucault and neoliberalism. In doing so, it offers reflections on the relation between the habitus of the intellectual and the political contexts of action and engagement in the case of Foucault, ...

  5. The annotative review of researches for applicants of the Doctor and the Candidate of the history specialities which were defended in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boiko, O. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A subject and maintenance of dissertations for the degree of Doctor and the Candidate of historical sciences which were defended in the specialized scientific advice D 08.051.14 in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2014 is considered. For a year 4 dissertations for the degree of Doctor (specialty 07.00.01 – «Нistory of Ukraine» and 3 dissertations for the degree of the Candidate (specialty 07.00.01 – «Нistory of Ukraine» – 1 work, 07.00.06 – «Нistoriography, a source study and special historical disciplines» – 2 works were defended. 6 dissertations (besides thesis defended by A. V. Bortnikova were ratified by the Department of education and science of Ukraine. It is given the following information on every research work: theme, specialty, place (department of work implementation, date of defense of dissertation, scientific consultant (for doctoral thesis or leader (for candidate’s thesis, his scientific degree and rank, place of work, data about official opponents. Considerable attention is spared to the compressed review of the personal achievements of authors especially to scientific novelty of their researches.

  6. The annotative review of researches for applicants of the Doctor and the Candidate of the history specialities which were defended in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Boyko, O. V.

    2017-01-01

    A subject and maintenance of dissertations for the degree of Doctor and the Candidate of historical sciences which were defended in the specialized scientific advice D 08.051.14 in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2015 is considered. For a year 2 dissertations for the degree of Doctor (specialty 07.00.01 "Нistory of Ukraine") and 4 dissertations for the degree of the Candidate (specialty 07.00.01 "Нistory of Ukraine" – 1 work, 07.00.06 "Нistoriography, a source study and...

  7. The annotative review of researches for applicants of the Doctor and the Candidate of the history specialities which were defended in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Boiko, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    A subject and maintenance of dissertations for the degree of Doctor and the Candidate of historical sciences which were defended in the specialized scientific advice D 08.051.14 in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2014 is considered. For a year 4 dissertations for the degree of Doctor (specialty 07.00.01 – «Нistory of Ukraine») and 3 dissertations for the degree of the Candidate (specialty 07.00.01 – «Нistory of Ukraine» – 1 work, 07.00.06 – «Нistoriography, a source stu...

  8. The annotative review of researches for applicants of the Doctor and the Candidate of the history specialities which were defended in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyko, O. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A subject and maintenance of dissertations for the degree of Doctor and the Candidate of historical sciences which were defended in the specialized scientific advice D 08.051.14 in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2013 is considered. Only for a year 6 dissertations for the degree of Doctor (specialty 07.00.01 – «Нistory of Ukraine» – 5 works; 07.00.02 – «World history» – 1 work and 16 dissertations for the degree of the Candidate (specialty 07.00.01 – «Нistory of Ukraine» – 10 works, 07.00.02 – «world history» – 4 works, 07.00.06 – «Нistoriography, a source study and special historical disciplines» – 2 works were defended. All dissertations were ratified by the Department of education and science of Ukraine. It is given the following information on every research work: theme, specialty, place (department of work implementation, date of defense of dissertation, scientific consultant (for doctoral thesis or leader (for candidate’s thesis, his scientific degree and rank, place of work, data about official opponents. Considerable attention is spared to the compressed review of the personal achievements of authors especially to scientific novelty of their researches.

  9. The annotative review of researches for applicants of the Doctor and the Candidate of the history specialities which were defended in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyko, O. V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A subject and maintenance of dissertations for the degree of Doctor and the Candidate of historical sciences which were defended in the specialized scientific advice D 08.051.14 in the Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University in 2015 is considered. For a year 2 dissertations for the degree of Doctor (specialty 07.00.01 "Нistory of Ukraine" and 4 dissertations for the degree of the Candidate (specialty 07.00.01 "Нistory of Ukraine" – 1 work, 07.00.06 "Нistoriography, a source study and special historical disciplines" – 3 works were defended. All dissertations were ratified by the Department of education and science of Ukraine. It is given the following information on every research work: theme, specialty, place (department of work implementation, date of defense of dissertation, scientific consultant (for doctoral thesis or leader (for candidate's thesis, his scientific degree and rank, place of work, data about official opponents. Considerable attention is spared to the compressed review of the personal achievements of authors especially to scientific novelty of their researches.

  10. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores generated from the MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF test booklets: internal structure comparability in a sample of criminal defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Alosco, Michael L; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Wood, Arcangela; Luna-Jones, Lynn

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the internal structure comparability of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores derived from the MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF booklets in a sample of 320 criminal defendants (229 males and 54 females). After exclusion of invalid protocols, the final sample consisted of 96 defendants who were administered the MMPI-2-RF booklet and 83 who completed the MMPI-2. No statistically significant differences in MMPI-2-RF invalidity rates were observed between the two forms. Individuals in the final sample who completed the MMPI-2-RF did not statistically differ on demographics or referral question from those who were administered the MMPI-2 booklet. Independent t tests showed no statistically significant differences between MMPI-2-RF scores generated with the MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF booklets on the test's substantive scales. Statistically significant small differences were observed on the revised Variable Response Inconsistency (VRIN-r) and True Response Inconsistency (TRIN-r) scales. Cronbach's alpha and standard errors of measurement were approximately equal between the booklets for all MMPI-2-RF scales. Finally, MMPI-2-RF intercorrelations produced from the two forms yielded mostly small and a few medium differences, indicating that discriminant validity and test structure are maintained. Overall, our findings reflect the internal structure comparability of MMPI-2-RF scale scores generated from MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF booklets. Implications of these results and limitations of these findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. “The same love, the same faith, the same tears”: ecclesial initiatives about the cult of Our Lady of El Quinche to defend the Republic of the Sacred Heart, Ecuador (1883-1889

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Esteban Vizuete Marcillo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the conflict between church and state in the 19th century, the clergy and laymen tried to defend the establishment where the church had hegemony over the state and society. Between 1883 and 1889, Ecuador experienced some ecclesial initiatives to defend which stood for the idea of a Republic of the Sacred Heart. This article studies the case of Our Lady of El Quiche, a colonial massive cult, which was part of a process of re-appropriation and reinterpretation of its history. It also suffered a process of spreading and strengthening of its cult, linking with the image of the Republic, political conflicts and the power of the church. Between politics and religion, the discourses and practices of the clergy and the faithful show the intention of the church to shore up its own idea of a catholic Republic and an organized society. In this article, the use of manuscripts and printed sources give information to contrast multiple voices and multiple religious acts which performed a new local Mariology about El Quinche and a reaction to a context in which the religious hegemony and the participation of the clergy in politics were questioned; meanwhile the relations inside the church were recomposing.

  12. Inimese papilloomiviiruse vastane vaktsiin imet ei tee, aga kaitseb siiski / Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kusnets, Marika

    2006-01-01

    5. oktoobril korraldas ravimifirma Merck Sharp & Dohme koostöös erialaarstide, Eesti Vähiliidu ja Quattromediga ajakirjanikele ümarlaua, kus räägiti emakakaelavähi põhjustest ja ravist, HPV tüüpidest, nakatumis- ja kaitsemehhanismidest ning uuest Eesti turule jõudvast vaktsiinist

  13. Tammsaare-aastat ilmestavad ka raamatud / Marika Rajamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajamäe, Marika, 1952-

    2008-01-01

    Tammsaare muuseumis esitleti kahte raamatut: Tammsaare, Anton Hansen. Siin mägi, seal mägi... Anton Hansen Tammsaare oma koduloodusest : fotoalbum (koostanud Ann Marvet. Tallinn : Huma, 2008) ja Liivak, Age-Li. Tammsaare kirjanduspreemia laureaadid Hugo Hiibuse sulega. (Türi : Saarakiri, 2008)

  14. Archaeological excavations at Viltina - a viking age harbour site and meeting place / Marika Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Marika, 1968-

    2007-01-01

    2006 jätkusid kaevamised Viltina viikingiaegsel sadamakohal, millega oli alustatud juba 2004. aastal. Kaevati läbi 327,25 m2. Suuremas osas kaevandites paljandunud kiht on vaieldamatult asulakiht. Viltina asulakihiga aladel leidus tavapärasest asulakihist tunduvalt rohkem metall-leide. Leidudest. Tõenäoliselt oli sadamakoht kasutusajal piiratud taraga

  15. Intellekt ja selle areng imiku- ja väikelapseeas / Marika Veisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veisson, Marika, 1949-

    1998-01-01

    Kolm ajaloolist lähenemist intellekti uurimisele. Nancy Bayley poolt 1969.a. välja töötatud esimene põhjalikum väikelaste ja imikute intellekti uurimismetoodika - Bayley Imikute Arengu Skaala; psühhomeetriline lähenemine, J. Piaget kognitiivse arengu teooria

  16. Bakterite Miss Marple = The Miss Marple of bacteria / Marika Mikelsaar ; interv. Evelin Kivilo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikelsaar, Marika, 1938-

    2008-01-01

    Intervjuu Tartu Ülikooli professori, probiootilise piimhappebakteri ME-3 avastajaga, kes pälvis president Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt Eesti Vabariigi 90. aastapäeva puhul Valgetähe III klassi teenetemärgi

  17. Excavations on the Coasts of Prehistoric and Medieval Saaremaa / Marika Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Marika, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Viltina võimaliku sadamakoha kaevamistest. Leiti järjekordne 11. sajandi leiukompleks, seekord tüüpilistest Saaremaa naise ehetest. Pällamõisas on inimtegevus saanud alguse ilmselt I aastatuhande keskel, mil see paiknes otse mererannal. Inimtegevus Pällamõisas lakkas ilmselt keskaja alguses. 16. sajandi algul rajati sellele kohale hoonekompleks, mis juba 17. sajandil hüjati. Proovikaevamistest Tammese asulakohal

  18. The mortuary house at Lepna on southern Saaremaa / Marika Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Marika

    2004-01-01

    Kaevamistest Lepna Katkuauguks nimetatud matusekohal. Surnumaja ümbritsenud kultuurmaastikust, surnumaja jäänustest, matustest. Lepna surnumaja markeerib silmnähtavaid muudatusi Saaremaa matmiskombestikus 5. - 6. sajandil

  19. 400 miljoni eurone programm toetab innovaatilisi ettevõtteid / Marika Roomere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roomere, Marika

    2007-01-01

    2007. aasta sügisel ellu kutsutud Euroopa ettevõtluse toetusprogrammist Eurostars, mille raames toetatakse keskmise suurusega ja väikeettevõtteid 400 miljoni euroga rahvusvahelise teadus- ja arendustegevusega tegelemiseks. Lisa: Mis on Eurostarsi programm?

  20. Rain Jõgi : Kehtivat trendi on keeruline murda / Rain Jõgi ; interv. Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgi, Rain

    2006-01-01

    TÜ kliinikumi kopsukliiniku juhataja kommenteerib European Community Respiratory Health Survey rahvusvahelist uuringut ja eestlaste suitsetamisharjumusi hingamisteede haiguste riskiteguritena üldisemas plaanis

  1. Leedu ettevõtteid ahvatleb Eesti turg / Gerli Ramler, Marika Roomere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ramler, Gerli

    2007-01-01

    Mitmed Leedu ettevõtted on juba edukalt Eesti turule sisenenud ning oodata on uusi tegijaid. Leedu pitsarestoranide keti Cili ja Double Coffee Estonia plaanidest. Vt. samas: Toiduliidu juhataja Sirje Potisepp. Turg on avatud kõigile; Intervjuu Raimondas Useckasega

  2. Rahvakunst Marika ja Heinz Valgu kollektsioonist : Heie Treier soovitab / Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treier, Heie, 1963-

    2000-01-01

    12. märtsini Tarbekunstimuuseumis avatud näitusest, mille on kujundanud Heinz Valk. Soovitatakse külastada Kunstihoones Anu Juuraku näitust 'Tsoon 2', kus tegeldakse identiteedi probleemidega kõrgtehnoloogilisel tasandil.

  3. Noor näitleja otsib rollides ennast / Marika Rajamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajamäe, Marika

    2006-01-01

    Tantsuõpetaja Helmi Tohvelmani nimelise liikuvaima näitleja preemia võttis vastu näitleja Tambet Tuisk, Järvamaa maakooli edukaima õpilase preemia aga Annely Tank, kes õpib Koigi Põhikooli 9. klassis

  4. Maagiline Matrix - muutuste võti / Marika Makarova ; kommenteerinud Ainar Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2010-01-01

    USA kiropraktiku Richard Bartletti loodud Matrix Energetics tehnikate alusl Ainar Leppiku poolt loodud Maagilise Maatriksi meetodist, mis õpetab muutuste toomist oma ellu. Vestlustest Maagilise Maatriksi õpetajatega

  5. Vest-Wood pürgib Balti turule / Marika Tomberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tomberg, Marika

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Äripäev : Eesti Edukamad Ettevõtted : Maakondlikud edetabelid Top 100, 26. nov. 2004, lk. 15. TOP-i 1. koht. Uksetootja Vest-Woodi konkurentsieeliseks on väga hea töökorraldus. Diagramm

  6. Loodusesõber / Maria Martinez Ros ; küsis Marika Makarova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Martinez Ros, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Intervjuu Tallinnas ja Lilleorus tantsuteraapia kursusi andva mehhiklanna Maria Martinez Rosiga, kes on õppinud permakultuuri disaini, humanistliku psühholoogiat, tanatoloogiat, Feldenkraisi meetodit, tema vaadetest jätkusuutlikule elamise viisile

  7. Parim proosalugeja köitis küpsusega / Marika Rajamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajamäe, Marika, 1952-

    2008-01-01

    Toimus viies üle-eestiline proosalugemine "Hansenist Tammsaareni". Mõtteid võistulugemise kohta avaldavad konkursi algataja Enda Trubok, Järva maavalitsuse haridus- ja kultuuriosakonna peainspektor Anne Viljat, Eesti emakeeleõpetajate seltsi esimees Piret Järvela, žürii esimees Iivi Lepik, konkursil võistelnud Merilin Kulpsoo. Peavõidu sai Sabine Liias, V-VII klasside arvestuses läks I koht Sabine Liiasele, II koht Kristian Käreskile, III koht Kristiina Orasele. VIII-IX arvestuses läks I koht Katriin Altementile, II koht Indrek Jõele, III koht Linda Randojale. X-XII klasside arvestuses võitis Kaire Olesk, II koha saii Sten-Robert Pullerits ning III koha Katrin Ojalill

  8. Audentese koolid kolivad väärikatesse majadesse / Marika Karo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karo, Marika

    2002-01-01

    Tartu linnavalitsus otsustas 9. mail 2002.a. müüa Tartus Puiestee tänaval asuva ajaloolise koolikompleksi ASile Audentes, kes kavatseb kinnistul olevatest kahest muinsuskaitse alla kuuluvast koolimajast, tööõpetuse majast, abihoonetest ja spordiplatsist välja arendada campus-tüüpi tänapäevase koolide kompleksi. Hooneid hakkavad kasutama Audentes Mainor Ülikooli Tartu filiaal ja alg- ja põhiharidust pakkuv Audentese Erakool. Koolihoonete kompleksi ajaloost

  9. Tööandjate unistuste seaduse autorid olid tegelikult sotsid / Marika Tuus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuus, Marika, 1951-

    2008-01-01

    Uue töölepingu seaduse eelnõust. Ilmunud ka Virumaa Teataja 29. jaan. 2008, lk. 11 ; Hiiu Leht 29. jaan. 2008, lk. 2 ; Pärnu Postimees 29. jaan. 2008, lk. 15 ; Vali Uudised 30. jaan. 2008, lk. 2, pealkiri kujul: uus orjaaeg ; Meie Maa 29. jaan. 2008, lk. 2 ; Põhjarannik 30. jaan. 2008, lk. 2 ; Lääne Elu 29. jaan. 2008, lk. 2 ; Elva Postipoiss 2. veeb. 2008, lk. 4, pealkiri kujul: Kas uus orjaaeg? ; Kesknädal 6. veeb. 2008, lk. 2 ; Vooremaa 14. veeb. 2008, lk. 2

  10. Who Defends the Stem Cell's Citadel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick-Marchand, Hélène; Durantel, David

    2018-03-01

    Recently in Cell, Wu et al. (2018) demonstrated that intrinsic expression of a subset of interferon stimulated genes confers resistance to viral infections in stem cells both in vitro and in vivo, while differentiated cells lose this intrinsic gatekeeper expression pattern in favor of inducible interferon responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Creating Political Space To Defend Chinese Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongfang, Han

    2002-01-01

    Presents comments spoken at a human rights conference by Han Dongfang, a Chinese activist who was jailed after an attempt to organize China's first independent union from a tent in Tiananmen Square during the democracy movement. Today, he is barred from the mainland but works from Hong Kong through Radio Free Asia. Comments focus on foreign…

  12. Defending the unabomber: anosognosia in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, X F; Paul-Odouard, R

    2000-01-01

    The use of recent psychiatric research in the defense of the 'Unabomber' (United States vs. Theodore Kaczynski) is a compelling example of how the gap between research and practice can have profound consequences on the practice of forensic psychiatry, psychology and the judicial process. In this case, educating the lawyers and the court about the research on poor insight in schizophrenia changed the defense strategy and ultimately the course of the trial.

  13. Queller's separation condition explained and defended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Jonathan; Marshall, James A R

    2014-10-01

    The theories of inclusive fitness and multilevel selection provide alternative perspectives on social evolution. The question of whether these perspectives are of equal generality remains a divisive issue. In an analysis based on the Price equation, Queller argued (by means of a principle he called the separation condition) that the two approaches are subject to the same limitations, arising from their fundamentally quantitative-genetical character. Recently, van Veelen et al. have challenged Queller's results, using this as the basis for a broader critique of the Price equation, the separation condition, and the very notion of inclusive fitness. Here we show that the van Veelen et al. model, when analyzed in the way Queller intended, confirms rather than refutes his original conclusions. We thereby confirm (i) that Queller's separation condition remains a legitimate theoretical principle and (ii) that the standard inclusive fitness and multilevel approaches are indeed subject to the same limitations.

  14. What do territory owners defend against?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinsch, Martin; Komdeur, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical research on evolutionary aspects of territoriality has a long history. Existing studies, however, differ widely in modelling approach and research question. A generalized view on the evolution of territoriality is accordingly still missing. In this review, we show that territorial

  15. Defending Critical Infrastructure as Cyber Key Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    to Secure Cyberspace (NSSC) is as it lists three strategic objectives:4 1) Prevent cyber attacks against America’s critical infrastructures; 2...House, “National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace,” (Washington, DC: The White House, 2003) Trey Herr, "PrEP: A framework for malware & cyber weapons...David Kuipers and Mark Fabro. “Control Systems Cyber Security : Defense in Depth Strategies,” [United States: Department of Energy, 2006]: 4

  16. Can the neutrino speed anomaly be defended?

    CERN Document Server

    Knobloch, Jurgen

    2011-01-01

    The OPERA collaboration reported [1] a measurement of the neutrino velocity exceeding the speed of light by 0.025%. For the 730 km distance from CERN in Geneva to the OPERA experiment an early arrival of the neutrinos of 60.7 ns is measured with an accuracy of \\pm6.9 ns (stat.) and \\pm7.4 ns (sys.). A basic assumption in the analysis is that the proton time structure represents exactly the time structure of the neutrino flux. In this manuscript, we challenge this assumption. We identify two main origins of systematic effects: a group delay due to low pass filters acting on the particular shape of the proton time distribution and a movement of the proton beam at the target during the leading and trailing slopes of the spill.

  17. Diplomats defend Snaige in duty row

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Leedu soovib, et Ukraina tühistaks uued tollimaksud Euroopa Liidus valmistatud kodukaupadele. Leedu kodumasinate tootja Snaige kavatseb hakata eksportima oma tooteid just Ukrainasse ja suurendada müüki Venemaale ja Valgevenesse

  18. [Elective abortions, a right to defend].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccabri, Annie

    2015-12-01

    Every year in France, almost 210 000 women request a termination of an unwanted pregnancy. Two thirds of them were however using a form of contraception, hence the importance, for caregivers, of encouraging women to find the method which works best for them. The right to abortion is the fruit of a long fight for a woman's right to control her own body. It is a right which must be protected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Coordinated Displays to Assist Cyber Defenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-23

    expected to affect performance efficacy (i.e., accuracy in identifying threats and non- threats ) because all alert-related information was present...For the first alert, the researcher demonstrated how to collect evidence to make a threat judgement while talking aloud. In completing the second...analysts must gather evidence from multiple sources and ultimately decide whether or not suspicious activity represents a threat to network security

  20. Defending against Browser Based Data Exfiltration Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    The global nature of Internet has revolutionized cultural and commercial interactions while at the same time it has provided opportunities for cyber criminals. Crimeware services now exist that have transformed the nature of cyber crime by making it more automated and robust. Furthermore, these crimeware services are sold as a part of a growing…

  1. Markets China Defends its Index Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JESSY ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    @@ On September 5th, the Singapore Exchange(SGX) launched the world's first index futures based on stocks listed in the Chinese mainland, despite the fact that index compiler FTSE/Xinhua was in the process of being sued by two Chinese companies that manage data for the Chinese stock exchanges.

  2. Coral skeletons defend against ultraviolet radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Reef

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many coral reef organisms are photosynthetic or have evolved in tight symbiosis with photosynthetic symbionts. As such, the tissues of reef organisms are often exposed to intense solar radiation in clear tropical waters and have adapted to trap and harness photosynthetically active radiation (PAR. High levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR associated with sunlight, however, represent a potential problem in terms of tissue damage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By measuring UVR and PAR reflectance from intact and ground bare coral skeletons we show that the property of calcium carbonate skeletons to absorb downwelling UVR to a significant extent, while reflecting PAR back to the overlying tissue, has biological advantages. We placed cnidarians on top of bare skeletons and a UVR reflective substrate and showed that under ambient UVR levels, UVR transmitted through the tissues of cnidarians placed on top of bare skeletons were four times lower compared to their counterparts placed on a UVR reflective white substrate. In accordance with the lower levels of UVR measured in cnidarians on top of coral skeletons, a similar drop in UVR damage to their DNA was detected. The skeletons emitted absorbed UVR as yellow fluorescence, which allows for safe dissipation of the otherwise harmful radiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study presents a novel defensive role for coral skeletons and reveals that the strong UVR absorbance by the skeleton can contribute to the ability of corals, and potentially other calcifiers, to thrive under UVR levels that are detrimental to most marine life.

  3. Trafkintu: seed curators defending food sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastassja Nicole Mancilla Ivaca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the resurgence of Trafkintu, an ancient Mapuche ritual of seed trade; now as a folk-communication practice of resistance, against neoliberal transformations in farming that threaten food sovereignty of rural communities in southern Chile. Drawing onparticipant observation and semi-structured interviews with peasant and Mapuche women involved in these practices, we show that seed curators women act as agents that revalue the localness [lo local] through a process of resignification of Trafkintu, this time linking it tofood self-sufficiency. In addition, they build networks between indigenous and peasant communities as a resistance strategy. However, this resurgence of Trafkintu becomes ambivalent as its new symbolic expression is being appropriated by local mainstreampoliticians, for electoral purposes, to promote an image of 'concern about popular culture'. That is, a tool of resistance, on the one hand, and a kind of political folk-marketing, on the other.

  4. Defending the solo and small practice neurologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elaine C; Evans, David A

    2015-04-01

    Changes in health care are having a dramatic effect on the practice of medicine. In 2005, a National Center for Health Statistics survey showed that 55%-70% of physicians are in small/solo practices. These data also demonstrated that 70% of physicians identified themselves as owners. Since passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010, neurologists report an 8% increase in academic practice settings, a 2% decrease in private practice settings, and a 5% decrease in solo practice settings. Surveys of family physicians showed that 60% are now employees of hospitals or larger groups. A survey by The Physicians Foundation showed that 89% of physicians believed that the traditional model of independent private practice is either "on shaky ground" or "a dinosaur soon to go extinct." With the changes expected from the ACA, solo/small practices will continue to face challenges and therefore must pay close attention to business and clinical metrics.

  5. Defending Against Biological and Chemical Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    addition, we field integrated installation consequence management response capabilities to select installations both at home and abroad. Just as...decon- tamination, like self-decontaminating or strippable coat- ings for vehicles; we are developing technologies to focus decontamination on the

  6. Defending the Pittsburgh Waterways Against Catastrophic Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    by the Hannibal L/D. Along the Allegheny River our AOI is bounded by the Allegheny L/D 5. Along the Monongahela River our AOI is bounded by the...22  Figure 9.  Dams segment the river into pools, which are numbered. Locks enable transit between pools. The Hannibal L/D and the Pike Island...AOI, listed in the table to the right. Along the Ohio River our AOI is bounded by the Hannibal L/D. Along the Allegheny River our AOI is bounded by

  7. Eosinophils in helminth infection: defenders and dupes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Appleton, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilia is a central feature of the host response to helminth infection. Larval stages of parasitic worms are killed in vitro by eosinophils in the presence of specific antibodies or complement. These findings established host defense as the paradigm for eosinophil function. Recently, studies in eosinophil-ablated mouse strains have revealed an expanded repertoire of immunoregulatory functions for this cell. Other reports document crucial roles for eosinophils in tissue homeostasis and metabolism, processes that are central to the establishment and maintenance of parasitic worms in their hosts. In this review, we summarize current understanding of the significance of eosinophils at the host-parasite interface, highlighting their distinct functions during primary and secondary exposure. PMID:27262918

  8. Play the Immune System Defender Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questionnaire The Immune System Play the Immune System Game About the game Granulocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells are immune cells ... last will in Paris. Play the Blood Typing Game Try to save some patients and learn about ...

  9. The Right to Health of Persons with Disabilities and the Promotional Role of The Healths Protection Center of the Public Defender's Office in the State of Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Barroso de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analysis the performance of Healths Protection Center of the Public Defender's Office in the State of Ceará in the years 2013 and 2014, notably with regard to the protection of rights of persons with disabilities. This is a specialized service in the demands of health, whose performance has been excelling in the protection of the right to health of the hypossufficient. Judicialization of public policy as an instrument of implementation of the fundamental  right  to  health  is  a  topic  widely  discussed  at  the  Academy  who  makes increasingly practical importance, due to its impact on reality and the involvement of various social actors, with different ideas and interests. This article intended to talk regarding the right to health of persons with disabilities, approaching the challenges to be overcome for their effectiveness and evoking questions about social inclusion. For the understanding of the object, the study used bibliographical research and documentary, with use of theoretical references of documents kept in files of public institution and statistical data elaborated by specialized institutes. In order to obtain detailed information and reports from experience, the study used too an interview with interactive and unstructured nature and exploratory bias. In the end, it was concluded that the performance of the Healths Protection Center has excelled in the awareness of the rights and in the solution of the request by means of health benefits, judicial or outside a court. However, it is necessary that there should be greater dialogue between public authorities, institutions and society, to empower the citizenship of persons with disabilities.

  10. A REPRESENTAÇÃO DISCURSIVA DA VÍTIMA E DO RÉU NO GÊNERO SENTENÇA JUDICIAL / Discursive representation of the victim and defendant in the genre judiciary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Valéria Saboia Teixeira Lopes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Esta comunicação apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa de mestrado, em que analisamos como a representação discursiva da vítima e do réu é construída no gênero sentença judicial. Assim, objetivamos analisar como os sujeitos são representados discursivamente no texto jurídico a partir de pontos de vista de enunciadores distintos e como os elementos referenciais colaboram no processo de construção dessas imagens, que são ativadas e compartilhadas entre enunciador e coenunciadores. O trabalho insere-se no âmbito teórico geral da linguística textual e, mais especificamente, na análise textual dos discursos (ATD, com base em Adam (2011. O trabalho é orientado pelos estudos de Rodrigues et al. (2010, 2014, Passeggi (2010, 2001, Capez (2012 e outros. É uma pesquisa documental, com caráter qualitativo, descritivo, explicativo e interpretativo. Para a análise, selecionamos uma sentença do TJSP, com a temática da violência contra a mulher. Os resultados indicaram que a construção da representação discursiva dos sujeitos é complexa e depende das escolhas feitas pelo enunciador, de suas intenções, seus objetivos, podendo aproximar-se ou distanciar-se, de acordo com a orientação argumentativa do texto. Palavras-chave: Análise textual dos discursos; representação discursiva; gênero sentença judicial ABSTRACT This paper presents results of a master degree research, in which we analyze how discursive representation of victim and defendant is built in court judgment genre. Thus, we aimed to assess how involved individuals are discursively represented in legal text from views of different enunciators and how referential elements collaborate in construction of these images, which are activated and shared between enunciator and co-enunciators. This work is part of general theoretical framework of text linguistics and, more specifically, of textual discourse analysis (ATD, based on Adam ([2008] 2011, being guided by

  11. The structure of community networks defending the concept of Iceland's financial stability Viðbrögð tengslanets við gagnrýni á fjármálastöðugleika Íslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Þröstur Ólafur Sigurjónsson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Actor-network theory suggests that those responsible for the operations of a complex system have reason to defend the idea of the system’s stability in the face of challengers who suggest the system may have problems. One form this defence can take is the formation of a complex social network that makes it difficult for challengers’ claims to be reasonably considered. This paper illustrates the formation or activation of such a network of Icelandic bankers, analysts, politicians, academics, business executives and newspapers, as well as their rational and emotional public arguments, in defence of the idea of the stability of the Icelandic banking system when challenged by the Danske Bank report of 2006. The analysis shows why it was difficult for the Danish challenge to receive a credible hearing among the Icelandic citizenry, which meant that citizens had a difficult time getting a clear picture of what was happening in their community. This research also shows a wider application for actor-network theory than previously discussed in the literature and draws implications of network formation or activation for policy makers.Félagsnetakenningin gerir ráð fyrir að þeir, sem eru ábyrgir fyrir viðhaldi flókinna kerfa, hafi ástæðu til þess að verjast ef fram kemur gagnrýni á stöðugleika kerfanna. Vörnin getur tekið á sig form tengslanets sem erfitt getur reynst að komast í gegnum. Þessi rannsókn notar félagsnetafræði til að varpa ljósi á það hvernig viðbrögð við gagnrýni á stöðugleika íslensku bankanna árið 2006 gerði gagnrýnendum og almenningi erfitt fyrir að fá raunsanna mynd varðandi stöðu íslensku bankanna. Tengslanetagreining rannsóknarinnar sýnir hvernig þeir, sem ábyrgir voru fyrir fjármálakerfinu, vörðust gagnrýni sem fram kom í skýrslu Danske Bank og hvernig flókið og þéttriðið "varnarnet" varð til. Rannsóknin sýnir að þeir sem efuðust um stöðugleika íslensks fj

  12. Tri-Level Optimization Algorithms for Solving Defender-Attacker-Defender Network Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    not improved over three iterations of relaxation. In the heuristic , the current upper bound represents the best found feasible solution that does not...nested loops in the 167 algorithm which represent the outer and inner decompositions of the DAD CSP problem instance. Since our heuristic ...path problem. We merge the attacker model with Lagrangian relaxation of the operator model into a single formulation that can obtain fast heuristic

  13. Designing Interference-Robust Wireless Mesh Networks Using a Defender-Attacker-Defender Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    solution does not provide more network flow than the undefended attacker’s solution. (However, our tool stores alternate, runner -up solutions that often...approximate real WMNs. 51 LIST OF REFERENCES Alderson, D.L., Brown, G.G., & Carlyle, W.M. (2014). Assessing and improving operational resilience

  14. 22 tundi tõde ja õigust Anton Hansen Tammsaare moodi / Risto Berendson, Marika Rajamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berendson, Risto, 1975-

    2008-01-01

    30. okt. kirjutati Anton Hansen Tammsaare sünniaastapäeva puhul alla lepingule, mis toob Vargamäele maratonetenduse kogu "Tõe ja õiguse" põhjal. Etendus toimub 21.-22. juunini. Kommenteerib Ülo Tonts

  15. Elu- ja mõtterännakud, minemised ja saatmised / Kaljo Põllu ; interv. Jonathan Roper, Marika Alver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põllu, Kaljo, 1934-2010

    2007-01-01

    Kaljo Põllu oma kunstiõpingutest, loomingust, tööst Tartu Ülikooli kunstikabineti juhatajana, käikudest soomeugrilaste juurde, soome-ugri ekpeditsioonide korraldamisest kunstiinstituudis, ekspeditsioonide mõjust üliõpilaste mõtteviisile ja kunstile, rühmitusest Ydi, soomeugrilisusest eemaldumisest. Leedsi ülikooli inglise filoloogia lektor Jonathan Rops on käinud koos EKA üliõpilastega ekspeditsioonidel 1998., 1999. ja 2003. aastal

  16. Eesti merovingi- ja viikingiaegsed rinnanõelad - võõrapärased ja omad / Marika Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Marika

    1997-01-01

    Artiklis käsitletakse Eesti merovingi- ja viikingiaegsete ehtenõelte tüpoloogiat ja kandmisviise. Vaatluse alla on võetud rõngaspeaga, kolmnurkpeaga ja varasemad kaksikristpeaga nõelad, mille dateeringut ja tüpoloogilist arengut on varasemaga võrreldes täpsustatud. Joonised, diagrammid, fotod

  17. Žürii kommenteerib Kultuurkapitali arhitektuuripreemiaid 2008 / Marika Lõoke, Laila Põdra, Liina Jänes... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Peapreemia: Markus Kaasik, Andres Ojari, Ilmar Valdur, Mihkel Tüür, Kalle Komissarov (Pärnu Keskraamatukogu hoone), tegevuspreemia: Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Neeme Külm, Ingrid Ruudi (projekt Gaasitoru 11. Veneetsia arhitektuuribiennaalil), aastapreemia: Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Karli Luik (Tartu Kesklinna Kooli juurdeehitus) ja Peep Jänes (Raudna Põhikooli spordihoone), sisearhitektuuri preemia: Tea Tammelaan, Malle Jürgenson, Krista Lepland, restaureerimispreemia: Mari Hammer, Tiiu Lõhmus, Helve Ilves, Villu Kadakas (Vanalinna Hariduskolleegiumi hoone)

  18. Gurmaanlus ruulib / Marika Makarova ; kommenteerinud Anu Tali, René Uusmees, Tõnis Siigur, Hannes Võrno, Dimitri Demjanov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Makarova, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Tulevikutoidu konverentsil Tallinnas esinenud kuulsate kokkade Albert Adria, Fergus Hendersoni ja Claus Meyeri kokakunsti lähtekohtadest ja mõistet gurmaanlus mõtestavad lahti tuntud Eesti inimesed ja kokad

  19. Feng shui väärtus on vaimujõus / Marika Tomberg ; komment. Lea Eermann, komment. Rein Weber

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tomberg, Marika

    1999-01-01

    Feng shui järgi korraldatud Lea Eermanni kodust Nõmmel. Feng shui- ja geobioloogia-alase nõustamisega tegelev arhitekt Rein Weber keskkonna mõjust tervisele, magamistoast. Enda ja maja kaitsmisest halbade mõjude eest. 10 illustratsiooni

  20. HIV-i võib nakatunud olla iga sajas täiskasvanud eestlane / Marika Raiski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raiski, Marika

    2005-01-01

    Vt. ka Nädaline 27. sept., lk. 7. Vastavalt Maailma Terviseorganisatsiooni (WHO) ja UNAIDS-i hinnangule on Eestis hulgaliselt registreerimata HIV-juhte ning tegelikult võib HIV-nakatunuid olla juba iga sajas täiskasvanud Eesti elanik

  1. Mis muutub Eesti Kunstimuuseumi elus, rollis ja tähenduses, kui Kumu valmis on saanud? / Marika Valk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valk, Marika

    2004-01-01

    EKMi filiaalidest jäävad edasi tegutsema Kadrioru lossi väliskunstimuuseum (koos Mikkeli muuseumiga), Niguliste muuseum, Adamson-Ericu muuseum, Kristjan Raua majamuuseum, juurde tuleb Kumu, tegevuse lõpetavad Rüütelkonna hoone ja kunstimuuseumi näitusepind Rotermanni soolalaos

  2. 3- ja 4-aastaste laste intellektuaalne areng erinevates kasvukeskkondades / Merit Laane, Kristina Nugin, Ingrid Tuisk, Marika Veisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Uuringust, mille eesmärgiks oli selgitada, milline on 3- ja 4-aastaste laste intellektuaalne areng erinevates kasvukeskkondades. Uuringus osalesid longituuduurimuses osalenud lapsed, tavarühma lapsed ja Hea Alguse rühma lapsed

  3. Ot porolona k iskusstvu / Kristiina Verbitskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Verbitskaja, Kristiina

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna endise tehase "Polümeer" ruumides tegutsevad juba kaks aastat muusikud, kunstnikud ja teised kultuuriinimesed. 10. -20. augustini toimuvad kultuuritehase Polymer avamisüritused: teatrietendused, kunstinäitused, kontserdid, filmiseansid. Korraldab Madis Mikkor

  4. Kultuuritehas vallutab vana katlamaja / Merit Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Merit

    2005-01-01

    Kultuuritehase projektijuht Madis Mikkor Tallinna Põhja puiesteel asuva vana elektrijaama tööstusmiljööst ja hoonetest, kuhu kolib kultuuritehas Polymer. Katlamaja plaanitakse avada augustis mitmepäevase festivaliga

  5. Kultuuritehas esitleb uusi tooteid / Karina Talts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talts, Karina

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna endises Polümeeri kummivabrikus ametlikult uksed avanud Kultuuritehasest Polymer. Avamisüritusest Kultuurinädal. Korraldajaks Madis Mikkor. Toimuvad kunstinäitused, õpitoad, kontserdid, teatrietendused, ISEA 2004 multimeediaprojektid

  6. Defending the Amazon: Conservation, Development and Security in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Globo, August 6, 2008, http://oglobo.globo.com/ economia /miriam/post.asp?t=rota_das_drogas&cod_Post=118173&a=496 (accessed February 24, 2009). 193...oglobo.globo.com/ economia /miriam/post.asp?t=rota_das_drogas&cod_Post =118173&a=496 (accessed February 24, 2009). Levitsky, Melvyn (U.S. Ambassador

  7. Defending Air Bases in an Age of Insurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    2003, accessed 11 January 2013, http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate /af/123004768.htm. 87. Jason Beers, “786 SFS Lessons Learned Operation Iraqi...04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP3I5EyrpHK9nHK9_KJ0vfykr GL9gmxHRQB9GD_G/. 82. Additional information on the Objektschutzregiment der Luftwaffe “ Fries - land...Assessing Air Base Defense,” Air and Space Power Journal 18, no. 3 (Fall 2004): 65–74. It has been reworked here to account for more recent develop- ments

  8. Defending networks against denial-of-service attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelenbe, Erol; Gellman, Michael; Loukas, George

    2004-11-01

    Denial of service attacks, viruses and worms are common tools for malicious adversarial behavior in networks. Experience shows that over the last few years several of these techniques have probably been used by governments to impair the Internet communications of various entities, and we can expect that these and other information warfare tools will be used increasingly as part of hostile behavior either independently, or in conjunction with other forms of attack in conventional or asymmetric warfare, as well as in other forms of malicious behavior. In this paper we concentrate on Distributed Denial of Service Attacks (DDoS) where one or more attackers generate flooding traffic and direct it from multiple sources towards a set of selected nodes or IP addresses in the Internet. We first briefly survey the literature on the subject, and discuss some examples of DDoS incidents. We then present a technique that can be used for DDoS protection based on creating islands of protection around a critical information infrastructure. This technique, that we call the CPN-DoS-DT (Cognitive Packet Networks DoS Defence Technique), creates a self-monitoring sub-network surrounding each critical infrastructure node. CPN-DoS-DT is triggered by a DDoS detection scheme, and generates control traffic from the objects of the DDoS attack to the islands of protection where DDOS packet flows are destroyed before they reach the critical infrastructure. We use mathematical modelling, simulation and experiments on our test-bed to show the positive and negative outcomes that may result from both the attack, and the CPN-DoS-DT protection mechanism, due to imperfect detection and false alarms.

  9. How to Defend Ourselves Against Corporate Image and Ideology Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James R.

    Since teachers have been encouraged to give attention to advertising, product advertising has been the subject of study, but because of the large amount of money spent on them, two other aspects of advertising need special attention: corporate-sponsored image (which deals with characteristics and image of the company rather than with products or…

  10. Net protectors defend the global commons | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-21

    Oct 21, 2010 ... Deep in the basement of the Munk Centre for International Studies, ... who heads the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School, .... along with further analysis, in a book to be published early next year by ...

  11. The Anders Behring Breivik Trial: Performing Justice, Defending Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Graaf

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available On 24 August 2012, the judges of the Oslo District Court passed their final verdict in the case of Anders Behring Breivik, declaring Breivik criminally sane and legally responsible for the killing of 77 people during the bombing of government buildings in Oslo and the shooting spree on the island of Utøya on 22 July 2011. This Research Paper examines to what extent the Breivik trial attained the goals of criminal justice: retribution, prevention, restoring democratic order and upholding the rule of law. Furthermore, it aims to determine if the trial contributed to the need for closure in society. The Research Paper concludes that the trial did indeed have a positive impact on the coping mechanisms in Norwegian society and that most Norwegians viewed the trial as a positive counter-weight to the brutality of Breivik’s acts. Overall, the trial was viewed as an example of justice and as a trial that upheld the democratic values of Norwegian society – in stark contrast to Breivik’s values.

  12. The Defender’s Dilemma: Charting a Course Toward Cybersecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Security concerns on the Internet began with the introduction of the Morris worm in November 1988,1 and since that time we have wit- nessed the...Patch Tuesday .” This is when security patches and updates are released for users to implement. As such, “Exploit Wednesday” usually fol- lows “Patch... Tuesday ,” as users are not generally quick to immediately patch their systems. 23 E.g., Oracle or Microsoft patch on a fixed schedule, but will make

  13. Natural resource damage assessment -- Trustee and defendant perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, M.; Trimmier, R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the NRD process is restoration: restoring injured resources and the services they provide to a level that will compensate the public for the losses associated with injuries. While restoration, the final step in the cleanup process, has only recently been pursued, experience dictates that it is more effective and efficient for cleanup agencies. Industry and natural resource trustees to address NRD by integrating it into the cleanup process in a cooperative and coordinated manner. Early integration reduces transaction costs and liability by: (1) enabling the collection of NRD information by field personnel already conducting RI work; (2) promoting the selection of remedial alternatives that are protective of resources; and (3) creating opportunities to build restoration directly into the remedy. The damage assessment regulations provide an objective template to guide this process. Integration thus facilitates timely restoration, thereby halting the accrual of further damages and reducing the potential for time consuming and costly litigation. Delays in settlement and restoration are more likely when trustees are not made part of the cleanup process. Particularly under CERCLA, reliance on unproven science for injury determination and unreliable economics for damage assessment results in inflated values, prolonged litigation, delayed or vacuous remedial action and high transaction costs. Under OPA, where oil spills require immediate and effective response action, cooperation between PRPs and Trustees is more likely, but even there, the post-response assessment of NRD is unlikely to be cooperative for the same reason CERCLA assessments tend not to be

  14. Defending Cultural Assets Against a Cosmic Impact Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, James; Camacho, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Asteroid or comet impacts on Earth have the potential to destroy humanity's cultural heritage, ranging from local regions to total obliteration. Fortunately we now have means to cope with this hazard -- if and only if we devote resources to finding, intercepting and deflecting threatening objects. Early preparations have already begun. Under auspices of the UN's Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) an International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN) and a Space Mission Planning Advisory Group (SMPAG) have been set up. Upon validation of a threat by IAWN and SMPAG, agencies with capacity, funding and authority to launch intercept missions are to act. A model for this is the existing arrangement for organizing and dispatching UN peacekeeping forces. In this paper we describe current technical options and needed policy and legal developments to enable the world to divert threats and, if that fails or is impossible, to save lives through evacuation and civil defense. In parallel with those efforts, we advocate the creation of safe archives as backup for lost cultural treasures.

  15. The defender's dilemma charting a course toward cybersecurity

    CERN Document Server

    Libicki, Martin C; Webb, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Cybersecurity is a constant, and, by all accounts growing, challenge. This report, the second in a multiphase study on the future of cybersecurity, reveals perspectives and perceptions from chief information security officers; examines the development of network defense measures-and the countermeasures that attackers create to subvert those measures; and explores the role of software vulnerabilities and inherent weaknesses.

  16. The Anders Behring Breivik Trial: Performing Justice, Defending Democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, B.A.; van der Heide, E.J.; Wanmaker, S.; Weggemans, D.J.

    On 24 August 2012, the judges of the Oslo District Court passed their final verdict in the case of Anders Behring Breivik, declaring Breivik criminally sane and legally responsible for the killing of 77 people during the bombing of government buildings in Oslo and the shooting spree on the island of

  17. Defending Privacy: the Development and Deployment of a Darknet

    OpenAIRE

    McManamon, Conor; Mtenzi, Fredrick

    2010-01-01

    New measures imposed by governments, Internet service providers and other third parties which threaten the state of privacy are also opening new avenues to protecting it. The unwarranted scrutiny of legitimate services such as file hosters and the BitTorrent protocol, once relatively unknown to the casual Internet user, is becoming more obvious. The darknet is a rising contender against these new measures and will preserve the default right to privacy of Internet users. A darknet is defined i...

  18. Defending Letters: A Pragmatic Response to Assaults on the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Iain

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a mainly pragmatic response to utilitarian criticisms of the humanities. It first outlines political, public and practical fronts on which the humanities are under assault, identifying critics and their conspirators. Then, as a part of its defence of the humanities it expounds some of their central strengths. These range from the…

  19. Male Pattern Blindness: The Consequences of Defending Manhood

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Matthew Christian

    2013-01-01

    Research on threats to masculine gender identity reveals that they occur in a diversity of contexts. In conjunction with research on the content of masculine identity, there is converging evidence that manhood is seen as a status that men must work hard to earn and maintain (Vandello, Bosson, Cohen, Burnaford, & Weaver, 2008). In the defense of claims to manhood, men often perform behavior that restores their sense of masculinity in the short term, but has harmful future consequences for the...

  20. The Frontiers Approach: Defending a Sufficientarian Rule of Distributive Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Axelsen, David Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    justice takes its starting point in duress as the relevant contrast to dignity. Human dignity, we define by expanding Kant’s notion of dignity as the moral worth of autonomous, rational persons to entail emotional valuable aspects of the human life and the praxis of embracing these aspects......One of the major topics of political philosophy is that of distributive justice – the question of determining, as T. M. Scanlon famously named his book on the subject, what we owe to each other. The way this question is answered has huge effects on which policies should be pursued, and thus, how...

  1. Defendants are clueless the 30-day psychiatric observation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Claimed amnesia. 0. 5 (5.7). Substance abuse. 0. 2 (2.3). Was sexually abused in childhood. 0. 1 (1.1). Mental retardation. 0. 1 (1.1). Lawyer could not understand client. 0. 1 (1.1). Table 11. Reasons for the referral. (17.0%). Defence counsel requests accounted for 18.2%, family 14.8%, the prosecutor 8.0%, the police officer ...

  2. Defending submission-year analyses of new drug approvals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Daniel P

    2003-01-01

    In response to the critique of Mary Olsen, Daniel Carpenter, on behalf of his co-authors, addresses the issue of analysis based on the year a new drug is submitted for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, not the year it is approved. Both substantive knowledge of the FDA drug review process and sound social science theory favor submission-year averaging. The history and bureaucratic mechanics of the Center for Drug Evaluation and Review (CDER) conform to the author's assumption. The statistical theory of optimal experimentation also points to the beginning of review as a locus for effects upon decisions.

  3. Towards defending a semantic theory of expression in art: Revisiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nelson Goodman's attempt to analyse the expressiveness of artworks in semantic terms has been widely criticised. In this paper I try to show how the use of an adapted version of his concept of exemplification, as proposed by Mark Textor, can help to alleviate the worst problems with his theory of expression.

  4. Defending Malicious Script Attacks Using Machine Learning Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayeem Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The web application has become a primary target for cyber criminals by injecting malware especially JavaScript to perform malicious activities for impersonation. Thus, it becomes an imperative to detect such malicious code in real time before any malicious activity is performed. This study proposes an efficient method of detecting previously unknown malicious java scripts using an interceptor at the client side by classifying the key features of the malicious code. Feature subset was obtained by using wrapper method for dimensionality reduction. Supervised machine learning classifiers were used on the dataset for achieving high accuracy. Experimental results show that our method can efficiently classify malicious code from benign code with promising results.

  5. An Attacker-Defender Model for IP-Based Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barkley, Timothy R

    2008-01-01

    .... Because IP flows are defined essentially in terms of origin-destination (O-D) pairs, we represent IP traffic engineering as a multi-commodity flow problem in which each O-D pair is treated as a separate commodity...

  6. Plant Physiology: FERONIA Defends the Cell Walls against Corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Stéphane; Hamant, Olivier

    2018-03-05

    A new study uncovers the role of wall sensing and remodeling in the plant response to salt stress, identifying the FERONIA receptor kinase as a key player in that process, likely through direct sensing of cell wall pectins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Taylorism, Tylerism, and Performance Indicators: Defending the Indefensible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsby, Gill; Saunders, Murray

    1993-01-01

    Explores the antecedents to the growing interest in the use of educational performance indicators. Discusses this issue in relation to the work of economist F. W. Taylor and evaluator Ralph Tyler. Describes a five-year project that demonstrates the promise of teacher-developed performance indicators. (CFR)

  8. Marketing and the law: defending single color trademarks

    OpenAIRE

    Keating, Byron W.; Coltman, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Most international jurisdictions have sought to broaden their definition of a trade mark following the Qualitex v Jacobson Products (Qualitex Case)2. In Australia, the Trade Marks Act (Cth) 1995 was introduced to recognise that colors, scents, shapes and sounds could be registered as a trade mark provided the mark was capable of distinguishing, in the course of trade, the proprietor’s goods or services from the goods or services of others. However, to date, it has proven extremely difficult t...

  9. Defender's Edge: Utilizing Intelligent Agent Technology to Anticipate Terrorist Acts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scheiber, Lane

    2003-01-01

    ...), to the problem of anticipating terrorist acts. Two areas in which IAs could play a significant role are in the development and maintenance of a real-time picture of terrorist activity, and in predicting potential occurrences of terrorist acts...

  10. Defendants are clueless the 30-day psychiatric observation | Kaliski ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mentally ill subjects differed only in their not being able to distinguish between a guilty/not guilty plea Most did not have legal representation, did not personally request the assessment and denied guilt of the alleged offence. Conclusions. Mental illness affects triability but not necessarily criminal responsibility. Disturbingly ...

  11. Attack or Defend? Leveraging Information and Balancing Risk in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    anonymity of speakers. 23. Tony Capaccio, “Cyber Attacks from China Show Computers Insecure, Pen- tagon Says,” 6 August 2008, <www.bloomberg.com/apps/news...smallwarsjournal.com/blog/2008/01/changing-the-organizational-cu-1/> (18 August 2008). 27. Elizabeth Robbins , “Muddy Boots IO: The Rise of Soldier Blogs,” Military

  12. Moral Law and Moral Education: Defending Kantian Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James Scott

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I examine why Kantian ethics has had such a hard time of it. I look at readings of Kant's moral theory that have had great force in the 20th century and conclude that these have much to do with an ensuing confusion, which has led to charges of rigidity, formality and severity. Then I demonstrate that when we make moral judgements we…

  13. Estonian president defends imminent euro-accession / Valentina Pop

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pop, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves räägib Eesti liitumisest euroalaga, eelarvelisest vastutustundest, e-kaubanduse arendamise tähtsusest, Euroopa Liidu lepingust, WikiLeaksi avaldatud materjalidest, küberkaitsest. Töövisiit Brüsselisse 08.12.2010 - 10.12.2010

  14. SecureCPS: Defending a nanosatellite cyber-physical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Lance; Vu, Huy; Udrea, Bogdan; Hagar, Hamilton; Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.; Yampolskiy, Mark

    2014-06-01

    Recent inexpensive nanosatellite designs employ maneuvering thrusters, much as large satellites have done for decades. However, because a maneuvering nanosatellite can threaten HVAs on-­orbit, it must provide a level of security typically reserved for HVAs. Securing nanosatellites with maneuvering capability is challenging due to extreme cost, size, and power constraints. While still in the design process, our low-­cost SecureCPS architecture promises to dramatically improve security, to include preempting unknown binaries and detecting abnormal behavior. SecureCPS also applies to a broad class of cyber-­physical systems (CPS), such as aircraft, cars, and trains. This paper focuses on Embry-­Riddle's ARAPAIMA nanosatellite architecture, where we assume any off-­the-­shelf component could be compromised by a supply chain attack.1 Based on these assumptions, we have used Vanderbilt's Cyber Physical -­ Attack Description Language (CP-­ADL) to represent realistic attacks, analyze how these attacks propagate in the ARAPAIMA architecture, and how to defeat them using the combination of a low-­cost Root of Trust (RoT) Module, Global InfoTek's Advanced Malware Analysis System (GAMAS), and Anomaly Detection by Machine Learning (ADML).2 Our most recent efforts focus on refining and validating the design of SecureCPS.

  15. Heparin defends against the toxicity of circulating histones in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; Zhang, Naipu; Li, Biru; Liu, Lanbo; Ding, Lei; Wang, Ying; Zhu, Yimin; Mo, Xi; Cao, Qing

    2015-06-01

    Although circulating histones were demonstrated as major mediators of death in septic mice models, their roles in septic patients are not clarified. The present study sought to evaluate the clinical relevance of the circulating histone levels in septic children, and the antagonizing effects of heparin on circulating histones. Histone levels in the plasma of septic children were significantly higher than healthy controls, and positively correlated with disease severity. Histone treatment could activate NF-κB pathway of the endothelial cells and induce the secretion of large amount of cytokines that further amplify inflammation, subsequently leading to organ damage. Co-injection of low dose heparin with lethal dose histones could protect mouse from organ damage and death by antagonizing circulating histones, and similar effects were also observed in other septic models. Collectively, these findings indicated that circulating histones might serve as key factors in the pathogenesis of sepsis and their levels in plasma might be a marker for disease progression and prognosis. Furthermore, low dose heparin might be an effective therapy to hamper sepsis progression and reduce the mortality.

  16. A Combined Arms Approach to Defending Army Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    GIG operates, through cyberspace, as a globally interconnected, end...operations from the friendly to adversary box increases the situational awareness and unity of effort the Army lacks, and creates an economy of force that...indica- tions and warnings • Present a timely and accurate estimate of technical impact result- ing from the threat activity and determine

  17. DNA repair: Dynamic defenders against cancer and aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuss, Jill O.; Cooper, Priscilla K.

    2006-04-01

    You probably weren't thinking about your body's cellular DNA repair systems the last time you sat on the beach in the bright sunshine. Fortunately, however, while you were subjecting your DNA to the harmful effects of ultraviolet light, your cells were busy repairing the damage. The idea that our genetic material could be damaged by the sun was not appreciated in the early days of molecular biology. When Watson and Crick discovered the structure of DNA in 1953 [1], it was assumed that DNA is fundamentally stable since it carries the blueprint of life. However, over 50 years of research have revealed that our DNA is under constant assault by sunlight, oxygen, radiation, various chemicals, and even our own cellular processes. Cleverly, evolution has provided our cells with a diverse set of tools to repair the damage that Mother Nature causes. DNA repair processes restore the normal nucleotide sequence and DNA structure of the genome after damage [2]. These responses are highly varied and exquisitely regulated. DNA repair mechanisms are traditionally characterized by the type of damage repaired. A large variety of chemical modifications can alter normal DNA bases and either lead to mutations or block transcription if not repaired, and three distinct pathways exist to remove base damage. Base excision repair (BER) corrects DNA base alterations that do not distort the overall structure of the DNA helix such as bases damaged by oxidation resulting from normal cellular metabolism. While BER removes single damaged bases, nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes short segments of nucleotides (called oligonucleotides) containing damaged bases. NER responds to any alteration that distorts the DNA helix and is the mechanism responsible for repairing bulky base damage caused by carcinogenic chemicals such as benzo [a]pyrene (found in cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust) as well as covalent linkages between adjacent pyrimidine bases resulting from the ultraviolet (UV) component of sunlight. NER can be divided into two classes based on where the repair occurs. NER occurring in DNA that is not undergoing transcription (i.e., most of the genome) is called global genome repair (GGR or GGNER), while NER taking place in the transcribed strand of active genes is called transcription-coupled repair (TCR or TC-NER). We will explore NER in more detail below. Mismatch repair (MMR) is another type of excision repair that specifically removes mispaired bases resulting from replication errors. DNA damage can also result in breaks in the DNA backbone, in one or both strands. Single-strand breaks (SSBs) are efficiently repaired by a mechanism that shares common features with the later steps in BER. Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are especially devastating since by definition there is no intact complementary strand to serve as a template for repair, and even one unrepaired DSB can be lethal [3]. In cells that have replicated their DNA prior to cell division, the missing information can be supplied by the duplicate copy, or sister chromatid, and DSBs in these cells are faithfully repaired by homologous recombination involving the exchange of strands of DNA between the two copies. However, most cells in the body are non-dividing, and in these cells the major mechanism for repairing DSBs is by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), which as the name implies involves joining two broken DNA ends together without a requirement for homologous sequence and which therefore has a high potential for loss of genetic information.

  18. Who is Responsible for Defending United States Interests in Cyberspace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Chamber of Commerce worked openly to challenge legislation that potentially would have directed minimum standards for operators of key...of companies to enable private public collaboration to 6 protect critical infrastructure as the U.S. Chamber of Commerce actively identifies...cyberspace-lawmakers-say/50869/ (accessed November 12, 2012). 19 US Chamber of Commerce , “Key Vote letter on S. 3414, the Cybersecurity Act of 2012

  19. Defending the scientific integrity of conservation-policy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos; Hartl, Brett; Goldman, Gretchen T; Rohlf, Daniel J; Treves, Adrian; Kerr, Jeremy T; Ritchie, Euan G; Kingsford, Richard T; Gibbs, Katherine E; Maron, Martine; Watson, James E M

    2017-10-01

    Government agencies faced with politically controversial decisions often discount or ignore scientific information, whether from agency staff or nongovernmental scientists. Recent developments in scientific integrity (the ability to perform, use, communicate, and publish science free from censorship or political interference) in Canada, Australia, and the United States demonstrate a similar trajectory. A perceived increase in scientific-integrity abuses provokes concerted pressure by the scientific community, leading to efforts to improve scientific-integrity protections under a new administration. However, protections are often inconsistently applied and are at risk of reversal under administrations publicly hostile to evidence-based policy. We compared recent challenges to scientific integrity to determine what aspects of scientific input into conservation policy are most at risk of political distortion and what can be done to strengthen safeguards against such abuses. To ensure the integrity of outbound communications from government scientists to the public, we suggest governments strengthen scientific integrity policies, include scientists' right to speak freely in collective-bargaining agreements, guarantee public access to scientific information, and strengthen agency culture supporting scientific integrity. To ensure the transparency and integrity with which information from nongovernmental scientists (e.g., submitted comments or formal policy reviews) informs the policy process, we suggest governments broaden the scope of independent reviews, ensure greater diversity of expert input and transparency regarding conflicts of interest, require a substantive response to input from agencies, and engage proactively with scientific societies. For their part, scientists and scientific societies have a responsibility to engage with the public to affirm that science is a crucial resource for developing evidence-based policy and regulations in the public interest. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. 'Justice Be Our Shield and Defender': An Intellectual Property Rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protecting intellectual property rights has become essential in encouraging cutting-edge scholarship that advances the frontiers of knowledge. For a long time, the majority of Africa's intelligentsia has worked in local and international environments that have exploited the continent's intellectual capital. Even in contexts where ...

  1. Reclaiming Professionalism for Geography Education: Defending Our Own Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Theresa; Ryan, Mary; Lidstone, John

    2012-01-01

    In a world where governments increasingly attempt to impose regulation on all professional activities, this paper advocates that professional standards for teachers be developed "by the profession for the profession". Foucauldian archaeology is applied to two teacher standards documents recently published in Australia, one developed at…

  2. Mario Bunge: Physicist, philosopher and defender of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Matthews

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mario Bunge was born in Argentina in the final year of the First World War. He learnt atomic physics andquantum mechanics from an Austrian refugee who had been a student of Heisenberg. Additionally he taughthimself modern philosophy in an environment that was a philosophical backwater. He was the first SouthAmerican philosopher of science to be trained in science. His publications in physics, philosophy, psychology,sociology and the foundations of biology, are staggering in number, and include a massive 8-volume Treatise onPhilosophy. The unifying thread of his scholarship is the constant and vigorous advancement of theEnlightenment Project, and criticism of cultural and academic movements that deny or devalue the core planksof the project: namely its naturalism, the search for truth, the universality of science, rationality, and respect forindividuals. At a time when specialisation is widely decried, and its deleterious effects on science, philosophy ofscience, educational research and science teaching are recognised – it is salutary to see the fruits of one person’spursuit of the ‘Big’ scientific and philosophical picture.

  3. Naturalization, reciprocity and marks of marital violence: male defendants' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento Paixão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze male criminals' perception about marital violence. Method: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study undertaken with 23 men who were criminally prosecuted for marital violence. A multimethod data collection was conducted, with individual interview and focal group techniques combined, between May and December 2015. The data collected were initially categorized using the NVIVO® 11 software program, and then organized using the Collective Subject Discourse method. Results: the collective discourses reveal that, in the male's perception, conjugal violence is inherent in a marital relationships: it is a private, reciprocal problem that leaves body marks. Conclusion: gender dissymmetry as a social construct is evidenced, signaling the need to create spaces for reflection and re-signification of men and women, from a gender perspective.

  4. Comput digital and Jan Hus as defender of the faith

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šroněk, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (2013), s. 2-22 ISSN 0049-5123 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Jan Hus * comput digital * utraquist iconography Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.umeni-art.cz/cz/issue-detail.aspx?v=issue-issue-1712

  5. The Decisonal Autonomy Defending the Right to Die With Dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Sobrado de Freitas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to verify the possibility that the terminal patient, provided with decisional autonomy, can claim the right to die with dignity. To achieve the intent, it was done a bibliographic exploratory-explanatory research, qualitative, using the deductive method. Concluding that, even if the subject is polemic, the decisional autonomy deserves to be considered, including in the execution of the right to die with dignity, since it is intended to safeguard the human being in the most intimate aspects of one’s life and, because, choose the death with dignity doesn’t mean to give up from the right to life.

  6. Smart-Guard: Defending User Input from Malware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denzel, Michael; Bruni, Alessandro; Ryan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Trusted input techniques can profoundly enhance a variety of scenarios like online banking, electronic voting, Virtual Private Networks, and even commands to a server or Industrial Control System. To protect the system from malware of the sender’s computer, input needs to be reliably authenticated...

  7. No Dark Corners: Defending Against Insider Threats to Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    latter do not unfairly affect an applicant’s livelihood by making adverse hiring decisions before the legal system has decided actual guilt (Pre...object that changing demographics may also account for crime, thus bringing into question Broken Windows as a panacea . One criticism even went so... panacea or as the sole explanation for decreases in crime, himself taking account of other factors, including Newman’s work, it is more accurate to

  8. Legitimidade ativa da Defensoria Pública para a propositura de ação civil pública: interpretação a partir dos paradigmas constitucionais / Public Defender's Office active legimitacy for a public civil action's bringing: interpretation from the constitutional paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Sena Alves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem o propósito de analisarcriteriosamente a legitimidade dada à DefensoriaPública pela Lei n. 11.448/2007 para a propositurade Ação Civil Pública, contextualizando-a nosparadigmas constitucionais. A escolha do temadeu-se pela importância que a Instituição tem naefetivação do acesso à justiça e na garantia doEstado Democrático de Direito. Também foramanalisados os papéis de outras instituições, comoo Ministério Público, na concorrência dessa legitimaçãoativa e sua imprescindibilidade paraa construção de uma ordem jurídica mais justa.A pesquisa valeu-se de análises pertencentes adiversos campos do saber humano, tais comoDireito Constitucional, Direito Processual e SociologiaJurídica / Abstract: The purpose of this study is to minutelyanalyze the legitimacy provided to thePublic Defender´s office by law 11.448/2007,for filing Public Civil Actions, in the light of aconstitutional doctrine. The reason for choosingsuch topic is the importance of this institutionfor a greater access to justice and in theguarantee of The Democratic State of Law.The article also discusses the legal role of otherinstitutions, such as the Public Prosecutor´soffice, to file civil public actions and to builda more just legal system. This article has profitedfrom analyses from other areas of humanknowledge, such as Constitutional Law, Civiland Criminal Procedure Law and Legal Sociology.

  9. Defending an Area with Autonomy: Autonomous Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Capabilities Leveraging Unmanned Aerial Systems for Defending Forward Operating Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-08

    plan or global communications proves this behavior has potential.51 To decrease technical maturity and risk, current swarm implementations focus on...22 Figure 5 Hermes 900 with Modular Payloads...challenge current US C2ISR advantages by being faster, harder to detect, more maneuverable, have greater destructive power, disrupt communications

  10. Söömishäirete spetsialistid kaesid uusi ravivõimalusi / Anu Järv, Kirsti Akkerman ; interv. Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järv, Anu

    2005-01-01

    Vestlus TÜ kliinikumi psühhiaatriakliiniku söömishäirete keskuse juhataja Anu Järvega ja kliinilise psühholoogi Kirsti Akkermanniga, kes osalesid 27.-30. aprillini Kanadas toimunud Academy of Eating Disorders konverentsil

  11. Ilmub raamat viikingiajast Saaremaal / Pamela Talzi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talzi, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    Saaremaal viikingiaega uurinud arheoloogi, Tallinna ülikooli humanitaarteaduste instituudi ajaloo, arheoloogia ja kunstiajaloo keskuse vanemteaduri Marika Mägi sulest ilmub raamat "Viikingiaegne Eesti"

  12. Uusi võimalusi pakkuv kasulik bakter / Villu Päärt, Siim Sepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Päärt, Villu, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    Äsja võitis Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 avastaja Tartu Ülikooli professor Marika Mikelsaar koos kolleegidega Soulis ülemaailmsel naisleiutajate konkursil kuldmedali. Bakterite omaduste uurimine jätkub. Marika Mikelsaare juhtimisel katsetati kõhutüüfusesse nakatatud hiirte peal, millist mõju avaldab see, kui antibiootikumi ravi ajal anda hiirtele ka ME-3 sisaldavat probiootikumi

  13. Kulturu delajut na zavodah / Alina Zelimhanova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zelimhanova, Alina

    2005-01-01

    Kultuuritehase projektijuht Madis Mikkor Tallinnas Põhja puiesteel asuvast muinsuskaitse all olevast elektrijaama katlamajast, kuhu peatselt kolib kultuuritehas Polymer. Katlamaja plaanitakse avada augustis. Selleks ajaks seatakse sisse valgustus. Hoonete põhjalikum renoveerimine algab 2007. a., kusjuures säilitatakse vana tööstusmiljöö

  14. Estonia is better defended than ever / Sven Mikser ; interv. Urmas Vahe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikser, Sven, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Kaitseminister Sven Mikser suhetest Venemaaga, julgeolekualasest rahvusvahelisest koostööst, NATO-ga liitumise vajalikkusest ning võimalikest liitumisega kaasnevatest muutustest Eesti julgeolekupoliitikas

  15. Adaptive Suspicious Prevention for Defending DoS Attacks in SDN-Based Convergent Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Nhu-Ngoc; Kim, Joongheon; Park, Minho; Cho, Sungrae

    2016-01-01

    The convergent communication network will play an important role as a single platform to unify heterogeneous networks and integrate emerging technologies and existing legacy networks. Although there have been proposed many feasible solutions, they could not become convergent frameworks since they mainly focused on converting functions between various protocols and interfaces in edge networks, and handling functions for multiple services in core networks, e.g., the Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) technique. Software-defined networking (SDN), on the other hand, is expected to be the ideal future for the convergent network since it can provide a controllable, dynamic, and cost-effective network. However, SDN has an original structural vulnerability behind a lot of advantages, which is the centralized control plane. As the brains of the network, a controller manages the whole network, which is attractive to attackers. In this context, we proposes a novel solution called adaptive suspicious prevention (ASP) mechanism to protect the controller from the Denial of Service (DoS) attacks that could incapacitate an SDN. The ASP is integrated with OpenFlow protocol to detect and prevent DoS attacks effectively. Our comprehensive experimental results show that the ASP enhances the resilience of an SDN network against DoS attacks by up to 38%.

  16. Critical Vulnerability: Defending the Decisive Point of United States Computer Networked Information Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Virden, Roy

    2003-01-01

    .... The military's use of computer networked information systems is thus a critical strength. These systems are then critical vulnerabilities because they may lack adequate protection and are open to enemy attack...

  17. Defending IEEE 802.11-Based Networks Against Denial Of Service Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Boon

    2003-01-01

    ...) attacks targeting its management and media access protocols Computer simulation models have proven to be effective tools in the study of cause and effect in numerous fields This thesis involved the design and implementation of a IEEE 8O2.11-based simulation model using OMNeT++, to investigate the effects of different types of DoS attacks on a IEEE 8O2.11 network, and the effectiveness of corresponding countermeasures.

  18. Reclaiming Power in the Writers' Workshop: Defending Curricula, Countering Narratives, and Changing Identities in Prekindergarten Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, Brian T.; Miller, Erin T.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine how young writers and their teachers transformed the language arts curriculum by asserting their power within a familiar framework--the writer's workshop. We present three narratives in which multiple pre-kindergarten agents (students, teachers, and administrators) used their power within the Writer's Workshop to a)…

  19. Mission-Centered Network Models: Defending Mission-Critical Tasks From Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-29

    celebrities ). In military applications, networked operations offer an effective way to reduce the footprint of a force, but become a center of gravity...from,-used-by-trust-algorithms-to-assess-quality-and- trustworthiness - •  Technical&challenge:-Developing-standard-representa3ons-for-provenance-that

  20. Educated predators make strategic decisions to eat defended prey according to their toxin content

    OpenAIRE

    Craig A. Barnett; John Skelhorn; Melissa Bateson; Candy Rowe

    2012-01-01

    Animals often eat foods containing toxins to benefit from the nutrients that they contain. Understanding how animals balance the costs of eating toxins with the benefits of gaining nutrients is important for understanding the evolution of antipredator defenses, particularly aposematism and mimicry. In this study, we tested whether predators could learn to use color signals to make strategic decisions about when to include prey that varied in their toxin content in their diets. We gave Europea...

  1. Guilty but good: defending voluntary active euthanasia from a virtue perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Ann Marie

    2008-07-01

    This article is presented as a defence of voluntary active euthanasia from a virtue perspective and it is written with the objective of generating debate and challenging the assumption that killing is necessarily vicious in all circumstances. Practitioners are often torn between acting from virtue and acting from duty. In the case presented the physician was governed by compassion and this illustrates how good people may have the courage to sacrifice their own security in the interests of virtue. The doctor's action created huge tensions for the nurse, who was governed by the code of conduct and relevant laws. Appraising active euthanasia from a virtue perspective can offer a more compassionate approach to the predicament of practitioners and clients. The tensions arising from the virtue versus rules debate generates irreconcilable difficulties for nurses. A shift towards virtue would help to resolve this problem and support the call for a change in the law. The controversial nature of this position is acknowledged. The argument is put forward on the understanding that many practitioners will not agree with the conclusions reached.

  2. Adaptive Suspicious Prevention for Defending DoS Attacks in SDN-Based Convergent Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dao, Nhu-Ngoc; Kim, Joongheon; Park, Minho; Cho, Sungrae

    2016-01-01

    The convergent communication network will play an important role as a single platform to unify heterogeneous networks and integrate emerging technologies and existing legacy networks. Although there have been proposed many feasible solutions, they could not become convergent frameworks since they mainly focused on converting functions between various protocols and interfaces in edge networks, and handling functions for multiple services in core networks, e.g., the Multi-protocol Label Switchi...

  3. The hacker's handbook the strategy behind breaking into and defending networks

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Preface FOUNDATION MATERIAL Case Study in Subversion Know Your Opponent Anatomy of an Attack Your Defensive Arsenal Programming The Protocols (TCP/IP) (OSI Layers 2-3) The Protocols (TCP/IP) (OSI Layers 4-7) SYSTEM AND NETWORK PENETRATION Domain Name Service (DNS) Directory Services Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Hypertext Transfer Protocol (http) Database Hacking Malware Network Hardware CONSOLIDATION Consolidating Gains After the Fall Conclusion

  4. To Defend and Deter: The Legacy of the United States Cold War Missile Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lonnquest, John

    1996-01-01

    Defense (DoD) Legacy Resource Management Program was established under the Defense Appropriations Act of 1991 to 'determine how to better integrate the conservation of irreplaceable biological, cultural...

  5. The Arctic: A Wait and See Approach to Defending the Homeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    tourism , quicker shipping routes, 1 Digital History, “Alaska Treaty,” accessed November 13, 2017, http...new areas for offshore oil, gas, and natural resource development, tourism , and more. Russia sees this as an opportunity to pivot away from Central...security issue because previously inaccessible areas are now accessible for exploration of natural resources, tourism , quicker shipping routes, and

  6. The inherent weaknesses in industrial control systems devices; hacking and defending SCADA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Louis J.

    The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) is about to enforce their NERC Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) Version Five and Six requirements on July 1st 2016. The NERC CIP requirements are a set of cyber security standards designed to protect cyber assets essential the reliable operation of the electric grid. The new Version Five and Six requirements are a major revision to the Version Three (currently enforced) requirements. The new requirements also bring substations into scope alongside Energy Control Centers. When the Version Five requirements were originally drafted they were vague, causing in depth discussions throughout the industry. The ramifications of these requirements has made owners look at their systems in depth, questioning how much money it will take to meet these requirements. Some owners saw backing down from routable networks to non-routable as a means to save money as they would be held to less requirements within the standards. Some owners saw removing routable connections as a proper security move. The purpose of this research was to uncover the inherent weaknesses in Industrial Control Systems (ICS) devices; to show how ICS devices can be hacked and figure out potential protections for these Critical Infrastructure devices. In addition, this research also aimed to validate the decision to move from External Routable connectivity to Non-Routable connectivity, as a security measure and not as a means of savings. The results reveal in order to ultimately protect Industrial Control Systems they must be removed from the Internet and all bi-directional external routable connections must be removed. Furthermore; non-routable serial connections should be utilized, and these non-routable serial connections should be encrypted on different layers of the OSI model. The research concluded that most weaknesses in SCADA systems are due to the inherent weaknesses in ICS devices and because of these weaknesses, human intervention is the biggest threat to SCADA systems.

  7. Students at the University of Abertay Dundee Learn Computer Hacking to Defend Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Erik

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a new cybersecurity course at the University of Abertay Dundee in Scotland. Geoffrey R. Lund, leader of the software-applications program at Abertay, says the course prepares students for a rapidly growing job market by teaching that the best defense is a good offense. Professors set up a network of 20 or so…

  8. Defending the Decimals: Why Foolishly False Precision Might Strengthen Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Freese

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Social scientists often report regression coefficients using more significant figures than are meaningful given measurement precision and sample size. Common sense says we should not do this. Yet, as normative practice, eliminating these extra digits introduces a more serious scientific problem when accompanied by other ascendant reporting practices intended to reduce social science’s long-standing emphasis on null hypothesis significance testing. Coefficient p-values can no longer be recovered to the degree of precision that p-values have been abundantly demonstrated to influence actual research practice. Developing methods for detecting and addressing systematically exaggerated effect sizes across collections of studies cannot be done effectively if p-values are hidden. Regarding what is preferable for scientific literature versus an individual study, the costs of false precision are therefore innocuous compared to alternatives that either encourage the continuation of practices known to exaggerate causal effects or thwart assessment of how much such exaggeration occurs.

  9. The Mapuche People's Battle for Indigenous Land. Litigation as a Strategy to Defend Indigenous Land Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Skjævestad, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Land is the foundation for the economic sustenance of indigenous peoples and for the continued survival of their cultures. One of the major problems faced by indigenous peoples is the dispossession of their traditional lands and territories. The activities of business interests and economic development projects in indigenous territories – such as forest logging and infrastructure projects - and the environmental implications of such activities, often constitute a great threat to the livelihoo...

  10. In Defense of Harry...but Not His Defenders: Beyond Censorship to Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2004-01-01

    The weaknesses of the Harry Potter series and other controversial literatures, which protect student's liberty of conscience and accomplish the ends of public education, are examined. The ways in which educators show justice to different worldviews when assigning literature are discussed.

  11. Novel weapons testing: are invasive plants more chemically defended than native plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Lind

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Exotic species have been hypothesized to successfully invade new habitats by virtue of possessing novel biochemistry that repels native enemies. Despite the pivotal long-term consequences of invasion for native food-webs, to date there are no experimental studies examining directly whether exotic plants are any more or less biochemically deterrent than native plants to native herbivores.In a direct test of this hypothesis using herbivore feeding assays with chemical extracts from 19 invasive plants and 21 co-occurring native plants, we show that invasive plant biochemistry is no more deterrent (on average to a native generalist herbivore than extracts from native plants. There was no relationship between extract deterrence and length of time since introduction, suggesting that time has not mitigated putative biochemical novelty. Moreover, the least deterrent plant extracts were from the most abundant species in the field, a pattern that held for both native and exotic plants. Analysis of chemical deterrence in context with morphological defenses and growth-related traits showed that native and exotic plants had similar trade-offs among traits.Overall, our results suggest that particular invasive species may possess deterrent secondary chemistry, but it does not appear to be a general pattern resulting from evolutionary mismatches between exotic plants and native herbivores. Thus, fundamentally similar processes may promote the ecological success of both native and exotic species.

  12. From expert witness to defendant: abolition of expert witness protection and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Danuta

    2012-12-01

    In Jones v Kaney [2011] 2 AC 398, the United Kingdom Supreme Court held that in England and Wales (but not in Scotland), clients can sue expert witnesses in negligence and/or contract for work performed under their retainer, whether in civil or criminal trials. The duties of expert witnesses in England are regulated by the Civil Procedure Rules and Protocols; the former also regulate the conduct of cases involving expert opinions. The legal context that led to the litigation is examined in the light of these rules, in particular, the nature of the allegations against Dr Kaney, a psychologist retained to provide psychiatric opinion. Jones v Kaney, as a decision of the United Kingdom Supreme Court, is not a binding precedent in Australia. However, unlike statutory enactments, common law judgments are retrospective in their operation, which means that health care practitioners who follow a generally accepted practice today may still be sued for damages by their patients or clients in the future. By definition, the future, including the refusal by the Australian High Court to follow Kaney's abolition of expert witnesses' immunity from suit for breach of duty to their clients, cannot be predicted with certainty. Consequently, health care practitioners in Australia and other countries should be aware of the case, its jurisprudential and practical ramifications.

  13. Status incongruity and backlash effects: Defending the gender hierarchy motivates prejudice against female leaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudman, L.A.; Moss-Racusin, C.A.; Phelan, J.E.; Nauts, S.

    2012-01-01

    Agentic female leaders risk social and economic penalties for behaving counter-stereotypically (i.e., backlash; Rudman, 1998), but what motivates prejudice against female leaders? The status incongruity hypothesis (SIH) proposes that agentic women are penalized for status violations because doing so

  14. Studying How Plants Defend Themselves: A Chemical Weapon Produced by Chilli Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantawanit, Nantawan; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2011-01-01

    Students often prefer to study animals rather than plants, because they see plants as passive, less interesting organisms. This paper proposes a simple hands-on laboratory exercise for high-school students (grade 12) to arouse their interest in learning about plants and to demonstrate to them that plants are active organisms capable of defending…

  15. Defending perfectionism: Some comments on Quong’s liberalism without perfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulenović Enes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a defense of liberal perfectionism in the light of criticism of perfectionist politics stated in Jonathan Quong’s book Liberalism without Perfection. It argues against Quong’s claims that perfectionism is incompatible with demands of individual autonomy and non-paternalism as requirements of liberal commitment of treating all persons as free and equal.

  16. „THE SMART CITY PROJECT” – A METAPHOR TO BE DEFENDED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodica STAICULESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of network society emphasizes a distinct pattern comparing to the previous information society, as a "result of ongoing innovations embedding social networks". The question of how technological improvements (intelligent design, the use of intelligent devices, and a larger distribution of knowledge among diverse layers and dimensions of social networks have transformed mental softs, cultural practices, and socio-economic and political organizations, through the development of the network form,- networked individuals, communities, stakeholders, cities, regions, states, "interconnected life"- gives different responses depending on the positioning of the researcher inside/outside a specific field of studies, or knowledge network, and on the attitude adopted towards technology as a "civilization shifter". The conceptualization of the „smart city project” extends dilemmas and controversy and requires new understandings of how critical-reflexive and programmed regimes of knowledge, intermingle the knowledge creation and the distribution inside/outside the city. The current paper draws a line of flight between human, institutional and technological dimensions of the smart city.

  17. The Efforts of Arab Christians Modernist in Defending the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed H. Mekhelef

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to monitor the efforts of Arab Christians modernists, in respond to suspicious appellants in the biography of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh. Through researches in books and articles, it had been identified by studying books of writers who emerged in the 20th Century which had been known as the time of writings and researches development in the Arab world. Therefore, the Arab intellectuals began to review and respond what Orientalists have written about Islamic history.

  18. La Relación Universidad - Empresa: una necesidad para defender el futuro

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Carballo Peña; Flor Delia Rodríguez Silva; José M. García Arias

    2008-01-01

    Se abordan aspectos importantes acerca de la necesidad de estrechar relaciones entre dos instituciones fundamentales de la sociedad: la universidad y la empresa, pues en la era del conocimiento no será posible iniciar un proceso de modernización industrial y educativa si no se procura un sólido sistema de investigación científico-tecnológica y de comunicación entre ambos sectores. Expresa alguna de las vías para lograr esta integración, así como un grupo de ventajas que se consiguen con esta ...

  19. Defending the Borderland: Ukrainian Military Experiences with IO, Cyber, and EW

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    from Kyiv to Boryslav, a targeted bombing resulted in the successful 17 The Army Cyber Institute at West Point...electromagnetic ( EM ) emissions has proved extremely successful at the tactical level against Ukrainian forces. While tactical cyber looks at content, EW...against Ukrainian personnel. The use by Ukrainian forces of devices with EM broadcasting enabled adversary tracking of individual devices or volumes

  20. Joseph McCabe: A Forgotten Early Populariser of Science and Defender of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Bill

    2010-05-01

    Joseph McCabe (1867-1955) was one of the most prolific and gifted polymaths of the twentieth century. Long before such a thing was thought respectable, and almost a century before any university established a chair in the public understanding of science, McCabe made a living as a populariser of science and a critic of philosophical and religious obscurantism. Through the first half of the twentieth century he wrote countless cheap and widely distributed books and pamphlets for those whose thirst for knowledge exceeded the money or time they could devote to such pursuits. This article will detail, and give some assessment of, McCabe’s career as a populariser of science and expositor of evolutionary theory and its philosophical, religious and cultural ramifications.

  1. Educating the public, defending the art: language use and medical education in Hippocrates' The Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Adriaan

    2010-01-01

    The Hippocratic treatise The Art is an epideictic speech in defence of medicine against certain unnamed detractors. The author of The Art is fully aware of the fact that for him, language (as opposed to, say, a live demonstration) is the medium of education. Accordingly, the author shows full command of the main issues of the late fifth century 'sophistic' debate on the nature and the correct and effective use of language. In his views on language, the author seems to adopt a quite positivistic stance. For him, words reflect our perception and interpretation of the visual appearances or eidea of the things that are, and these appearances prove the existence of things in nature. To this extent, language reflects reality, provided that we language users have the expertise to form correct interpretations of what we observe. At the same time, language remains a secondary phenomenon: it is not a 'growth' of nature, but a set of conventional signs that have a basis in reality only if they are applied correctly. There is always the possibility of incorrect interpretation of our perceptions, which will lead to an incorrect use of language that does not reflect real phenomena. Words remain conventional expressions, and not all words can be expected to reflect the truth. In fact, the unnamed detractors of the art are victim to many such incorrect interpretations. Consistent with his view of language as secondary to visual phenomena, the author claims in his peroration that as a medium for the defence of medicine, the spoken word is generally considered less effective than live demonstrations. This modesty, while undoubtedly effective as a means to catch the sympathy of his public, still seems slightly overstated. Our author is fully aware of the powers and limitations of his medium, and shows great sophistication in its use.

  2. Can We Defend the Defense Supply Chain Lessons Learned from Industry Leaders in Supply Chain Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Simpson, “Tim Cook: The ‘Cool Customer ’ Behind Apple’s Supply Chain Success,” Supply Management , January 18, 2016, https://www.cips.org/supply... management /analysis/2016/february/tim- cook-the-cool- customer -behind-apples-supply-chain-success/. 13 Kif Leswing, “Apples ‘Shreds” Old iPhones to Prevent...chain, including products, services, information, finances, demand, relationships , and risks. In a more complete definition, supply chain management

  3. Using exponentially weighted moving average algorithm to defend against DDoS attacks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machaka, P

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate the performance of the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) for mining big data and detection of DDoS attacks in Internet of Things (IoT) infrastructure. The paper will investigate the tradeoff between...

  4. William Davis Robinson: Trader, Agent, and Defender of Spanish American Independence, 1799-1819

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Von Grafenstein

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone una relectura de las acciones y escritos del comerciante estadounidense William Davis Robinson en el contexto de la literatura de viaje de los siglos XVIII y XIX , que ha sido examinado en décadas recientes por algunos autores. Este trabajo se basa en el concepto de “viajeros de revoluciones”, bajo el cual entendemos individuos que se encuentran en un país, región o ciudad de manera temporal, que se ven a sí mismos como visitantes u observadores ex - ternos, describen y analizan un proceso político o social de transformación con una mirada externa y escriben para un público externo. Este trabajo analiza dos textos: Una somera visión de la América española , publicado en 1815, y Memorias de la Revolución Mexicana , que apareció en 1820. En este artículo se sostiene y se busca demostrar que las Memorias de Robinson pueden ser entendidas como literatura de viaje favorable a la “revolución mexicana”, mientras que el segundo texto constituye una informada descripción de los recursos existentes y las posibili - dades de relaciones comerciales con México y los demás países de América del Sur, una vez que estos hayan ganado su independencia. Este texto constituye también un manifiesto que proclama a los Estados Unidos como líder y guar - dián de la libertad en este hemisferio, en oposición a las potencias europeas, como España y Gran Bretaña.

  5. New Perspectives on the Architecture and Function of Welsh Hillforts and Defended Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Driver

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There are so many hillforts in Wales that their 'architecture' and designs seem to be infinitely varied. In fact, dominant cultural traditions appear to have influenced the construction and design of at least some of the larger hillforts, while recurrent themes in the layout of entranceways, and the positioning and orientation of key defences, can be observed. This article argues for a fresh look at the subject of hillfort architecture and function in Wales and for long-held preconceptions to be challenged. In-depth analysis of individual sites and local groups of hillforts is discussed in preference to generalised national narratives.

  6. Remarks on the Legitimate Use of Force to Defend the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pereira de Souza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates whether the legitimate defense can be used in the protection of collective environmental rights. Some scholars are contrary to the legitimate defense of those rights in face of an unlawful assault not involving concomitant aggression to individual rights. Given the current risk scenario for the global ecological balance, revealed by the approach of planetary boundaries - and taking into account its fundamental principles of protection and defense of a right – this paper does not exclude legitimate defense as a lawful means of environmental protection, regardless its impact on public order and peace.

  7. α-Intercalated cells defend the urinary system from bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragas, Neal; Kulkarni, Ritwij; Werth, Max; Schmidt-Ott, Kai M; Forster, Catherine; Deng, Rong; Zhang, Qingyin; Singer, Eugenia; Klose, Alexander D; Shen, Tian Huai; Francis, Kevin P; Ray, Sunetra; Vijayakumar, Soundarapandian; Seward, Samuel; Bovino, Mary E; Xu, Katherine; Takabe, Yared; Amaral, Fábio E; Mohan, Sumit; Wax, Rebecca; Corbin, Kaitlyn; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Mori, Kiyoshi; Johnson, Lynne; Nickolas, Thomas; D'Agati, Vivette; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Qiu, Andong; Al-Awqati, Qais; Ratner, Adam J; Barasch, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    α-Intercalated cells (A-ICs) within the collecting duct of the kidney are critical for acid-base homeostasis. Here, we have shown that A-ICs also serve as both sentinels and effectors in the defense against urinary infections. In a murine urinary tract infection model, A-ICs bound uropathogenic E. coli and responded by acidifying the urine and secreting the bacteriostatic protein lipocalin 2 (LCN2; also known as NGAL). A-IC-dependent LCN2 secretion required TLR4, as mice expressing an LPS-insensitive form of TLR4 expressed reduced levels of LCN2. The presence of LCN2 in urine was both necessary and sufficient to control the urinary tract infection through iron sequestration, even in the harsh condition of urine acidification. In mice lacking A-ICs, both urinary LCN2 and urinary acidification were reduced, and consequently bacterial clearance was limited. Together these results indicate that A-ICs, which are known to regulate acid-base metabolism, are also critical for urinary defense against pathogenic bacteria. They respond to both cystitis and pyelonephritis by delivering bacteriostatic chemical agents to the lower urinary system.

  8. Protecting computer-based medical devices: defending against viruses and other threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The increasing integration of computer hardware has exposed medical devices to greater risks than ever before. More and more devices rely on commercial off-the-shelf software and operating systems, which are vulnerable to the increasing proliferation of viruses and other malicious programs that target computers. Therefore, it is necessary for hospitals to take steps such as those outlined in this article to ensure that their computer-based devices are made safe and continue to remain safe in the future. Maintaining the security of medical devices requires planning, careful execution, and a commitment of resources. A team should be created to develop a process for surveying the security status of all computerized devices in the hospital and making sure that patches and other updates are applied as needed. These patches and updates should be approved by the medical system supplier before being implemented. The team should consider using virtual local area networks to isolate susceptible devices on the hospital's network. All security measures should be carefully documented, and the documentation should be kept up-to-date. Above all, care must be taken to ensure that medical device security involves a collaborative, supportive partnership between the hospital's information technology staff and biomedical engineering personnel.

  9. A Small RNA-Based Immune System Defends Germ Cells against Mobile Genetic Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid D. Haase

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transposons are mobile genetic elements that threaten the survival of species by destabilizing the germline genomes. Limiting the spread of these selfish elements is imperative. Germ cells employ specialized small regulatory RNA pathways to restrain transposon activity. PIWI proteins and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs silence transposons at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional level with loss-of-function mutant animals universally exhibiting sterility often associated with germ cell defects. This short review aims to illustrate basic strategies of piRNA-guided defense against transposons. Mechanisms of piRNA silencing are most readily studied in Drosophila melanogaster, which serves as a model to delineate molecular concepts and as a reference for mammalian piRNA systems. PiRNA pathways utilize two major strategies to handle the challenges of transposon control: (1 the hard-wired molecular memory of prior transpositions enables recognition of mobile genetic elements and discriminates transposons from host genes; (2 a feed-forward adaptation mechanism shapes piRNA populations to selectively combat the immediate threat of transposon transcripts. In flies, maternally contributed PIWI-piRNA complexes bolster both of these lines of defense and ensure transgenerational immunity. While recent studies have provided a conceptual framework of what could be viewed as an ancient immune system, we are just beginning to appreciate its many molecular innovations.

  10. Natalia Ermakov defended a doctoral thesis on erza lamentations / Ingrid Rüütel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rüütel, Ingrid, 1935-

    2015-01-01

    15. oktoobril 2014. a. kaitses Tallinna Ülikooli Eesti Humanitaarinstituudi doktorant Natalia Ermakov doktoritööd "Ersa itkud: traditsioonid ja tänapäev" ("Эрзянские причитания: традиции бытования и современное состояние")

  11. Examining Punishment and Discipline: Defending the Use of Punishment by Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifried, Chad

    2008-01-01

    Confusion, uncertainty, and debate often surround the terms "discipline" and "punishment" because scholars fail to publicize that they possess distinctive meanings. This article differentiates punishment from discipline and attempts to present some rationale supporting its use, especially corporal punishment, in a sport setting from a coaching…

  12. Vozes católicas no Congresso Nacional: aborto, defesa da vida Abortion: defending life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Aldana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Serão analisados neste ensaio alguns dos debates em torno da temática do aborto que ocorreram no Congresso Nacional com a ocasião da Proposta de Emenda Constitucional - central da discussão foi a defesa da vida. Serão identificados os blocos discursivos que apresentam posições contrárias e favoráveis à interrupção da gravidez, os princípios religiosos ou determinismo biológico em que essas posições estão ancoradas e as formas como esses discursos permanecem. Ainda são levantadas as diferentes compreensões do que é vida, decorrentes dos argumentos utilizados nesses discursos, os quais estão alinhados com os posicionamentos da Igreja Católica e do Movimento Feminista, atores sociais protagonistas desse embate.This essay will analyze some of the debates around abortion in the National Congress due to the Constitutional Amendment Bill - PEC25/95, by Deputy Severino Cavalcanti (PPB/PE, where the main issue was precisely life defense. The discursive blocks that present the debate in relation to pregnancy interruption, the religious principles or biological determinism on which those debates are based, and the ways in which such discourses are maintained will be identified. Distinct understandings of life, as a result of the points used in such discourses, which are aligned with the position of the Catholic Church and the Feminist Movement - the social actors of this debate- are also discussed here.

  13. Defending the ICRP principles of radiation protection. An answer to Zbigniew Jaworowski

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.; Shrader-Frechette, K.

    2000-01-01

    In an article ''Radiation Risk and Ethics'' in the September 1999 issue of Physics Today, Professor Zbigniew Jaworowski (a Polish member of UNSCEAR) makes 12 highly controversial and unsubstantiated assertions. In this reply, Lars Persson and Kristin Shrader-Frechette show why they think that the 12 assertions are both ethically and scientifically doubtful, if not false. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Boomeranging in structural defense: phytophagous insect uses cycad trichomes to defend against entomophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Thomas E

    2012-11-01

    Plant defensive behaviors that resist arthropod herbivory include trichome-mediated defenses, and variation in plant trichome morphology and abundance provides examples of the mechanistic complexities of insect-plant interactions. Trichomes were removed from Cycas revoluta cataphylls on the island of Guam to reveal Aulacaspis yasumatsui scale infestation, and predation of the newly exposed insects by pre-existing Rhyzobius lophanthae beetles commenced within one day. The quotient of predated/total scale insects was 0.5 by day 4 and stabilized at that found on adjacent glabrous leaves in about one week. The trichome phenotype covering the C. revoluta cataphyll complex offers the invasive A. yasumatsui armored scale effectual enemy-free space in this system. This pest and predator share no known evolutionary history with C. revoluta, therefore, the adaptive significance of this plant behavior in natural habitat is not yet known.

  15. Homicide Defendants with Intellectual Disabilities: Issues in Diagnosis in Capital Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the many issues involved in establishing the diagnosis of intellectual disability in a so-called Atkins (death penalty exemption) hearing. Among the issues addressed are the need to go beyond IQ scores in establishing intellectual deficits, the need to go beyond rating scores in establishing adaptive behavior deficits, the…

  16. Defending Tor from Network Adversaries: A Case Study of Network Path Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juen Joshua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tor anonymity network has been shown vulnerable to traffic analysis attacks by autonomous systems (ASes and Internet exchanges (IXes, which can observe different overlay hops belonging to the same circuit. We evaluate whether network path prediction techniques provide an accurate picture of the threat from such adversaries, and whether they can be used to avoid this threat. We perform a measurement study by collecting 17.2 million traceroutes from Tor relays to destinations around the Internet. We compare the collected traceroute paths to predicted paths using state-of-the-art path inference techniques. We find that traceroutes present a very different picture, with the set of ASes seen in the traceroute path differing from the predicted path 80% of the time. We also consider the impact that prediction errors have on Tor security. Using a simulator to choose paths over a week, our traceroutes indicate a user has nearly a 100% chance of at least one compromise in a week with 11% of total paths containing an AS compromise and less than 1% containing an IX compromise when using default Tor selection. We find modifying the path selection to choose paths predicted to be safe lowers total paths with an AS compromise to 0.14% but still presents a 5–11% chance of at least one compromise in a week while making 5% of paths fail, with 96% of failures due to false positives in path inferences. Our results demonstrate more measurement and better path prediction is necessary to mitigate the risk of AS and IX adversaries to Tor.

  17. So you've got IPv6 address space. Can you defend it?

    OpenAIRE

    Sande, Mikal

    2014-01-01

    Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the successor of Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). IPv6 will become the next standard networking protocol on the Internet. It brings with it a great increase in address space, changes to network operations, and new network security concerns. In this thesis we examine IPv6 from a security perspective. The security of IPv6 is important to all protocols that use IPv6 on the Internet. The goal of this thesis is to introduce the reader to existing IPv6 secur...

  18. Bombs and Umbrellas: Defending US Middle East Allies from a Nuclear-Armed Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    States Reconsider Their Nuclear Choices ed. Kurt Cambell , Robert Einhorn, and Mitchell Reiss. (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2004...Lippman, “Saudi Arabia: The Calculations of Uncertainty,” The Nuclear Tipping Point: Why States Reconsider Their Nuclear Choices ed. Kurt Cambell , Robert...a Non-Nuclear Course.” In The Nuclear Tipping Point: Why States Reconsider Their Nuclear Choices ed. Kurt Cambell , Robert Einhorn, and Mitchell

  19. Tradução: Quem defende a criança queer?, de Beatriz Preciado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ferreira Marcondes Nogueira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto, Beatriz Preciado disserta sobre o modo como as crianças são moldadas no cerne das instituições e, ao mesmo tempo, traça uma crítica mordaz à forma como a sociedade contemporânea controla os corpos desses sujeitos. Indispensável para pesquisadoras e pesquisadores das ciências sociais e humanas, o texto em questão foi gentilmente cedido pela revista francesa Libération, onde foi originalmente publicado, e traduzido por Fernanda Nogueira.

  20. Defending Norway and the Northern Flank: Analysis of NATO’s Strategic Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    22a NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 22b TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) 22c OFFICE SYMBOL Prof. Patrick J. Parker 646-2097 56 DV C")RM 1473,s84 MAt 53...34Roy Breivik , Assuring the Security of Reinforcements to Norway," NATO s Fifteen Nations, special issue no. 2 (1982), pp. 66 67. 22...Analyses 1 2000 North Beauregard Street P.O. Box 11280 Alexandria, Virginia 22311 5. Professor Patrick J. Parker, Code 56Pr 1 4 Department of National

  1. Defending Champions Reign Supreme at 2017 Student Science Jeopardy Tournament | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuk Dayaprema and Evan Yamaguchi, champions of the 2016 Student Science Jeopardy Tournament, have done it again. After a grueling competition, they emerged victorious for the second year in a row at the 2017 Student Science Jeopardy Tournament, sponsored by the Scientific Library.

  2. The National Environmental Policy Act in DoD: Defending Our Environment’s Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    with effective community relations programs seem to have a heightened awareness of environmental respensibility. These incentives notwithstanding, the...consideration were to become routine, communities and environmental groups would lose their incentive to sue the Services under NEPA. The costs of...HEUTAGE PROGRAM Wildlife Resources Center 51 8/439-7488 COORD/ZOOL: KathrM Schneidef x257 ECOLOGIST: Carol PReschke x258 BOTANIST: Peter Zika x259 INFO

  3. Imagined in Policy, Inscribed on Bodies: Defending an Ethic of Compassion in a Political Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Dave

    2015-01-01

    In response to the International Journal of Health Policy and Management (IJHPM) editorial, this commentary adds to the debate about ethical dimensions of compassionate care in UK service provision. It acknowledges the importance of the original paper, and attempts to explore some of the issues that are raised in the context of nursing practice, research and education. It is argued that each of these fields of the profession are enacted in an escalating culture of corporatism, be that National Health Service (NHS) or university campus, and global neoliberalism. Post-structuralist ideas, notably those of Foucault, are borrowed to interrogate healthcare as discursive practice and disciplinary knowledge; where an understanding of the ways in which power and language operate is prominent. Historical and contemporary evidence of institutional and ideological degradation of sections of humanity, a ‘history of the present,’ serve as reminders of the import, and fragility, of ethical codes. PMID:26673179

  4. Defending the Homeland: The Case for Integrating National Guard Intelligence Personnel into the State Fusion Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    already robust lineup of 57 National Guard Combat Support Teams (CSTs) and 17 CBRNE Enhanced Response Force Packages (CERFPs) to increase the existing...analysis of disparate data sources, identification of intelligence gaps, and proactive collection of intelligence against those gaps which could

  5. Defending the hive: social mechanisms complement individual immunity in honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bees live in large colonies (~50,000 individuals), but sociality has both costs and benefits. In some ways, social life enables individuals within colonies to better fend off pathogens and parasites than if they were solitary. However, an environment with many genetically related individuals i...

  6. THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL AND ITS ROLE IN PROMOTING AND DEFENDING HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE EUROPEAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion, POPESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Council of Europe advocates freedom of expression and of the media, freedom of assembly, equality, and the protection of minorities. It has launched campaigns on issues such as child protection, online hate speech, and the rights of the Roma, Europe's largest minority. The Council of Europe helps member states fight corruption and terrorism and undertake necessary judicial reforms. Its group of constitutional experts, known as the Venice Commission, offers legal advice to countries throughout the world. The Council of Europe promotes human rights through international conventions, such as the Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence and the Convention on Cybercrime. It monitors member states' progress in these areas and makes recommendations through independent expert monitoring bodies. All Council of Europe member states have abolished the death penalty.

  7. Can China Defend A Core Interest In The South China Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    must amass the wherewithal to defeat outsiders’ efforts to make today’s status quo a permanent political reality . Beijing ultimately needs sufficient...to launch a cross-strait invasion. To date, the PLA Navy has exhibited curious myopia toward such capabilities and systems. Constant strain on the...standard of fielding enough naval power to meet the largest fleet likely to be arrayed against it. ASBMs might provide full-time virtual presence, but they

  8. SecComp: Towards Practically Defending Against Component Hijacking in Android Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Daoyuan; Gao, Debin; Li, Yingjiu; Deng, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Cross-app collaboration via inter-component communication is a fundamental mechanism on Android. Although it brings the benefits such as functionality reuse and data sharing, a threat called component hijacking is also introduced. By hijacking a vulnerable component in victim apps, an attack app can escalate its privilege for originally prohibited operations. Many prior studies have been performed to understand and mitigate this issue, but component hijacking remains a serious open problem in...

  9. MODIFICATION OF AGILITY RUNNING TECHNIQUE IN REACTION TO A DEFENDER IN RUGBY UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keane W. Wheeler

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional kinematic analysis examined agility running technique during pre-planned and reactive performance conditions specific to attacking ball carries in rugby union. The variation to running technique of 8 highly trained rugby union players was compared between agility conditions (pre-planned and reactive and also agility performance speeds (fast, moderate and slow. Kinematic measures were used to determine the velocity of the centre of mass (COM in the anteroposterior (running speed and mediolateral (lateral movement speed planes. The position of foot-strike and toe-off was also examined for the step prior to the agility side- step (pre-change of direction phase and then the side-step (change of direction phase. This study demonstrated that less lateral movement speed towards the intended direction change occurred during reactive compared to pre-planned conditions at pre-change of direction (0.08 ± 0.28 m·s-1 and 0.42 ± 0.25 m·s-1, respectively and change of direction foot-strikes (0.25 ± 0.42 m·s-1 and 0.69 ± 0.43 m·s-1, respectively. Less lateral movement speed during reactive conditions was associated with greater lateral foot displacement (44.52 ± 6.10% leg length at the change of direction step compared to pre-planned conditions (41.35 ± 5.85%. Importantly, the anticipation abilities during reactive conditions provided a means to differentiate between speeds of agility performance, with faster performances displaying greater lateral movement speed at the change of direction foot- strike (0.52 ± 0.34 m·s-1 compared to moderate (0.20 ± 0.37 m·s-1 and slow (-0.08 ± 0.31 m·s-1. The changes to running technique during reactive conditions highlight the need to incorporate decision-making in rugby union agility programs

  10. Defending the Counseling Model and Its Eventual Synthesis with the Medical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Madison, III

    This paper explores the strengths and weaknesses of the medical model in an effort to promote a counseling perspective that embraces some of the medical models strengths. Through inclusion, rather than exclusion, it is believed that the counseling model will eventually infiltrate the medical model by way of its own documentation system. With its…

  11. Defending metropolitan identity through colonial politics: The role of Portuguese naturalists (1870-91).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamito-Marques, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    This paper explores how João de Andrade Corvo and José Vicente Barbosa du Bocage, two nineteenth-century Portuguese naturalists, were able to reach prominent political positions in their country by means of their work in, respectively, botany and agriculture, and zoology. The authority they derived from their scientific activities and the knowledge they acquired in the process, favored by their proximity to particular political quarters, elevated them to important governmental offices, in the context of which they implemented policies that reinforced Portugal's identity as an imperial nation. The colonial policies and agreements signed by Corvo and Bocage aimed at securing Portuguese colonial territories, which, aside from their economic relevance, constituted a symbol of power that reinforced the sovereignty of a small nation in a Europe dominated by the rule of increasingly vaster and stronger states. In spite of their different scientific careers and personal interests, both naturalists played key roles in Portuguese foreign affairs and colonial negotiations of the late nineteenth century, especially during the Scramble for Africa.

  12. Defending IEEE 802.11-Based Networks Against Denial Of Service Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Boon

    2003-01-01

    The convenience of IEEE 8O2.11-based wireless access networks has led to widespread deployment in the consumer, industrial and military sectors However, this use is predicated on an implicit assumption of confidentiality...

  13. Developing the Cyber Defenders of Tomorrow with Regional Collegiate Cyber Defense Competitions (CCDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Anna; Manson, Daniel P.; Zhu, Jake

    2010-01-01

    With the projected higher demand for Network Systems Analysts and increasing computer crime, network security specialists are an organization's first line of defense. The principle function of this paper is to provide the evolution of Collegiate Cyber Defense Competitions (CCDC), event planning required, soliciting sponsors, recruiting personnel…

  14. A bayesian inference-based detection mechanism to defend medical smartphone networks against insider attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Weizhi; Li, Wenjuan; Xiang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    and experience for both patients and healthcare workers, and the underlying network architecture to support such devices is also referred to as medical smartphone networks (MSNs). MSNs, similar to other networks, are subject to a wide range of attacks (e.g. leakage of sensitive patient information by a malicious...... insider). In this work, we focus on MSNs and present a compact but efficient trust-based approach using Bayesian inference to identify malicious nodes in such an environment. We then demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in detecting malicious nodes by evaluating the deployment of our proposed...

  15. Defending Estonia’s interests in the Court of Justice of the European Union / Lembit Uibo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibo, Lembit

    2010-01-01

    Kohtuotsustest asjades, milles Eesti kaebas Euroopa Komisjoni Euroopa Liidu Kohtusse (vaidlused suhkrutrahvi (kohtuasi T-324/05) ja kasvuhoonegaaside kvootide (kohtuasi T-263/07) üle), esimesest Eestist esitatud eelotsuse menetlusest (Eestis põllumajandustoetuste määramise korra vastavust Euroopa Liidu reeglitele), teistest liikmesriikidest Euroopa Liidu Kohtusse jõudvatest kohtuasjadest, milles tehtav otsus võib vahetult puudutada ka Eesti huve (Rootsi ja Soome ametiühingute ettevõtjatevastast tegevus (kohtuasjad C-341/05 ja C-438/05)

  16. Freud and history before 1905: from defending to questioning the theory of a glorious past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    By sticking closely to Freud's use of the German term Geschichte (history, story) between 1894 and 1905, I will reveal two conceptions of history. The first one, the theory of the glorious past and its archaeological metaphor, which accompanied and sustained the seduction theory of cultural history. I will define how this change was determined by an evolution in Freud's conceptions of childhood prehistory and original history. I will also question how the history problem interfered with Freud's auto-analysis.

  17. Do male and female gammarids defend themselves differently during chemical stress?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gismondi, E., E-mail: gismondi.eric@gmail.com; Cossu-Leguille, C.; Beisel, J.-N.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Gammarus roeseli females are less sensitive to cadmium than males. •Energy mobilization under chemical stress is difference according to gender. •Gender could take into account to an overview of xenobiotics effects on population. -- Abstract: To investigate xenobiotic impacts on organism physiology, several studies involve biomarker assessment. However, most studies do not take into account the toxic effect on both males and females. Here, we have investigated the influence of gender on the detoxification response (reduced glutathione, metallothionein, γ-glutamylcystein ligase and carotenoid), energy reserves (protein, lipids and glycogen) and biomarker of toxic effects (malondialdehyde) in Gammarus roeseli exposed to cadmium. A principal component analysis revealed that G. roeseli males and females were differently impacted by cadmium. We observed lower malondialdehyde levels in females than in males, whatever the condition tested (i.e. control, 2 and 8 μg Cd L{sup −1}), although the pattern of responses of control and exposures to 2 or 8 μg L{sup −1} was the same for both genders. Results could be linked to apparently more effective detoxification displayed by females than by males. Protein concentrations were unchanged in both genders, lipids contents were always significantly decreased and glycogen contents decreased only in females. This study supports the importance of taking into account the gender in ecotoxicological studies to have an overview of xenobiotics effects on a population.

  18. Defender of Humanism in the Alienated World--Citrine's Humanistic Journey in "Humboldt's Gift"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    The novel "Humboldt's Gift" reveals the dilemma of two intelligentsia in the modern society where consumerism and materialism further aggravates the alienation among people and the culture is degraded into a capital form and is commercialized, so the dignity and even the survival of poets are threatened by this material-centered society.…

  19. On Coping and Defending: Applying Bruner's Personal Growth Principles to Working with Gifted/Talented Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culross, Rita R.; Jenkins-Friedman, Reva

    1988-01-01

    The article describes two approaches, based on the ideas of Jerome Bruner, to helping gifted students handle the social-emotional tasks involved in actualizing their abilities. One approach stresses developmental principles of Bruner while the other applies Bruner's principles to personal and group empowering. (DB)

  20. Anomaly Detection in Log Data using Graph Databases and Machine Learning to Defend Advanced Persistent Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Timo

    2018-01-01

    Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) are a main impendence in cyber security of computer networks. In 2015, a successful breach remains undetected 146 days on average, reported by [Fi16].With our work we demonstrate a feasible and fast way to analyse real world log data to detect breaches or breach attempts. By adapting well-known kill chain mechanisms and a combine of a time series database and an abstracted graph approach, it is possible to create flexible attack profiles. Using this approach...

  1. Simulations in Cyber-Security: A Review of Cognitive Modeling of Network Attackers, Defenders, and Users

    OpenAIRE

    Vladislav D. Veksler; Norbou Buchler; Blaine E. Hoffman; Daniel N. Cassenti; Char Sample; Shridat Sugrim

    2018-01-01

    Computational models of cognitive processes may be employed in cyber-security tools, experiments, and simulations to address human agency and effective decision-making in keeping computational networks secure. Cognitive modeling can addresses multi-disciplinary cyber-security challenges requiring cross-cutting approaches over the human and computational sciences such as the following: (a) adversarial reasoning and behavioral game theory to predict attacker subjective utilities and decision li...

  2. Milicias y tropas negras de Buenos Aires. Afro argentinos armados para defender a sus amos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Beatriz Golberg

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The city of Buenos Aires was founded, for the second time 1580 essentially as an outpost of the Spanish Empire to be protected from Indian attacks and possible foreign incursion, basically Portuguese in origin. Thus, from the beginnings of the city's founding, African slaves were used for the defense of the city. They acted in the urban militias, and were outstanding in the defense and re-conquest of the city when the English attacked in 1806- 1807. Innumerable prizes and eulogies were followed by integration of segregated divisions with a white officer corps.After 1813, a series of decrees ordered owners to exchange slaves for use in the Wars of Independence. Thus, property owners were obliged to sell to the State a number of their slaves according to the work performed by the slaves. The slaves would enter the armies as free persons and would serve five years as 'front line" soldiers in order to obtain their freedom. This article studies the participation of the Afro-Argentines in the distinct 'fronts" of the armies of liberation. The paper also reflects on the opinions of the generals who commanded Afro-Argentine troops.//La ciudad de Buenos Aires fue fundada, por segunda vez, en 1580 esencialmente como un puesto de avanzada para que los españoles se protegieran de los indígenas y de una posible incursión extranjera de origen portugués. Por lo tanto desde la fundación de la ciudad los esclavos africanos fueron empleados para su defensa. Los esclavos actuaban en milicias urbanas y sus acciones fueron decisivas para la defensa y reconquista de Buenos Aires cuando los ingleses la atacaron en 1806-1807. Innumerables premios y elogios fueron seguidos por la integración de las divisiones separadas, con un cuerpo de oficiales blancos. Después de 1813, una serie de decretos ordenaba a los dueños entregar a sus esclavos para las guerras de Independencia . De esta manera los esclavos entraron al ejército como personas libres y debían servir por cinco años en el frente para obtener su libertad definitiva. Este artículo estudia la participación de afro-argentinos en distintos frentes de los ejércitos de liberación. El ensayo también refleja las opiniones de los generales que comandaban las tropas afro-argentinas.

  3. Air Force and the Cyberspace Mission: Defending the Air Force's Computer Network in the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Courville, Shane P

    2007-01-01

    .... Although the Air Force and the Department of Defense (DoD) in general, have numerous safeguards in effect to protect systems and their networks, DoD relies on a system that is "passive" when encountering cyber threats...

  4. Do male and female gammarids defend themselves differently during chemical stress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gismondi, E.; Cossu-Leguille, C.; Beisel, J.-N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Gammarus roeseli females are less sensitive to cadmium than males. •Energy mobilization under chemical stress is difference according to gender. •Gender could take into account to an overview of xenobiotics effects on population. -- Abstract: To investigate xenobiotic impacts on organism physiology, several studies involve biomarker assessment. However, most studies do not take into account the toxic effect on both males and females. Here, we have investigated the influence of gender on the detoxification response (reduced glutathione, metallothionein, γ-glutamylcystein ligase and carotenoid), energy reserves (protein, lipids and glycogen) and biomarker of toxic effects (malondialdehyde) in Gammarus roeseli exposed to cadmium. A principal component analysis revealed that G. roeseli males and females were differently impacted by cadmium. We observed lower malondialdehyde levels in females than in males, whatever the condition tested (i.e. control, 2 and 8 μg Cd L −1 ), although the pattern of responses of control and exposures to 2 or 8 μg L −1 was the same for both genders. Results could be linked to apparently more effective detoxification displayed by females than by males. Protein concentrations were unchanged in both genders, lipids contents were always significantly decreased and glycogen contents decreased only in females. This study supports the importance of taking into account the gender in ecotoxicological studies to have an overview of xenobiotics effects on a population

  5. Defending and attacking a network of two arcs subject to traffic congestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bier, Vicki M.; Hausken, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of intentional attacks on transportation systems, we consider drivers who choose the more time-efficient of two arcs (possibly of different lengths). Both arcs are subjected to traffic congestion, and also to interdiction or blockage (e.g., by a terrorist attack). The model has three types of strategic actors: the government; the terrorist; and potential drivers. The government protects travel, while the terrorist interdicts travel, along the two arcs. Drivers choose the arc that gives the shortest travel time, and cannot choose an interdicted arc. The drivers have reservation travel times, such that if the actual travel time will exceed an individual driver's reservation travel time, that driver would prefer not to travel; the reservation travel times are allowed to vary among drivers. The objective function of the master problem, which the government minimizes and the terrorist maximizes, is the sum of the total travel time plus the reservation travel times of the non-travelers. Each potential driver decides endogenously whether to travel, according to whether the actual travel time is greater or lesser than that driver's reservation travel time

  6. Outgrowing the Immaturity Myth: The Cost of Defending From Neonatal Infectious Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Harbeson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Newborns suffer high rates of mortality due to infectious disease—this has been generally regarded to be the result of an “immature” immune system with a diminished disease-fighting capacity. However, the immaturity dogma fails to explain (i greater pro-inflammatory responses than adults in vivo and (ii the ability of neonates to survive a significantly higher blood pathogen burden than of adults. To reconcile the apparent contradiction of clinical susceptibility to disease and the host immune response findings when contrasting newborn to adult, it will be essential to capture the entirety of available host-defense strategies at the newborn’s disposal. Adults focus heavily on the disease resistance approach: pathogen reduction and elimination. Newborn hyperactive innate immunity, sensitivity to immunopathology, and the energetic requirements of growth and development (immune and energy costs, however, preclude them from having an adult-like resistance response. Instead, newborns also may avail themselves of disease tolerance (minimizing immunopathology without reducing pathogen load, as a disease tolerance approach provides a counterbalance to the dangers of a heightened innate immunity and has lower-associated immune costs. Further, disease tolerance allows for the establishment of a commensal bacterial community without mounting an unnecessarily dangerous immune resistance response. Since disease tolerance has its own associated costs (immune suppression leading to unchecked pathogen proliferation, it is the maintenance of homeostasis between disease tolerance and disease resistance that is critical to safe and effective defense against infections in early life. This paradigm is consistent with nearly all of the existing evidence.

  7. From text to talk in criminal court: Prosecuting, defending, and examining the evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, F.; Sneijder, P.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we analyze how prosecutors, lawyers and judges refer to the case file. Because witnesses are rarely heard again in Dutch criminal court, understanding how their written voices are re-animated in court is of importance. Lawyers and prosecutors select quotations and introduce these in

  8. The Legal Limitations on Defending the National Information Infrastructure Against a Cyber Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-27

    has a wider significance .... Kelsen has asserted that ’use of force’ in Article 2, paragraph 4, of the Charter includes both the use of arms and a...or United Nations practice that it bears the meaning suggested by Kelsen . Indeed, in view of the predominant view of aggression and the use of force

  9. Joseph McCabe: A Forgotten Early Populariser of Science and Defender of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Joseph McCabe (1867-1955) was one of the most prolific and gifted polymaths of the twentieth century. Long before such a thing was thought respectable, and almost a century before any university established a chair in the public understanding of science, McCabe made a living as a populariser of science and a critic of philosophical and religious…

  10. The defendant in a medical malpractice suit: an integral part of the defense team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrek, F.R. Jr.; Slovis, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    This article explains the litigation process of a medical malpractice suit and offers suggestions to help pediatric radiologists cope with the stress of being sued. It provides tangible ways in which the pediatric radiologist can become an important part of the defense team. Our goal is to enable the pediatric radiologist to place the lawsuit in a proper perspective and demonstrate the importance of providing medical insight to aid in forming legal strategy. (orig.)

  11. The lives and opinions of Socrates and Stilpo as defended by Plutarch against the insidious yet ignorant attacks of Colotes La vie et l'opinion de Socrate et de Stilpon défendues par Plutarque contre les attaques insidieuses mais ignorantes de Colotès Le vite e le opinioni di Socrate e Stilpo come difesa da Plutarco contro gli attacchi insidiosi ancora ignoranti di Colote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Opsomer

    2013-05-01

    senza analizzarlo in dettaglio. Questo spiegherebbe anche il fatto che l’argomento non faccia alcun uso del resoconto che Platone fa della predicazione nel Sofista.In chapters 17 to 23 of the Adversus Colotem Plutarch defends Socrates and Stilpo against Colotes’ criticism. I examine the embedding of this section in the larger context of the work, the links between the sections on Socrates and Stilpo, Colotes’ criticisms and Plutarch’s counter-arguments and polemical strategies. In doing so, I attempt to disentangle the different layers of this complex text. Socrates is portrayed as an imposter and a sceptic by Colotes. Plutarch argues that Socrates’ philosophy indeed implies a radical distrust of the senses, but that this does not make it impossible for him and his followers to live their daily lives. Socratic philosophy is much to be preferred to Epicureanism. Stilpo, a Megarian, also belongs to the Socratic tradition. Plutarch upholds the high moral reputation of this sharp-witted philosopher against the abuse that he had to suffer from Colotes. The latter also attacked Stilpo’s rejection of all predication except identity predication. Plutarch claims that Stilpo’s argument is a mere dialectical exercise and poses no threat to our daily lives. Plutarch moreover engages in a counter-attack on the Epicurean philosophy of language, more particularly their abolishment of the intermediate level – that of meanings. As Plutarch presents Stilpo’s famous argument, it amounts to a denial of the ontological relation to which ordinary predication corresponds. Plutarch’s conclusion – that Stilpo merely urges us to abandon the use of the verb “to be” as a copula – does not fit the argument as it is presented by him. This mismatch is best explained by the hypothesis that Plutarch copied the argument quite faithfully without analysing it in detail. That would also explain the fact that the argument makes no use of Plato’s account of predication in the

  12. Terroristlike rühmituste liikmete sihttapmiste õiguspärasus rahvusvahelises humanitaarõiguses : [magistritöö] / Marika Kütt ; Tartu Ülikool, õigusteaduskond ; juhendaja: Lauri Mälksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kütt, Marika

    2011-01-01

    Sihttapmistest kui ametlikust vahendist terrorismivastases võitluses, inimõigustest selles kontekstis, relvakonflikti olemasolust kui eeldusest rahvusvahelise humanitaarõiguse kohaldumiseks, sihttapmiste legaalsusest mitterahvusvahelise relvastatud konflikti korral

  13. Pre-Viking and early Viking Age sacrifical place at Viidumäe, west Saaremaa / Marika Mägi, Indrek Jets, Riina Riiel, Raili Allmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Viidumäe ohverduskoht on eriti märkimisväärne selle poolest, et kuulub perioodi,millest Saaremaal muistised peaaegu puuduvad. Leiukoht osutab, et Eesti rannikukultuuri skandinaavitumine, mis on jälgitav alates 10. sajandist, sai alguse juba hiljemalt 8. sajandil

  14. Ööpäeva väldanud etendused keerasid näitlejate ja publiku elurütmi pea peale / Marika Rajamäe, Merili Nikkolo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajamäe, Marika, 1952-

    2008-01-01

    Vargamäel 22 tundi kestnud maratonetendusest Tammsaare "Tõe ja õiguse" põhjal - Elmo Nüganeni lavastused "Tõde ja õigus. Teine osa", "Karin. Indrek. Tõde ja õigus. 4" ja "Wargamäe Wabariik" (III osa) ning Jaanus Rohumaa lavastus "Vargamäe kuningriik" (I ja V osa). Reportaaž on tähtsamatest hetkedest alates 21. juuni kell 11.00 kuni 22. juuni 10.00-ni

  15. 21. X avati Kaunase kunstibiennaal "Textile 2005"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Eestist osalevad Mare Kelpmann, Marika Kööbi, Aet Ollisaar, Kadi Pajupuu, Ludmilla Svarzhevska, Hanna Tiidus, Helen Kauksi, Krista Leesi, Aune Taamal, Erika Tammpere, Milvi Thalheim ja Erle Võsa-Tangsoo

  16. Katrin Kuldma - obladatelnitsa "Zolotoi iglõ" / Olga Grigorjeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grigorjeva, Olga, 1983-

    2007-01-01

    FIBIT-i moepäevadest ja Kuldnõela galast. Kuldnõela nominendid olid Reet Aus, Katrin Kuldma, Marika Siska ja Tiiu Roosma. 2006. a. moepreemia "Kuldnõel" sai kollektsiooni "Chocolat" eest Katrin Kuldma

  17. Raamatututvustus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    2007. a. Tallinnas kirjastuselt Varrak ilmunud raamatust "1001 maali, mida elu jooksul peab nägema" (peatoimetaja Stephen Farthing, eessõna Geoff Dyer, tõlkinud Ann Kitsnik, Marika Liivamägi ja Maarja Merivoo)

  18. Teaduse õpetamine kui missioon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Marika Mikelsaar pälvis teaduse elutöö preemia, millest osa kavatseb kasutada omanimelise fondi loomiseks noorte teadlaste jaoks. Hiljuti valiti ta ülemaailmse ühingu Society for Microbial Ecology and Disease (SOMED) presidendiks

  19. Kirev moepilt / Britt Rosen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rosen, Britt, 1968-

    2007-01-01

    FIBITi moepäevadest Tallinnas Viru keskuses, stilistid Gerli Tinn, Liisi Eesmaa, Kirill Safonov. Kuldnõela auhinna pälvis Katrin Kuldma kollektsiooni Chocolat eest. Oma loomingut esitlesid Reet Aus, Tiiu Roosma, Marika Siska

  20. Trepp = Stair / Eve Arpo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arpo, Eve

    2006-01-01

    Rakvere Vallimäe trepist. Laste vestlus trepil. Projekt: Kavakava. Autorid: Heidi Urb, Siiri Vallner. Trepi valem: Taavi Vallner. Insener: Marika Stokkeby. Projekt 2004, valmis 2005. Ill.: joonis, 7 värv. fotot

  1. Tunnustame tõenduspõhise õendusabi edendajaid / Ester Öpik, Ilme Aro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Öpik, Ester

    2014-01-01

    Tunnustati meditsiiniõdesid Tiina Freimanni, Reet Urbanit, Marika Asbergi, Tiina Tõemetsa, Kersti Viitkarit ja Ireen Bruusi Eesti Õdede Liidu poolt 2011. aastani kaitstud õendusteaduslike uurimistööde eest

  2. The New Forekspank ئ Acclaimed Bank Architecture / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    1998-01-01

    Pangahoonete ehitamisest Eestis: Eesti Pank, Hansapank, Tallinna Pank (praegu Ühispank). Pikemalt Forekspanga (praegune Optivapank) hoone ehitamisest endisesse tehasehoonesse. Arhitektid Jüri Okas ja Marika Lõoke.. Sisekujundus Tõnu Veimer.

  3. Alushariduse kvaliteet rahvusvahelises arutelus / Tiia Õun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õun, Tiia

    2013-01-01

    Rahvusvahelisest EECERA 23. konverentsist, mis ühendab Euroopa alushariduse uurijaid, juhte, õpetajaid ja üliõpilasi. Konverents toimus 28.-31. aug. Tallinna Ülikoolis, Eesti-poolne peakorraldaja oli Tallinna Ülikooli professor Marika Veisson

  4. Tallinnasse Rävala pst. 19 kavandatava Tallinna Muusikakeskkooli, Tallinna Balletikooli ning G. Otsa nimelise muusikakooli ühise õppehoone arhitektuurikonkurss = Architectural Competition for the Joint School Building of Tallinn Music-Specialised

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Puusepp, Raivo

    2003-01-01

    I preemia - Andres Siim, Krister Ausing, II - Marika Lõoke, III - Maia Tüür, Andres Sevtshuk, Gabriel Evangelisti, ostupreemiad: Armin Valter, Vilen Künnapu ning Siiri Vallner, Katrin Koov, Veronika Valk

  5. Omamoodi ime - ilmunud on eesti-läti sõnaraamat / Lembit Vaba

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaba, Lembit 1945-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Igauņu-latviešu vārdnīca / Latviešu valodas aģentūra ; sastādītāji: Valts Ernštreits, Marika Muzikante, Maima Grīnberga = Eesti-läti sõnaraamat / Läti keele agentuur ; koostajad: Valts Ernštreits, Marika Muzikante, Maima Grīnberga. Rīga ; Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2015

  6. Defended to the Nines: 25 Years of Resistance Gene Cloning Identifies Nine Mechanisms for R Protein Function[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Plants have many, highly variable resistance (R) gene loci, which provide resistance to a variety of pathogens. The first R gene to be cloned, maize (Zea mays) Hm1, was published over 25 years ago, and since then, many different R genes have been identified and isolated. The encoded proteins have provided clues to the diverse molecular mechanisms underlying immunity. Here, we present a meta-analysis of 314 cloned R genes. The majority of R genes encode cell surface or intracellular receptors, and we distinguish nine molecular mechanisms by which R proteins can elevate or trigger disease resistance: direct (1) or indirect (2) perception of pathogen-derived molecules on the cell surface by receptor-like proteins and receptor-like kinases; direct (3) or indirect (4) intracellular detection of pathogen-derived molecules by nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat receptors, or detection through integrated domains (5); perception of transcription activator-like effectors through activation of executor genes (6); and active (7), passive (8), or host reprogramming-mediated (9) loss of susceptibility. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the functions of R genes are only understood for a small proportion of known R genes, a clearer understanding of mechanisms is emerging and will be crucial for rational engineering and deployment of novel R genes. PMID:29382771

  7. Defending the four principles approach as a good basis for good medical practice and therefore for good medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, Raanan

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the four prima facie principles-beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for autonomy and justice-afford a good and widely acceptable basis for 'doing good medical ethics'. It confronts objections that the approach is simplistic, incompatible with a virtue-based approach to medicine, that it requires respect for autonomy always to have priority when the principles clash at the expense of clinical obligations to benefit patients and global justice. It agrees that the approach does not provide universalisable methods either for resolving such moral dilemmas arising from conflict between the principles or their derivatives, or universalisable methods for resolving disagreements about the scope of these principles-long acknowledged lacunae but arguably to be found, in practice, with all other approaches to medical ethics. The value of the approach, when properly understood, is to provide a universalisable though prima facie set of moral commitments which all doctors can accept, a basic moral language and a basic moral analytic framework. These can underpin an intercultural 'moral mission statement' for the goals and practice of medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Using litigation to defend women prosecuted for abortion in Mexico: challenging state laws and the implications of recent court judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Jennifer; Noriega, Regina Tamés; Puga, Alma Luz Beltrán Y

    2014-11-01

    While women in Mexico City can access free, safe and legal abortion during the first trimester, women in other Mexican states face many barriers. To complicate matters, between 2008 and 2009, 16 state constitutions were amended to protect life from conception. While these reforms do not annul existing legal abortion indications, they have created additional obstacles for women. Health providers increasingly report women who seek life-saving care for complications such as haemorrhage to the police, and some cases eventually end up in court. The Grupo de Información en Reproducción Elegida (GIRE) has successfully litigated such cases in state courts, with positive outcomes. However, state courts have mainly focused on procedural issues. The Mexican Supreme Court ruling supporting Mexico City's law has had a positive effect, but a stronger stance is needed. This paper discusses the constitutional framework and jurisprudence regarding abortion in Mexico, and the recent Costa Rica decision of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. We assert that Mexican states must guarantee women's access to abortion on the legal grounds established in law. We continue to support litigation at the state level to oblige courts to exonerate women prosecuted for illegal abortion. Advocacy should, of course, also address the legislative and executive branches, while working simultaneously to set legal precedents on abortion. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. CDC MessageWorks: Designing and Validating a Social Marketing Tool to Craft and Defend Effective Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Galen E.; Keller, Punam A.; Reynolds, Jennifer; Schaur, Michelle; Krause, Diane

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, in partnership with Oak Ridge Associated Universities, designed an online social marketing strategy tool, MessageWorks, to help health communicators effectively formulate messages aimed at changing health behaviors and evaluate message tactics and audience characteristics. MessageWorks is based on the advisor for risk communication model that identifies 10 variables that can be used to predict target audience intentions to comply with health recommendations. This article discusses the value of the MessageWorks tool to health communicators and to the field of social marketing by (1) describing the scientific evidence supporting use of MessageWorks to improve health communication practice and (2) summarizing how to use MessageWorks and interpret the results it produces. PMID:26877714

  10. Issues Surrounding the Self: Using the Films "Defending Your Life" and "Chameleon Street" in the Interpersonal Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Pamela A.

    The use of film to supplement course material can be an excellent way to stimulate critical thinking. Film can be a particularly useful tool in the interpersonal communication course since students are able to observe both the verbal and nonverbal behaviors of the characters. However, discussion prior to and following the film is important, so…

  11. Defenders and Conquerors: The Rhetoric of Royal Power in Korean Inscriptions from the Fifth to Seventh Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-gyu Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the rhetoric of three inscriptions from the Three Kingdoms period of Korea: the Gwanggaeto inscription, which was carved in 414 on the tomb stele of King Gwanggaeto of Goguryeo; the inscriptions on the monument stones raised between 550 and 568 to record the tours of King Jinheung of Silla; and the King Munmu inscription on the funerary stele of King Munmu of Silla, which was completed in 682. Notably, although all three monarchs were successful warriors, only the Gwanggaeto inscription is characterized by the martial rhetoric of conquest, while the two Silla examples employ the cautious rhetoric of peacemaking. The author analyzes this difference by understanding the inscriptions as situated speech acts, and he suggests that these inscriptions should be understood within the particular political circumstances in which they were situated. Whereas the Gwanggaeto inscription was produced by a powerful Goguryeo acting within a Northeast Asia in which no one state could claim dominance, the Silla inscriptions were produced by a Silla Kingdom that had to struggle first against established Korean rivals and then against an enormously powerful Tang empire.

  12. Indigenous endophytic seed bacteria promote seedling development and defend against fungal disease in browntop millet (Urochloa ramosa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; White, J F

    2018-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate indigenous seed endophyte effects on browntop millet seedling development. We report that seed-inhabiting bacterial endophytes are responsible for promoting seedling development, including stimulation of root hair formation, increasing root and shoot length growth and increasing photosynthetic pigment content of seedlings. Bacterial endophytes also improved resistance of seedlings to disease. A total of four endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized seeds and identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Curtobacterium sp. (M1), Microbacterium sp. (M2), Methylobacterium sp. (M3) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (M4). Removal of bacteria with streptomycin treatment from the seeds compromised seedling growth and development. When endophytes were reinoculated onto seeds, seedlings recovered normal development. Strains M3 and M4 were found to be most potent in promoting growth of seedlings. Bacteria were found to produce auxin, solubilize phosphate and inhibit fungal pathogens. Significant protection of seedlings from Fusarium infection was found using strain M4 in microcosm assays. The antifungal lipopeptide genes for surfactin and iturin were detected in M4; culture extracts of M4 showed a positive drop collapse result for surfactins. This study demonstrates that browntop millet seeds vector indigenous endophytes that are responsible for modulation of seedling development and protection of seedlings from fungal disease. This study is significant and original in that it is the first report of seed-inhabiting endophytes of browntop millet that influence seedling development and function in defence against soilborne pathogens. This study suggests that conservation and management of seed-vectored endophytes may be important in development of more sustainable agricultural practices. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Theses defended at Tunis Faculty of Medecine from 2004 to 2005: Scientific become and predictive factors of publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elloumi, Hela; Bouarrouj, Reem; Chadli Debbiche, Ashraf; Mrabet, Ali; Dziri, Chadli

    2017-04-01

    Several theses are supported, every year, in the Faculty of Medicine of Tunis but their scientific become is this day unknown. The most part of specialities have not bibliometric data. This work had for objectives to study the still unknown future of theses of Tunis Faculty of Medecine during 2004-2005, in terms of publication in indexed reviews and to determine the predictive factors of their publication. This was a descriptive bibliometric study of theses supported at the Tunis Faculty of Medicine between January 1st, 2004 and december 31st, 2005. The data collected concerned :number of theses, involved specialities, discipline, type of theses, type of study, number of studied cases (theses. The publication of the theses has been sought in engines "Medline" and "scopus. Predictive factors for publication were sought. Six hundred and thirteen theses were supported, including 57.7% belonged to the medical disciplines. The attributed mention was "very honorable with the congratulations of the jury" in 71,0% of cases and "very honorable with the congratulations of the jury and the proposal at the price of thesis " in 24,0% of the cases. Thirteen comma four pourcent (13.4%) was the rate of publication. These theses were published when the attributed mention was "very honorable with the congratulations of the jury and the proposal at the price of thesis "(p=0.05), when the discipline was community (p theses-teacher- year was lower than 1 in 70% of cases and the index of becoming theses varied from 0 and 18.7 across all disciplines. The thesis were published in half of the cases in the the review"La Tunisie Médicale". The median of citation was 2 [0-66 citations]. The publication was found thanks to the name of the student which appeared as author in 61.0% of the theses. The student was first author in 12 cases (24.5%). The rate of publication of theses of Tunis Faculty of Medecine during 2004-2005 aws little raised by 13.4%. This rate should be considered as a basic figure with regard to wich will be compared the future impact of courses made at present in our Faculty.

  14. Defenders against Threats or Enablers of Opportunities: The Screening Role Played by Gatekeepers in Researching Older People in Care Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scourfield, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper emerges from a case study of the system of statutory reviews in older people's care homes in the UK. Informed by a review of selected literature on gaining access, this paper provides a critical account of the process of negotiating access with gatekeepers (chiefly, care home managers). The negotiations were time-consuming and largely…

  15. Explaining Dynamic Strategies for Defending Company Legitimacy : The Changing Outcomes of Anti-Sweatshop Campaigns in France and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Balsiger, Philip

    2018-01-01

    This article analyzes and compares the dynamically changing outcomes of anti-sweatshop campaigns in France and Switzerland through a qualitative comparative case study using interviews and analysis of firsthand and secondary data. In both countries, some targeted firms made early concessions and later withdrew from those concessions. To explain these changing outcomes over time, the article develops a perspective that puts emphasis on interaction phases and highlights corporate strategic resp...

  16. Males collectively defend their one-male units against bachelor males in a multi-level primate society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zuo-Fu; Yang, Bang-He; Yu, Yang; Yao, Hui; Grueter, Cyril C; Garber, Paul A; Li, Ming

    2014-07-01

    Group-level male-male co-operation, which has been documented in several primate and non-primate societies, may be mutualistically advantageous to the participants when confronted with threats such as takeovers and cuckoldry by external males. Co-operation among members of distinct social units-while universal among humans-is extremely rare in non-human primates. We present the first observations of collective action or co-operation among males of different one-male units (OMU) in a multi-level society of Rhinopithecus roxellana. A total of 59 instances of male co-operation were recorded. Male co-operation included coordinated chasing, joint vigilance, and patrolling behavior directed at lone adult males trying to enter an OMU. Male co-operation was significantly more frequent during the mating season when the risk of incursions and extra-group paternity was higher. Paternity of infants born in the subsequent birth season and kin relationships among resident males were identified using microsatellite genotype. All infants were sired by OMU males, which we interpret as possible evidence for their success at thwarting mating attempts by satellite males. OMU males were principally unrelated suggesting that male co-operation is best understood in terms of the mutual direct benefits individuals obtain through collective action. Our findings lend support to the bachelor threat hypothesis in which the cooperative behavior of several individuals is more effective than the lone action of a single individual in providing mate defense. Our research has implications for understanding male bonding, higher-level collective action, and the evolution of social co-operation in human societies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The parasitic nematode Phasmorhabditis hermaphrodita defends its slug host from being predated or scavenged by manipulating host spatial behaviour

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechová, H.; Foltan, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 3 (2008), s. 416-420 ISSN 0376-6357 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : manipulation * slug * nematode Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.441, year: 2008

  18. Drop and Give Us 20, Seifried: A Practical Response to "Defending the Use of Punishment by Coaches"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Rick

    2009-01-01

    In a recent issue of "Quest," Seifried (2008) explicitly depicted his work as an "attempt to present some rationale for supporting the use by coaches of corporal punishment in the sport setting . . . [and] to develop a defense, not previously offered, for those coaches who thoughtfully employ punishment strategies to manage their players and…

  19. Death qualification and prejudice: the effect of implicit racism, sexism, and homophobia on capital defendants' right to due process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Brooke

    2007-01-01

    Two hundred venirepersons from the 12th Judicial Circuit in Bradenton, Florida completed the following measures: (1) one question that measured their level of support for the death penalty; (2) one question that categorized their death-qualification status; (3) 23 questions that measured their attitudes toward the death penalty (ATDP); (4) 22 questions that assessed their attitudes toward women (ATW); (5) 25 questions that measured their level of homophobia (H); (6) seven questions that assessed their level of modern racism (MR); (7) eight questions that measured their level of modern sexism (MS); and (8) standard demographic questions. Results indicated that as death-penalty support increased participants exhibited more positive attitudes toward the death penalty, more negative attitudes toward women, and higher levels of homophobia, modern racism, and modern sexism. Findings also suggested that death-qualified venirepersons exhibited more positive attitudes toward the death penalty and higher levels of homophobia, modern racism, and modern sexism. Finally, more positive attitudes toward the death penalty were correlated with more negative attitudes toward women and higher levels of homophobia, modern racism, and modern sexism. Legal implications are discussed. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Defending the multiverse — or down to crisis on infinite earths. Better: for a literary Na-tional Geographic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Campello Rodrigues Costa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available What is the role of literary history in face of its own object: keep the memory of the texts produced during a time gap, texts which, by definition, are endowed of multiple meanings? How to organize the report of existence of texts whose identity is unstable, since it’s being, it’s identity is a joint of meanings attributed to them by the cultural body that faces those texts? From such questions, this article performs a critical review of the theoretical procedures which are classically used for the historical approach of literary texts. Then, it is proposed the adoption of a critical perspective for the historian of literature challenged by the task of ensuring to the literary text the property that keeps it alive throughout the years: the staying power of meaning.

  1. Defended to the Nines: 25 Years of Resistance Gene Cloning Identifies Nine Mechanisms for R Protein Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourelis, Jiorgos; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2018-02-01

    Plants have many, highly variable resistance ( R ) gene loci, which provide resistance to a variety of pathogens. The first R gene to be cloned, maize ( Zea mays ) Hm1 , was published over 25 years ago, and since then, many different R genes have been identified and isolated. The encoded proteins have provided clues to the diverse molecular mechanisms underlying immunity. Here, we present a meta-analysis of 314 cloned R genes. The majority of R genes encode cell surface or intracellular receptors, and we distinguish nine molecular mechanisms by which R proteins can elevate or trigger disease resistance: direct (1) or indirect (2) perception of pathogen-derived molecules on the cell surface by receptor-like proteins and receptor-like kinases; direct (3) or indirect (4) intracellular detection of pathogen-derived molecules by nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat receptors, or detection through integrated domains (5); perception of transcription activator-like effectors through activation of executor genes (6); and active (7), passive (8), or host reprogramming-mediated (9) loss of susceptibility. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the functions of R genes are only understood for a small proportion of known R genes, a clearer understanding of mechanisms is emerging and will be crucial for rational engineering and deployment of novel R genes. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  2. CDC MessageWorks: Designing and Validating a Social Marketing Tool to Craft and Defend Effective Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Galen E; Keller, Punam A; Reynolds, Jennifer; Schaur, Michelle; Krause, Diane

    2016-03-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, in partnership with Oak Ridge Associated Universities, designed an online social marketing strategy tool, MessageWorks, to help health communicators effectively formulate messages aimed at changing health behaviors and evaluate message tactics and audience characteristics. MessageWorks is based on the advisor for risk communication model that identifies 10 variables that can be used to predict target audience intentions to comply with health recommendations. This article discusses the value of the MessageWorks tool to health communicators and to the field of social marketing by (1) describing the scientific evidence supporting use of MessageWorks to improve health communication practice and (2) summarizing how to use MessageWorks and interpret the results it produces.

  3. The EuroMPs defend aid to coal mining; Los eurodiputados defienden las ayudas a la mineria del carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-04-01

    The maintenance of public aid to the coal industry and the creation of a communitarian politics of energy are the two principal requests which the European Parliament made to the Commission and the Council after the discussion of two reports from the Commission of Energy.

  4. Severe Personality-Disordered Defendants and the Insanity Plea in the United States: a Proposal for Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.B. Palermo (George)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPeople who live in society are bound together by laws based on duties and rights. Even though primarily born out of acceptance and respect for one another, these laws, part of an ethical system of communal life, are also utilitarian in their essence. Though accepting the above

  5. OFFSETTING TOMORROW’S ADVERSARY IN A CONTESTED ENVIRONMENT: DEFENDING EXPEDITIONARY ADVANCE BASES IN 2025 AND BEYOND

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    EABs enable the dispersal of key assets to cloud adversary targeting process while 8 providing the joint force proximity to the area of...environment, the denial of ISR capabilities is critical to maintaining an adversary’s uncertainty and cloud his situational awareness. To this task...James E. 2014. "Expeditionary Force 21." Expeditionary Force 21, Forward and Ready: Now and in the Future. Washington, DC: HQ USMC, March 4. Board

  6. The Future Role of the Department of Defense in Protecting and Defending America’s Economy in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Figure 1. A Timeline of the Target Data Breach .............................................................67 Figure 2. Intrusion Route to...Boehning and Toal 2014). Third Party Opinion Many technical news writers have wrote on the security breakdowns surrounding the Target data breach in...Transportation, “A ‘Kill Chain’ Analysis of the 2013 Target Data Breach ,” 26 March 2014, 1-3, accessed 10 September 2014, http://www.commerce.senate.gov

  7. Does plant trait diversity reduce the ability of herbivores to defend against predators? The plant variability-gut acclimation hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, William C; Thaler, Jennifer S

    2016-04-01

    Variability in plant chemistry has long been believed to suppress populations of insect herbivores by constraining herbivore resource selection behavior in ways that make herbivores more vulnerable to predation. The focus on behavior, however, overlooks the pervasive physiological effects of plant variability on herbivores. Here we propose the plant variability-gut acclimation hypothesis, which posits that plant chemical variability constrains herbivore anti-predator defenses by frequently requiring herbivores to acclimate their guts to changing plant defenses and nutrients. Gut acclimation, including changes to morphology and detoxification enzymes, requires time and nutrients, and we argue these costs will constrain how and when herbivores can mount anti-predator defenses. A consequence of this hypothesis is stronger top-down control of herbivores in heterogeneous plant populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Defending public interests in private lands: compliance, costs and potential environmental consequences of the Brazilian Forest Code in Mato Grosso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Claudia M; Nepstad, Daniel C; Azevedo, Andrea A; McGrath, David G

    2013-06-05

    Land-use regulations are a critical component of forest governance and conservation strategies, but their effectiveness in shaping landholder behaviour is poorly understood. We conducted a spatial and temporal analysis of the Brazilian Forest Code (BFC) to understand the patterns of regulatory compliance over time and across changes in the policy, and the implications of these compliance patterns for the perceived costs to landholders and environmental performance of agricultural landscapes in the southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso. Landholdings tended to remain in compliance or not according to their status at the beginning of the study period. The perceived economic burden of BFC compliance on soya bean and beef producers (US$3-5.6 billion in net present value of the land) may in part explain the massive, successful campaign launched by the farm lobby to change the BFC. The ecological benefits of compliance (e.g. greater connectivity and carbon) with the BFC are diffuse and do not compete effectively with the economic benefits of non-compliance that are perceived by landholders. Volatile regulation of land-use decisions that affect billions in economic rent that could be captured is an inadequate forest governance instrument; effectiveness of such regulations may increase when implemented in tandem with positive incentives for forest conservation.

  9. Defending against parasites: fungus-growing ants combine specialized behaviours and microbial symbionts to protect their fungus gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Ainslie E F; Murakami, Takahiro; Mueller, Ulrich G; Currie, Cameron R

    2006-03-22

    Parasites influence host biology and population structure, and thus shape the evolution of their hosts. Parasites often accelerate the evolution of host defences, including direct defences such as evasion and sanitation and indirect defences such as the management of beneficial microbes that aid in the suppression or removal of pathogens. Fungus-growing ants are doubly burdened by parasites, needing to protect their crops as well as themselves from infection. We show that parasite removal from fungus gardens is more complex than previously realized. In response to infection of their fungal gardens by a specialized virulent parasite, ants gather and compress parasitic spores and hyphae in their infrabuccal pockets, then deposit the resulting pellet in piles near their gardens. We reveal that the ants' infrabuccal pocket functions as a specialized sterilization device, killing spores of the garden parasite Escovopsis. This is apparently achieved through a symbiotic association with actinomycetous bacteria in the infrabuccal pocket that produce antibiotics which inhibit Escovopsis. The use of the infrabuccal pocket as a receptacle to sequester Escovopsis, and as a location for antibiotic administration by the ants' bacterial mutualist, illustrates how the combination of behaviour and microbial symbionts can be a successful defence strategy for hosts.

  10. Modulation of biodiversity-invasion relationships by resource availability : commensal species defend invaders in a changing world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, T.

    2017-01-01

    Biological invasion brings disturbance to localenvironment, such as reducing available niches or altering species interactions. In order to reduce the undesired consequences brought by invasion, the determining factors suppressing invasion become important. The success of invasion depends on

  11. Race as a weapon: defending the colonial plantation order in the name of civilization, 1791-1850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naranjo Orovio, Consuelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study is to analyze the use and adaptation of racialist ideology in the Afro-Hispanic Antilles following the start of the Revolution of Saint-Domingue in 1791, as it evolved to justify and reinforce plantation slavery and served to reinstitute and police the color line that was the central ideological premise supporting the economy of exchange and exploitation in the world of Atlantic coloniality. The renewed stigmatization of the racialized types in Creole population aimed to limit the echoes of the revolution against the plantation and it was an attempt to dismiss its political significance as a movement of self-emancipation and decolonization. The fear promoted by the colonial authorities, the planter class and Creole intellectuals, liberal and otherwise, aimed to establish a delicate balance between terror and profits wanting to justify the continuation of plantation slavery through the purposeful resemantization of the ideological tandem civilization/barbarity based on a racialized reading of history that championed European immigration and the systematic reduction of the population of Afro-descendants.El objetivo de este estudio es analizar el uso y adaptación de la ideología racialista en las Antillas afrohispanas tras el estallido de la Revolución de Saint-Domingue en 1791 a medida que ésta fue evolucionando con el fin de justificar y afianzar la plantación esclavista. La continua estigmatización de los tipos racializados en la población criolla contribuyó a enmudecer los ecos de la revolución de los esclavos, especialmente la gran relevancia que en términos políticos tuvo el movimiento de auto-emancipación y descolonización. El miedo impulsado por las autoridades coloniales, los hacendados esclavistas y los intelectuales (liberales o no procuró mantener un balance delicado entre el terror y las ganancias con el objetivo de intentar justificar la continuidad de la esclavitud mediante la resemantización deliberada del tándem ideológico civilización/barbarie. Dicha resemantización estaba basada en una interpretación racializada de la historia que buscó promover la inmigración de europeos y la reducción sistemática de la población de afrodescendientes.

  12. Attend or defend? Sex differences in behavioral, autonomic, and respiratory response patterns to emotion-eliciting films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Frank H; Rattel, Julina A; Wegerer, Melanie; Liedlgruber, Michael; Schweighofer, Simon; Kreibig, Sylvia D; Kolodyazhniy, Vitaliy; Blechert, Jens

    2017-12-01

    Sex differences in emotional reactivity have been studied primarily for negative but less so for positive stimuli; likewise, sex differences in the psychophysiological response-patterning during such stimuli are poorly understood. Thus, the present study examined sex differences in response to negative/positive and high/low arousing films (classified as threat-, loss-, achievement-, and recreation-related, vs. neutral films), while measuring 18 muscular, autonomic, and respiratory parameters. Sex differences emerged for all films, but were most prominent for threat-related films: Despite equivalent valence and arousal ratings, women displayed more facial-muscular and respiratory responding than men and pronounced sympathetic activation (preejection period, other cardiovascular and electrodermal measures), while men showed coactivated sympathetic/parasympathetic responding (including increased respiratory sinus arrhythmia). This indicates a prototypical threat-related defense response in women, while men showed a pattern of sustained orienting, which can be understood as a shift toward less threat proximity in the defense cascade model. Clinical implications are discussed within a socio-evolutionary framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk Information Management Resource (RIMR): modeling an approach to defending against military medical information assurance brain drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Willie E.

    2003-05-01

    As Military Medical Information Assurance organizations face off with modern pressures to downsize and outsource, they battle with losing knowledgeable people who leave and take with them what they know. This knowledge is increasingly being recognized as an important resource and organizations are now taking steps to manage it. In addition, as the pressures for globalization (Castells, 1998) increase, collaboration and cooperation are becoming more distributed and international. Knowledge sharing in a distributed international environment is becoming an essential part of Knowledge Management. This is a major shortfall in the current approach to capturing and sharing knowledge in Military Medical Information Assurance. This paper addresses this challenge by exploring Risk Information Management Resource (RIMR) as a tool for sharing knowledge using the concept of Communities of Practice. RIMR is based no the framework of sharing and using knowledge. This concept is done through three major components - people, process and technology. The people aspect enables remote collaboration, support communities of practice, reward and recognize knowledge sharing while encouraging storytelling. The process aspect enhances knowledge capture and manages information. While the technology aspect enhance system integration and data mining, it also utilizes intelligent agents and exploits expert systems. These coupled with supporting activities of education and training, technology infrastructure and information security enables effective information assurance collaboration.

  14. Archaeological excavations at a bronze age grave and a 6th - 10 th century cult site at Aunamägi in Tõnija-Põlluküla village, southern Saaremaa / Marika Mägi, Raili Allmäe, Riina Riiel ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Kaevamised Saunamäel korraldati Tallinna Ülikooli üliõpilaste seminarkaevamistena. Kogu kaevamiste ala moodustas umbes 170 m2. Märkimisväärne Tuulingumäe ja Saunamäe kompleksi juures on see, et need olid mõeldud suhteliselt piiratud hulgale. Sellised väikesed pühapaigad viitavad rituaalidele, mida sooritasid üksikud valitud isikud. Kõik artiklis mainitud kultusekohad jäävad Läänemere põhjaosa rannikualadele, kus eelviikingiajal kujunes ühine kultuurisfäär

  15. Innovatsioon = Innovation

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    TÜ teadlased töötavad välja Philipsi tellimusel uut tomograafi; prof. Marika Mikelsaar pälvis bakteri ME-3 kasutamise eest Euroopa Liidu innovaatori auhinna; toruluude murdude fragmentide ühendamiseks koostatud leiutisele said patendi Aleks Lenzner ja Tiit Haviko TÜ-st ning Vladimir Andrianov EMÜ-st

  16. Mis on elus olulisim / Aita Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Aita, 1954-

    2002-01-01

    Sisu : Mitch Albom. Teisipäevad Morrie'ga; Santa Montefiore. Oota mind ombupuu all; Ridley Pearson. Tont teab kus; Sebastian Faulks. Linnulaul; Kerttu Rakke. Iluasjake; Merike Hanni. Kooliraha; Viivi Luik. Ajaloo ilu; Hermann Hesse. Stepihunt; Eesti luulet läbi aegade / [koostanud Marika Vingissar; Philip K. Dick. Ubik; Marion Zimmer Bradley. Avaloni udud; Kuus eesti luuletajat / koostanud Anne Lange

  17. Teenetemärgid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli kollektiivi liikmetest saavad Eesti vabariigi 87. aastapäeva puhul riikliku autasu külalisprofessorid Stig Erik örjan Ohlsson ja Uno lõhmus, professorid mati Erelt, Volli kalm, kalle merusk, Aadu Must, Paul varul, Jaan Eha, bibliograaf Marika Meltsas

  18. Ülikool valis viis professorit ja nimetas emeriitprofessori (TPM)

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli nõukogu nimetas professoriteks tagasi Eesti ajaloo professori Tiit Rosenbergi, eesti keele kui võõrkeele professori Birute Klaasi, rakendusökoloogia professori Olevi Kulli ja majanduspoliitika professori Jüri Sepa. Balti poliitika professoriks sai Andres Kasekamp. Ülikooli mikrobioloogia instituudi juhatajale professor Marika Mikelsaarele anti emeriitprofessori nimetus

  19. Autotranspordi TOP aastal 2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    TOP 50. Vt. samas: Käibe TOP 10; Käibe kasvu TOP 10; Kasumi TOP 10; Kasumi kasvu TOP 10; Rentaabluse TOP 10; Omakapitali tootlikkuse TOP 10; Marika Roomere. Täisteenuse pakkumine kergitas tulemusi; Jupiter Plus otsib järjest uusi kasvuvõimalusi; EST-Trans Kaubaveod teenib kasumit toiduvedamisega

  20. Kuidas töötab teie kooli tugisüsteem? / Maria Tiro, Siiri Klasberg, Maarika Kongi ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Küsimusele vastasid Jüri gümnaasiumi direktor Maria Tiro, Tapa gümnaasiumi sotsiaalpedagoog Siiri Klasberg, Rakvere gümnaasiumi psühholoog Maarika Kongi, Kuressaare gümnaasiumi sotsiaalpedagoog Maret Martinson, Salme põhikooli direktor Marika Pütsep

  1. Lahkus juhmi Hundi ja kavala Jänese looja / Andri Maimets, Marko Lillemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maimets, Andri, 1979-

    2006-01-01

    Suri vene animakunstnik, kuulsate tegelaskujude - Hundi ja Jänese looja joonisfilmisarjas (1969-1986) "Oota sa!" ("Nu, pogodi!") Svetozar Russakov (sünd. 3.04.1923). Filmi omaaegset mõju meenutab Rein Raamat. Kommenteerivad Raivo Järvi, Hendrik Normann, Ain Nurmela, Marika Korolev, Evelin Samuel

  2. Estconde büroohoone = Estconde Office Building / Epp Lankots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lankots, Epp, 1976-

    2002-01-01

    Tallinnas Toompuiestee 33 asuva hoone rekonstrueerimine. Projekteerija: büroo J. Okas & M. Lõoke. Arhitektid Jüri Okas ja Marika Lõoke. Konstruktiivne osa: Neoprojekt. Ehituse peatöövõtt: Estconde-E. Projekt ja hoone valmisid 2001. 7 ill.: välis- ja sisevaated, II korruse plaan

  3. Poolsajandi õnnesoovid Jaak Aaviksoole / Ain Heinaru, Jaak Kangilaski, Tõnu Lehtsaar...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Mõtteid Tartu Ülikooli rektorist tema 50. sünnipäeva puhul : Ain Heinaru, Jaak Kangilaski, Tõnu Lehtsaar, Indrek Reimand, Toomas Kiho, Leelo Kriisa, Peeter Olesk, Risto Tammelo, Birute Klaas, Peeter Saari, Andrus Ansip, Mait Klaassen, Marika Kullamaa, Kaupo Bend

  4. 8. III esitleti Adamson-Ericu muuseumis ajakirja Muuseum 2005. aasta esimest numbrit

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tomislav Shola kirjutab "Kvaliteedist pärimusinstitutsioonides". Rahvusvaheliste konverentside kogemusi jagavad Toomas Abiline, Aino Lepp, Lea Sillart ja Karin Hallas-Murula. Eesti muuseumide olulistest tähtpäevadest kirjutavad Urmas Dresen, Mari-Ann Aimla, Marika Valk ja Merike Koppel

  5. Vanemuise teatri juurdeehituse kutsutud arhitektuurikonkurss = Invitational architecture competition for the addition to the Vanemuine theatre / Peeter Pere

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pere, Peeter, 1957-

    2009-01-01

    Arhitektuurikonkursi žürii liige Peeter Pere võistluse eesmärgist, konkursil 1. preemia pälvinud Jüri Okase ja Marika Lõokese (Okas & Lõoke) võistlustööst ja konkursil osalenud arhitektuuribüroode Kolm Pluss Üks, Kavakava ja Lunge & Ko võistlustöödest

  6. Arhitektuuribüroo Pluss = Pluss Architects

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Büroohoones Delta Plaza (Pärnu mnt. 141, Tallinn) asuva AB Pluss ruumide sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Argo Vaikla, Katrin Vaikla ja Riin Luuk. Büroohoone arhitektid Jüri Okas ja Marika Lõoke. Kogu mööblikomplekt on erilahendusega. Sisearhitektide tähtsamate tööde loetelu

  7. Scheteligi büroo- ja laohoone = Schetelig's Office Building and Warehouse / Epp Lankots

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lankots, Epp, 1976-

    2000-01-01

    Kahekorruseline, minimalistliku kastja mahuga hoone. Peafassaadi kujunduses on kasutatud firma nime. Projekteerija Arhitektibüroo J. Okas & M. Lõoke. Arhitektid Jüri Okas, Marika Lõoke. Sisekujundaja Kristiina Voolaid. Projekt 1998, valmis 2000. 7 ill. Korruste plaanid, lõige, välisvaated

  8. Projektiivne arhitektuur / Leonhard Lapin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lapin, Leonhard, 1947-

    2003-01-01

    Arhitekti loomeprotsess. Arhitekti ja helilooja loomemeetodi sarnasus. Omaruumi mõiste. Projektiivne arhitektuur. Jüri Okase ja Marika Lõokese projektiivne arhitektuur, nende 1996-2002. aastate 22 projekti 40 perspektiivvaadet esikaanel, lk. 1, 11-48. J. Okasele ja M. Lõokesele anti 2002. a. arhitektuuriloomingu eest Eesti Kultuurkapitali aastapreemia

  9. Eurohindu tuleb näidata enne kursi selgumist / Väinu Rozental

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozental, Väinu, 1957-

    2010-01-01

    1. juulist tuleb avaldada kaupade ja teenuste hinnad nii kroonides kui ka eurodes. Arvamust avaldavad Eesti Kaupmeeste Liidu tegevdirektor Marika Merilai, ASi Rimi Eesti Food turundusjuht Evelin Mägioja ja OÜ Maxima Eesti brändi ja kommunikatsiooni osakonna direktor Ty Lehtmäe

  10. Salme Reegi nimelise auhinna nominendid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Valiti järgmised nominendid : Taago Tubin - lavastus "Suur kuri hunt" Vanemuises, Marika Vaarik - õpetaja Klamm VAT Teatri lavastuses "Klammi sõda", Finn Poulsen - "Trollpoiss" Eesti Nukuteatris, Leino Rei - lavastused "Kuusepuu", "Karjatüdruk ja korstnapühkija", Taavi Tõnisson - Papageno "Võluflöödis" Eesti Nukuteatri lavastuses

  11. Kuldma, Aus, Roosma ja Siska

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    2006. aasta Kuldnõela võitja kuulutatakse välja Tallinnas Viru keskuses 9.03.2007. Kandidaadid Katrin Kuldma kollektsiooniga Chocolate, Reet Aus kaubamärgiga Re Use, Tiiu Roosma pesukollektsiooniga BonBon Lingerie ja Marika Siska kaubamärgiga Sangar

  12. Riik reklaamib Tallinna napsi ja naistega / Kadri Jakobson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jakobson, Kadri, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse makstud reklaamikampaania, mis valmis reklaamifirmas Brilliant Marketing Communication OÜ, kutsus turismiarendajates esile meelepaha. EAS Turismiarenduskeskuse direktori Marika Liivamäe hinnangul olid mõned kaadrid liiga julged ja ekstreemsed. Reklaamikampaania oli mõeldud Eesti tutvustamiseks Põhjamaa noortele

  13. Eesti Energia : investeerimata oleme varsti hädas / Krista Taim, Allar Viivik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taim, Krista

    2004-01-01

    Eesti Energia nõukogu kinnitas ettevõtte investeeringutekava aastani 2018, 15 aasta jooksul tuleb investeerida 46 miljardit krooni, rahastamisallikatena nähakse välislaenu, riigi abi või hinnatõusu. Kommenteerivad Eiki Nestor ja Marika Tuus

  14. Valmib valus lavalugu perest : Athenas jõuab vaatajate ette Mart Kivastiku suhtedraama / Raimu Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Raimu, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    SA Eesti Teatri Festival esietendab 4. mail Athena keskuses Margus Kasterpalu lavastuses Mart Kivastiku näidendit "Meie isa, kes sa oled ..." Mängivad Vanemuise näitlejad Marika Aidla, Hannes Kaljujärv, Tanel Jonas ning Leino Rei

  15. Delta Plaza kohvik = The Delta Plaza Café / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt. 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Hoone arhitektid Jüri Okas ja Marika Lõoke (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke). Žürii liikme Mait Summataveti arvamus kohvikust

  16. Delta Plaza kohvik = Delta Plaza cafe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinnas Pärnu mnt 141 asuva kohviku Delta Plaza sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tiiu Truus ja Marja Viltrop (Stuudio Truus OÜ). Tiiu Truusi tähtsamate tööde loetelu. Büroohoone Delta Plaza arhitektid Marika Lõoke ja Jüri Okas (AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke)

  17. Häbi, professor, teil on Gefilus kapis / Eve Kruuse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruuse, Eve,d1959-

    2008-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli professor Marika Mikelsaar võitis läinud kuul koos kolleegidega (Tiiu Kullisaar, Epp Songisepp, Hedi Annuk ja Mihkel Zilmer) Soulis ülemaailmse naisleiutajate konkursil ME-3 bakteri avastamise ja probiootikuks arendamise eest kuldmedali

  18. Naisleiutajad said suure tunnustuse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Ehtekunstnik Kärt Summatavet pälvis Soulis toimunud ülemaailmsel naisleiutajate konkursil hõbemedali metallehete valmistamise uudse meetodi eest. Marika Mikelsaar koos töörühmaga Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3 bakterit sisaldava piimatoodete sarja väljatöötamise eest

  19. Juustutööstur Muraka südamevalu / Heidit Kaio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaio, Heidit, 1971-

    2011-01-01

    Euroopa Toiduohutusamet (EFSA) ei tunnustanud Südamejuustu vererõhku langetavat toimet. Nii Südamejuustu tootva E-Piima juht Margus Murakas kui ka teadlane Marika Mikelsaar on otsusest nördinud. M. Mikelsaar räägib Tensia bakteri uuringutest. EFSA pole tunnustanud 99% talle esitatud väidetest mõne toiduaine kasulikkuse kohta

  20. Mamma Bakteri musketärid / Kati Murutar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Murutar, Kati, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli teadlase, 2004. Aasta Naiseks nimetatud meditsiinilise biotehnoloogia erakorralise professorr Marika Mikelsaare juhitav töörühm avastas ja tõi maailmakaardile probiootilise piimhappebaketri Lactobacillus fermentum ME-3, mis toimib tervistavalt, hävitades kahjulikke mikroobe

  1. Aesthetics of amalgamation / Francisco Martinez

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Martínez, Francisco, 1982-

    2016-01-01

    Parandamise esteetika kontseptsioonist näituste „Ehitamata. Visioonid uuest ühiskonnast 1986–1994“ Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis (kuraator Ingrid Ruudi) ja “Parandamise esteetika tänapäeva Gruusias” (kuraator Marika Agu) Tartu Kunstimuuseum valgusel

  2. Hiigelämblik kanali kohal ehk Kuidas ERMi uus hoone lõi kired lõkkele / Tarmo Michelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Michelson, Tarmo, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Rahva muuseumi uue hoone arhitektuurikonkursi võidutööst "Memory Field" (autorid itaalia arhitekt Dan Dorell, liibanoni arhitekt Lina Ghotmeh, jaapani arhitekt Tsuyoshi Tane). Kommenteerivad Jaanus Plaat, Tõnis Lukas, Karin Hallas-Murula, Raivo Palmaru, Laine Jänes, Marika Valk

  3. Männikusse kasvatatud Rannametsa / Risto Kozer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kozer, Risto

    2009-01-01

    Rannametsa elamukompleks (2 kortermaja, 4 ridaelamut, 3 eramut) Vääna-Jõesuus endise pioneerilaagri "Energia" alal. Arhitektid: Jüri Okas, Marika Lõoke, AB J. Okas & M. Lõoke. Ehitaja: AS YIT Ehitus. Projekt: 2005, valmis: 2007. Kompleks on valatud betoonist, mille juures on kasutatud puitlaudiseid ja alumiiniumviimistlust

  4. Turistid-sõjaõhutajad : dessant Iisraeli / Karin Hallas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallas, Karin, 1957-

    1999-01-01

    Kultuuridessandist Marika Valgu ja Helle Puusepaga Iisraeli. Jeruusalemma Yad Vashemist ئ Holocausti muuseumist. Arhitekt Moshe Safdie Laste Memoriaali ja Yad Vashemi memoriaali uue hoone lahendusest. Tel Avivi ja Jeruusalemma arhitektuurist ئ funktsionalismist, praegusest arhitektuurist, arhitekte. James Turrelli kunstiteosest "Ruum, mis näeb" Jeruusalemma muuseumi pargis

  5. Räägi nii, et pisarad voolaksid! Kuidas saab inimesi oma lugude abil juhtida / Taivo Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paju, Taivo, 1968-

    2011-01-01

    Kuulajat puudutavate lugude rääkimine. Kuidas toimub lugude loomine inimese ajus. Termin "corporate storytelling". Noppeid Pärnu turunduskonverentsi firmalugude võisturääkimiselt, kus jutustasid Ants Lusti, Marika Pärn, Piret Järvan ja Matts Heijbel

  6. The importance of the protection of industrial property, how and to defend it; La importancia de la tutela de la propiedad industrial como y por que defenderla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrandis, S.; Miazzetto, F.; Gracia, J. L.; Rodriguez, F.; Ortiz, A.; Bosh, A.

    2011-07-01

    The global economy has strengthened the importance that Intellectual Property rights have in our society, converting the investments done in intangible assets and their following enforcement in key factors of the entrepreneurial success and of the economy as a whole. The article offers a comprehensive vision of the reasons pushing the entrepreneurs to enforce their intellectual property and, at the same time, it tries to describe the means and corresponding proceedings that the Spanish system offers them with this aim. (Author)

  7. Do Juries Let Some Defendants Get Away With Murder? Examining the Effect of Pre-Cognitive Decision Making on Insanity Defense Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Resnikoff, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    This research examines the effect of bias on Insanity Defense cases, theorizing that juries treat Insanity Defense cases differently from other types of cases because they are ill equipped to contemplate them. Insanity Defense cases are statistically rare, yet the success rate of such defenses is surprisingly high. This thesis presents a qualitative argument examining reasons for the success of the Insanity Defense, explains the neuroscience, and effect of group dynamics on decision making, a...

  8. Why Augustinian Apologetics and Logical Dialectic Are Not Enough to Defend the Reasonableness of the Christian Faith in an Increasingly-Fragmented World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Redpath

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available From close to its inception, St. Augustine’s misunderstanding of the nature of ancient Greek philosophy, “Christian philosophy,” and the way the human soul essentially relates to human body caused formal Christian education to be (a born in a somewhat unhealthy condition, (b founded upon a devastating mistake of organizational self-misunderstanding, which essentially prevented it from comprehending how human reason could function both abstractly as a contemplative (or speculative scientific intellect and concretely as a command and control prudential reason. This flaw in Augustinian psychology of the human person and Augustine’s misunderstanding of the nature of ancient Greek philosophy continued to influence Christian education from the start of the Christian West until the Christian and secular universities of today. For contemporary Christian education to preserve its identity in an increasingly fragmented world, a psychology of the human person adequate to explain the essential connection between the human soul and body and the nature of philosophy must replace this flawed Augustinian psychology that continues to plague the contemporary world.

  9. Role of the judge in defending tobacco control measures in Colombia: total ban on advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco products case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Viviana Calderón Pinzón

    2018-03-01

    Colombia, has established a total ban on all forms of advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco, as a result of the harmonization process between internal rules, mainly related to measures to protect the right to health of the population. In view of the adverse consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke and the international obligations set out in the first legally binding public health treaty within the United Nations System: WHO´s FCTC.

  10. Congenital malformations induced by ionizing radiation in mouse embryos: investigating molecular changes. Doctoral Thesis Prepared at SCK-CEN and Defended in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derradji, H.

    2007-01-01

    Irradiation of the mammalian embryo during development results in diverse effects depending on the dose and the specific gestational phase at irradiation. In this work cellular and molecular changes associated with X-irradiation of embryos were therefore investigated at both early and late gestational stages at the moment of radiation exposure. Our goal was to find biological markers indicative of teratogenic effects of radiation, and provide a holistic model of the impact of irradiation during early and late development. In the first part of this doctoral thesis, we investigated telomere length in the irradiated and non-irradiated embryos bearing different p53 genotypes and malformation status as telomere shortening was associated with neural tube defects in mTR-/- embryos. Moreover, the loss of telomere function has been shown to elicit DNA damage checkpoints and p53-dependent apoptosis in vitro. We conclude that telomere shortening is associated with the malformation status as well with the p53 genotype. These data assign telomere length as a potential predictor of a malformed phenotype, a feature that is modulated according to the p53 genotype and the developmental stage at the moment of irradiation. In the second part of this work, we focused on a specific malformation phenotype, namely: forelimb defect. To identify potential genes involved in the radiation-induced forelimb teratogenesis, we investigated differential gene expression between irradiated and non-irradiated fetuses using RT-q-PCR. The results indicate that forelimb defects observed in p53 wild type fetuses irradiated at the organogenesis period was due to excessive cellular death as shown by the high expression of the pro-apoptotic factors caspase-3 and Bax. This suggestion was supported by the positive TUNEL assay performed on forelimb tissue sections of malformed irradiated fetuses. Moreover, overexpression in malformed fetuses of MKK3 and MKK7, both members of the stress-activated MAP kinase family, could be involved in radiation-induced apoptosis through activation of the p38 and JNK pathways, respectively. To further evaluate the biomarker value of telomere length in this forelimb defect phenotype, we assessed telomere length in normal fetuses versus abnormal ones with forelimb defects. We found that irradiated fetuses exhibiting forelimb defects showed a marked telomere shortening confirming our first findings, which showed an association between various malformations and telomere shortening. Knowing that oxidative stress and inflammation are potential accelerators of telomere attrition, and taking into account that amniotic fluid is the most accessible fetal material, we decided to explore cytokine secretion in the amniotic fluid of normal and malformed fetuses. Our results showed a considerable inflammatory reaction among the irradiated fetuses, as revealed by the high presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Finally, all these results indicate that insufficiency or excess of apoptosis is probably the central process behind radiation-induced malformations. Moreover, apoptosis is strongly related to p53, which upon signaling modulates cell death response according to the developmental stage at which exposure to radiation has occurred. Furthermore, in the context of this work, telomere shortening as well as the differential gene expression described and the high pro-inflammatory cytokines measured may constitute potential indicators of the teratogenic status of the embryos after radiation exposure

  11. 'Struggling to be a defender of health' -a qualitative study on the pharmacists' perceptions of their role in antibiotic consumption and antibiotic resistance in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiga, I; Stålsby Lundborg, C

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a serious global public health problem directly correlated to high antibiotic consumption. Romania is one of the European countries with the highest rates of antibiotic consumption, non-prescription antibiotics use and resistance of several pathogens to antibiotics. Pharmacists are an important stakeholder in respect to antibiotic management and context specific research on this topic is needed. The aim of the research is to increase the understanding of how community pharmacists in Romania perceive their roles in respect to antibiotic consumption and antibiotic resistance. Semi-structured interviews with 18 pharmacists were conducted to explore the perceptions and attitudes of pharmacists towards their roles on antibiotics consumption and antibiotic resistance. Manifest and latent qualitative content analysis was used to analyse interview transcripts. Three sub-themes emerged from the analysis. 'Maintaining equilibrium between ethics, law and economy' expresses how pharmacists often feel when trying to fulfil their duties considering all the dimensions of the pharmacist profession.' Antibiotic resistance problem rooted in a low social capital environment' reflects the pharmacists' perceptions of the deep causes of antibiotic resistance and the underlying problems that perpetuate the status quo and impact their role in relation to this problem. Wanting to fulfil their educational role illustrates how the pharmacists feel they could best contribute to improving the present situation. The overarching theme 'Undervalued medicines' professionals struggling with agency related and structural barriers to meet their deontological duties'- meaning the ethical responsibilities that come with the pharmacy practice, reflects that the pharmacists see their roles as being challenged by several barriers. A health system and societal context perspective is helpful in order to understand the pharmacists' roles in respect to antibiotic consumption and antibiotic resistance. Health promotion interventions and policy revisions should take into account concepts of structure and agency. These could highlight barriers that pharmacists encounter in their activities related to antibiotics management.

  12. How should "hot" players in basketball be defended? The use of fast-and-frugal heuristics by basketball coaches and players in response to streakiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Peter; Avugos, Simcha; Raab, Markus; Bar-Eli, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that changes in shot difficulty may have rendered the hot-hand effect in basketball unobservable and are potentially a result of defensive adjustments. However, it has not been directly analysed whether strategic changes indeed take place in response to streakiness and whether they are effective with respect to winning games. The current work consists of an experimental study with 18 professional coaches and 20 players based on video sequences from National Basketball Association games, where the shown player displayed a streaky performance in half of the sequences. While coaches were asked to devise a defensive strategy after each viewed sequence, players had to assume the role of the shown player and decide whether to shoot or pass the ball. We find that coaches tended to increase the defensive pressure significantly more often on presumably hot players and thus make use of the hot-hand heuristic. Meanwhile, players chose to shoot more frequently in low-pressure and streaky situations but selected "pass" regardless of the previous performance when they faced increased defensive pressure. Assuming that a streaky player's performance is indeed elevated during hot phases, hot-hand behaviour can be considered adaptive in certain situations as it led hot players to pass instead of shoot.

  13. Defendiendo la igualdad de la objeción de nivelar a la baja | Defending the Equality from the Levelling Down Objection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Ribotta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La objeción de nivelar a la baja es una de las principales objeciones que se le realizan a la igualdad, especialmente al igualitarismo como principio distributivo. Y cómo se responde a esta objeción, depende de qué tipo de igualitarismo se defienda y cuál sea, por lo tanto, la igualdad que se pretende. En el presente artículo, parto de una explicación general del concepto de igualdad y de los distintos tipos de igualitarismos y sus características centrales, para luego analizar los argumentos y justificaciones que dan los autores que discuten la objeción de nivelar a la baja. Todo ello con el objetivo de construir analíticamente una propuesta de igualdad más resistente. Abstract: The Levelling Down Objection is one of the main complaints against equality, specially against egalitarianism as a distributive principle. How this objection is responded depends on what version of egalitarianism is assumed, and therefore on which kind of equality is pursued. This article examines the concept of equality and the different egalitarian approaches as well as its main features. Then, the arguments and justifications given by the egalitarian authors to confront the levelling down objections are analyzed. The main goal is to analytically build a stronger more consistent idea of equality.

  14. U.S. Policy Towards Cuba as a Two Level Game or: Defending Executive Policy Discretion in the Face of Domestic Pressure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Werry Jr, Kevin G

    2008-01-01

    The literature on U.S. policy towards Cuba during the post Cold War period has focused around the idea that a small domestic group has dominated policy making because of their electoral influence in Florida and have left...

  15. Imagined in Policy, Inscribed on Bodies: Defending an Ethic of Compassion in a Political Context: Comment on "Why and How Is Compassion Necessary to Provide Good Quality Healthcare?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Dave

    2015-07-10

    In response to the International Journal of Health Policy and Management (IJHPM) editorial, this commentary adds to the debate about ethical dimensions of compassionate care in UK service provision. It acknowledges the importance of the original paper, and attempts to explore some of the issues that are raised in the context of nursing practice, research and education. It is argued that each of these fields of the profession are enacted in an escalating culture of corporatism, be that National Health Service (NHS) or university campus, and global neoliberalism. Post-structuralist ideas, notably those of Foucault, are borrowed to interrogate healthcare as discursive practice and disciplinary knowledge; where an understanding of the ways in which power and language operate is prominent. Historical and contemporary evidence of institutional and ideological degradation of sections of humanity, a 'history of the present,' serve as reminders of the import, and fragility, of ethical codes. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  16. Blasphemy: How the U.S. Government Practiced a Type of Operational Art to Defend Latin America During the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    western hemisphere, explains how U.S. policy towards Latin America successfully married a Hobbesian realism with Kantian idealism during the Cold War.4...361. 63 Hendrix, 176. 64 Grandin, 211. 27 hemisphere, and reconciled America’s Kantian idealism with its newfound Hobbesian realism to justify a...Doctrine, permanently locking America’s Hobbesian realism and Kantian idealism into a continuity that protected American interests as it embroiled

  17. Practical guide for defending the rights of refugee children and refugee unaccompanied minors in South Africa: policy review, processes, procedures & practical experience

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shabangu, T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available CHAPTER?8:?ACCESS?TO?SOCIAL?SERVICE?AND?LOCAL?INTEGRATION? 52 Introduction? 52 International?Policy?Frameworks? 52 Relevant?National?Legislation? 53 CHAPTER?9:?ACCESS?TO?HOUSING?AND?SHELTER? 56 Introduction? 56 International?Policy?Frameworks? 56....? Section? 28? of? the? Bill? of? Rights? outlines? children?s?rights?and?states?that:??Every?child?has?the?right??to?basic?nutrition,?shelter,?basic?health?care? services?and?social...

  18. Is the death of the death penalty near? The impact of Atkins and Roper on the future of capital punishment for mentally ill defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Helen

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, the U.S. Supreme Court has created two categorical exemptions to the death penalty. In Atkins v. Virginia, the Court exempted mentally retarded offenders. Three years later, in Roper v. Simmons, the Court extended the protection to juveniles. Based on these cases, the practices of foreign countries, and the opinions of professional organizations with relevant expertise, legal scholars speculate that the Court may, in the future, categorically exclude severely mentally ill offenders from the death penalty. This Note examines the feasibility of such an exemption for the mentally ill and considers its possible repercussions.

  19. How Do We Defend Democratic Education? Lois Weiner and Andy Kaplan Respond to Diane Ravitch's "The Reign of Error"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Lois; Kaplan, Andy

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, Andy Kaplan discusses with Lois Weiner, Diane Ravitch's latest book "The Reign of Error," which combines scholarly argument and scrupulous research in defense of democratic education. Weiner notes, the book will prove an important resource in the ongoing struggle for the survival of public schooling. Weiner adds,…

  20. Profiles of Gene Expression Induced by Ionizing Radiation in Different Human Cell Types. Doctoral thesis prepared at SCK-CEN and defended in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, M.

    2006-01-01

    Ionizing radiation disrupts chemical bonds in biomolecules, such as proteins and DNA, which result in important cellular damage. Exposure to relatively high doses of ionizing radiation such as those delivered to the tumor in a radiotherapy protocol is generally lethal for the cell. However, non-lethal dose of ionizing radiation can be delivered during radiotherapy to the healthy tissue surrounding the tumor. Although the effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular level are quite well established (cell cycle arrest, senescence, apoptosis, mitotic catastrophe), questions remain concerning the molecular pathways regulating these cellular responses, including those differentiating the responses between tumor and normal cells. In normal cells, the p53 protein plays a central role. However, the efficacy of radiation treatments on tumor cells is often reduced because of the frequent inactivation of the p53 protein in those cells. Our study used the microarray technology to investigate the molecular pathways induced by irradiation in transformed and nontransformed human cells. Profiles of gene expression obtained with cDNA microarrays were regarded as steps to characterize the general response to ionizing radiation and, possibly also, differentiating the response between transformed and nontransformed cells. Possible implications of such research include the development of radiosensitizing (to maximize the effect of radiotherapeutic irradiation) and of radioprotecting strategies. Transcriptional profiles were investigated in transformed (Jurkat, HL60) and non-transformed (freshly isolated lymphocyte subpopulations) cells of hematopoietic origin. Also, because HeLa carcinoma-derived cells expressing human papilloma virus (HPV) 18 derived E2 protein represent a reliable model to study the p53 pathway, which is normally activated in response to radiation, molecular profiles were obtained to characterize this pathway in these cells