WorldWideScience

Sample records for manured agricultural soils

  1. Occurrence of veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in broiler manure and agricultural soil in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yu Bin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2014-08-01

    Repeated applications of animal manure as fertilizer are normal agricultural practices that may release veterinary antibiotics and hormones into the environment from treated animals. Broiler manure samples and their respective manure-amended agricultural soil samples were collected in selected locations in the states of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka in Malaysia to identify and quantify veterinary antibiotic and hormone residues in the environment. The samples were analyzed using ultrasonic extraction followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The broiler manure samples were found to be contaminated with at least six target analytes, namely, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, trimethoprim and tylosin. These analytes were detected in broiler manure samples with maximum concentrations reaching up to 78,516 μg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) (doxycycline). For manure-amended agricultural soil samples, doxycycline and enrofloxacin residues were detected in every soil sample. The maximum concentration of antibiotic detected in soil was 1331 μg kg(-1) DW (flumequine). The occurrence of antibiotics and hormones in animal manure at high concentration poses a risk of contaminating agricultural soil via fertilization with animal manure. Some physico-chemical parameters such as pH, total organic carbon (TOC) and metal content played a considerable role in the fate of the target veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in the environment. It was suggested that these parameters can affect the adsorption of pharmaceuticals to solid environmental matrices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Soil Incubation Study to Assess the Impacts of Manure Application and Climate Change on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, K.; Barbieri, L.; Adair, C.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural fields in Vermont's Lake Champlain Basin have problems with the loss of nutrients due to runoff which creates eutrophic conditions in the lakes, ponds and rivers. In efforts to retain nitrogen and other nutrients in the soil farmers have started to inject manure rather than spraying it. Our understanding of the effects this might have on the volatilization of nitrogen into nitrous oxide is limited. Already, agriculture produces 69% of the total nitrous oxide emissions in the US. Understanding that climate change will affect the future of agriculture in Vermont, we set up a soil core incubation test to monitor the emissions of CO₂ and N₂O using a Photoacoustic Gas Sensor (PAS). Four 10 cm soil cores were taken from nine different fertilizer management plots in a No Till corn field; Three Injected plots, three Broadcast plots, and three Plow plots. Frozen soil cores were extracted in early April, and remained frozen before beginning the incubation experiment to most closely emulate three potential spring environmental conditions. The headspace was monitored over one week to get emission rates. This study shows that environmental and fertilizer treatments together do not have a direct correlation to the amount of CO₂ and N₂O emissions from agricultural soil. However, production of CO₂ was 26% more in warmer environmental conditions than in variable(freeze/thaw) environmental conditions. The injected fertilizer produced the most emissions, both CO₂ and N₂O. The total N₂O emissions from Injected soil cores were 2.2x more than from traditional broadcast manure cores. We believe this is likely due to the addition of rich organic matter under anaerobic soil conditions. Although, injected fertilizer is a better application method for reducing nutrient runoff, the global warming potential of N₂O is 298 times that of CO₂. With climate change imminent, assessing the harmful effects and benefits of injected fertilizer is a crucial next step in

  3. Long-term manure application effects on phosphorus speciation, kinetics and distribution in highly weathered agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Dalton Belchior; da Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Vergütz, Leonardus; Sparks, Donald Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) K-edge XANES and Fe K-edge EXAFS spectroscopies along with sequential P chemical fractionation and desorption kinetics experiments, were employed to provide micro- and macro-scale information on the long-term fate of manure application on the solid-state speciation, kinetics and distribution of P in highly weathered agricultural soils of southern Brazil. Soil test P values ranged from 7.3 up to 16.5 times as much higher than the reference soil. A sharp increase in amorphous Fe and Al amounts were observed as an effect of the consecutive application of manures. Whereas our results showed that the P sorption capacity of some manured soils was not significantly affected, P risk assessment indices indicated that P losses should be expected, likely due to the excessive manure rates applied to the soils. The much higher contents of amorphous Fe and Al (hydr)oxides (55% and 80% increase with respect to the reference soil, respectively) in manured soils seem to have counterbalanced the inhibiting effect of soil organic matter on P sorption by creating additional P sorption sites. Accordingly, the newly created P sorbing surfaces were important to prevent an even larger P loss potential. Phosphorus K-edge XANES lent complimentary hints on the loss of crystallinity and transformation of originally present Fe-P minerals into poorly crystalline ones as an effect of manuring, whereas Fe K-edge EXAFS provided insights into the structural changes underwent in the soils upon manure application and soil management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic waste indicators in earthworms from agricultural soil amended with biosolid or swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, C.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Kolpin, D.W.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Zaugg, S.D.; Werner, S.L.; Bossio, J.P.; Benotti, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of earthworms offers potential for assessing the transfer of organic anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs) derived from land-applied biosolid or manure to biota. Earthworms and soil samples were collected from three Midwest agricultural fields to measure the presence and potential for transfer of 77 AWIs from land-applied biosolids and livestock manure to earthworms. The sites consisted of a soybean field with no amendments of human or livestock waste (Site 1), a soybean field amended with biosolids from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (Site 2), and a cornfield amended with swine manure (Site 3). The biosolid applied to Site 2 contained a diverse composition of 28 AWIs, reflecting the presence of human-use compounds. The swine manure contained 12 AWIs, and was dominated by biogenic sterols. Soil and earthworm samples were collected in the spring (about 30 days after soil amendment) and fall (140-155 days after soil amendment) at all field sites. Soils from Site 1 contained 21 AWIs and soil from Sites 2 and 3 contained 19 AWIs. The AWI profiles at Sites 2 and 3 generally reflected the relative composition of AWIs present in waste material applied. There were 20 AWIs detected in earthworms from Site 1 (three compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg), 25 AWIs in earthworms from Site 2 (seven compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg), and 21 AWIs in earthworms from Site 3 (five compounds exceeding concentrations of 1000 ??g/kg). A number of compounds thatwere present in the earthworm tissue were at concentrations less than reporting levels in the corresponding soil samples. The AWIs detected in earthworm tissue from the three field sites included pharmaceuticals, synthetic fragrances, detergent metabolites, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), biogenic sterols, disinfectants, and pesticides, reflecting a wide range of physicochemical properties. For those contaminants detected in earthworm tissue and soil, bioaccumulation factors

  5. Effect of manure application technique on nitrous oxide emission from agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Mosquera, J.; Huis in 't Veld, J.W.H.; Hummelink, E.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Effect van de uitstoot van kunstmeststoffen.The emission factors for nitrous oxide (N2O) emission of applied manure are not well quantified. The effect of manure application technique on N2O emission was quantified in field and laboratory experiments in order to derive N2O emission factors for (shal

  6. Maturity and hygiene quality of composts and hygiene indicators in agricultural soil fertilised with municipal waste or manure compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontti, Tiina; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Karinen, Päivi; Reinikainen, Olli; Halinen, Arja

    2011-02-01

    Composts produced from municipal source separated biowaste (Biowaste), a mixture of biowaste and anaerobically digested sewage sludge (Biosludge) and cattle manure (Manure) were examined for their maturity and hygiene quality. The composts were applied to a potato crop in 2004 and to a barley nurse crop of forage ley in 2005 in a field experiment. Numbers of faecal coliforms, enterococci, clostridia and Salmonella in field soil were determined 2 weeks and 16 weeks after compost applications. Municipal compost batches chosen based on successful processing showed variable maturity during field application, and the need to evaluate compost maturity with multiple variables was confirmed. The numbers of faecal coliform were similar in all compost types, averaging 4.7 and 2.3 log( 10) CFU g(-1) in the first and second years, respectively. The highest number of enterococci was 5.2 log(10) CFU g(-1), found in Manure compost in the first year, while the highest clostridia numbers were found in Biosludge compost, averaging 4.0 log(10) CFU g(-1) over both years. Except for one case, less than 2.4 log(10) CFU g(-1) of faecal coliforms or clostridia were found in compost-fertilised soil, while the numbers of enterococci were mostly higher than in unfertilised soil (indicator bacteria were present in compost-fertilised potato at harvest. Overall, compost fertilisations caused rather small changes in the counts of hygiene indicators in the field environment.

  7. Clinoptilolite zeolite influence on nitrogen in a manure-amended sandy agricultural soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of best management practices can help improve inorganic nitrogen (N) availability to plants and reduce nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching in soils. This study was conducted to determine the influence of the zeolite mineral clinoptilolite (CL) additions on NO3-N and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-...

  8. Assessing the environmental availability of sulfamethoxazole and its acetylated metabolite in agricultural soils amended with compost and manure: an experimental and modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulas, Anaïs; Sertillange, Nicolas; Garnier, Patricia; Dumény, Valérie; Bergheaud, Valérie; Benoit, Pierre; Haudin, Claire-Sophie

    2017-04-01

    The recycling of sludge compost and farmyard manure in agriculture can lead to the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics and their acetylated metabolites into soils. The quality and the biodegradability of the exogenous organic matter (EOM) containing antibiotic residues is determinant for their environmental availability and fate in soils (Goulas et al., 2016). This study combined experimental and modeling approaches in order to: 1) assess the fraction of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and N-acetyl-sulfamethoxazole (AcSMX) available in EOM-amended soils by using soft extractions (CaCl2, EDTA or cyclodextrin solutions) during a 28-day incubation; and 2) better understand the dynamics of sulfonamide residues in amended soils in connection with their availability and the mineralization of EOM organic matter thanks to the COP-Soil model (Geng et al. 2015). This model proposes several options to couple the biotransformation of organic pollutants (OP) with the decomposition of EOM in soil. The microbial degradation can be simulated by co-metabolism and specific-metabolism. The model also accounts for the formation of non-extractable residues (NER) via both physicochemical and microbial routes. The available fraction in both soil/EOM mixtures decreased from 56-96% and 31-63% initial 14C-activity for AcSMX and SMX, respectively, to reach 7-33% after 28 days. This high decrease in the first seven days was mainly due to the formation of NER that were more abundant in soil/manure mixtures than in the soil/compost ones. The three aqueous solutions differently extracted the available 14C-residues according to the incubation time, the EOM and the molecule. The mineralized fractions for both 14C-molecules were only 2-3% with a little more mineralization in the soil/manure mixtures than in the soil/compost. By using the COP-Soil model, the dynamics of EOM and OP were well described using parameter values specific to the organic matter mineralization, and this for the three soft

  9. Framework for estimating toxic releases from the application of manure on agricultural soil: National release inventories for heavy metals in 2000-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leclerc, Alexandra Segolene Corinne; Laurent, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    Livestock manure is commonly applied on agricultural land for its fertilising properties. However, the presence of toxic substances in animal manure such as pathogens, antibiotics and heavy metals, can result in damages to ecosystems and human health. To date, although relevant for policy-making, e...... demonstrate the need to perform country-specific impact assessment to support policy-making regulating the concentrations of toxic substances such as heavy metals in utilised manure........g. regulation framing, their releases to agricultural land have been incompletely and inconsistently quantified at global and national scales. Here, we thus developed a generic framework for estimating such releases based on the quantities of manure applied and concentrations of toxic substances. Applying...

  10. Solid beef cattle manure application impacts on soil properties and 17β-estradiol fate in a clay loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Emmanuelle; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Hao, Xiying; Sheedy, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Livestock manure applied to agricultural land is one of the ways natural steroid estrogens enter soils. To examine the impact of long-term solid beef cattle (Bos Taurus) manure on soil properties and 17β-estradiol sorption and mineralization, this study utilized a soil that had received beef cattle manure over 35 years. The 17β-estradiol was strongly sorbed and sorption significantly increased (P applied.

  11. [Effects of Green Manure Intercropping and Straw Mulching on Winter Rape Rhizosphere Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Respiration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Quan; Wang, Long-chang; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Sai; Du, Juan; Zhao, Lin-lu

    2016-03-15

    Under the background of global warming, the farmland soil respiration has become the main way of agricultural carbon emissions. And green manure has great potential to curb greenhouse gas emissions and achieve energy conservation and emissions reduction. However, in purple soil region of Southwest, China, soil respiration under green manure remains unclear, especially in the winter and intercropping. Through the green manure ( Chinese milk vetch) intercropping with rape, therefore, we compared the effects of rape rhizosphere under straw mulching. The soil organic carbon and soil respiration were examined. The results showed, compared with straw mulching, root separation was the major influencing factors of soil organic carbon on rape rhizosphere. Soil organic carbon was significantly decreased by root interaction. In addition, straw mulching promoted while green manure intercropping inhibited the soil respiration. Soil respiration presented the general characteristics of fall-rise-fall due to the strong influence of rape growth period. Therefore, it showed a cubic curve relationship with soil temperature.

  12. Fate and transport of tylosin-resistant bacteria and macrolide resistance genes in artificially drained agricultural fields receiving swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Elizabeth M; Moorman, Thomas B; Soupir, Michelle L

    2016-04-15

    Application of manure from swine treated with antibiotics introduces antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes to soil with the potential for further movement in drainage water, which may contribute to the increase in antibiotic resistance in non-agricultural settings. We compared losses of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus and macrolide-resistance (erm and msrA) genes in water draining from plots with or without swine manure application under chisel plow and no till conditions. Concentrations of ermB, ermC and ermF were all >10(9)copies g(-1) in manure from tylosin-treated swine, and application of this manure resulted in short-term increases in the abundance of these genes in soil. Abundances of ermB, ermC and ermF in manured soil returned to levels identified in non-manured control plots by the spring following manure application. Tillage practices yielded no significant differences (p>0.10) in enterococci or erm gene concentrations in drainage water and were therefore combined for further analysis. While enterococci and tylosin-resistant enterococci concentrations in drainage water showed no effects of manure application, ermB and ermF concentrations in drainage water from manured plots were significantly higher (p<0.01) than concentrations coming from non-manured plots. ErmB and ermF were detected in 78% and 44%, respectively, of water samples draining from plots receiving manure. Although ermC had the highest concentrations of the three genes in drainage water, there was no effect of manure application on ermC abundance. MsrA was not detected in manure, soil or water. This study is the first to report significant increases in abundance of resistance genes in waters draining from agricultural land due to manure application.

  13. Agriculture: Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Productive soils, a favorable climate, and clean and abundant water resources are essential for growing crops, raising livestock, and for ecosystems to continue to provide the critical provisioning services that humans need.

  14. Phosphorus losses in simulated rainfall runoff from manured soils of Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volf, Callie A; Ontkean, Gerald R; Bennett, D Rodney; Chanasyk, David S; Miller, Jim J

    2007-01-01

    Manure applied to agricultural land at rates that exceed annual crop nutrient requirements can be a source of phosphorus in runoff. Manure incorporation is often recommended to reduce phosphorus losses in runoff. A small plot rainfall simulation study was conducted at three sites in Alberta to evaluate the effects of manure rate and incorporation on phosphorus losses. Treatments consisted of three solid beef cattle manure application rates (50, 100, and 200 kg ha(-1) total phosphorus), an unmanured control, and two incorporation methods (nonincorporated and incorporated with one pass of a double disk). Simulated rain was applied to soils with freshly applied and residual (1 yr after application) manure at 70 mm h(-1) to produce 30 min of runoff. Soil test phosphorus (STP), total phosphorus (TP), and dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) concentrations in runoff increased with manure rate for fresh and residual manure. Initial abstraction and runoff volumes did not change with manure rate. Initial abstraction, runoff volumes, and phosphorus concentrations did not change with manure incorporation at Lacombe and Wilson, but initial abstraction volumes increased and runoff volumes and phosphorus concentrations decreased with incorporation of fresh manure at Beaverlodge. Phosphorus losses in runoff were directly related to phosphorus additions. Extraction coefficients (slopes of the regression lines) for the linear relationships between residual manure STP and phosphorus in runoff were 0.007 to 0.015 for runoff TP and 0.006 to 0.013 for runoff DRP. While incorporation of manure with a double disk had no significant effect on phosphorus losses in runoff from manure-amended soils 1 yr after application, incorporation of manure is still recommended to control nitrogen losses, improve crop nutrient uptake, and potentially reduce odor concerns.

  15. Temporal succession of soil antibiotic resistance genes following application of swine, cattle and poultry manures spiked with or without antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jing; Hu, Hang-Wei; Gou, Min; Wang, Jun-Tao; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2017-09-27

    Land application of animal manure is a common agricultural practice potentially leading to dispersal and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in environmental settings. However, the fate of resistome in agro-ecosystems over time following application of different manure sources has never been compared systematically. Here, soil microcosm incubation was conducted to compare effects of poultry, cattle and swine manures spiked with or without the antibiotic tylosin on the temporal changes of soil ARGs. The high-throughput quantitative PCR detected a total of 185 unique ARGs, with Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B resistance as the most frequently encountered ARG type. The diversity and abundance of ARGs significantly increased following application of manure and manure spiked with tylosin, with more pronounced effects observed in the swine and poultry manure treatments than in the cattle manure treatment. The level of antibiotic resistance gradually decreased over time in all manured soils but was still significantly higher in the soils treated with swine and poultry manures than in the untreated soils after 130 days' incubation. Tylosin-amended soils consistently showed higher abundances of ARGs than soils treated with manure only, suggesting a strong selection pressure of antibiotic-spiked manure on soil ARGs. The relative abundance of ARGs had significantly positive correlations with integrase and transposase genes, indicative of horizontal transfer potential of ARGs in manure and tylosin treated soils. Our findings provide evidence that application of swine and poultry manures might enrich more soil ARGs than cattle manure, which necessitates the appropriate treatment of raw animal manures prior to land application to minimise the spread of environmental ARGs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bacterial mobilization and transport through manure enriched soils: Experiment and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrnia, N; Memarianfard, L; Moosavi, A A; Bachmann, J; Guggenberger, G; Rezanezhad, F

    2017-10-01

    A precise evaluation of bacteria transport and mathematical investigations are useful for best management practices in agroecosystems. In this study, using laboratory experiments and modeling approaches, we assess the transport of bacteria released from three types of manure (cow, sheep, and poultry) to find the importance of the common manures in agricultural activities in soil and water pollution. Thirty six intact soil columns with different textures (sandy, loamy, and silty clay loam) were sampled. Fecal coliform leaching from layers of the manures on the soil surface was conducted under steady-state saturated flow conditions at 20 °C for up to four Pore Volumes (PVs). Separate leaching experiments were conducted to obtain the initial concentrations of bacteria released from the manures (Co). Influent (Co) and effluent (C) bacteria concentrations were measured by the plate-count method and the normalized concentrations (C/C0) were plotted versus PV representing the breakthrough curves (BTCs). Transport parameters were predicted using the attachment/detachment model (two-kinetic site) in HYDRUS-1D. Simulations fitted well the experimental data (R(2) = 0.50-0.96). The attachment, detachment, and straining coefficients of bacteria were more influenced by the soils treated with cow manure compared to the sheep and poultry manures. Influent curves of fecal coliforms from the manures (leached without soil) illustrated that the poultry manure had the highest potential to pollute the effluent water from the soils in term of concentration, but the BTCs and simulated data related to the treated soils illustrated that the physical shape of cow manure was more important to both straining and detachment of bacteria back into the soil solution. Detachment trends of bacteria were observed through loam and silty clay loam soils treated with cow manure compared to the cow manure enriched sandy soil. We conclude that management strategies must specifically minimize the

  17. Degradation and dissipation of the veterinary ionophore lasalocid in manure and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žižek, Suzana; Dobeic, Martin; Pintarič, Štefan; Zidar, Primož; Kobal, Silvestra; Vidrih, Matej

    2015-11-01

    Lasalocid is a veterinary ionophore antibiotic used for prevention and treatment of coccidiosis in poultry. It is excreted from the treated animals mostly in its active form and enters the environment with the use of contaminated manure on agricultural land. To properly assess the risk that lasalocid poses to the environment, it is necessary to know its environmental concentrations as well as the rates of its degradation in manure and dissipation in soil. These values are still largely unknown. A research was undertaken to ascertain the rate of lasalocid degradation in manure under different storage conditions (aging in a pile or composting) and on agricultural soil after using lasalocid-contaminated manure. The results have shown that there is considerable difference in lasalocid degradation between aging manure with no treatment (t1/2=61.8±1.7 d) and composting (t1/2=17.5±0.8 d). Half-lives in soil are much shorter (on average 3.1±0.4 d). On the basis of the measured concentrations of lasalocid in soil after manure application, we can conclude that it can potentially be harmful to soil organisms (PEC/PNEC ratio of 1.18), but only in a worst-case scenario of using the maximum permissible amount of manure and immediately after application. To make certain that no harmful effects occur, composting is recommended.

  18. Immobilization of tetracyclines in manure and manure-amended soils using aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Rakshit, Sudipta; Elzinga, Evert J; Datta, Rupali

    2016-02-01

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are emerging contaminants of concern in the environment, mainly due to the potential for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and effect on microbiota that could interfere with crucial ecosystem functions such as nutrient cycling and decomposition. High levels of VAs such as tetracyclines (TCs) have been reported in agricultural soils amended with manure, which also has the potential to cause surface and groundwater contamination. Several recent studies have focused on developing methods to immobilize VAs such as composting with straw, hardwood chips, commercial biochar, aeration, mixing, heat treatment, etc. The major shortcomings of these methods include high cost and limited effectiveness. In the current study, we assessed the effectiveness of aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTR) as a "green" sorbent to immobilize TCs in manure and manure-applied soils with varying physicochemical properties by laboratory incubation study. Results show that Al-WTR is very effective in immobilizing tetracycline (TTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC). The presence of phosphate resulted in significant (p soils, manure, and manure-applied soils amended with Al-WTR.

  19. Influence of Chicken Manure Fertilization on Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Soil and the Endophytic Bacteria of Pakchoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Yuhui; Tian, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB) in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1) non-treated; (2) chicken manure-treated and (3) organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB) and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB) in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health.

  20. Effect of Phopshate Fertilizer and Manure on Crop Yield, Soil P Accumulation, and the Environmental Risk Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) applied from fertilizer and manure is important in increasing crop yield and soil fertility; however, excessive uses of phosphate fertilizer and manure may also increase P loss from agricultural soils, posing environmental impact. A long term experiment was conducted on a calcareous soil (meadow cinnamon) in Hebei Province, China, from 2003 to 2006 to investigate the effects of phosphate fertilizer and manure on the yield of Chinese cabbage, soil P accumulation, P sorption saturation, soluble P in runoff water, and P leaching. P fertilizer (P2O5) application at a rate of 360 kg ha-1 or manure of 150 t ha-1 significantly increased Chinese cabbage yield as compared to the unfertilized control. However, no significant yield response was found with excessive phosphate or manure application. Soil Olsen-P, soluble P, bioavailable P, the degree of phosphorus sorption saturation in top soil layer (0-20 cm), and soluble P in runoff water increased significantly with the increase of phosphate fertilizer and manure application rates, whereas the maximum phosphorus sorption capacity (Qm) decreased with the phosphate fertilizer and manure application rates. Soil Olsen-P and soluble P also increased significantly in the sub soil layer (20-40 cm) with the high P fertilizer and manure rates. It indicates that excessive P application over crop demand can lead to a high environmental risk owing to the enrichment of soil Olsen-P, soluble P,bioavailable P, and the degree of phosphorus sorption saturation in agricultural soils.

  1. Influence of green manure fertilization on soil enzyme activities and other soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Dora SAMUEL

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural practices that improve agricultural sustainability are needed particularly for brown luvic soil. Soil enzyme activities can provide information on how soil management is affecting the processes in soil such as decomposition and nutrient cycling. Soil enzyme activities (actual and potential dehydrogenase, catalase, acid and alkaline phosphatase were determined in the 0–10, 10–20, and 20–30 cm layers of a brown luvic soil submitted to a complex fertilization experiment with different types of green manure. It was found that each activity decreased with increasing sampling depth. It should be emphasized that green-manuring of maize led to a significant increase in each of the five enzymatic activities determined. The enzymatic indicators of soil quality calculated from the values of enzymatic activities showed the order: lupinus + rape + oat > lupinus > vetch + oat + ryegrass > lupinus + oat + vetch > unfertilized plot. This order means that by determination of enzymatic activities valuable information can be obtained regarding fertility status of soils. There were significant correlations of soil enzyme activities with physical properties.

  2. Characterization of Leached Phosphorus from Soil, Manure, and Manure-Amended Soil by Physical and Chemical Fractionation and Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Donner, Erica; Magid, Jakob;

    2012-01-01

    with manure. Manure particles themselves were also largely retained by the soil. Combined physical (centrifugation) and chemical (molybdate reactiveness) fractionation of leached P showed that leachates in the manure treated soils were dominated by dissolved unreactive P (DUP), mainly originating from manure...

  3. Environmental monitoring study of selected veterinary antibiotics in animal manure and soils in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Carballo, Elena [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gonzalez-Barreiro, Carmen [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Scharf, Sigrid [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gans, Oliver [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: oliver.gans@umweltbundesamt.at

    2007-07-15

    LC-MS/MS was used for determination of selected tetracyclines, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and fluoroquinolones in manure samples of pig, chicken and turkey, as well as arable soils fertilized with manure. Recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 61 to 105%. Method quantification limits were set to 100 {mu}g/kg for all substances. Analysis of 30 pig manure, 20 chicken and turkey dung, and 30 lyophilized soil samples taken in Austria revealed that in pig manure up to 46 mg/kg chlortetracycline, 29 mg/kg oxytetracycline and 23 mg/kg tetracycline could be detected. As representatives of the group of sulfonamides, sulfadimidine in pig manure and sulfadiazine in chicken and turkey dung were detected in significant amounts (maximum concentration, 20 and 91 mg/kg, respectively). Enrofloxacin was particularly observed in chicken and turkey samples. Positive detection of chlortetracycline, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, in soil samples should be outlined as most important results of this study. - Specific exposure data of selected veterinarian antibiotics in manure and samples of agriculturally used soils are reported for the first time in Austria.

  4. Differential responses of soil nematode community to pig manure application levels in Ferric Acrisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Ru; Li, Xiao-Gang; Zhou, Zhi-Gao; Zhang, Tao-Lin; Wang, Xing-Xiang

    2016-10-01

    Excessive pig manure application probably degrades arable soil quality in some intensive pig farming areas. The responses of the nematode community to dosages of pig manure were investigated in Ferric Acrisols under 3-season peanut monoculture. Varying dosages of manure (1.75, 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 t·ha‑1·yr‑1) in combination with chemical fertilizer were applied to field plots, and chemical fertilizer alone was also applied as a control. With increasing manure application, the abundance of bacterivores and omnivores-predators increased, the abundance of plant parasites decreased, and fungivores abundance exhibited hump-shaped variation. Simpson diversity index and plant parasite index/maturity index of the nematode communities increased to a maximum level at a manure application rate of 3.5 t·ha‑1·yr‑1 and then sharply decreased. The changes in the soil nematode community were further determined to be correlated with chemical properties; available phosphorus had the strongest quadratic correlation with the two indices, implying that available phosphorus had a better indicative effect than other soil properties to nematode community. Available phosphorus in soil was deduced from 49 to 64 mg·kg‑1 with the best nematode communities. Our results emphasized the importance of regular applications of manure in agriculture field to balance nematode diversity and build healthy agro-ecosystems.

  5. Differential responses of soil nematode community to pig manure application levels in Ferric Acrisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Ru; Li, Xiao-Gang; Zhou, Zhi-Gao; Zhang, Tao-Lin; Wang, Xing-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Excessive pig manure application probably degrades arable soil quality in some intensive pig farming areas. The responses of the nematode community to dosages of pig manure were investigated in Ferric Acrisols under 3-season peanut monoculture. Varying dosages of manure (1.75, 3.5, 7, 14 and 28 t·ha−1·yr−1) in combination with chemical fertilizer were applied to field plots, and chemical fertilizer alone was also applied as a control. With increasing manure application, the abundance of bacterivores and omnivores-predators increased, the abundance of plant parasites decreased, and fungivores abundance exhibited hump-shaped variation. Simpson diversity index and plant parasite index/maturity index of the nematode communities increased to a maximum level at a manure application rate of 3.5 t·ha−1·yr−1 and then sharply decreased. The changes in the soil nematode community were further determined to be correlated with chemical properties; available phosphorus had the strongest quadratic correlation with the two indices, implying that available phosphorus had a better indicative effect than other soil properties to nematode community. Available phosphorus in soil was deduced from 49 to 64 mg·kg−1 with the best nematode communities. Our results emphasized the importance of regular applications of manure in agriculture field to balance nematode diversity and build healthy agro-ecosystems. PMID:27734955

  6. Phosphorus leaching from cow manure patches on soil columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chardon, W.J.; Aalderink, G.H.; Salm, van der C.

    2007-01-01

    The loss of P in overland flow or leachate from manure patches can impair surface water quality. We studied leaching of P from 10-cmhigh lysimeters filled with intact grassland soil or with acid-washed sand. A manure patch was created on two grassland and two sandfilled lysimeters, and an additional

  7. Simultaneous determination of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in broiler manure, soil and manure compost by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Y B; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-11-02

    A multi-residue analytical method was developed to quantify nine antibiotics and one hormone in soil, broiler manure and manure compost. The developed method was based on ultrasonic extraction with MeOH:ACN:EDTA:McIlvaine buffer, solid phase extraction (SPE) using HLB (3 cc/60 mg) cartridge, followed by instrumental analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with 25 min total run time. It was validated and tested on soil, broiler manure and manure compost samples and showed that the method is able to simultaneously detect and quantify the target analytes with good selectivity and sensitivity. The developed method was linear in a concentration range from its instrumental quantification limit (IQL) to 500 ng/mL, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.999. The overall method performance was good for the majority of the analytes, with recoveries range from 63% to 121% in all the sample matrices. The method quantification limit (MQL) for the 10 target analytes in the soil, broiler manure and manure compost samples were 2-10, 3-16 and 5-15 μg/kg dry weight (DW), respectively. The method has also included tilmicosin, an antibiotic known to be reported in the environment for the first time. The developed method was then applied on broiler manure samples and its relative manure amended agricultural soil samples to identify and quantify veterinary antibiotic and hormone residues in the environment. These analytes were detected in broiler manure and soil samples, with maximum concentrations reaching up to 78516.1 μg/kg DW (doxycycline) and 1331.4 μg/kg DW (flumequine), respectively. The results showed that the method can potentially be adopted for the analysis of veterinary antibiotic and hormone wastes in solid environmental matrices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental assay on the effect of poultry manure application on soil organisms in agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, M; Rodríguez, C; Martín, J V; Miralles de Imperial, R; Alonso, F

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports the effects produced on the organisms of the soil (plants, invertebrates and microorganisms), after the application of two types of poultry manure (sawdust and straw bed) on an agricultural land. The test was made using a terrestrial microcosm, Multi-Species Soil System (MS3) developed in INIA. There was no difference in the germination for any of the three species of plants considered in the study. The biomass was increased in the wheat (Triticum aestivum) coming from ground treated with both kinds of poultry manure. Oilseed rape (Brasica rapa) was not affected and regarding vetch (Vicia sativa) only straw poultry manure showed significant difference. For length only Vicia sativa was affected showing a reduction when straw was exposed to poultry manure. When the effect on invertebrates was studied, we observed a reduction in the number of worms during the test, especially from the ground control (13.7%), higher than in the ground with sawdust poultry manure (6.7%), whereas in the ground with straw poultry manure, there was no reduction. The biomass was affected and at the end of the test it was observed that while the reduction of worms in the ground control was about 48%, the number of those that were in the ground with sawdust poultry manure or straw poultry manure decreased by 41% and 22% respectively. Finally, the effects on microorganisms showed that the enzymatic activities: dehydrogenase (DH) and phosphatase and basal respiration rate increased at the beginning of the test, and the differences were statistically significant compared with the values of the control group. During the test, all these parameters decreased (except DH activities) but they were always higher than in the ground control. This is why it is possible to deduce that the contribution of poultry manure caused an improvement in the conditions of fertilization and also for the soil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A soil-inventory of agricultural used soils of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebner, Clemens; Gensior, Andreas; Evertsbusch, Sven; Freibauer, Annette; Flessa, Heiner

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of UNFCCC reports for greenhouse gas emissions of land use and land use change also soil organic carbon stocks and stock changes of have to be reported. Since 1990 a forest soil inventory exists for Germany, but similar data are still missing for agricultural land. Up till now, a very rough estimation of the soil organic carbon stocks based on the soil map of Germany at the scale of 1:1,000,000 and estimated soil organic carbon contents and bulk densities have been used for the national inventory reports. Now we are starting an extended agricultural soil inventory for Germany which is explicitly designed to detect soil organic carbon stocks and stock changes. We will use a grid of 8x8 km, like it was used for the forest soil inventory. In order to extrapolate from point data and perform regionalisations, not only soil type, soil parent material and basic climate parameters will be taken into account, but under agricultural land use different agricultural management practices will be considered. Management data, like crop rotation, depth and intensity of soil tillage and application of fertilizers, manure and composts are collected from farmers during the inventory via questionnaires. It was shown that those data are essential to estimate and extrapolate point data to report soil organic carbon stocks and stock changes on regional scale. The concept of this soil carbon inventory will be presented.

  10. Effects of poultry manure, compost, and biochar amendments on soil nitrogen dynamics in maize production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, R.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Dell, C. J.; Sims, T.

    2013-12-01

    Intensification of animal agriculture has profound impacts on the global and local biogeochemistry of nitrogen (N), resulting in consequences to environmental and human health. In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, intensive agriculture is the primary contributor to N pollution, with animal manure comprising more than half of N from agriculture. Management interventions may play an important role in mitigating reactive N pollution in the Bay watershed. The objective of our research was to test management strategies that maximize benefits of poultry manure as an agricultural resource while minimizing it as a source of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and ground and surface waters. We conducted field experiments in two agricultural regions of the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Georgetown, Delaware and State College, Pennsylvania) to explore the effects of poultry manure amendments on gaseous N losses and soil N transformations. Treatments were applied at rates needed to meet the plant N demand at each site and included unfertilized controls, fertilizer N (urea), and raw, composted, or and biocharred poultry manure. The fate of the N from all sources was followed throughout the growing season. Global greenhouse gases emitted from soil (nitrous oxide [N2O] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) and regional air pollutants (nitrogen oxides [NOx] and ammonia [NH3]) were measured. Gas measurements were coupled with data on treatment effects on temperature, moisture, and concentrations of nitrate (NO3¬-) and ammonium (NH4+) in surface soils (0-10 cm). Soil NO3- and NH4+ were also measured approximately monthly in the soil profile (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, 50-70, and 70-100 cm) as an index of leaching potential. Plant N uptake and grain production were also quantified to quantify crop N use efficiency and compare measured N losses for each N source. Our results suggest that the form of poultry manure amendments can affect the magnitude of reactive N losses to the environment.

  11. Ageing of atrazine in manure amended soils assessed by bioavailability to Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Bælum, Jacob; Strobel, Bjarne W; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2014-04-01

    Animal manure is applied to agricultural land in areas of high livestock production. In the present study, we evaluated ageing of atrazine in two topsoils with and without addition of manure and in one subsoil. Ageing was assessed as the bioavailability of atrazine to the atrazine mineralizing bacteria Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. Throughout an ageing period of 90 days bioavailability was investigated at days 1, 10, 32, 60 and 90, where ~10(8) cells g(-1) of the ADP strain was inoculated to the (14)C-atrazine exposed soil and (14)CO2 was collected over 7 days as a measure of mineralized atrazine. Even though the bioavailable residue decreased in all of the three soils as time proceeded, we found that ageing occurred faster in the topsoils rich in organic carbon than in subsoil. For one topsoil rich in organic carbon content, Simmelkær, we observed a higher degree of ageing when treated with manure. Contrarily, sorption experiments showed less sorption to Simmelkær treated with manure than the untreated soil indicating that sorption processes are not the only mechanisms of ageing. The other topsoil low in organic carbon content, Ringe, showed no significant difference in ageing between the manure-treated and untreated soil. The present study illustrates that not simply the organic carbon content influences adsorption and ageing of atrazine in soil but the origin and composition of organic matter plays an important role.

  12. Soil Test Phosphorus Recovery from Livestock Manures Compared with Inorganic Fertilizer in Soil Incubations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Craig Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compared dairy and hen manure P recovery relative to fertilizer P recovery for two Nova Scotia soils with different antecedent soil test P (STP, incubated for 5, 15, 30, 60, and 110 days. Fertilizer equivalence of manure P was expressed as P recovery ratio in percentage points (%PRR. Repeated measures analysis with soil pH covariate revealed: (1 manure %PRR averaged 72% (low-STP soil and 80% (medium-STP soil, (2 there were no significant differences in %PRR between dairy and hen manure, and (3 manure %PRR decreased with incubation time for the low-STP soil but not for the medium-STP soil. The soil pH covariate was significant for both low- and medium-STP soils, and the relationship with %PRR was positive for low- but not for the medium-STP soil.

  13. Long-Term Manure Amendments Enhance Soil Aggregation and Carbon Saturation of Stable Pools in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Zhang-liu; WU Wen-liang; ZHANG Qing-zhong; GUO Yan-bin; MENG Fan-qiao

    2014-01-01

    Organic amendment is considered as an effective way to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in croplands. To better understand its potential for SOC sequestration, whether SOC saturation could be observed in an intensive agricultural ecosystem receiving long-term composted manure were examined. Different SOC pools were isolated by physical fractionation techniques of a Cambisol soil under a long-term manure experiment with wheat-maize cropping in North China Plain. A ifeld experiment was initiated in 1993, with 6 treatments including control (i.e., without fertilization), chemical fertilizer only, low rate of traditional composted manure (7.5 t ha-1), high rate of traditional composted manure (15 t ha-1), low rate of bio-composted manure (7.5 t ha-1) and high rate of bio-composted manure (15 t ha-1). The results showed that consecutive (for up to 20 years) composted manure amendments signiifcantly improved soil macro-aggregation, aggregate associated SOC concentration, and soil structure stability. In detail, SOC concentration in the sand-sized fraction (>53μm) continued to increase with manure application rate, while the silt (2-53μm) and clay (250μm) was the fraction in which SOC continued to increase with increasing manure application rate. In contrast, the chemical and physical protected C pools (i.e., micro-aggregates and silt-clay occluded in the small macro-aggregates) exhibited no additional C sequestration when the manure application rate was increased. It can be concluded that repeated manure amendments can increase soil macro-aggregation and lead to the increase in relatively stable C pools, showing hierarchical saturation behavior in the intensive cropping system of North China Plain.

  14. Linking soil biodiversity and agricultural soil management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele-Bruhn, S.; Bloem, J.; Vries, de F.T.; Kalbitz, K.; Wagg, C.

    2012-01-01

    Soil biodiversity vastly exceeds aboveground biodiversity, and is prerequisite for ecosystem stability and services. This review presents recent findings in soil biodiversity research focused on interrelations with agricultural soil management. Richness and community structure of soil biota depend o

  15. Linking soil biodiversity and agricultural soil management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele-Bruhn, S.; Bloem, J.; de Vries, F.T.; Kalbitz, K.; Wagg, C.

    2012-01-01

    Soil biodiversity vastly exceeds aboveground biodiversity, and is prerequisite for ecosystem stability and services. This review presents recent findings in soil biodiversity research focused on interrelations with agricultural soil management. Richness and community structure of soil biota depend

  16. Composted Cattle Manure Increases Microbial Activity and Soil Fertility More Than Composted Swine Manure in a Submerged Rice Paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvendu Das

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Livestock waste composts with minimum inorganic fertilizer as a soil amendment in low-input intensive farming are a feasible agricultural practice to improve soil fertility and productivity and to mitigate soil degradation. The key benefits of the practice rely on the activities of soil microorganisms. However, the role of different livestock composts [composted cattle manure (CCM vs. composted swine manure (CSM] on soil microbes, their activities and the overall impact on soil fertility and productivity in a flooded paddy remains elusive. This study compares the effectiveness of CCM and CSM amendment on bacterial communities, activities, nutrient availability, and crop yield in a flooded rice cropping system. We used deep 16S amplicon sequencing and soil enzyme activities to decipher bacterial communities and activities, respectively. Both CCM and CSM amendment significantly increased soil pH, nutrient availability (C, N, and P, microbial biomass, soil enzyme activities indicative for C and N cycles, aboveground plant biomass and grain yield. And the increase in above-mentioned parameters was more prominent in the CCM treatment compared to the CSM treatment. The CCM amendment increased species richness and stimulated copiotrophic microbial groups (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes which are often involved in degradation of complex organic compounds. Moreover, some dominant species (e.g., Azospirillum zeae, Azospirillum halopraeferens, Azospirillum rugosum, Clostridium alkalicellulosi, Clostridium caenicola, Clostridium termitidis, Clostridium cellulolyticum, Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum, Pleomorphomonas oryzae, Variovorax boronicumulans, Pseudomonas xanthomarina, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Bacillus niacini which have key roles in plant growth promotion and/or lignocellulose degradation were enhanced under CCM treatment compared to CSM treatment. Multivariate analysis revealed that soil pH and available carbon (C and

  17. Occurrence of (fluoro)quinolones and (fluoro)quinolone resistance in soil receiving swine manure for 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yonggang; Yu, Wantai; Ma, Qiang; Zhou, Hua

    2015-10-15

    Because of the widespread use of antibiotics in animal breeding, the agricultural application of animal manure can lead to the introduction of antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes to the soil and surrounding environment, which may pose a threat to public health. In this study, we investigated the status of (fluoro)quinolone (FQ) residues and FQ resistance levels in soil with and without receiving long-term swine manure. Six FQs (pipemidic acid, lomefloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin) were only detected in manured soil, with individual concentrations ranging from below the detection limit to 27.2 μg kg(-1) and increasing with the increase in swine manure application rates. Higher load rates of swine manure yielded a higher number of ciprofloxacin-resistant (CIPr) bacteria after spreading. A total of 24 CIPr bacterial isolates were obtained from the tested soil, which belonged to four phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) or were related to nine different genera. Only 18 isolates from manured soil were positive for five plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrD, qepA, oqxA, and oqxB). To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the occurrence of PMQR genes in FQ-resistant bacteria from the soil environment. A similar result was observed for the total DNA from soil, with the exception of aac(6')-Ib being detected in the control sample. The absolute and relative abundances of total PMQR genes also increased with fertilization quantity. Significant correlations were observed between FQ resistance levels and FQ concentrations. These results indicated that the agricultural application of swine manure led to FQ residues and enhanced FQ resistance. This investigation provides baseline data on FQ resistance profiles in soils receiving long-term swine manure. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Influence of Organic Manure on Organic Phosphorus Fraction in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYONG-SONG; NIWU-ZHONG; 等

    1993-01-01

    The transformation of organic P(Po) from organic manures in two types of soils (ultisol and entisol) and the influences of external addition of organic substance or inorganic P(Pi) on Po under the condition of the 60% maximum water capacity were investigated.The results obtained from Po fractionation experiments indicated that all the Po fractions except for the highly resistant Po fraction decreased during incubation.Application of pig feces and cow feces could largely increase each fraction of Po in the soils.Immediately after application of organic manure into the soils a large part of labile and moderately labile Po from organic manure was transferred into moderately resistant Po,which might be due to the fact that Ca-or Mg-inositol P was precipitated into Fe-inositol P.However,the availability of Po from organic manure in the soils would increase again after incubation because of the transformation of moderately labile and resistant Po fractions into labile Po fractions.Addition of cellulose or Pi into the soils showed a good effect on increasing all the Po fractions except for the highly resistant Po,and this effect was much more pronounced when cellulose was applied in combination with Pi.Therefore,in view of the effect of organic manure on improving P nutrition to plant,attention should be paid to both the Po and the organic substances from organic manure,It is suggested that application of Pi fertilizer combined with organic manure may be referred to as an effective means of protecting Pi from chemical fixation in soil.

  19. Rapid transport and transformation of phosphorus species during the leaching of poultry manure amended soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Courtney; Cade-Menun, Barbara; Liu, Corey; Hill, Jane

    2015-04-01

    The loss of phosphorus (P) from soils due to leaching is a major concern in heavily fertilized agricultural regions. The mobility and transformation of P species will depend on the source of manure fertilizer, leaching regime, and the extent of soil P saturation within the soil profile. We investigate spatial and temporal changes in the distribution of P species within a poultry manure-amended soil at two depths (0-5, 10-15 cm) as well as leachate P fractions during 10 weeks of leaching. Leachate P was primarily composed of dissolved fractions (soluble reactive P; dissolved unreactive P) and reached a maximum in the fourth week of leaching. In soils, the degree of P saturation (80%) and water extractable P (9 mg kg-1) were also greatest in week 4. 31P NMR spectra of the 0-5 cm depth indicate that surface soils were most similar to the poultry manure in week 4. During peak leaching, the proportion of orthophosphate (OrthoP) at the soil surface (0-5 cm; 80%) was greater than that from the lowest depth (10-15 cm; 72%), which contained relatively larger proportions of monoester-(17%) and diester-P classes (10%). Poultry manure likely contributed to the mobile pool of P species, including OrthoP, myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (myo-IHP), and nucleic acids. The appearance of neo- and D-chiro-IHP, as well as phospholipid signals during the leaching period indicate possible short-term (Phytate, organic phosphorus, degree of phosphorus saturation, soil, leachate, poultry manure

  20. Temporal changes of antibiotic-resistance genes and bacterial communities in two contrasting soils treated with cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hang-Wei; Han, Xue-Mei; Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Jun-Tao; Han, Li-Li; Chen, Deli; He, Ji-Zheng

    2016-02-01

    The emerging environmental spread of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) and their subsequent acquisition by clinically relevant microorganisms is a major threat to public health. Animal manure has been recognized as an important reservoir of ARGs; however, the dissemination of manure-derived ARGs and the impacts of manure application on the soil resistome remain obscure. Here, we conducted a microcosm study to assess the temporal succession of total bacteria and a broad spectrum of ARGs in two contrasting soils following manure application from cattle that had not been treated with antibiotics. High-capacity quantitative PCR detected 52 unique ARGs across all the samples, with β-lactamase as the most dominant ARG type. Several genes of soil indigenous bacteria conferring resistance to β-lactam, which could not be detected in manure, were found to be highly enriched in manure-treated soils, and the level of enrichment was maintained over the entire course of 140 days. The enriched β-lactam resistance genes had significantly positive relationships with the relative abundance of the integrase intI1 gene, suggesting an increasing mobility potential in manure-treated soils. The changes in ARG patterns were accompanied by a significant effect of cattle manure on the total bacterial community compositions. Our study indicates that even in the absence of selective pressure imposed by agricultural use of antibiotics, manure application could still strongly impact the abundance, diversity and mobility potential of a broad spectrum of soil ARGs. Our findings are important for reliable prediction of ARG behaviors in soil environment and development of appropriate strategies to minimize their dissemination.

  1. Response of Plant Parasitic and Free Living Soil Nematodes to Composted Animal Manure Soil Amendments

    OpenAIRE

    Renčo, M.; Kováčik, P.

    2012-01-01

    In an outside pot experiment, dry pig manure processed on pine sawdust litter and fermented for seven days by house fly larvae (fermented manure), and pine sawdust applied alone, and in combination with a spring application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer were used to determine their effects on plant parasitic and free-living soil nematodes on sugar beets (cv. Antek). Non amended soil was used as a control. All treatments with fermented pig manure and sawdust with nitrogen fertilizer decreas...

  2. Clays Can Decrease Gaseous Nutrient Losses from Soil-Applied Livestock Manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Chris; Redding, Matthew; Hill, Jaye; Brown, Grant; Westermann, Maren

    2016-03-01

    Clays could underpin a viable agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement technology given their affinity for nitrogen and carbon compounds. We provide the first investigation into the efficacy of clays to decrease agricultural nitrogen GHG emissions (i.e., NO and NH). Via laboratory experiments using an automated closed-vessel analysis system, we tested the capacity of two clays (vermiculite and bentonite) to decrease NO and NH emissions and organic carbon losses from livestock manures (beef, pig, poultry, and egg layer) incorporated into an agricultural soil. Clay addition levels varied, with a maximum of 1:1 to manure (dry weight). Cumulative gas emissions were modeled using the biological logistic function, with 15 of 16 treatments successfully fitted ( clay addition level compared with no clay addition, but this difference was not significant ( = 0.17). Nitrous oxide emissions were significantly lower (×3; clay addition level compared with no clay addition. When assessing manures individually, we observed generally decreasing trends in NH and NO emissions with increasing clay addition, albeit with widely varying statistical significance between manure types. Most of the treatments also showed strong evidence of increased C retention with increasing clay additions, with up to 10 times more carbon retained in treatments containing clay compared with treatments containing no clay. This preliminary assessment of the efficacy of clays to mitigate agricultural GHG emissions indicates strong promise.

  3. Co-pyrolysis of swine manure with agricultural plastic waste: laboratory-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyoung S; Hunt, Patrick G; Jackson, Michael A; Compton, David L; Yates, Scott R; Cantrell, Keri; Chang, SeChin

    2014-08-01

    Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does not provide enough energy to sustain the pyrolysis process. Supplementing this process may be achieved with spent agricultural plastic films; these feedstocks have large amounts of available energy. Plastic films are often used in soil fumigation. They are usually disposed in landfills, which is wasteful, expensive, and environmentally unsustainable. The objective of this work was to investigate both the energetics of co-pyrolyzing swine solids with spent plastic mulch films (SPM) and the characteristics of its gas, liquid, and solid byproducts. The heating value of the product gas from co-pyrolysis was found to be much higher than that of natural gas; furthermore, the gas had no detectable toxic fumigants. Energetically, sustaining pyrolysis of the swine solids through the energy of the product gas could be achieved by co-pyrolyzing dewatered swine solids (25%m/m) with just 10% SPM. If more than 10% SPM is used, the co-pyrolysis would generate surplus energy which could be used for power generation. Biochars produced from co-pyrolyzing SPM and swine solid were similar to swine solid alone based on the surface area and the (1)H NMR spectra. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of using pyrolysis technology to manage two prominent agricultural waste streams (SPM and swine solids) while producing value-added biochar and a power source that could be used for local farm operations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Effect of Animal Manure on Phosphorus Sorption to Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    In most phosphorus (P) sorption studies P is added as an inorganic salt to a pre-defined background solution such as CaCl2 or KCl; however, in many regions the application of P to agricultural fields is in the form of animal manure. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to compare the sorption b...

  5. Tillage and manure effects on soil and aggregate-associated carbon and nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Mikha, M.M.; C. W. Rice

    2004-01-01

    Metadata only record This study assesses the impacts of tillage methods (conventional(CT) versus no-tillage(NT)) and nitrogen source (fertilizer(F) versus manure(M)) on soil aggregate size and the associated soil carbon and nitrogen. They find that both no-tillage and manure increase soil aggregate size, with the combination of the two producing the greatest soil aggregation. Likewise, there was greater total carbon and nitrogen in the soil for the no-tillage and manure treatments.

  6. Environmental fate of manure-borne estrogens and pathogens applied to agricultural land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Forslund, Anita; Bech, Tina Bundgaard;

    Contamination of freshwater by pathogens and estrogens in liquid manure applied to agricultural land is of great concern because of their potential for deleterious effects on aquatic life and human health. Recent advances in manure management include partial removal of dry matter by separation...

  7. Transfer of antibiotics from wastewater or animal manure to soil and edible crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Chu, L M

    2017-08-31

    Antibiotics are added to agricultural fields worldwide through wastewater irrigation or manure application, resulting in antibiotic contamination and elevated environmental risks to terrestrial environments and humans. Most studies focused on antibiotic detection in different matrices or were conducted in a hydroponic environment. Little is known about the transfer of antibiotics from antibiotic-contaminated irrigation wastewater and animal manure to agricultural soil and edible crops. In this study, we evaluated the transfer of five different antibiotics (tetracycline, sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol) to different crops under two levels of antibiotic-contaminated wastewater irrigation and animal manure fertilization. The final distribution of tetracycline (TC), norfloxacin (NOR) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in the crop tissues under these four treatments were as follows: fruit > leaf/shoot > root, while an opposite order was found for sulfamethazine (SMZ) and erythromycin (ERY): root > leaf/shoot > fruit. The growth of crops could accelerate the dissipation of antibiotics by absorption from contaminated soil. A higher accumulation of antibiotics was observed in crop tissues under the wastewater treatment than under manure treatment, which was due to the continual irrigation that increased adsorption in soil and uptake by crops. The translocation of antibiotics in crops mainly depended on their physicochemical properties (e.g. log Kow), crop species, and the concentrations of antibiotics applied to the soil. The levels of antibiotics ingested through the consumption of edible crops under the different treatments were much lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Persistence and Leaching Potential of Microorganisms and Mineral N in Animal Manure Applied to Intact Soil Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostofa Amin, M. G.; Forslund, Anita; Bui, Thanh Xuan

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens...... in the soil. A study was conducted to investigate the leaching potentials of a phage (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B) and two bacteria, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus species, in a liquid fraction of raw pig slurry obtained by solid-liquid separation of this slurry...... and in this liquid fraction after ozonation, when applied to intact soil columns by subsurface injection. We also compared leaching potentials of surface-applied and subsurface-injected raw slurry. The columns were exposed to irrigation events (3.5-h period at 10 mm h−1) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of incubation...

  9. Fate of antimicrobial resistance genes in response to application of poultry and swine manure in simulated manure-soil microcosms and manure-pond microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mianzhi; Sun, Yongxue; Liu, Peng; Sun, Jing; Zhou, Qin; Xiong, Wenguang; Zeng, Zhenling

    2017-07-18

    This study aimed to determine the occurrence, abundance, and fate of nine important antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) (sul1, sul2, tetB, tetM, ermB, ermF, fexA, cfr, and Intl1) in the simulated soil and pond microcosms following poultry and swine manure application. Absolute quantitative PCR method was used to determine the gene copies. The results were modeled as a logarithmic regression (N = mlnt + b) to explore the fate of target genes. Genes sul1, Intl1, sul2, and tetM had the highest abundance following the application of the two manure types. The logarithmic regression model fitted the results well (R (2) values up to 0.99). The reduction rate of all genes (except for the genes fexA and cfr) in manure-pond microcosms was faster than those in manure-soil microcosms. Importantly, sul1, intl1, sul2, and tetM had the lowest reduction rates in all the samples and the low reduction rates of tetM was the first time to be reported. These results indicated that ARG management should focus on using technologies for the ARG elimination before the manure applications rather than waiting for subsequent attenuation in soil or water, particularly the ARGs (such as sul1, intl1, sul2, and tetM investigated in this study) that had high abundance and low reduction rate in the soil and water after application of manure.

  10. THE IMPACT OF FRESH SAWDUST AND DRY PIG MANURE PRODUCED ON SAWDUST BEDDING APPLICATION ON THE NUTRIENTS MOBILITY IN SOIL AND SUGAR BEET YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kováčik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the pot trial carried out at the area of the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra was to determine the impact of dry pig manure produced on the sawdust bedding and sawdust litter on the level of nutrients’ mobility in the soil and sugar beet yield. The achieved results showed that one month after the sawdust and manure application to the soil, the contents of mobile nutrients (Nan, P, K, Ca, Mg in soil were lower than in the control unfertilized treatment. The sawdust litter immobilized nutrients more considerably than manure. Four months after the manure application into soil, its immobilization effect was not evident. On the contrary, the manure increased the mobile nutrients content in soil. In the second year of experiment the immobilization effect of sawdust litter was proved even four months after its application into soil. The application of manure increased considerably the beet root yield. The maximum root yield was determined in the treatment where the highest dose of manure was applied. The minimum root yield was detected in the treatment where the highest dose of sawdust litter was applied.

  11. Pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics in livestock manure and manure-amended soils in Jiangsu province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin Y; Hao, Li J; Qiu, Pan Z; Chen, Rong; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiang J; Shan, Zheng J; Wang, Na

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil of livestock farms in Jiangsu province. This investigation employed solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A total of 53 manure and 50 amended soil samples from 16 livestock farms in Jiangsu province were collected for analysis. In the manure samples, the highest detected frequencies and concentrations were those of tetracyclines (TCs, 54.1 ± 5775.6 μgkg(-1)), followed by fluoroquinolones (FQs, 8.4 ± 435.6 μgkg(-1)), sulphonamides (SAs, 3.2 ± 5.2 μgkg(-1)) and macrolides (MACs, 0.4 ± 110.5 μgkg(-1)). Statistical analysis was used to illuminate the pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics for various animal types and different regions in Jiangsu province. The results showed that the pollution level in cow manure was relatively lower compared with pig and chicken manure due to the relative restriction of medication. Furthermore, contamination was serious in amended soil from chicken farms. The pollution level in manure among different regions was higher to the south and north compared with the centre of the region. The same outcome was found for soil. Antibiotic residues in organic fertilizer were also investigated in this study. We found that although the detected concentration was lower in organic fertilizer than in fresh manure, detection frequencies (10-90%) were high, especially for roxithromycin (90%) in MACs (30-90%). This finding suggests attention should be paid to the pollution levels in organic fertilizer. This study is the first extensive investigation of the occurrence and distribution of many kinds of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil from livestock farms of Jiangsu province. This investigation systematically assesses veterinary antibiotics usage and related emissions in southeast China.

  12. Process dominance analysis for fate modeling of flubendazole and fenbendazole in liquid manure and manured soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moenickes, Sylvia; Höltge, Sibylla; Kreuzig, Robert; Richter, Otto

    2011-12-01

    Fate monitoring data on anaerobic transformation of the benzimidazole anthelmintics flubendazole (FLU) and fenbendazole (FEN) in liquid pig manure and aerobic transformation and sorption in soil and manured soil under laboratory conditions were used for corresponding fate modeling. Processes considered were reversible and irreversible sequestration, mineralization, and metabolization, from which a set of up to 50 different models, both nested and concurrent, was assembled. Five selection criteria served for model selection after parameter fitting: the coefficient of determination, modeling efficiency, a likelihood ratio test, an information criterion, and a determinability measure. From the set of models selected, processes were classified as essential or sufficient. This strategy to identify process dominance was corroborated through application to data from analogous experiments for sulfadiazine and a comparison with established fate models for this substance. For both, FLU and FEN, model selection performance was fine, including indication of weak data support where observed. For FLU reversible and irreversible sequestration in a nonextractable fraction was determined. In particular, both the extractable and the nonextractable fraction were equally sufficient sources for irreversible sequestration. For FEN generally reversible formation of the extractable sulfoxide metabolite and reversible sequestration of both the parent and the metabolite were dominant. Similar to FLU, irreversible sequestration in the nonextractable fraction was determined for which both the extractable or the nonextractable fraction were equally sufficient sources. Formation of the sulfone metabolite was determined as irreversible, originating from the first metabolite.

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of agricultural by-products with manure, for enhanced biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Marie M.; Fotidis, Ioannis; Kovalovszki, Adam;

    2015-01-01

    potential (BMP) of six agricultural organic byproducts were tested. Consecutively, the byproduct with the highest BMP was used as a co-digestion substrate with manure, in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Meadow grass had the highest BMP value [388 ± 30 NmL of CH4 g–1 of volatile solids (VS)] among......-digestion of 34 g L–1 raw meadow grass with manure increased the methane production rate of the CSTR reactor by 114% compared to the manure alone....

  14. Poultry manure effects on soil organisms; Efectos de los residuos avicolas sobre los organismos del suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, M.; Martin, J. V.; Miralles de Imperial, R.; Leon-Cofreces, C.; Garcia, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    A study has been made to value the effects produces on the organisms of the ground (plants, invertebrates and microorganisms), after the application of two types of poultry manure (bed wood shaving or straw) on an agricultural ground. The use doses respond to agronomic and non environmental considerations. The test was made using a terrestrial microcosms, Multi-Species Soil System (MS.3) developed in the Environment department of the INIA, tool that allows in a single test to value of joint form, the effects of organic remainders on representative organisms of the ground. (Author) 1 refs.

  15. Abundance of 13C and 15N in emmer, spelt and naked barley grown on differently manured soils: towards a method for identifying past manuring practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Marie; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Andersen, Astrid Junker

    2011-01-01

    The shortage of plant-available nutrients probably constrained prehistoric cereal cropping but there is very little direct evidence relating to the history of ancient manuring. It has been shown that the long-term addition of animal manure elevates the δ15N value of soil and of modern crops grown...... on the soil. We have examined the δ15N and δ13C values of soil and of the grain and straw fractions of three ancient cereal types grown in unmanured, PK amended and cattle manured plots of the Askov long-term field experiment. Manure increased biomass yields and the δ15N values of soil and of grain and straw....... Grain weights differed among cereal types but increased in the order: unmanured, PK, and animal manure. The grain and straw total-N concentration was generally not affected by manure addition. Our study suggests that long-term application of manure to permanently cultivated sites would have provided...

  16. The different effects of applying fresh, composted or charred manure on soil N2O emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kun; Christel, Wibke; Bruun, Sander;

    2014-01-01

    New manure management strategies and technologies are currently being developed in order to reduce manure volume and odorous emissions, utilise energy potential and produce improved manure-derived fertilisers. This has accentuated the need to determine their effects on greenhouse gas emissions...... to higher N2O and CO2 emissions than heterogeneous distribution. However, the effect of different distribution modes was not significant in treatments with charred manure, since N turnover in the immature compost was much more active than that in the charred manure. By combining charred manure...... with composted manure, N2O emissions were significantly reduced by 41% at pF 2.0, but the mitigation effect of charred manure was not observed at lower soil water potentials. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd....

  17. Antibiotic resistance of microorganisms in agricultural soils in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, Natasha; Galitskaya, Polina; Selivanovskaya, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    Antibiotics are medicines widely used to treat and prevent bacterial infections not only in human medicine but also in veterinary. Besides, in animal husbandry antibiotics are often used in for stimulation of animal's growth. Many antibiotics used for veterinary purposes are weakly absorbed in the animal's gut. So up to 90% of the administered antibiotics are excreted with manure and urine. Therefore use of manure as an organic fertilizer leads to formation and spreading of antibiotic resistance among soil microbes. Another reason of such spreading is the horizontal transfer of genes encoding antibiotic resistance from manure to soil microflora. The level of antibiotic resistance genes pollution of soils has not been properly studied yet. The aim of this study was to estimate the contamination of agricultural soils by antibiotic resistant genes. 30 samples of agricultural soils were selected around of Kazan city (Tatarstan Republic) with 1.3 Mio citizens. Since tetracycline is reported to be the most wide spread veterinary antibiotic in Russia, we estimated the level of soil contamination by tet(X) gene encoding tetracycline decomposition in microbial cell. Real time PCR method with specific primers was used as a method of investigation. Particle size type distribution of 31% of soil samples was estimated to be sandy clay, and 69% of soil samples - to silty clay. Content of dissoluble organic carbon ranged from 0,02 mg g -1 (sample 20) to 0,46 mg g -1 (sample 16). Respiration activity and microbial biomass of soils were estimated to be 0,80-5,28 CO2 C mg g -1 h-1 and 263,51-935,77 µg kg - 1 respectively. The values presented are typical for soils of Tatarstan Republic. In terms of the antibiotic resistant gene content, 27 of 30 samples investigated contained tet(X) gene, while 52% of the samples were highly contaminated, 34% of samples were middle contaminated and 14% of samples - weakly contaminated.

  18. Sulfonamide-resistant bacteria and their resistance genes in soils fertilized with manures from Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wang

    Full Text Available Antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes are recognized as new environmental pollutants that warrant special concern. There were few reports on veterinary antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes in China. This work systematically analyzed the prevalence and distribution of sulfonamide resistance genes in soils from the environments around poultry and livestock farms in Jiangsu Province, Southeastern China. The results showed that the animal manure application made the spread and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs increasingly in the soil. The frequency of sulfonamide resistance genes was sul1 > sul2 > sul3 in pig-manured soil DNA and sul2 > sul1 > sul3 in chicken-manured soil DNA. Further analysis suggested that the frequency distribution of the sul genes in the genomic DNA and plasmids of the SR isolates from manured soil was sul2 > sul1 > sul3 overall (p<0.05. The combination of sul1 and sul2 was the most frequent, and the co-existence of sul1 and sul3 was not found either in the genomic DNA or plasmids. The sample type, animal type and sampling time can influence the prevalence and distribution pattern of sulfonamide resistance genes. The present study also indicated that Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Shigella were the most prevalent sul-positive genera in the soil, suggesting a potential human health risk. The above results could be important in the evaluation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes from manure as sources of agricultural soil pollution; the results also demonstrate the necessity and urgency of the regulation and supervision of veterinary antibiotics in China.

  19. Productivity agro-economic peruvian carrot in response to addition of broiler manure in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Menani Heid

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the agricultural economic yield from Peruvian carrot ‘Yellow of Carandaí ‘, in response to addition of broiler manure on the soil. The treatments were the result of combinations of doses (1, 6, 10, 14 and 19 t ha-1 and addition forms (and incorporated coverage of litter, ground chicken determined using the experimental matrix Plan Puebla III. The experimental design was randomized blocks with four replications. Evaluated the fresh and dry weight of leaves, shoots, crowns, marketable yield and unmarketable. We also counted the numbers of shoots, roots marketable and nonmarketable and made the diameter and length of marketable and non-marketable yield. Highest yields of leaves and crowns (7.97 and 7.04 t ha-1 were obtained under treatments 19 SA / 19 IS and 19 SA / 1 IS, respectively, increased to 47.30 and 35.94% when compared to lowest values by treatments 6 SA / 1 IS and6 SA / 14 IS, respectively. Fresh mass of marketable roots was not significantly influenced by the studied factors, its highest average yield (22.08 ton ha-1 and net income (R$ 43,475.76 were attained under 19 SA / 14 IS t ha-1 of broiler manure. Greatest length of marketable roots (98.16 mm was attained under 9.19 SA / 11.56 IS ton ha-1, increased to 50.37 mm compared to the smallest one using 19 SA / 1 IS. Thus, under conditions in which the experiment was carried out, it leads to conclude that the combination among doses and addition methods of broiler manure enabled the rise productivity of marketable roots and net income; thereby to obtain higher net income the Peruvian carrot growth should be done by adding broiler manure split as 19 ton ha-1surface applied and 14 t ha-1 incorporated to the soil.

  20. Divergence of compost extract and bio-organic manure effects on lucerne plant and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Ren

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim Application of organic materials into agricultural systems enhances plant growth and yields, and improves soil fertility and structure. This study aimed to examine the effects of “compost extract (CE”, a soil conditioner, and bio-organic manure (BOM on the growth of lucerne (Medicago sativa, and compare the efficiency between BOM (including numbers of microorganisms and CE (including no added microorganisms. Method A greenhouse experiment was conducted with four soil amendment treatments (control, BOM, CE and CEBOM, and was arranged in a completely randomized design with 10 replicates for each treatment. Plant biomass, nutritive value and rhizobia efficacy as well as soil characteristics were monitored. Result CE rather than BOM application showed a positive effect on plant growth and soil properties when compared with the control. Lucerne nodulation responded equally to CE addition and rhizobium inoculation. CE alone and in combination with BOM significantly increased plant growth and soil microbial activities and improved soil structure. The synergistic effects of CE and BOM indicate that applying CE and BOM together could increase their efficiency, leading to higher economic returns and improved soil health. However, CE alone is more effective for legume growth since nodulation was suppressed by nitrogen input from BOM. CE had a higher efficiency than BOM for enriching soil indigenous microorganisms instead of adding microorganisms and favouring plant nodulation.

  1. Microbiological features and bioactivity of a fermented manure product (preparation 500) used in biodynamic agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannattasio, Matteo; Vendramin, Elena; Fornasier, Flavio; Alberghini, Sara; Zanardo, Marina; Stellin, Fabio; Concheri, Giuseppe; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Ertani, Andrea; Nardi, Serenella; Rizzi, Valeria; Piffanelli, Pietro; Spaccini, Riccardo; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Piccolo, Alessandro; Squartini, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    The fermented manure derivative known as Preparation 500 is traditionally used as a field spray in biodynamic agriculture for maintaining and increasing soil fertility. This work aimed at characterizing the product from a microbiological standpoint and at assaying its bioactive properties. The approach involved molecular taxonomical characterization of the culturable microbial community; ARISA fingerprints of the total bacteria and fungal communities; chemical elemental macronutrient analysis via a combustion analyzer; activity assays for six key enzymes; bioassays for bacterial quorum sensing and chitolipooligosaccharide production; and plant hormonelike activity. The material was found to harbor a bacterial community of 2.38 × 10(8) CFU/g dw dominated by Grampositives with minor instances of Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. ARISA showed a coherence of bacterial assemblages in different preparation lots of the same year in spite of geographic origin. Enzymatic activities showed elevated values of beta-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase, chitinase, and esterase. The preparation had no quorum sensing-detectable signal, and no rhizobial nod gene-inducing properties, but displayed a strong auxin-like effect on plants. Enzymatic analyses indicated a bioactive potential in the fertility and nutrient cycling contexts. The IAA activity and microbial degradation products qualify for a possible activity as soil biostimulants. Quantitative details and possible modes of action are discussed.

  2. Alternative soil quality indices for evaluating the effect of intensive cropping, fertilisation and manuring for 31 years in the semi-arid soils of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, Reginald Ebhin; Chhonkar, Pramod K; Singh, Dhyan; Patra, Ashok K

    2008-01-01

    Soil quality assessment provides a tool for evaluating the sustainability of alternative soil management practices. Our objective was to develop the most sensitive soil quality index for evaluating fertilizer, farm yard manure (FYM), and crop management practices on a semiarid Inceptisol in India. Soil indicators and crop yield data from a long-term (31 years) fertilizer, manure, and crop rotation (maize, wheat, cowpea, pearl millet) study at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) near New Delhi were used. Plots receiving optimum NPK, super optimum NPK and optimum NPK + FYM had better values for all the parameters analyzed. Biological, chemical, and physical soil quality indicator data were transformed into scores (0 to 1) using both linear and non-linear scoring functions, and combined into soil quality indices using unscreened transformations, regression equation, or principal component analysis (PCA). Long-term application of optimum inorganic fertilizers (NPK) resulted in higher soil quality ratings for all methods, although the highest values were obtained for treatment, which included FYM. Correlations between wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield and the various soil quality indices showed the best relationship (highest r) between yield and a PCA-derived SQI. Differences in SQI values suggest that the control (no NPK, no manure) and N only treatments were degrading, while soils receiving animal manure (FYM) or super optimum NPK fertilizer had the best soil quality, respectively. Lower ratings associated with the N only and NP treatments suggest that one of the most common soil management practices in India may not be sustainable. A framework for soil quality assessment is proposed.

  3. Quantification of mRNA in Salmonella sp. seeded soil and chicken manure using magnetic capture hybridization RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr; Holben, William E

    2007-05-01

    Direct quantification of mRNA from Salmonella sp. seeded for 1 h to soil and chicken manure was accomplished using magnetic capture hybridization as a purification technique. This detection strategy targeted the invA gene present in Salmonella sp. After cell lysis, phenol/chloroform purification and isopropanol precipitation, the RNA extract was combined with the hybridization probe conjugated to paramagnetic beads. After hybridization, the captured nucleic acids were released by denaturation and purified of contaminating DNA using DNase. The resulting RNA was of high purity and there was no need for dilution of the samples prior to RT-PCR. The developed procedure was reproducibly used to quantify Salmonella sp. in high organic agricultural soil. The detection limit for mRNA using ordinary quantitative PCR (employing SYBRgreen-based detection) was 5 x 10(4)Salmonella sp. cells per gram of soil. Chicken manure amended into soil (1:4 w/w) did not reduce the ability to quantify Salmonella sp. mRNA in soil. Pasteurization (65 degrees C, 30 min) of chicken manure containing Salmonella sp. dramatically reduced the detection of invA mRNA (requiring 42 qPCR cycles for detection versus 26 cycles in unpasteurized manure), presumably due to degradation of the invA mRNA in Salmonella sp. cells killed by pasteurization. By contrast, DNA-based qPCR still detected Salmonella sp. in the pasteurized manure. Thus, in this case using samples seeded with fresh Salmonella sp. the mRNA-based detection appears to be superior to minimizing false-positive detection which was prevalent with DNA-based qPCR.

  4. Occurrence and movement of antibiotic resistant bacxteria, in tile-drained agricultural fields receiving swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of tylosin at subtherapeutic levels by the swine industry provides selective pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance in gastrointestinal bacteria. The land application of swine manure to drained agricultural fields might accelerate the transport of pathogen indicators such as e...

  5. Manure distribution as a predictor of N2O emissions from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Baral, Khagendra Raj; Arthur, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    of manure constituents after field application in a systematic way. Key to predicting the fate of labile carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in manure is to acknowledge that the liquid phase, and a corresponding fraction of labile C and N, is partly absorbed by the bulk soil in response to the water potential...

  6. Development of an analytical methodology for the determination of the antiparasitic drug toltrazuril and its two metabolites in surface water, soil and animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; Björklund, Erland; Krogh, Kristine A

    2012-01-01

    ... with an EC 50 of 3.16 mg L ‚àí1 for toltrazuril [9]. Due to toltrazurils frequent usage ... a LC-MS/MS methodology to determine toltrazuril , toltrazuril sulfoxide and toltrazuril sulfone in ... SPE), and in agricultural soil, animal manure and sediment using pressurized liquid extraction ( PLE ). ...

  7. Dynamics of soil bacterial communities in response to repeated application of manure containing sulfadiazine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Chun Ding

    Full Text Available Large amounts of manure have been applied to arable soils as fertilizer worldwide. Manure is often contaminated with veterinary antibiotics which enter the soil together with antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, little information is available regarding the main responders of bacterial communities in soil affected by repeated inputs of antibiotics via manure. In this study, a microcosm experiment was performed with two concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ which were applied together with manure at three different time points over a period of 133 days. Samples were taken 3 and 60 days after each manure application. The effects of SDZ on soil bacterial communities were explored by barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. Samples with high concentration of SDZ were analyzed on day 193 only. Repeated inputs of SDZ, especially at a high concentration, caused pronounced changes in bacterial community compositions. By comparison with the initial soil, we could observe an increase of the disturbance and a decrease of the stability of soil bacterial communities as a result of SDZ manure application compared to the manure treatment without SDZ. The number of taxa significantly affected by the presence of SDZ increased with the times of manure application and was highest during the treatment with high SDZ-concentration. Numerous taxa, known to harbor also human pathogens, such as Devosia, Shinella, Stenotrophomonas, Clostridium, Peptostreptococcus, Leifsonia, Gemmatimonas, were enriched in the soil when SDZ was present while the abundance of bacteria which typically contribute to high soil quality belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Lysobacter, Hydrogenophaga, and Adhaeribacter decreased in response to the repeated application of manure and SDZ.

  8. Field-scale evaluation of water fluxes and manure solution leaching in feedlot pen soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ana R; Maisonnave, Roberto; Massobrio, Marcelo J; Fabrizio de Iorio, Alicia R

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of beef cattle manure on feedlot pen surfaces generates large amounts of dissolved solutes that can be mobilized by water fluxes, affecting surface and groundwater quality. Our objective was to examine the long-term impacts of a beef cattle feeding operation on water fluxes and manure leaching in feedlot pens located on sandy loam soils of the subhumid Sandy Pampa region in Argentina. Bulk density, gravimetric moisture content, and chloride concentration were quantified. Rain simulation trials were performed to estimate infiltration and runoff rates. Using chloride ion as a tracer, profile analysis techniques were applied to estimate the soil moisture flux and manure conservative chemical components leaching rates. An organic stratum was found over the surface of the pen soil, separated from the underlying soil by a highly compacted thin layer (the manure-soil interface). The soil beneath the organic layer showed greater bulk density in the A horizon than in the control soil and had greater moisture content. Greater concentrations of chloride were found as a consequence of the partial sealing of the manure-soil interface. Surface runoff was the dominant process in the feedlot pen soil, whereas infiltration was the main process in control soil. Soil moisture flux beneath pens decreased substantially after 15 yr of activity. The estimated minimum leaching rate of chloride was 13 times faster than the estimated soil moisture flux. This difference suggests that chloride ions are not exclusively transported by advective flow under our conditions but also by solute diffusion and preferential flow.

  9. Accumulation and mobility of zinc in soil amended with different levels of pig-manure compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Kei; Toyota, Koki; Nishimura, Taku; Ikeda, Jun-Ichi; Hori, Kaneaki

    2010-05-01

    Applying manure compost not only results in zinc accumulation in the soil but also causes an increase in zinc mobility and enhances zinc leaching. In this study, the physical and chemical characteristics of zinc, zinc profiles, and zinc balance were investigated to characterise the fate of zinc in fields where the quality and amount of pig manure compost applied have been known for 13 years. Moreover, we determined zinc fractionation in both 0.1 mol L(-1)HCl-soluble (mobile) and -insoluble (immobile) fractions. Adsorption of zinc in the soil was enhanced with increasing total carbon content following the application of pig manure compost. The 159.6 mg ha(-1) year(-1)manure applied plot (triplicate) exceeded the Japanese regulatory level after only 6 years of applying pig manure compost, whereas the 53.2 mg ha(-1) year(-1) manure applied plot (standard) reached the regulatory level after 13 years. The zinc loads in the plots were 17.0 and 5.6 kg ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. However, 5.9 % and 17.2 % of the zinc loaded in the standard and the triplicate pig manure compost applied plots, respectively, were estimated to be lost from the plough layer. Based on the vertical distribution of mobile and immobile zinc content, a higher rate of applied manure compost caused an increase in the mobile zinc fraction to a depth of 40 cm. Although the adsorption capacity of zinc was enhanced following the application of pig manure compost, a greater amount of mobile zinc could move downward through the manure amended soil than through non manure-amended soil.

  10. Application of swine manure on agricultural fields contributes to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli spread in Tai’an, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili eGao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli is increasing rapidly in both hospital environments and animal farms. A lot of animal manure has been directly applied into arable fields in the developing countries. But the impact of ESBL-positive bacteria from animal manure on the agricultural fields is sparse, especially in the rural regions of Tai’an, China. Here, we collected 29, 3, and 10 ESBL-producing E. coli from pig manure, compost, and soil samples, respectively. To track ESBL-harboring E. coli from agricultural soil, these isolates of different sources were analyzed with regard to antibiotic resistance profiles, ESBL genes, plasmid replicons, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-polymerase chain reaction (PCR typing. The results showed that all the isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance. CTX-M gene was the predominant ESBL gene in the isolates from pig farm samples (30/32, 93.8% and soil samples (7/10, 70.0%, but no SHV gene was detected. 25 isolates contained the IncF-type replicon of plasmid, including 18 strains (18/32, 56.3% from the pig farm and 7 (7/10, 70.0% from the soil samples. ERIC-PCR demonstrated that 3 isolates from the soil had above 90% genetic similarity with strains from pig farm samples. In conclusion, application of animal manure carrying drug-resistant bacteria on agricultural fields is a likely contributor to antibiotic resistance gene spread.

  11. Manure and nitrogen application enhances soil phosphorus mobility in calcareous soil in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengjuan; Chen, Shuo; Li, Junliang; Alva, Ashok; Chen, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Over many years, high phosphorus (P) loading for intensive vegetable cropping in greenhouses of North China has contributed to excessive P accumulation, resulting in environmental risk. In this study, the influences of manure and nitrogen (N) application on the transformation and transport of soil P were investigated after nine years in a greenhouse tomato double cropping system (winter-spring and autumn-winter seasons). High loading of manure significantly increased the soil inorganic P (Pi), inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP), mobile P and P saturation ratio (PSR, >0.7 in 0-30 cm depth soil; PSR was estimated from P/(Fe + Al) in an oxalate extract of the soil). The high rate of N fertilizer application to the studied calcareous soil with heavy loading of manure increased the following: (i) mobile organic P (Po) and Pi fractions, as evidenced by the decrease in the ratio of monoesters to diesters and the proportion of stable Pi (i.e., HCl-Pi) in total P (Pt) in 0-30 cm depth soil; (ii) relative distribution of Po in the subsoil layer; and (iii) P leaching to soil depths below 90 cm and the proportion of Po in Pt in the leachate. More acidic soil due to excessive N application increased P mobility and leaching. The increase in Ox-Al (oxalate-extractable Al) and the proportion of microbe-associated Po related to N application at soil depths of 0-30 cm suggested decrease in the net Po mineralization, which may contribute to downward transport of Po in the soil profile.

  12. Dairy heifer manure management, dietary phosphorus, and soil test P effects on runoff phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, William E; Coblentz, Wayne K; Hoffman, Patrick C

    2012-01-01

    Manure application to cropland can contribute to runoff losses of P and eutrophication of surface waters. We conducted a series of three rainfall simulation experiments to assess the effects of dairy heifer dietary P, manure application method, application rate, and soil test P on runoff P losses from two successive simulated rainfall events. Bedded manure (18-21% solids) from dairy heifers fed diets with or without supplemental P was applied on a silt loam soil packed into 1- by 0.2-m sheet metal pans. Manure was either surface-applied or incorporated (Experiment 1) or surface-applied at two rates (Experiment 2) to supply 26 to 63 kg P ha. Experiment 3 evaluated runoff P from four similar nonmanured soils with average Bray P1-extractable P levels of 11, 29, 51, and 75 mg kg. We measured runoff quantity, total P (TP), dissolved reactive P (DRP), and total and volatile solids in runoff collected for 30 min after runoff initiation from two simulated rain events (70 mm h) 3 or 4 d apart. Manure incorporation reduced TP and DRP concentrations and load by 85 to 90% compared with surface application. Doubling the manure rate increased runoff DRP and TP concentrations an average of 36%. In the same experiment, P diet supplementation increased water-extractable P in manure by 100% and increased runoff DRP concentration threefold. Concentrations of solids, TP, and DRP in runoff from Rain 2 were 25 to 75% lower than from Rain 1 in Experiments 1 and 2. Runoff DRP from nonmanured soils increased quadratically with increasing soil test P. These results show that large reductions in P runoff losses can be achieved by incorporation of manure, avoiding unnecessary diet P supplementation, limiting manure application rate, and managing soils to prevent excessive soil test P levels.

  13. Effects of phosphate fertilizer and manure on Chinese cabbage yield and soil phosphorus accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhua LIAO; Jianling LIU; Xinjun Wang; Ke JIA; Na MENG

    2008-01-01

    The yield response of Chinese cabbage to phosphate fertilizer and manure was studied.The effect of over-application of phosphate fertilizer and manure on plant total phosphorus content and phosphorus accumulation in soil was also investigated.The experiment was arranged in a plastic barrel in the field for two years.Application of phosphate fertilizer at the rates of 150-Chinese cabbage.Application of manure at the rates of 33.3-133.2 g.kg-1 gave a yield increase of 18.2%-25.9% of the crop.There was no significant difference of yield resfertilizer,and no significant yield response to the application of phosphate fertilizer after applying manure.The total P content in Chinese cabbage was increased gradually with the rate increase of phosphate fertilizer and manure.Phosphorus was absorbed luxuriously by the plant with over-application phosphate fertilizer and manure.The content of total-P,Olsen-P,water-soluble P,biological available P in the soil was increased with the rate of phosphate fertilizer and manure.Organic phosphorus in the soil was increased by the application of manure.Olsen-P had high correlations with water-soluble-P and biological available-P,but there was a poor relationship between Olsen-P and organic-P.

  14. Initial water repellency affected organic matter depletion rates of manure amended soils in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelamanie D.A.L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The wetting rate of soil is a measure of water repellency, which is a property of soils that prevents water from wetting or penetrating into dry soil. The objective of the present research was to examine the initial water repellency of organic manure amended soil, and its relation to the soil organic matter (SOM depletion rates in the laboratory. Soil collected from the Wilpita natural forest, Sri Lanka, was mixed with organic manure to prepare soil samples with 0, 5, 10, 25, and 50% organic manure contents. Locally available cattle manure (CM, goat manure (GM, and Casuarina equisetifolia leaves (CE were used as the organic manure amendments. Organic matter content of soils was measured in 1, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days intervals under the laboratory conditions with 74±5% relative humidity at 28±1°C. Initial water repellency of soil samples was measured as the wetting rates using the water drop penetration time (WDPT test. Initial water repellency increased with increasing SOM content showing higher increasing rate for hydrophobic CE amended samples compared with those amended with CM and GM. The relation between water repellency and SOM content was considered to be governed by the original hydrophobicities of added manures. The SOM contents of all the soil samples decreased with the time to reach almost steady level at about 30 d. The initial SOM depletion rates were negatively related with the initial water repellency. However, all the CE amended samples initially showed prominent low SOM depletion rates, which were not significantly differed with the amended manure content or the difference in initial water repellency. It is explicable that the original hydrophobicity of the manure as well has a potentially important effect on initiation of SOM decomposition. In contrast, the overall SOM depletion rate can be attributed to the initial water repellency of the manure amended sample, however, not to the original hydrophobicity of the amended manure

  15. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Aghili

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower, ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF, and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  16. [Effects of nitrogen application and winter green manure on soil active organic carbon and the soil carbon pool management index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin-Juan; Huang, Guo-Qin; Lan, Yan; Chen, Hong-Jun; Wang, Shu-Bin

    2014-10-01

    Based on a cropping system of "winter green manure-double rice", the 4 x 4 two-factor test was used to study the effects of different nitrogen (N) application levels and winter green manure application on soil active organic carbon (AOC) and the C pool management index. The aim was to explore the ecological effects of winter green manure on soil improvement and determine the appropriate application levels of N fertilizer and winter green manure for improved rice yield. Results were as follows: 1) Compared with the control, the SOC and AOC contents increased by 22.2% and 26.7%, respectively, under the green manure only treatment, but the SOC contents decreased by 0.6%-3.4% under the single N fertilizer treatment. Compared with the control, the soil C pool management index increased by 24.55 and 15.17 under the green manure only and green manure plus N fertilizer treatments, respectively, and reduced by 2.59 under the single N fertilizer treatment. Compared with no fertilization, the average microbial biomass carbon (MBC) increased by 54.0%, 95.2% and 14.3% under the green manure, green manure plus N fertilizer and single N fertilizer treatments, respectively. 2) The soil AOC content was significantly positively correlated with the C pool management index (P index, and the correlation coefficient was significantly greater than that with the total organic C. These results suggested that application of winter green manure at proper rates with inorganic fertilizer could increase SOC contents and the soil C pool management index, improve soil quality and fertility.

  17. Abundance of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Bacteriophage following Soil Fertilization with Dairy Manure or Municipal Biosolids, and Evidence for Potential Transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph; Topp, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Animal manures and municipal biosolids recycled onto crop production land carry antibiotic-resistant bacteria that can influence the antibiotic resistome of agricultural soils, but little is known about the contribution of bacteriophage to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in this context. In this work, we quantified a set of ARGs in the bacterial and bacteriophage fractions of agricultural soil by quantitative PCR. All tested ARGs were present in both the bacterial and phage fractions. We demonstrate that fertilization of soil with dairy manure or human biosolids increases ARG abundance in the bacterial fraction but not the bacteriophage fraction and further show that pretreatment of dairy manure can impact ARG abundance in the bacterial fraction. Finally, we show that purified bacteriophage can confer increased antibiotic resistance to soil bacteria when combined with selective pressure. The results indicate that soilborne bacteriophage represents a substantial reservoir of antibiotic resistance and that bacteriophage could play a significant role in the horizontal transfer of resistance genes in the context of an agricultural soil microbiome. Overall, our work reinforces the advisability of composting or digesting fecal material prior to field application and suggests that application of some antibiotics at subclinical concentrations can promote bacteriophage-mediated horizontal transfer of ARGs in agricultural soil microbiomes.

  18. Productive and chemical characteristics of Marandu grass in response to poultry manure and soil chiseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson S. Eguchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive and chemical characteristics of Marandu grass fertilized with poultry manure with or without the use of soil chiseling, during a period of 210 days. The experiment was conducted in a Dark-Red Latosol (Haplustox of sandy texture, in a randomized block design with 4 replicates, in a 6 x 2 factorial scheme (0, 1.037, 2.074, 4.148, 6.222 t ha-1 of poultry manure and an additional treatment with chemical fertilizer based on 2.074 t ha-1, with and without soil chiseling. Grass-cutting management was performed between 95% of light interception by the canopy and the residual height of 0.15 m. The application of poultry manure resulted in an increase of forage production with higher number of cuts (NC. A linear model described the effect of the applied manure doses on dry matter accumulation (DMA, stems + sheaths (SS and dead material (DM. There was significant interaction between manure doses and soil managements for leaf blade (LB, with greater variations in the treatment without soil chiseling. For plant chemical evaluation, a negative effect of poultry manure was observed on the contents of Ca, Mg, N, S, Mn and Zn, which may be due to the increased number of cuts. Poultry manure positively changed the production of Marandu grass.

  19. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF ANIMAL MANURE – IMPLICATIONS FOR CROP YIELDS AND SOIL BIOTA IN ORGANIC FARMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun; Riely, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of farmyard manures may help farmers to produce bioenergy instead of using fossil fuels, support cycling of nutrients and reduce greenhouse gas emission. However, compared to pristine slurry, digested slurry has a reduced content of organic carbon which may impact the soil biota...... organic matter levels over the first 2 years. Application of high levels of manure increased the mortality of both surface-dwelling and soil-living earthworms just after application, but the long-term effect of manure application seemed more positive, especially at low application levels. Springtails...

  20. Does monensin in chicken manure from poultry farms pose a threat to soil invertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zižek, Suzana; Hrženjak, Rok; Kalcher, Gabrijela Tavčar; Srimpf, Karin; Semrov, Neva; Zidar, Primož

    2011-04-01

    Monensin is a carboxylic polyether ionophore used in the poultry industry as a coccidiostat. It enters the environment via manure from broiler farms. In spite of its potential presence in the environment, information concerning monensin residues in manure and soil and its toxicity to soil organisms are insufficient. In the present study, two beneficial soil invertebrate species, earthworms (Eisenia andrei) and woodlice (Porcellio scaber), were used to assess the toxicity of monensin. Animals were exposed to a range of monensin concentrations via soil or food. Earthworm reproduction was found to be the most susceptible endpoint (NOEC=3.5 mg kg(-1) dry soil; EC(50)=12.7 mg kg(-1) dry soil), while no adverse effects were recorded in isopods (NOEC⩾849mgkg(-1) dry soil, NOEC⩾357mgkg(-1) dry food). The obtained toxicity data were compared with potential concentrations of monensin in soil. In view of this, manure from broiler chickens treated with monensin at a poultry farm was sampled. According to monensin and nitrogen concentrations in the chicken manure and the degradation time of monensin, the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) was calculated. PEC of monensin is around 0.013 mg kg(-1) soil if manure is used after 3 months of composting and 0.05 mg kg(-1) soil if used without storage. Data for earthworm reproduction was used to estimate the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC). If fresh chicken manure is applied to terrestrial ecosystems, the risk quotient (PEC/PNEC ratio) is above 1, which indicates that monensin might pose an environmental risk under certain conditions. To prevent this, it is strongly recommended to compost chicken manure for several months before using it as fertiliser. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An inventory of trace elements inputs to French agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, E; Boisson, M; Deportes, I Z; Eglin, T K; Feix, I; Bispo, A O; Galsomies, L; Leblond, S; Guellier, C R

    2012-11-15

    The inputs of ten trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) to French agricultural soils have been assessed. The six main sources considered were: pesticides, mineral fertilizers, animal manure, liming materials, sludge and composts and atmospheric deposition. Data were collected to compute inputs at both national and regional (departmental) scales. The inventory methodology is based on two principles: data are traceable and easy to update. At a national scale, the inventory showed that trace elements inputs can be ranked: Zn≫Cu≫Cr>Pb>Ni>As=Mo>Se>Cd>Hg. Animal manure, mineral fertilizers and pesticides are the predominant sources of TEs. These results are globally in agreement with literature data though atmospheric deposition is shown to be lower than in more industrial countries such as China and United Kingdom where similar surveys were conducted. The inputs of trace elements vary strongly between regions in relation with agricultural activities. This inventory (and the related database) provides basis for developing and monitoring policies to control and reduce trace elements contamination of agricultural soils at both national and regional (departmental) scales.

  2. COLIWAVE a simulation model for survival of E. coli O157 : H7 in dairy manure and manure-amended soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, Alexander V.; Franz, Eelco; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2010-01-01

    A simulation model was developed to investigate the relative effects of temperature, oxygen concentration, substrate content and competition by autochthonous microbial community on the oscillatory behaviour and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in manure and manure-amended soil. The overall decli

  3. COLIWAVE a simulation model for survival of E. coli O157 : H7 in dairy manure and manure-amended soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, Alexander V.; Franz, Eelco; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2010-01-01

    A simulation model was developed to investigate the relative effects of temperature, oxygen concentration, substrate content and competition by autochthonous microbial community on the oscillatory behaviour and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in manure and manure-amended soil. The overall decli

  4. Coliwave a simulation model for survival of E.coli 0157:H7 in dairy manure and manure-amended soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, A.V.; Franz, E.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2010-01-01

    A simulation model was developed to investigate the relative effects of temperature, oxygen concentration, substrate content and competition by autochthonous microbial community on the oscillatory behaviour and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in manure and manure-amended soil. The overall decli

  5. COLIWAVE a simulation model for survival of E. coli O157 : H7 in dairy manure and manure-amended soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, Alexander V.; Franz, Eelco; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2010-01-01

    A simulation model was developed to investigate the relative effects of temperature, oxygen concentration, substrate content and competition by autochthonous microbial community on the oscillatory behaviour and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in manure and manure-amended soil. The overall

  6. Pig Manure Application for Remediation of Mine Soils in Murcia Province, SE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Faz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In southern Spain, specifically in Murcia Province, an increased pig population causes large amounts of slurry production that creates a very serious environmental concern. Our aim was to use this waste to reduce the acid mine drainage process, heavy metal mobilization, and to improve soil conditions to enhance plant establishment in mine soils. Pig manure, sewage sludge, and lime were used as soil amendments in a field experiment and in undisturbed soil column. Field experiments showed an increase in pH, total nitrogen, organic carbon, and carbonate contents; a reduction of diethylene-tetramine pentaacetic acid (DTPA– and water-extractable metals; and an improvement of plant establishment. The field studies showed that pig manure could be utilized to remediate polluted soils. Column studies in the laboratory showed that amendment of mine soil with pig manure initially increased soil pH from 2.21 to 6.34, promoted reduced conditions in the surface soil, and decreased the metal mobility. After 21 weeks, while the leachate was slightly acidic, however, the mobility of metals was substantially low. Additions of 7 and 14% of pig manure were insufficient to maintain a neutral pH in the leachate. Therefore, continuous application of the pig manure may be advised.

  7. Chlortetracycline and tylosin runoff from soils treated with antimicrobial containing manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoese, A; Clay, S A; Clay, D E; Oswald, J; Trooien, T; Thaler, R; Carlson, C G

    2009-05-01

    This study assessed the runoff potential of tylosin and chlortetracycline (CTC) from soils treated with manure from swine fed rations containing the highest labeled rate of each chemical. Slurry manures from the swine contained either CTC at 108 microg/g or tylosin at 0.3 microg/g. These manures were surface applied to clay loam, silty clay loam, and silt loam soils at a rate of 0.22 Mg/ha. In one trial, tylosin was applied directly to the soil surface to examine runoff potential of water and chemical when manure was not present. Water was applied using a sprinkler infiltrometer 24-hr after manure application with runoff collected incrementally every 5 min for about 45 min. A biofilm crust formed on all manure-treated surfaces and infiltration was impeded with > 70% of the applied water collected as runoff. The total amount of CTC collected ranged from 0.9 to 3.5% of the amount applied whereas tylosin ranged from 8.4 to 12%. These data indicate that if surface-applied manure contains antimicrobials, runoff could lead to offsite contamination.

  8. Impact of manure-related DOM on sulfonamide transport in arable soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Arenz-Leufen, Martina Gesine; Jacques, Diederik; Lichtner, Peter; Engelhardt, Irina

    2016-09-01

    Field application of livestock manure introduces colloids and veterinary antibiotics, e.g. sulfonamides (SAs), into farmland. The presence of manure colloids may potentially intensify the SAs-pollution to soils and groundwater by colloid-facilitated transport. Transport of three SAs, sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfamethoxypyridazine (SMPD), and sulfamoxole (SMOX), was investigated in saturated soil columns with and without manure colloids from sows and farrows, weaners, and fattening pigs. Experimental results showed that colloid-facilitated transport of SMOX was significant in the presence of manure colloids from fattening pigs with low C/N ratio, high SUVA280 nm and protein C, while manure colloids from sows and farrows and weaners had little effect on SMOX transport. In contrast, only retardation was observed for SDZ and SMPD when manure colloids were present. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) of colloids and SAs were replicated well by a newly developed numerical model that considers colloid-filtration theory, competitive kinetic sorption, and co-transport processes. Model results demonstrate that mobile colloids act as carriers for SMOX, while immobile colloids block SMOX from sorbing onto the soil. The low affinity of SMOX to sorb on immobile colloids prevents aggregation and also promotes SMOX's colloid-facilitated transport. Conversely, the high affinity of SDZ and SMPD to sorb on all types of immobile colloids retarded their transport. Thus, manure properties play a fundamental role in increasing the leaching risk of hydrophobic sulfonamides.

  9. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yoon Kim

    Full Text Available Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4 production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy soil due to the inherent differences in composition as a result of contrasting diets and digestive physiology between the two livestock types. To compare the effect of ruminant and non-ruminant animal manure applications on CH4 emissions and methanogenic archaeal diversity during rice cultivation (June to September, 2009, fresh cattle and swine manures were applied into experimental pots at 0, 20 and 40 Mg fresh weight (FW ha-1 in a greenhouse. Applications of manures significantly enhanced total CH4 emissions as compared to chemical fertilization, with cattle manure leading to higher emissions than swine manure. Total organic C contents in cattle (466 g kg-1 and swine (460 g kg-1 manures were of comparable results. Soil organic C (SOC contents were also similar between the two manure treatments, but dissolved organic C (DOC was significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. The mcrA gene copy numbers were significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. Diverse groups of methanogens which belong to Methanomicrobiaceae were detected only in cattle-manured but not in swine-manured soil. Methanogens were transferred from cattle manure to rice paddy soils through fresh excrement. In conclusion, cattle manure application can significantly increase CH4 emissions in rice paddy soil during cultivation, and its pretreatment to suppress methanogenic activity without decreasing rice productivity should be considered.

  10. Sustainable long-term intensive application of manure to sandy soils without phosphorus leaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asomaning, Samuel K.; Abekoe, Mark K.; Dowuona, G.N.N.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term application of manure to sandy soils to ensure high crop productivity may lead to phosphorus (P) leaching, which, in turn, may deteriorate the quality of recipient waters because of eutrophication. The risk of P leaching depends on contents of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) oxides...... soils, whereas in the deepest soil layers the P contents in the cultivated and uncultivated soils were almost the same indicating very limited downward P transport despite long-term manure application. This was supported by comparable P concentrations in groundwater taken under cultivated...

  11. Phosphorus distribution in a soil fertilized with recovered manure phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus (P) can be recovered in a concentrated form from livestock manure and poultry litter. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the short-term leaching potential and plant availability of P from recovered P materials from liquid pig manure (SRP) and broiler litter (LRP) in a characteri...

  12. Fate of Escherichia coli O157: H7 in agricultural soils amended with different organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiyuan; Yang, Li; Wang, Haizhen; Wu, Jianjun; Xu, Jianming

    2015-10-15

    Five organic fertilizers (vermicompost, pig manure, chicken manure, peat and oil residue) were applied to agricultural soils to study their effects on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7). Results showed that E. coli O157:H7 survival changed greatly after organic fertilizers application, with shorter td values (survival time needed to reach the detection limit of 100 CFU g(-1)) (12.57±6.57 days) in soils amended with chicken manure and the longest (25.65±7.12 days) in soils amended with pig manure. Soil pH, EC and free Fe/Al (hydro) oxides were significant explanatory factors for E. coli O157:H7 survival in the original soils. Soil constituents (minerals and organic matter) and changes in their surface charges with pH increased the effect of soil pH on E. coli O157:H7 survival. However, electrical conductivity played a more important role in regulating E. coli O157:H7 survival in fertilizer-amended soils. This study highlighted the importance of choosing appropriate organic fertilizers in the preharvest environment to reduce food-borne bacterial contamination.

  13. Decomposition of 15N-labelled ryegrass in soils from a long-term field experiment with different manuring strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B.K.; Jensen, E.S.; Magid, J.

    1995-01-01

    ) than in soils receiving either mineral fertilizer, a low amount of FYM or no manure. However, in general the decomposition of ryegrass in the selected soils varied only slightly. The microbial decomposition processes differed somewhat in the soil manured with a low amount of FYM from those receiving...

  14. Animal manure application and soil organic carbon stocks: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Émilie; Angers, Denis A

    2014-02-01

    The impact of animal manure application on soil organic carbon (SOC) stock changes is of interest for both agronomic and environmental purposes. There is a specific need to quantify SOC change for use in national greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories. We quantified the response of SOC stocks to manure application from a large worldwide pool of individual studies and determined the impact of explanatory factors such as climate, soil properties, land use and manure characteristics. Our study is based on a meta-analysis of 42 research articles totaling 49 sites and 130 observations in the world. A dominant effect of cumulative manure-C input on SOC response was observed as this factor explained at least 53% of the variability in SOC stock differences compared to mineral fertilized or unfertilized reference treatments. However, the effects of other determining factors were not evident from our data set. From the linear regression relating cumulative C inputs and SOC stock difference, a global manure-C retention coefficient of 12% ± 4 (95% Confidence Interval, CI) could be estimated for an average study duration of 18 years. Following an approach comparable to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, we estimated a relative SOC change factor of 1.26 ± 0.14 (95% CI) which was also related to cumulative manure-C input. Our results offer some scope for the refinement of manure retention coefficients used in crop management guidelines and for the improvement of SOC change factors for national GHG inventories by taking into account manure-C input. Finally, this study emphasizes the need to further document the long-term impact of manure characteristics such as animal species, especially pig and poultry, and manure management systems, in particular liquid vs. solid storage.

  15. Effects of Dairy Cattle Manure and Chemical Fertilizers on Fertility of Soils Grown with Cichorium intybus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to explore recycling utilization of manure of dairy cattle through returning of manures into fields. [Method] Effects of dairy cattle ma- nure and chemical fertilizer on fertility of soils grown with Cichorium intybus were in- vestigated through a pot experiment. [Result] After manure of dairy cattle was ap- plied, it can be concluded that organic matter, total N, total P, alkali-hydrolyzable ni- trogen, available P, activities of urease and invertase in soils increased by 0.14-1.28 times, 43.8%-79.7%, 17.4%-30.8%, 147%-188%, 7 times, 17.2%-38.5%, and 1.36%- 3.34%, respectively. Furthermore, organic matter, total N. urease and invertase activi- ties in group of M7F3 increased most; total P and available P achieved the best in group of M3F7. These indicated that the applied manures of dairy cattle would maintain and improve soil fertility, providing better soils for Cichorium intybus. [Conclusion] The research provides reference for recycling of cattle manures and construction of ecological cyclical pattern of "grass planting-cattle breeding-methane fermentation-returning of manures into fields".

  16. The effects of olive mill waste compost and poultry manure on the availability and plant uptake of nutrients in a highly saline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David J; Bernal, M Pilar

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a compost (produced from by-products of the olive oil industry) and a poultry manure on mineral ion solubility and exchangeability in a highly saline agricultural soil (electrical conductivity for a 1:5 soil:water extract=1.85 dS m(-1)) from Murcia (SE Spain) were studied. The organic amendments did not change significantly the soil electrical conductivity or the soluble Na(+), Ca(2+) or Mg(2+). Only soluble K(+) increased, due to the K(+) supplied by the amendments. The cation exchange capacity increased in treated soils, the exchange complex being mainly saturated with Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and K(+). However, Na(+) was not retained in the exchange sites, and the sodium absorption ratio remained low. The compost and manure increased markedly the shoot growth of the salt-tolerant Beta maritima L. (sea beet) and Beta vulgaris L. (sugar beet). For B. maritima, this seemed to be related to decreases in the shoot concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) and increases in K(+) and H(2)PO(4)(-). In the case of B. vulgaris, increases in shoot H(2)PO(4)(-) and B and, for manure-treated soil, a decrease in shoot Na(+) may have been involved. Cultivation of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Moneymaker) in the soil used previously for B. vulgaris indicated that the effects of the manure on tissue cation concentrations were longer-lasting than those of the compost.

  17. Responses of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes and bacterial taxa to (fluoro)quinolones-containing manure in arable soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenguang; Sun, Yongxue; Ding, Xueyao; Zhang, Yiming; Zhong, Xiaoxia; Liang, Wenfei; Zeng, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the fate of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and the disturbance of soil bacterial communities posed by (fluoro)quinolones (FQNs)-containing manure in arable soil. Representative FQNs (enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR)), PMQR genes (qepA, oqxA, oqxB, aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrS) and bacterial communities in untreated soil, +manure and +manure+FQNs groups were analyzed using culture independent methods. The significantly higher abundance of oqxA, oqxB and aac(6')-Ib-cr, and significantly higher abundance of qnrS in +manure group than those in untreated soil disappeared at day 30 and day 60, respectively. All PMQR genes (oqxA, oqxB, aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrS) dissipated 1.5-1.7 times faster in +manure group than those in +manure+FQNs group. The disturbance of soil bacterial communities posed by FQNs-containing manure was also found. The results indicated that significant effects of PMQR genes (oqxA, oqxB, aac(6')-Ib and qnrS) on arable soils introduced by manure disappeared 2 month after manure application. FQNs introduced by manure slowed down the dissipation of PMQR genes. The presence of high FQNs provided a selective advantage for species affiliated to the phylum including Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes while suppressing Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria.

  18. Humus status of soddy-podzolic soil upon application of different green manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripol'Skaya, L. N.; Romanovskaya, D. K.; Shlepetiene, A.

    2008-08-01

    Results of studying the effect of different plant species on the humus status of loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soil were generalized. It was found that the application of different green manure species ( Lupinus luteus L., Trifolium pratense L., and Raphanus sativus L.) and straw from cereal crops ( Secale cereale, Hordeum L.) under percolative conditions helped to sustain a stable humus budget in grain agrophytocenoses. A significant change in the fractional composition of HAs and FAs occurred under the effect of green manure. The fractions of free HAs and those bound to clay minerals accumulated with the application of Trifolium pratense and Raphanus sativus biomass and cereal straw. Lower amounts of aggressive and free FAs were formed in the soil with the application of straw and fallow plants. The decomposition of green manure and the formation of humic substances also depended on the hydrothermal conditions during application of manure.

  19. Carbon and nitrogen stocks and nitrogen mineralization in organically managed soils amended with composted manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyà, Joan; Arco, Noèlia; Solà-Morales, Ignasi; Armengot, Laura; Sans, Francesc Xavier

    2012-01-01

    The use of composted manures and of legumes in crop rotations may control the quality and quantity of soil organic matter and may affect nutrient retention and recycling. We studied soil organic C and N stocks and N mineralization in organically and conventionally managed dryland arable soils. We selected 13 extensive organic fields managed organically for 10 yr or more as well as adjacent fields managed conventionally. Organic farmers applied composted manures ranging from 0 to 1380 kg C ha yr and incorporated legumes in crop rotations. In contrast, conventional farmers applied fresh manures combined with slurries and/or mineral fertilizers ranging from 200 to 1900 kg C ha yr and practiced a cereal monoculture. Despite the fact that the application of organic C was similar in both farming systems, organically managed soils showed higher C and similar N content and lower bulk density than conventionally managed soils. Moreover, organic C stocks responded to the inputs of organic C in manures and to the presence of legumes only in organically managed soils. In contrast, stocks of organic N increased with the inputs of N or C in both farming systems. In organically managed soils, organic N stocks were less mineralizable than in conventional soils. However, N mineralization in organic soils was sensitive to the N fixation rates of legumes and to application rate and C/N ratio of the organic fertilizers.

  20. Searsville Sediment Experiment: What is the ideal agricultural soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, J.; Lo, D.; Patel, N.; Gu, S.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to decide whether or not the sediment located within Searsville Dam at the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is well suited for agricultural soil. By utilizing various combinations of sediment, farm soil, compost, and horse manure to grow basil plants, we underwent an exploratory study in order to better understand what type of materials and nutrients plants can best thrive within. Our general experiment protocol includes watering the crops with irrigation every day while young, and then limiting that water exposure to only Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays as they become more established. The basil is growing in pots filled with the different amounts of material, and are arranged randomly to prevent certain plants from getting more sunlight than others. The whole experiment plot is covered with a thin white fabric and secured with bricks and wood to keep out pests in the garden. In order to observe trends in the basil development, plant height and leaf number is recorded once every week. During the third week of the study we performed soil texture tests, and within the fourth week we calculated pH data. We discovered that the sediment our project focuses upon is 10-18% clay and 50% sand which categorizes it as loam, and the Stanford farm soil that serves as our control group contains 20-26% clay and 30% sand so it is a silt loam material. The pH tests also showed an average of 7.45 for sediment, 7.3 for farm soil, 7.85 for compost, and 7.65 for horse manure. By looking at all of the data recorded over the five-week time period, we have so far noticed that the 50% sediment and 50% horse manure combination consistently has the best height increase as well as leaf size and content. The 50% sediment and 50% compost mixture has also performed well in those terms, and is therefore a possibility for the best agricultural soil. However, future lab work conducted by Stanford students to examine the nutrient content of the basil tissue, along

  1. Effects of manure compost application on soil microbial community diversity and soil microenvironments in a temperate cropland in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Zhen; Liu, Haitao; Wang, Na; Guo, Liyue; Meng, Jie; Ding, Na; Wu, Guanglei; Jiang, Gaoming

    2014-01-01

    The long-term application of excessive chemical fertilizers has resulted in the degeneration of soil quality parameters such as soil microbial biomass, communities, and nutrient content, which in turn affects crop health, productivity, and soil sustainable productivity. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and efficient solution for rehabilitating degraded cropland soils by precisely quantifying soil quality parameters through the application of manure compost and bacteria fertilizers or its combination during maize growth. We investigated dynamic impacts on soil microbial count, biomass, basal respiration, community structure diversity, and enzyme activity using six different treatments [no fertilizer (CK), N fertilizer (N), N fertilizer + bacterial fertilizer (NB), manure compost (M), manure compost + bacterial fertilizer (MB), and bacterial fertilizer (B)] in the plowed layer (0-20 cm) of potted soil during various maize growth stages in a temperate cropland of eastern China. Denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting analysis showed that the structure and composition of bacterial and fungi communities in the six fertilizer treatments varied at different levels. The Shannon index of bacterial and fungi communities displayed the highest value in the MB treatments and the lowest in the N treatment at the maize mature stage. Changes in soil microorganism community structure and diversity after different fertilizer treatments resulted in different microbial properties. Adding manure compost significantly increased the amount of cultivable microorganisms and microbial biomass, thus enhancing soil respiration and enzyme activities (pcompost plus bacterial fertilizers can immediately improve the microbial community structure and diversity of degraded cropland soils.

  2. Importance of soil amendments: survival of bacterial pathogens in manure and compost used as organic fertizliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological soil amendments (BSA’s) like manure and compost are frequently used as organic fertilizers to soils to improve its physical and chemical properties. However, BSAs have been known to be a reservoir for enteric bacterial pathogens like enterohemorrhagic E. coli, Salmonella spp, and Listeri...

  3. Effects of poultry manure on soil biochemical properties in phthalic acid esters contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Qin, Xiaojian; Ren, Xuqin; Zhou, Haifeng

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of poultry manure (PM) on soil biological properties in DBP- and DEHP-contaminated soils. An indoor incubation experiment was conducted. Soil microbial biomass C (Cmic), soil enzymatic activities, and microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentrations were measured during incubation period. The results indicated that except alkaline phosphatase activity, DBP and DEHP had negative effects on Cmic, dehydrogenase, urease, protease activities, and contents of total PLFA. However, 5 % PM treatment alleviated the negative effects of PAEs on the above biochemical parameters. In DBP-contaminated soil, 5 % PM amendment even resulted in dehydroenase activity and Cmic content increasing by 17.8 and 11.8 % on the day 15 of incubation, respectively. During the incubation periods, the total PLFA contents decreased maximumly by 17.2 and 11.6 % in DBP- and DEHP-contaminated soils without PM amendments, respectively. Compared with those in uncontaminated soil, the total PLFA contents increased slightly and the value of bacPLFA/fugalPLFA increased significantly in PAE-contaminated soils with 5 % PM amendment. Nevertheless, in both contaminated soils, the effects of 5 % PM amendment on the biochemical parameters were not observed with 10 % PM amendment. In 10 % PM-amended soils, DBP and DEHP had little effect on Cmic, soil enzymatic activities, and microbial community composition. At the end of incubation, the effects of PAEs on these parameters disappeared, irrespective of PM amendment. The application of PM ameliorated the negative effect of PAEs on soil biological environment. However, further work is needed to study the effect of PM on soil microbial gene expression in order to explain the change mechanisms of soil biological properties.

  4. Availability of P and K after application of ashes and biochars from thermally-treated solid manures to soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    - , bicarbonate- and resin-extractable P and exchangeable K were measured after incubation. The ashes/biochars studied derived from gasification (ca 730°C) of poultry manure, gasification of solid manure, co-combustion of solid manure with straw (ca 700 and 900°C) and pyrolysis of solid manure (250, 400 or 500°C......, biochar). Resin-extractable P in soil decreased from superphosphate > solid manure=pyrolysis ash 250-500°C >poultry gasification ash>solid manure gasification ash>manure co-combustion ash. Only 20-60% of ash K was water-soluble, but soon after application to soil 58-88% of the applied K was exchangeable...... compared to a KCl reference. The heavy metal content of the tested ashes was below the Danish threshold value for wastes like ash, except for Ni in the poultry ash....

  5. Growth of Cymbopogon citratus and Vetiveria zizanioides on Cu mine tailings amended with chicken manure and manure-soil mixtures: a pot scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manab; Maiti, Subodh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The Rakha Cu mines are located at East Singhbhum, Jharkhand, India and their activities ceased in 2001. The tailings (residue) were permanently stored in tailings ponds that require vegetation to reduce their impact on the environment. A pot scale study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Ex Nees and Vetiveria zizanioides (L) Nash for the reclamation of Cu tailings and to evaluate the effects of chicken manure and soil-manure mixtures on the revegetation of such tailings. Application of manure and soil-manure mixtures resulted in significant increase in pH, EC, OC, CEC and nutritional status of Cu tailings. The environmentally available and DTPA extractable Cu and Ni concentration reduced in amended tailings, while Mn and Zn content increased significantly. Plants grown on amended tailings accumulated lesser Cu and Ni but higher Mn and Zn. Plant biomass increased proportionally to manure and soil-manure mixtures application rates. Lemon grass produced more biomass than vetiver grass in either of the amended tailings. From the pot experiment, it can be suggested that application of chicken manure @ 5% (w/w) and in combination with lemon grass, could be a viable option for reclamation (phytostabilization) of toxic tailings.

  6. Influence of organic manure amendments on water repellency, water entry value, and water retention of soil samples from a tropical Ultisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyanage T.D.P.

    2016-06-01

    did not generate adverse effects on water entry and increased the water retention. It was clear that intermixing of small quantities of hydrophobic organic manure with organic manures commonly used in Sri Lankan agriculture, would not generate unfavorable impacts on soils.

  7. Persistence and leaching potential of microorganisms and mineral N in animal manure applied to intact soil columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M G Mostofa; Forslund, Anita; Bui, Xuan Thanh; Juhler, René K; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens in the soil. A study was conducted to investigate the leaching potentials of a phage (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B) and two bacteria, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus species, in a liquid fraction of raw pig slurry obtained by solid-liquid separation of this slurry and in this liquid fraction after ozonation, when applied to intact soil columns by subsurface injection. We also compared leaching potentials of surface-applied and subsurface-injected raw slurry. The columns were exposed to irrigation events (3.5-h period at 10 mm h(-1)) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of incubation with collection of leachate. By the end of incubation, the distribution and survival of microorganisms in the soil of each treatment and in nonirrigated columns with injected raw slurry or liquid fraction were determined. E. coli in the leachates was quantified by both plate counts and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess the proportions of culturable and nonculturable (viable and nonviable) cells. Solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution in soil of contaminants in the liquid fraction compared to raw slurry, and the percent recovery of E. coli and Enterococcus species was higher for the liquid fraction than for raw slurry after the four leaching events. The liquid fraction also resulted in more leaching of all contaminants except Enterococcus species than did raw slurry. Ozonation reduced E. coli leaching only. Injection enhanced the leaching potential of the microorganisms investigated compared to surface application, probably because of a better survival with subsurface injection and a shorter leaching path.

  8. Effects of long-term organic material applications and green manure crop cultivation on soil organic carbon in rain fed area of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohide Sugino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-term field experiment on organic material application and crop rotation with green manure crops has been conducted since 1976 at Lopburi Agricultural Research and Development Center, Department of Agriculture, Lop Buri Province, Thailand, to clarify the effect of organic materials and green manure crop on soil organic carbon changes. The stock change factors that stand for the relative change of soil organic carbon on the carbon stock in a reference condition (native vegetation that is not degraded or improved. Stock change factor for input of organic matter (FI, representing different levels of C input to soil such as organic material application, crop residue treatment and green manure crop cultivation, was computed with the present field experimental results. While the computed FI of "High input with manure" was within the range of IPCC default FI value, some of the computed FI of " High input without manure" was much higher than the IPCC default though it was varied due to the biomass production and nutrient contents of the green manure crops planted as the second crops after corn. Therefore, the FI computed by field experimental results can contribute to more accurate estimation of SOC changes in farm land especially in Southeast Asia because the default FI mostly depends on the experimental data in temperate zones. Moreover, the field experiment has focused the effect of reduced tillage practices on SOC changes and corn yield since 2011. The results of the experiment will be used to compute Stock change factor for management regime (FMG which represents the effects of tillage operations.

  9. Carbon dynamics in different soil types amended with pig slurry, pig manure and its biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanardag, Ibrahim H.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Büyükkiliç-Yanardaǧ, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet R.

    2014-05-01

    Determining the structure and components of soil and soil organic matter is very important in terms of sustainable agriculture and forestry and greenhouse gases emissions. Organic management can increase labile C and N in the short-term, and total soil C and N in the long-term, but less is known about how management practices may affect soil organic C (SOC)quality and stability. Methods to improve the management of livestock slurries to reduce the environmental impact and carbon losses are gaining importance. There is a need to find the best wastes treatment which enhances soil fertility but also carbon sequestration, to mitigate the effects of global warming. The objective of this study was to assess the short-term changes in SOC pools, using raw pig slurry, the solid phase of pig slurry, and its biochar as amendment in different soil types (Regosol, Luvisol and Kastanozem). The three different amendments were applied at 5 g C kg-1 soil. An unamended soil for each type was used as control. Soils were incubated in triplicate for 60 days at 25ºC and at 55% of their water holding capacity. Samples were sampled to monitor the evolution of soil organic and inorganic carbon, recalcitrant carbon, soluble carbon, carbon mineralization, SOC thermal distribution (thermogravimetric analysis - differential scanning calorimetry - quadrupole mass spectrometry), and characterization of functional groups (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)). Results showed that soils amended with raw pig slurry and the solid phase of the slurry showed higher values of soluble carbon, and higher carbon mineralization rates compared to biochar application, which showed values similar to controls. SOC increased at the end of incubation with biochar and the solid phase of the slurry applications in Kastanozem and Regosol. Thermogravimetric results showed an increased weight loss of the Regosol compared to Luvisol and Kastanozem, owing to the higher content of soil carbonates. Luvisol and

  10. Ageing of atrazine in manure amended soils assessed by bioavailability to Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Bælum, Jacob; Strobel, Bjarne W.;

    2014-01-01

    bacteria Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP. Throughout an ageing period of 90 days bioavailability was investigated at days 1, 10, 32, 60 and 90, where ~108 cells g−1 of the ADP strain was inoculated to the 14C-atrazine exposed soil and 14CO2 was collected over 7 days as a measure of mineralized atrazine. Even...... though the bioavailable residue decreased in all of the three soils as time proceeded, we found that ageing occurred faster in the topsoils rich in organic carbon than in subsoil. For one topsoil rich in organic carbon content, Simmelkær, we observed a higher degree of ageing when treated with manure....... Contrarily, sorption experiments showed less sorption to Simmelkær treated with manure than the untreated soil indicating that sorption processes are not the only mechanisms of ageing. The other topsoil low in organic carbon content, Ringe, showed no significant difference in ageing between the manure...

  11. Tracking agricultural soil nitric oxide emission variations with novel isotopic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. J.; Chai, J.; Guo, F.; Overby, S.; Dell, C. J.; Karsten, H.; Hastings, M. G.

    2016-12-01

    Agricultural production systems impact the reactive nitrogen cycle via atmospheric nitrogen emissions including nitric oxide, denoted as total nitrogen oxides (NOx). NOx serve as precursors to ozone and nitrate aerosols, influencing air quality, radiative forcing, and ecosystem health. With recent declines in fuel combustion sources, soil emissions are an increasing contributor to NOx budgets. However, spatially heterogeneous, episodic soil NOx pulses are challenging to constrain and remain highly uncertain. Using a novel hourly resolution soil flux chamber-based NOx collection method, we investigate fertilizer management and climatic controls on cropland soil NOx flux and nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N-NOx) natural abundance variations with field-based and laboratory measurements. No-till, rain-fed corn plots were sampled daily (triplicate isotope samples per treatment per day) following broadcast and shallow-disk injected dairy manure applications as part of a sustainable dairy cropping study in State College, PA (Penn State University; USDA-ARS). Injected manure plots exhibited median fluxes two times higher with larger spatial variations than that for broadcast manure. Soil emission δ15N-NOx signatures of -45 to -20 ‰ were correlated with flux magnitudes across both treatments. Median δ15N-NOx signatures for injected manure were lower with larger spatial variations (-32 ± 9 ‰) than that for broadcast manure (-24 ± 1.5 ‰). These differences are likely linked with higher NH4+ availability for nitrification with injected manure in contrast with higher NH3 volatilization and higher soil δ15N-NH4+ for broadcast manure. Although NOx fluxes were suppressed 1-2 days after heavy rainfall (>35 % water-filled pore space), δ15N-NOx remained consistent. Controlled laboratory incubation studies will also be presented quantifying links with inorganic substrate and fertilizer δ15N. Our observations suggest that agricultural soil δ15N-NOx signatures are

  12. Decomposition of 15N-labelled ryegrass in soils from a long-term field experiment with different manuring strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B.K.; Jensen, E.S.; Magid, J.

    1995-01-01

    The cycling of nitrogen in agroecosystems is influenced by the amount and quality of organic matter applied to soils. The N-mineralization of N-15-labelled ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was significantly slightly higher in a soil with long-term application of a high amount of farmyard manure (FYM......) than in soils receiving either mineral fertilizer, a low amount of FYM or no manure. However, in general the decomposition of ryegrass in the selected soils varied only slightly. The microbial decomposition processes differed somewhat in the soil manured with a low amount of FYM from those receiving...

  13. Effects of manure compost application on soil microbial community diversity and soil microenvironments in a temperate cropland in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhen

    Full Text Available The long-term application of excessive chemical fertilizers has resulted in the degeneration of soil quality parameters such as soil microbial biomass, communities, and nutrient content, which in turn affects crop health, productivity, and soil sustainable productivity. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and efficient solution for rehabilitating degraded cropland soils by precisely quantifying soil quality parameters through the application of manure compost and bacteria fertilizers or its combination during maize growth. We investigated dynamic impacts on soil microbial count, biomass, basal respiration, community structure diversity, and enzyme activity using six different treatments [no fertilizer (CK, N fertilizer (N, N fertilizer + bacterial fertilizer (NB, manure compost (M, manure compost + bacterial fertilizer (MB, and bacterial fertilizer (B] in the plowed layer (0-20 cm of potted soil during various maize growth stages in a temperate cropland of eastern China. Denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE fingerprinting analysis showed that the structure and composition of bacterial and fungi communities in the six fertilizer treatments varied at different levels. The Shannon index of bacterial and fungi communities displayed the highest value in the MB treatments and the lowest in the N treatment at the maize mature stage. Changes in soil microorganism community structure and diversity after different fertilizer treatments resulted in different microbial properties. Adding manure compost significantly increased the amount of cultivable microorganisms and microbial biomass, thus enhancing soil respiration and enzyme activities (p<0.01, whereas N treatment showed the opposite results (p<0.01. However, B and NB treatments minimally increased the amount of cultivable microorganisms and microbial biomass, with no obvious influence on community structure and soil enzymes. Our findings indicate that the application of manure

  14. Effects of Manure Compost Application on Soil Microbial Community Diversity and Soil Microenvironments in a Temperate Cropland in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Zhen; Liu, Haitao; Wang, Na; Guo, Liyue; Meng, Jie; Ding, Na; Wu, Guanglei; Jiang, Gaoming

    2014-01-01

    The long-term application of excessive chemical fertilizers has resulted in the degeneration of soil quality parameters such as soil microbial biomass, communities, and nutrient content, which in turn affects crop health, productivity, and soil sustainable productivity. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and efficient solution for rehabilitating degraded cropland soils by precisely quantifying soil quality parameters through the application of manure compost and bacteria fertilizers or its combination during maize growth. We investigated dynamic impacts on soil microbial count, biomass, basal respiration, community structure diversity, and enzyme activity using six different treatments [no fertilizer (CK), N fertilizer (N), N fertilizer + bacterial fertilizer (NB), manure compost (M), manure compost + bacterial fertilizer (MB), and bacterial fertilizer (B)] in the plowed layer (0–20 cm) of potted soil during various maize growth stages in a temperate cropland of eastern China. Denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting analysis showed that the structure and composition of bacterial and fungi communities in the six fertilizer treatments varied at different levels. The Shannon index of bacterial and fungi communities displayed the highest value in the MB treatments and the lowest in the N treatment at the maize mature stage. Changes in soil microorganism community structure and diversity after different fertilizer treatments resulted in different microbial properties. Adding manure compost significantly increased the amount of cultivable microorganisms and microbial biomass, thus enhancing soil respiration and enzyme activities (p<0.01), whereas N treatment showed the opposite results (p<0.01). However, B and NB treatments minimally increased the amount of cultivable microorganisms and microbial biomass, with no obvious influence on community structure and soil enzymes. Our findings indicate that the application of manure compost plus

  15. Effect of farmyard manure rate on water erosion of a Mediterranean soil: determination of the critical point of inefficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annabi, Mohamed; Bahri, Haithem; Cheick M'Hamed, Hatem; Hermessi, Taoufik

    2016-04-01

    Intensive cultivation of soils, using multiple soil tillage, led to the decrease of their organic matter content and structural stability in several cultivated area of the Mediterranean countries. In these degraded soils, the addition of organic products, traditionally the animal manure, should improve soil health among them the resistance of soil to water erosion. The aim of this study was to evaluate after 1 year of the addition to a cambisoil different doses of farmyard manure on soil organic matter content, on microbial activity and on aggregate stability (proxy to soil resistance to water erosion). The statistical process (bilinear model) was used to found a point at which the addition of the organic product no longer influences the soil resistance to erosion. The farmyard manure issued from a cow breeding was composted passively during 4 months and used to amend a small plots of a cultivated cambisol (silty-clay texture, 0.9% TOC) located in the northeast of Tunisia (Morneg region). The manure was intimately incorporate to the soil. The manure organic matter content was 31%, and its isohumic coefficient was 49%. Twelve dose of manure were tested: from 0 to 220 t C.ha-1. The experiment was started on September 2011. In November 2012, soil sampling was done and soil organic carbon content (Walkley-Black method) and soil aggregate stability (wet method of Le Bissonnais) were assessed. A laboratory incubations of soil+manure mixtures, with the same proportions as tested in the field conditions, was carried at 28°C and at 75% of the mixture field capacity water retention. Carbon mineralization was monitored during three months incubation. Results show that the addition of farmyard manure stimulated the microbial activity proportionally to the added dose. This activation is due to the presence of easily biodegradable carbon in the manure, which increases with increasing manure dose. On the other hand, the addition of manure increased the aggregate stability with

  16. Phosphorus Mobilization from Manure-Amended and Unamended Alkaline Soils to Overlying Water during Simulated Flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarawansha, E A G S; Kumaragamage, D; Flaten, D; Zvomuya, F; Tenuta, M

    2015-07-01

    Anaerobic soil conditions resulting from flooding often enhance release of phosphorus (P) to overlying water. Enhanced P release is well documented for flooded acidic soils; however, there is little information for flooded alkaline soils. We examined the effect of flooding and anaerobic conditions on P mobilization using 12 alkaline soils from Manitoba that were either unamended or amended with solid cattle manure. Pore water and floodwater were analyzed over 8 wk of simulated flooding for dissolved reactive P (DRP), Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn. As expected, manured soils had significantly greater pore and floodwater DRP concentrations than unamended. Flooding increased pore water DRP concentrations significantly in all soils and treatments except one manured clay in which concentrations increased initially and then decreased. Floodwater DRP concentrations increased significantly by two- to 15-fold in 10 soils regardless of amendment treatment but remained relatively stable in the two soils with greatest clay content. Phosphorus release at the onset of flooding was associated with the release of Ca, Mg, and Mn, suggesting that P release may be controlled by the dissolution of Mg and Ca phosphates and reductive dissolution of Mn phosphates. Thereafter, P release was associated with release of Fe, suggesting the reductive dissolution of Fe phosphates. Differences in pore water and floodwater DRP concentrations among soils and amendment treatments and the high variability in P mobilization from pore water to floodwater among soils indicate the need to further investigate chemical reactions responsible for P release and mobility under anaerobic conditions.

  17. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli contamination of root and leaf vegetables grown in soils with incorporated bovine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natvig, Erin E; Ingham, Steven C; Ingham, Barbara H; Cooperband, Leslie R; Roper, Teryl R

    2002-06-01

    Bovine manure, with or without added Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (three strains), was incorporated into silty clay loam (SCL) and loamy sand (LS) soil beds (53- by 114-cm surface area, 17.5 cm deep) and maintained in two controlled-environment chambers. The S. enterica serovar Typhimurium inoculum was 4 to 5 log CFU/g in manure-fertilized soil. The conditions in the two environmental chambers, each containing inoculated and uninoculated beds of manure-fertilized soil, simulated daily average Madison, Wis., weather conditions (hourly temperatures, rainfall, daylight, and humidity) for a 1 March or a 1 June manure application and subsequent vegetable growing seasons ending 9 August or 28 September, respectively. Core soil samples were taken biweekly from both inoculated and uninoculated soil beds in each chamber. Radishes, arugula, and carrots were planted in soil beds, thinned, and harvested. Soils, thinned vegetables, and harvested vegetables were analyzed for S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli (indigenous in manure). After the 1 March manure application, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was detected at low levels in both soils on 31 May, but not on vegetables planted 1 May and harvested 12 July from either soil. After the 1 June manure application, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was detected in SCL soil on 7 September and on radishes and arugula planted in SCL soil on 15 August and harvested on 27 September. In LS soil, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium died at a similar rate (P >or= 0.05) after the 1 June manure application and was less often detected on arugula and radishes harvested from this soil compared to the SCL soil. Pathogen levels on vegetables were decreased by washing. Manure application in cool (daily average maximum temperature of 20 degrees C) summer conditions is not recommended when vegetable planting is done between the time of manure application and late summer. A late fall manure application will not increase the

  18. Adsorption and degradation of five selected antibiotics in agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Chu, L M

    2016-03-01

    Large quantities of antibiotics are being added to agricultural fields worldwide through the application of wastewater, manures and biosolids, resulting in antibiotic contamination and elevated environmental risks in terrestrial environments. Most studies on the environmental fate of antibiotics focus on aquatic environments or wastewater treatment plants. Little is known about the behavior of antibiotics at environmentally relevant concentrations in agricultural soil. In this study we evaluated the adsorption and degradation of five different antibiotics (tetracycline, sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, erythromycin, and chloramphenicol) in sterilized and non-sterilized agricultural soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Adsorption was highest for tetracycline (Kd, 1093 L/kg), while that for sulfamethazine was negligible (Kd, 1.365 L/kg). All five antibiotics were susceptible to microbial degradation under aerobic conditions, with half-lives ranging from 2.9 to 43.3 d in non-sterilized soil and 40.8 to 86.6 d in sterilized soil. Degradation occurred at a higher rate under aerobic conditions but was relatively persistent under anaerobic conditions. For all the antibiotics, a higher initial concentration was found to slow down degradation and prolong persistence in soil. The degradation behavior of the antibiotics varied in relation to their physicochemical properties as well as the microbial activities and aeration of the recipient soil. The poor adsorption and relative persistence of sulfamethazine under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions suggest that it may pose a higher risk to groundwater quality. An equation was proposed to predict the fate of antibiotics in soil under different field conditions, and assess their risks to the environment.

  19. Immobilization of Cd in landfill-leachate-contaminated soil with cow manure compost as soil conditioners: A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhuwei; Wang, Jia; Wan, Rui; Xi, Shuang; Chen, Zhuqi; Chen, Zhulei; Yu, Yingjian; Long, Sijie; Wang, Huabin

    2016-12-01

    Introducing cow manure compost as an amendment in landfill-leachate-contaminated soils is proved to be an effective technique for the immobilization of Cd in this study. Landfill-leachate-contaminated soil was collected from an unlined landfill in China and amended with a different blending quantity of cow manure compost (0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 g per 200 g soil), which was made by mixing cow manure and chaff at a ratio of 1/1 and maturing for 6 months. pH values of five different blending quantity mixtures increased by 0.2-0.4, and the organic matter levels increased by 2.5-7%, during a remediation period of 5 weeks. Four fractions of Cd named exchangeable Cd, reducible Cd, oxidizable Cd, and residual Cd in soil were respectively analyzed by a sequential extraction procedure. Introducing the cow manure compost application resulted in more than 40% lower exchangeable Cd but a higher concentration of oxidizable Cd in soils, and mass balance results showed nearly no Cd absorption by applied material, indicating that transformation of exchangeable Cd into oxidization forms was the main mechanism of Cd immobilization when cow manure compost was used as an amendment. The Pearson correlation showed that increasing of pH values significantly improved the efficiency of Cd immobilization, with a correlation coefficiency of 0.940 (p compost, and findings of this work can be integrated to guide the application. Addition of cow manure compost (CMC) was effective in reducing exchangeable Cd in landfill-leachate-contaminated soils (LLCS). The immobilization effect of Cd was mainly assigned to the redistribution of labile soil Cd. Organic matter (OM) and pH value increased with CMC application. The pH values were more sensitive to Cd immobilization efficiency. It was proved that CMC can be safely and effectively used for the restoration of LLCS.

  20. Organic matter fractions and soil fertility under the influence of liming, vermicompost and cattle manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagi Renato

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates effects of cattle manure vermicompost in association with liming on soil fertility indexes. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse conditions, in pots containing samples of a Typic Hapludox, medium-textured soil. Five levels of vermicompost (equivalent to 0, 28, 42, 56, and 70 t ha-1, dry weight and five liming levels (to raise base saturation to 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60% were combined in a factorial scheme and samples were incubated for 180 days. Samples of the same soil received the equivalent to 70 t ha-1 of the cattle manure used to produce the vermicompost, and the same lime rates. Cattle manure was better than vermicompost to supply K and Mg. Small differences in P supply were observed between the manures. The vermicompost increased the levels of Ca, pH, organic matter (OM and CEC more than the manure. C-humic acids decreased and C-humin increased with vermicompost application. With liming, C-humic acids decreased, but the total content of OM was not affected.

  1. Dissolution of rock phosphate in animal manure soil amendment and lettuce growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Agyarko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in pots on the field to assess the effect of different quantities of poultry manure (PM, cattle manure (CM and pig manure (PG on the release of available phosphorus from Togo rock phosphate (RP and lettuce growth. There were eleven (11 treatments which were: Control (soil only; 2.5g RP; 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 5gCM; 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 5gPM; 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 5gPG, applied per kg soil, using the Completely Randomized Design (CRD with three replications. Available phosphorus and other parameters were assessed using standard methods. Results were statistically analyzed using the the GenStat (11th Edition statistical software package. The amount and type of animal manure in the amendment affected the amount of the available P released. The addition of 2.5g manure to 2.5g RP in a kg of soil significantly (P<0.05 increased available P by 4 to 7 times over the sole 2.5g RP/kg soil treatment. Doubling the amount of manure in the amendment (5g manure + 2.5g RP almost doubled the amount of P released, with the poultry manure combinations being more significant. The amount of available P in the soil positively related to the plant height (R2=63, leaf area (R2=0.55, dry weight (R2=0.73 and the percentage P in the leaf (R2=0.88 of lettuce. The PM at 2.5gRP + 5gPM recorded the highest significant (P<0.05 values. The study has provided further basis for manure selection and quantities to be used in enhancing the release of P from rock phosphate. However, investigations need to be continued using nuclear techniques.

  2. Alterations in soil microbial activity and N-transformation processes due to sulfadiazine loads in pig-manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotzerke, Anja [Berlin University of Technology, Institute of Ecology, Franklinstrasse 29, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: anja.kotzerke@tu-berlin.de; Sharma, Shilpi [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)], E-mail: shilpi.sharma@gsf.de; Schauss, Kristina [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)], E-mail: kristina.schauss@gsf.de; Heuer, Holger [Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry (BBA), Messeweg 11-12, 38104 Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: h.heuer@bba.de; Thiele-Bruhn, Soeren [Trier University, Soil Science, Behringstrasse 21, 54286 Trier (Germany)], E-mail: thiele@uni-trier.de; Smalla, Kornelia [Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry (BBA), Messeweg 11-12, 38104 Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: k.smalla@bba.de; Wilke, Berndt-Michael [Berlin University of Technology, Institute of Ecology, Franklinstrasse 29, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: bmwilke@tu-berlin.de; Schloter, Michael [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)], E-mail: michael.schloter@gsf.de

    2008-05-15

    Most veterinary drugs enter the environment via manure application. However, it is unclear how these substances interact with soil biota. Therefore, it was the aim of the present study to investigate the effects of manure containing different concentrations of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) on the soil microbial communities. It was shown that manure alone has a stimulating effect on microbial activity. Only potential nitrification was negatively influenced by manure application. The addition of SDZ to the manure reduced microbial activity. Depending on the SDZ concentration, levels of activity were in the range of the control soil without manure application. Also, selected processes in nitrogen turnover were negatively influenced by the addition of SDZ to the manure, with nitrification being the only exception. The effects were visible for up to 4 days after application of the manure with or without SDZ and were correlated with the bioavailability of the antibiotic. - This study gives first insights into the effects of manure containing the antibiotic sulfadiazine on microbial activity and nitrogen transformation potentials in soil.

  3. Dissolution of rock phosphate in animal manure soil amendment and lettuce growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kofi Agyarko; Akwasi Adutwum Abunyewa; Emmanuel Kwasi Asiedu; Emmanuel Heva

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in pots on the field to assess the effect of different quantities of poultry manure (PM), cattle manure (CM) and pig manure (PG) on the release of available phosphorus from Togo rock phosphate (RP) and lettuce growth. There were eleven (11) treatments which were: Control (soil only); 2.5g RP; 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 5gCM; 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 5gPM; 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 5gPG, applied per kg soil, using the Completely Randomized Design...

  4. Dissolution of rock phosphate in animal manure soil amendment and lettuce growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kofi Agyarko; Akwasi Adutwum Abunyewa; Emmanuel Kwasi Asiedu; Emmanuel Heva

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in pots on the field to assess the effect of different quantities of poultry manure (PM), cattle manure (CM) and pig manure (PG) on the release of available phosphorus from Togo rock phosphate (RP) and lettuce growth. There were eleven (11) treatments which were: Control (soil only); 2.5g RP; 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 2.5g CM; 2.5gRP + 5gCM; 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPM; 2.5gRP + 5gPM; 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 2.5gPG; 2.5gRP + 5gPG, applied per kg soil, using the Completely Randomized Design...

  5. Trans-disciplinary soil science research: Impacts of dairy nutrition on manure chemistry and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The on-going trend of consolidation and intensification of animal agriculture requires a greater dependence on purchased feed. Larger livestock farms and more imported feed can result in the excretion of manure nutrients that may surpass the recycling capacity of local land, air, and water resource...

  6. Evaluating antibiotic resistance genes in soils with applied manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics are commonly used in livestock production to promote growth and combat disease. Recent studies have shown the potential for spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) to the environment following application of livestock manures. In this study, concentrations of bacteria with ARG in soi...

  7. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroder, J.J.; Bechini, L.; Bittman, S.; Brito, M.P.; Delin, S.; Lalor, S.T.J.; Morvan, T.; Chambers, B.J.; Sakrabani, R.; Sørensen, P.B.

    2013-01-01

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation of

  8. Greenhouse gas fluxes from agricultural soils of Kenya and Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Todd S.; Mpanda, Mathew; Pelster, David E.; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Rufino, Mariana C.; Thiong'o, Margaret; Mutuo, Paul; Abwanda, Sheila; Rioux, Janie; Kimaro, Anthony A.; Neufeldt, Henry

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in soils is a prerequisite to constrain national, continental, and global GHG budgets. However, data characterizing fluxes from agricultural soils of Africa are markedly limited. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) fluxes at 10 farmer-managed sites of six crop types for 1 year in Kenya and Tanzania using static chambers and gas chromatography. Cumulative emissions ranged between 3.5-15.9 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1, 0.4-3.9 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1, and -1.2-10.1 kg CH4-C ha-1 yr-1, depending on crop type, environmental conditions, and management. Manure inputs increased CO2 (p = 0.03), but not N2O or CH4, emissions. Soil cultivation had no discernable effect on emissions of any of the three gases. Fluxes of CO2 and N2O were 54-208% greater (p < 0.05) during the wet versus the dry seasons for some, but not all, crop types. The heterogeneity and seasonality of fluxes suggest that the available data describing soil fluxes in Africa, based on measurements of limited duration of only a few crop types and agroecological zones, are inadequate to use as a basis for estimating the impact of agricultural soils on GHG budgets. A targeted effort to understand the magnitude and mechanisms underlying African agricultural soil fluxes is necessary to accurately estimate the influence of this source on the global climate system and for determining mitigation strategies.

  9. Response of soil microbiota to nine-year application of swine manure and urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Manure fertilization is a common practice, but little is known about its impacts on soil microbial activity and organic matter. Aiming to evaluate soil microbial response to nine years of successive applications of swine manure, organic carbon (TOC, total nitrogen (TN, pH, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, basal respiration (BR, metabolic quotient (qCO2, and enzyme (ß-glucosidase, phosphatase, arylsulphatase, and FDA activities were measured in the 0-10cm soil layer, in a no-tillage system. Treatments were: control soil without fertilization (C, and application of two doses (104 and 209kg of N ha-1year-1 of urea (U1 and U2, pig slurry (PS1 and PS2 and deep litter (DL1 and DL2. TOC, TN, soil pH, MBC, and BR increased in soil fertilized with DL, and were lower in U treatments. Soils with U and DL application had higher qCO2, related to different sources of stressors like nutrient imbalance. Phosphatase and ß-glucosidase activities were not affected by treatments, increased with time, and had a strong correlation with MBC. We conclude that long-term swine manure applications increase microbial activity and soil organic matter, mainly in DL form; while urea applications have negative impacts on these indicators.

  10. Ammonia transformations and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in a clay soil underlying a manure pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Yonatan; Baram, Shahar; Dahan, Ofer; Ronen, Zeev; Nejidat, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Unlined manure ponds are constructed on clay soil worldwide to manage farm waste. Seepage of ammonia-rich liquor into underlying soil layers contributes to groundwater contamination by nitrate. To identify the possible processes that lead to the production of nitrate from ammonia in this oxygen-limited environment, we studied the diversity and abundance of ammonia-transforming microorganisms under an unlined manure pond. The numbers of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacteria were most abundant in the top of the soil profile and decreased significantly with depth (0.5 m), correlating with soil pore-water ammonia concentrations and soil ammonia concentrations, respectively. On the other hand, the numbers of ammonia-oxidizing archaea were relatively constant throughout the soil profile (10(7) amoA copies per g(soil)). Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were detected mainly in the top 0.2 m. The results suggest that nitrate accumulation in the vadose zone under the manure pond could be the result of complete aerobic nitrification (ammonia oxidation to nitrate) and could exist as a byproduct of anammox activity. While the majority of the nitrogen was removed within the 0.5-m soil section, possibly by combined anammox and heterotrophic denitrification, a fraction of the produced nitrate leached into the groundwater.

  11. Soil management: The key to soil quality and sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Gottlieb; Barão, Lúcia; Soares, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Today, after the International Year of Soils in 2015 and the proclamation by the International Union of Soil Sciences of the International Decade of Soils 2015-2020, much attention is paid to soil quality. Often used interchangeably, both terms, soil quality and soil health, refer to dynamic soil properties such as soil organic matter or pH, while soil quality also includes inherent soil properties such as texture or mineral composition. However, it is the dynamic or manageable properties that adequate soil management can influence and thus contribute to a well-functioning soil environment capable to deliver the soil-mediated provisioning, regulating and supporting ecosystem services and soil functions. This contribution intends to highlight the key principles of sustainable soil management and provide evidence that they are compliant with a productive, resource efficient and ecologically friendly agriculture. Paradoxically, and despite benefitting from good soil quality, agriculture itself when based on conventional, especially intensive tillage-based soil management practices contributes decisively to soil degradation and to several of the soil threats as identified by the Soil Thematic Strategy, being soil erosion and soil organic matter decline the most notorious ones. To mitigate soil degradation, the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy has introduced conservation measures, mainly through cross-compliance measures supposed to guarantee minimum soil cover, to limit soil erosion and to maintain the levels of soil organic matter. However, it remains unclear to what extent EU member states apply these 'Good Agricultural and Environmental Condition' (GAEC) measures to their utilized agricultural areas. Effective and cost-efficient soil management systems able to conserve or to restore favourable soil conditions, to minimize soil erosion and to invert soil organic matter and soil biodiversity decline and improve soil structure are those capable to mimic as

  12. Land application of tylosin and chlortetracycline swine manure: Impacts to soil nutrients and soil microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James J; Dreis, Erin K; Lupo, Christopher D; Clay, Sharon A

    2011-01-01

    The land application of aged chortetracycle (CTC) and tylosin-containing swine manure was investigated to determine associated impacts to soil microbial respiration, nutrient (phosphorus, ammonium, nitrate) cycling, and soil microbial community structure under laboratory conditions. Two silty clay loam soils common to southeastern South Dakota were used. Aerobic soil respiration results using batch reactors containing a soil-manure mixture showed that interactions between soil, native soil microbial populations, and antimicrobials influenced CO(2) generation. The aged tylosin treatment resulted in the greatest degree of CO(2) inhibition, while the aged CTC treatment was similar to the no-antimicrobial treatment. For soil columns in which manure was applied at a one-time agronomic loading rate, there was no significant difference in soil-P behavior between either aged CTC or tylosin and the no-antimicrobial treatment. For soil-nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate), the aged CTC treatment resulted in rapid ammonium accumulation at the deeper 40cm soil column depth, while nitrate production was minimal. The aged CTC treatment microbial community structure was different than the no-antimicrobial treatment, where amines/amide and carbohydrate chemical guilds utilization profile were low. The aged tylosin treatment also resulted in ammonium accumulation at 40 cm column depth, however nitrate accumulation also occurred concurrently at 10 cm. The microbial community structure for the aged tylosin was also significantly different than the no-antimicrobial treatment, with a higher degree of amines/amides and carbohydrate chemical guild utilization compared to the no-antimicrobial treatment. Study results suggest that land application of CTC and tylosin-containing manure appears to fundamentally change microbial-mediated nitrogen behavior within soil A horizons.

  13. Tillage system and time post-liquid dairy manure: Effects on runoff, sediment and nutrients losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liquid manure applied in agricultural lands improves soil quality. However, incorrect management of manure may cause environmental problems due to sediments and nutrients losses associated to runoff. The aims of this work were to: (i) evaluate the time effect of post-liquid dairy manure (LDM) applic...

  14. Knowledge needs, available practices, and future challenges in agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Georgina; Whitfield, Mike G.; Cooper, Julia; De Vries, Franciska T.; Collison, Martin; Dedousis, Thanasis; Heathcote, Richard; Roth, Brendan; Mohammed, Shamal; Molyneux, Andrew; Van der Putten, Wim H.; Dicks, Lynn V.; Sutherland, William J.; Bardgett, Richard D.

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this study is to clarify research needs and identify effective practices for enhancing soil health. This was done by a synopsis of soil literature that specifically tests practices designed to maintain or enhance elements of soil health. Using an expert panel of soil scientists and practitioners, we then assessed the evidence in the soil synopsis to highlight practices beneficial to soil health, practices considered detrimental, and practices that need further investigation. A partial Spearman's correlation was used to analyse the panel's responses. We found that increased certainty in scientific evidence led to practices being considered to be more effective due to them being empirically justified. This suggests that for practices to be considered effective and put into practice, a substantial body of research is needed to support the effectiveness of the practice. This is further supported by the high proportion of practices (33 %), such as changing the timing of ploughing or amending the soil with crops grown as green manures, that experts felt had unknown effectiveness, usually due to insufficiently robust evidence. Only 7 of the 27 reviewed practices were considered to be beneficial, or likely to be beneficial in enhancing soil health. These included the use of (1) integrated nutrient management (organic and inorganic amendments); (2) cover crops; (3) crop rotations; (4) intercropping between crop rows or underneath the main crop; (5) formulated chemical compounds (such as nitrification inhibitors); (6) control of traffic and traffic timing; and (7) reducing grazing intensity. Our assessment, which uses the Delphi technique, is increasingly used to improve decision-making in conservation and agricultural policy, identified practices that can be put into practice to benefit soil health. Moreover, it has enabled us to identify practices that need further research and a need for increased communication between researchers, policy-makers, and

  15. Influence of sustainable management on aggregate stability and soil organic matter on agricultural soil of southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morugan-Coronado, Alicia; Arcenegui, Victoria; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Gomez-Lucas, Ignacio; Garcia-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2016-04-01

    Intensive agriculture has increased crop yields but also posed severe environmental problems. Unsustainable land management such as excessive tillage can lead to a loss of soil fertility and a drastic reduction in the aggregate stability and soil organic matter content. However sustainable agriculture can keep good crop yields with minimal impact on ecological factors conserving the soil quality and its ecosystem services. Sustainable agriculture management promotes the maintenance of soil organic matter levels providing plant nutrients through the microbial decomposition of organic materials. Also this management has a positive effect on soil structure with the improvement of stability of aggregates. The resistance of soil aggregates to the slaking and dispersive effects of water (aggregate stability) is important for maintaining the structure in arable soils. Our purpose was to investigate and compare the effects of sustainable agricultural practices versus intensive agriculture on aggregate stability and soil organic matter. Three agricultural areas are being monitored in the southern of Spain, two of them with citrus orchards (AL) and (FE) and one with grapevine(PA). In all of them two agricultural treatments are being developed, organic with no-tillage management(O) and inorganic fertilization with herbicide application and intensive tillage (I). The sustainable agricultural management (manure, no tillage and vegetation cover) contributed to the improve of soil conditions, increasing organic matter and aggregate stability. Meanwhile, herbicide treatment and intensive tillage with inorganic fertilization managements resulted in the decreasing of aggregate stability and low levels of soil organic carbon. Soil organic matter content is generally low in all unsustainable treatments plots and tends to decline in aggregate stability and soil physical condition. In both treatments the crop yield are comparable.

  16. Multiple benefits of manure: the key to maintenance of soil fertility and restoration of depleted sandy soils on African smallholder farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zingore, S.; Delve, R.J.; Nyamangara, J.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Manure is a key nutrient resource on smallholder farms in the tropics, especially on poorly buffered sandy soils, due to its multiple benefits for soil fertility. Farmers preferentially apply manure to fields closest to homesteads (homefields), which are more fertile than fields further away (outfie

  17. Agricultural management explains historic changes in regional soil carbon stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wesemael, Bas; Paustian, Keith; Meersmans, Jeroen; Goidts, Esther; Barancikova, Gabriela; Easter, Mark

    2010-08-17

    Agriculture is considered to be among the economic sectors having the greatest greenhouse gas mitigation potential, largely via soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. However, it remains a challenge to accurately quantify SOC stock changes at regional to national scales. SOC stock changes resulting from SOC inventory systems are only available for a few countries and the trends vary widely between studies. Process-based models can provide insight in the drivers of SOC changes, but accurate input data are currently not available at these spatial scales. Here we use measurements from a soil inventory dating from the 1960s and resampled in 2006 covering the major soil types and agricultural regions in Belgium together with region-specific land use and management data and a process-based model. The largest decreases in SOC stocks occurred in poorly drained grassland soils (clays and floodplain soils), consistent with drainage improvements since 1960. Large increases in SOC in well drained grassland soils appear to be a legacy effect of widespread conversion of cropland to grassland before 1960. SOC in cropland increased only in sandy lowland soils, driven by increasing manure additions. Modeled land use and management impacts accounted for more than 70% of the variation in observed SOC changes, and no bias could be demonstrated. There was no significant effect of climate trends since 1960 on observed SOC changes. SOC monitoring networks are being established in many countries. Our results demonstrate that detailed and long-term land management data are crucial to explain the observed SOC changes for such networks.

  18. Ice nucleation properties of agricultural soil dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Isabelle; Funk, Roger; Busse, Jacqueline; Iturri, Antonela; Kirchen, Silke; Leue, Martin; Möhler, Ottmar; Schwartz, Thomas; Sierau, Berko; Toprak, Emre; Ulrich, Andreas; Hoose, Corinna; Leisner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil dust particles emitted from agricultural areas contain large amounts of organic material such as fungi, bacteria and plant debris. Being carrier for potentially highly ice-active biological particles, agricultural soil dusts are candidates for being very ice-active as well. In this work, we present ice nucleation experiments conducted in the AIDA cloud chamber. We investigated the ice nucleation efficiency of four types of soil dust from different regions of the world. Results are presented for the immersion freezing and the deposition nucleation mode: all soil dusts show higher ice nucleation efficiencies than desert dusts, especially at temperatures above 254 K. For one soil dust sample, the effect of heat treatments was investigated. Heat treatments did not affect the ice nucleation efficiency which presumably excludes primary biological particles as the only source of the increased ice nucleation efficiency. Therefore, organo-mineral complexes or organic compounds may contribute substantially to the high ice nucleation activity of agricultural soil dusts.

  19. Effect of integrated forage rotation and manure management on yield, nutrient balance and soil organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Tomasoni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports results from a field experiment established in 1995 and still on going. It is located in Lodi, in the irrigated lowlands of Lombardy, Northern Italy. The experiment compares two rotations: the annual double cropping system, Italian ryegrass + silage maize (R1; and the 6-year rotation, in which three years of double crop Italian ryegrass + silage maize are followed by three years of alfalfa harvested for hay (R6 Each rotation have received two types of dairy manure: i farmyard manure (FYM; ii semi-liquid manure (SLM. The intent was to apply to each unit land area the excreta produced by the number of adult dairy cows sustained, in terms of net energy, by the forage produced in each rotation, corresponding to about 6 adult cows ha-1 for R1 and 4 adult cows ha-1 for R6. Manure was applied with (N1 or without (N0 an extra supply of mineral N in the form of urea. The objectives of this study were: i to assess whether the recycling of two types of manure in two forage rotation systems can sustain crop yields in the medium and long term without additional N fertilization; ii to evaluate the nutrient balance of these integrated forage rotations and manure management systems; iii to compare the effects of farmyard manure and semi-liquid manure on soil organic matter. The application of FYM, compared to SLM, increased yield of silage maize by 19% and alfalfa by 23%, while Italian ryegrass was not influenced by the manure treatment. Yet, silage maize produced 6% more in rotation R6 compared to rotation R1. The mineral nitrogen fertilization increased yield of Italian ryegrass by 11% and of silage maize by 10%. Alfalfa, not directly fertilized with mineral nitrogen, was not influenced by the nitrogen applied to the other crops in rotation. The application of FYM, compared to SLM, increased soil organic matter (SOM by +37 % for the rotation R1, and by +20% for the rotation R6. Conversely, no significant difference on SOM was observed

  20. Survival and Persistence of Nonpathogenic Escherichia coli and Attenuated Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Soils Amended with Animal Manure in a Greenhouse Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manan; Millner, Patricia D; Hashem, Fawzy; Camp, Mary; Whyte, Celia; Graham, Lorna; Cotton, Corrie P

    2016-06-01

    Animal manure provides benefits to agriculture but may contain pathogens that contaminate ready-to-eat produce. U.S. Food and Drug Administration standards include 90- or 120-day intervals between application of manure and harvest of crop to minimize risks of pathogen contamination of fresh produce. Data on factors affecting survival of Escherichia coli in soils under greenhouse conditions are needed. Three separate studies were conducted to evaluate survival of nonpathogenic E. coli (gEc) and attenuated E. coli O157:H7 (attO157) inoculated at either low (4 log CFU/ml) or high (6 log CFU/ml) populations over 56 days. Studies involved two pot sizes (small, 398 cm(3); large, 89 liters), three soil types (sandy loam, SL; clay loam, CL; silt loam, SIL), and four amendments (poultry litter, PL; dairy manure liquids, DML; horse manure, HM; unamended). Amendments were applied to the surface of the soil in either small or large containers. Study 1, conducted in regularly irrigated small containers, showed that populations of gEc and attO157 (2.84 to 2.88 log CFU/g) in PL-amended soils were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than those in DML-amended (0.29 to 0.32 log CFU/g [dry weight] [gdw]) or unamended (0.25 to 0.28 log CFU/gdw) soils; soil type did not affect E. coli survival. Results from study 2, in large pots with CL and SIL, showed that PL-amended soils supported significantly higher attO157 and gEc populations compared with HM-amended or unamended soils. Study 3 compared results from small and large containers that received high inoculum simultaneously. Overall, in both small and large containers, PLamended soils supported higher gEc and attO157 populations compared with HM-amended and unamended soils. Populations of attO157 were significantly greater in small containers (1.83 log CFU/gdw) than in large containers (0.65 log CFU/gdw) at week 8, perhaps because small containers received more regular irrigation than large pots. Regular irrigation of small pots may have

  1. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Jaap; Bechini, Luca; Bittman, Shabtai

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation...... of recommendations. This paper addresses general principles of residual N effects, gives literature-based estimates of them, and reviews to which extent residual N effects are included in ecommendations and regulations in selected countries....

  2. Residual N effects from livestock manure inputs to soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Jaap; Bechini, Luca; Bittman, Shabtai

    Organic inputs including livestock manures provide nitrogen (N) to crops beyond the year of their application. This so-called residual N effect should be taken into account when making decisions on N rates for individual fields, but also when interpreting N response trials in preparation...... of recommendations. This paper addresses general principles of residual N effects, gives literature-based estimates of them, and reviews to which extent residual N effects are included in ecommendations and regulations in selected countries....

  3. Productive and chemical characteristics of Marandu grass in response to poultry manure and soil chiseling

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive and chemical characteristics of Marandu grass fertilized with poultry manure with or without the use of soil chiseling, during a period of 210 days. The experiment was conducted in a Dark-Red Latosol (Haplustox) of sandy texture, in a randomized block design with 4 replicates, in a 6 x 2 factorial scheme (0, 1.037, 2.074, 4.148, 6.222 t ha-1 of poultry manure and an additional treatment with chemical fertilizer based on 2.074...

  4. Effects of Pig Manure Organic Fertilizer Application on Available Nutrient Content and Soil Aggregate Distribution in Fluvo-aquic Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHI Wen-xuan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on environmental risk caused by livestock manure disorderly discharged from integrated livestock and poultry industry. 2-year pot experiment was carried out to study the effects of pig manure organic fertilizer on fluvo-aquic soil organic carbon, available nutrient content and soil aggregate distribution, which designed in 5 levels of organic fertilizer application(0, 6.7, 13.3, 26.7, 40.0 g·kg-1 soil. The results showed that the organic carbon, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, available P and available K contents in soil were enhanced with organic fertilizer application increasing, and the indicators of soil were increased significantly in second year, such as organic carbon content was 2.7%~54.0% higher than that of the first year, alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content was higher 6.7%~34.6%, available P content was higher 36.8%~159.5% and available K content was higher 20.3%~35.7%. There was a significant linear relationship between soil organic carbon content and external organic carbon input. Organic fertilizer application could significantly improve lettuce yield, and it had a significant effect. The soil micro-aggregate contents for 0.053~0.25 mm and 0.5 mm soil macro-aggregates were increased with organic fertilizer application increasing. Organic fertilizer application could promote soil macro-aggregates formation, when the pig manure organic fertilizer applied 40.0 g·kg-1 soil, the contents of >0.25 mm soil aggregates reached maximum, and also the mean weight diameter(MWD and geometric average diameter(GWD of soil aggregates were higher than that of other treatments, the soil agglomeration became more stronger and the soil structure became more stable.

  5. Long-term manure amendment increases organic C storage and stabilization in Loess soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, B.; Zhao, W.; Yang, X.; Zhou, J.

    2011-12-01

    Soil is the largest terrestrial pool for organic carbon in the biosphere. Therefore, sequestration of C in soils is often seen as a 'win-win' proposition. The long-term combined application of manure with chemical fertilizers had increased the accumulation of organic carbon in soil (SOC); and the results from the application of chemical fertilizers on the stock of SOC in soil were inconsistent. Furthermore, less studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of different fertilization, especially the application of N fertilizer, on the stabilization of SOC in the different fertilized soils. In this study, we hypothesized that the long-term different fertilization not only affect organic C storage, but also its stabilization in soil. Therefore, we conducted an incubation experiment with the soils from a long-term fertilization trials. Soil samples were collected from the three fertilized plots, ((1) no fertilizer, NF soil, (2) inorganic NPK fertilizers, NPK soil; and (3) Manure + NPK fertilizers, MNPK soil) of a long-term fertilization experiment initiated in 1990 in Shaanxi, China. The soils were incubated at 28o C for 30 days with the different treatments, i.e., (1) control with no addition (CK), (2) added 200 mg N kg-1 soil (+ NH4-N), (3) added 1000 mg C kg-1 soil (+ glucose), and (4) added 200 mg N kg-1 soil + 1000 mg C kg-1 soil (+glucose + NH4-N). The evolved CO2 was determined by titration of the excess NaOH with 0.1 M HCl. Decomposition of SOC in the different soils was evaluate with the accumulation of released CO2-C based on dry soil (in mg C kg-1 soil), and the decomposition rate of SOC during the incubation (in % of total organic C in soil). Long-term different fertilization treatments (NPK, and MNPK soil) significantly increased the organic C storage in 0-100 cm soil profile. SOC storage in MNPK soil (83.0 t ha-1) was significantly higher than NPK soil (80.8 t ha-1), and both were significantly higher than the no fertilizer soil. The decomposition

  6. Transport of manure-borne testosterone in soils affected by artificial rainfall events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yong; Zhang, Tian C

    2016-04-15

    Information is very limited on fate and transport of steroidal hormones in soils. In this study, the rainfall simulation tests were conducted with a soil slab reactor to investigate the transport of manure-borne testosterone in a silty-clay loam soil under six controllable operation conditions (i.e., three rainfall intensities and two tillage practices). The properties [e.g., rainwater volume, particle size distribution (PSD)] of the slurry samples collected in runoff and leachate at different time intervals were measured; their correlation with the distribution of testosterone among runoff, leachate and soil matrix was analyzed. The results indicated that more than 88% of the testosterone was held by the applied manure and/or soil matrix even under the rainfall intensity of 100-year return frequency. The runoff facilitated testosterone transport through both dissolved and particle-associated phases, with the corresponding mass ratio being ∼7 to 3. Soil particles collected through runoff were mainly silt-sized aggregates (STA) and clays, indicating the necessity of using partially-dispersed soil particles as testing materials to conduct batch tests (e.g., sorption/desorption). No testosterone was detected at the soil depth >20 cm or in the leachate samples, indicating that transport of testosterone through the soil is very slow when there is no preferential flow. Tillage practice could impede the transport of testosterone in runoff. For the first time, results and the methodologies of this study allow one to quantify the hormone distribution among runoff, leachate and soil matrix at the same time and to obtain a comprehensive picture of the F/T of manure-borne testosterone in soil-water environments.

  7. Future trends in soil cadmium concentration under current cadmium fluxes to European agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, L; Smolders, E

    2014-07-01

    The gradual increase of soil cadmium concentrations in European soils during the 20th century has prompted environmental legislation to limit soil cadmium (Cd) accumulation. Mass balances (input-output) reflecting the period 1980-1995 predicted larger Cd inputs via phosphate (P) fertilizers and atmospheric deposition than outputs via crop uptake and leaching. This study updates the Cd mass balance for the agricultural top soils of EU-27+Norway (EU-27+1). Over the past 15 years, the use of P fertilizers in the EU-27+1 has decreased by 40%. The current mean atmospheric deposition of Cd in EU is 0.35 g Cd ha(-1) yr(-1), this is strikingly smaller than values used in the previous EU mass balances (~3 g Cd ha(-1) yr(-1)). Leaching of Cd was estimated with most recent data of soil solution Cd concentrations in 151 soils, which cover the range of European soil properties. No significant time trends were found in the data of net applications of Cd via manure, compost, sludge and lime, all being small sources of Cd at a large scale. Modelling of the future long-term changes in soil Cd concentrations in agricultural top soils under cereal or potato culture predicts soil Cd concentrations to decrease by 15% over the next 100 years in an average scenario, with decreasing trends in some scenarios being more prevalent than increasing trends in other scenarios. These Cd balances have reverted from the general positive balances estimated 10 or more years ago. Uncertainty analysis suggests that leaching is the most uncertain relative to other fluxes.

  8. Gliocladium and Trichoderma in agricultural soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Chen; LI Bao-du; LU Guo-zhong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Gliocladium and Trichoderma are common fungi in agricultural soil. Several species of them were isolated and identified, great diversity was displayed in different agricultural soils of different crops,agricultural climate zones, different seasons, depths, different treated soybean cyst nematode soil,healthy and diseased crop soil. Among five crops soil samples, wheat and corn soil were found to possess the largest number of Gliocladium and Trichoderma separately. Gliocladium and Trichoderma of three major crops showed consistent changing patterns with seasonal variation. Corn soil displayed distinct vertical distribution of Trichoderna. There is a different distribution of the two fungi in diseased and healthy plant soil. Among the various isolated methods, diluted plate method is the best for isolating Gliocladium, and Trichoderma could be found in plant residue method and be tolerant to steam for two minutes. In the soybean cyst nematode soil mycobiota, the frequency of Gliocladium is higher than that of the others fungi, and Trichoderma may have the role of bioremediation in herbicide treated soil. Similarly, Gliocladium occurred frequently in different climate zones.

  9. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil via anaerobic composting with pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Du, Yao; Tao, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Kun; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Long, Yu-Yang

    2013-10-15

    Anaerobic dechlorination is an effective degradation pathway of higher chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The efficiency of anaerobic composting remediation of PCB-contaminated soil using pig manure was determined. The results show that the dechlorination of PCB-contaminated soil via anaerobic composting with pig manure is feasible. PCB concentration is the most critical factor. Elevated PCB concentrations can inhibit dechlorination but does not disrupt the anaerobic fermentation process. At 1 mg kg(-1) PCBs, the degradation rate of five or more chlorinated biphenyls is 43.8%. The highest dechlorination performance in this experiment was obtained when the soil-to-organic waste ratio, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, moisture content, and PCB concentration were 2:3, 20, 60%, and 1 mg kg(-1), respectively.

  10. Dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil added with manure or vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Bernal, D; García-Díaz, E L; Contreras-Ramos, S M; Dendooven, L

    2006-11-01

    The dissipation of three PAHs, i.e., 500 mg phenanthrene kg(-1) soil, 350 mg anthracene kg(-1) soil and 150 mg benzo(a)pyrene kg(-1) soil, was investigated in soil from Acolman (México) added with cow manure or vermicompost while production of CO(2) and inorganic N was monitored. At day 0, recovery of added phenanthrene was 95%, anthracene 96% and benzo(a)pyrene 100% in sterilized soil and concentrations did not change significantly in sterilized soil over time. Application of organic material did not affect the concentration of phenanthrene and anthracene, which decreased sharply in the unsterilized soil in the first weeks of the incubation. Less than 3% of the added phenanthrene was detected after 100 days and less than 8.5% of the added anthracene (mean of the two experiments). The decrease in concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) was not fast as that of phenathrene and anthracene, and 22% was extractable from soil still after 100days. It was concluded that addition of farm yard manure (FYM) and vermicompost only had an effect on the initial dissipation of phenanthrene, anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene in soil of Acolman.

  11. Response of agricultural soils to acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, M.F.; Wagner, C.K.

    1982-07-01

    Proceedings of the workshop, Response of Agricultural Soils to Acid Deposition, which was held May 12-13 1981, in Columbus, Ohio, and which evaluated the potential beneficial and harmful impacts of atmospheric acid deposition on agricultural soils are presented. Those issues requiring further research are also identified. Five working papers and a literature review prepared by soils specialists are included as is a summary of conclusions reached by the participants. Each of the five working papers has been abstracted and indexed individually for ERA/EDB. (JGB)

  12. Soil biodiversity for agricultural sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, L.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Brown, G.G.

    2007-01-01

    We critically highlight some evidence for the importance of soil biodiversity to sustaining (agro-)ecosystem functioning and explore directions for future research. We first deal with resistance and resilience against abiotic disturbance and stress. There is evidence that soil biodiversity does conf

  13. Effects of charcoal-enriched goat manure on soil fertility parameters and growth of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. in a sandy soil from northern Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Willich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of charcoal feeding on manure quality and its subsequent application to enhance soil productivity has received little attention. The objectives of the present study therefore were to investigate the effects of (i charcoal feeding on manure composition, and (ii charcoal-enriched manure application on soil fertility parameters and growth of millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.. To this end, two experiments were conducted: First, a goat feeding trial where goats were fed increasing levels of activated charcoal (AC; 0, 3, 5, 7, and 9% of total ration; second, a greenhouse pot experiment using the manure from the feeding trial as an amendment for a sandy soil from northern Oman. We measured manure C, N, P, and K concentrations, soil fertility parameters and microbial biomass indices, as well as plant yield and nutrient concentrations. Manure C concentration increased significantly (P<0.001 from 45.2% (0% AC to 60.2% (9% AC with increasing dietary AC, whereas manure N, P, and K concentrations decreased (P<0.001 from 0% AC (N: 2.5%, P: 1.5%, K: 0.8% to 9% AC (N: 1.7%, P: 0.8%, K: 0.4%. Soil organic carbon, pH, and microbial biomass N showed a response to AC-enriched manure. Yield of millet decreased slightly with AC enrichment, whereas K uptake was improved with increasing AC. We conclude that AC effects on manure quality and soil productivity depend on dosage of manure and AC, properties of AC, trial duration, and soil type.

  14. Effect of Organic Manure Application on Physical Properties and Humus Characteristics of Paddy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOUSEN; CHENEN-FENG; 等

    1994-01-01

    Long-term field experiment was established in 1978 on a coastal paddy soil to determine the effect of application of pig manure,rice straw and chemical N fertilizer on the physical property and humus characteristics of soil.Results showed that the porosity,the microstructureal coefficient,the reactivities of organic C and N,the Δ logK value,the degree of oxidation stability,the contents of O-alkyl C and alky1 C,and the ratio of aliphatic C to aromatic C of humic acid from soils received organic manure increased;whereas,the ratio of 10μm of microaggregates,the humification degree of humus,the degee of organo-mineral complexation,the number-average molecular weight,the C/H ratio,the contents of carboxyl and aromatic C of HAs in them decreased .These results indicated that the application of organic manure not only improved the physical property of the paddy soil but also made the HA more aliphatic in structure and yonger in origin.

  15. Predicting nitrous oxide emissions from manure properties and soil moisture: An incubation experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Arthur, Emmanuel; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    Field-applied manure is a source of essential plant nutrients, but benefits may be partly offset by high rates of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, as modified by manure characteristics and soil properties. In a 28-d incubation experiment we quantified short-term emissions of N2O from a sandy loam...... soil amended with digestate (DI), pig slurry (PS) or cattle slurry (CS), and unamended soil (Ctrl), when incubated at 60, 70 and 80% water-filled pore space (WFPS). The soil was amended with 15N-labelled nitrate to distinguish sources of N2O. Emissions of N2O were not related to N input...... and corresponded to between 0.04 and 2.42% of manure N, decreasing in the order CS > DI > PS > Ctrl within each WFPS level. Recovery of 15N in N2O indicated that heterotrophic denitrification constituted at least 64–77% of total emissions at 70 and 80% WFPS, while nitrification was more important for the low...

  16. The fate of fertilizer nitrogen in a high nitrate accumulated agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Zhi; Huang, Bin; Lu, Caiyan; Shi, Yi; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Haiyang; Fang, Yunting

    2016-02-12

    Well-acclimatized nitrifiers in high-nitrate agricultural soils can quickly nitrify NH4(+) into NO3(-) subject to leaching and denitrifying loss. A 120-day incubation experiment was conducted using a greenhouse soil to explore the fates of applied fertilizer N entering into seven soil N pools and to examine if green manure (as ryegrass) co-application can increase immobilization of the applied N into relatively stable N pools and thereby reduce NO3(-) accumulation and loss. We found that 87-92% of the applied (15)N-labelled NH4(+) was rapidly recovered as NO3(-) since day 3 and only 2-4% as microbial biomass and soil organic matter (SOM), while ryegrass co-application significantly decreased its recovery as NO3(-) but enhanced its recovery as SOM (17%) at the end of incubation. The trade-off relationship between (15)N recoveries in microbial biomass and SOM indicated that ryegrass co-application stabilized newly immobilized N via initial microbial uptake and later breakdown. Nevertheless, ryegrass application didn't decrease soil total NO3(-) accumulation due to its own decay. Our results suggest that green manure co-application can increase immobilization of applied N into stable organic N via microbial turnover, but the quantity and quality of green manure should be well considered to reduce N release from itself.

  17. Organic matter composition of soil macropore surfaces under different agricultural management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Leue, Marin; Magid, Jacob; Gerke, Horst H.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the heterogeneous nature of soil, i.e. properties and processes occurring specifically at local scales is essential for best managing our soil resources for agricultural production. Examination of intact soil structures in order to obtain an increased understanding of how soil systems operate from small to large scale represents a large gap within soil science research. Dissolved chemicals, nutrients and particles are transported through the disturbed plow layer of agricultural soil, where after flow through the lower soil layers occur by preferential flow via macropores. Rapid movement of water through macropores limit the contact between the preferentially moving water and the surrounding soil matrix, therefore contact and exchange of solutes in the water is largely restricted to the surface area of the macropores. Organomineral complex coated surfaces control sorption and exchange properties of solutes, as well as availability of essential nutrients to plant roots and to the preferentially flowing water. DRIFT (Diffuse Reflectance infrared Fourier Transform) Mapping has been developed to examine composition of organic matter coated macropores. In this study macropore surfaces structures will be determined for organic matter composition using DRIFT from a long-term field experiment on waste application to agricultural soil (CRUCIAL, close to Copenhagen, Denmark). Parcels with 5 treatments; accelerated household waste, accelerated sewage sludge, accelerated cattle manure, NPK and unfertilized, will be examined in order to study whether agricultural management have an impact on the organic matter composition of intact structures.

  18. manure management, quality and mineraliztion for sustaining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    time found widespread use of cattle manure for improving the fertility ... cal properties and effects on soil moisture dy- namics. .... dung to be collected and the performance of ..... agricultural land evaluation in the ... agement in tropical agroecosystems: application of an organic resource database. Agriculture Ecosystem and.

  19. ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF ANIMAL MANURE – IMPLICATIONS FOR CROP YIELDS AND SOIL BIOTA IN ORGANIC FARMING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun; Riely, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of farmyard manures may help farmers to produce bioenergy instead of using fossil fuels, support cycling of nutrients and reduce greenhouse gas emission. However, compared to pristine slurry, digested slurry has a reduced content of organic carbon which may impact the soil biota...... negatively due to substrate shortage. Our knowledge on these processes and their influence on soil quality is scarce. Hence, a field experiment with two organic cropping systems (grass-clover ley and arable system; at two slurry-application levels) was established in 2011, to study how application...... of digestates affects crop yields, soil characteristics and soil biota (earthworms, springtails, microbiota). The grass-clover system showed comparable yield levels over 3 years when digested slurry was compared to untreated slurry. Digested slurries had no influence on soil nutrient concentrations or on soil...

  20. Breakdown of Azadirachtin A in a Tropical Soil Amended with Neem Leaves and Animal Manures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A field investigation was conducted to assess the breakdown of azadirachtin A in a tropical coastal savanna soil amended with neem leaves (NL) combined with poultry manure (PM) or cow dung (CD) using gas chromatography. Samples in polythene bags 15 cm long and 4.8 cm in diameter were randomly placed to a depth of 14 cm in the soil, and azadirachtin A concentration was assessed on days 0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, and 84. Azadirachtin A degradation in the soil followed first-order reaction kinetics with different half-lives obtained for varying combinations of the amendments. Higher neem amendment levels of 100 g gave shorter half-lives of azadirachtin A than the lower levels of 50 g. Within the 50 g NL group the additions of the poultry manure and the cow dung gave significantly shorter (P < 0.05) half-lives of azadirachtin A than the sole neem amendment, whereas in the 100 g NL group only additions of 10 g CD and 10 g PM were significantly less (P < 0.05) than the sole neem amendment. Different changes resulting from the kind and quantity of animal manure added were observed in the half-lives of azadirachtin A. The 100 g NL group had significantly higher (P < 0.05) moisture content, which, coupled with the likely differences in microbial biomass, could be the major factor responsible for variations in the half-life of the compound. Therefore, the quantity of the neem leaves applied and the addition of animal manure affected the breakdown of azadirachtin A in the soil amended with neem leaves.

  1. Tillage and farmyard manure efects on crusting and compacting soils at Katumani, Semi-arid Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biamah, E.K.; Sterk, G.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2008-01-01

    In semi-arid Kenya, the most dominatn soil types are of limited agricultural productivity due to crusting and compaction. The occurence of soil crusting and compaction is attributed to seasonal rainfall characteristics, physical soil properties and bad tillage practices. Soil crusting and compaction

  2. Microbiological and chemical attributes of a Hapludalf soil with swine manure fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael da Rosa Couto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical attributes of a soil with a seven‑year history of urea and swine manure application. In the period from October 2008 to October 2009, soil samples were collected in the 0-10 cm layer and were subjected to the treatments: control, without application of urea or manure; and with the application of urea, pig slurry, and deep pig litter in two doses, in order to supply one or two times the recommended N doses for the maize (Zea mays/black oat (Avena strigosa crop succession. The carbon of the microbial biomass (MB‑C and the basal respiration (C‑CO2 were analyzed, and the metabolic (qCO2 and microbial quotient (qmic were calculated with the obtained data. Organic matter, pH in water, available P and K, and exchangeable Ca and Mg were also determined. The application of twice the dose of deep pig litter increases the MB‑C and C‑CO2 values. The qmic and qCO2 are little affected by the application of swine manure. The application of twice the dose of deep pig litter increases the values of pH in water and the contents of available P and of exchangeable Ca and Mg in the soil.

  3. Effect of passivator on Cu form transformation in pig manure aerobic composting and application in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Chen, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    A sequential extraction approach was used to evaluate the effects of various combinations of passivators (sepiolite, phosphate rock, and coal fly ash) on the concentration and speciation of Cu in swine manure aerobic compost along with soil to which the compost had been applied. The results indicate that the various passivators altered the bound forms of Cu in pig manure and soil; the concentrations of exchangeable and Fe-Mn-bound Cu decreased, whereas the residual Cu concentration increased, indicating that Cu transformed to low-availability forms after the passivator treatments. The concentrations of the carbonate-bound and organic-bound Cu varied widely. Among all treatments, the treatment of the control + straw + sepiolite + coal fly ash (2.5 %) + phosphate rock (5.0 %) resulted in the most efficient passivation of Cu; the percentage of residual Cu reached 3.91-21.14 %, obviously surpassing the percentage for the control without passivation. The treatment of the control + straw + sepiolite + phosphate rock (2.5 %) resulted in the lowest residual Cu fraction (0.85 %) among passivator treatments. These results show that the addition of suitable combinations of passivators to the composting process reduced the availability of Cu and the risk of Cu pollution during the application of composted pig manure to soil. Passivation also decreased the Cu content of Apium graveolens.

  4. Persistence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in surface soil following application of liquid hog manure for production of pickling cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Caroline; Quessy, Sylvain

    2005-05-01

    Liquid hog manure is routinely applied to farm land as a crop fertilizer. However, this practice raises food safety concerns, especially when manure is used on fruit and vegetable crops. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the persistence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in surface soil after application of liquid hog manure to fields where pickling cucumbers were grown and to verify the microbiological quality of harvested cucumbers. Mineral fertilizers were replaced by liquid hog manure at various ratios in the production of pickling cucumbers in a 3-year field study. The experimental design was a randomized complete block comprising four replicates in sandy loam (years 1, 2, and 3) and loamy sand (year 3). Soil samples were taken at a depth of 20 cm every 2 weeks after June application of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Vegetable samples were also taken at harvest time. Liquid hog manure, soil, and vegetable (washed and unwashed) samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella and E. coli. An exponential decrease of E. coli populations was observed in surface soil after the application of manure. The estimated average time required to reach undetectable concentrations of E. coli in sandy loam varied from 56 to 70 days, whereas the absence of E. coli was estimated at 77 days in loamy sand. The maximal Salmonella persistence in soil was 54 days. E. coli and Salmonella were not detected in any vegetable samples.

  5. Impact of Different Agricultural Waste Biochars on Maize Biomass and Soil Water Content in a Brazilian Cerrado Arenosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia B. Speratti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Arenosols in the Brazilian Cerrado are increasingly being used for agricultural production, particularly maize. These sandy soils are characterized by low soil organic matter, low available nutrients, and poor water-holding capacity. For this reason, adding biochar as a soil amendment could lead to improved water and nutrient retention. A greenhouse experiment was carried out using twelve biochars derived from four feedstocks (cotton husks, swine manure, eucalyptus sawmill residue, sugarcane filtercake pyrolized at 400, 500 and 600 °C and applied at 5% w/w. The biochars’ effect on maize biomass was examined, along with their contribution to soil physical properties including water retention, electrical conductivity (EC, and grain size distribution. After six weeks, maize plants in soils with eucalyptus and particularly filtercake biochar had higher biomass compared to those in soils with cotton and swine manure biochars. The latter’s low biomass was likely related to excessive salinity. In general, our biochars showed potential for increasing θ in sandy soils compared to the soil alone. Filtercake and eucalyptus biochars may improve soil aeration and water infiltration, while applying cotton and swine manure biochars at levels <5% to avoid high salinity could contribute to improved soil water retention in Cerrado Arenosols.

  6. Effects of green manure storage and incorporation methods on nitrogen release and N2O emissions after soil application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Sørensen, Peter; Petersen, Søren O.

    2014-01-01

    as compost mixed with straw or as silage of harvested ley biomass. Grass-clover compost or silage was soil-incorporated by either simulated ploughing (green manure placed at 15 cm depth) or harrowing (green manure mixed into the upper 5-cm soil horizon) in order to assess treatment effects on net release...... release was observed for the composted grass-clover and straw mixture. In fact, soil incorporation of compost by harrowing caused temporal immobilization of soil mineral N. Silage incorporated by ploughing gave rise to largest N2O effluxes with silage-induced emissions corresponding to 0.3 % of applied...

  7. The magnetic susceptibility of European agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, K.; Reimann, C.

    2012-04-01

    The GEMAS (Geochemical mapping of agricultural soils) project, a cooperation project between EuroGeoSurveys and Eurometaux, aims at providing soil quality data for Europe. Samples of arable soil were taken during 2008 at an average density of 1 site/2500 km2 covering the member states of the European Union (except Malta and Romania) and several neighbouring countries (e.g., Norway, Serbia, Ukraine). While the primary aim of the GEMAS project is to produce REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of CHemicals - EC, 2006) consistent soil geochemistry data at the continental scale, the data set is also optimally apt to provide the first continental scale overview of magnetic properties in European soils. Soil samples from the upper 20 cm were taken as composites from 5 sites spread over a ca. 100 m2 area in a large agricultural field (Ap-sample). The samples were air dried and sieved to pass a 2 mm nylon screen. Weight normalized magnetic susceptibility of these dried samples was measured using a Sapphire Instruments SI2B susceptibility meter with dynamic background removal. The here presented maps of magnetic susceptibility in relation to geochemical composition and geological structures for the first time allow to outline the large scale influence of tectonics and climate on magnetic mineral concentration in European soils. The data set also provides the background variability for regional studies aiming to relate magnetic susceptibility of soils to local contamination sources.

  8. Use of Human Excreta as Manure in Rural China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying; HUANG Ji-kun; Precious Zikhali

    2014-01-01

    Empirical research has shown that the use of manure signiifcantly improves crop yield, soil fertilityand water and moisture conservation. Despite these documented benefits, however, there is a concern on the downward trend of manure use in agriculture in China. This paper examines factors contributing to this downward trend, with a particular focus on human excreta used in agriculture. Empirical analysis based on data from stratiifed random sampling of rural households in ifve provinces of China shows that about 85% of human excreta was still used as manure in agriculture in 2007 which was less than a decade ago when nearly all human excreta was used as manure. Econometric results suggest that income growth, rising population density and improvement in rural transportation signiifcantly contribute to declining use of human excreta as manure in agriculture. These results imply that the current downward trend will continue given China’s rising economic growth, urbanization and rural infrastructural improvement.

  9. Long- term manure exposure increases soil bacterial community potential for plasmid uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musovic, Sanin; Klümper, Uli; Dechesne, Arnaud;

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities derived from soils subject to different agronomic treatments were challenged with three broad host range plasmids, RP4, pIPO2tet and pRO101, via solid surface filter matings to assess their permissiveness. Approximately 1 in 10 000 soil bacterial cells could receive and main......Microbial communities derived from soils subject to different agronomic treatments were challenged with three broad host range plasmids, RP4, pIPO2tet and pRO101, via solid surface filter matings to assess their permissiveness. Approximately 1 in 10 000 soil bacterial cells could receive...... and maintain the plasmids. The community permissiveness increased up to 100% in communities derived from manured soil. While the plasmid transfer frequency was significantly influenced by both the type of plasmid and the agronomic treatment, the diversity of the transconjugal pools was purely plasmid dependent...

  10. Effects of biochar and manure amendments on water vapor sorption in a sandy loam soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per;

    2015-01-01

    properties of soils, especially on water retention at low matric potentials. To overcome this knowledge gap, the effects of combined BC (0 to 100 Mg ha-1) and manure (21 and 42 Mg ha-1) applications on water vapor sorption and specific surface area was investigated for a sandy loam soil. In addition......, potential impacts of BC aging were evaluated. All considered BC-amendment rates led to a distinct increase of water retention, especially for low matric potentials. The observed increases were attributed to a significant increase of soil organic matter contents and specific surface areas in BCamended soils......Over the last few years, the application of biochar (BC) as a soil amendment to sequester carbon and mitigate global climate change has received considerable attention. While positive effects of biochar on plant nutrition are well documented, little is known about potential impacts on the physical...

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF SOIL FERTILISATION WITH ORGANIC MANURE ABOUT SURFACE WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA POPA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the hydrographic basin of Mures river, aboard an altitude gradient, were taken samples from surface waters for research the nutrients concentrations. The reference point was represented by a dairy caw farm where the agricultural fields of this is applied the organic fertilization with manure. The water samples were prelevated in spring and autumn and the prelevate dates are the same with spread manure dates. At the second data prelevaion (in autumn it observed an increase of N-NH4, N-NO3 and P in surface water in comparison with the concentrations founded at first data prelevation (in spring. The explication is the manifestation to the cumulated and at distance effects of introduction in water to some organic products, very probably washed from neighborhoods of agricultural field. Were calculated values of Student test for seasonal comparisons and were founded significant differences between nutrients concentration values at first and second prelevations. These bigger concentrations values of N in water are consequence of wrong manure management.

  12. The effect of soil management on the persistence of E. coli and Listeria spp. in manure- amended soils in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes can contaminate leafy greens through inappropriately managed raw manure applied to soils. Current FDA guidance includes calling for additional scientific data to determine the appropriate interval between application of man...

  13. Mineralization of carbon and nitrogen from fresh and anaerobically stored sheep manure in soils of different texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    was insignificant or slightly negative in the three soil-sand mixtures (100% soil+0% quartz sand; 50% soil+50% quartz sand; 25% soil+75% quartz sand). After 84 days, the cumulative CO2 evolution and the net mineralization of N from the fresh manure were highest in the soil-sand mixutre with the lowest clay content......-sand mixture with the lowest clay content was probably caused by a higher remineralization of immobilized N in this soil-sand mixture. Anaerobic storage of the manure reduced the CO2 evolution rates from the manure C in the three soil-sand mixtures during the initial weeks of decomposition. However......A sandy loam soil was mixed with three different amounts of quartz sand and incubated with ((NH4)-N-15)(2)SO4 (60 mu g N g(-1) soil) and fresh or anaerobically stored sheep manure (60 mu g g(-1) soil). The mineralization-immobilization of N and the mineralization of C were studied during 84 days...

  14. Impact of animal manure separation technologies on steroid hormone distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Popovic, Olga; Björklund, Erland

    2015-01-01

    When steroid hormones are emitted into the environment, they may have harmful effects on the reproduction system of aquatic life. Until now, research has primarily focused on human excretion, demonstrating that steroid hormones reach the aquatic environment due to insufficient removal in waste...... in the vertebrate steroidogenesis, may occur at substantial levels in animal manure and should be addressed. In agricultural practices the animal manure can be applied to the soil as raw manure, but also as a solid or liquid manure fraction, since current livestock production facilities utilizes a recently...... developed technology, which separates raw animal manure into a solid and a liquid fraction. This technology offers an improved handling and refined distribution of the manure nutrients to the farmlands and the possibility to reduce the environmental impact of manure nutrients, especially avoiding...

  15. Hyperaccumulator oilcake manure as an alternative for chelate-induced phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated alluvial soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Dinesh; Kumar, Chitranjan; Patel, Niraj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The ability of hyperaccumulator oilcake manure as compared to chelates was investigated by growing Calendula officinalis L for phytoremediation of cadmium and lead contaminated alluvial soil. The combinatorial treatment T6 [2.5 g kg(-1) oilcake manure+5 mmol kg(-1) EDDS] caused maximum cadmium accumulation in root, shoot and flower up to 5.46, 4.74 and 1.37 mg kg(-1) and lead accumulation up to 16.11, 13.44 and 3.17 mg kg(-1), respectively at Naini dump site, Allahabad (S3). The treatment showed maximum remediation efficiency for Cd (RR=0.676%) and Pb (RR=0.202%) at Mumfordganj contaminated site (S2). However, the above parameters were also observed at par with the treatment T5 [2.5 g kg(-1) oilcake manure +2 g kg(-1) humic acid]. Applied EDDS altered chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, and carotene contents of plants while application of oilcake manure enhanced their contents in plant by 3.73-8.65%, 5.81-17.65%, and 7.04-17.19%, respectively. The authors conclude that Calendula officinalis L has potential to be safely grown in moderately Cd and Pb-contaminated soils and application of hyperaccumulator oilcake manure boosts the photosynthetic pigments of the plant, leading to enhanced clean-up of the cadmium and lead-contaminated soils. Hence, the hyperaccumulator oilcake manure should be preferred over chelates for sustainable phytoremediation through soil-plant rhizospheric process.

  16. Potential bioactivity and association of 17β-estradiol with the dissolved and colloidal fractions of manure and soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, Katrin B. [Sierra Cascade Nurseries, 26220 Callahan Rd., Bonanza, OR 97623 (United States); Casey, Francis X.M., E-mail: francis.casey@ndsu.edu [School of Natural Resource Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102 (United States); Hakk, Heldur [Animal Metabolism—Agricultural Chemicals Research, USDA-ARS, Fargo, ND, 58102 (United States); DeSutter, Thomas M. [School of Natural Resource Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102 (United States); Shappell, Nancy W. [Animal Metabolism—Agricultural Chemicals Research, USDA-ARS, Fargo, ND, 58102 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The dissolved (DF) and colloidal fractions (CF) of soil and manure play an important role in the environmental fate and transport of steroidal estrogens. The first objective of this study was to quantify the association of 17β-estradiol (E2) with the DF and CF isolated from (i) liquid swine manure (LSM), (ii) a soil:water mixture (soil), and (iii) a LSM:soil:water mixture (Soil + LSM). The appropriate CF and DF size fractions of the Soil, Soil + LSM, and LSM media were obtained by first filtering through a 0.45 μm filter, which provided the combined DF and CF (DF/CF). The DF/CF from the three media was spiked with carbon-14 ([{sup 14}C]) radiolabeled E2 ([{sup 14}C]-E2), and then ultrafiltered to isolate the CF (< 0.45 μm and > 1 kDa) from the DF (< 1 kDa). The average recoveries of the [{sup 14}C] associated with the DF were 67%–72%, 67%–79%, and 76%–78% for the Soil, Soil + LSM and LSM, respectively. For the CF that was retained on the 1 kDa filter, organic carbon and [{sup 14}C]-E2 were dislodged with subsequent water rinses the Soil + LSM and LSM, but not the Soil. The second objective was to evaluate whether the E2 associated with the various fractions of the different media could still bind the estrogen receptor using an E2 receptor (17β-ER) competitor assay, which allowed E2 equivalent concentrations to be determined. The estrogen receptor assay results indicated that E2 present in the DF of the Soil and Soil + LSM solutions could still bind the estrogen receptor. Results from this study indicated that E2 preferentially associated with the DF of soil and manure, which may enhance its dissolved advective transport in surface and subsurface water. Furthermore, this study indicated that E2 associated with DF solutions in the environment could potentially induce endocrine responses through its interactions with estrogen receptor. - Highlights: • Dissolved and colloidal sized fractions were filtered from swine manure and soil. • Estrogen preferred

  17. Effect of manure under different nitrogen application rates on winter wheat production and soil fertility in dryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. Q.; Yu, X. Y.; Zhai, B. N.; Jin, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. H.

    2016-08-01

    Exploring an effective fertilization practice is crucial for achieving a sustainable dryland winter wheat cropping system. Following a split-plot design, this study was conducted to investigate the combined effect of manure (-M or +M; main plot) and various rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer (0, 75, 150, 225, and 300 kg N ha-1; sub plot) on grain yield, water and N use efficiencies of winter wheat, and soil nutrients. The results showed that the treatments with manure improved the grain yield by 8%, and WUE by 10% relative to that without manure throughout the study years. The highest winter wheat yield and WUE were both recorded in the M+N225 treatment, which were not significantly different from those for M+N75 and M+N150 treatment. In contrast, high levels of N fertilizer (> 150 kg N ha-1) combined with manure not only caused a reduction in the N use efficiency (NUE), but it also caused an increase in the soil residual nitrate-N (from 43.7 to 188.9 kg ha-1) relative to without manure. After three years of continuous cropping, the treatment combining manure with 150 kg N ha-1 fertilizer had the highest SOM, available P and available K, which was 24%, 379% and 102% higher than that for unfertilized treatment (CK), and 10%, 267%, and 55% higher than that for without manure, respectively. Thus, the combination of manure (17.5 t ha-1 poultry or 30 t ha-1 pig manure) with 75-150 kg N ha-1 N fertilizer is recommended for improving winter wheat yield, water and N use efficiencies, and reducing soil nitrate-N residue as well.

  18. Chemical evaluation of odor reduction by soil injection of animal manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feilberg Tavs Nyord, Anders; Hansen, Martin Nørregaard; Lindholst, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Field application of animal manure is a major cause of odor nuisance in the local environment. Therefore, there is a need for methods for measuring the effect of technologies for reducing odor after manure application. In this work, chemical methods were used to identify key odorants from field application of pig manure based on experiments with surface application by trailing hoses and soil injection. Results from three consecutive years of field trials with full-scale equipment are reported. Methods applied were: membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS), proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), gold-film hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) detection, all performed on site, and thermal desorption gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS) based on laboratory analyses of field samples. Samples were collected from a static flux chamber often used for obtaining samples for dynamic olfactometry. While all methods were capable of detecting relevant odorants, PTR-MS gave the most comprehensive results. Based on odor threshold values, 4-methylphenol, H₂S, and methanethiol are suggested as key odorants. Significant odorant reductions by soil injection were consistently observed in all trials. The flux chamber technique was demonstrated to be associated with critical errors due to compound instabilities in the chamber. This was most apparent for H₂S, on a time scale of a few minutes, and on a longer time scale for methanethiol.

  19. Enhancement of methane production from co-digestion of chicken manure with agricultural wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelenien, Fatma; Namba, Yuzaburo; Kosseva, Maria R; Nishio, Naomichi; Nakashimada, Yutaka

    2014-05-01

    The potential for methane production from semi-solid chicken manure (CM) and mixture of agricultural wastes (AWS) in a co-digestion process has been experimentally evaluated at thermophilic and mesophilic temperatures. To the best of author(')s knowledge, it is the first time that CM is co-digested with mixture of AWS consisting of coconut waste, cassava waste, and coffee grounds. Two types of anaerobic digestion processes (AD process) were used, process 1 (P1) using fresh CM (FCM) and process 2 (P2) using treated CM (TCM), ammonia stripped CM, were conducted. Methane production in P1 was increased by 93% and 50% compared to control (no AWS added) with maximum methane production of 502 and 506 mL g(-1)VS obtained at 55°C and 35°C, respectively. Additionally, 42% increase in methane production was observed with maximum volume of 695 mL g(-1)VS comparing P2 test with P2 control under 55°C. Ammonia accumulation was reduced by 39% and 32% in P1 and P2 tests.

  20. Occurrence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in agricultural soils and antibiotic resistance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deredjian, Amélie; Alliot, Nolwenn; Blanchard, Laurine; Brothier, Elisabeth; Anane, Makram; Cambier, Philippe; Jolivet, Claudy; Khelil, Mohamed Naceur; Nazaret, Sylvie; Saby, Nicolas; Thioulouse, Jean; Favre-Bonté, Sabine

    2016-05-01

    The occurrence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was monitored in organic amendments and agricultural soils from various sites in France and Tunisia. S. maltophilia was detected in horse and bovine manures, and its abundance ranged from 0.294 (±0.509) × 10(3) to 880 (±33.4) × 10(3) CFU (g drywt)(-1) of sample. S. maltophilia was recovered from most tested soil samples (104/124). Its abundance varied from 0.33 (±0.52) to 414 (±50) × 10(3) CFU (g drywt)(-1) of soil and was not related to soil characteristics. Antibiotic resistance properties of a set of environmental strains were compared to a clinical set, and revealed a high diversity of antibiotic resistance profiles, given both the numbers of resistance and the phenotypes. Manure strains showed resistance phenotypes, with most of the strains resisting between 7 and 9 antibiotics. While French soil strains were sensitive to most antibiotics tested, some Tunisian strains displayed resistance phenotypes close to those of clinical French strains. Screening for metal resistance among 66 soil strains showed a positive relationship between antibiotic and metal resistance. However, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance phenotypes in the studied sites was not related to the metal content in soil samples. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SALINE- ALKALI SOIL AREA OF SONGNEN PLAIN,NORTHEAST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-chun; LI Qu-sheng; LI Xiu-jun; SONG Chang-chun; ZHANG Guang-xin

    2003-01-01

    There is great potential for agriculture in saline-alkali soil area in Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Butthe sustainable crop production in this area has been restricted by a few of main factors, such as less precipitation, higherevaporation and frequent drought, high salinity and alkalinity, high exchangeable sodium content and poor infiltration ofthe soil, and insufficiency and low availability in nutrition. It is also considered that there are a few of favorable condi-tions for agricultural development in this region, such as sufficient light and heat resources, rich ground water resources,plenty of manure produced by livestock, and so on. At the same time, scientific management and measurements havebeen employed; rational irrigation and drainage system has been established; reclamation, amendment and fertilization ofsoil, and suitable strategies of cropping practices have been made for the sustainable development of agriculture. Greatprogress has been made during 1996- 2000.

  2. Conservation agriculture impact for soil conservation in maize–wheat cropping system in the Indian sub-Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.N. Ghosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Conservation agriculture (CA is considered as a suitable technique for soil erosion control, productivity enhancement, and improved economic benefits. To investigate these issues, an experiment was conducted under rainfed conditions using grass vegetation strip (VS with minimum tillage, organic amendments and weed mulch during June 2007–October 2011 at Dehradun, Uttarakhand in the Indian Himalayan region. Results showed that the mean wheat equivalent yield was ~47% higher in the plots under with CA compared with conventional agriculture in a maize–wheat crop rotation. Mean runoff coefficients and soil loss with CA plots were ~45% less and ~54% less than conventional agriculture plots. On average, after the harvest of maize, soil moisture conservation up to 90 cm soil depth for wheat crop was 108% higher under CA than conventional agriculture plots. The net return from the plots with CA was 85% higher, and when expressed net return per tonne of soil loss, it was four and half times higher than conventional practice. Results demonstrate that the suitable CA practice (a grass strip of Palmarosa with applied organic amendments (farmyard manure, vermicompost and poultry manure along with weed mulching under conservation tillage enhances system productivity, reduces runoff, soil loss and conserve soil moisture.

  3. Leaching of Copper and Zinc in a Garden Soil Receiving Poultry and Livestock Manures from Intensive Farming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The leaching characteristics of a garden soil may be greatly affected by application of poultry and livestock manures from intensive farming.Packed soil columns of a garden soil(CK)and the soils after respectively receiving 2% pig manure (PM),chicken manure(CM),and commercial organic manure(OM)were leached with 0.05 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 and 0.01 mol L-1 EDTA solutions.The leachate EC(electric conductivity)values gradually increased at the beginning and then reached a stable value when the soil columns were leached with 0.05 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 solution.The leachate EC values showed a peak-shape when leached with 0.01 mol L-1 EDTA solution.In all the soil columns,the pH values of the leachates decreased with increase of displacement volumes when the Ca(NO3)2 solution was used.The total amounts of Cu and Zn eluted from the four soil columns were significantly correlated with the extracted soil Cu and Zn concentrations by 1.0 mol L-1 NH4NO3,but were not correlated with the leachate dissolved organic carbon(DOC)contents.The Zn concentration in the leachate of the PM-treated soil column with 0.05 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 solution was above the Quality Standard III for Ground Water of China(GB/T 14848-93,Zn < 1.0 mg L-1).When compared with 0.05 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2,the EDTA solution significantly accelerated Cu and Zn elutions in the manure-treated columns.This suggested that applying poultry and livestock manures from intensive farming to farmland might pose a threat to the groundwater quality.

  4. Empirical model for mineralisation of manure nitrogen in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Schröder, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    A simple empirical model was developed for estimation of net mineralisation of pig and cattle slurry nitrogen (N) in arable soils under cool and moist climate conditions during the initial 5 years after spring application. The model is based on a Danish 3-year field experiment with measurements...

  5. Effect of land application of manure from enrofloxacin-treated chickens on ciprofloxacin resistance of Enterobacteriaceae in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourcher, A-M; Jadas-Hécart, A; Cotinet, P; Dabert, P; Ziebal, C; Le Roux, S; Moraru, R; Heddadj, D; Kempf, I

    2014-06-01

    A field plot experiment was carried out to evaluate the impact of spreading chicken manure containing enrofloxacin (ENR) and its metabolite ciprofloxacin (CIP), on the levels of CIP-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in soil. The manures from chickens treated with ENR and from untreated control chickens were applied on six plots. Total and CIP-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were counted on Violet Red Bile Glucose medium containing 0 to 16mg L(-1) of CIP. A total of 145 isolates were genotyped by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CIP for the isolates of each ERIC-PCR profile was determined. The most frequently isolated Enterobacteriaceae included Escherichia coli, and to a lesser extent, Enterobacter and 5 other genera from environmental origin. The composition of the E. coli community differed between manure and manured soil suggesting that the E. coli genotypes determined by ERIC-PCR varied significantly in their ability to survive in soil. One of these genotypes, including both susceptible and resistant isolates, was detected up to 89 days after the manure was applied. Most of the E. coli isolated in soil amended with manure from treated chickens was resistant to CIP (with a MIC ranging between 2 and 32mg L(-1)). In contrast, despite the presence of ENR in soil at concentrations ranging from 13-518μg kg(-1), the environmental Enterobacteriaceae isolates had a CIP MIC≤0.064mg L(-1), except one isolate which had a MIC of 0.25mg L(-1), These results showed that spreading manure from ENR-treated chickens enabled CIP-resistant E. coli to persist for at least three months in the soil. However, neither the presence of fluoroquinolones, nor the persistence of CIP-resistant E. coli, increased the CIP-susceptibility of environmental Enterobacteriaceae.

  6. Some extractable iron contents as influenced by some organic manures application in the soils of Lake Geriyo, Adamawa state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddiq Abdullahi Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic manures are safer sources of plant nutrients and a good source of micronutrients therefore; pot experiments were carried out to estimate some extractable iron contents as influenced by organic manure application in the soils of Lake Geriyo, Adamawa state, Nigeria. Two types of organic manures; poultry droppings, cow dung and control were used for the experiment. Three levels of organic manures; 5, 10 and 15 tons per hectare (ton ha-1 and three sampling time (30, 60 and 90 DAS were laid down in a completely randomized (CRD design replicated three times. Results obtained revealed that rate, type of organic manures and time of submergence significantly (P ≤ 0.05 changed Fe content in the soil. Mean extractable iron concentrations of 42.01, 56.13 and 24.63 mgkg-1 were recorded for ammonium oxalate extractable iron, Citrate Bicarbonate Dithionite extractable iron and sodium pyrophosphate extractable iron in the first experiment while 45.81, 59.29 and 28.89 mgkg-1 were recorded for the second experiment respectively. However, CBD which extracts both amorphous and crystalline Fe recorded the highest Fe contents throughout the treatments with poultry droppings applied pots recording superior values than that of cowdung manure. similarly, higher values of oxa-Fe and Pyro-Fe were recorded in both manures compared to the control. In conclusion poultry droppings may result in iron accumulation and toxicity hence should be used with caution in the soil of Lake Geriyo and similar soils to avoid serious soil reduction leading to iron toxicity and soil phosphorus antagonism.

  7. Technical Protocol. Transformation of biocides in liquid manures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzig, Robert; Schlag, Patrick; Teigeler, Jennifer; Hartmann, Constanze; Cvetkovi, Benjamin [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik

    2010-07-15

    The Reference Manure Concept, already developed for laboratory tests on fate and behavior of veterinary medicinal products in liquid manures and manured soils, was successfully applied for biocides used for disinfection purposes and control of insects in animal houses. Since the representative and reproducible sampling of manures from high-volume tanks has been considered impossible, excrement samples of cattle and pigs individually kept at an experimental animal house were taken. These samples were thoroughly matrix characterized. Then, tap water was added to prepare reference manures of definite dry substance contents. Subsequently, the long-term transformation of the biocides imazalil and cyanamide applied as {sup 14}C-labeled radiotracers was investigated in these manure samples. On the basis of the transformation tests, test manures with 7-day aged biocide residues were prepared and applied in laboratory tests on transformation and sorption in manured soil. By means of this experimental approach, the impacts of aging processes during manure storage and of the manure matrix on the fate of biocides in soils can be assessed already under laboratory conditions. These laboratory tests have been directed as closely as possible to agricultural practice as well as to analytical practicability and quality assurance. Finally, the methodological aspects have been compiled in a Technical Protocol (Draft version). (orig.)

  8. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruiping; Mo, Yanling; Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality.

  9. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiping Yang

    Full Text Available Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L. can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality.

  10. N Transformation of Green Manure Incorporated Directly of Returned into Soil After Feeding Pig and Its Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEDIAN-YUAN; LIAOXIAN-LIN; 等

    1994-01-01

    15N-labelled green manure was used to feed pigs.Its nitrogen recovery by pig body,feces and uring was 23.5%,23.8%and 28.8% respectively,totalling 76.1%.Feces and green manure coordinated respectively with equal amount of CO(NH2)2-N as well as urine alone were applied as basic fertilizer in microplot experiments,The 15N recovery from feces and urine was equivalent to 2.51%and 4.82%by rice grain,and 0.98% and 1.94% by straw respectively,and soil residual 15N from them took 13.3% and 4.90% of the 15N in green manure,After feeding pigs with green manure and returning their feces and uringe into soil,the 15N recovery by pig body and rice grain was 30.8%,and that by pig body,and rice plant as well as soil residual took 52.7% of the 15N in feed.15N loss was 23.9% in pig feeding and 23.4% in rice planting.When green manure was incorporated directly into soil,its 15N recovery by grain was 26.65%,that by rice plant plus soil residual was 65.2%,and the loss was 34.8%.

  11. Depth-dependent inactivation of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis in soil after manure application and simulated rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.coli and Enterococcus serve as important water quality indicator organisms. Rainfall action on manured fields and pastures releases these organisms into soil with infiltrating water. They can then be released back to runoff during subsequent rainfall or irrigation events as soil solution interacts...

  12. Soil biological quality of grassland fertilized with adjusted cattle manure slurries in comparison with organic and inorganic fertilizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Boer, H.; Bloem, J.; Schouten, T.; Rutgers, M.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of five fertilizers (including two adjusted manure slurries) and an untreated control on soil biota and explored the effect on the ecosystem services they provided. Our results suggest that the available N (NO3- and NH4+) in the soil plays a central role in the effect of fertil

  13. Soil biological quality of grassland fertilized with adjusted cattle manure slurries in comparison with organic and inorganic fertilizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Boer, de Herman; Bloem, J.; Schouten, T.; Rutgers, M.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of five fertilizers (including two adjusted manure slurries) and an untreated control on soil biota and explored the effect on the ecosystem services they provided. Our results suggest that the available N (NO3- and NH4+) in the soil plays a central role in the effect of

  14. Survival and leaching of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicators from manure in field scale experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Tina; Amin, Mostofa; Lægdsmand, Mette

    The spreading of manure on agricultural land is an economic and practical solution for improving soil quality; however, animal manure frequently contains zoonotic pathogenic bacteria, such as certain Eschericia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. The present experiment was conducted...... as a large multidisciplinary project. Pig manure with a natural content of Tetracycline resistant bacteria and fecal indicator organisms was followed in soil columns and a field scale experiment. In the field experiment pig manure was injected into agricultural soil. The distribution and survival of natural...... resistant bacterial species is E. coli. Drainage water from the field sites were collected weekly from one year prior to manure application, where no Tetracycline resistant bacteria were detected. For a period of 11 months following the first manure application, drainage water was sampled proportional...

  15. Sorption of phenanthrene in agricultural soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, António Carlos Alves; Minh, Luong Nhat; Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad

    the saturation line as defined by Dexter. Top soils and subsoils showed different sorption behavior, with typically higher Koc for topsoils, likely due to different organic matter quality related to soil management and hydrological impact. Topsoils generally exhibited Koc values between the traditionally applied...... for predicting average Koc for agricultural topsoils. Subsoils mostly followed Abdul, in agreement with that this model was developed for deeper soils and groundwater sediments lower in organic carbon (0.4 - 2%). This study only concerns solid-liquid partioning and thus the probability for PAH adsorption onto...... assumingly non-mobile soil particles. In perspective, the combined risk of dissolved PAH leaching and colloid-facilitated PAH leaching from cultivated land areas should be considered....

  16. Impacts of supplementing chemical fertilizers with organic fertilizers manufactured using pig manure as a substrate on the spread of tetracycline resistance genes in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Hao, Yangyang; Shen, Min; Zhao, Qingxin; Li, Qing; Hu, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Using pig manure (PM) compost as a partial substitute for the conventional chemical fertilizers (CFs) is considered an effective approach in sustainable agricultural systems. This study aimed to analyze the impacts of supplementing CF with organic fertilizers (OFs) manufactured using pig manure as a substrate on the spread of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) as well as the community structures and diversities of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRB) in bulk and cucumber rhizosphere soils. In this study, three organic fertilizers manufactured using the PM as a substrate, namely fresh PM, common OF, and bio-organic fertilizer (BF), were supplemented with a CF. Composted manures combined with a CF did not significantly increase TRB compared with the CF alone, but PM treatment resulted in the long-term survival of TRB in soil. The use of CF+PM also increased the risk of spreading TRGs in soil. As beneficial microorganisms in BF may function as reservoirs for the spread of antibiotic resistance genes, care should be taken when adding them to the OF matrix. The PM treatment significantly altered the community structures and increased the species diversity of TRB, especially in the rhizosphere soil. BF treatment caused insignificant changes in the community structure of TRB compared with CF treatment, yet it reduced the species diversities of TRB in soil. Thus, the partial use of fresh PM as a substitute for CF could increase the risk of spread of TRGs. Apart from plant growth promotion, BF was a promising fertilizer owing to its potential ability to control TRGs.

  17. Dietary crude protein and tannin impact dairy manure chemistry and ammonia emissions from incubated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

    2011-01-01

    Excess crude protein (CP) in dairy cow diets is excreted mostly as urea nitrogen (N), which increases ammonia (NH) emissions from dairy farms and heightens human health and environmental concerns. Feeding less CP and more tannin to dairy cows may enhance feed N use and milk production, abate NH emissions, and conserve the fertilizer N value of manure. Lab-scale ventilated chambers were used to evaluate the impacts of CP and tannin feeding on slurry chemistry, NH emissions, and soil inorganic N levels after slurry application to a sandy loam soil and a silt loam soil. Slurry from lactating Holstein dairy cows (Bos taurus) fed two levels of dietary CP (low CP [LCP], 155 g kg; high CP [HCP], 168 g kg) each fed at four levels of dietary tannin extract, a mixture from red quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii) and chestnut (Castanea sativa) trees (0 tannin [0T]; low tannin [LT], 4.5 g kg; medium tannin [MT], 9.0 g kg; and high tannin [HT], 18.0 g kg) were applied to soil-containing lab-scale chambers, and NH emissions were measured 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after slurry application. Emissions from the HCP slurry were 1.53 to 2.57 times greater ( soils were greater ( soils than in LCP slurry-amended soils. Emissions from HT slurry were 28 to 49% lower ( soil inorganic N levels. Emissions from the sandy loam soil were 1.07 to 1.15 times greater ( soil, a result that decreased soil inorganic N in the sandy loam compared with the silt loam soil. Larger-scale and longer-term field trails are needed to ascertain the effectiveness of feeding tannin extracts to dairy cows in abating NH loss from land-applied slurry and the impact of tannin-containing slurry on soil N cycles.

  18. Soil properties and corn (Zea mays L.) production under manure application combined with deep tillage management in solonetzic soils of Songnen Plain, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-feng; LI Da-wei; ZHANG Juan; ZHOU Lian-ren; MA Xian-fa; WANG Hong-yan; WANG Guang-cheng

    2016-01-01

    Poor soil structure and nutrients, excessive exchangeable Na+, high pH as wel as low enzyme activities are common in the solonetz, and signiifcantly restrict corn (Zea mays L.) production. Cattle manure application combined with deep tilage is an important management practice that can affect soil physico-chemical properties and enzyme activities as wel as corn yield in the solonetz. Field experiments were carried out in a randomized complete block design comprising four treatments: Corn with conventional tilage was used as a control, and corn with manure application combined with deep tilage as wel as iflm mulching and aluminium sulfate were used as the experimental treatments, respectively. The relationship between corn yield and measured soil properties was determined using stepwise regression analysis. Manure application combined with deep tilage management was more effective than conventional tilage for increasing corn yield and for improving soil properties in the solonetz. The highest corn yield was obtained in the treatments with manure application+deep tilage+plastic iflm mulching (11472 and 12228 kg ha–1), and increased by 38 and 43% comparing with the control treatment (8343 and 8552 kg ha–1) both in the 2013 and 2014 experiments, respectively. Using factor analysis, three factors were obtained, which represented soil fertility status, soil saline-alkaline properties and soil structural properties both in the 2013 and 2014 experiments, respectively. Manure and deep tilage management resulted in two distinct groups of soil properties: (1) soils with manure application combined with deep tilage and (2) soils with conventional tilage. Stepwise regression analysis showed that corn yield was signiifcantly and positively correlated to urease and available P, as wel as negatively correlated to pH, electrical conductivity (EC), exchange sodium percentage (ESP), and bulk density (ρb). We concluded that ρb was dominant factor for corn yield on the basis of

  19. Effect of dairy manure rate and the stabilization time of amended soils on atrazine degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Paula; Briceño, Gabriela; Candia, Maribel; Mora, Maria de la Luz; Demanet, Rolando; Palma, Graciela

    2009-10-01

    The application rate of liquid cow manure (LCM) in the field and the stabilization time of amended soils before application of pre-plant herbicides are factors that determine their efficiency. This study includes evaluation of residual atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) in soil and amended soils with equivalent rate of 100,000; 200,000; and 300,000 L ha(-1) of LCM and the effect of pre-incubation time of amended soils on atrazine degradation. The study was carried out under controlled conditions using an Andisol with previous historical application of atrazine. The respiratory activity and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) studies indicated that the time necessary for stabilization of amended soils is over 20-30 d. During the measurement of respiratory and FDA activity, no significant differences were observed when atrazine was applied. The half-life of atrazine ranged from 5 to 8d and the relative distribution of degradation products seem to be affected by the application of LCM. The pre-incubation time of amended soil and LCM dose would not affect atrazine degradation rate, when the soil has a history of herbicide application. However, repeated applications of LCM in a long period of time could change the soil pH and increase the content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which could further contribute to a faster degradation of atrazine. Both effects would reduce the effectiveness of atrazine in weed control.

  20. Root Induced Heterogeneity In Agricultural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, C.; Gabai, R.; Weisbrod, N.; Furman, A.

    2012-12-01

    In this study we investigate the role of plant induced heterogeneity on water dynamics in agricultural soils. We conducted three experiments in two sites (one still ongoing) in which a trench was excavated in the root zone of an orchard and the subsurface, to a depth of over 1 m, was instrumented in high resolution with water content, water potential and temperature sensors. High temporal resolution monitoring of soil state was carried for over a year, period that included natural (Mediterranean) climate boundary forcing. In addition, sprinkler, flood, and spray irrigation boundary conditions were forced for short time periods to explore the infiltration process under these conditions. One site was an Avocado orchard planted in red sandy soil while the other, still on-going, is in a grape vineyards irrigated by tap and treated wastewater, planted over alluvial clayey soil. In the vineyard, we are comparing soil irrigated with fresh water to soil irrigated with treated waste water for more than 10 years. Our preliminary results indicate several interesting phenomena. First, the role of plant roots is clearly seen as the major roots act as a conduit for water (and solute), providing a fast bypass of the upper soil. Further, we identified different regions of the subsurface that apparently were of the same texture, but in practice presented very different hydraulic properties. Second, the role of these roots depends on the boundary conditions. That is, the root bypass acts differently when soil is flooded than when flow is strictly unsaturated. As expected, simulation of the experimental results show good fit only if the domain heterogeneity of soil properties was incorporated. Results for the clayey soils were not available at time of abstract submission.

  1. Marble waste and pig manure amendments decrease metal availability, increase soil quality and facilitate vegetation development in bare mine soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Acosta, José A.; Gómez, M. Dolores; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

    2013-04-01

    In order to bring out a functional and sustainable land use in a highly contaminated mine tailing, firstly environmental risks have to be reduced or eliminated by suitable reclamation activities. Tailing ponds pose environmental hazards, such as acidity and toxic metals reaching to waters through wind and water erosions and leaching. As a consequence, soils have no vegetation and low soil organic matter and nutrients. Various physicochemical and biochemical properties, together with exchangeable metals were measured before, 6 months and 12 months after the application of marble waste and pigs manure as reclamation strategy in a tailing pond from SE Spain to reduce hazards for environment and human health. Three months after the last addition of amendments, eight different native shrub species where planted for phytostabilization. Results showed the pH increased up to neutrality. Aggregates stability, organic carbon, total nitrogen, cation exchange capacity, bioavailable phosphorus and potassium, microbial biomass and microbial activity increased with the application of the amendments, while exchangeable metals drastically decreased (~90%). After one year of plantation, only 20% planted species died, with a high growth of survivals reaching flowering and fructification. This study confirms the high effectiveness of initial applications of marble wastes together with pig manure and plantation of shrub species to initialize the recovery of the ecosystem in bare mine soils under Mediterranean semiarid conditions. Key Words: pig manure, marble waste, heavy metals, mine soil. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project MIPOLARE (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000439). J.A. Acosta acknowledges a "Saavedra Fajardo" contract from Comunidad Autónoma de Murcia (Spain)

  2. Effect of compost and manure amendments on zinc soil speciation, plant content, and translocation in an artificially contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Chami, Ziad; Cavoski, Ivana; Mondelli, Donato; Miano, Teodoro

    2013-07-01

    The addition of organic matter in soil can modify the bioavailability of heavy metals. A greenhouse pot experiment was carried out using an edible plant species Eruca vesicaria L. Cavalieri grown on an artificially contaminated soil with Zn (665 mg kg(-1)). In this study, the effect of compost at 20 t ha(-1) (C20) and at 60 t ha(-1) (C60), manure at 10 t ha(-1) (M10) and at 30 t ha(-1) (M30), and chemical fertilizers (NPK) on Zn fate in a soil-plant system was evaluated. At the end of the experiment, the main growth parameters and Zn content in plants were determined. In addition, Zn speciation in the soil was assessed using the original Community Bureau of Reference sequential extraction and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid extraction. Zinc, though an essential element for plant growth, caused toxicity effects in plants grown on control and manure treatments, while in the compost treatments, plants showed no visual toxicity symptoms. The concentrations of Zn in roots were similar for all treatments, while significant differences were observed for shoots. In fact, in the compost treatments, plants showed the lowest Zn concentration in shoots. Zinc speciation seems not to be affected by the applied treatments. Indeed, Zn plant content and translocation to shoots seems to be affected. Compost amendments significantly reduced Zn content and translocation in comparison to other treatments.

  3. Liquid Swine Manure Can Kill Verticillium dahliae Microsclerotia in Soil by Volatile Fatty Acid, Nitrous Acid, and Ammonia Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kenneth L; Tenuta, Mario; Lazarovits, George

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT In previous studies, liquid swine manure (LSM) was sometimes shown to reduce Verticillium wilt of potato caused by Verticillium dahliae. We also observed that microsclerotia of this fungus died within 1 day, or between 3 and 6 weeks, after addition of LSM to some acid soils and within 1 week in some alkaline soils. In this study, we demonstrated that a volatile fatty acid (VFA) mixture with an identical concentration of VFAs as that found in an effective LSM reduced germination in an acid soil (pH 5.1) to the same extent as the LSM after 1 day of exposure. Germination was reduced by 45, 75, and 90% in the 10, 20, and 40% ([wt/wt] soil moisture) treatments, respectively, with the latter being equivalent to an application of 80 hl/ha. Addition to this acid soil of 19 LSMs (30% [wt/wt] soil moisture) collected from different producers resulted in complete kill of microsclerotia with 12 manures. Effective manures had a total concentration of nonionized forms of VFAs in soil solution of 2.7 mM or higher. In some acid soils (pH 5.8), addition of LSM (40% [wt/wt] soil moisture) did not kill microsclerotia until 3 to 6 weeks later. Here, a reduction in viability of microsclerotia was attributed to the accumulation of 0.06 mM nitrous acid in the soil solution at 4 weeks. When an LSM was added (40% [wt/wt] soil moisture) to an alkaline soil (pH 7.9) where VFAs are not toxic, microsclerotia germination was reduced by 80% after 1 week. Here the pH increased to 8.9 and the concentration of ammonia reached 30 mM in the soil solution. An ammonium chloride solution having an equivalent concentration of ammonium as the manure was shown to have the same spectrum of toxicity as the manure in assays ranging from pH 7 to 9, both in solutions and above the solutions. At pH 9, the concentration of ammonia reached 18 mM and 100% mortality of microsclerotia occurred. Thus, in acid soils, LSM can kill microsclerotia of V. dahliae by VFA and/or nitrous acid toxicity and in alkaline

  4. Effects of Long-Term Winter Planted Green Manure on Distribution and Storage of Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in Water-Stable Aggregates of Reddish Paddy Soil Under a Double-Rice Cropping System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zeng-ping; ZHENG Sheng-xian; NIE Jun; LIAO Yu-lin; XIE Jian

    2014-01-01

    In agricultural systems, maintenance of soil organic matter has long been recognized as a strategy to reduce soil degradation. Manure amendments and green manures are management practices that can increase some nutrient contents and improve soil aggregation. We investigated the effects of 28 yr of winter planted green manure on soil aggregate-size distribution and aggregate-associated carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). The study was a randomized completed block design with three replicates. The treatments included rice-rice-fallow, rice-rice-rape, rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch and rice-rice-ryegrass. The experiment was established in 1982 on a silty light clayey paddy soil derived from Quaternary red clay (classiifed as Fe-Accumuli-Stagnic Anthrosols) with continuous early and late rice. In 2009, soil samples were collected (0-15 cm depth) from the ifeld treatment plots and separated into water-stable aggregates of different sizes (i.e.,>5, 2-5, 1-2, 0.5-1, 0.25-0.5 and<0.25 mm) by wet sieving. The long-term winter planted green manure signiifcantly increased total C and N, and the formation of the 2-5-mm water-stable aggregate fraction. Compared with rice-rice-rape, rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch and rice-rice-ryegrass, the rice-rice-fallow signiifcantly reduced 2-5-mm water-stable aggregates, with a signiifcant redistribution of aggregates into micro-aggregates. Long-term winter planted green manure obviously improved C/N ratio and macro-aggregate-associated C and N. The highest contribution to soil fertility was from macro-aggregates of 2-5 mm in most cases.

  5. Availability of P and K after application of ashes and biochars from thermally-treated solid manures to soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    In areas with high livestock density it can be advantageous to export a solid manure fraction after slurry separation to avoid overload of P. By combustion or gasification of solid manure energy is produced and nutrients are concentrated and therefore less expensive to transport. However, some st...... compared to a KCl reference. The heavy metal content of the tested ashes was below the Danish threshold value for wastes like ash, except for Ni in the poultry ash....... studies have indicated that the plant availability of P and K is decreased by combustion. The dynamics of extractable P and K in soil was compared during 16 weeks after application of equal amounts of P in ashes, solid slurry fractions and superphosphate to a sandy soil. Concentrations of water......- , bicarbonate- and resin-extractable P and exchangeable K were measured after incubation. The ashes/biochars studied derived from gasification (ca 730°C) of poultry manure, gasification of solid manure, co-combustion of solid manure with straw (ca 700 and 900°C) and pyrolysis of solid manure (250, 400 or 500°C...

  6. Low occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in agricultural soils with and without organic amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie eNazaret

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was monitored at a broad spatial scale in French agricultural soils, from various soil types and under various land uses to evaluate the ability of soil to be a natural habitat for that species. To appreciate the impact of agricultural practices on the potential dispersion of P. aeruginosa, we further investigated the impact of organic amendment at experimental sites in France and Burkina Faso. A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR approach was used to analyze a set of 380 samples selected within the French RMQS (‘Réseau de Mesures de la Qualité des Sols’ soil library. In parallel, a culture-dependent approach was tested on a subset of samples. The results showed that P. aeruginosa was very rarely detected suggesting a sporadic presence of this bacterium in soils from France and Burkina Faso, whatever the structural and physico-chemical characteristics or climate. When we analyzed the impact of organic amendment on the prevalence of P. aeruginosa, we found that even if it was detectable in various manures (at levels from 103 to 105 CFU or DNA targets (g drywt-1 of sample, it was hardly ever detected in the corresponding soils, which raises questions about its survival. The only case reports were from a vineyard soil amended with a compost of mushroom manure in Burgundy, and a few samples from two fields amended with raw urban wastes in the sub-urban area of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. In these soils the levels of culturable cells were below 10 CFU (g drywt-1.

  7. [Effects of rotations and different green manure utilizations on crop yield and soil fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhi-yuan; Wang, Zheng; Li, Jing; Yu, Chang-wei; Cao, Qun-hu; Cao, Wei-dong; Gao, Ya-jun

    2015-08-01

    A 4-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of three rotation systems and three corresponding leguminous green manure (LGM) application methods on wheat yield and soil properties. The rotation patterns were summer fallow--winter wheat (SW), LGM-- winter wheat (LW) and LGM--spring maize--winter wheat (LMW). The three LGM application methods of LW included: early mulch, early incorporation and late incorporation while the three LGM application methods of LMW were: stalk mulch, stalk incorporation and stalk move-away. The results indicated that for LW, LGM consumed more soil water, thus the wheat yield was not stable. The nitrate storage in 0-200 cm soil after wheat harvest was significantly higher than that of the others, indicating an increasing risk of nitrate leaching. Early mulch under LW had the highest soil organic carbon (SOC) content and storage of SOC (SSOC) in 0-20 cm soil. For LMW, wheat yield was comparatively stable among years, because of higher water storage before wheat seeding, and the nitrate storage in 0-200 cm soil after wheat harvest was significantly lower than LW, which decreased the risk of nitrate leaching. Stalk mulch had higher SOC content in 0-20 cm soil after wheat harvest compared with move-away. In addition, compared with the soil when the experiment started, stalk much also increased SSOC in 0-20 cm soil. In conclusion, LMW with stalk mulch could increase soil water storage, stabilize crop yield, improve soil fertility and decrease 0-200 cm soil nitrate storage. This system could be treated as a good alternative for areas with similar climate.

  8. Sorption of phenanthrene in agricultural soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, António Carlos Alves; Minh, Luong Nhat; Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are among the major contaminants in the terrestrial environment. The background level in normal agricultural land has increased for many years and it is expected to further increase in the future. Because of the very low water solubility and high Kow values......, KD for more than one hundred Danish and European agricultural top and sub soils (122 topsoils and 28 subsoils) as well as the normalized distribution coefficient of the organic carbon content (KOC), through single point isotherm measurements. Possible effect of clay-complexed organic carbon...... models of Abdul et al. and Karickhoff et al. These two models were documented useful to predict maximum and minimum Koc for agricultural topsoils, for example in regard to predicting long-term PAH leaching from cultivated areas. Furthermore, we suggest a new Koc model in between Abdul and Karickhoff...

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions and soil properties following amendment with manure-derived biochars: Influence of pyrolysis temperature and feedstock type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Raghunath; Taupe, Natalie; Pelissetti, Simone; Petruzzelli, Laura; Bertora, Chiara; Leahy, James J; Grignani, Carlo

    2016-01-15

    Manure-derived biochars can offer a potential option for the stabilization of manure, while mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration and the attenuation of nitrous oxide emission. A laboratory incubation study was conducted to assess the effects of four different manure-derived biochars produced from different feedstocks (poultry litter and swine manure) at different temperatures (400 or 600 °C). A commonly available standard wood chip biochar, produced at a greater temperature (1000 °C), and non-amended treatments were used as references. Two different soils (sandy and silt-loam) were amended with 2% (w/w) biochar on a dry soil weight basis (corresponding to 20 Mg ha(-1)), with the soil moisture being adjusted to 75% saturation level. After a pre-incubation period (21 days), 170 kg N ha(-1) of NH4NO3 fertilizer was added. Measurements of CO2, N2O, CH4 emissions and soil N mineralisation were carried out on different days during the 85 days of incubation. The net C mineralization and N2O emissions from both soils amended with poultry litter biochar at 400 °C were significantly greater than the other biochar treatments. Nitrate availability was greater in both soils in which the manure-derived biochar was used instead of the standard biochar. All of the biochars increased the pH of the silt-loam, sub-acid soil, but failed to improve the cation exchange capacities (CEC) in either soil. Total C and N, P, K and Mg (except Ca) were significantly increased in the manure-derived biochar amended soils, compared to the Control, and were positively correlated to the biochar nutrient contents. This study indicates that the soil application of biochar engenders effects that can vary considerably according to the biochar properties, as determined on the basis of the feedstock types and process conditions. Low-temperature biochar production from manure represents a possible way of producing a soil amendment that can stabilize C while supplying a

  10. The Role of Biochar in Ameliorating Disturbed Soils and Sequestering Soil Carbon in Tropical Agricultural Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolde Mekuria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soils in the tropics have undergone significant declines in their native carbon stock through the long-term use of extractive farming practices. However, these soils have significant capacity to sequester CO2 through the implementation of improved land management practices. This paper reviews the published and grey literature related to the influence of improved land management practices on soil carbon stock in the tropics. The review suggests that the implementation of improved land management practices such as crop rotation, no-till, cover crops, mulches, compost, or manure can be effective in enhancing soil organic carbon pool and agricultural productivity in the tropics. The benefits of such amendments were, however, often short-lived, and the added organic matters were usually mineralized to CO2 within a few cropping seasons leading to large-scale leakage. We found that management of black carbon (C, increasingly referred to as biochar, may overcome some of those limitations and provide an additional soil management option. Under present circumstances, recommended crop and land management practices are inappropriate for the vast majority of resource constrained smallholder farmers and farming systems. We argue that expanding the use of biochar in agricultural lands would be important for sequestering atmospheric CO2 and mitigating climate change, while implementing the recommended crop and land management practices in selected areas where the smallholder farmers are not resource constrained.

  11. Agriculture on Mars: Soils for Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.

    2016-01-01

    Robotic rovers and landers have enabled the mineralogical, chemical, and physical characterization of loose, unconsolidated materials on the surface of Mars. Planetary scientists refer to the regolith material as "soil." NASA is currently planning to send humans to Mars in the mid 2030s. Early missions may rely on the use of onsite resources to enable exploration and self-sufficient outposts on Mars. The martian "soil" and surface environment contain all essential plant growth elements. The study of martian surface materials and how they might react as agricultural soils opens a new frontier for researchers in the soil science community. Other potential applications for surface "soils" include (i) sources for extraction of essential plant-growth nutrients, (ii) sources of O2, H2, CO2, and H2O, (iii) substrates for microbial populations in the degradation of wastes, and (iv) shielding materials surrounding outpost structures to protect humans, plants, and microorganisms from radiation. There are many challenges that will have to be addressed by soil scientists prior to human exploration over the next two decades.

  12. INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC MANURES AND AMENDMENTS IN SOIL PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND THEIR IMPACT ON GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF BANANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K VANILARASU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out during 2010-2011, to study the effect of organic manures (Farmyard manure, Vermicompost, Neem cake and Wood ash, organic amendments (Arbuscular mycorrhizae, Azospirillum, Phosphate Solubilising Bacteria and Trichoderma harzianum and green manures (Sunhemp and Cowpea in comparison with inorganic fertilizers on leaf nutrient and soil physiochemical properties of banana cv. Grand Naine. The treatment T10 with the combined application of organic manures, amendments and green manures (Farmyard manure @ 10 kg + Neem cake @ 1.25 kg + Vermicompost @ 5 kg and Wood ash @ 1.75 kg /plant + Triple green manuring with Sunhemp + Double intercropping of Cow pea + biofertilizers viz., Arbuscular Mycorrhizae @ 25 g , Azospirillum @ 50 g, Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria @ 50 g and Trichoderma harzianum @ 50 g/plant registered the maximum growth, yield and yield attributes, leaf nutrient status of N, P and K at 5th and 7th month after planting and soil physiochemical properties at harvesting stage because the role of organic manures and amendments to make the soil has healthy as well as possible and also, the unavailable form of soil nutrients to available form by enhancing mineralization and solubilization process in soil by adding organic manures and microbial agents make easy uptake of nutrients when crop required comparing to chemical fertilizers.

  13. Yield, income and bromatology of ‘Chinês’ and ‘Macaquinho’ taro in response to forms of adding chicken manure to the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Antonio Heredia Zárate

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield of Taro is very variable by the unknowing of its genotype characteristics and by differences of planting practices, mainly about the use of organic residues as covering or incorporated to the soil. The aim of this work was to analyze the productivity, gross income and bromatological composition of ‘Chinês’ and ‘Macaquinho’ taro, cultivated with different forms of adding semi-decomposed chicken manure to the soil (soil without chicken manure; with chicken manure as covering; with chicken manure incorporated to the soil and with chicken manure as covering + incorporated to the soil. Treatments were arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme in a randomized complete block design with five replications. Two harvests were performed at 183 and 211 days after transplanting. There was no difference for most of the characteristics evaluated under addiction of chicken manure. Yields of commercial cormels from Macaquinho were higher than Chinês, which can be seen as positive feature for higher gross income. Plants of ‘Macaquinho’ taro were precocious and more productive than ‘Chinês’ taro. To obtain higher gross income, ‘Macaquinho’ taro must be cultivated with adding chicken manure to the soil as covering (5 t ha-1 + incorporated to the soil (5 t ha-1 and harvested 183 days after planting. Bromatological analysis showed that corms and cormels of ‘Chinês’ taro were more nutritious than ‘Macaquinho’ taro when grown without chicken manure.

  14. Trichoderma harzianum in combination with sheep manure amendment enhances soil suppressiveness of Fusarium wilt of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Barakat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect that the biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum (isolate Jn14 in combination with an amendment of sheep manure has on the soil suppressiveness of Fusarium wilt of tomato was investigated over a 28-month period. A combination of T. harzianum and organic amendment at concentrations (w:w of 6 and 10% reduced tomato wilt by 21–36 % and 29–36% respectively, after 0–28 months of soil incubation. When the amendment was added at concentration of 2%, the wilt was suppressed only after 18–28 months. A combination of T. harzianum and the amendment at 6% also increased tomato plant fresh weights by 52% after 28 months, and the 10% amendment increased fresh weights by 56, 40, and 63%, after 18, 24, and 28 months respectively, compared to the experimental controls. Organic amendment at the higher concentrations further stimulated T. harzianum populations, enhanced microbial activity against Fusarium oxysporum in the soil and reduced pathogen populations. Without T. harzianum, the organic amendment at a concentration of 10% reduced disease by only 22, 24, and 23% and only after 18, 24 and 28 months of soil incubation respectively, compared with the controls. However, tomato wilt was not reduced at a 2% manure concentration in less than 12 months of incubation. Organic amendment alone at 6 and 10% reduced the pathogen population by 25% and 37% respectively after 28 months of soil incubation compared with the control. T. harzianum produced fungitoxic metabolites that reduced mycelial growth of Fusarium by 37% and conidium germination by 55% when the pathogen was grown on potato dextrose agar amended with a T. harzianum culture filtrate.

  15. Impacts of manure application on soil environment, rainfall use efficiency and crop biomass under dryland farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Jia, Zhikuan; Liang, Lianyou; Yang, Baoping; Ding, Ruixia; Nie, Junfeng; Wang, Junpeng

    2016-02-01

    Because of inadequate nutrient and water supply, soils are often unproductive in Northwest China. We studied the effects of manure application at low (LM 7.5  t ha–1), medium (MM 15 t ha–1), and high (HM 22.5 t ha–1) rates combined with fixed levels of chemical fertilizers on maize growth and rainfall use efficiency compared with chemical fertilizers (CK) under semi-arid conditions over a three-year period. HM and MM treatments could significantly increase soil water storage (0–120 cm) at tasseling stage of maize compared with LM treatment and CK (P efficiency increased as manure application rate increasing (P efficiency by 6.5–12.7% at big trumpeting – tasseling stage compared with LM and MM treatments. HM and MM treatments increased rainfall use efficiency by 8.6–18.1% at tasseling – grain filling stage compared with CK. There was no significant difference on biomass between HM and MM treatments at grain filling and maturity stages of maize in 2009 and 2010.

  16. Propidium Monoazide Coupled with PCR Predicts Infectivity of Enteric Viruses in Swine Manure and Biofertilized Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, Gislaine; Hernández, Marta; García-González, María Cruz; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2016-03-01

    The use of propidium monoazide (PMA) coupled with real-time PCR (RT-qPCR or qPCR for RNA or DNA viruses, respectively) was assessed to discriminate infectious enteric viruses in swine raw manure, swine effluent from anaerobic biodigester (AB) and biofertilized soils. Those samples were spiked either with infectious and heat-inactivated human adenovirus-2 (HAdV-2) or mengovirus (vMC0), and PMA-qPCR/RT-qPCR allowed discriminating inactivated viruses from the infective particles, with significant reductions (>99.9%). Then, the procedure was further assayed to evaluate the presence and stability of two non-cultivable viruses (porcine adenovirus and rotavirus A) in natural samples (swine raw manure, swine effluent from AB and biofertilized soils); it demonstrated viral inactivation during the storage period at 23 °C. As a result, the combination of PMA coupled to real-time PCR can be a promising alternative for prediction of viral infectivity in comparison to more labour-intensive and costly techniques such as animal or tissue-culture infectivity methods, and for those viruses that do not have currently available cell culture techniques.

  17. Spatial oxygen distribution and nitrous oxide emissions from soil after manure application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kun; Bruun, Sander; Larsen, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    The availability and spatial distribution of oxygen (O2) in agricultural soil are controlling factors in the production and emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, but most experiments investigating the effects of various factors on N2O emissions in soil have been conducted without det...

  18. Accumulation and translocation of sparingly soluble manure phosphorus in different types of soils after long-term excessive inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. UUSITALO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available When phosphorus (P is applied to soils in excess of plant P demand, P accumulation takes place. By means of P fractionation, we studied the fate of P in 35 soils that had received long-term surplus P rates as fox and mink manure P (F&MM-P, considered as a sparingly soluble P source. We compared these data with those from the same soils under a more typical P management, i.e., fields amended with soluble P sources superphosphate and dairy manure (SP+DM. Fractionation of manures according to the Hedley procedure suggested limited solubility of F&MM-P, two-thirds of the F&MM-P being soluble in acid (HCl only. In mineral soils, surplus F&MM-P accumulated for the most part as HCl-P (poorly available, whereas in organic soils accumulation occurred largely as NaOH-soluble (moderately available and labile P. Translocation of F&MM-P was evidenced by P fractionation and by agronomic P test: subsurface soil of F&MM-amended fields contained more P than the same soils in fields amended with SP+DM. In the 35 soils that had received surplus F&MM-P, agronomic P status was classified as “excessive” in 90% of the samples taken from the plough layer, in 75% of those from 20–40 cm depth, and in 50% of those from 40–60 cm depth. In the reference soils amended with SP+DM, “excessive” P status was recorded for 23% of the plough layer samples and 4% of the subsurface samples. These results show that manure P which appears as sparingly soluble in P fractionation may in a longer term increase the content of labile soil P and translocate in the soil profile when applied in high rates.;

  19. Long-term combined chemical and manure fertilizations increase soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in aggregate fractions at three typical cropland soils in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y T; Zhang, W J; Xu, M G; Tong, X G; Sun, F X; Wang, J Z; Huang, S M; Zhu, P; He, X H

    2015-11-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) are important factors of soil fertility. However, effects of the combined chemical fertilizer and organic manure or straw on these factors and their relationships are less addressed under long-term fertilizations. This study addressed changes in SOC, TN, MBC and MBN at 0-20 cm soil depth under three 17 years (September 1990-September 2007) long-term fertilization croplands along a heat and water gradient in China. Four soil physical fractions (coarse free and fine free particulate organic C, cfPOC and ffPOC; intra-microaggregate POC, iPOC; and mineral associated organic C, MOC) were examined under five fertilizations: unfertilized control, chemical nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) (NPK), NPK plus straw (NPKS, hereafter straw return), and NPK plus manure (NPKM and 1.5NPKM, hereafter manure). Compared with Control, manure significantly increased all tested parameters. SOC and TN in fractions distributed as MOC > iPOC > cfPOC > ffPOC with the highest increase in cfPOC (329.3%) and cfPTN (431.1%), and the lowest in MOC (40.8%) and MTN (45.4%) under manure. SOC significantly positively correlated with MBC, cfPOC, ffPOC, iPOC and MOC (R(2) = 0.51-0.84, P fertilization for improving soil fertility while straw return should take into account climate factors in Chinese croplands.

  20. Emission and Fixation of CO2 from Soil System as Influenced by Long-Term Application of Organic Manure in Paddy Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yi; WU Chun-yan; SHUI Jian-guo; WANG Jia-yu

    2006-01-01

    The observations of 25-yr long-term experiment in Zhejiang paddy soils showed that the soil organic matter could increase continuously with applying organic manure, and the increase in rate enhanced along with the application rates of organic manure. By mathematical modeling, the soil organic matter increased by 22 kg when 1 t of fresh FYM was applied. The CO2emission resulting from the mineralization of soil organic matter increased with the increase in the application rate of the organic manure as well as the increase in the root residues. It is expected that the CO2 emission will be at 10.04-21.61 t ha-1 yr-1 when 16.5-49.5 t ha-1 yr-1 of fresh FYM is applied. The soil organic carbon from mineralization and release of applied organic carbon (fresh FYM and root residues) will affect the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. So, the higher the application rate of organic manure, the more is the fixed organic carbon. The CO2 fixation will be at 1.885-3.463 t ha-1 yr-1 when 16.5-49.5 t ha-1 yr-1 of fresh FYM is applied. Thus, the CO2 fixation will increase by 46.7 kg by applying 1 t fresh FYM. To apply organic manure continuously in rice fields may reduce the contribution to the increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.

  1. Remediation of degraded arable steppe soils in Moldova using vetch as green manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmeier, M.; Lungu, M.; Hübner, R.; Cerbari, V.

    2015-05-01

    In the Republic of Moldova, non-sustainable arable farming led to severe degradation and erosion of fertile steppe soils (Chernozems). As a result, the Chernozems lost about 40% of their initial amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC). The aim of this study was to remediate degraded arable soils and promote carbon sequestration by implementation of cover cropping and green manuring in Moldova. Thereby, the suitability of the legume hairy vetch (Vicia sativa) as cover crop under the dry continental climate of Moldova was examined. At two experimental sites, the effect of cover cropping on chemical and physical soil properties as well as on yields of subsequent main crops was determined. The results showed a significant increase of SOC after incorporation of hairy vetch mainly due to increases of aggregate-occluded and mineral-associated OC. This was related to a high above- and belowground biomass production of hairy vetch associated with a high input of carbon and nitrogen into arable soils. A calculation of SOC stocks based on equivalent soil masses revealed a sequestration of around 3 t C ha-1yr-1 as a result of hairy vetch cover cropping. The buildup of SOC was associated with an improvement of the soil structure as indicated by a distinct decrease of bulk density and a relative increase of macroaggregates at the expense of microaggregates and clods. As a result, yields of subsequent main crops increased by around 20%. Our results indicated that hairy vetch is a promising cover crop to remediate degraded steppe soils, control soil erosion and sequester substantial amounts of atmospheric C in arable soils of Moldova.

  2. Soil macronutrient sensing for precision agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Jin; Sudduth, Kenneth A; Hummel, John W

    2009-10-01

    Accurate measurements of soil macronutrients (i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) are needed for efficient agricultural production, including site-specific crop management (SSCM), where fertilizer nutrient application rates are adjusted spatially based on local requirements. Rapid, non-destructive quantification of soil properties, including nutrient levels, has been possible with optical diffuse reflectance sensing. Another approach, electrochemical sensing based on ion-selective electrodes or ion-selective field effect transistors, has been recognized as useful in real-time analysis because of its simplicity, portability, rapid response, and ability to directly measure the analyte with a wide range of sensitivity. Current sensor developments and related technologies that are applicable to the measurement of soil macronutrients for SSCM are comprehensively reviewed. Examples of optical and electrochemical sensors applied in soil analyses are given, while advantages and obstacles to their adoption are discussed. It is proposed that on-the-go vehicle-based sensing systems have potential for efficiently and rapidly characterizing variability of soil macronutrients within a field.

  3. The Effects of Farmyard Manure and Mulch on Soil Physical Properties in a Reclaimed Coastal Tidal Flat Salt-Affected Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-bing; YANG Jing-song; YAO Rong-jiang; YU Shi-peng; LI Fu-rong; HOU Xiao-jing

    2014-01-01

    Careful soil management is important for the soil quality and productivity improvement of the reclaimed coastal tidal lfat saline land in northern Jiangsu Province, China. Farmyard manure (FYM) and mulch applications, which affect soil characteristics and plant signiifcantly, are regard as an effective pattern of saline land improvement. As a conventional management in the study region, FYM and mulch are used for the amendment of the new reclaimed tidal lfat regularly, but little is known about their effects on soil physical properties functioning. A study was conducted on a typical coastal tidal lfat saline land, which was reclaimed in 2005, to evaluate the effects of FYM, polyethylene iflm mulch (PM), straw mulch (SM), FYM combined with PM (FYM+PM), FYM combined with SM (FYM+SM), on soil hydraulic properties and soil mechanical impedance. CK represented conventional cultivation in study area without FYM and mulch application and served as a control. The experiment, laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications, was studied in Huanghaiyuan Farm, which specialized in the agricultural utilization for coastal tidal lfat. Result showed that capillary water holding capacity (CHC), saturated water content (SWC), saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and bulk density (BD), cone index (CI) were affected signiifcantly by the FYM and mulch application, especially in the 0-10 cm soil layer. FYM and mulch management increased CHC, SWC and Ks over all soil depth in the order of FYM+SM>FYM+PM>FYM>SM>PM>CK. With the contrary sequence, BD and CI decreased signiifcantly;however, FYM and mulch application affected BD and CI only in the upper soil layers. CHC, SWC and Ks decreased signiifcantly with the increasing of soil depth, BD and CI, and a signiifcant liner equation was found between CHC, SWC, Ks and BD, CI. With the highest CHC (38.15%), SWC (39.55%), Ks (6.00 mm h-1) and the lowest BD (1.26 g cm-3) and CI (2.71 MPa), the combined management of FYM

  4. Soil Organic Carbon dynamics in agricultural soils of Veneto Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampa, F. B.; Morari, F. M.; Hiederer, R. H.; Toth, G. T.; Giandon, P. G.; Vinci, I. V.; Montanarella, L. M.; Nocita, M.

    2012-04-01

    One of the eight soil threats expressed in the European Commission's Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (COM (2006)231 final) it's the decline in Soil Organic Matter (SOM). His preservation is recognized as with the objective to ensure that the soils of Europe remain healthy and capable of supporting human activities and ecosystems. One of the key goals of the strategy is to maintain and improve Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) levels. As climate change is identified as a common element in many of the soil threats, the European Commission (EC) intends to assess the actual contribution of the soil protection to climate change mitigation and the effects of climate change on the possible depletion of SOM. A substantial proportion of European land is occupied by agriculture, and consequently plays a crucial role in maintaining natural resources. Organic carbon preservation and sequestration in the EU's agricultural soils could have some potential to mitigate the effects of climate change, particularly linked to preventing certain land use changes and maintaining SOC stocks. The objective of this study is to assess the SOC dynamics in agricultural soils (cropland and grassland) at regional scale, focusing on changes due to land use. A sub-objective would be the evaluation of the most used land management practices and their effect on SOC content. This assessment aims to determine the geographical distribution of the potential GHG mitigation options, focusing on hot spots in the EU, where mitigation actions would be particularly efficient and is linked with the on-going work in the JRC SOIL Action. The pilot area is Veneto Region. The data available are coming from different sources, timing and involve different variables as: soil texture, climate, soil disturbance, managements and nutrients. The first source of data is the LUCAS project (Land Use/Land Cover Area Frame statistical Survey). Started in 2001, the LUCAS project aims to monitor changes in land cover/use and

  5. Impacts of agricultural management and climate change on future soil organic carbon dynamics in North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guocheng Wang

    Full Text Available Dynamics of cropland soil organic carbon (SOC in response to different management practices and environmental conditions across North China Plain (NCP were studied using a modeling approach. We identified the key variables driving SOC changes at a high spatial resolution (10 km × 10 km and long time scale (90 years. The model used future climatic data from the FGOALS model based on four future greenhouse gas (GHG concentration scenarios. Agricultural practices included different rates of nitrogen (N fertilization, manure application, and stubble retention. We found that SOC change was significantly influenced by the management practices of stubble retention (linearly positive, manure application (linearly positive and nitrogen fertilization (nonlinearly positive - and the edaphic variable of initial SOC content (linearly negative. Temperature had weakly positive effects, while precipitation had negligible impacts on SOC dynamics under current irrigation management. The effects of increased N fertilization on SOC changes were most significant between the rates of 0 and 300 kg ha-1 yr-1. With a moderate rate of manure application (i.e., 2000 kg ha-1 yr-1, stubble retention (i.e., 50%, and an optimal rate of nitrogen fertilization (i.e., 300 kg ha-1 yr-1, more than 60% of the study area showed an increase in SOC, and the average SOC density across NCP was relatively steady during the study period. If the rates of manure application and stubble retention doubled (i.e., manure application rate of 4000 kg ha-1 yr-1 and stubble retention rate of 100%, soils across more than 90% of the study area would act as a net C sink, and the average SOC density kept increasing from 40 Mg ha-1 during 2010s to the current worldwide average of ∼ 55 Mg ha-1 during 2060s. The results can help target agricultural management practices for effectively mitigating climate change through soil C sequestration.

  6. Rainfall intensity effects on removal of fecal indicator bacteria from solid dairy manure applied over grass-covered soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaustein, Ryan A., E-mail: rblauste@ufl.edu [USDA-ARS Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD (United States); Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Hill, Robert L. [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Micallef, Shirley A. [Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Center for Food Safety and Security Systems, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Shelton, Daniel R.; Pachepsky, Yakov A. [USDA-ARS Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The rainfall-induced release of pathogens and microbial indicators from land-applied manure and their subsequent removal with runoff and infiltration precedes the impairment of surface and groundwater resources. It has been assumed that rainfall intensity and changes in intensity during rainfall do not affect microbial removal when expressed as a function of rainfall depth. The objective of this work was to test this assumption by measuring the removal of Escherichia coli, enterococci, total coliforms, and chloride ion from dairy manure applied in soil boxes containing fescue, under 3, 6, and 9 cm h{sup −1} of rainfall. Runoff and leachate were collected at increasing time intervals during rainfall, and post-rainfall soil samples were taken at 0, 2, 5, and 10 cm depths. Three kinetic-based models were fitted to the data on manure-constituent removal with runoff. Rainfall intensity appeared to have positive effects on rainwater partitioning to runoff, and removal with this effluent type occurred in two stages. While rainfall intensity generally did not impact the parameters of runoff-removal models, it had significant, inverse effects on the numbers of bacteria remaining in soil after rainfall. As rainfall intensity and soil profile depth increased, the numbers of indicator bacteria tended to decrease. The cumulative removal of E. coli from manure exceeded that of enterococci, especially in the form of removal with infiltration. This work may be used to improve the parameterization of models for bacteria removal with runoff and to advance estimations of depths of bacteria removal with infiltration, both of which are critical to risk assessment of microbial fate and transport in the environment. - Highlights: • Release and removal of indicator bacteria from manure was evaluated in soil boxes. • Rainfall intensity did not impact runoff-removal kinetics in three tested models. • Rainfall intensity had positive/inverse effects on bacterial release to runoff/soil

  7. Bioenergy from cattle manure? Implications of anaerobic digestion and subsequent pyrolysis for carbon and nitrogen dynamics in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, S.; Groenigen, van J.W.; Oenema, O.; Cayuela, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Cattle manure can be processed to produce bioenergy, resulting in by-products with different physicochemical characteristics. To evaluate whether application of such bioenergy by-products to soils would be beneficial compared with their unprocessed counterpart, we quantified differences in greenhous

  8. Spatiotemporal soil organic carbon dynamics in irrigated corn silage-alfalfa production systems receiving liquid dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurately measuring soil organic C (SOC) stock changes over time is essential for verifying agronomic management effects on C sequestration. This study quantified the spatial and temporal changes in SOC stocks on adjacent 65-ha corn silage-alfalfa production fields receiving liquid dairy manure in...

  9. Effect of Organic Manure and Chemical Amendments on Soil Properties and Crop Yield on a Salt Affected Entisol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.U.BHATTI; Q.KHAN; A.H.GURMANI; M.J.KHAN

    2005-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive years in a farmer's field at Haji Mora Village, Dera Ismail Khan(D.I. Khan) in the Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan to compare various management practices, such as the effect of various organic manures and gypsum in a rice-wheat cropping system on a saline-sodic Entisol (Zindani soil series). The treatments consisted of 1) a control (rice-wheat), 2) gypsum, 3) farmyard manure (FYM), 4) berseem(Trifolium alexandrinum L.) as green manure (GM), and 5) dhancha (Sesbania sp.) as GM. All treatments increased yields of both rice and wheat significantly (P < 0.01) over the control, with the green manure treatments proving more economical than the others; while they decreased pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of the soil. Saturation percentage and available water of the soil were raised for all treatments due to an increase in organic matter content of the soil.

  10. Influence of management practices on microbial nitrogen cyclers in agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural land management has great influences on soil properties, in particular on microbial communities, due to their sensitivity to the perturbations of the soils. This is even more relevant in Mediterranean agricultural areas under semi-arid conditions. The Mediterranean belt is suffering from an intense degradation of its soils due to the millennia of intense land use and due to unsustainable management practices. As a consequence this area is suffering from a depletion of N content. In this work we investigated the effect of several traditional agricultural management practices on specific functional groups related to the nitrogen cycle in the soil. A field experiment was performed with orchard orange trees (citrus sinesis) in Eastern Spain to assess the long-term effects of ploughing with inorganic fertilization (PI) and ecological practices (EP) (chipped pruned branches and weeds as well as manure from sheep and goats) on microbes that can undertake nitrogen fixation and denitrification. Nine samples of soil were taken from every treatment, near the drip irrigation point and in a zone without the influence of drip irrigation (between trees row), and total DNA extracted. DNA samples were stored at minus-20°C to be analysed by qPCR. Microbial populations involved in the N biochemical cycle were analysed by targeted amplification of key functional biomarker genes: the abundance of nifH (nitrogen fixation), nirS, nirK and nosZ (denitrification) detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR) has shown significant differences between treatments with higher abundance of all four genes in soils from ecological agricultural treatments. This may indicate that the ecological treatment created conditions that are more suitable for N cyclers in the soil and a better fertility and quality status of these soils.

  11. Agricultural biogas: easier spreading of the digested manure; Biogaz agricole: amelioration de l'epandage du fumier digere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Membrez, Y.; Martin, G. [Erep SA, Aclens (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    A new trend in agricultural biogas installations is co-digestion, i.e. the addition of other liquid or solid substrates to agricultural manure. These substrates originate primarily from the food industry, the catering industry or from communities (e.g. cut lawn). The goal of these additions is an increased production of biogas and consequently a higher cost-effectiveness of the installation. However, the addition of solid substrates will modify the consistency of the digested product and this may make more difficult its subsequent handling. In the present work various systems were evaluated for separating the solid from the liquid fraction. A screw type separator was finally chosen to complete the present installation for co-digestion, and positive results were obtained. The cost of such a separator increases the cost of the original biogas installation by 12 to 20%.

  12. Toward optimal soil organic carbon sequestration with effects of agricultural management practices and climate change in Tai-Lake paddy soils of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liming; Zhuang, Qianlai; He, Yujie; Liu, Yaling; Yu, Dongsheng; Zhao, Quanying; Shi, Xuezheng; Xing, Shihe; Wang, Guangxiang

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the impacts of climate change and agricultural management practices on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics is critical for implementing optimal farming practices and maintaining agricultural productivity. This study examines the influence of climate and agricultural management on carbon sequestration potentials in Tai-Lake Paddy soils of China using the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model, with a high-resolution soil database (1:50,000). Model simulations considered the effects of no tillage, increasing manure application, increasing/decreasing of N-fertilizer application and crop residues, water management, and climatic shifts in temperature and precipitation. We found that the carbon sequestration potential for the 2.32 Mha paddy soils of the Tai-Lake region varied from 4.71 to 44.31 Tg C during the period 2001-2019, with an annual average SOC changes ranged from 107 to 1005 kg C ha-1 yr-1. The sequestration potential significantly increased with increasing application of N-fertilizer, manure, conservation tillage, and crop residues. To increase soil C sequestration in this region, no-tillage and increasing of crop residue return to soils and manure application are recommended. Our analysis of climate impacts on SOC sequestration suggests that the rice paddies in this region will continue to be a carbon sink under future warming conditions. In addition, because the region’s annual precipitation (>1200 mm) is high, we also recommend reducing irrigation water use for these rice paddies to conserve freshwater in the Tai-Lake region.

  13. Occurrence of antibiotics in soils and manures from greenhouse vegetable production bases of Beijing, China and an associated risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Chen, Jiayi; Wang, Jihua; Ma, Zhihong; Han, Ping; Luan, Yunxia; Lu, Anxiang

    2015-07-15

    The occurrence of 15 antibiotics in soil and manure samples from 11 large-scale greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) bases in Beijing, China was investigated. Results showed that the greenhouse soils were ubiquitously contaminated with antibiotics, and that antibiotic concentrations were significantly higher in greenhouses than in open field soils. The mean concentrations of four antibiotic classes decreased in the following order: tetracyclines (102μg/kg)>quinolones (86μg/kg)>sulfonamides (1.1μg/kg)>macrolides (0.62μg/kg). This investigation also indicated that fertilization with manure and especially animal feces might be the primary source of antibiotics. A risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients (RQs) demonstrated that oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin could pose a high risk to soil organisms. These results suggested that the ecological effects of antibiotic contamination in GVP bases and their potential adverse risks on human health need to be given special attention.

  14. Sampling for Soil Carbon Stock Assessment in Rocky Agricultural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem-Miller, Jeffrey P.; Kong, Angela Y. Y.; Ogle, Stephen; Wolfe, David

    2016-01-01

    Coring methods commonly employed in soil organic C (SOC) stock assessment may not accurately capture soil rock fragment (RF) content or soil bulk density (rho (sub b)) in rocky agricultural soils, potentially biasing SOC stock estimates. Quantitative pits are considered less biased than coring methods but are invasive and often cost-prohibitive. We compared fixed-depth and mass-based estimates of SOC stocks (0.3-meters depth) for hammer, hydraulic push, and rotary coring methods relative to quantitative pits at four agricultural sites ranging in RF content from less than 0.01 to 0.24 cubic meters per cubic meter. Sampling costs were also compared. Coring methods significantly underestimated RF content at all rocky sites, but significant differences (p is less than 0.05) in SOC stocks between pits and corers were only found with the hammer method using the fixed-depth approach at the less than 0.01 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 5.80 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 4.74 kilograms C per square meter) and at the 0.14 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 8.81 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 6.71 kilograms C per square meter). The hammer corer also underestimated rho (sub b) at all sites as did the hydraulic push corer at the 0.21 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site. No significant differences in mass-based SOC stock estimates were observed between pits and corers. Our results indicate that (i) calculating SOC stocks on a mass basis can overcome biases in RF and rho (sub b) estimates introduced by sampling equipment and (ii) a quantitative pit is the optimal sampling method for establishing reference soil masses, followed by rotary and then hydraulic push corers.

  15. Effect of Pig Manure Application on Structural Characteristics of Humic Acids in Brown Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOUSEN; TANSHI-WEN; 等

    1991-01-01

    The effect of application of pig manure (PM) on the structural characteristics of humic acids (HAs) of brown soil was studied in field and incubation experiments.The results showed that the number-average molecular weights (Mn),the ratios of C/H,C/H and O/C,the contents of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups,the content of aromatic C,the values of E2,E4 and λExmax of HAs all decreased;whereas,the contents of alkyl C and O--alkyl C,the ratio of carboxyl to phenolic hydroxyl groups,the degree of oxidation stability,te absorption intensity at 285mμ (UV),and 2920cm-1 of HAs increased after the application of PM.The above results indicated that the molecular structure of HAs tended to be more aliphatic and simpler after the application of PM.

  16. Effects of manure and mineral fertilization strategies on soil antibiotic resistance gene levels and microbial community in a paddy-upland rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Sun, Wanchun; Zhang, Zulin; Chapman, Stephen J; Freitag, Thomas E; Fu, Jianrong; Zhang, Xin; Ma, Junwei

    2016-04-01

    This work investigated the responses of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the soil microbial community in a paddy-upland rotation system to mineral fertilizer (NPK) and different application dosages of manure combined with NPK. The occurrence of five tetracycline ARGs (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetG and tetW), two sulfonamide ARGs (sul1 and sul2) and one genetic element (IntI1) was quantified. NPK application showed only slight or no impact on soil ARGs abundances compared with the control without fertilizer. Soil ARGs abundances could be increased by manure-NPK application but was related to manure dosage (2250-9000 kg ha(-1)). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the soil ARG profile of the treatment with 9000 kg ha(-1) manure separated clearly from the other treatments; the ARGs that contributed most to the discrimination of this treatment were tetA, tetG, tetW, sul1, sul2 and IntI1. Community level physiological profile (CLPP) analysis showed that increasing manure dosage from 4500 kg ha(-1) to 9000 kg ha(-1) induced a sharp increase in almost all of the detected ARGs but would not change the microbial community at large. However, 9000 kg ha(-1) manure application produced a decline in soil microbial activity. Determination of antibiotics and heavy metals in soils suggested that the observed bloom of soil ARGs might associate closely with the accumulation of copper and zinc in soil.

  17. Influence of green manure in physical and biological properties of soil and productivity in the culture of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alves Cardoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Green manuring is the practice of using plant species in rotation, succession or intercropped with other crops, aiming improvement, maintenance and recovery of physical, chemical and biological soil properties. The objective was to evaluate the influence of different green manures on soil characteristics and productivity of soybean. The experiment was conducted in Maringá (PR in a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications: T1: oat (Avena Sativa, T2: black oat (Avena strigosa, T3: dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, T4: radish (Raphanus sativus L., T5: white lupine (Lupinus albus and T6: control (fallow. At the end of the experiment, relations were established between the green manure used for soybean production, the production of biomass, the development of microorganisms and soil bulk density. The data were analyzed with statistical software and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The coverages provided higher content of dry matter were lupine, black oat and faba bean. Treatments that most influenced the increase of soil microorganisms were lupine, radish and pigeonpea. Regarding productivity, higher values were obtained in treatments with pigeon pea, lupine and oat. The apparent density of the soil, treatment with turnip showed better results.

  18. Farm, land, and soil nitrogen budgets for agriculture in Europe calculated with CAPRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leip, Adrian; Britz, Wolfgang; Weiss, Franz; de Vries, Wim

    2011-11-01

    We calculated farm, land, and soil N-budgets for countries in Europe and the EU27 as a whole using the agro-economic model CAPRI. For EU27, N-surplus is 55 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) in a soil budget and 65 kg N(2)O-N ha(-1) yr(-1) and 67 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) in land and farm budgets, respectively. NUE is 31% for the farm budget, 60% for the land budget and 63% for the soil budget. NS values are mainly related to the excretion (farm budget) and application (soil and land budget) of manure per hectare of total agricultural land. On the other hand, NUE is best explained by the specialization of the agricultural system toward animal production (farm NUE) or the share of imported feedstuff (soil NUE). Total N input, intensive farming, and the specialization to animal production are found to be the main drivers for a high NS and low NUE.

  19. Nitrogen turnover, crop use efficiency and soil fertility in a long-term field experiment amended with different qualities of urban and agricultural waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2017-01-01

    in a long-term field experiment with repeated application of different urban and agricultural organic waste amendments. Soils from the CRUCIAL field experiment in Denmark, in which diverse types of urban (human urine, sewage sludge, composted household waste) and agricultural wastes (cattle slurry, farmyard...... carbon, improved with the application of organic wastes. Cattle manure, sewage sludge and composted household waste in single or accelerated rates of application increased soil total N by 13–131% compared to the mineral fertiliser NPK treatment. The highest net N mineralisation capacity was observed...... for the accelerated rate of composted household waste, followed by all the other organic waste amendments and with the lowest net N mineralisation in the NPK-only and the unfertilised treatments. In soils amended for 11 years with NPK, human urine, cattle slurry, sewage sludge, cattle farmyard manure, cattle deep...

  20. Contrasting Effects of Farmyard Manure (FYM) and Compost for Remediation of Metal Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Muhammad; Ali, Amanat; Zia-Ur-rehman, Muhammad; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman

    2015-01-01

    We investigated effect of farm yard manure (FYM) and compost applied to metal contaminated soil at rate of 1% (FYM-1, compost-1), 2% (FYM-2, compost-2), and 3% (FYM-3, compost-3). FYM significantly (P compost increased root dry weight compared to control. Amendments significantly increased nickel (Ni) in shoots and roots of maize except compost applied at 1%. FYM-3 and -1 caused maximum Ni in shoots (11.42 mg kg(-1)) and roots (80.92 mg kg(-1)), respectively while compost-2 caused maximum Ni (14.08 mg kg(-1)) and (163.87 mg kg(-1)) in shoots and roots, respectively. Plants grown in pots amended with FYM-2 and compost-1 contained minimum Cu (30.12 and 30.11 mg kg(-1)) in shoots, respectively. FYM-2 and compost-2 caused minimum zinc (Zn) (59.08 and 66.0 mg kg(-1)) in maize shoots, respectively. FYM-2 caused minimum Mn in maize shoots while compost increased Mn in shoots and roots compared to control. FYM and compost increased the ammonium bicarbonate diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (AB-DTPA) extractable Ni and Mn in the soil and decreased Cu and Zn. Lower remediation factors for all metals with compost indicated that compost was effective to stabilize the metals in soil compared to FYM.

  1. Influence of Long-term Application of Feedlot Manure Amendments on Water Repellency of a Clay Loam Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jim J; Beasley, Bruce W; Hazendonk, Paul; Drury, Craig F; Chanasyk, David S

    2017-05-01

    Long-term application of feedlot manure to cropland may increase the quantity of soil organic carbon (C) and change its quality, which may influence soil water repellency. The objective was to determine the influence of feedlot manure type (stockpiled vs. composted), bedding material (straw [ST] vs. woodchips [WD]), and application rate (13, 39, or 77 Mg ha) on repellency of a clay loam soil after 17 annual applications. The repellency was determined on all 14 treatments using the water repellency index ( index), the water drop penetration time (WDPT) method, and molarity of ethanol (MED) test. The C composition of particulate organic matter in soil of five selected treatments after 16 annual applications was also determined using C nuclear magnetic resonance-direct polarization with magic-angle spinning (NMR-DPMAS). Manure type had no significant ( > 0.05) effect on index and WDPT, and MED classification was similar. Mean index and WDPT values were significantly greater and MED classification more hydrophobic for WD than ST. Application rate had no effect on the index, but WDPT was significantly greater and MED classification more hydrophobic with increasing application rate. Strong ( > 0.7) but nonsignificant positive correlations were found between index and WDPT versus hydrophobic (alkyl + aromatic) C, lignin at 74 ppm (O-alkyl), and unspecified aromatic compounds at 144 ppm. Specific aromatic compounds also contributed more to repellency than alkyl, O-alkyl, and carbonyl compounds. Overall, all three methods consistently showed that repellency was greater for WD- than ST-amended clay loam soil, but manure type had no effect. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Use of a surrogate to evaluate the impact of tillage on the transport of steroid hormones from manure-amended agricultural field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef feedlot manure distributed to row crop production areas is a potential surface water contaminant source of the steroid hormones commonly used in beef cattle production. This article reports on research conducted at the University of Nebraska Haskell Agricultural Laboratory near Concord, Nebrask...

  3. Fly ash application in nutrient poor agriculture soils: impact on methanotrophs population dynamics and paddy yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jay Shankar; Pandey, Vimal Chandra

    2013-03-01

    There are reports that the application of fly ash, compost and press mud or a combination thereof, improves plant growth, soil microbial communities etc. Also, fly ash in combination with farmyard manure or other organic amendments improves soil physico-chemical characteristics, rice yield and microbial processes in paddy fields. However, the knowledge about the impact of fly ash inputs alone or in combination with other organic amendments on soil methanotrophs number in paddy soils is almost lacking. We hypothesized that fly ash application at lower doses in paddy agriculture soil could be a potential amendment to elevate the paddy yields and methanotrophs number. Here we demonstrate the impact of fly ash and press mud inputs on number of methanotrophs, antioxidants, antioxidative enzymatic activities and paddy yields at agriculture farm. The impact of amendments was significant for methanotrophs number, heavy metal concentration, antioxidant contents, antioxidant enzymatic activities and paddy yields. A negative correlation was existed between higher doses of fly ash-treatments and methanotrophs number (R(2)=0.833). The content of antioxidants and enzymatic activities in leaves of higher doses fly ash-treated rice plants increased in response to stresses due to heavy metal toxicity, which was negatively correlated with rice grain yield (R(2)=0.944) and paddy straw yield (R(2)=0.934). A positive correlation was noted between heavy metals concentrations and different antioxidant and enzymatic activities across different fly ash treated plots.The data of this study indicate that heavy metal toxicity of fly ash may cause oxidative stress in the paddy crop and the antioxidants and related enzymes could play a defensive role against phytotoxic damages. We concluded that fly ash at lower doses with press mud seems to offer the potential amendments to improving soil methanotrophs population and paddy crop yields for the nutrient poor agriculture soils.

  4. MANGANESE SPECIATION IN SELECTED AGRICULTURAL SOILS OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    J. Habibah; J. Khairiah; Ismail, B.S.; M.D. Kadderi

    2014-01-01

    Manganese speciation in selected agricultural soils of Peninsular Malaysia is discussed in this study. Manganese concentration in the Easily Leacheable and Ion Exchangeable (ELFE), Acid Reducible (AR), Organic Oxidizable (OO) and Resistant (RR) fractions of soils developed on weathered rocks, soils of mixed nature, alluvium and peat deposits are described. The total manganese concentration in soils developed on weathered rocks was found to be higher than that in soils of mixed nature, alluviu...

  5. [Effects of crop rotation and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Du, Chao; Shi, Ya-dong; Wang, Jian-fei

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a field experiment to evaluate the effects of rotation system and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system. Taking Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat and wheat as experimental plants, treatments under Chrysanthemum continuous cropping system (M1), conventional Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system (M2), and Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system receiving bio-organic manure application of 200 kg · 667 m(-2) (M3) were designed. Soil chemical properties, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), and the amounts of different types of soil microorganisms were determined. Results showed that compared with M1, treatments of M2 and M3 significantly increased soil pH, organic matter, available N, P, and K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, but decreased the ratio of MBC/MBN, and the relative percentage of fungi in the total amount of microorganisms. Treatment of M3 had the highest contents of soil organic matter, available N, available P, available K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, with the values being 15.62 g · kg(-1), 64.75 mg · kg(-1), 83.26 mg · kg(-1), 96.72 mg · kg(-1), 217.40 mg · kg(-1), 38.41 mg · kg(-1), 22.31 x 10(6) cfu · g(-1), 56.36 x 10(3) cfu · g(-1), 15.90 x 10(5) cfu · g(-1), respectively. We concluded that rational crop rotation and bio-organic manure application could weaken soil acidification, improve soil fertility and microbial community structure, increase the efficiency of nutrition supply, and have a positive effect on reducing the obstacles of continuous cropping.

  6. Long-term rice-rice-green manure rotation changing the microbial communities in typical red paddy soil in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Song-juan; Shimizu Katsu-yoshi; Kristian Thorup-Kristensen; ZHANG Ren-gang; CAO Wei-dong; FAN Yuan-yuan; GAO Ju-sheng; HUANG Jing; BAI Jin-shun; ZENG Nao-hua; CHANG Dan-na

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of a long-term (30 years) ifeld experiment that involved four rotation systems, rice-rice-winter falow (RRF), rice-rice-ryegrass (RRG), rice-rice-rape (RRP), and rice-rice-milk vetch (RRV), this study described the effects of green manure on the microbial communities in the red paddy soils using 454 pyrosequencing for the 16S rRNA gene. The Chao1 richness and non-parametric Shannon’s index increased in al soil samples that received green manure treatments. The communities’ structures with the green manure applications were signiifcantly dissimilar from that under the winter falow. Using Metastats tests, many genera in the RRG, RRP and RRV soils were signiifcantly different from those in the RRF soil, including a number of genera that functioned in the nitrogen and sulfur cycles. Analyses of the genera with these functions revealed the shifts in microbial ecosystem functions after long-term green manuring. Changes in the microbial communities increased the ammonium supply and decreased the soil acidiifcation in green-manure-amended soils. Together, these data suggested powerful effects of green manure on both the microbial communities and the biogeochemical cycle driven by the shifts in bacterial functional groups.

  7. Application of Biogas Manure in Facility Agriculture%沼肥在设施农业大棚中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红霞

    2014-01-01

    The paper described the situation and problems of the application of biogas manure in facility agriculture ,analyzed the nutritional contents of biogas slurry and biogas residue ,and put forward the application method of biogas manure .%笔者分析了沼肥在设施农业中应用的现状及普遍存在的问题,对沼液、沼渣的营养成分进行了分析,提出了沼肥(沼液、沼渣等)的施用方法。

  8. Using rare earth elements to control phosphorus and track manure in runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, Anthony R; Church, Clinton; Kleinman, Peter J A; Saporito, Lou S; Moyer, Barton G; Tao, Liang

    2010-01-01

    Concern over the enrichment of agricultural runoff with phosphorus (P) from land applied livestock manures has prompted the development of manure amendments that minimize P solubility. In this study, we amended poultry, dairy, and swine manures with two rare earth chlorides, lanthanum chloride (LaCl(3).7H(2)O) and ytterbium chloride (YbCl(3).6H(2)O), to evaluate their effects on P solubility in the manure following incubation in the laboratory as well as on the fate of P and rare earth elements (REEs) when manures were surface-applied to packed soil boxes and subjected to simulated rainfall. In terms of manure P solubility, La:water-extractable P (WEP) ratios close to 1:1 resulted in maximum WEP reduction of 95% in dairy manure and 98% in dry poultry litter. Results from the runoff study showed that REE applications to dry manures such as poultry litter were less effective in reducing dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in runoff than in liquid manures and slurries, which was likely due to mixing limitations. The most effective reductions of DRP in runoff by REEs were observed in the alkaline pH soil, although reductions of DRP in runoff from the acidic soil were still >50%. Particulate REEs were strongly associated with particulate P in runoff, suggesting a potentially useful role in tracking the fate of P and other manure constituents from manure-amended soils. Finally, REEs that remained in soil following runoff had a tendency to precipitate WEP, especially in soils receiving manure amendments. The findings have valuable applications in water quality protection and the evaluation of P site assessment indices.

  9. of integrated application of farmyard manure, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and chemical fertilizers on production of canola (Brassica napus L. in saline soil of Qum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sabahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus L. is one of the most important oil seed crops. In order to evaluate the effects of integrated fertilization (chemical, manure and biofertilizers on canola (B. napus variety Hyola 401 yield and uptake of mineral nutrients in saline soil and water, a field experiment was conducted in randomized complete blocks (RCBD arrangement with eight treatments in three replications in Qum Province, Iran. Treatments were: (1 Control, P%100 (Phosphorus %100, (2 P%75B1 (Phosphorus %75+ Barvar biofertilizer, (3 P%75B2 (Phosphorus %75+ Nitroxin biofertilizer, (4 P%75M (Phosphorus %75+ farmyard manure, (5 P%75B1M (Phosphorus %75+ Barvar + Farmyard manure, (6 P%75B2M (Phosphorus %75+ Nitroxin+ Farmyard manure, (7 P%100B1 (Phosphorus %100 + Barvar and (8 P%125B2 (Phosphorus %125+ Nitroxin. The results showed that the highest yield was obtained from P%75B1M. Difference between integrated fertilization of farmyard manure and other treatments was significant. Farmyard manure increased canola yield which was attributed to increase in availability of mineral nutrients, decreasing effects of salinity and toxic ions. Integrated application of 5 t. ha-1 of farmyard manure and %75 recommended chemical P increased yield and decreased fertilizer consumption. The results revealed that integrated applications of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer and after that integrated use of bio- and chemical fertilizer are the best strategies to increase nutrient availability and improving canola yield in saline soil.

  10. Effects of long-term amendment of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer on nitrous oxide emission in a sandy loam soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Wei-xin; MENG Lei; CAI Zu-cong; HAN Feng-xiang

    2007-01-01

    To understand the effects of long-term amendment of organic manure and N fertilizer on N2O emission in the North China Plain,a laboratory incubation at different temperatures and soil moistures were carried out using soils treated with organic manure (OM),half organic manure plus half fertilizer N (HOM), fertilizer NPK (NPK), fertilizer NP (NP), fertilizer NK (NK), fertilizer PK (NK) and control (CK) since 1989. Cumulative N2O emission in OM soil during the 17 d incubation period was slightly higher than in NPK soil under optimum nitrification conditions (25C and 60% water-filled pore space, WFPS), but more than twice under the optimum denitrification conditions (35C and 90% WFPS). N2O produced by denitrification was 2.1-2.3 times greater than that by nitrification in OM and HOM soils, but only 1.5 times greater in NPK and NP soils. These results implied that the long-term amendment of organic manure could significantly increase the N2O emission via denitrification in OM soil as compared to NPK soil. This is quite different from field measurement between OM soil and NPK soil. Substantial inhibition of the formation of anaerobic environment for denitrification in field might result in no marked difference in N2O emission between OM and NPK soils. This is due in part to more rapid oxygen diffusion in coarse textured soils than consumption by aerobic microbes until WFPS was 75% and to low easily decomposed organic C of organic manure. This finding suggested that addition of organic manure in the tested sandy loam might be a good management option since it seldom caused a burst of N2O emission but sequestered atmospheric C and maintained efficiently applied N in soil.

  11. Short-term incorporation of organic manures and biofertilizers influences biochemical and microbial characteristics of soils under an annual crop [Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, R; Srinivasan, V; Hamza, S; Manjusha, A

    2010-06-01

    The study was conducted to determine whether short-term incorporation of organic manures and biofertilizers influence biochemical and microbial variables reflecting soil quality. For the study, soils were collected from a field experiment conducted on turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) involving organic nutrient management (ONM), chemical nutrient management (CNM) and integrated nutrient management (INM). The findings revealed that application of organic manures and biofertilizers (ONM and INM) positively influenced microbial biomass C, N mineralization, soil respiration and enzymes activities. Contrarily, greater metabolic quotient levels in CNM indicated a stressed soil microbial community. Principal component analysis indicated the strong relationship between microbial activity and the availability of labile and easily mineralizable organic matter. The findings imply that even short-term incorporation of organic manures and biofertilizers promoted soil microbial and enzyme activities and these parameters are sensitive enough to detect changes in soil quality due to short-term incorporation of biological fertilizers.

  12. Rainfall intensity effects on removal of fecal indicator bacteria from solid dairy manure applied over grass-covered soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Ryan A; Hill, Robert L; Micallef, Shirley A; Shelton, Daniel R; Pachepsky, Yakov A

    2016-01-01

    The rainfall-induced release of pathogens and microbial indicators from land-applied manure and their subsequent removal with runoff and infiltration precedes the impairment of surface and groundwater resources. It has been assumed that rainfall intensity and changes in intensity during rainfall do not affect microbial removal when expressed as a function of rainfall depth. The objective of this work was to test this assumption by measuring the removal of Escherichia coli, enterococci, total coliforms, and chloride ion from dairy manure applied in soil boxes containing fescue, under 3, 6, and 9cmh(-1) of rainfall. Runoff and leachate were collected at increasing time intervals during rainfall, and post-rainfall soil samples were taken at 0, 2, 5, and 10cm depths. Three kinetic-based models were fitted to the data on manure-constituent removal with runoff. Rainfall intensity appeared to have positive effects on rainwater partitioning to runoff, and removal with this effluent type occurred in two stages. While rainfall intensity generally did not impact the parameters of runoff-removal models, it had significant, inverse effects on the numbers of bacteria remaining in soil after rainfall. As rainfall intensity and soil profile depth increased, the numbers of indicator bacteria tended to decrease. The cumulative removal of E. coli from manure exceeded that of enterococci, especially in the form of removal with infiltration. This work may be used to improve the parameterization of models for bacteria removal with runoff and to advance estimations of depths of bacteria removal with infiltration, both of which are critical to risk assessment of microbial fate and transport in the environment.

  13. Effects of Chicken Manure and Mineral Fertilizer on Some Nutritive Parameters and Lead Accumulation in Two Vigna Species Grown in Lead Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hamid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of chicken manure and mineral fertilizer on Vigna radiata and Vigna unguiculata plants grown in lead contaminated soil were examined. Plants were grown in lead polluted soil, which is amended with different concentrations of chicken manure and mineral fertilizer (NPK. Accumulation of lead in the leaves of both Vigna species was reduced when chicken manure was added. Application of mineral fertilizer increased the accumulation of lead in Vigna radiata, but caused a decrease in Vigna unguiculata. Application of both fertilizers improved the chlorophyll, protein and carbohydrate contents of both species. Results are discussed in relation to the significance of organic and inorganic manure with accumulation of heavy metals such as lead particularly in contaminated soils and their consequences on protein and chlorophyll synthesis.

  14. Distribution of sulfamethazine, chlortetracycline and tylosin in manure and soil of Canadian feedlots after subtherapeutic use in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aust, Marc-Oliver [University of Trier, FB VI: Geography/Geosciences, Soil Science Section, Campus II, 54286 Trier (Germany); University of Rostock, Institute for Land Use/Soil Science Section (Germany)], E-mail: aust@uni-trier.de; Godlinski, Frauke [University of Rostock, Institute for Land Use/Soil Science Section (Germany); Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Centre Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Travis, Greg R.; Hao, Xiying; McAllister, Tim A. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research Centre Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Leinweber, Peter [University of Rostock, Institute for Land Use/Soil Science Section (Germany); Thiele-Bruhn, Soeren [University of Trier, FB VI: Geography/Geosciences, Soil Science Section, Campus II, 54286 Trier (Germany); University of Rostock, Institute for Land Use/Soil Science Section (Germany)], E-mail: thiele@uni-trier.de

    2008-12-15

    Feedlots are potential point sources for the flow of antibiotics into the environment due to common use of antibiotics such as sulfamethazine, chlortetracycline and tylosin. Hence soils and manures originating from a grassland control, an experimental and a commercial feedlot were analyzed and mass balances were calculated for these antibiotics. Up to 9990 {mu}g kg{sup -1} sulfamethazine and 401 {mu}g kg{sup -1} chlortetracycline on a dry matter basis were determined in feedlot manure. Soil concentrations were two orders of magnitude smaller. This corresponds to 7-40% of the calculated residual amount. In the commercial feedlot chlortetracycline was found down to soil depths of -40 cm; sulfamethazine was still detectable 1 year after medication. Sulfamethazine and chlortetracycline were additionally determined in manure of a control treatment in the experimental feedlot where cattle never received antibiotics. This was attributed to runoff from upslope pens. Consequently, antibiotics partially persist within feedlots and may be dislocated into the surrounding environment by vertical transport and runoff. - Veterinary antibiotics partially persist within feedlots and may be dislocated to the environment by transport processes following subtherapeutic application to cattle.

  15. Influence of Organic Manures (Biofertilizers on Soil Microbial Population in the Rhizosphere of Mulberry (Morus Indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Christilda Louis Mary

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different kinds of organic manures on soil microbial population and mulberry production was assessed. A field experiment wascarried out at Periyar EVR College, Tamil Nadu, India in basic soil to study the influence of organic manures on soil bacterial population andmulberry production. The 4 groups of mulberry plants of MR2 variety were biofertilized with FYM, Azospirillum, Phosphobacteria andVermicompost respectively. The biofertilizers lodged bacteria on the rhizosphere of mulberry plants. When the root microorganism areanalyzed Farm yard manure biofertilized mulberry plant root tips had Gluconacobacter diazotrophicus, Bacillus pumilus, Pseudomonas putida,Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus sonorensis, Azotobacter chrococcum; Azospirillum biofertilized mulberry plants root tips had Bacillus coaculans,Azotobactor chrococcum, Azotobactor vinelandii, Bacillus subtilis and Azospirillum brasilense. Phosphobacteria biofertilized mulberry plantroot tips had Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Brevibacillus borslelansis and Streptomycies thermonitrificans andvermicompost biofertilized mulberry plant root tips had lodged bacterias like Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Gluconacobacterdiazotrophicus, Pseudomonas putida, Azotobacter chrococcum, Azotobacter vinelandi, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Brevibacillus borslelansisand Bacillus sonorensis. Microbiology work reveals luxuriant growth of bacteria in all the biofertizer treated rhizosphere in the order FYM

  16. Long-term effect of manure and fertilizer on soil organic carbon pools in dryland farming in northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enke; Yan, Changrong; Mei, Xurong; Zhang, Yanqing; Fan, Tinglu

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) as affected by farming practices is imperative for maintaining soil productivity and mitigating global warming. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of long-term fertilization on SOC and SOC fractions for the whole soil profile (0-100 cm) in northwest China. The study was initiated in 1979 in Gansu, China and included six treatments: unfertilized control (CK), nitrogen fertilizer (N), nitrogen and phosphorus (P) fertilizers (NP), straw plus N and P fertilizers (NP+S), farmyard manure (FYM), and farmyard manure plus N and P fertilizers (NP+FYM). Results showed that SOC concentration in the 0-20 cm soil layer increased with time except in the CK and N treatments. Long-term fertilization significantly influenced SOC concentrations and storage to 60 cm depth. Below 60 cm, SOC concentrations and storages were statistically not significant between all treatments. The concentration of SOC at different depths in 0-60 cm soil profile was higher under NP+FYM follow by under NP+S, compared to under CK. The SOC storage in 0-60 cm in NP+FYM, NP+S, FYM and NP treatments were increased by 41.3%, 32.9%, 28.1% and 17.9%, respectively, as compared to the CK treatment. Organic manure plus inorganic fertilizer application also increased labile soil organic carbon pools in 0-60 cm depth. The average concentration of particulate organic carbon (POC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) in organic manure plus inorganic fertilizer treatments (NP+S and NP+FYM) in 0-60 cm depth were increased by 64.9-91.9%, 42.5-56.9%, and 74.7-99.4%, respectively, over the CK treatment. The POC, MBC and DOC concentrations increased linearly with increasing SOC content. These results indicate that long-term additions of organic manure have the most beneficial effects in building carbon pools among the investigated types of fertilization.

  17. Long-term effect of manure and fertilizer on soil organic carbon pools in dryland farming in northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enke Liu

    Full Text Available An understanding of the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC as affected by farming practices is imperative for maintaining soil productivity and mitigating global warming. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of long-term fertilization on SOC and SOC fractions for the whole soil profile (0-100 cm in northwest China. The study was initiated in 1979 in Gansu, China and included six treatments: unfertilized control (CK, nitrogen fertilizer (N, nitrogen and phosphorus (P fertilizers (NP, straw plus N and P fertilizers (NP+S, farmyard manure (FYM, and farmyard manure plus N and P fertilizers (NP+FYM. Results showed that SOC concentration in the 0-20 cm soil layer increased with time except in the CK and N treatments. Long-term fertilization significantly influenced SOC concentrations and storage to 60 cm depth. Below 60 cm, SOC concentrations and storages were statistically not significant between all treatments. The concentration of SOC at different depths in 0-60 cm soil profile was higher under NP+FYM follow by under NP+S, compared to under CK. The SOC storage in 0-60 cm in NP+FYM, NP+S, FYM and NP treatments were increased by 41.3%, 32.9%, 28.1% and 17.9%, respectively, as compared to the CK treatment. Organic manure plus inorganic fertilizer application also increased labile soil organic carbon pools in 0-60 cm depth. The average concentration of particulate organic carbon (POC, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and microbial biomass carbon (MBC in organic manure plus inorganic fertilizer treatments (NP+S and NP+FYM in 0-60 cm depth were increased by 64.9-91.9%, 42.5-56.9%, and 74.7-99.4%, respectively, over the CK treatment. The POC, MBC and DOC concentrations increased linearly with increasing SOC content. These results indicate that long-term additions of organic manure have the most beneficial effects in building carbon pools among the investigated types of fertilization.

  18. Decomposition of olive mill waste compost, goat manure and Medicago sativa in Lebanese soils using the litterbag technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, Therese

    2014-05-01

    Organic amendments, green manure and plant residues incorporation are the main sources of nutrients in organic farming, their decomposition rate is crucial for the accumulation and long-term storage of organic matter in soils. In this study the decomposition of compost from olive mill waste (N: 29.3 g kg-1; total dissolved nitrogen or TDN: 3.82 g kg-1), goat manure (N: 31.5 g kg-1; TDN: 0.94 g kg-1), the shoots (N: 33.6 g kg-1; TDN: 17.57 g kg-1) and roots (N: 22.12 g kg-1; TDN: 8.87 g kg-1) of Medicago sativa was followed in three Lebanese soils. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium released were followed over one year, starting in early winter (December-January). The mild sub-humid Mediterranean conditions allowed a rapid mass loss in alfalfa shoots 30 days after incorporation. Manure and compost were more persistent. Between 80 and 90% of TDN were released, after 30 days of in-situ incubation for compost, the release was over 90% for alfalfa shoots. The movement of P was slower, as the compost (6.99 g kg-1 of P) and manure (9.81 g kg-1 of P) lost 33% and 22%, respectively, during 30 days of incubation. After one year, 15 to 35% of P remained in the soils. The manure was the richest in potassium (19.66 g kg-1) followed by the alfalfa shoots (15.56 g kg-1), the compost (8.19 g kg-1) and the roots (5.96 g kg-1). The loss of potassium was important, as over 88% had disappeared over the year. All decomposition curves followed an exponential model. The calculated coefficients of decomposition for total nitrogen (lnfinal - lninitial/days) were significantly higher for alfalfa shoots (0.00547 day-1) and similar for the compost (0.00184 day-1) and the manure (0.00175 day-1). The ANOVA test showed a difference between two of the sites (Site A: 521 g kg-1 of clay and 42 g kg-1 of calcium carbonate; Site S: 260 g kg-1 of clay and 269 g kg-1 of CaCO3) and the third one (Site L: 315 g kg-1 of clay and 591 g kg-1 of CaCO3). The relationships between the soil calcium

  19. Impact of Forage Fertilization with Urea and Composted Cattle Manure on Soil Fertility in Sandy Soils of South-Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keenan C. McRoberts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased production in smallholder beef systems requires improved forage management. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of composted cattle manure and mineral nitrogen (urea application on soil fertility and partial nutrient balances in plots established to Brachiaria cv. Mulato II in south-central coastal Vietnam from 2010 to 2013. A randomized complete block design was implemented on six farms (blocks, with five rates of composted cattle manure (0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 Mg DM/ha per yr and three urea rates (0, 60, and 120 kg N/ha per yr in a factorial design. Soil was analyzed before and after the experiment. Compost increased soil pH, organic matter, Ca, Mg, and Mn. The effect of compost and urea applications on postexperiment soil fertility depended on preexperiment soil fertility for K, P, S, Mg, Zn, Mn, Cu, and organic matter, suggesting that the ability to maintain soil fertility depends on the interaction between soil organic and inorganic amendments and existing soil fertility. Highest farm yields were also achieved on farms with higher preexperiment soil fertility levels. Negative partial nutrient balances for N, P, and K suggest that yields will not be sustainable over time even for the highest fertilization inputs used in this experiment.

  20. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe: Litter-based manure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, B.; Webb, J.; Misselbrook, T. H.; Menzi, H.; Luesink, H. H.; Hutchings, N. J.; Eurich-Menden, B.; Döhler, H.; Dämmgen, U.

    Six N-flow models, used to calculate national ammonia (NH 3) emissions from agriculture in different European countries, were compared using standard data sets. Scenarios for litter-based systems were run separately for beef cattle and for broilers, with three different levels of model standardisation: (a) standardized inputs to all models (FF scenario); (b) standard N excretion, but national values for emission factors (EFs) (FN scenario); (c) national values for N excretion and EFs (NN scenario). Results of the FF scenario for beef cattle produced very similar estimates of total losses of total ammoniacal-N (TAN) (±6% of the mean total), but large differences in NH 3 emissions (±24% of the mean). These differences arose from the different approaches to TAN immobilization in litter, other N losses and mineralization in the models. As a result of those differences estimates of TAN available at spreading differed by a factor of almost 3. Results of the FF scenario for broilers produced a range of estimates of total changes in TAN (±9% of the mean total), and larger differences in the estimate of NH 3 emissions (±17% of the mean). The different approaches among the models to TAN immobilization, other N losses and mineralization, produced estimates of TAN available at spreading which differed by a factor of almost 1.7. The differences in estimates of NH 3 emissions decreased as estimates of immobilization and other N losses increased. Since immobilization and denitrification depend also on the C:N ratio in manure, there would be advantages to include C flows in mass-flow models. This would also provide an integrated model for the estimation of emissions of methane, non-methane VOCs and carbon dioxide. Estimation of these would also enable an estimate of mass loss, calculation of the N and TAN concentrations in litter-based manures and further validation of model outputs.

  1. Anaerobic digestion of plant biomass and animal manure: effect on C retention in soil and plant available N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    We compared the release of C and N from untreated and anaerobically digested plant biomasses and animal manures. Based on losses of C during the plant biomass (feed) passage in cattle, during anaerobic digestion (AD), and during incubation with soil, the retention of C in soil was estimated. When...... relationship between N release and C retention. The increase in N availability due to AD was equivalent to 10-35% of total N in slurry, but after AD of plant biomass and faeces the N availability increased significantly more....

  2. Phosphorus accumulation and spatial distribution in agricultural soils in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Gitte Holton; Kristensen, Kristian; Olesen, S E;

    2013-01-01

    Over the past century, phosphorus (P) has accumulated in Danish agricultural soils. We examined the soil P content and the degree of P saturation in acid oxalate (DPS) in 337 agricultural soil profiles and 32 soil profiles from deciduous forests sampled at 0–0.25, 0.25–0.50, 0.50–0.75 and 0.75–1....... discusses the potential importance of leaching, deep tillage, erosion and bioturbation for the observed accumulation of P in the subsoil....

  3. Origin and spatial distribution of metals in agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. A. Mohammadpour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Presence of toxic metals in agricultural soils can impose adverse health impact on consumers. The main purpose of this study was to determine spatial distribution of elements Fe, Sb, Mn in agriculture soils and crops of Hamedan Province in Iran. Soil samples (0-20 cm depth were collected from an area of 2831 km2.  Iron, Antimony and Manganese in samples of soil and agricultural crops were extracted and their amount was determined using atomic absorption spectrometer. The spatial distribution map of the studied elements was developed using Kriging method. The main concentration of Fe, Sb and Mn in the soil of the study area is about 3.8%, 2.5 and 403 mg/kg, respectively. According to chemical partitioning studies, the anthropogenic share of Fe, Sb and Mn is about 28.51%, 34.83% and 30.35%, respectively. Results of comparison of heavy metals pollution intensity in the agricultural soil with geo-accumulation index and also pollution index, illustrated that iron and manganese are classified in the Non-polluted class and antimony is in the moderately polluted class. Analysis of zoning map of pollution index showed that Fe, Sb and Mn are of geological sources. In fact, these metals are naturally found in soil. However, anthropogenic activities have led to more accumulation of these metals in the soil. The obtained health risk for metals in agricultural crops is indicative of safe value for consumers.

  4. Replacing methyl bromide in annual strawberry production with glucosinolate-containing green manure crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Luca; Baruzzi, Gianluca; Malaguti, Lorena; Antoniacci, Loredana

    2003-09-01

    The use of biocidal green manure crops is an agronomic technique for amending soil with fresh organic matter containing volatile compounds active in controlling some soil-borne pests and diseases. Two new selections of the Brassicaceae family were cultivated, incorporated before planting strawberries and tested as an alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide. Two biocidal green manure crops (Brassica juncea L sel ISCI20, Eruca sativa Mill cv Nemat) containing glucosinolate-myrosinase systems, a conventional green manure (barley), untreated soil and a fumigated control were evaluated during two seasons. The effect of these soil management systems on subsequent strawberry performance was evaluated by monitoring yield and plant growth parameters. In both years, biocidal plant green manure treatments led to a fruit yield lower than with methyl bromide, but higher than with conventional green manure or untreated soil. These results confirm the good prospects for biocidal green manures, not only as an environmentally friendly alternative to methyl bromide in conventional agriculture, but also in organic agriculture as an alternative to conventional green manure crops.

  5. Characterization and Classification of Soils on an Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Engineering, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria. 4Department of ... getting the best understanding of the environment (Esu,. 2005). ...... Atlas of the Northern State of Nigeria. Ahmadu.

  6. evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of agricultural soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benlkhoubi N, Saber S, Lebkiri A, Rifi El and Fahime El

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... productions, whether animal or vegetable. ... presence of heavy metals (trace elements) in the waters of irrigation, agricultural soils and ..... Copper, Zinc, Arsenic, Lead, Cadmium and Nickel ) developed at the media, were ...

  7. Evaluating the effects of agricultural practices on soil conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to contribute a simple method to evaluate the ... The methodology consisted of recording over a distance of 10 m features of ... Key words: Agricultural practices, resistance to erosion, soil surface microtopography.

  8. Evaluating the effects of agricultural practices on soil conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methodology consisted of recording over a distance of 10 m features of ... The study revealed that maize and ginger on medium ridges show high to ... Key words: Agricultural practices, resistance to erosion, soil surface microtopography.

  9. Modeling of 137Cs migration in soils using an 80-year soil archive: role of fertilizers and agricultural amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monna, F; van Oort, F; Hubert, P; Dominik, J; Bolte, J; Loizeau, J-L; Labanowski, J; Lamri, J; Petit, C; Le Roux, G; Chateau, C

    2009-01-01

    An 80-year soil archive, the 42-plot experimental design at the INRA in Versailles (France), is used here to study long-term contamination by 137Cs atmospheric deposition and the fate of this radioisotope when associated with various agricultural practices: fallow land, KCl, NH4(NO3), superphosphate fertilizers, horse manure and lime amendments. The pertinence of a simple box model, where radiocaesium is supposed to move downward by convectional mechanisms, is checked using samples from control plots which had been neither amended, nor cultivated since 1928. This simple model presents the advantage of depending on only two parameters: alpha, a proportional factor allowing the historical atmospheric 137Cs fluxes to be reconstructed locally, and k, an annual loss coefficient from the plow horizon. Another pseudo-unknown is however necessary to run the model: the shape of historical 137Cs deposition, but this function can be easily computed by merging several curves previously established by other surveys. A loss of approximately 1.5% per year from the plow horizon, combined with appropriate fluxes, provides good concordance between simulated and measured values. In the 0-25cm horizon, the residence half time is found to be approximately 18yr (including both migration and radioactive decay). Migration rate constants are also calculated for some plots receiving continuous long-term agricultural treatments. Comparison with the control plots reveals significant influence of amendments on 137Cs mobility in these soils developed from a unique genoform.

  10. Modeling of {sup 137}Cs migration in soils using an 80-year soil archive: role of fertilizers and agricultural amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monna, F. [UMR 5594 CNRS-Universite de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, ARTeHIS, Bat. Gabriel, F-21000 Dijon (France)], E-mail: Fabrice.Monna@u-bourgogne.fr; Oort, F. van [UR 251-PESSAC, INRA, RD 10, F-78026 Versailles Cedex (France); Hubert, P. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, BP 120, Le Haut-Vigneau, F-33175 GRADIGNAN Cedex (France); Dominik, J. [Institut F.-A. Forel, Universite de Geneve, 10 route de Suisse, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Bolte, J. [UMR 7090, Equipe Combinatoire et Optimisation, Universite Paris 06, 4 Pl Jussieu, F-75252 Paris 05 (France); Loizeau, J.-L. [Institut F.-A. Forel, Universite de Geneve, 10 route de Suisse, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Labanowski, J. [UMR 6008, CNRS - Universite de Poitiers-ESIP, Laboratoire de Chimie et Microbiologie de l' Eau (ex LCEE), 40 avenue du recteur Pineau, F-86022 Poitiers (France); Lamri, J.; Petit, C. [UMR 5594 CNRS-Universite de Bourgogne, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, ARTeHIS, Bat. Gabriel, F-21000 Dijon (France); Le Roux, G. [URAP, Departement de Geologie, B18, Sart-Tilman, Allee du 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Chateau, C. [Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Universite de Bourgogne, Bat. Gabriel, F-21000 Dijon (France)

    2009-01-15

    An 80-year soil archive, the 42-plot experimental design at the INRA in Versailles (France), is used here to study long-term contamination by {sup 137}Cs atmospheric deposition and the fate of this radioisotope when associated with various agricultural practices: fallow land, KCl, NH{sub 4}(NO{sub 3}), superphosphate fertilizers, horse manure and lime amendments. The pertinence of a simple box model, where radiocaesium is supposed to move downward by convectional mechanisms, is checked using samples from control plots which had been neither amended, nor cultivated since 1928. This simple model presents the advantage of depending on only two parameters: {alpha}, a proportional factor allowing the historical atmospheric {sup 137}Cs fluxes to be reconstructed locally, and k, an annual loss coefficient from the plow horizon. Another pseudo-unknown is however necessary to run the model: the shape of historical {sup 137}Cs deposition, but this function can be easily computed by merging several curves previously established by other surveys. A loss of {approx}1.5% per year from the plow horizon, combined with appropriate fluxes, provides good concordance between simulated and measured values. In the 0-25 cm horizon, the residence half time is found to be {approx}18 yr (including both migration and radioactive decay). Migration rate constants are also calculated for some plots receiving continuous long-term agricultural treatments. Comparison with the control plots reveals significant influence of amendments on {sup 137}Cs mobility in these soils developed from a unique genoform.

  11. Assessment of the microbiological activity in agricultural and urban soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEC DOROTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic soil and the number of selected microorganisms in urban soil, which are located in the lane of the reconstructed road and compare it with a soil cultivated for agricultural purposes. The conducted analysis showed significant differences between the results of the soil taken from the roadway and the soil cultivated from agricultural purposes. The C:N ratio in soils of the roadway (from 24 to 31 indicated that they were degraded and heavily degraded soils. Urban soils had a neutral pH. The activity of dehydrogenase (1.93–6.95 μg TPF g−1·h−1, acid phosphatase (2.42–4.92 mM pNP·g−1·h−1 and alkaline phosphatase (2.34–4.80 mM pNP·g−1·h−1 in urban soils were low. In agricultural soils the acid phosphatase enzyme levels ranged 6.32–8.04 mM pNP·g−1·h−1, and alkaline phosphatase were 7.26–9.16 mM pNP·g−1·h−1. In urban soil samples collected along the roadway, a significant correlation between potassium and dehydrogenase activity, and between the C:N ratio and the activity of acid phosphatase was found.

  12. Sorption of Phenanthrene on Agricultural Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Antonio Alves; Møldrup, Per; Minh, Luong Nhat

    2013-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) sorption to soil is a key process deciding the transport and fate of PAH, and potential toxic impacts in the soil and groundwater ecosystems, for example in connection with atmospheric PAH deposition on soils. There are numerous studies on PAH sorption in relatively...... low organic porous media such as urban soils and groundwater sediments, but less attention has been given to cultivated soils. In this study, the phenanthrene partition coefficient, KD (liter per kilogram), was measured on 143 cultivated Danish soils (115 topsoils, 0–0.25-m soil depth and 28 subsoils...... (COC and NCOC, grams per gram). Multiple regression analyses showed that the NCOC-based phenanthrene partition coefficient (KNCOC) could be markedly higher than the COC-based partition coefficient (KCOC) for soils with a clay/OC ratio

  13. Estimating soil emissions and toxicity impacts from the application of livestock manure: application to heavy metals at national scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leclerc, Alexandra Segolene Corinne; Laurent, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    Aiming for a more efficient use of resources, the European Commission encourages the use of animal manure as a fertilizer providing nutrients and organic matter to improve crop productivity and soil fertility [1,2]. However livestock manure contains traces from pathogens, veterinary medicines...... and feed additives (e.g. antibiotics and heavy metals), which may cause damages to ecosystems and human health. To prevent large damages from happening, tools such as Environmental risk assessment (ERA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) are used to evaluate the environmental risks and impacts...... in a systematic way. We applied it to emissions of 8 heavy metals (HMs) in 215 countries from 2000 to 2014 and analysed the resulting environmental toxicity-related impacts based on life cycle impact assessment....

  14. Biological indicators of soil quality and soil organic matter characteristics in an agricultural management continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relationships among biological indicators of soil quality and soil organic matter characteristics in a claypan soil were evaluated across a continuum of long-term agricultural practices in Missouri, USA. In addition to chemical and physical soil quality indicators, dehydrogenase and phenol oxidase a...

  15. The effects of manure and nitrogen fertilizer applications on soil organic carbon and nitrogen in a high-input cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tao; Wang, Jingguo; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Fusuo; Lu, Shuchang

    2014-01-01

    With the goal of improving N fertilizer management to maximize soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and minimize N losses in high-intensity cropping system, a 6-years greenhouse vegetable experiment was conducted from 2004 to 2010 in Shouguang, northern China. Treatment tested the effects of organic manure and N fertilizer on SOC, total N (TN) pool and annual apparent N losses. The results demonstrated that SOC and TN concentrations in the 0-10cm soil layer decreased significantly without organic manure and mineral N applications, primarily because of the decomposition of stable C. Increasing C inputs through wheat straw and chicken manure incorporation couldn't increase SOC pools over the 4 year duration of the experiment. In contrast to the organic manure treatment, the SOC and TN pools were not increased with the combination of organic manure and N fertilizer. However, the soil labile carbon fractions increased significantly when both chicken manure and N fertilizer were applied together. Additionally, lower optimized N fertilizer inputs did not decrease SOC and TN accumulation compared with conventional N applications. Despite the annual apparent N losses for the optimized N treatment were significantly lower than that for the conventional N treatment, the unchanged SOC over the past 6 years might limit N storage in the soil and more surplus N were lost to the environment. Consequently, optimized N fertilizer inputs according to root-zone N management did not influence the accumulation of SOC and TN in soil; but beneficial in reducing apparent N losses. N fertilizer management in a greenhouse cropping system should not only identify how to reduce N fertilizer input but should also be more attentive to improving soil fertility with better management of organic manure.

  16. Management of agricultural soils for greenhouse gas mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez, B.; Iglesias, A.; McVittie, A.; Álvaro-Fuentes, J.; Ingram, J.; Mills, J.; Lesschen, J.P.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    A portfolio of agricultural practices is now available that can contribute to reaching European mitigation targets. Among them, the management of agricultural soils has a large potential for reducing GHG emissions or sequestering carbon. Many of the practices are based on well tested agronomic an

  17. Organic matter matters for ice nuclei of agricultural soil origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tobo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous ice nucleation is a~crucial process for forming ice-containing clouds and subsequent ice-induced precipitation. The importance for ice nucleation of airborne desert soil dusts composed predominantly of minerals is relatively well understood. On the other hand, the potential influence of agricultural soil dusts on ice nucleation has been poorly recognized, despite recent estimates that they may account for up to ∼25% of the global atmospheric dust load. We have conducted freezing experiments with various dusts, including agricultural soil dusts derived from the largest dust source region in North America. Here we show evidence for the significant role of soil organic matter (SOM in particles acting as ice nuclei (IN under mixed-phase cloud conditions. We find that the ice nucleating ability of the agricultural soil dusts is similar to that of desert soil dusts, but is reduced to almost the same level as that of clay minerals (e.g., kaolinite after either H2O2 digestion or dry heating to 300 °C. In addition, based on chemical composition analysis, we show that organic-rich particles are more important than mineral particles for the ice nucleating ability of the agricultural soil dusts at temperatures warmer than about −36 °C. Finally, we suggest that such organic-rich particles of agricultural origin (namely, SOM particles may contribute significantly to the ubiquity of organic-rich IN in the global atmosphere.

  18. Effect of in-situ moisture conservation measures and application of organic manures on soil properties in Simarouba glauca plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikhantha M. Vaidya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil and water conservation measures are one of the most important factors for the improvement of degraded lands. Water conservation technique like in-situ soil moisture conservation measures and application of organic manures is to achieve the maximum cultivated soil for the survival and growth of seedlings. In the present study the effect of in-situ moisture conservation measures and organic manures application on growth of Simarouba glauca in varada watershed area showed significant difference in chemical properties of soil such as available Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium at 12 months after the treatment imposed and the moisture content at the depth of 0 to 30 and 30 to 60. In main plot significantly maximum plant height (1.25 m, collar diameter (2.63 cm crown diameter (93.98 cm and number of leaves (45.25 was recorded in ring basin (M2, whereas, in sub plot maximum plant height (1.71 m, collar diameter (3.49 cm crown diameter (126.89 cm and number of leaves (60.66 was recorded in vermicompost (S2. Among the interaction significantly maximum plant height (1.94 m, collar diameter (3.97 cm, crown diameter (133.83 cm and number of leaves (63.07 was recorded in ring basin with vermicompost (2.5 t/ha at 12 months after treatment.

  19. Biochar from swine manure solids: influence on carbon sequestration and Olsen phosphorus and mineral nitrogen dynamics in soil with and without digestate incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Marchetti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Interest in biochar (BC has grown dramatically in recent years, due mainly to the fact that its incorporation into soil reportedly enhances carbon sequestration and fertility. Currently, BC types most under investigation are those obtained from organic matter (OM of plant origin. As great amounts of manure solids are expected to become available in the near future, thanks to the development of technologies for the separation of the solid fraction of animal effluents, processing of manure solids for BC production seems an interesting possibility for the recycling of OM of high nutrient value. The aim of this study was to investigate carbon (C sequestration and nutrient dynamics in soil amended with BC from dried swine manure solids. The experiment was carried out in laboratory microcosms on a silty clay soil. The effect on nutrient dynamics of interaction between BC and fresh digestate obtained from a biogas plant was also investigated to test the hypothesis that BC can retain nutrients. A comparison was made of the following treatments: soil amended with swine manure solids (LC, soil amended with charred swine manure solids (LT, soil amended with wood chip (CC, soil amended with charred wood chip (CT, soil with no amendment as control (Cs, each one of them with and without incorporation of digestate (D for a total of 10 treatments. Biochar was obtained by treating OM (wood chip or swine manure with moisture content of less than 10% at 420°C in anoxic conditions. The CO2-C release and organic C, available phosphorus (P (Olsen P, POls and inorganic (ammonium+nitrate nitrogen (N (Nmin contents at the start and three months after the start of the experiment were measured in the amended and control soils. After three months of incubation at 30°C, the CO2-C emissions from soil with BC (CT and LT, ±D were the same as those in the control soil (Cs and were lower than those in the soils with untreated amendments (CC and LC, ±D. The organic C content

  20. Predicting Agricultural Management Influence on Long-Term Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics: Implications for Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gollany, H. T. [USDA ARS; Rickman, R. W. [USDA ARS; Albrecht, S. L. [USDA ARS; Liang, Y. [University of Arkansas; Kang, Shujiang [ORNL; Machado, S. [Oregon State University, Corvallis

    2011-01-01

    Long-term field experiments (LTE) are ideal for predicting the influence of agricultural management on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and examining biofuel crop residue removal policy questions. Our objectives were (i) to simulate SOC dynamics in LTE soils under various climates, crop rotations, fertilizer or organic amendments, and crop residue managements using the CQESTR model and (ii) to predict the potential of no-tillage (NT) management to maintain SOC stocks while removing crop residue. Classical LTEs at Champaign, IL (1876), Columbia, MO (1888), Lethbridge, AB (1911), Breton, AB (1930), and Pendleton, OR (1931) were selected for their documented history of management practice and periodic soil organic matter (SOM) measurements. Management practices ranged from monoculture to 2- or 3-yr crop rotations, manure, no fertilizer or fertilizer additions, and crop residue returned, burned, or harvested. Measured and CQESTR predicted SOC stocks under diverse agronomic practices, mean annual temperature (2.1 19 C), precipitation (402 973 mm), and SOC (5.89 33.58 g SOC kg 1) at the LTE sites were significantly related (r 2 = 0.94, n = 186, P < 0.0001) with a slope not significantly different than 1. The simulation results indicated that the quantities of crop residue that can be sustainably harvested without jeopardizing SOC stocks were influenced by initial SOC stocks, crop rotation intensity, tillage practices, crop yield, and climate. Manure or a cover crop/intensified crop rotation under NT are options to mitigate loss of crop residue C, as using fertilizer alone is insufficient to overcome residue removal impact on SOC stocks

  1. Selenium speciation and extractability in Dutch agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supriatin, Supriatin; Weng, Liping; Comans, Rob N.J.

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to understand selenium (Se) speciation and extractability in Dutch agricultural soils. Top soil samples were taken from 42 grassland fields and 41 arable land fields in the Netherlands. Total Se contents measured in aqua regia were between 0.12 and 1.97mgkg-1(on average

  2. Soil Quality Impacts of Current South American Agricultural Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Wingeyer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global demand for oil seeds and cereals during the past 50 years has caused an expansion in the cultivated areas and resulted in major soil management and crop production changes throughout Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina and southern Brazil. Unprecedented adoption of no-tillage as well as improved soil fertility and plant genetics have increased yields, but the use of purchased inputs, monocropping i.e., continuous soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr., and marginal land cultivation have also increased. These changes have significantly altered the global food and feed supply role of these countries, but they have also resulted in various levels of soil degradation through wind and water erosion, soil compaction, soil organic matter (SOM depletion, and nutrient losses. Sustainability is dependent upon local interactions between soil, climate, landscape characteristics, and production systems. This review examines the region’s current soil and crop conditions and summarizes several research studies designed to reduce or prevent soil degradation. Although the region has both environmental and soil resources that can sustain current agricultural production levels, increasing population, greater urbanization, and more available income will continue to increase the pressure on South American croplands. A better understanding of regional soil differences and quantifying potential consequences of current production practices on various soil resources is needed to ensure that scientific, educational, and regulatory programs result in land management recommendations that support intensification of agriculture without additional soil degradation or other unintended environmental consequences.

  3. Suppression of plant parasitic nematodes in the chinampa agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, B M; Dicklow, M B; Coles, G C; Garcia-E, R; Marban-Mendoza, N

    1989-06-01

    Soil from the chinampa agricultural system in the Valley of Mexico suppressed damage by plant-parasitic nematodes to tomatoes and beans in greenhouse and growth chamber trials. Sterilization of the chinampa soil resulted in a loss of the suppressive effect, thereby indicating that one or more biotic factors were responsible for the low incidence of nematode damage. Nine organisms were isolated from chinampa soil, which showed antinematodal properties in culture. Naturally occurring populations of plant-parasitic nematodes were of lower incidence in chinampa soil than in Chapingo soil.

  4. Soil Type Identification Using Remotely Sensed Data for Agricultural Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiji, G. Wiselin; Nadar, Pallavi

    2016-09-01

    Soil assessment plays important role in making decisions for Agriculture. In this paper, an approach by integrating the image processing and pattern recognition techniques to find the type of soil has been presented. The soil from the area of interest is selected and soil indices are extracted as features. Indexing technique is used for faster retrieval. The efficiency of the proposed system is proved using sensitivity, specificity, precision and recall. Our empirical evaluation has a superior retrieval performance over the performance of other works. This work is of great use to the farmers, who need to identify their field's soil type.

  5. The effect of the native bacterial community structure on the predictability of E. coli O157:H7 survival in manure-amended soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Franz, E.; Semenov, A.V.; Vos, de O.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The survival capability of pathogens like Escherichia coli O157:H7 in manure-amended soil is considered to be an important factor for the likelihood of crop contamination. The aim of this study was to reveal the effects of the diversity and composition of soil bacterial community structure on

  6. The effect of the native bacterial community structure on the predictability of E-coli O157 : H7 survival in manure-amended soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Overbeek, L. S.; Franz, E.; Semenov, A. V.; de Vos, O. J.; van Bruggen, A. H. C.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The survival capability of pathogens like Escherichia coli O157:H7 in manure-amended soil is considered to be an important factor for the likelihood of crop contamination. The aim of this study was to reveal the effects of the diversity and composition of soil bacterial community structure on

  7. Long-term manure carbon sequestration in soil simulated with the Daisy model on the basis of short-term incubation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Yubaraj Kumar; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on simulating the long-term soil carbon sequestration after application of anaerobically digested and non-digested cattle manure using the Daisy model. The model was parameterized and calibrated for soil carbon (C) release during a 247 days incubation study including a coarse s...

  8. Wet chemical and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of phosphorus speciation in a sandy soil receiving long-term fertilizer or animal manure applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Chardon, W.J.; Dolfing, J.; Oenema, O.; Meer, van der P.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2003-01-01

    In areas under intensive livestock farming and with high application rates of animal manure, inorganic and organic phosphorus (P) may be leached from soils. Since the contribution of these P compounds to P leaching may differ, it is important to determine the speciation of P in these soils. We

  9. Long-term manure carbon sequestration in soil simulated with the Daisy model on the basis of short-term incubation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Yubaraj Kumar; Børgesen, Christen Duus; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on simulating the long-term soil carbon sequestration after application of anaerobically digested and non-digested cattle manure using the Daisy model. The model was parameterized and calibrated for soil carbon (C) release during a 247 days incubation study including a coarse s...

  10. Environmental fate of manure-borne estrogens and pathogens applied to agricultural land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Forslund, Anita; Bech, Tina Bundgaard

    was investigated in a field study, where the spatial distribution of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium Bacteriophage 28B in and around the injection slit was measured on day 0, 1, 6, 18, and 46/49 in sandy clay loam and sandy loam soil. Transport of slurry components away from the slit varied...

  11. [Effects of different organic manure sources and their combinations with chemical fertilization on soil nematode community structure in a paddy field of East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Ye, Cheng-Long; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qi-Rong; Hu, Feng; Li, Hui-Xin

    2013-12-01

    A comparative study was conducted to investigate the effects of different fertilization modes on the soil nematode community structure in a paddy field with paddy rice and wheat rotation in Jintan County (31 degrees 39'41.8" N, 119 degrees 28'23.5" E) of Jiangsu Province, East China. Six treatments were installed, i. e., no fertilization (CK), 100% chemical NPK fertilization (F), pig manure compost plus 50% chemical fertilization (PF), straw returning plus 100% chemical fertilization (SF), pig manure compost and straw returning plus 50% chemical fertilization (PSF), and application of commercial pig manure-inorganic complex fertilizer (PMF). The soil samples were collected from the field after the paddy rice harvested in autumn. The two continuous years study showed that the soil nematode community structure varied with fertilization treatments and years. The combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures increased the total number of soil nematodes, decreased the abundance of soil bacterivorous nematodes, and made the abundance of predator- and omnivore nematodes increased significantly. No significant differences were observed in the abundance of soil fungivorous nematodes among all the treatments. Chemical fertilization alone and the application of commercial pig manure-inorganic complex fertilizer had no obvious suppression effect on the soil phytophagous nematodes. The abundance of soil bacteriavorous nematodes under the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures was relatively increased in the second year, as compared with that in the first year, while the abundance of soil phytophagous nematodes (Hirschmanniella) was relatively decreased in the second year. From the aspect of nematode ecological indices, the Margalef diversity index (H) under the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures in the second year had an increasing trend, while the NCR index had less change. The Wasilewka index had a

  12. Estrogen transport in surface runoff from agricultural fields treated with two different application methods of dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    While the land-application of animal manure provides many benefits, concerns exist regarding the subsequent transport of hormones and potential effects on aquatic ecosystems. This study compares two methods of dairy manure application, surface broadcasting and shallow disk injection, on the fate and...

  13. Nitrate Sorption in an Agricultural Soil Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Hamdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concentrations of in surface water and groundwater can cause ecological and public health effects and has come under increased scrutiny by both environmental scientists and regulatory agencies. For many regions though, including the Sahel of Tunisia, little is known about the sorption capacity of soils. In this project we measured sorption by a profile of an iso-humic soil from Chott Meriem, Tunisia. Soil samples were collected from four soil depths (0–25, 25–60, 60–90, and 90–120 cm on 1 June 2011, and their sorption capacity was determined using batch experiments under laboratory conditions. The effects of contact time, the initial concentration, and the soil-solution ratio on sorption were investigated. In general, the results suggested that was weakly retained by the Chott Meriem soil profile. The quantity of sorption increased with depth, contact time, initial concentration, and soil-solution ratios. To evaluate the sorption capacities of the soil samples at concentrations ranging between 25 and 150 mg L−1 experimental data were fitted to both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm sorption models. The results indicated that Freundlich model was better for describing sorption in this soil profile.

  14. Turnover of manure 15N-labelled ammonium during composting and soil application as affected by lime and superphosphate addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Tien Minh; Luxhøi, Jesper; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2012-01-01

    To determine N turnover and losses during aerobic composting of animal manure, a 41-d laboratory study was performed on pig manure composting with three additive treatments (Straw: pig manure + straw only; Lime: pig manure + straw + quick lime; and SSP: pig manure + straw + single superphosphate)...... superphosphate increased the NH4-N content in both. Therefore, superphosphate addition increased the potential fertilizer value of composted pig manure....

  15. Do Agricultural Soils of California have the Potential to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate Greenhouse Gases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suddick, E. C.; Scow, K. M.; Six, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Agricultural ecosystems play a major role in the global carbon cycle and can be both sources of carbon emissions to the atmosphere and also carbon sinks which may be used to offset any future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In California, climate change predictions indicate major impacts and substantial alterations of agricultural systems over the next decades. In 2006, California passed the California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32) that requires reduction of the three major GHG's (CO2, N2O and CH4) to 1990 levels by 2020. We surveyed and synthesized available data from recent studies describing the potential to sequester carbon and reduce other GHG emissions in California agricultural soils. The studies evaluated various management practices in both annual row and perennial cropping systems, with other studies focusing upon biogeochemical model predictions for carbon sequestration and GHG mitigation calibrated towards California agriculture. Management practices considered included minimum or no tillage, cover cropping, organic residue (low and high inputs) and nitrogen fertilizer management. Though practices involving inputs of carbon, such as cover cropping and organic amendments, were often associated with increases in soil organic carbon (SOC) in the top soil layer (0-20 cm), results were not consistent across farming systems. Several studies indicated that conservation tillage, alone, increased above-ground biomass, especially when used with a cover crop. However, the reduced soil disturbance from conservation tillage merely resulted in a redistribution of the soil carbon rather than an overall accumulation, when compared with standard tillage and cover cropping practices together. Predictions from biogeochemical models indicated that increased inputs of manure and increased organic residues led to substantial carbon sequestration but did not consistently reduce non-CO2 related GHG emissions. The most effective way to reduce non-CO2 GHG

  16. Soil biota and agriculture production in conventional and organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, Maarten; de Haan, Joj; Carvalho, Sabrina; Kroonen, Mark; Verstegen, Harry; Van der Putten, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable food production for a growing world population requires a healthy soil that can buffer environmental extremes and minimize its losses. There are currently two views on how to achieve this: by intensifying conventional agriculture or by developing organically based agriculture. It has been established that yields of conventional agriculture can be 20% higher than of organic agriculture. However, high yields of intensified conventional agriculture trade off with loss of soil biodiversity, leaching of nutrients, and other unwanted ecosystem dis-services. One of the key explanations for the loss of nutrients and GHG from intensive agriculture is that it results in high dynamics of nutrient losses, and policy has aimed at reducing temporal variation. However, little is known about how different agricultural practices affect spatial variation, and it is unknown how soil fauna acts this. In this study we compare the spatial and temporal variation of physical, chemical and biological parameters in a long term (13-year) field experiment with two conventional farming systems (low and medium organic matter input) and one organic farming system (high organic matter input) and we evaluate the impact on ecosystem services that these farming systems provide. Soil chemical (N availability, N mineralization, pH) and soil biological parameters (nematode abundance, bacterial and fungal biomass) show considerably higher spatial variation under conventional farming than under organic farming. Higher variation in soil chemical and biological parameters coincides with the presence of 'leaky' spots (high nitrate leaching) in conventional farming systems, which shift unpredictably over the course of one season. Although variation in soil physical factors (soil organic matter, soil aggregation, soil moisture) was similar between treatments, but averages were higher under organic farming, indicating more buffered conditions for nutrient cycling. All these changes coincide with

  17. Manure Use

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Renee Raiden

    2006-01-01

    Explains the proper use of manure in the garden, including the appropriate temperature of compost to kill pathogens, reducing the contact of produce with feces, and prevention of cross-contamination of raw manure and composted manure.

  18. Enhanced Bioremediation of Soil Artificially Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons after Amendment with Capra aegagrus hircus (Goat Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Nwogu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the biostimulant potentials of Capra aegagrus hircus manure for bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil (COCS under tropical conditions. 1 kg of COCS sample was amended with 0.02 kg of C. a. hircus manure and monitored at 14-day intervals for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH, nutrient content, and changes in microbial counts. At the end of the study period, there was 62.08% decrease in the concentration of TPH in the amended sample compared to 8.15% decrease in the unamended sample, with significant differences (P<0.05 in TPH concentrations for both samples at different time intervals. Similarly, there was a gradual decrease in the concentrations of total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in both samples. The culturable hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria (CHUB increased steadily from 8.5 × 105 cfu/g to 2.70 × 106 cfu/g and from 8.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.78 × 106 cfu/g for both samples. Acinetobacter, Achromobacter, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, and Staphylococcus were isolated from amended sample with Pseudomonas being the predominant isolated bacterial genus. This study demonstrated that C. a. hircus manure is a good biostimulant, which enhanced the activities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria resulting in significant decrease in TPH concentration of COCS.

  19. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

    2013-04-01

    Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area

  20. Effect of green manure in soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomato in the no tillage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson; Rossi, Fabricio; Dias, Fabio; Trivelin, Paulo; Tavares, Silvio; Muraoka, Takashi; Ambrosano, Glaucia; Salgado, Gabriela; Otsuk, Ivani

    2016-04-01

    The use of alternative fertilizers may reduce costs and promote sustainability to the family-based agro ecological production system. The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of the green manure to the quality of the soil and the transference of the nitrogen to cherry tomatoes using the N-15 abundance method (FAPESP 11/05648-3). The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, APTA/SAA, SP, Brazil. The IAC collection accesses 21 of cherry tomatoes were used. Each Plot consisted of six plants spaced 0.5 m and 0.9 m between rows, using a randomized-blocks design with eight treatments and five repetitions. The treatments consisted of green manure crops intercropped or not with cherry tomato, namely: jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), velvet bean (Mucuna deeringiana), mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek), white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Besides two witnesses, one with and another without corn straw. Five leaves with petiole of each plant part from the first ripe fruit and a bunch of fruits per plant are harvested. Samples of leaf and fruit were weighed and dried in a forced air oven and its dry weight measured. A subsample was ground in a Wiley mill and brought to the mass spectrometer (ANCA GSL) on the Stable Isotopes Laboratory of CENA/USP for δN-15 analysis. It measured the percentage of the transference of N from the green manure to the tomato; the tomato plants grown in monocropping were considered a control. It was found that 27 % of the N present in the fruit and 23% of the N present in the leaves came from the green manure. These results show that dur¬ing the development of the fruit of the tomato there is a greater translocation and consequently, a higher use of the N from the green manure in the fruits than in the leaves. This production system can reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. The presence of a green manure in non-intercropped treatments caused some soil

  1. Heterogeneity of O2 dynamics in soil amended with animal manure and implications for greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kun; Bruun, Sander; Larsen, Morten Kobæk

    2015-01-01

    in soils in which the same amount of solid fraction of pig manure had been distributed in three different ways (mixed, layered, single patch) and which were maintained at awater potential of 5 kPa (corresponding to 91% of water-filled pore space). In parallel, the greenhouse gas emissions (N2O, CO2 and CH4...... the cumulative N2O emissions and reduced the cumulative CO2 fluxes. The faster the anoxia developed, the less the nitrification process appeared to contribute to N2O emissions. No treatment effects on CH4 emissions were observed. Combined high resolution imaging of O2 dynamics and measurements of N2O emission...... rates are essential to get a detailed understanding of how O2 availability regulates the distribution and coupling of denitrification and nitrification activity in soil. Such unique information on soil O2 dynamics could be used for further modelling and quantification of processes producing greenhouse...

  2. Biological and biochemical soil quality indicators for agricultural management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorno, Giulia

    2017-04-01

    Soil quality is defined as the capacity of a soil to perform multiple functions. Agricultural soils can, in principle, sustain a wide range of functions. However, negative pressure exerted by natural and anthropogenic soil threats such as soil erosion, soil organic matter losses and soil compaction have the potential to permanently damage soil quality. Soil chemical, physical and biological parameters can be used as indicators of soil quality. The specific objective of this study is to assess the suitability of novel soil parameters as soil quality indicators. We focus on biological/biochemical parameters, due to the unique role of soil biota in soil functions and to their high sensitivity to disturbances. The novel indicators are assessed in ten European long-term field experiments (LTEs) with different agricultural land use (arable and permanent crops), management regimes and pedo-climatic characteristics. The contrasts in agricultural management are represented by conventional/reduced tillage, organic/mineral fertilization and organic matter addition/no organic matter addition. We measured two different pools of labile organic carbon (dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and permanganate oxidizable carbon (POXC)), and determined DOC quality through its fractionation in hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds. In addition, total nematode abundance has been assessed with qPCR. These parameters will be related to soil functions which have been measured with a minimum data set of indicators for soil quality (including TOC, macronutrients, and soil respiration). As a preliminary analysis, the Sensitivity Index (SI) for a given LTE was calculated for DOC and POXC according to Bolinder et al., 1999 as the ratio of the soil attribute under modified practices (e.g. reduced tillage) compared to the conventional practices (e.g. conventional tillage). The overall effect of the sustainable management on the indicators has been derived by calculating an average SI for those LTEs

  3. Carbon dioxide emissions from agricultural soils amended with livestock-derived organic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzolla, D.; Said-Pullicino, D.; Gigliotti, G.

    2009-04-01

    Carbon dioxide gas xchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, as well as the carbon sink strength of various arable land ecosystems, is of primary interest for global change research. Measures for increasing soil C inputs include the preferential use of livestock-derived organic materials (e.g. animal manure and slurries, digestate from biogas production plants and compost). The application of such materials to agricultural soils returns essential nutrients for plant growth and organic matter to maintain long-term fertility. Whether or not such practices ultimately result in sustained C sequestration at the ecosystem level will depend on their mineralization rates. This work presents preliminary results from a laboratory incubation trial to evaluate carbon dioxide fluxes from two agricultural soils (a calcareous silt loam and a silty clay loam) amended with agricultural doses of (i) pig slurry (PSL), (ii) the digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of pig slurries (AAS) and (ii) a compost from the aerobic stabilisation of the digestate (LDC). These subsequent steps of slurry stabilisation resulted in a decrease in the content of labile organic matter which was reflected in a reduction in maximum carbon dioxide emission rates from amended soils. Measurements have shown that peak emissions from soils occur immediately after application of these organic materials (within 5 days) and decrease in the order PSL > AAS > LDC. Moreover, mean cumulative emissions over the first 40 days showed that a higher percentage (about 44%) of the C added with PSL was mineralised respect to C added with AAS (39%) and LDC (25%). Although it was hypothesised that apart from the quantity and stability of the added organic materials, even soil characteristics could influence C mineralisation rates, no significant differences were observed between emission fluxes for similarly treated soils. Mean cumulative emission fluxes after 40 days from treatment were of 114, 103 and

  4. Occurrence and source analysis of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure, soil, vegetables and groundwater from organic vegetable bases, northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Xiangang [Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria (Ministry of Education), College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Zhou Qixing, E-mail: huxiangang@mail.nankai.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria (Ministry of Education), College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Key Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecological Process, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Luo Yi [Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria (Ministry of Education), College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2010-09-15

    The residue of antibiotics is becoming an intractable environmental problem in many organic vegetable bases. However, their residual levels and distribution are still obscure. This work systematically analyzed the occurrence and migration of typical veterinary antibiotics in organic vegetable bases, northern China. The results showed that there was no obvious geographical difference in antibiotic distribution between soil and manure. A simple migration model can be easy and quick to predict the accumulation of antibiotics in soil. Antibiotics were mainly taken up through water transport and passive absorption in vegetables. The distribution of antibiotics in a plant was in the sequence leaf > stem > root, and performed biological accumulation. The residues of antibiotics in all samples in winter were significantly higher than those in summer. Overall, this work can lay the foundation for understanding ecological risk of antibiotics and their potential adverse effects on human health by food chain. - The residues of typical veterinary antibiotics from manure were detected and migrated in soil, vegetables and groundwater of organic vegetable bases.

  5. Replenishing Humic Acids in Agricultural Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Susic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, it was commonly believed that humic acids were formed in soils by the microbial conversion of plant lignins. However, an experiment to test whether these humic acids were formed prior to plant matter reaching the soil was never reported until the late 1980s (and then only as a side issue, even though humic acids were first isolated and reported in 1786. This was a serious omission, and led to a poor understanding of how the humic acid content of soils could be maintained or increased for optimum fertility. In this study, commercial sugar cane mulch and kelp extracts were extracted with alkali and analyzed for humic acid content. Humic acids in the extracts were positively identified by fluorescence spectrophotometry, and this demonstrated that humic acids are formed in senescent plant and algal matter before they reach the soil, where they are then strongly bound to the soil and are also resistant to microbial metabolism. Humic acids are removed from soils by wind and water erosion, and by water leaching, which means that they must be regularly replenished. This study shows that soils can be replenished or fortified with humic acids simply by recycling plant and algal matter, or by adding outside sources of decomposed plant or algal matter such as composts, mulch, peat, and lignite coals.

  6. Potential role of compost and green manure amendment to mitigate soil GHGs emissions in Mediterranean drip irrigated maize production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Annachiara; Fagnano, Massimo; Fierro, Angelo

    2017-05-01

    Organic fertilization can preserve soil organic matter (SOM) and is foreseen as an effective strategy to reduce green house gases (GHGs) emissions in agriculture. However, its effectiveness needs to be clarified under specific climate, crop management and soil characteristics. A field experiment was carried out in a Mediterranean drip irrigated maize system to assess the pattern of soil CO2 and N2O fluxes in response to the replacement of a typical bare fallow-maize cycle under urea fertilization (130 kg N ha(-1) y(-1)) (CONV) with: (i) bare fallow-maize cycles under two doses of compost (COM1 and COM2, 130 and 260 kg N ha(-1) y(-1), respectively) and (ii) a vetch-maize cycle, with vetch incorporation as green manure (130 kg N ha(-1) y(-1)) (GMAN). Along the maize period (MP), reduced daily N2O emissions were detected in organic treated soils compared to CONV, mainly in the first stages of the cultivation, thanks to the slow release of available nitrogen from the organic substrates. Cumulative N2O fluxes (kg N2O-N ha(-1)) in MP scored to 0.24, 0.14, 0.12 and 0.085 for CONV, COM1, COM2 and GMAN, respectively, with significantly lower emissions in GMAN respect to CONV. CO2 fluxes partially reflected the ranking observed for maize yields, with cumulated values (Mg CO2-C ha(-1)) of 2.2, 1.5, 2.1, 2.1 for CONV, COM1, COM2 and GMAN, respectively, and significantly lower in COM1 respect to the other treatments. During the fallow period (FP), compared to CONV (0.77 Mg CO2-C ha(-1) and 0.25 kg N2O-N ha(-1)), enhanced GHG fluxes were detected in COM treatments (about 0.90 Mg CO2-C ha(-1) and 0.37 kg N2O-N ha(-1), as averaged values from COM1 and COM2), likely driven by the slow prolonged mineralization of the added organic matter. GMAN showed comparable CO2 (0.82 Mg CO2-C ha(-1)) and N2O emissions (0.30 kg N2O-N ha(-1)), in consequence of restrained post-harvest residual N coupled with the counteracting effect of vetch uptake. Respect to the total yearly GHG

  7. Influence of temperature and predation on survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and expression of invA in soil and manure-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, R; Baelum, J; Fredslund, L; Santorum, P; Jacobsen, C S

    2010-08-01

    The effects of three temperatures (5, 15, and 25 degrees C) on the survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in topsoil were investigated in small microcosms by three different techniques: plate counting, invA gene quantification, and invA mRNA quantification. Differences in survival were related to the effect of protozoan predation. Tetracycline-resistant Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was inoculated into soil and manure-amended soil at 1.5 x 10(8) cells g soil(-1). Population densities were determined by plate counting and by molecular methods and monitored for 42 days. Simultaneous extraction of RNA and DNA, followed by quantitative PCR, was used to investigate invA gene levels and expression. Analysis by these three techniques showed that Salmonella serovar Typhimurium survived better at 5 degrees C. Comparing DNA and CFU levels, significantly higher values were determined by DNA-based techniques. invA mRNA levels showed a fast decrease in activity, with no detectable mRNA after an incubation period of less than 4 days in any of the soil scenarios. A negative correlation was found between Salmonella serovar Typhimurium CFU levels and protozoan most probable numbers, and we propose the role of the predator-prey interaction as a factor to explain the die-off of the introduced strain by both culture- and DNA quantification-based methods. The results indicate that temperature, manure, and protozoan predation are important factors influencing the survival of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium in soil.

  8. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in the manure-amended soil-plant ecosystem of fresh vegetable crops: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongeng, Duncan; Geeraerd, Annemie Hellena; Springael, Dirk; Ryckeboer, Jaak; Muyanja, Charles; Mauriello, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and Salmonella enterica have been implicated in several disease outbreaks linked to consumption of fresh vegetables. Both ruminant and non-ruminant animals carry EHEC and S. enterica in their gastrointestinal tracts and can shed the pathogens in the faecal matter both in symptomatic and asymptomatic states. Application of animal waste in soil fertility management and irrigation of crops with contaminated waste water has been recognised as an important route through which EHEC and S. enterica can contaminate fresh vegetables during primary production. The behavior of E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica in the agricultural environment has been extensively studied in the last decades. Several microbiological detection methods have been applied. This review therefore puts together current knowledge on the behavior of E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica in the manure-amended soil-plant ecosystem of fresh vegetable crops during cultivation under various environmental conditions. The review focuses on methodological issues involved in undertaking survival studies and makes comparative analysis of experimental results obtained from studies conducted under controlled environmental conditions integrating results obtained from field experiments. Finally, a theoretical discussion on the potential likely impact of climate change on pre-harvest safety of field-cultivated vegetables is highlighted.

  9. Development of an analytical methodology for the determination of the antiparasitic drug toltrazuril and its two metabolites in surface water, soil and animal manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; Björklund, Erland; Krogh, Kristine A

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development, optimization and validation of a LC-MS/MS methodology to determine the antiparasitic veterinary drug toltrazuril and its two main metabolites, toltrazuril sulfoxide and toltrazuril sulfone, in environmental surface water, soil and animal manure. Using solid...... phase extraction and selective pressurized liquid extraction with integrated clean-up, the analytical method allows for the determination of these compounds down to 0.06-0.13 ng L(-1) in water, 0.01-0.03 ng g(-1)dw in soil and 0.22-0.51 ng g(-1) dw in manure. The deuterated analog of toltrazuril...

  10. Sorption and transport of atrazine in an agricultural soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakan Akyol, Nihat

    2014-05-01

    Sorption and transport of atrazine in an agricultural soil Atrazine is one of the most commonly used herbicides in large quantity worldwide. The objective of this study was to perform some batch and column experiments to examine the transport of atrazine in an agricultural soil from Turkey. Batch experiments indicated that sorption isotherm was nonlinear with a freundlich isotherm over a range of concentration (0.2-10 mg/L) examined. Column experiments showed that transport of atrazine in the soil was moderately retarded compared to non-reactive tracer (R = 2.9-4.0). The degree of retardation decreased with increasing atrazine concentration and residance time had negligable impact on degree of sorption. Flow interruption tests in the column experiments indicated that the rate-limited desorption of atrazine mainly controlled the non-ideal transport of atrazine due to the presence of organic matter fraction (0.83 %) in the soil. Sorption and desorption behavior of atrazine in such soils could have important impacts for risk assessment of atrazine-contaminated soil and should be taken into account in the regulation, management, and remediation of atrazine-contaminated sites. Keywords: Atrazine, Agricultural soil, Batch, Column, Desorption, Rate-limited desorption, Sorption, Transport.

  11. Effect of Organic Manure Mixture on growth and yield of Radish (RaphanusSativus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Etesami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, production of organic farming and gardening is rising. The use of organic fertilizers such as animal manure has a long history. In recent years, the use of fertilizers and manure for providing the nutritional needs of plants, improve soil physical and chemical structure and reduce the environmental issues have been observed. Animal manures can increase soil organic matter and nutrients, improve soil structure and water-holding capacity which in turn increase the quality and quantity of the product to follow. Manure is a valuable source of biological, ecological and environmental benefits is positive and its main use is for agricultural use. Radish is an important root vegetable that belongs to the cruciferous (Brassicaceae. Value radish on high levels of dietary is related to soluble fiber and antioxidants. Radish is a native plant to Asia, China and Europe. The oral part of the botanical garden radish is important and that kind of traditional varieties have long hypocotyls include root and hypocotyls made.The purpose of this test is to evaluate the different mixture amount of animal fertilizers on the growth and yield of radish plants and compare them to each other. Materials and Methods: In order to study of different manure effect on radish growth and yield, an experiment carried out in 2012-2013 in the greenhouse of Gonbad- Kavos University with geographical characteristics 37.16 degrees north, 55.12 ° east and with a height of 45 meters above sea level in a completely randomized design with four replications. Soil and fertilizers used to this experiment were made of the soil and livestock of Gonbad- Kavos University. Soil texture was Clay loam and pH was 7.7 obtained from soil analysis. To obtain the required levels of fertilizer treatments (25, 50, 75, 100, a measure was considered as the basis of each treatment on the basis of the ratio were calculated. The treatments included control (soil, 25 percent cow manure+ 75

  12. Conservation agriculture effects on soil pore characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Abdollahi, Lotfollah

    of quantitative knowledge to support this statement. This study examines the long-term effects of crop rotations, residue management and tillage on soil pore characteristics of two sandy loam soils in Denmark. Results are reported from a split plot field experiment rotation as main plot factor and tillage...... air permeability and pore continuity index. Generally, residue input, especially when combined with direct drilling at the Foulum site, decreased bulk density and the volume of blocked air porosity, and increased air-filled porosity, volumetric water content, air permeability and gas diffusivity. Our...

  13. Microbial population changes in tropical agricultural soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... well as recovery rates of an abandoned farmland was monitored for seven ... process in the in situ decontamination of oil-polluted ... depth knowledge about the physico-chemical properties ... application of data generated at the laboratory level are .... nated soil varied very significantly (t-test) from those.

  14. Substantial dust loss of bioavailable phosphorus from agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katra, Itzhak; Gross, Avner; Swet, Nitzan; Tanner, Smadar; Krasnov, Helena; Angert, Alon

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element in terrestrial ecosystems. Knowledge on the role of dust in the biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus is very limited with no quantitative information on aeolian (by wind) P fluxes from soils. The aim of this study is to focus on P cycling via dust emissions under common land-use practices in an arid environment by integration of sample analyses and aeolian experiments. The experiments indicate significant P fluxes by PM10 dust due to agricultural land use. Even in a single wind-dust event at moderate velocity (7.0 m s‑1), P flux in conventional agricultural fields can reach 1.83 kg km‑2, that accumulates to a considerable amount per year at a regional scale. The results highlight a negative yearly balance in P content (up to hundreds kg km‑2) in all agricultural soils, and thus more P nutrition is required to maintain efficient yield production. In grazing areas where no P nutrition is applied, the soil degradation process can lead to desertification. Emission of P from soil dust sources has significant implications for soil nutrient resources and management strategies in agricultural regions as well as for loading to the atmosphere and global biogeochemical cycles.

  15. Method for calculating carbon footprint of cattle feeds – including contribution from soil carbon changes and use of cattle manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels; Nguyen, T Lan T

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) related to feed production is one of the hotspots in livestock production. The aim of this paper was to estimate the carbon footprint of different feedstuffs for dairy cattle using life cycle assessment (LCA). The functional unit was ‘1 kg dry matter (DM) of feed...... ready to feed’. Included in the study were fodder crops that are grown in Denmark and typically used on Danish cattle farms. The contributions from the growing, processing and transport of feedstuffs were included, as were the changes in soil carbon (soil C) and from land use change (LUC). For each...... fodder crop, an individual production scheme was set up as the basis for calculating the carbon footprint (CF). In the calculations, all fodder crops were fertilized by artificial fertilizer based on the assumption that the environmental burden of using manure is related to the livestock production...

  16. Community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria under long-term application of mineral fertilizer and organic manure in a sandy loam soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Haiyan; Fujii, Takeshi; Morimoto, Sho; Lin, Xiangui; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Hu, Junli; Zhang, Jiabao

    2007-01-01

    The effects of mineral fertilizer (NPK) and organic manure on the community structure of soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated in a long-term (16-year) fertilizer experiment. The experiment included seven treatments: organic manure, half organic manure N plus half fertilizer N, fertilizer NPK, fertilizer NP, fertilizer NK, fertilizer PK, and the control (without fertilization). N fertilization greatly increased soil nitrification potential, and mineral N fertilizer had a greater impact than organic manure, while N deficiency treatment (PK) had no significant effect. AOB community structure was analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of the amoA gene, which encodes the alpha subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. DGGE profiles showed that the AOB community was more diverse in N-fertilized treatments than in the PK-fertilized treatment or the control, while one dominant band observed in the control could not be detected in any of the fertilized treatments. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the DGGE bands derived from N-fertilized treatments belonged to Nitrosospira cluster 3, indicating that N fertilization resulted in the dominance of Nitrosospira cluster 3 in soil. These results demonstrate that long-term application of N fertilizers could result in increased soil nitrification potential and the AOB community shifts in soil. Our results also showed the different effects of mineral fertilizer N versus organic manure N; the effects of P and K on the soil AOB community; and the importance of balanced fertilization with N, P, and K in promoting nitrification functions in arable soils.

  17. Vertical distribution of phosphorus in a sandy soil fertilized with recovered manure phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: To evaluate the environmental fate of recovered manure phosphates to provide application recommendations for their use as crop fertilizers. Materials and methods: A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the leaching potential and vertical distribution of total and plant available phos...

  18. Comparative characterization of digestate versus pig slurry and cow manure - Chemical composition and effects on soil microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risberg, Kajsa; Cederlund, Harald; Pell, Mikael; Arthurson, Veronica; Schnürer, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The growing number of biogas plants in Europe has resulted in increased production of nutrient-rich digestate with great potential as fertilizer for arable land. The nutrient composition of digestate varies with the substrate treated in the biogas plant and may contain compounds that stimulate or inhibit soil microbial activity. This study compared 20 digestates (D) with 10 pig slurries (PS) and 10 cow manures (CM) regarding their chemical content and their effect on soil microbial activities, i.e. potential ammonia oxidation rate (PAO) and soil respiration. The results showed no significant differences within the D group when divided based on substrate type. i.e. manure dominated vs. other organic waste materials in any of the tests. In general D contained significantly higher concentrations of ammonium while the concentrations of total carbon and volatile fatty acids were higher in PS and CM than in D. The D showed both stimulating and inhibiting effects on PAO, while all CM and all PS except one showed inhibiting effects on PAO. However, PAO activity was negatively correlated with the content of volatile fatty acids in the residues indicating that these compounds may be the cause of the inhibition. The maximum respiration activity (hpeakmax) was lower and the time point for the maximum respiration activity (tpeakmax) occurred earlier for D compared with CM and PS. This earlier peak time could be indicative of a high proportion of easily degradable carbon in D compared with PS and CM. However, the utilization rate of carbon, i.e. the proportion of added organic C converted to CO2-C during 12days, did not differ significantly between D, PS and CM, indicating that overall carbon quality in the different fertilizers was still roughly comparable. In short, our results suggest that digestates were different compared with PS and CM but without posing a higher risk with respect to their impact on soil microbial activity. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by

  19. Assessing different agricultural managements with the use of soil quality indices in a Mediteranean calcareous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Vicky; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    Soil erosion is a major problem in the Mediterranean region due to the arid conditions and torrential rainfalls, which contribute to the degradation of agricultural land. New strategies must be developed to reduce soil losses and recover or maintain soil functionality in order to achieve a sustainable agriculture. An experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of different agricultural management on soil properties and soil quality. Ten different treatments (contact herbicide, systemic herbicide, ploughing, Oat mulch non-plough, Oats mulch plough, leguminous plant, straw rice mulch, chipped pruned branches, residual-herbicide and agro geo-textile, and three control plots including no tillage or control and long agricultural abandonment (shrub on marls and shrub on limestone) were established in 'El Teularet experimental station' located in the Sierra de Enguera (Valencia, Spain). The soil is a Typic Xerorthent developed over Cretaceous marls in an old agricultural terrace. The agricultural management can modify the soil equilibrium and affect its quality. In this work two soil quality indices (models) developed by Zornoza et al. (2007) are used to evaluate the effects of the different agricultural management along 4 years. The models were developed studying different soil properties in undisturbed forest soils in SE Spain, and the relationships between soil parameters were established using multiple linear regressions. Model 1, that explained 92% of the variance in soil organic carbon (SOC) showed that the SOC can be calculated by the linear combination of 6 physical, chemical and biochemical properties (acid phosphatase, water holding capacity (WHC), electrical conductivity (EC), available phosphorus (P), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and aggregate stability (AS). Model 2 explains 89% of the SOC variance, which can be calculated by means of 7 chemical and biochemical properties (urease, phosphatase, and ß-glucosidase activities, pH, EC, P and CEC). We use the

  20. [Bioconcentration and translocation of Cu and Zn by Brassica sinensis L. planted in high Cu and Zn contaminated pig manure-applied soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Cui, Xiao-yong; Luo, Wei; Shi, Peng; Lü, Yong-long

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, Cu and Zn have been widely used in pig fodders in large-scale animal feeding, causing Cu and Zn contamination in soils and effecting plants in land application of pig manure. It is of great concern to the world that pig manure is used in the dose greater than the organic fertilizer criterion. It is very important to clarify bioconcentration and translocation of Cu and Zn in vegetables in order to assess human health risk of these heavy metals accumulated in soil and to safely produce vegetables. Bioconcentration and translocation of Cu and Zn by Brassica sinensis L. planted in pig manure-applied soils were studied using pot experiments. Pig manure with great concentrations of Cu and Zn (Cu = 1114.7 mg x kg(-1), Zn = 1496.8 mg x kg(-1)) were applied to soils at six rates, i.e., 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 500 t x hm(-2). The results indicate that the concentration of Zn was greater than that of Cu in both aboveground and underground parts of B. sinensis. Both Cu and Zn concentrations in the underground part were greater than those in upper-ground for every treatment. There were significant differences for both Cu and Zn concentrations in shoots between CK and the treatment with application rate above 50 t x hm(-2). Bioconcentration factor of Cu in B. sinensis increased with pig manure application rate from 0.11 to 0.17, while that of Zn decreased from 0.47 to 0.11. The proportion of Cu and Zn transported from roots to shoots decreased 25% and 38% with the increase of pig manure application, respectively. It indicates that pig manure application can reduce bioconcentration of Zn in B. sinensis, and build up Cu accumulation which leads to human health risk. The ratio of Zn:Cu in every part of B. sinensis decreased with manure application rate increment. This result prompted that uptake and translocation capacity discrepancy of Cu and Zn decreased with manure application rate increment in B. sinensis.

  1. Soil degradation processes in the Italian agricultural and forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo A.C. Costantini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of processes of degradation threaten soil functions. Ten of them are acknowledged by the European Union and fifteen by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, but at least another seven have been indicated by different authors in Italy and in other parts of the world. This short review paper summarizes the nature, economic relevance, and territorial impact of soil degradation in Italy, and with reference to Europe as a whole, and highlights the most relevant research needs in soil conservation. The direct annual costs of the main soil degradation processes are estimated to be over 38,000,000,000 euro per year in Europe as a whole, while in Italy, only for landslides, floods, and soil erosion, costs amount to 900,000,000 euro. Loss of the ability to produce food commodities because of soil degradation is particularly important in Italy, since selfsufficiency in food has recently decreased to less than 80% and Italian agricultural soils are hit by several problems, such as limited soil drainage, unfavorable texture and stoniness, shallow rooting depth, and poor chemical properties. On average, soil sealing, reduction in organic matter, and soil compaction in Italy are comparable with those of many other countries, but the occurrence of soil erosion, floods, and landslides is more widespread than in most parts of Europe, and also the presence of salt-affected soils is becoming a major worry. The fight against soil degradation in Italy is certainly more difficult than in other countries because of the high environmental variability. However, according to the current trends, Italy is mostly probably destined not to achieve the European objective to significantly reduce main soil degradation processes by the year 2020. There are several research needs in the field of soil conservation in Italy. These include: i a better basic knowledge about many soil degradation processes and of pedodiversity; ii reliable, sensitive

  2. Spatially explicit methodology for coordinated manure management in shared watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharara, Mahmoud; Sampat, Apoorva; Good, Laura W; Smith, Amanda S; Porter, Pamela; Zavala, Victor M; Larson, Rebecca; Runge, Troy

    2017-05-01

    Increased clustering and consolidation of livestock production systems has been linked to adverse impacts on water quality. This study presents a methodology to optimize manure management within a hydrologic region to minimize agricultural phosphorus (P) loss associated with winter manure application. Spatial and non-spatial data representing livestock, crop, soil, terrain and hydrography were compiled to determine manure P production rates, crop P uptake, existing manure storage capabilities, and transportation distances. Field slope, hydrologic soil group (HSG), and proximity to waterbodies were used to classify crop fields according to their runoff risk for winter-applied manure. We use these data to construct a comprehensive optimization model that identifies optimal location, size, and transportation strategy to achieve environmental and economic goals. The environmental goal was the minimization of daily hauling of manure to environmentally sensitive crop fields, i.e., those classified as high P-loss fields, whereas the economic goal was the minimization of the transportation costs across the entire study area. A case study encompassing two contiguous 10-digit hydrologic unit subwatersheds (HUC-10) in South Central Wisconsin, USA was developed to demonstrate the proposed methodology. Additionally, scenarios representing different management decisions (storage facility maximum volume, and project capital) and production conditions (increased milk production and 20-year future projection) were analyzed to determine their impact on optimal decisions.

  3. Pig manure vermicompost (PMVC) can improve phytoremediation of Cd and PAHs co-contaminated soil by Sedum alfredii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Huagang; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiaoe [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health; Zhu, Zhiqiang [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). MOE Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecosystem Health; Hainan Univ., Haikou (China). College of Agriculture; He, Zehnli [Florida Univ., Fort Pierce (United States). Indian River Research and Education Center; Alva, Ashok [U.S. Department of Agriculture, Prosser, WA (United States). Agricultural Research Service

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: A major challenge to phytoremediation of co-contaminated soils is developing strategies for efficient and simultaneous removal of multiple pollutants. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the potential for enhanced phytoextraction of cadmium (Cd) by Sedum alfredii and dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in co-contaminated soil by application of pig manure vermicompost (PMVC). Materials and methods: Soil contaminated by Cd (5.53 mg kg{sup -1} DW) was spiked with phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene together (250 mg kg{sup -1} DW for each PAH). A pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with four treatments: (1) soil without plants and PMVC (Control), (2) soil planted with S. alfredii (Plant), (3) soil amended with PMVC at 5 % (w/w) (PMVC), and (4) treatment 2 + 3 (Plant + PMVC). After 90 days, shoot and root biomass of plants, Cd concentrations in plant and soil, and PAH concentrations in soil were determined. Abundance of PAH degraders in soil, soil bacterial community structure and diversity, and soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass carbon were measured. Results and discussion: Application of PMVC to co-contaminated soil increased the shoot and root dry biomass of S. alfredii by 2.27- and 3.93-fold, respectively, and simultaneously increased Cd phytoextraction without inhibiting soil microbial population and enzyme activities. The highest dissipation rate of PAHs was observed in Plant + PMVC treatment. However, neither S. alfredii nor PMVC enhanced PAH dissipation when applied separately. Abundance of PAH degraders in soil was not significantly related to PAH dissipation rate. Plant + PMVC treatment significantly influenced the bacterial community structure. Enhanced PAH dissipation in the Plant + PMVC treatment could be due to the improvement of plant root growth, which may result in increased root exudates, and subsequently change bacterial community structure to be favorable for PAH dissipation. Conclusions: This

  4. Biodegradation of petroleum compounds in soil by a solid-phase circulating bioreactor with poultry manure amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallgren, Paul H; Jin, Song

    2008-02-01

    Petroleum compounds account for the vast majority of contaminants in soils. Bioremediation is a widely accepted strategy in degrading these contaminants. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of nitrogenous nutrient (nitrogen) amendments in enhancing biodegradation of petroleum contaminants in soil by using a solid-phase circulating bioreactor (SCB). In a bench-scale SCB, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration (~5000 mg kg(-1)) in soil decreased 92% within 15 days. In a scaled-up SCB system containing approximately 120 kg petroleum-contaminated soil (TPH at approximately 125,000 mg kg(-1)), a degradation rate of 635 mg kg(-1)d(-1) was obtained from the poultry manure-amended treatment during a 200-day period of operation. Treatments with the same amount of nitrogen (as ammonium nitrate) attained a TPH degradation rate of 469 mg kg(-1)d(-1) during the same period. Control SCB unit, which was maintained under the same aerobic conditions but not amended with nitrogen, had a TPH degradation rate of 273 mg kg(-1)d(-1). Results from this study indicate that SCB can achieve significantly higher degradative rates than conventional landfarming (reported rates petroleum contaminants in soils.

  5. Soil carbon and soil respiration in conservation agriculture with vegetables in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A balance between food production and environmental protection is required to sustainably feed a growing population. The resource saving concept of conservation agriculture aims to achieve this balance through implementing simultaneously three conservation practices; no-till, continuous soil cover, ...

  6. Electrokinetic treatment of an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arylein; Cameselle, Claudio; Gouveia, Susana; Hansen, Henrik K

    2016-07-28

    The high organic matter content in agricultural soils tends to complex and retain contaminants such as heavy metals. Electrokinetic remediation was tested in an agricultural soil contaminated with Co(+2), Zn(+2), Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Cr(VI), Pb(+2) and Hg(+2). The unenhanced electrokinetic treatment was not able to remove heavy metals from the soil due to the formation of precipitates in the alkaline environment in the soil section close to the cathode. Moreover, the interaction between metals and organic matter probably limited metal transportation under the effect of the electric field. Citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used in the catholyte as complexing agents in order to enhance the extractability and removal of heavy metals from soil. These complexing agents formed negatively charged complexes that migrated towards the anode. The acid front electrogenerated at the anode favored the dissolution of heavy metals that were transported towards the cathode. The combined effect of the soil pH and the complexing agents resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in the center of the soil specimen.

  7. Thermal destruction of organic waste hydrophobicity for agricultural soils application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino, Francisco; Aranda, Víctor; Domínguez-Vidal, Ana; Ayora-Cañada, María José

    2017-11-01

    Use of organic amendments is a good strategy for combating the growing problem of soil degradation due to deterioration of organic matter content, particularly severe in semi-arid European Mediterranean regions, while at the same time providing an opportunity for recycling organic wastes. Olive mill pomace (OMP), the main by-product of the olive oil industry, is being used increasingly in olive grove soils for this purpose. Although the positive effects of OMP amendments have been widely studied, they also have some negative effects on soil. One of the most critical is that they increase water repellency (WR) due to the presence of poorly evolved, strongly aliphatic compounds. This detrimental effect has received very little attention, although it may impair plant water availability and infiltration rates, increase erosion and lower long-term soil quality. This study proposed, for the first time, thermal treatment as an effective way of reducing WR in organic amendments (i.e. mixtures of OMP, olive tree pruning, chicken manure and spent coffee grounds) prior to their application to soil. Thermal treatment at 275 °C proved effective in removing WR, while lower temperatures (175 or 225 °C) can even increase it. Changes by thermal treatment in the characteristics of the organic amendments studied with FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis showed that it strongly reduced the aliphatic compounds mainly responsible for their hydrophobicity, concentrated aromatic compounds and increased thermostability. Heating also reduced phytotoxicity, making all of the organic amendments usable in the field (germination index over 100%). Therefore, heating at 275 °C could be an acceptable option for removing WR from organic amendments, enhancing their quality with more stable evolved characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of sludges on bacteria in agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntz, Jérôme; Nassr-Amellal, Najat; Lollier, Marc;

    2008-01-01

    The effect of composted (CS), digested (DS) and liquid raw (LRS) sludges unspiked or spiked with benzo[a]pyrene(BaPYR), dibuthyl phthalate (DBP) or nonyl phenol (NP) on the structure of the bacterial communities of an agricultural soil was estimated by using thermal temporal gel electrophoresis (...

  9. Bacterial diversity in agricultural soils during litter decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dilly, O.; Bloem, J.; Vos, A.; Munch, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified fragments of genes coding for 16S rRNA was used to study the development of bacterial communities during decomposition of crop residues in agricultural soils. Ten strains were tested, and eight of these strains produced a single band. Furth

  10. Plumbum contamination detecting model for agricultural soil using hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangnan; Huang, Fang; Wang, Ping

    2008-10-01

    The issue of environmental pollution due to toxic heavy metals in agricultural land has caused worldwide growing concern in recent years. Being one of toxic heavy metals, the accumulation of Plumbum (Pb) may have negative effects on natural and agricultural vegetation growth, yield and quality. It can also constitute short-term and long-term health risks by entering the food chain. In this study, we analyze the relationships between physical and chemical characteristics, biological parameters of soil-vegetation system and hyperspectral spectrum responses systematically. The relation between hyperspectral data and the biological parameters of Pb polluted wheat canopy such as leaf pigments, leaf moisture, cell structure and leaf area index (LAI) are discussed. We detect the changes in the wheat biological parameters and spectral response associated with Pb concentration in soil. To reveal the impact mechanisms of Pb concentration on agricultural soil, six models including chlorophyll-leaf moisture model, chlorophyll-cell structure model, chlorophyll-LAI model, leaf moisture-cell structure model, leaf moisture-LAI model, cell structure- LAI model are explored. We find that changes in Pb concentration present various features in different models. Pb contamination in agricultural soil can be identified and assessed effectively while integrating the characteristics of those developed models.

  11. European GEMAS mapping of agricultural soils: Arsenic results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, Timo; Reimann, Clemens; Albanese, Stefano; Birke, Manfred; Poňavič, Michal; Ladenberger, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The GEMAS data set provides a homogenised overview of arsenic distribution in agricultural (Ap horizon, 0-20 cm) and grazing land soil (Gr, 0-10 cm) of Europe. The GEMAS mapping project covers western Europe at a sample density of 1 site/2500 km2. Arsenic concentrations are reported for the

  12. Chemistry of subsurface drain discharge from an agricultural polder soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesterberg, D.; Vos, de B.; Raats, P.A.C.

    2006-01-01

    Protecting groundwater and surface water quality in drained agricultural lands is aided by an understanding of soil physical and chemical processes affecting leaching of plant nutrients and other chemical constituents, and discharge from subsurface drains. Our objectives were to determine which chem

  13. Long-term effect of tillage and manure application on soil organic fractions and crop performance under Sudano-Sahelian conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mando, A.; Ouattara, B.; Sédogo, M.; Stroosnijder, L.; Ouattara, K.; Brussaard, L.; Vanlauwe, B.

    2005-01-01

    Human-induced degradation of natural resources in general and of soil in particular, is a major problem in many regions, including the Sudano-Sahelian zone. The combined effects of tillage and manure application on Lixisol properties and on crop performance were investigated at Saria, Burkina Faso,

  14. Modeling the contamination of lettuce with Escherichia coli 157:H7 from manure-amended soil and the effect of intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Semenov, A.V.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: A growing number of foodborne illnesses has been associated with the consumption of fresh produce. In this study, the probability of lettuce contamination with Escherichia coli O157:H7 from manure-amended soil and the effect of intervention strategies was determined. Methods and Results: Patho

  15. Laboratory evaluation of mobility and sorption for the veterinary antibiotic, tylosin, in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dingfei; Coats, Joel R

    2009-09-01

    Veterinary medicines, including antibiotics, are utilized in large quantities in intensive livestock farming. It is evidenced that tylosin, one of the most frequently used antibiotics, is only partially metabolized in animals and not completely degraded in the manure storage stage before application to the farmland. In order to assess the mobility of tylosin in soil, a soil-column leaching study and a simple batch sorption experiment were conducted in the laboratory. Tylosin had strong sorption to various soils, with sorption distribution coefficients ranging from 42 to 65 ml/g. The range of concentrations in leachate was detected from non-detectable to 0.27 ng/mL after four simulated rainfall events in one month, and leachability of tylosin is dependent on soil properties and manure amendment. Percentage of clay, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, and manure amendment were positively correlated with sorption, and negatively correlated with mobility of tylosin in soil. The majority of tylosin was not recovered in the testing system, indicating that tylosin was most likely mineralized, or irreversibly bound to solid particles since no major degradation products were detected. Some trace level tylosin residues from manure-applied farmlands may be the major source to surface water systems through soil erosion and preferential flow processes.

  16. GEMAS: Distribution of major elements in Polish agricultural soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusza-Dobek, Aleksandra; Pasieczna, Anna; Kwecko, Paweł

    2014-05-01

    Amount and quality of produced food is highly dependent on soil chemical properties and composition. The GEMAS project (Geochemical Mapping of Agricultural and Grazing Land Soil of Europe) has provided new homogeneous geochemical data for Polish agricultural soils. This study presents the distribution of common major elements such as CaO, MgO, Fe2O3, Al2O3, K2O, Na2O, SiO2, determined in 129 samples of agricultural soil of Poland. The total element concentrations obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) were compared with the results from aqua regia acid digestion determined by ICP-MS. The distribution patterns of selected major elements reveal two major geochemical provinces - the northern province and the southern province, distinguished with respect to the natural geochemical background and resulting from the geological evolution of the region. The soil of the northern province (Polish Lowland), dominated by glacial deposits, show low contents of CaO, MgO, Fe2O3, Al2O3, K2O, Na2O, and high contents of SiO2. High silica content reflects the presence of sand-rich deposits which belong to the larger European feature with cover sands and loess of mainly Weichselian age and stretching from Ukraine to western Germany and Denmark. The southern province is characterised by high concentrations of almost all major elements (except SiO2). Soils in the Sudetes, Upper Silesia and the Carpathian Mountains developed in majority on pre-Quaternary rocks. In the Sudetes, soil formed on magmatic and metamorphic rocks of Paleozoic age. In the Carpathians and Upper Silesia, the flysch and molasse formations containing various material of magmatic and sedimentary origin constitute the immediate substratum of soil.

  17. Organic matter and soil structure in the Everglades Agricultural Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Alan L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Hanlon, Edward A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This publication pertains to management of organic soils (Histosols) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). These former wetland soils are a major resource for efficient agricultural production and are important globally for their high organic matter content. Recognition of global warming has led to considerable interest in soils as a repository for carbon. Soils rich in organic matter essentially sequester or retain carbon in the profile and can contribute directly to keeping that sequestered carbon from entering the atmosphere. Identification and utilization of management practices that minimize the loss of carbon from organic soils to the atmosphere can minimize effects on global warming and increase the longevity of subsiding Histosols for agricultural use. Understanding and predicting how these muck soils will respond to current and changing land uses will help to manage soil carbon. The objectives of this document are to: a. Discuss organic soil oxidation relative to storing or releasing carbon and nitrogen b. Evaluate effects of cultivation (compare structure for sugarcane vs. uncultivated soil) Based upon the findings from the land-use comparison (sugarcane or uncultivated), organic carbon was higher with cultivation in the lower depths. There is considerable potential for minimum tillage and residue management to further enhance carbon sequestration in the sugarcane system. Carbon sequestration is improved and soil subsidence is slowed with sugarcane production, and both of these are positive outcomes. Taking action to increase or maintain carbon sequestration appears to be appropriate but may introduce some risk to farming operations. Additional management methods are needed to reduce this risk. For both the longevity of these organic soils and from a global perspective, slowing subsidence through BMP implementation makes sense. Since these BMPs also have considerable societal benefit, it remains to be seen if society will help to offset a part or all

  18. Fate of the antiretroviral drug tenofovir in agricultural soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rajab, Abdul Jabbar; Sabourin, Lyne; Chapman, Ralph; Lapen, David R.; Topp, Edward, E-mail: ed.topp@agr.gc.ca [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON, N5V 4T3 (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    Tenofovir (9-(R)-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-adenine) is an antiretroviral drug widely used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Tenofovir is extensively and rapidly excreted unchanged in the urine. In the expectation that tenofovir could potentially reach agricultural lands through the application of municipal biosolids or wastewater, and in the absence of any environmental fate data, we evaluated its persistence in selected agricultural soils. Less than 10% of [adenine-8-{sup 14}C]-tenofovir added to soils varying widely in texture (sand, loam, clay loam) was mineralized in a 2-month incubation under laboratory conditions. Tenofovir was less readily extractable from clay soils than from a loam or a sandy loam soil. Radioactive residues of tenofovir were removed from the soil extractable fraction with DT{sub 50}s ranging from 24 {+-} 2 to 67 + 22 days (first order kinetic model) or 44 + 9 to 127 + 55 days (zero order model). No extractable transformation products were detectable by HPLC. Tenofovir mineralization in the loam soil increased with temperature (range 4 {sup o}C to 30 {sup o}C), and did not occur in autoclaved soil, suggesting a microbial basis. Mineralization rates increased with soil moisture content, ranging from air-dried to saturated. In summary, tenofovir was relatively persistent in soils, there were no extractable transformation products detected, and the response of [adenine-8-{sup 14}C]-tenofovir mineralization to soil temperature and heat sterilization indicated that the molecule was biodegraded by aerobic microorganisms. Sorption isotherms with dewatered biosolids suggested that tenofovir residues could potentially partition into the particulate fraction during sewage treatment.

  19. Experimental wind-driven rain erosion study on agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzen, Miriam; Iserloh, Thomas; Brings, Christine; Fister, Wolfgang; Seeger, Manuel; Ries, Johannes B.

    2014-05-01

    Wind is potentially capable to considerably increase soil erosion by rain drops. In contrast to laboratory experiments, in-situ experiments enable the measurement of soil erosion by wind and rain including the reactions of relatively intact soil surfaces and a complete body of soil. The Portable Wind and Rainfall Simulator of Trier University was applied on winter cereal fields to measure rain erosion on agricultural areas with and without the influence of wind. The test areas are situated near Pamplona, Navarre and recognized to be representative for large parts of northern Spain concerning soil, land use and climate. The soil surfaces on the fields were ploughed and sparsely covered by recently sowed winter cereals. The soil water content was close to saturation due to long lasting rainfall. Runoff was medium to high with runoff-coefficients ranging from 26 to 100%. The eroded material from rainfall simulations ranged from 14.5 to 42.5 g m² / 30min. The eroded material from wind-driven rain ranged from 28.1 to 47.3 g m² / 30 min. Compared to windless rainfall, the wind-driven rain increased erosion of soil material up to 82.2%. In one case, the eroded material decreased by 18.3%. The results indicate a strong influence of wind on rain erosion on recently seeded agricultural soils. Wind influence can be an important aspect for the general assessment of sheet erosion and supports the finding that a neglect of this factor might lead to severe underestimation of soil loss.

  20. Soil Chemical Characteristics of Organic and Conventional Agriculture

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    Muhammad Abdul Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides on intensive land of both lowland and upland food crops have been shown to increase agricultural productivity significantly. Research aimed to study soil chemical characteristics and soil pesticide residues at some crops of organic and conventional farms. The research was carried out in Laboratory of Soil Chemistry, Indonesian Soil Research Institute and in Laboratory of Agrochemical Residue, Indonesian Agricultural Environment Research Institute, Bogor from February to July 2015. Soil samples at 0-10 cm depth were taken compositely from broccoli (Brassica oleracea, carrots (Daucus carota, maize (Zea mays, and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum farms in Bogor Regency as well as from rice field in Tasikmalaya Regency at both organic and conventional farms. Soil chemical characteristics were analyzed include: soil organic-C (Walkey and Black, total-N (Kjeldahl, potential-P (HCl 25%, available-P (Olsen, potential-K (HCl 25%, available-K (NH4OAc 1 N pH 7, CEC (NH4OAc 1 N pH 7, and pH (soil : water = 1: 5, while pesticide residues included levels of organochlorine (lindane, aldrin, heptaklor, dieldrin, DDT, endosulfan; organophosphates (diazinon, fenitrotin, metidation, paration, profenofos; and carbamates (carbofuran, MIPC, BPMC in the soil by using Gas Chromatography method. Results showed that levels of soil organic-C, total-N, potential and available-P, potential and available-K, CEC, pH at organic farms were higher than those at conventional farms. Some pesticide residues compound (organochlorines, organophosphates, and carbamates were detected at conventional farm, while those at organic farm were not detected (trace.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of six soil organic matter models applied to the decomposition of animal manures and crop residues

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    Daniele Cavalli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two features distinguishing soil organic matter simulation models are the type of kinetics used to calculate pool decomposition rates, and the algorithm used to handle the effects of nitrogen (N shortage on carbon (C decomposition. Compared to widely used first-order kinetics, Monod kinetics more realistically represent organic matter decomposition, because they relate decomposition to both substrate and decomposer size. Most models impose a fixed C to N ratio for microbial biomass. When N required by microbial biomass to decompose a given amount of substrate-C is larger than soil available N, carbon decomposition rates are limited proportionally to N deficit (N inhibition hypothesis. Alternatively, C-overflow was proposed as a way of getting rid of excess C, by allocating it to a storage pool of polysaccharides. We built six models to compare the combinations of three decomposition kinetics (first-order, Monod, and reverse Monod, and two ways to simulate the effect of N shortage on C decomposition (N inhibition and C-overflow. We conducted sensitivity analysis to identify model parameters that mostly affected CO2 emissions and soil mineral N during a simulated 189-day laboratory incubation assuming constant water content and temperature. We evaluated model outputs sensitivity at different stages of organic matter decomposition in a soil amended with three inputs of increasing C to N ratio: liquid manure, solid manure, and low-N crop residue. Only few model parameters and their interactions were responsible for consistent variations of CO2 and soil mineral N. These parameters were mostly related to microbial biomass and to the partitioning of applied C among input pools, as well as their decomposition constants. In addition, in models with Monod kinetics, CO2 was also sensitive to a variation of the half-saturation constants. C-overflow enhanced pool decomposition compared to N inhibition hypothesis when N shortage occurred. Accumulated C in the

  2. Growth and yield components of wheat genotypes as influenced by potassium and farm yard manure on a saline sodic soil

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    Muhammad Ashraf, Muhammad Afzal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The adequate supply of mineral nutrients through chemical fertilizers and manure may help to sustain the crop productivity and ensure plant survival under salinity stress. A field study was conducted on saline sodic soil (ECe = 13 dS m-1, SAR 23.3 (mmol L-11/2, pH = 8.6 of surface 15 cm layer to quantify the effects of potassium (K and farm yard manure (FYM on two wheat genotypes differing in salinity tolerance. Three K levels (0, 80, 120 kg ha-1 and two FYM levels (0, 10 t ha-1 were tested using randomized compete block design (RCBD with three replications. The application of K along with FYM reduced Na+ uptake and accumulation in plant tissue. The K concentration and K+/ Na+ ratio were significantly improved in both wheat genotypes with the supplementation of K and FYM. The grain yield was improved by 40-156% in salt tolerant genotype and 46-206% in salt sensitive genotype with added K and FYM. Similar trend was observed in yield components. Ameliorative effects of added K and FYM were more marked in salt sensitive genotype (Auqab-2000 than in salt tolerant (Inqlab-91. Grain yield of salt sensitive and salt tolerant wheat genotypes was positively correlated with leaf K+ concentration determined at various treatments. Addition of K along with FYM decreased sodium adsorption ratio (SAR and electrical conductivity (EC of soil particularly in upper layers. Therefore, it is concluded that K along with FYM could help to alleviate deleterious effects of salts and thus improve the productivity of salt affected soils.

  3. Long-term fate of nitrate fertilizer in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebilo, Mathieu; Mayer, Bernhard; Nicolardot, Bernard; Pinay, Gilles; Mariotti, André

    2013-11-05

    Increasing diffuse nitrate loading of surface waters and groundwater has emerged as a major problem in many agricultural areas of the world, resulting in contamination of drinking water resources in aquifers as well as eutrophication of freshwaters and coastal marine ecosystems. Although empirical correlations between application rates of N fertilizers to agricultural soils and nitrate contamination of adjacent hydrological systems have been demonstrated, the transit times of fertilizer N in the pedosphere-hydrosphere system are poorly understood. We investigated the fate of isotopically labeled nitrogen fertilizers in a three-decade-long in situ tracer experiment that quantified not only fertilizer N uptake by plants and retention in soils, but also determined to which extent and over which time periods fertilizer N stored in soil organic matter is rereleased for either uptake in crops or export into the hydrosphere. We found that 61-65% of the applied fertilizers N were taken up by plants, whereas 12-15% of the labeled fertilizer N were still residing in the soil organic matter more than a quarter century after tracer application. Between 8-12% of the applied fertilizer had leaked toward the hydrosphere during the 30-y observation period. We predict that additional exports of (15)N-labeled nitrate from the tracer application in 1982 toward the hydrosphere will continue for at least another five decades. Therefore, attempts to reduce agricultural nitrate contamination of aquatic systems must consider the long-term legacy of past applications of synthetic fertilizers in agricultural systems and the nitrogen retention capacity of agricultural soils.

  4. Influence of management practices on C stabilization pathways in agricultural volcanic ash soils (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Zulimar; María Álvarez, Ana; Carral, Pilar; de Figueiredo, Tomas; Almendros, Gonzalo

    2014-05-01

    Although C stabilization mechanisms in agricultural soils are still controversial [1], a series of overlapped pathways has been suggested [2] such as: i) insolubilization of low molecular weight precursors of soil organic matter (SOM) with reactive minerals through physical and chemical bonding, ii) selective accumulation of biosynthetic substances which are recalcitrant because of its inherent chemical composition, and iii) preservation and furter diagenetic transformation of particulate SOM entrapped within resistant microaggregates, where diffusion of soil enzymes is largely hampered. In some environments where carbohydrate and N compounds are not readily biodegraded, e.g., with water saturated micropores, an ill-known C stabilization pathway may involve the formation of Maillard's reaction products [3]. In all cases, these pathways converge in the formation of recalcitrant macromolecular substances, sharing several properties with the humic acid (HA) fraction [4]. In template forests, the selective preservation and further microbial reworking of plant biomass has been identified as a prevailing mechanism in the accumulation of recalcitrant SOM forms [5]. However, in volcanic ash soils with intense organomineral interactions, condensation reactions of low molecular weight precursors with short-range minerals may be the main mechanism [6]. In order to shed some light about the effect of agricultural management on soil C stabilization processes on volcanic ash soils, the chemical composition of HA and some structural proxies of SOM informing on its origin and potential resistance to biodegradation, were examined in 30 soils from Canary Islands (Spain) by visible, infrared (IR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, elementary analysis and pyrolytic techniques. The results of multivariate treatments, suggested at least three simultaneous C stabilization biogeochemical trends: i) diagenetic alteration of plant biomacromolecules in soils receiving

  5. THE EFFECT OF CATTLE LIQUID MANURE FERTILIZATION ON THE SOIL MITES (ACARI OF PERMANENT MEADOW IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADOMIR GRACZYK

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different doses of cattle liquid manure, with or without the VIT-TRA agent, on the mites of permanent meadow, with species analysis of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida was investigated. Samples were taken from 13 plots, fertilized with cattle liquid manure in doses 40, 60 and 80 m3· ha-1 and VIT-TRA agent. The dose 40 m3· ha-1 increased the abundance of mites, comparing to the control plot, while doses 60 and 80 m3· ha-1 decreased it. The fungicidal agent, with medium and high dose of fertilizer, signifi cantly decreased the density of Oribatida, Gamasida and Actinedida in relation to small dose of fertilizer with this agent. The mites reacted in a similar way to the bactericidal agent, but acting of virocidal agent was indistinct. The Oribatida dominated among the mites, while the Actinedida and Gamasida were less abundant. Among the Oribatida the most abundant were: Parachipteria bella, Liebstadia humerata, Achipteria coleoptrata and Scheloribates laevigatus. The Oribatida preferred the lower part of grasses, and their density distinctly decreased with the soil depth.

  6. Transport of Residual Nitrogen and Carbon through Intact Soil Cores Amended with Stockpiled Feedlot Manure with Wood-Chip or Straw Bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J J; Beasley, B W; Drury, C F; Hao, X; Larney, F J

    2013-11-01

    The environmental impact of using wood chips instead of straw bedding with feedlot manure on transport and leaching potential from feedlot manure is unknown. Our main objective was to determine if transport of total N, total organic N, NO-N, and nonpurgeable organic C (NPOC) to subsurface soil was lower for soils amended with feedlot manure if combined with wood chips compared with straw. A secondary objective was to compare transport of N and NPOC with organic amendments versus inorganic fertilizer. Stockpiled feedlot manure (SM) with wood chip (SM-WD) or barley straw (SM-ST) bedding at 39 Mg (dry wt.) ha, and inorganic fertilizer (IN) at 100 kg N ha, was applied annually for 13 yr to a clay loam soil in a replicated field experiment in southern Alberta, Canada. Intact soil cores were taken in fall 2011 (0-30 cm depth) from the three treatments, and the residual N and NPOC were eluted from the soil cores. Total N, total organic N, and NPOC were determined on filtered (1.0 μm) effluent samples that are primarily dissolved fraction but may contain some small particulate N and C. Peak concentrations, flow-weighted mean concentrations, and mass loss of total N, total organic N, NO-N, and NPOC were significantly ( ≤ 0.05) lower by 35 to 86% for SM-WD compared with SM-ST. Mean recoveries were also significantly lower for SM-WD than SM-ST by 0.07 to 8% (absolute difference). The transport behavior was similar for SM-WD and IN treatment, but solute transport was greater for SM-ST than for IN. Application of stockpiled feedlot manure with wood chips instead of straw bedding may be a beneficial management practice to reduce transport and leaching potential of N fractions and NPOC.

  7. Effects of different agricultural wastes on the dissipation of PAHs and the PAH-degrading genes in a PAH-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuemei; Hu, Hangwei; Shi, Xiuzhen; Zhang, Limei; He, Jizheng

    2017-04-01

    Land application of agricultural wastes is considered as a promising bioremediation approach for cleaning up soils contaminated by aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, it remains largely unknown about how microbial PAH-degraders, which play a key role in the biodegradation of soil PAHs, respond to the amendments of agricultural wastes. Here, a 90-day soil microcosm study was conducted to compare the effects of three agricultural wastes (i.e. WS, wheat stalk; MCSW, mushroom cultivation substrate waste; and CM, cow manure) on the dissipation of aged PAHs and the abundance and community structure of PAH-degrading microorganisms. The results showed that all the three agricultural wastes accelerated the dissipation of aged PAHs and significantly increased abundances of the bacterial 16S rRNA and PAH-degrading genes (i.e. pdo1 and nah). CM and MCSW with lower ratios of C:N eliminated soil PAHs more efficiently than WS with a high ratio of C:N. Low molecular weight PAHs were dissipated more quickly than those with high molecular weight. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all of the nah and C12O clones were affiliated within Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and application of agricultural wastes significantly changed the community structure of the microorganisms harboring nah and C12O genes, particularly in the CM treatment. Taken together, our findings suggest that the three tested agricultural wastes could accelerate the degradation of aged PAHs most likely through changing the abundances and community structure of microbial PAH degraders.

  8. Strategies for soil-based precision agriculture in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Haly L.; Morgan, Cristine L. S.; Stanislav, Scott; Rouze, Gregory; Shi, Yeyin; Thomasson, J. Alex; Valasek, John; Olsenholler, Jeff

    2016-05-01

    The goal of precision agriculture is to increase crop yield while maximizing the use efficiency of farm resources. In this application, UAV-based systems are presenting agricultural researchers with an opportunity to study crop response to environmental and management factors in real-time without disturbing the crop. The spatial variability soil properties, which drive crop yield and quality, cannot be changed and thus keen agronomic choices with soil variability in mind have the potential to increase profits. Additionally, measuring crop stress over time and in response to management and environmental conditions may enable agronomists and plant breeders to make more informed decisions about variety selection than the traditional end-of-season yield and quality measurements. In a previous study, seed-cotton yield was measured over 4 years and compared with soil variability as mapped by a proximal soil sensor. It was found that soil properties had a significant effect on seed-cotton yield and the effect was not consistent across years due to different precipitation conditions. However, when seed-cotton yield was compared to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), as measured using a multispectral camera from a UAV, predictions improved. Further improvement was seen when soil-only pixels were removed from the analysis. On-going studies are using UAV-based data to uncover the thresholds for stress and yield potential. Long-term goals of this research include detecting stress before yield is reduced and selecting better adapted varieties.

  9. The transformation of agriculture in Argentina through soil conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Peiretti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of no till was a major turning point in the transformation of agriculture in Argentina. This paper describes the process of adoption of no till, and the impacts of this on agricultural production. Whereas previously, soil erosion was so extreme and pervasive as to threaten the economic viability and survival of the industry, today with the majority of production under no till, Argentina produces more than ever in the past. The paper also illustrates how, after first focusing on technology adoption (no-till, the system in Argentina has now broadened to include the concepts of Conservation Agriculture (CA and Sustainable Land Management (SLM. These strategic moves have contributed to an agricultural industry in Argentina that is more economically and environmentally sustainable than that of the past.

  10. Historic Assessment of Agricultural Impacts on Soil and Soil Organic Carbon Erosion in an Ohio Watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Yueli (Other); Lal, Rattan (Other); Izaurralde, R Cesar C.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Ritchie, Jerry (Other); Owens, Lloyd (Other); Hothem, Daniel (Other)

    2002-02-01

    Agricultural management affects soil and soil organic carbon (SOC) erosion. The effect was assessed for a watershed (o.79 ha, 10% slope steepness, 132 m slope length) at the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed research station near Coshocton, Ohio, from 1951 to 1998

  11. Soil Water Balance and Water Use Efficiency of Dryland Wheat in Different Precipitation Years in Response to Green Manure Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dabin; Yao, Pengwei; Na, Zhao; Cao, Weidong; Zhang, Suiqi; Li, Yangyang; Gao, Yajun

    2016-05-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) monoculture is conventionally cultivated followed by two to three months of summer fallow in the Loess Plateau. To develop a sustainable cropping system, we conducted a six-year field experiment to investigate the effect of leguminous green manure (LGM) instead of bare fallow on the yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat and the soil water balance (SWB) in different precipitation years in a semi-arid region of northwest China. Results confirmed that planting LGM crop consumes soil water in the fallow season can bring varied effects to the subsequent wheat. The effect is positive or neutral when the annual precipitation is adequate, so that there is no significant reduction in the soil water supplied to wheat. If this is not the case, the effect is negative. On average, the LGM crop increased wheat yield and WUE by 13% and 28%, respectively, and had considerable potential for maintaining the SWB (0-200 cm) compared with fallow management. In conclusion, cultivation of the LGM crop is a better option than fallow to improve the productivity and WUE of the next crop and maintain the soil water balance in the normal and wet years in the Loess Plateau.

  12. Role of Inorganic and Organic Fractions in Animal Manure Compost in Lead Immobilization and Microbial Activity in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Katoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify how the ratio of inorganic-to-organic components in animal manure compost (AMC affected both lead immobilization and microbial activity in lead-contaminated soil. When AMC containing 50% or more inorganic fraction with high phosphorous content was applied to contaminated soil, the amounts of water-soluble lead in it were suppressed by over 88% from the values in the soil without compost. The residual fraction under sequential extraction increased with the inorganic fraction in the AMC; however, in those AMCs, the levels of microbial enzyme activity were the same or less than those in the control soil. The application of AMC containing 25% inorganic fraction could alter the lead phases to be more insoluble while improving microbial enzyme activities; however, no suppression of the level of water-soluble lead existed during the first 30 days. These results indicate that compost containing an inorganic component of 50% or more with high phosphorus content is suitable for immobilizing lead; however, in the case where low precipitation is expected for a month, AMC containing 25% inorganic component could be used to both immobilize lead and restore microbial activity.

  13. A simple model of carbon in the soil profile for agricultural soils in Northwestern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Hutchings, Nicholas J.; Vejlin, Jonas; Christensen, Bent T.; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2014-05-01

    World soil carbon (C) stocks are second to those in the ocean, and represent three times as much C as currently present in the atmosphere. The amount of C in soil may play a significant role in carbon exchanges between the atmosphere and the terrestrial environment. The C-TOOL model is a three-pool linked soil organic carbon (SOC) model in well-drained mineral soils under agricultural land management to allow generalized parameterization for estimating effects of management measures at medium to long time scales for the entire soil profile (0-100 cm). C-TOOL has been developed to enable simulations of SOC turnover in soil using temperature dependent first order kinetics for describing decomposition. Compared with many other SOC models, C-TOOL applies a less complicated structure, which facilitates easier calibration, and it requires only few inputs (i.e., average monthly air temperature, soil clay content,soil carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, and C inputs to the soil from plants and other sources). C-TOOL was parameterized using SOC and radiocarbon data from selected long-term field treatments in United Kingdom, Sweden and Denmark. However, less data were available for evaluation of subsoil C (25-100 cm) from the long-term experiments applied. In Denmark a national 7×7 km grid net was established in 1986 for soil C monitoring down to 100 cm depth. The results of SOC showed a significant decline from 1997 to 2009 in the 0-50 cm soil layer. This was mainly attributed to changes in the 25-50 cm layer, where a decline in SOC was found for all soil texture types. Across the period 1986 to 2009 there was clear tendency for increasing SOC on the sandy soils and reductions on the loamy soils. This effect is linked to land use, since grasslands and dairy farms are more abundant in the western parts of Denmark, where most of the sandy soils are located. The results and the data from soil monitoring have been used to validate the C-TOOL modelling approach used for accounting of

  14. Soil microbial communities as suitable bioindicators of trace metal pollution in agricultural volcanic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parelho, Carolina; dos Santos Rodrigues, Armindo; do Carmo Barreto, Maria; Gonçalo Ferreira, Nuno; Garcia, Patrícia

    2015-04-01

    Summary: The biological, chemical and physical properties of soil confer unique characteristics that enhance or influence its overall biodiversity. The adaptive character of soil microbial communities (SMCs) to metal pollution allows discriminating soil health, since changes in microbial populations and activities may function as excellent indicators of soil pollutants. Volcanic soils are unique naturally fertile resources, extensively used for agricultural purposes and with particular physicochemical properties that may result in accumulation of toxic substances, such as trace metals (TM). In our previous works, we identified priority TM affecting agricultural Andosols under different agricultural land uses. Within this particular context, the objectives of this study were to (i) assess the effect of soil TM pollution in different agricultural systems (conventional, traditional and organic) on the following soil properties: microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, metabolic quotient, enzymatic activities (β-glucosidase, acid phosphatase and dehydrogenase) and RNA to DNA ratio; and (ii) evaluate the impact of TM in the soil ecosystem using the integrated biomarker response (IBR) based on a set of biochemical responses of SMCs. This multi-biomarker approach will support the development of the "Trace Metal Footprint" for different agricultural land uses in volcanic soils. Methods: The study was conducted in S. Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal). Microbial biomass carbon was measured by chloroform-fumigation-incubation-assay (Vance et al., 1987). Basal respiration was determined by the Jenkinson & Powlson (1976) technique. Metabolic quotient was calculated as the ratio of basal respiration to microbial biomass C (Sparkling & West, 1988). The enzymatic activities of β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase were determined by the Dick et al. (1996) method and dehydrogenase activity by the Rossel et al. (1997) method. The RNA and DNA were co-extracted from the same

  15. Influence of NaCl-Induced Salinity and Cd Toxicity on Respiration Activity and Cd Availability to Barley Plants in Farmyard Manure-Amended Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel R. A. Usman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the Cd availability and toxicity as affected by NaCl-induced salinity and farmyard manure addition. The Cd availability and toxicity were investigated in greenhouse pot and incubation experiments were conducted on a calcareous loamy sand soil contaminated with Cd (0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 mg kg−1 of soil and amended with two rates of 0.0 and 30 g farmyard manure (FYM kg−1. Barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L. were sown in pots and irrigated with water containing different levels of salinity (0, 30, 60, and 120 mM NaCl. The results revealed that the DTPA-extractable Cd and its content in barley plant shoots tended to increase in line as Cd was applied and salt levels increased. Elevated decreases in the soil basal respiration with increased Cd applied and NaCl-induced salinity were found. However, applying FYM significantly reduced Cd availability and increased plant growth and soil respiration activity. The results clearly showed that adding farmyard manure as soil organic amendment decreased the availability of Cd to barley plants and mitigated the toxicity of both Cd and salinity to soil microbial activity.

  16. Using Agricultural Residue Biochar to Improve Soil Quality of Desert Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhe Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory study was conducted to test the effects of biochars made from different feedstocks on soil quality indicators of arid soils. Biochars were produced from four locally-available agricultural residues: pecan shells, pecan orchard prunings, cotton gin trash, and yard waste, using a lab-scale pyrolyzer operated at 450 °C under a nitrogen environment and slow pyrolysis conditions. Two local arid soils used for crop production, a sandy loam and a clay loam, were amended with these biochars at a rate of 45 Mg·ha−1 and incubated for three weeks in a growth chamber. The soils were analyzed for multiple soil quality indicators including soil organic matter content, pH, electrical conductivity (EC, and available nutrients. Results showed that amendment with cotton gin trash biochar has the greatest impact on both soils, significantly increasing SOM and plant nutrient (P, K, Ca, Mn contents, as well as increasing the electrical conductivity, which creates concerns about soil salinity. Other biochar treatments significantly elevated soil salinity in clay loam soil, except for pecan shell biochar amended soil, which was not statistically different in EC from the control treatment. Generally, the effects of the biochar amendments were minimal for many soil measurements and varied with soil texture. Effects of biochars on soil salinity and pH/nutrient availability will be important considerations for research on biochar application to arid soils.

  17. Biodegradability of a polyacrylate superabsorbent in agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilske, Burkhard; Bai, Mo; Lindenstruth, Beate; Bach, Martin; Rezaie, Zahra; Frede, Hans-Georg; Breuer, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) are used, inter alia, as soil amendment to increase the water holding capacity of soils. Biodegradability of soil conditioners has become a desired key characteristic to protect soil and groundwater resources. The present study characterized the biodegradability of one acrylate based SAP in four agricultural soils and at three temperatures. Mineralisation was measured as the (13)CO₂ efflux from (13)C-labelled SAP in soil incubations. The SAP was either single-labelled in the carboxyl C-atom or triple-labelled including additionally the two C-atoms interlinked in the SAP backbone. The dual labelling allowed estimating the degradation of the polyacrylate main chain. The (13)CO₂ efflux from samples was measured using an automated system including wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Based on single-labelled SAP, the mean degradation after 24 weeks varied between 0.45% in loamy sand and 0.82% in loam. However, the differences between degradation rates in different soils were not significant due to a large intra-replicate variability. Similarly, mean degradation did not differ significantly between effective temperature regimes of 20° and 30 °C after 12 weeks. Results from the triple-labelled SAP were lower as compared to their single-labelled variant. Detailed results suggest that the polyacrylate main chain degraded in the soils, if at all, at rates of 0.12-0.24 % per 6 months.

  18. Microbial Community Structure and Enzyme Activities in Semiarid Agricultural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Martinez, V. A.; Zobeck, T. M.; Gill, T. E.; Kennedy, A. C.

    2002-12-01

    The effect of agricultural management practices on the microbial community structure and enzyme activities of semiarid soils of different textures in the Southern High Plains of Texas were investigated. The soils (sandy clay loam, fine sandy loam and loam) were under continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) or in rotations with peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) or wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and had different water management (irrigated or dryland) and tillage (conservation or conventional). Microbial community structure was investigated using fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis by gas chromatography and enzyme activities, involved in C, N, P and S cycling of soils, were measured (mg product released per kg soil per h). The activities of b-glucosidase, b-glucosaminidase, alkaline phosphatase, and arylsulfatase were significantly (Pconservation tillage in comparison to continuous cotton under conventional tillage. Principal component analysis showed FAME profiles of these soils separated distinctly along PC1 (20 %) and PC2 (13 %) due to their differences in soil texture and management. No significant differences were detected in FAME profiles due to management practices for the same soils in this sampling period. Enzyme activities provide early indications of the benefits in microbial populations and activities and soil organic matter under crop rotations and conservation tillage in comparison to the typical practices in semiarid regions of continuous cotton and conventional tillage.

  19. Application of soil quality indices to assess the status of agricultural soils irrigated with treated wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Morugán-Coronado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The supply of water is limited in some parts of the Mediterranean region, such as southeastern Spain. The use of treated wastewater for the irrigation of agricultural soils is an alternative to using better-quality water, especially in semi-arid regions. On the other hand, this practice can modify some soil properties, change their relationships and influence soil quality. In this work two soil quality indices were used to evaluate the effects of irrigation with treated wastewater in soils. The indices were developed studying different soil properties in undisturbed soils in SE Spain, and the relationships between soil parameters were established using multiple linear regressions. These indices represent the balance reached among properties in "steady state" soils. This study was carried out in four study sites from SE Spain irrigated with wastewater, including four study sites. The results showed slight changes in some soil properties as a consequence of irrigation with wastewater, the obtained levels not being dangerous for agricultural soils, and in some cases they could be considered as positive from an agronomical point of view. In one of the study sites, and as a consequence of the low quality wastewater used, a relevant increase in soil organic matter content was observed, as well as modifications in most of the soil properties. The application of soil quality indices indicated that all the soils of study sites are in a state of disequilibrium regarding the relationships between properties independent of the type of water used. However, there were no relevant differences in the soil quality indices between soils irrigated with wastewater with respect to their control sites for all except one of the sites, which corresponds to the site where low quality wastewater was used.

  20. Effects of dairy manure management in annual and perennial cropping systems on soil microbial communities associated with in situ N2O fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunfield, Kari; Thompson, Karen; Bent, Elizabeth; Abalos, Diego; Wagner-Riddle, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    Liquid dairy manure (LDM) application and ploughing events may affect soil microbial community functioning differently between perennial and annual cropping systems due to plant-specific characteristics stimulating changes in microbial community structure. Understanding how these microbial communities change in response to varied management, and how these changes relate to in situ N2O fluxes may allow the creation of predictive models for use in the development of best management practices (BMPs) to decrease nitrogen (N) losses through choice of crop, plough, and LDM practices. Our objectives were to contrast changes in the population sizes and community structures of genes associated with nitrifier (amoA, crenamoA) and denitrifier (nirK, nirS, nosZ) communities in differently managed annual and perennial fields demonstrating variation in N2O flux, and to determine if differences in these microbial communities were linked to the observed variation in N2O fluxes. Soil was sampled in 2012 and in 2014 in a 4-ha spring-applied LDM grass-legume (perennial) plot and two 4-ha corn (annual) treatments under fall or spring LDM application. Soil DNA was extracted and used to target N-cycling genes via qPCR (n=6) and for next-generation sequencing (Illumina Miseq) (n=3). Significantly higher field-scale N2O fluxes were observed in the annual plots compared to the perennial system; however N2O fluxes increased after plough down of the perennial plot. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicated differences in N-cycling communities between annual and perennial cropping systems, and some communities became similar between annual and perennial plots after ploughing. Shifts in these communities demonstrated relationships with agricultural management, which were associated with differences in N2O flux. Indicator species analysis was used to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) most responsible for community shifts related to management. Nitrifying and denitrifying soil

  1. Epigeic soil arthropod abundance under different agricultural land uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Bote, J. L.; Romero, A. J.

    2012-11-01

    The study of soil arthropods can provide valuable information how ecosystems respond to different management practices. The objective was to assess the total abundance, richness, and composition of epiedaphic arthropods in different agrosystems from southwestern Spain. Six sites with different agricultural uses were selected: olive grove, vineyards, olive grove with vineyards, wheat fields, fallows (150-300 m long), and abandoned vineyards. Crops were managed in extensive. Field margins were used as reference habitats. At the seven sites a total of 30 pitfall traps were arranged in a 10 × 3 grid. Traps were arranged to short (SD, 1 m), medium (MD, 6 m) and large (LD, 11 m) distance to the field margins in the middle of selected plots. Pitfall traps captured a total of 11,992 edaphic arthropods belonging to 11 different taxa. Soil fauna was numerically dominated by Formicidae (26.60%), Coleoptera (19.77%), and Aranae (16.76%). The higher number of soil arthropods were captured in the field margins followed by the abandoned vineyard. Significant differences were found between sites for total abundance, and zones. However, no significant differences for total abundance were found between months (April-July). Richness and diversity was highest in field margins and abandoned vineyards. Significant differences were found for these variables between sites. Our results suggest that agricultural intensification affects soil arthropods in Tierra de Barros area, a taxonomic group with an important role in the functioning of agricultural ecosystems. (Author) 32 refs.

  2. Terraced agriculture protects soil from erosion: Case studies in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabesiranana, Naivo; Rasolonirina, Martin; Fanantenansoa Solonjara, Asivelo; Nomenjanahary Ravoson, Heritiana; Mabit, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    - Soil degradation is a major concern in Madagascar but quantitative information is not widely available. Due to its impact on the sustainability of agricultural production, there is a clear need to acquire data on the extent and magnitude of soil erosion/sedimentation under various agricultural practices in order to promote effective conservation strategies. Caesium-137 and 210Pbex fallout radionuclides (FRNs) possess particular characteristics that make them effective soil tracers for erosion studies. After fallout, 137Cs and 210Pbex are rapidly adsorbed onto fine soil particles. But to date, combined use of these FRNs has never been used to document soil erosion in Madagascar. The study area is located 40 km east of Antananarivo, in Madagascar highlands. Two adjacent cultivated fields have been selected (i.e. a sloped field and a terraced field) as well as an undisturbed reference site in the vicinity of these agricultural fields. Soil samples were collected along downslope transects using motorized corer. The 137Cs and 210Pb gamma analysis were performed at the Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucléaires (INSTN-Madagascar) using a high resolution and low background N-type HPGe detector. Results showed that at the terraced field, 137Cs and 210Pbex inventories reached 145 Bq/m2 to 280 Bq/m2 and 2141 Bq/m2 to 4253 Bq/m2, respectively. At the sloped field, the 137Cs and 210Pbex inventories values ranged from 110 Bq/m2 to 280 Bq/m2 and from 2026 Bq/m2 to 4110 Bq/m2, respectively. The net soil erosion determined for the sloped field were 9.6 t/ha/y and 7.2 t/ha/y for 137Cs and 210Pbex methods, respectively. In contrast, at the terraced field, the net soil erosion rates reached only 3.4 t/ha/y and 3.8 t/ha/y, respectively. The preliminary results of this research highlighted that terraced agricultural practice provides an efficient solution to protect soil resources of the Malagasy highlands.

  3. Ice Nucleation Activity of Various Agricultural Soil Dust Aerosol Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebel, Thea; Höhler, Kristina; Funk, Roger; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Levin, Ezra J. T.; Nadolny, Jens; Steinke, Isabelle; Suski, Kaitlyn J.; Ullrich, Romy; Wagner, Robert; Weber, Ines; DeMott, Paul J.; Möhler, Ottmar

    2016-04-01

    Recent investigations at the cloud simulation chamber AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) suggest that agricultural soil dust has an ice nucleation ability that is enhanced up to a factor of 10 compared to desert dust, especially at temperatures above -26 °C (Steinke et al., in preparation for submission). This enhancement might be caused by the contribution of very ice-active biological particles. In addition, soil dust aerosol particles often contain a considerably higher amount of organic matter compared to desert dust particles. To test agricultural soil dust as a source of ice nucleating particles, especially for ice formation in warm clouds, we conducted a series of laboratory measurements with different soil dust samples to extend the existing AIDA dataset. The AIDA has a volume of 84 m3 and operates under atmospherically relevant conditions over wide ranges of temperature, pressure and humidity. By controlled adiabatic expansions, the ascent of an air parcel in the troposphere can be simulated. As a supplement to the AIDA facility, we use the INKA (Ice Nucleation Instrument of the KArlsruhe Institute of Technology) continuous flow diffusion chamber based on the design by Rogers (1988) to expose the sampled aerosol particles to a continuously increasing saturation ratio by keeping the aerosol temperature constant. For our experiments, soil dust was dry dispersed into the AIDA vessel. First, fast saturation ratio scans at different temperatures were performed with INKA, sampling soil dust aerosol particles directly from the AIDA vessel. Then, we conducted the AIDA expansion experiment starting at a preset temperature. The combination of these two different methods provides a robust data set on the temperature-dependent ice activity of various agriculture soil dust aerosol particles with a special focus on relatively high temperatures. In addition, to extend the data set, we investigated the role of biological and organic matter in more

  4. Control of Nematode Disease of Eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum L. Using Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Adekunle Abolusoro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pot experiment was conducted in the year 2010 and repeated in 2011 to examine the effects of organic manure (poultry, cow dung, domestic waste and inorganic manure (NPK 15:15:15 on the yield, soil and root population of Meloidogyne incognita that infected Ethiopian eggplant Solanum aethiopicum in a greenhouse at Kabba College of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Kabba, Nigeria. Each of the organic manure was applied as soil amendment at the rate of 5 t/ha and the inorganic fertilizer (NPK was applied at the rate of 200 kg/ha while there was an untreated control that acted as standard check. The experimental design was a completely randomized design comprising of five treatments including control and each of the treatments was replicated four times. The results of the experiment showed that all the organic manures considered and NPK fertilizer were effective in suppressing nematode negative effects on the plant as manifested in improved yield, reduced soil and root population as well as in reduced gall index of the organic and inorganic manure treated plants compared with the control. The mean fruit yield of the manure treated plant was 18+1, of NPK fertilizer treated ones was 17, while the average fruit number in untreated control was 6.5. The organic and inorganic manures treated plants had bigger fruit size compared with control and were significantly different from the control. The soil and root population as well as root gall index were reduced in all the manure treatments compared with the control and they were significantly different from the control. The results of this experiment confirmed that organic manure can be utilized to manage root-knot nematode (M. incognita in soil.

  5. [Dioxins in agricultural soil of Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrzykowska, Barbara; Falandysz, Jerzy; Hanari, Nobuyashi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Total PCDDs concentration ranged from 6.8 to 41 pg g d.w. and for PCDFs from 3.9 to 19 pg/g d.w. with total toxic equivalency within a range 0.023-5.9 pg TEQ/g d.w. A somewhat elevated concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs were found in the samples collected from the south of Poland in the vicinity of highly industrialized regions known for former extensive mining industry of hard coal and metallurgy, as well as for regions with high rates of urbanization in central Poland and in the vicinity of the western border of the country. Nevertheless, if consider homologue specific pattern of PCDDs and PCDFs no major differences were noted between spatially scattered sampling sites. In all samples highly chlorinated PCDDs/DFs dominated (12345678-OcCDD, 1234678-HpCDD, 12346789-OcCDF, 1234789-HpCDF, 1234678-HpCDF were found in all investigated soils). Their similar pattern can suggest that formation of these chemicals occur in similar conditions. Energy production and fossil fuel co-fired power boilers, chemical industry, metallurgical industry are probably the main sources in industrial regions, however heating of houses by small stoves and hard coal with added household wastes, and former use of agrochemical formulations consisting byimpurities of PCDD/F may also play important role at rural sites. The particularly elevated concentrations of OcCDF in some samples might be connected to the former production and use of highly chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl formulation--Chlorofen.

  6. Genotoxicity of agricultural soils in the vicinity of industrial area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohd Ikram; Malik, Abdul

    2009-03-17

    Soil samples from agricultural fields (cultivated) in the vicinity of industrial area of Ghaziabad City (India) were collected. In this city, wastewater coming from both industrial and domestic sources and without any treatment is used to irrigate the food crops. This practice has been polluting the soil and pollutants might reach the food chain. Gas chromatographic analysis show the presence of certain organochlorine (DDE, DDT, dieldrin, aldrin and endosulfan) and organophosphorus (dimethoate, malathion, methylparathion and chlorpyrifos) pesticides in soil samples. Samples were extracted using different solvents, i.e. methanol, chloroform, acetonitrile, hexane and acetone (all were HPLC-grade, SRL, India), and the extracts were assayed for genotoxic potential using Ames Salmonella/microsome test, DNA repair defective mutants and bacteriophage lambda systems. TA98 and TA100 were found to be the most sensitive strains to all the soil extracts tested. Methanol extracts exhibited a maximum mutagenicity with TA98 strain {540 (-S9) and 638 (+S9) revertants/g of soil} and 938 (-S9) and 1008 (+S9) revertants/g of soil with TA100 strain. The damage in the DNA repair defective mutants was found maximum with methanolic extract followed by acetonitrile, chloroform, hexane and acetone at the dose level of 40 microl/ml culture after 6h of treatment. The survival was 25, 30, 32, 33 and 35% in polA strain after 6h of treatment when tested with wastewater irrigated soil extracts of methanol, acetonitrile, chloroform, hexane and acetone, respectively. A significant decrease in the plaque forming units of bacteriophage lambda was also observed when treated with 40 microl of test samples. Present results showed that methanolic extracts of soil were more toxic than other soil extracts. The soil is accumulating a large number of pollutants due to wastewater irrigation and this practice of accumulation has an impact on soil health.

  7. Assessment of Soil Health in Urban Agriculture: Soil Enzymes and Microbial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanthi Deshani Igalavithana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture has been recently highlighted with the increased importance for recreation in modern society; however, soil quality and public health may not be guaranteed because of continuous exposure to various pollutants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the soil quality of urban agriculture by soil microbial assessments. Two independent variables, organic and inorganic fertilizers, were considered. The activities of soil enzymes including dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, arylsulfatase, urease, alkaline and acid phosphatases were used as indicators of important microbial mediated functions and the soil chemical properties were measured in the soils applied with organic or inorganic fertilizer for 10 years. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis was applied to determine the soil microbial community composition. Relatively higher microbial community richness and enzyme activities were found in the organic fertilizers applied soils as compared to the inorganic fertilizers applied soils. Principal component analysis explained the positive influence of organic fertilizers on the microbial community. The application of organic fertilizers can be a better alternative compared to inorganic fertilizers for the long-term health and security of urban agriculture.

  8. Interactions between Soil Texture and Placement of Dairy Slurry Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    2011-01-01

    Land application of manure can exacerbate nutrient and contaminant transfers to the aquatic environment. This study examined the effect of injecting a dairy cattle (Bos taurus L.) manure slurry on mobilization and leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components across a range of agricultural...... texture as an important factor influencing leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components in soils amended with manure slurry.......Land application of manure can exacerbate nutrient and contaminant transfers to the aquatic environment. This study examined the effect of injecting a dairy cattle (Bos taurus L.) manure slurry on mobilization and leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components across a range of agricultural...... soils. We compared leaching of slurry-applied bromide through intact soil columns (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) of differing textures following surface application or injection of slurry. The volumetric fraction of soil pores >30 μm ranged from 43% in a loamy sand to 28% in a sandy loam and 15% in a loam...

  9. Paddy Soil Stability and Mechanical Properties as Affected by Long-Term Application of Chemical Fertilizer and Animal Manure in Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Wet stability, penetration resistance (PR), and tensile strength (TS) of paddy soils under a fertilization experiment for 22 years were determined to elucidate the function of soil organic matter in paddy soil stabilization. The treatments included no fertilization (CK), normal chemical fertilization (NPK), double the NPK application rates (2NPK), and NPK mixed with organic manure (NPK+OM). Compared with CK, fertilization increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil porosity. The results of soil aggregate fragmentation degree (SAFD) showed that fast wetting by water was the key fragmentation mechanism. Among the treatments, the NPK+OM treatment had the largest size of water-stable aggregates and greatest normal mean weight diameter (NMWD) (P ≤ 0.05), but the lowest PR and TS in both cultivated horizon (Ap) and plow pan. The CK and 2NPK treatments were measured with PR > 2.0 MPa and friability index < 0.20,respectively, in the Ap horizon, suggesting that the soils was mechanically unfavourable to root growth and tillage. In the plow pan, the fertilization treatments had greater TS and PR than in CK. TS and PR of the tested soil aggregates were negatively correlated to SOC content and soil porosity. This study suggested that chemical fertilization could cause deterioration of mechanical properties while application of organic manure could improve soil stability and mechanical properties.

  10. Strong soil source of carbonyl sulfide in an agricultural field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseyk, K. S.; Seibt, U.; Berry, J. A.; Billesbach, D. P.; Campbell, J.; Torn, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    A promising new approach to constrain biosphere-atmosphere carbon and water exchange is the use of carbonyl sulfide (COS). COS is taken up by leaves via the same pathway as CO2, leading to a close coupling of vegetation COS and CO2 fluxes during photosynthesis. Therefore it has been proposed that the gross fluxes of photosynthesis and respiration can be quantified through the concurrent measurements of COS and CO2. A necessary requirement for this approach at ecosystem and continental scales are estimates of soil COS fluxes. Soil is largely considered a sink for COS, but our knowledge of in situ soil COS fluxes remains very limited. We measured soil COS fluxes in a wheat field in Oklahoma from April to June 2012, using a novel combination of an automated soil chamber coupled to a COS laser analyzer. We provide the first continuous record of soil COS fluxes under natural conditions, and report on a phenomenon that has not been observed before. In contrast to the majority of published results, we found that the agricultural soil was a strong source of COS under most conditions during the campaign. The COS flux over the study period was highly correlated with soil temperature. Up to a soil temperature of around 15°C, the soil acted as a COS sink. Above 15°C, it acted a source of COS, with fluxes of up to 25 pmol m-2 s-1. To locate the source of the COS production, we investigated different soil components. Wheat roots were found to be emitting COS under all conditions. Root-free soil was a COS sink up to a soil temperature of around 25°C, but turned into a COS source at higher soil temperatures. We also observed COS production from the roots of several other species, indicating that this may be a widespread phenomenon. Using eddy covariance data of COS and CO2 that was collected concurrently with the soil measurements, we also demonstrate how the soil COS source can be taken into account when partitioning net ecosystem exchange into photosynthesis and respiration.

  11. Application of soil quality indices to assess the status of agricultural soils irrigated with treated wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Morugán-Coronado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The supply of water is limited in some parts of the Mediterranean region, such as southeastern Spain. The use of treated wastewater for the irrigation of agricultural soils is an alternative to using better-quality water, especially in semi-arid regions. On the other hand, this practice can modify some soil properties, change their relationships, the equilibrium reached and influence soil quality. In this work two soil quality indices were used to evaluate the effects of irrigation with treated wastewater in soils. The indices were developed studying different soil properties in undisturbed soils in SE Spain, and the relationships between soil parameters were established using multiple linear regressions. This study was carried out in three areas of Alicante Province (SE Spain irrigated with wastewater, including four study sites. The results showed slight changes in some soil properties as a consequence of irrigation with wastewater, the obtained levels not being dangerous for agricultural soils, and in some cases they could be considered as positive from an agronomical point of view. In one of the study sites, and as a consequence of the low quality wastewater used, a relevant increase in soil organic matter content was observed, as well as modifications in most of the soil properties. The application of soil quality indices indicated that all the soils of study sites are in a state of disequilibrium regarding the relationships between properties independent of the type of water used. However, there were no relevant differences in the soil quality indices between soils irrigated with wastewater with respect to their control sites for all except one of the sites, which corresponds to the site where low quality wastewater was used.

  12. Co-digestion of agricultural and municipal waste to produce energy and soil amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Corral, Maritza A; Samani, Zohrab A; Hanson, Adrian T; Funk, Paul A

    2017-09-01

    In agriculture, manure and cotton gin waste are major environmental liabilities. Likewise, grass is an important organic component of municipal waste. These wastes were combined and used as substrates in a two-phase, pilot-scale anaerobic digester to evaluate the potential for biogas (methane) production, waste minimisation, and the digestate value as soil amendment. The anaerobic digestion process did not show signs of inhibition. Biogas production increased during the first 2 weeks of operation, when chemical oxygen demand and volatile fatty acid concentrations and the organic loading rate to the system were high. Chemical oxygen demand from the anaerobic columns remained relatively steady after the first week of operation, even at high organic loading rates. The experiment lasted about 1 month and produced 96.5 m(3) of biogas (68 m(3) of CH4) per tonne of waste. In terms of chemical oxygen demand to methane conversion efficiency, the system generated 62% of the theoretical methane production; the chemical oxygen demand/volatile solids degradation rate was 62%, compared with the theoretical 66%. The results showed that co-digestion and subsequent digestate composting resulted in about 60% and 75% mass and volume reductions, respectively. Digestate analysis showed that it can be used as a high nutrient content soil amendment. The digestate met Class A faecal coliform standards (highest quality) established in the United States for biosolids. Digestion and subsequent composting concentrated the digestate nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium content by 37%, 24%, and 317%, respectively. Multi-substrate co-digestion is a practical alternative for agricultural waste management, minimisation of landfill disposal, and it also results in the production of valuable products.

  13. Modelling site-specific N2O emission factors from Austrian agricultural soils for targeted mitigation measures (NitroAustria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Barbara; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Foldal, Cecilie; Schiefer, Jasmin; Kitzler, Barbara; Schwarzl, Bettina; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Sedy, Katrin; Gaugitsch, Helmut; Dersch, Georg; Baumgarten, Andreas; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Results from a previous project "FarmClim" highlight that the IPCC default emission factor is not able to reflect region specific N2O emissions from Austrian arable soils. The methodology is limited in identifying hot spots and hot moments of N2O emissions. When estimations are based on default emission factors no recommendations can be given on optimisation measures that would lead to a reduction of soil N2O emissions. The better the knowledge is about Nitrogen and Carbon budgets in Austrian agricultural managed soils the better the situation can be reflected in the Austrian GHG emission inventory calculations. Therefore national and regionally modelled emission factors should improve the evidence for national deviation from the IPCC default emission factors and reduce the uncertainties. The overall aim of NitroAustria is to identify the drivers for N2O emissions on a regional basis taking different soil types, climate, and agricultural management into account. We use the LandscapeDNDC model to update the N2O emission factors for N fertilizer and animal manure applied to soils. Key regions in Austria were selected and region specific N2O emissions calculated. The model runs at sub-daily time steps and uses data such as maximum and minimum air temperature, precipitation, radiation, and wind speed as meteorological drivers. Further input data are used to reflect agricultural management practices, e.g., planting/harvesting, tillage, fertilizer application, irrigation and information on soil and vegetation properties for site characterization and model initialization. While at site scale, arable management data (crop cultivation, rotations, timings etc.) is obtained by experimental data from field trials or observations, at regional scale such data need to be generated using region specific proxy data such as land use and management statistics, crop cultivations and yields, crop rotations, fertilizer sales, manure resulting from livestock units etc. The farming

  14. GEMAS: Unmixing magnetic properties of European agricultural soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Karl; Reimann, Clemens; Kuzina, Dilyara; Kosareva, Lina; Fattakhova, Leysan; Nurgaliev, Danis

    2016-04-01

    High resolution magnetic measurements provide new methods for world-wide characterization and monitoring of agricultural soil which is essential for quantifying geologic and human impact on the critical zone environment and consequences of climatic change, for planning economic and ecological land use, and for forensic applications. Hysteresis measurements of all Ap samples from the GEMAS survey yield a comprehensive overview of mineral magnetic properties in European agricultural soil on a continental scale. Low (460 Hz), and high frequency (4600 Hz) magnetic susceptibility k were measured using a Bartington MS2B sensor. Hysteresis properties were determined by a J-coercivity spectrometer, built at the paleomagnetic laboratory of Kazan University, providing for each sample a modified hysteresis loop, backfield curve, acquisition curve of isothermal remanent magnetization, and a viscous IRM decay spectrum. Each measurement set is obtained in a single run from zero field up to 1.5 T and back to -1.5 T. The resulting data are used to create the first continental-scale maps of magnetic soil parameters. Because the GEMAS geochemical atlas contains a comprehensive set of geochemical data for the same soil samples, the new data can be used to map magnetic parameters in relation to chemical and geological parameters. The data set also provides a unique opportunity to analyze the magnetic mineral fraction of the soil samples by unmixing their IRM acquisition curves. The endmember coefficients are interpreted by linear inversion for other magnetic, physical and chemical properties which results in an unprecedented and detailed view of the mineral magnetic composition of European agricultural soils.

  15. Biochar and manure effects on soil biochemical properties under corn production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar (BC) is an aromatic carbon (C) rich compound that has been used to sequester carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Biochar improves soil fertility and crop productivity when applied to soil. Biochemical properties of soil are the most sensitive parameter that directs change in soil processes as...

  16. Habitat and Biodiversity: One out of five essential soil functions for agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinsoutrot Gattin, Isabelle; Creamer, Rachel; van Leeuwen, Jeroen; Vrebos, Dirk; Gatti, Fabio; Bampa, Francesca; Schulte, Rogier; Rutgers, Michiel

    2017-04-01

    Current agricultural challenges require developing new agricultural systems that can optimize the ecological functioning of soils in order to limit the use of chemical inputs (i.e. disease suppression) and maintain a high organic matter content. This implies our ability to evaluate the effects of management practices on immediate performance objectives (i.e. fertility linked to nutrient cycling) but also in longer-term objective (i.e. C cycling and storage) in a variety of agro-climatic conditions. These issues demand the development of systemic approaches for understanding the determinants of soil functioning. In ecology, it is generally accepted that there are many positive relationships between soil biodiversity indicators and the functioning of ecosystems. Indeed, soil organisms and their interactions are essential drivers of ecosystem processes and impact the response, resilience and adaptability of ecosystems to environmental pressures. Thus, maintaining soil biodiversity is a condition for the sustainability of cropping systems. In this new context, the European project Landmark considers soil functions as a key to the improvement of agricultural land management towards sustainable development goals, amongst the five functions is soil biodiversity and habitat provisioning. We propose to present how we manage within this project to deal with this challenging objective at three spatial scales : field, landscape (regional) and European (policy). We aim to define a link between the physical, chemical and biological soil properties and "habitat & biodiversity" soil function in order to identify key indicators which modulate biodiversity. This will allow us to quantify and assess this soil function, in order to provide insight in win wins and tradeoffs in soil functions to enhance management practices which optimise the biodiversity in European agricultural systems.

  17. Estrogenic contamination by manure fertilizer in organic farming: a case study with the lizard Podarcis sicula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verderame, Mariailaria; Limatola, Ermelinda; Scudiero, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, worldwide organic farming has grown exponentially; as a consequence, the use of animal manure as a soil fertility source has become the principal agricultural choice. However, the use of manure as fertilizer can increase the amount of steroid hormone metabolites in the soil. In southern Italy, lacertidae lizards are the most abundant vertebrate group in agroecosystems and have been identified as potential model species for ecotoxicological studies. The aim of this study was to understand if the manure applied in organic farming has estrogen-like effects in the lizard Podarcis sicula. Adult male lizards were captured in two organic agricultural fields (manure-treated sites) and in an uncultivated field (control site). Lizards from the two organic farms displayed hepatic biosynthetic alterations typical of an estrogenic contamination; hepatocytes contained both vitellogenin and estrogen receptor alpha transcripts and proteins, detected by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. The same cells did not show cadmium, lead and metallothionein accumulation, indicative of the lack of inorganic contamination. These findings suggest that exogenous estrogens, arising from the use of manure, could affect the welfare of wild animals and animal breeding, leading to bioaccumulation of estrogens in food chain, with possible risk for human consumers. For this reason, organic farming should implement the use of sustainable practices such as crop rotation to preserve the soil biological activity, rather than organic manure as fertilizer.

  18. Knowledge, conservation and sustainable use of soil: agricultural chemistry aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Adamo

    Full Text Available Soil is an environmental resource and plays ecological, social and economic functions which are fundamental for the life. To guarantee its availability to future generations, soil resource needs sustainable management. The CEC Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection identifies a series of soil degradation processes or threats, which must be identified and combated. These include erosion, decline in organic matter, local and diffuse contamination, sealing, compaction, decline in biodiversity, salinisation, floods and landslides. With respect to management of contamination with potentially toxic elements, an approach based on the identification and quantification of the various forms or, at least, the main pools, in which contaminants occur in soil, is envisaged. The residence time of an element in soil depends, indeed, by the mobility of its predominant forms. Speciation studies provide information on the mobility and biological availability of contaminants, and seek to assess not simply the contamination level, but rather the risk/toxicity of a polluted soil and to predict its reduction after application of remediation techniques. Soil degradation is often associated with a decrease in the organic matter content, mainly caused by soil use change and global warming. Improving the accumulation of organic matter in soil or contrasting its reduction has positive effects on soil and water quality, crop yields, biodiversity and climate leading to a reduction of green-house gas emissions from soil to the atmosphere. In order to obtain a real accumulation of organic matter in soil, it is not sufficient to temporarily increase its total content, but it is necessary to favour the main processes which govern organic matter stabilization. This requires an approach at both molecular and multidisciplinary level. The reforestation of agricultural and highly degraded soils or conservative agronomic practices, such as the use of humified compounds characterized by

  19. Knowledge, conservation and sustainable use of soil: agricultural chemistry aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Adamo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil is an environmental resource and plays ecological, social and economic functions which are fundamental for the life. To guarantee its availability to future generations, soil resource needs sustainable management. The CEC Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection identifies a series of soil degradation processes or threats, which must be identified and combated. These include erosion, decline in organic matter, local and diffuse contamination, sealing, compaction, decline in biodiversity, salinisation, floods and landslides. With respect to management of contamination with potentially toxic elements, an approach based on the identification and quantification of the various forms or, at least, the main pools, in which contaminants occur in soil, is envisaged. The residence time of an element in soil depends, indeed, by the mobility of its predominant forms. Speciation studies provide information on the mobility and biological availability of contaminants, and seek to assess not simply the contamination level, but rather the risk/toxicity of a polluted soil and to predict its reduction after application of remediation techniques. Soil degradation is often associated with a decrease in the organic matter content, mainly caused by soil use change and global warming. Improving the accumulation of organic matter in soil or contrasting its reduction has positive effects on soil and water quality, crop yields, biodiversity and climate leading to a reduction of green-house gas emissions from soil to the atmosphere. In order to obtain a real accumulation of organic matter in soil, it is not sufficient to temporarily increase its total content, but it is necessary to favour the main processes which govern organic matter stabilization. This requires an approach at both molecular and multidisciplinary level. The reforestation of agricultural and highly degraded soils or conservative agronomic practices, such as the use of humified compounds characterized by

  20. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in manure and amended soil: effects of cattle feeding, manure type and dairy management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Diepeningen, van A.D.; Visser, A.A.; Blok, W.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we studied the effect of cattle diet on the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in manure from dairy cattle subjected to 6 different feeding regimes consisting of 3 different roughage types and 2 levels of crude protein concentrates. In addition, the rate of survival of E. coli O157:H7

  1. Soil acidification and the importance of liming agricultural soils with particular reference to the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, K W T

    2016-09-01

    Soil acidification is caused by a number of factors including acidic precipitation and the deposition from the atmosphere of acidifying gases or particles, such as sulphur dioxide, ammonia and nitric acid. The most important causes of soil acidification on agricultural land, however, are the application of ammonium-based fertilizers and urea, elemental S fertilizer and the growth of legumes. Acidification causes the loss of base cations, an increase in aluminium saturation and a decline in crop yields; severe acidification can cause nonreversible clay mineral dissolution and a reduction in cation exchange capacity, accompanied by structural deterioration. Soil acidity is ameliorated by applying lime or other acid-neutralizing materials. 'Liming' also reduces N2O emissions, but this is more than offset by CO 2 emissions from the lime as it neutralizes acidity. Because crop plants vary in their tolerance to acidity and plant nutrients have different optimal pH ranges, target soil pH values in the UK are set at 6.5 (5.8 in peaty soils) for cropped land and 6.0 (5.3 in peaty soils) for grassland. Agricultural lime products can be sold as 'EC Fertiliser Liming Materials' but, although vital for soil quality and agricultural production, liming tends to be strongly influenced by the economics of farming. Consequently, much less lime is being applied in the UK than required, and many arable and grassland soils are below optimum pH.

  2. Sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil: Ecotoxicological effects on representative soil organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, G; Pro, J; Gómez, N; Babín, M M; Fernández, C; Alonso, E; Tarazona, J V

    2009-05-01

    Application of sewage sludge to agricultural lands is a current practice in EU. European legislation permits its use when concentrations of metals in soil do not increase above the maximum permissible limits. In order to assess the fate and the effects on representative soil organisms of sewage sludge amendments on agricultural lands, a soil microcosm (multi-species soil system-MS3) experiment was performed. The MS3 columns were filled with spiked soil at three different doses: 30, 60 and 120tha(-1) fresh wt. Seed plants (Triticum aestivum, Vicia sativa and Brassica rapa) and earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were introduced into the systems. After a 21-d exposure period, a statistically significant increase for Cd, Cu, Zn and Hg concentrations was found for the soils treated with the highest application rate. Dose-related increase was observed for nickel concentrations in leachates. Plants and earthworm metal body burden offer much more information than metal concentrations and help to understand the potential for metal accumulation. Bioaccumulation factor (BAF(plant-soil)) presented a different behavior among species and large differences for BAF(earthworm-soil), from control or sewage-amended soil, for Cd and Hg were found. B. rapa seed germination was reduced. Statistically significant decrease in fresh biomass was observed for T. aestivum and V. sativa at the highest application rate, whereas B. rapa biomass decreased at any application rate. Enzymatic activities (dehydrogenase and phosphatase) as well as respiration rate on soil microorganisms were enlarged.

  3. NEW TRENDS IN AGRICULTURE - CROP SYSTEMS WITHOUT SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan GRAD

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied new system of agriculture - crop systems without soil. The culture systems without soil can be called also the hydroponic systems and now in Romania are not used only sporadically. In other countries (USA, Japan, the Netherlands, France, UK, Denmark, Israel, Australia, etc.. they represent the modern crop technology, widely applied to vegetables, fruits, fodder, medicinal plants and flowers by the experts in this area. In the world, today there are millions of hectares hydroponics, most of the vegetables, herbs, fruits of hypermarkets are coming from the culture systems without soil. The process consists of growing plants in nutrient solutions (not in the ground, resorting to an complex equipment, depending on the specifics of each crop, so that the system can be applied only in the large farms, in the greenhouses, and not in the individual households. These types of culture systems have a number of advantages and disadvantages also. Even if today's culture systems without soil seem to be the most modern and surprising technology applied in plant growth, the principle is very old. Based on him were built The Suspended Gardens of the Semiramis from Babylon, in the seventh century BC, thanks to him, the population from the Peru”s highlands cultivates vegetables on surfaces covered with water or mud. The peasant households in China, even today use the millenary techniques of the crops on gravel. .This hydroponic agriculture system is a way of followed for Romanian agriculture too, despite its high cost, because it is very productive, ecological, can cover, by products, all market demands and it answer, increasingly, constraints of urban life. The concept of hydroponics agriculture is known and appreciated in Romania also, but more at the theory level.

  4. Cultural Patterns of Soil Understanding in Organic Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzel, Nikola

    2017-04-01

    Different branches of modern agriculture rely on different cultural patterns of soil understanding; and they are supported by different schools of thought in soil science with their specific values and perspectives. For example, the European branch of organic agriculture, as it developed mainly in the 20th Century, is rooted in specific cultural concepts and was supported by associated minorities, or rather marginalised tendencies, within the soil science community. Some cases: It is about the transformations of living or organic matter, linked with debates on "microbes" and "life particles", "tissues" and macromolecules in the humus-sphere. It is about the "industrialised economical-technical paradigm" versus an "organic" or "ecological paradigm" - whatever both may be. It is about the relevance respectively of the "duties" of control by power, or by relatedness and "intercourse" in agricultural human-nature interaction. It is about the male and female qualities of effective God-images - both in their "religious" as well as their "secular" representations in individuals' and society's relation with nature and when dealing with soil. In today's conceptual and strategic debates and power struggles over how to sustainably feed from the land, we see patterns similar to those from the 19th and 20th Centuries in action. But the threats they pose are not yet sufficiently realised; the opportunities they offer are not yet sufficiently fulfilled. In this presentation, using the example of cultural patterns inside organic agriculture in Europe, some cultural problems and tasks will be highlighted, to which geosciences are of course confronted, being part of human society.

  5. Environmental fate of double-stranded RNA in agricultural soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Dubelman

    Full Text Available A laboratory soil degradation study was conducted to determine the biodegradation potential of a DvSnf7 dsRNA transcript derived from a Monsanto genetically modified (GM maize product that confers resistance to corn rootworm (CRW; Diabrotica spp.. This study provides new information to improve the environmental assessment of dsRNAs that become pesticidal through an RNAi process. Three agricultural soils differing in their physicochemical characteristics were obtained from the U.S., Illinois (IL; silt loam, Missouri (MO; loamy sand and North Dakota (ND; clay loam, and exposed to the target dsRNA by incorporating insect-protected maize biomass and purified (in vitro-transcribed DvSnf7 RNA into soil. The GM and control (non-GM maize materials were added to each soil and incubated at ca. 22 °C for 48 hours (h. Samples were collected at 12 time intervals during the incubation period, extracted, and analyzed using QuantiGene molecular analysis and insect bioassay methods. The DT50 (half-life values for DvSnf7 RNA in IL, MO, and ND soils were 19, 28, and 15 h based on QuantiGene, and 18, 29, and 14 h based on insect bioassay, respectively. Furthermore, the DT90 (time to 90% degradation values for DvSnf7 RNA in all three soils were <35 h. These results indicate that DvSnf7 RNA was degraded and biological activity was undetectable within approximately 2 days after application to soil, regardless of texture, pH, clay content and other soil differences. Furthermore, soil-incorporated DvSnf7 RNA was non-detectable in soil after 48 h, as measured by QuantiGene, at levels ranging more than two orders of magnitude (0.3, 1.5, 7.5 and 37.5 µg RNA/g soil. Results from this study indicate that the DvSnf7 dsRNA is unlikely to persist or accumulate in the environment. Furthermore, the rapid degradation of DvSnf7 dsRNA provides a basis to define relevant exposure scenarios for future RNA-based agricultural products.

  6. Evaluation of the radioactive impact of the phosphogypsum wastes used as amendment in agriculture soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Mrabet, R. [Centre National de l' Energie, des Sciences, et des Techniques Nucleaires (CNESTEN), Rabat (Morocco); Abril, J.M.; Perianez, R. [Seville Univ., Dept. Fisica Aplicada I, EUITA (Spain); Delgado, A. [Seville Univ., Dept. Ciencias Agroforestales, EUITA (Spain); Manjon, G. [Seville Univ., Dept. Fisica Aplicada II, ETSA (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Some 3x10{sup 9} kg of phosphogypsum (PG) wastes are annually generated by two fertiliser production factories in Huelva (south-western Spain). PG has relatively high concentrations of {sup 226}Ra and other radionuclides, with an special concern due to the {sup 222}Rn emissions. These wastes could be used to improve the fertility of agriculture soils in a large former marsh area of the Guadalquivir river. Thus, it is interesting to study the levels and behaviour of natural radionuclides within this system to evaluate the radioactive impact of this amendment. An agronomical test is being conducted by one of the authors in an experimental farm in Lebrija (Seville). The soils are treated with 13 and 26 t ha{sup -1} of PG, 30 t ha{sup -1} of manure. Each treatment was repeated twice and continued for two years with beetroot and cotton plant production. We are measuring {sup 226}Ra (by alpha counting and gamma spectrometry) and U isotopes (by alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS analysis) in drainage waters, soils and vegetal-tissues samples. The PG used in the treatment has 620 {+-}70 Bq kg{sup -1} of {sup 226}Ra. The drainage waters have {sup 226}Ra contents similar to those from non-contaminated natural waters, but the uranium concentrations are one order of magnitude higher. Our results are suggesting that the major uranium input comes from the application of phosphate-fertiliser. No significant levels of radionuclides were found in the vegetal tissues. (author)

  7. Estimating the distribution of radionuclides in agricultural soils - dependence on soil parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormann, Volker; Fischer, Helmut W

    2013-10-01

    In this study it is shown how radionuclide distributions in agricultural soils and their dependence on soil parameters can be quantitatively estimated. The most important sorption and speciation processes have been implemented into a numerical model using the geochemical code PHREEQC that is able to include specific soil and soil solution compositions. Using this model, distribution coefficients (Kd values) for the elements Cs, Ni, U and Se have been calculated for two different soil types. Furthermore, the dependencies of these Kd values on various soil parameters (e.g. pH value or organic matter content) have been evaluated. It is shown that for each element, an individual set of soil parameters is relevant for its solid-liquid distribution. The model may be used for the calculation of input parameters used by reference biosphere models (e.g. used for the risk assessment of nuclear waste repositories). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvement of baby corn yield by using green manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutichudet, P.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Suitable rates of compost and chemical fertilizers to improve baby corn yield have been reported ; information on an appropriate type of green manure to increase its yield is rather limited. Use of green manure showed from a farmer with a practicable method in actual fields, which is not expensive and can be adjusted to the physical and chemical characteristics of soil. Therefore , the major objective of this experiment was to find a way to improve the yield of baby corn through the use of five types of green manure treatments and control, comprising no green manure (control, mung bean (Vigna radiata L., hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L., sword bean (Canavaria ensiformis L., copwea (Vigna unguiculata L. and sesbania (Sesbania rostrata Brem.. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications on June 2000, tested at the experimental field of Agricultural Technology Department, Technology Faculty, Mahasarakham University, Kantharawichai District, Maha Sarakham Province. The results indicated that sesbania used as green manure resulted in a fresh weight content higher than the others, and promoted plant height, plant diameter, leaf area, ear number / plant, yield both before and after peeling / rai, ear weight both before and after peeling / ear, ear diameter after peeling and standard yield content / rai consequently. In addition, the ear color after peeling was satisfactory for consumers. Yield contents / rai grown on the other sources of green manures were significantly lower (P < 0.01

  9. Agronomic effects of bovine manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavattaro, Laura; Bechini, Luca; Grignani, Carlo; Evert, van Frits K.; Mallast, Janine; Spiegel, Heide; Sandén, Taru; Pecio, Alicja; Giráldez Cervera, Juan Vicente; Guzmán, Gema; Vanderlinden, Karl; Hose, D' Tommy; Ruysschaert, Greet; Berge, ten Hein F.M.

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the agronomic value of animal manure, we quantified the effects of pedo-climatic, crop and management factors on crop productivity, N use efficiency, and soil organic matter, described with simple indicators that compare manures with mineral fertilizers. We selected 80 European

  10. Single application of Sewage Sludge to an Alluvial Agricultural Soil - impacts on Soil Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhadolc, M.; Graham, D. B.; Hagn, A.; Doerfler, U.; Schloter, M.; Schroll, R.; Munch, J. C.; Lobnik, F.

    2009-04-01

    Limited information exists on the effects of sewage sludge on soil quality with regard to their ability to maintain soil functions. We studied effects of sewage sludge amendment on soil chemical properties, microbial community structure and microbial degradation of the herbicide glyphosate. Three months soil column leaching experiment has been conducted using alluvial soils (Eutric Fluvisol) with no prior history of sludge application. The soil was loamy with pH 7,4 and organic matter content of 3,5%. Soil material in the upper 2 cm of columns was mixed with dehydrated sewage sludge which was applied in amounts corresponding to the standards governing the use of sewage sludge for agricultural land. Sludge did increase some nutrients (total N, NH4+, available P and K, organic carbon) and some heavy metals contents (Zn, Cu, Pb) in soil. However, upper limits for heavy metals in agricultural soils were not exceeded. Results of heavy metal availability in soil determined by sequential extraction will be also presented. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of 16s/18s rDNA, using universal fungal and bacterial primers, revealed clear shifts in bacterial and fungal community structure in the upper 2 cm of soils after amendment. Fungal fingerprints showed greater short term effects of sewage sludge, whereas sewage sludge seems to have prolonged effects on soil bacteria. Furthermore, sewage sludge amendment significantly increased glyphosate degradation from 21.6±1% to 33.6±1% over a 2 months period. The most probable reasons for shifts in microbial community structure and increased degradation of glyphosate are beneficial alterations to the physical-chemical characteristics of the soil. Negative effects of potentially toxic substances present in the sewage sludge on soil microbial community functioning were not observed with the methods used in our study.

  11. Effect of Interactions on the Nutrient Status of a Tropical Soil Treated with Green Manures and Inorganic Phosphate Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul R. Bah

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated nutrient management systems using plant residues and inorganic P fertilizers have high potential for increasing crop production and ensuring sustainability in the tropics, but their adoption requires in-depth understanding of nutrient dynamics in such systems. This was examined in a highly weathered tropical soil treated with green manures (GMs and P fertilizers in two experiments conducted in the laboratory and glasshouse. The treatments were factorial combinations of the GMs (Calopogonium caeruleum, Gliricidia sepium, and Imperata cylindrica and P fertilizers (phosphate rocks [PRs] from North Carolina, China, and Algeria, and triple superphosphate replicated thrice. Olsen P, mineral N, pH, and exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg were monitored in a laboratory incubation study for 16 months. The change in soil P fractions and available P was also determined at the end of the study. Phosphorus available from the amendments was quantified at monthly intervals for 5 months by 33P-32P double isotopic labeling in the glasshouse using Setaria sphacelata as test crop. The GMs were labeled with 33P to determine their contribution to P taken up by Setaria, while that from the P fertilizers was indirectly measured by labeling the soil with 32P. The P fertilizers hardly changed Olsen P and exchangeable cations during 16 months of incubation. The legume GMs and legume GM+P did not change Olsen P, lowered exchangeable Ca, and increased exchangeable K about threefold (4.5 cmol[+]kg−1 soil in the first 4 months, even as large amounts of NH4-N accumulated (~1000 mg kg soil−1 and soil pH increased to more than 6.5. Afterwards, Olsen P and exchangeable Ca and Mg increased (threefold as NH4+-N and soil pH declined. The legume GMs also augmented reversibly sorbed P in Al-P and Fe-P fractions resulting in high residual effect in the soil, while fertilizer-P was irreversibly retained. The GMs increased PR-P utilization by 40 to over 80%, mobilized soil P, and

  12. Impact of long-term organic residue recycling in agriculture on soil solution composition and trace metal leaching in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, Philippe; Pot, Valérie; Mercier, Vincent; Michaud, Aurélia; Benoit, Pierre; Revallier, Agathe; Houot, Sabine

    2014-11-15

    Recycling composted organic residues in agriculture can reduce the need of mineral fertilizers and improve the physicochemical and biological properties of cultivated soils. However, some trace elements may accumulate in soils following repeated applications and impact other compartments of the agrosystems. This study aims at evaluating the long-term impact of such practices on the composition of soil leaching water, especially on trace metal concentrations. The field experiment QualiAgro started in 1998 on typical loess Luvisol of the Paris Basin, with a maize-wheat crop succession and five modalities: spreading of three different urban waste composts, farmyard manure (FYM), and no organic amendment (CTR). Inputs of trace metals have been close to regulatory limits, but supplies of organic matter and nitrogen overpassed common practices. Soil solutions were collected from wick lysimeters at 45 and 100 cm in one plot for each modality, during two drainage periods after the last spreading. Despite wide temporal variations, a significant effect of treatments on major solutes appears at 45 cm: DOC, Ca, K, Mg, Na, nitrate, sulphate and chloride concentrations were higher in most amended plots compared to CTR. Cu concentrations were also significantly higher in leachates of amended plots compared to CTR, whereas no clear effect emerged for Zn. The influence of amendments on solute concentrations appeared weaker at 1 m than at 45 cm, but still significant and positive for major anions and DOC. Average concentrations of Cu and Zn at 1m depth lied in the ranges [2.5; 3.8] and [2.5; 10.5 μg/L], respectively, with values slightly higher for plots amended with sewage sludge compost or FYM than for CTR. However, leaching of both metals was less than 1% of their respective inputs through organic amendments. For Cd, most values were amended plots, in spite of increased soil organic matter, factor of metal retention. Indeed, DOC, also increased by amendments, favours the

  13. Carbon sequestration in soils with annual inputs of maize biomass and maize-derived animal manure: Evidence from 13C abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2010-01-01

    second year. The aboveground maize biomass was either removed (stubbles and roots left), chopped and added to the soil, or fed to sheep and the faeces then added to the soil. Annual inputs of maize biomass and sheep faeces were similar (0.8 kg DM m-2). The study included soils maintained under C3-crops...... retained under C3-crops whereas total-C tended to decrease in the LUN soil. When maize biomass and sheep faeces were added, soil total-C increased and C from these C4-sources averaged 14% and 21% of the soil total-C, respectively. Following nine annual additions, retention of C added in aboveground maize...... biomass averaged 19% while the retention of C added in maize-derived faeces was 30%. Our study infers that that ruminant manure C contributes about 50% more to soil C sequestration than C applied in crop residues...

  14. Landscape evolution by soil redistribution in a Mediterranean agricultural context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Follain, Stéphane; Le Bissonnais, Yves

    2010-05-01

    Soils and landscapes are frequently subjected to rapid evolutions induced by climate changes and humans disturbances. Early, soil scientists had already sought to identify the dynamic interactions between soils and landscapes. Soil redistribution modelling is an appropriate analyse methodology widely utilized (Kirkby, 1985; Van Oost et al., 2000; Van Rompaey et al., 2001; Minasny and McBratney, 1999; Van Oost et al., 2005; Govers et al., 2006) to understand space time evolution in soil and landscape processes at short and medium term. The aims of this research is to develop a model able to simulate soil evolution as affected by soil redistribution processes (e.g. water-erosion processes and mechanical erosion) and to use pedological knowledge acquired from a field study coupled with the present research. The LandSoil model, here proposed, is an event based model, dimensioned for fine spatial [1 m] and medium [10 -100 years] temporal scales, taking into account a detailed representation of the agricultural landscape structure. It is composed of three modules for soil erosion/redistribution: rill erosion (Souchère et al., 2003); interrill erosion (Cerdan et al., 2002); and tillage erosion based on the mechanistic rules developed by Govers et al., 1994. After each rain and tillage event a new topography is evaluated as well as all the geometric landscape parameters. Specificities of the model are: i) long-term landscape analysis and topography balance after each rainfall; ii) evaluation of water erosion and soil mechanistic redistribution (tillage erosion); iii) taking in consideration of the landscape geometry, especially connectivity, as a significant information in describing the landscape and useful in modelling (Landscape structure management and landscape design); and iv) utilisation of various and different climate scenarios thanks to the event based model. Subsequently we apply this model to study the effect of different scenarios of land management and

  15. The antihistamine diphenhydramine is extremely persistent in agricultural soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topp, Edward, E-mail: ed.topp@agr.gc.ca; Sumarah, Mark W.; Sabourin, Lyne

    2012-11-15

    The widely used antihistamine diphenhydramine is present in municipal biosolids, and is detected in runoff from agricultural land fertilized with biosolids. In the present study the kinetics and major pathways of diphenhydramine dissipation in a loam, sandy loam, and clay loam soil were determined in laboratory incubations. The time to dissipate 50% (DT{sub 50}) of {sup 14}C-diphenhydramine residues at 30 Degree-Sign C ranged from 88 {+-} 28 days in the clay loam to 335 {+-} 145 days in the loam soil. Mineralization of {sup 14}C was insignificant, and diphenhydramine-N-oxide was the only detected extractable transformation product elucidated by radioisotope and HPLC-MS methods. There were no significant effects of municipal biosolids on the kinetics or pathways of removal. Overall, diphenhydramine is quite persistent in soils, and formation of non-extractable soil-bound residues is the major mechanism of diphenhydramine dissipation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diphenhydramine is a widely used antihistamine drug, is found in biosolids, and in runoff from biosolids-fertilized fields. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The persistence of {sup 14}C-diphenhydramine was evaluated in soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Half lives ranged from 88 to 335 days. Diphenhydramine-N-oxide was the only detected transformation product. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil-bound residues was a major sink.

  16. Effect of green manure in soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomato in the no tillage system on corn straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson; Rossi, Fabricio; Dias, Fabio; Trivelin, Paulo; Muraoka, Takashi; Tavares, Silvio; Ambrosano, Glaucia

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of green manure in on soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomatoes using the N-15 abundance method. The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, APTA/SAA, SP, Brazil. The IAC collection accesses 21 of cherry tomatoes were used. Each Plot consisted of six plants spaced 0.5 m and 0.9 m between rows, conducted in a randomized block with eight treatments and five repetitions. The treatments were as green manures intercropping or not on cherry tomato, namely: jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), dwarf mucuna (Mucuna deeringiana), mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek ), white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Besides two witnesses, one without corn straw and another with corn straw. Five leaves with petiole of each plant part during the first ripe fruit and a bunch of fruits per plant are harvested. Samples of leaf and fruit were weighed and dried in an oven of forced air and its dry weight measured. A subsample was ground in a knife mill type Willy and brought to the mass spectrometer (ANCA GSL) on the Stable Isotopes Laboratory of CENA/USP for the analysis of δN-15. It measured the percentage of transfer of N green manure for tomato, the tomato plants grown as monocropped were considered a control and came to the result that 27 % N found in the fruit came from the green manure and the aerial part this figure was 23%. These results show that dur¬ing the fruit set of tomato can occur greater translocation and consequent higher utilization of N from green manure than in the aerial part. This production system can reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. The presence of a green manure in treatments not intercropped caused some soil alterations that could be detected in samples collected in the harvesting season. There was an increase in organic matter, Ca, Mg and Zn availability, and consequently in base saturation and pH. The presence

  17. Dry anaerobic digestion of cow manure and agricultural products in a full-scale plant: Efficiency and comparison with wet fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumenti, Alessandro; da Borso, Francesco; Limina, Sonia

    2017-04-04

    For years, anaerobic digestion processes have been implemented for the management of organic wastes, agricultural residues, and animal manure. Wet anaerobic digestion still represents the most common technology, while dry fermentation, dedicated to the treatment of solid inputs (TS>20%) can be considered as an emerging technology, not in terms of technological maturity, but of diffusion. The first agricultural dry anaerobic digestion plant constructed in Italy was monitored from the start-up, for over a year. The plant was fed with manure and agricultural products, such as corn silage, triticale, ryegrass, alfalfa, and straw. Three Combined Heat and Power units, for a total installed power of 910kWe, converted biogas into thermal and electric energy. The monitoring included the determination of quality and quantity of input feedstocks, of digestate (including recirculation rate), of leachate, biogas quality (CH4, CO2, H2S), biogas yield, energy production, labor requirement for loading, and unloading operations. The results of the monitoring were compared to performance data obtained in several full scale wet digestion plants. The dry fermentation plant revealed a start-up phase that lasted several months, during which the average power resulted in 641kWe (70.4% of nominal power), and the last period the power resulted in 788kWe (86.6% of installed power). Improving the balance of the input, the dry fermentation process demonstrated biogas yields similar to wet anaerobic digestion, congruent to the energy potential of the biomasses used in the process. Furthermore, the operation of the plant required significant man labor, mainly related to loading and unloading of the anaerobic cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Growth and lead accumulation by the grasses Vetiveria zizanioides and Thysanolaena maxima in lead-contaminated soil amended with pig manure and fertilizer: a glasshouse study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotkittikhun, P; Chaiyarat, R; Kruatrachue, M; Pokethitiyook, P; Baker, A J M

    2007-01-01

    Bo Ngam lead mine soils contain high concentrations of lead (up 1% total Pb) and low amounts of organic matter and major nutrients (N, P, K). A glasshouse study was conducted to compare growth performance, metal tolerance and metal uptake by two grasses, Thysanolaena maxima (Roxb.) O. Kuntze and four ecotypes of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash, syn. Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty (three from Thailand: Surat Thani, Songkhla and Kamphaeng Phet, and one from Sri Lanka) and to study the effects of pig manure (20% and 40% w/w) and inorganic fertilizer (75 and 150 mg kg(-1)) amendments to this lead mine soil. The results showed that both T. maxima and V. zizanioides (Surat Thani and Songkhla) could tolerate high Pb concentrations in soil (10750 mg kg(-1)) and had very good growth performance. Application of pig manure increased electrical conductivity (EC) and reduced DTPA-extractable Pb concentration in the soils. Pig manure application improved the growth of vetiver, especially at 20%, application dosage. Vetiver had the highest biomass. T. maxima could not tolerate high EC values. The uptake by roots and transport of Pb to shoots of both species was reduced when soils were amended with pig manure. Application of inorganic fertilizer did not improve growth of vetiver but did improve that of T. maxima. Fertilizer application did not have any great influence on the Pb uptake in vetiver while T. maxima took up more Pb as a result of the fertilizer enhancing its biomass yield. Both species transported low Pb concentrations to shoots (8.3-179 mg kg(-1)) and accumulated higher concentrations in roots (107-911 mg kg(-1)). In summary, both species may be species well suited for phytostabilization in tropical lead mine areas.

  19. Responses of Wheat Yield, Macro- and Micro-Nutrients, and Heavy Metals in Soil and Wheat following the Application of Manure Compost on the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Wang, Zhaohui; Kou, Changlin; Ma, Zhenghua; Zhao, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The recycling of livestock manure in cropping systems is considered to enhance soil fertility and crop productivity. However, there have been no systematic long-term studies of the effects of manure application on soil and crop macro- and micro-nutrients, heavy metals, and crop yields in China, despite their great importance for sustainable crop production and food safety. Thus, we conducted field experiments in a typical cereal crop production area of the North China Plain to investigate the effects of compost manure application rates on wheat yield, as well as on the macro-/micro-nutrients and heavy metals contents of soil and wheat. We found that compost application increased the soil total N and the available K, Fe, Zn, and Mn concentrations, whereas the available P in soil was not affected, and the available Cu decreased. In general, compost application had no significant effects on the grain yield, biomass, and harvest index of winter wheat. However, during 2012 and 2013, the N concentration decreased by 9% and 18% in straw, and by 16% and 12% in grain, respectively. With compost application, the straw P concentration only increased in 2012 but the grain P generally increased, while the straw K concentration tended to decrease and the grain K concentration increased in 2013. Compost application generally increased the Fe and Zn concentrations in straw and grain, whereas the Cu and Mn concentrations decreased significantly compared with the control. The heavy metal concentrations increased at some compost application rates, but they were still within the safe range. The balances of the macro-and micro-nutrients indicated that the removal of nutrients by wheat was compensated for by the addition of compost, whereas the level of N decreased without the application of compost. The daily intake levels of micronutrients via the consumption of wheat grain were still lower than the recommended levels when sheep manure compost was applied, except for that of Mn.

  20. [Effect of Crop Rotation and Biological Manure on Quality and Yield of "Chuju" Chrysanthemum morifolium and Continuous Cropping Soil Enzyme Activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Du, Chao; Shi, Ya-dong; Wang, Jian-fei

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system and biological manure on continuous cropping soil enzyme activities and quality and yield of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Field experiments were conducted at the research base of Anhui Jutai Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium Herbal Technology Co. , Ltd. ,in Shiji Town, Nanqiao Country, Anhui Province. Samples were collected from treatments under chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system receiving bio-organic manure application of 200 kg/667 m2, conventional chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system and chrysanthemum continuous cropping system. Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system and biological manure obviously influenced the quality and yield of Chrysanthemum morifolium and continuous cropping soil enzyme activities. Compared with chrysanthemum continuous cropping system, total flavonoids, chlorogenic acid, soluble sugar and free amino acid contents, quantitative of ray floret, inflorescence diameter, diameter of tubular floret, number of branch, number of flower and yield of Chrysanthemum morifolium and the activities of urease, acid phosphatase, invertase and protease in soil were increased to 42.59 mg/g, 2.52 mg/g, 4.04 mg/g, 73.33 mg/100 g, 179.56, 5.57 cm, 1.43 cm, 36.10, 330.00 and 400.09 kg/667 m2, respectively, while hydrogen peroxidase of soil under chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system was decreased. Bio-organic manure application of 200 kg/667 m2 is benefit to soil environment establishment of chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system and enhancement of quality and yield of Chrysanthemum morifolium while reducing the obstacles of continuous cropping.

  1. Influence of Long—Term Fertilization with Different Minceral Fertilizers and Farmyard Manure on Some Soil Chemical Properties and Crop Yields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUDEHUI; J.LABETOWICZ; 等

    1998-01-01

    A long-term fertiliztion experiment was carried out in an experimental field in Lyczyn near Warsaw,Poland.Application ofmineral fertilizers ,especially Nfertilizer with and without farmyard manure accel-erated the eacidification process of the soil.Application of 1.6 t CaO ha-1 every four years was essential to maintenance of the soil pHKCl at 5.5-6.6 and base saturation degree above 60% Application of 50 t farmyard manur ha-1 every 4 years,whih contained 46 kg P and 240 kg K,was sufficient to maintain boh the K and P fertility of the soil.Besides,it was beneficial to alleviating soil acidifcation. As a result of long-term unbalanced fertilization,yield responses to N,P and K fertilizers incereased significantly with time.the efficiency of N from farmyard manure was found to be comparable to that of N fertilizer during 1988-1991.

  2. Sustainability versus yield in agricultural soils under various crop production practices - a microbial perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereg, Lily; Aldorri, Sind; McMillan, Mary

    2017-04-01

    Wheat and cotton are important food and cash crops often grown in rotation on black, grey and red clay soil, in Australia. The common practice of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers have been solely in the form of agrochemicals, however, a few growers have incorporated manure or composted plant material into the soil before planting. While the cotton yield in studied farms was comparable, we found that the use of such organic amendments significantly enhanced the pool of nitrogen cycling genes, suggesting increased potential of soil microbial function as well as increased microbial metabolic diversity and abundance. Therefore, the regular use of organic amendments contributed to improved soil sustainability.

  3. Effect of application of dairy manure, effluent and inorganic fertilizer on nitrogen leaching in clayey fluvo-aquic soil: A lysimeter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianling; Xiao, Jiao; Liu, Deyan; Ye, Guiping; Luo, Jiafa; Houlbrooke, David; Laurenson, Seth; Yan, Jing; Chen, Lvjun; Tian, Jinping; Ding, Weixin

    2017-08-15

    Dairy farm manure and effluent are applied to cropland in China to provide a source of plant nutrients, but there are concerns over its effect on nitrogen (N) leaching loss and groundwater quality. To investigate the effects of land application of dairy manure and effluent on potential N leaching loss, two lysimeter trials were set up in clayey fluvo-aquic soil in a winter wheat-summer maize rotation cropping system on the North China Plain. The solid dairy manure trial included control without N fertilization (CK), inorganic N fertilizer (SNPK), and fresh (RAW) and composted (COM) dairy manure. The liquid dairy effluent trial consisted of control without N fertilization (CF), inorganic N fertilizer (ENPK), and fresh (FDE) and stored (SDE) dairy effluent. The N application rate was 225kgNha(-1) for inorganic N fertilizer, dairy manure, and effluent treatments in both seasons. Annual N leaching loss (ANLL) was highest in SNPK (53.02 and 16.21kgNha(-1) in 2013/2014 and 2014/2015, respectively), which were 1.65- and 2.04-fold that of COM, and 1.59- and 1.26-fold that of RAW. In the effluent trial (2014/2015), ANLL for ENPK and SDE (16.22 and 16.86kgNha(-1), respectively) were significantly higher than CF and FDE (6.3 and 13.21kgNha(-1), respectively). NO3(-) contributed the most (34-92%) to total N leaching loss among all treatments, followed by dissolved organic N (14-57%). COM showed the lowest N leaching loss due to a reduction in NO3(-) loss. Yield-scaled N leaching in COM (0.35kgNMg(-1) silage) was significantly (Pdairy manure should be increased and that of inorganic fertilizer decreased to reduce N leaching loss while ensuring high crop yield in the North China Plain.

  4. Autoclave treatment of pig manure does not reduce the risk of transmission and transfer of tetracycline resistance genes in soil: successive determinations with soil column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Gu, Xian; Hao, Yangyang; Hu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of antibiotics, especially tetracycline, in livestock feed adversely affects animal health and ecological integrity. Therefore, approaches to decrease this risk are urgently needed. High temperatures facilitate antibiotic degradation; whether this reduces transmission risk and transfer of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRBs) and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in soil remains unknown. Successive experiments with soil columns evaluated the effects of autoclaving pig manure (APM) on soil TRB populations and TRGs over time at different soil depths. The data showed sharp increases in TRB populations and TRGs in each subsoil layer of PM (non-APM) and APM treatments within 30 days, indicating that TRBs and TRGs transferred rapidly. The level of TRBs in the upper soil layers was approximately 15-fold higher than in subsoils. TRBs were not dependent on PM and APM levels, especially in the late phase. Nevertheless, higher levels of APM led to rapid expansion of TRBs as compared to PM. Moreover, temporal changes in TRB frequencies in total culturable bacteria (TCBs) were similar to TRBs, indicating that the impact of PM or APM on TRBs was more obvious than for TCBs. TRBs were hypothesized to depend on the numbers of TRGs and indigenous recipient bacteria. In the plough layer, five TRGs (tetB, tetG, tetM, tetW, and tetB/P) existed in each treatment within 150 days. Selective pressure of TC may not be a necessary condition for the transfer and persistence of TRGs in soil. High temperatures might reduce TRBs in PM, which had minimal impact on the transmission and transfer of TRGs in soil. Identifying alternatives to decrease TRG transmission remains a major challenge.

  5. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOURCES AND RATES OF SOME ORGANIC MANURE ON CONTENT OF SOME HEAVY METALS IN DIFFERENT SOILS AND PLANTS GROWN THEREIN: I. EFFECT ON SPINACH PLANTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Kandil

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the influence of different sources and rates of some organic manure on growth and heavy metals concentration in spinach plants grown on two different soils. Resultsshowed that values of dry weight (DW of roots, shoots and total plant of spinach grown on Abou-Rawash and El-Nobaria soils significantly increased by using all the organic manure sources (sewage sludge(SS, banana and cotton composts (BC and CC and rates (11, 22, and 44 t/fed as compared with control treatment. Thehighest dry weight of roots, shoots and total spinach plants grown on both soils were obtained by using cotton compost (CC followed by banana compost (BC and sewage sludge (SS in decreasing order (CC > BC > SS. The obtained results revealed that DW of spinach plants grown on sandy calcareous soil of El- Nobaria was higher under all the organic manure treatments than those obtained from sandy soil of Abou-Rawash. Moreover, dry weight of spinach plants grown on Abou-Rawash and El-Nobaria soils significantly increased by increasing the application rate from all the used organic manures up to 44 t/fed. Organic manures (SS, BC and CC led to more significantly increases in the concentration of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Ni in both roots and shoots of spinach plants grown on Abou-Rawash and El-Nobaria soils as compared with control treatment. Theconcentration of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Ni in roots and shoots of spinach plants grown on sandy and calcareous soils were higher when SS was applied to the tested soils in comparison with the addition of the other organic composts (BC and CC. The tested sources of organic manures could be arranged due to their inducing effect on Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Ni concentrations in roots and shoots of spinach plants grown on both soils in the following decreasing order: SS > CC > BC. The efficiency of studied materials on heavy metal concentrations was varied in accordance to sources and rates of application and / or the part of

  6. Effect of tetracycline residues in pig manure slurry on tetracycline-resistant bacteria and resistance gene tet(M) in soil microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Wulff, Gitte; Vaclavik, Elvira;

    2006-01-01

    manure slurry and a tetracycline-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, CG I 10, containing the tetracycline resistance gene tet(m) (on the conjugative transposon, Tn916). The prevalence of both tetracycline-resistant aerobic bacteria and tetracycline-resistant enterococci declined rapidly until day 45 where...... no significant differences in the levels of tetracycline-resistant bacteria in any of the four types of microcosms could be detected. tet(M) could be detected in microcosms supplemented with either pig manure slurry and/or E. faecalis CG 110 (tet(M)) for the whole period (152 days). tet(M) could be detected...... longer than tetracycline-resistant enterococci could be isolated (limit of detection 100 CFU/g soil) probably due to viable but not culturable (VBNC) bacteria with tet(M), horizontal gene transfer of tet(M) to indigenous soil bacteria or presence of "free" DNA. The concentration of chlortetracycline...

  7. Seasonal differences in tillage draught on a sandy loam soil with long-term additions of animal manure and mineral fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltre, Clément; Nyord, T.; Christensen, B.T.;

    2016-01-01

    Energy requirements for soil tillage are closely linked to soil properties, such as clay, water and soil organic carbon (SOC) contents. Long-term application of inorganic fertilizer and organic amendments affects SOC content but little is known about seasonal differences in tillage draught...... requirements of soils subject to contrasting nutrient management regimes. We assessed autumn and spring tillage draught following harvest of early-sown and timely sown winter wheat grown on a sandy loam in the Askov Long-Term Experiment on Animal Manure and Mineral Fertilizers. Draught force was related...... to soil texture, soil water and SOC content, shear strength and bulk density, nutrient management, and yield of the preceding winter wheat. Contents of clay and SOC ranged from 8.9 to 10.6% and from 0.98 to 1.36%, respectively. In the autumn and spring, SOC normalized by clay content explained 38 and 5...

  8. Utilization of Agricultural Wastes in Stabilization of Landfill Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidzam Rahmat Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA and Rice Husk Ash (RHA are local agricultural waste material from Palm Oil Industry and from Paddy Industry in Malaysia. Currently, the disposal of these ashes from a burning process is a problem to both industries, and hence leads to environmental pollution. The main aim of this research was to investigate the potential of utilizing POFA and RHA as sustainable stabilizer material as partial replacement of traditional one which is lime and Portland Cement (PC. Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilization of Malaysian Agricultural wastes POFA and RHA in stabilizing Teluk Kapas Landfill soil. Landfill soil on its own and combination with laterite clay soil were stabilized using POFA or RHA either on its own or in combination with Lime or Portland Cement (PC. The traditional stabilizers of lime or Portland Cement (PC were used as controls. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabilizer contents and moist cured for up to 60 days prior to testing for compressive and water absorption tests. The results obtained showed that landfill soil combined with laterite clay (50:50 stabilized with 20% RHA:PC (50:50and POFA: PC (50:50 recorded the highest values of compressive strength compared to the other compositions of stabilizers and soils. However, when the amount of POFA and RHA increased in the system the compressive strength values of the samples tends to increase. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using POFA and RHA and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste.

  9. Long-Term Effects of Manure and Inorganic Fertilizers on Yield and Soil Fertility for a Winter Wheat-Maize System in Jiangsu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Dong; H. HENGSDIJK; DAI Ting-Bo; W. de BOER; JING Qi; CAO Wei-Xing

    2006-01-01

    Winter wheat-maize rotations are dominant cropping systems on the North China Plain, where recently the use of organic manure with grain crops has almost disappeared. This could reduce soil fertility and crop productivity in the long run. A 20-year field experiment was conducted to 1) assess the effect of inorganic and organic nutrient sources on yield and yield trends of both winter wheat and maize, 2) monitor the changes in soil organic matter content under continuous wheat-maize cropping with different soil fertility management schemes, and 3) identify reasons for yield trends observed in Xuzhou City, Jiangsu Province, over a 20-year period. There were eight treatments applied to both wheat and maize seasons: a control treatment (C); three inorganic fertilizers, that is, nitrogen (N), nitrogen and phosphorus (NP), and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK); and addition of farmyard manure (FYM) to these four treatments, that is,M, MN, MNP, and MNPK. At the end of the experiment the MN, MNP, and MNPK treatments had the highest yields,about 7 t wheat ha-1 and 7.5 t maize ha-1, with each about i t ha-1 more than the NPK treatments. Over 20 years with FYM soil organic matter increased by 80% compared to only 10% with NPK, which explained yield increases. However,from an environmental and agronomic perspective, manure application was not a superior strategy to NPK fertilizers.If manure was to be applied, though, it would be best applied to the wheat crop, which showed a better response than maize.

  10. Optimized biogas production by utilization the primary agriculture products: - manure and lignocellulosic crop and crop-byproduct materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    natural areas. This can be release of greenhouse gasses or by leaching nitrate or phosphorous to the water environment. Animal manure recycled at the wrong time and the wrong place during the year still has a huge negative impact on the water environment all over Europe. Closing this cycle means 9....... The gained results are promising. The R&D&D work demonstrated at the integrated biogas test-centre facilities and at biogas development full scale platforms are by purpose to develop the biogas sector in an even more sustainable direction. Better carbon footprint and socio-economical results for the society...

  11. Soil respiration in different agricultural and natural ecosystems in an arid region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Lai

    Full Text Available The variation of different ecosystems on the terrestrial carbon balance is predicted to be large. We investigated a typical arid region with widespread saline/alkaline soils, and evaluated soil respiration of different agricultural and natural ecosystems. Soil respiration for five ecosystems together with soil temperature, soil moisture, soil pH, soil electric conductivity and soil organic carbon content were investigated in the field. Comparing with the natural ecosystems, the mean seasonal soil respiration rates of the agricultural ecosystems were 96%-386% higher and agricultural ecosystems exhibited lower CO(2 absorption by the saline/alkaline soil. Soil temperature and moisture together explained 48%, 86%, 84%, 54% and 54% of the seasonal variations of soil respiration in the five ecosystems, respectively. There was a significant negative relationship between soil respiration and soil electrical conductivity, but a weak correlation between soil respiration and soil pH or soil organic carbon content. Our results showed that soil CO(2 emissions were significantly different among different agricultural and natural ecosystems, although we caution that this was an observational, not manipulative, study. Temperature at the soil surface and electric conductivity were the main driving factors of soil respiration across the five ecosystems. Care should be taken when converting native vegetation into cropland from the point of view of greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Effects of extreme drought on agriculture soil and sustainability of different drought soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Geng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Content of microbial biomass carbon was selected as indicator for identifying effects of extreme drought on agriculture soil ecosystem. Through a series of prototype observation experiments, changing tendencies of microbial biomass carbon content and the proportion of microbial biomass carbon in soil organic carbon were identified. The optimum mass water content of soil for microbial biomass carbon was 19.5% and the demarcation point of microbial biomass carbon to drought was 14.3%, which could be used to demonstrate alters and degradation of soil ecosystem as well as the irrigation requirement of crops. We evaluated sustainability of different drought soil ecosystems after experiencing rainstorm with rehabilitation. The results suggested that soil ecosystem which was interfered by moderate drought could recover and its tolerance to drought was improved, as well as its function and activity. Soil ecosystem could barely recover from severe drought and could not adapt to severe drought stress. Soil ecosystem could not restore from extreme drought within a few days, the function and structure were damaged. We came to the conclusion that mass water content of soil should kept above 10% to avoid destroying function and structure while soil ecosystem would better be watered when mass water content was lower than 14.3% in order to maintain high productivity.

  13. The impact of land use on biological activity of agriculture soils. An State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; Cerdà, Artemi; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2014-05-01

    desiccation, mechanical destruction, soil compaction, reduce pore volume, and disruption of access to food resources (Cerdà et al., 2009b). Furthermore, it can lead to a loss in soil fertility and reduction in the abundance and diversity of soil microorganism (Caravaca et al., 2002). Nevertheless, some organic fertilizers, such as manure, waste water and sewage sludge, promote the activities of soil microbial communities (Morugán-Coronado et al., 2011; Balota et al., 2013; Macci et al., 2013). On the other hand, land use influences soil microbial processes by changing the quantity and quality of plant residues entering the soil and their spatial distribution, thorough changes in nutrients and inputs (García-Orenes et al., 2009; 2012). The abuse of pesticides can drastically modify the function and structure of microbial communities, altering the terrestrial ecosystems, which has important implication for soil quality (Pampulha et al., 2006). Soil quality is important for the sustainable development of terrestrial ecosystem (Paz-Ferreiro & Fu, 2013; Vasconcellos et al., 2013). This paper will review the State-of-the-Art of the scientific knowledge on the impact of land use on the biological activity in agriculture soils Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE supported this research. References Balota, E. L., Yada, I.F., Amaral, H., Nakatani, A.S., Dick, R.P., Coyne, M.S. 2013. Long-term land use influences soil microbial biomass p and s, phosphatase and arylsulfatase activities, and mineralization in a brazilian oxisol. Land degradation & development. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2242 Caravaca F, Masciandaro G, Ceccanti B. 2002. Land use in relation to soil chemical and biochemical properties in a semiarid Mediterranean environment. Soil and Tillage Research 68: 23-30. Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais, Y., Boardman, J. 2009a. Soil erosion and agriculture Soil and Tillage Research 106, 107-108. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2009.1 Cerdà, A

  14. Heavy metals content in degraded agricultural soils of a mountain region related to soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Pedreño, José; Belén Almendro-Candel, María; Gómez, Ignacio; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume; Zorpas, Antonis

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture has been practiced for long time in Mediterranean regions. Intensive agriculture and irrigation have developed mainly in the valleys and coastal areas. In the mountainous areas, dry farming has been practiced for centuries. Soils have been fertilized using mainly organic amendments. Plants extracted nutrients and other elements like heavy metals presented in soils and agricultural practices modified soil properties that could favor the presence of heavy metals. In this work, it has been checked the content of heavy metals in 100 agricultural soils samples of the NorthWest area of the province of Alicante (Spain) which has been long cultivated with cereals and olive trees, and now soils are abandoned and degraded because of the low agricultural yields. European policy has the aim to improve the sustainable agriculture and recover landscapes of mountain regions. So that, it is important to check the state of the soils (Marques et al. 2007). Soils samples (arable layer) were analyzed determining: pH (1:5, w/v, water extract), equivalent calcium carbonate content, organic matter by Walkley-Black method (Nelson and Sommers 1996), micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) extracted with DTPA (Lindsay and Norvell, 1978) and measured by atomic absorption spectrometry, and total content of metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb) measured in soil samples after microwave acid digestion (Moral et al. 1996), quantifying the content of metals by ICP analysis. The correlation between soil properties and metals. The results indicated that pH and carbonates are the most important properties of these soils correlated with the metals (both micronutrients and heavy metals). The available micronutrients (all of them) are close correlated with the pH and carbonates in soils. Moreover, heavy metals like Pb and Ni are related to available Mn and Zn. Keywords: pH, carbonates, heavy metals, abandoned soils. References: Lindsay,W.L., andW.A. Norvell. 1978. "Development of a DTPA Soil Test for Zinc, Iron

  15. Managing Cover Crops, Crop Rotation, and Poultry Manure to Increase Soil Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public interest has been stimulated by increasing awareness that soil is a critically important component of the earth’s biosphere, functioning not only in the production of food and fiber but also in the maintenance of local, regional, and global environmental quality. A healthy soil is also the ba...

  16. Biochar has no effect on soil respiration across Chinese agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Dengxiao; Cheng, Kun; Zhou, Huimin; Zhang, Afeng; Li, Lianqing; Joseph, Stephen; Smith, Pete; Crowley, David; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Pan, Genxing

    2016-06-01

    Biochar addition to soil has been widely accepted as an option to enhance soil carbon sequestration by introducing recalcitrant organic matter. However, it remains unclear whether biochar will negate the net carbon accumulation by increasing carbon loss through CO2 efflux from soil (soil respiration). The objectives of this study were to address: 1) whether biochar addition increases soil respiration; and whether biochar application rate and biochar type (feedstock and pyrolyzing system) affect soil respiration. Two series of field experiments were carried out at 8 sites representing the main crop production areas in China. In experiment 1, a single type of wheat straw biochar was amended at rates of 0, 20 and 40 tha(-1) in four rice paddies and three dry croplands. In experiment 2, four types of biochar (varying in feedstock and pyrolyzing system) were amended at rates of 0 and 20 tha(-1) in a rice paddy under rice-wheat rotation. Results showed that biochar addition had no effect on CO2 efflux from soils consistently across sites, although it increased topsoil organic carbon stock by 38% on average. Meanwhile, CO2 efflux from soils amended with 40 t of biochar did not significantly higher than soils amended with 20 t of biochar. While the biochars used in Experiment 2 had different carbon pools and physico-chemical properties, they had no effect on soil CO2 efflux. The soil CO2 efflux following biochar addition could be hardly explained by the changes in soil physic-chemical properties and in soil microbial biomass. Thus, we argue that biochar will not negate the net carbon accumulation by increasing carbon loss through CO2 efflux in agricultural soils.

  17. Effect of green manure rotation on soil fertility and organic carbon pool%稻田绿肥轮作提高土壤养分增加有机碳库

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰延; 黄国勤; 杨滨娟; 陈洪俊; 王淑彬

    2014-01-01

    CK. Compared with CK, the soil carbon pool index significantly (P<0.05) increased by 15.70% for the treatment B, and soil carbon management index significantly (P<0.05) increased by 32.07 for the treatment B, 21.98 for the treatment C, 18.64 for the treatment D and 24.47 for the treatment E, respectively. Among the treatments, milk vetch- rice- rice→rapeseed/peanut- rice had the highest values for the soil carbon pool index and soil carbon management index. The soil organic matter and total nitrogen, available phosphorus, total organic carbon, active organic carbon, and carbon pool management index were highly significantly (P<0.01) correlated. Soil total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, and available phosphorus had a significant (P<0.05) correlation with carbon pool management index. In addition, soil organic carbon was significantly (P<0.05) positively correlated with active organic carbon and carbon pool management indexes. Therefore, green manure rotation, especially milk vetch- rice- rice→rapeseed/peanut- rice could increase soil organic carbon contents and soil carbon pool management index, improve soil quality and soil fertility under the local soil fertility conditions, and was important for promoting sustainable development of agriculture.

  18. Ecosystem services driven by the diversity of soil biota - understanding and management in agriculture - The Biodiversa SoilMan-Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, Martin; Pérès, Guénola; Taylor, Astrid; Schrader, Stefan; Landa, Blanca; Nicolai, Annegret; Sandor, Mignon; Öptik, Maarja; Gema, Guzmán; Bergmann, Holger; Cluzeau, Daniel; Banse, Martin; Bengtsson, Jan; Guernion, Muriel; Zaller, Johann; Roslin, Tomas; Scheu, Stefan; Gómez Calero, José Alfonso

    2017-04-01

    Soil biota diversity is ensuring primary production in terrestrial ecosystems and agricultural productivity. Water and nutrient cycling, soil formation and aggregation, decomposition and carbon sequestration as well as control of pest organisms are important functions in soil that are driven by biota and biota interactions. In agricultural systems these functions support and regulate ecosystem services directed to agricultural production and agricultural sustainability. A main goal of future cropping systems will be to maintain or raise agricultural productivity while keeping production sustainable in spite of increasing food demands and ongoing soil degradation caused by inappropriate soil management practices. Farm based tools that farmers use to engineer soils for plant production depend as soil management factors on decisions by farmers, which are triggered by regional traditions, knowledge and also by agriculture policies as a governance impact. However, biological impacts on soil fertility and soil health are often neglected or overseen when planning and shaping soil management in annual cropping systems or perennial systems like vineyards. In order to get progress in conservation farming and in agricultural sustainability not only knowledge creation is in need, but also a clash of perspectives has to be overcome within the societies (generals public, farmers associations, NGOs) The talk will present the conception of the recently startet SoilMan-project and summaries selected results from current and recent European research projects.

  19. Soil health: an emergent set of soil properties that result from synergy among agricultural management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The responses of a selected soil microbial property to a single agricultural management practice are often inconsistent among field studies, possibly reflecting the site-specific nature of field studies. An equally compelling explanation is that in complex systems where outcomes are the result of n...

  20. 长期施肥对农田土壤氮素关键转化过程的影响%Effects of Long-term Fertilization on Key Processes of Soil Nitrogen Cycling in Agricultural Soil:A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敬; 程谊; 蔡祖聪; 张金波

    2016-01-01

    fertilizer in the future. Therefore,optimal N fertilizer management strategies synchronizing N supply with crop demand should be developed to maintain crop yield and economic profit while minimizing negative environmental impact. Organic fertilizer as substitute for mineral N fertilizer has been advocated and practiced to increase soil carbon(C)sequestration and improve soil fertility. It has also been suggested that application of organic fertilizers,either alone or in combination with mineral N fertilizers,is effective in mitigating N-related pollution,improving soil fertility,and increasing crop yield. At present,how to fertilize rationally,improve crop yields,build up soil fertility and meanwhile maintain a sound ecological environment is one of the major challenges to agricultural research. Which step of N transformation in the soil would long-term application of organic manure affect thus influencing N supplying capacity and N retaining mechanism of the soil? What is the mechanism behind long-term application of organic manure decreasing N-related pollution and the increasing crop yield? This review elaborated effects of long-term fertilization on key processes of soil nitrogen cycling in agricultural soil in expectation to provide some theoretical basis for rationalization of long-term fertilization and improvement of N fertilizer utilization rate. The review proceeded from the angle of primary N transformation rate of the processes of soil nitrogen cycling to discuss effects of fertilization(mineral or organic fertilizers)on key processes of the soil nitrogen cycling. Soil N mineralization and assimilation are two crucial links in the cycling and factors that determine soil N supplying capacity. Long term application of nitrogen fertilizers could increase soil organic N and C contents and provide crops with available N slowly through mineralization of soil organic N and subsequent nitrification. Large volumes of long-term fertilization experiments demonstrate that

  1. An Underground Revolution: Biodiversity and Soil Ecological Engineering for Agricultural Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, S Franz; Wagg, Cameron; van der Heijden, Marcel G A

    2016-06-01

    Soil organisms are an integral component of ecosystems, but their activities receive little recognition in agricultural management strategies. Here we synthesize the potential of soil organisms to enhance ecosystem service delivery and demonstrate that soil biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously (i.e., ecosystem multifunctionality). We apply the concept of ecological intensification to soils and we develop strategies for targeted exploitation of soil biological traits. We compile promising approaches to enhance agricultural sustainability through the promotion of soil biodiversity and targeted management of soil community composition. We present soil ecological engineering as a concept to generate human land-use systems, which can serve immediate human needs while minimizing environmental impacts.

  2. Soil phosphorus mobilization in the rhizosphere of cover crops has little effect on phosphorus cycling in California agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    External phosphorus (P) inputs to agricultural soils are needed to replace soil P removed by harvest and maintain soil fertility. Alternative fertilization approaches that maintain soil fertility while reducing P inputs could improve current practices that often result in excessive P application and...

  3. Modelling agricultural suitability along soil transects under current conditions and improved scenario of soil factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elmabod, Sameh K.; Jordán, Antonio; Fleskens, Luuk; van der Ploeg, Martine; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Anaya-Romero, María; van der Salm, Renée J.; De la Rosa, Diego

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural land suitability analysis and improvement of soils by addressing major limitations may be a strategy for climate change adaptation. This study aims to investigate the influence of topography and variability of soil factors on the suitability of 12 annual, semiannual and perennial Mediterranean crops in the province of Seville (southern Spain). In order to represent the variability in elevation, lithology and soil, two latitudinal and longitudinal (S-N and W-E) soil transects (TA and TB) were considered including 63 representative points at regular 4 km intervals. These points were represented by 41 soil profiles from the SDBm soil database -Seville. Almagra model, a component of the agro-ecological decision support system MicroLEIS, was used to assess soil suitability. Results were grouped into five soil suitability classes: S1-optimum, S2-high, S3-moderate, S4-marginal and S5-not suitable. Each class was divided in subclasses according to the main soil limiting factors: depth (p), texture (t), drainage (d), carbonate content (c), salinity (s), sodium saturation (a), and the degree of development of the soil profile (g). This research also aimed to maximize soil potential by improving limiting factors d, c, s and a after soil restoration. Therefore, management techniques were also considered as possible scenarios in this study. The results of the evaluation showed that soil suitability ranged between S1 and S5p - S5s along of the transects. In the northern extreme of transect TA, high content of gravels and coarse texture are limiting factors (soils are classified as S4t) In contrast, the limiting factor in the eastern extreme of transect TB is the shallow useful depth (S5p subclass). The absence of calcium carbonate becomes a limiting factor in some parts of TA. In contrast, the excessive content of calcium carbonate appeared to be a limiting factor for crops in some intermediate points of TB transect. For both transects, soil salinity is the main

  4. Soil biota community structure and abundance under agricultural intensification and extensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma-Blaauw, M.B.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Bloem, J.; Faber, J.H.; Brussaard, L.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of agricultural intensification and extensification on soil biota communities is useful in order to preserve and restore biological diversity in agricultural soils and enhance the role of soil biota in agroecosystem functioning. Over four consecutive years, we investigated

  5. Nutrient production from dairy cattle manure and loading on arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunggun Won

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Along with increasing livestock products via intensive rearing, the accumulation of livestock manure has become a serious issue due to the fact that there is finite land for livestock manure recycling via composting. The nutrients from livestock manure accumulate on agricultural land and the excess disembogues into streams causing eutrophication. In order to systematically manage nutrient loading on agricultural land, quantifying the amount of nutrients according to their respective sources is very important. However, there is a lack of research concerning nutrient loss from livestock manure during composting or storage on farms. Therefore, in the present study we quantified the nutrients from dairy cattle manure that were imparted onto agricultural land. Methods Through investigation of 41 dairy farms, weight reduction and volatile solids (VS, total nitrogen (TN, and total phosphorus (TP changes of dairy cattle manure during the storage and composting periods were analyzed. In order to support the direct investigation and survey on site, the three cases of weight reduction during the storing and composting periods were developed according to i experiment, ii reference, and iii theoretical changes in phosphorus content (ΔP = 0. Results The data revealed the nutrient loading coefficients (NLCs of VS, TN, and TP on agricultural land were 1.48, 0.60, and 0.66, respectively. These values indicated that the loss of nitrogen and phosphorus was 40% and 34%, respectively, and that there was an increase of VS since bedding materials were mixed with excretion in the barn. Conclusion As result of nutrient-footprint analyses, the amounts of TN and TP particularly entered on arable land have been overestimated if applying the nutrient amount in fresh manure. The NLCs obtained in this study may assist in the development of a database to assess the accurate level of manure nutrient loading on soil and facilitate systematic nutrient management.

  6. How does pyrogenic organic matter affect the N dynamic in agricultural soils? An incubation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Rosa, José M.; Knicker, Heike

    2010-05-01

    Besides other environmental factors, N availability drives the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles in grasslands. Since grass-dominated ecosystems cover approximately 40% of the terrestrial surface and store more than 30% of global soil organic carbon (SOC), alterations to those ecosystems could have significant consequences and potential implications for global C and N cycles and climate (Schlesinger et al., 1990). Understanding the processes that govern the efficient cycling of nutrients through soil/plant systems remains an important topic to underpin the choice of strategies aimed at ensuring the long-term sustainability of ecosystems. In Mediterranean ecosystems, wild-fires occur frequently. Whereas factors such as water shortage or erosion contribute to reduced N-availability by lowering the litter input, burning additionally increase the refractory N and C-pools by charring litter and humic material (charred pyrogenic organic matter-PyOM) (Gonzalez-Pérez, 2004). In general, the addition of organic matter either as plant residues or farmyard manure has been shown to significantly increase biological activity, microbial biomass and enzyme activity in soil (Dick, 1992). Even in situations where microbial biomass appears to be unaffected, the activity of specific processes (e.g. N mineralization) can be significantly influenced by the addition of organic residues). However, little is known about the changes of the N cycle caused by the addition of PyOM. Therefore, the interest of our research was to study the impact of 15N enriched-biochars either alone or in conjunction with a 15N enriched fertilizer (K15NO3) on aggregate stability and organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) distribution among the different soil fractions. The latter may help to elucidate both, the quality of the stored organic matter and if the accumulation is related to interaction with the mineral matter. Therefore, biochar derived from grass material grown on 15N-enriched fertilizer was added

  7. Streptococcus suis sorption on agricultural soils: role of soil physico-chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenqiang; Liu, Xing; Huang, Qiaoyun; Cai, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding pathogen sorption on natural soil particles is crucial to protect public health from soilborne and waterborne diseases. Sorption of pathogen Streptococcus suis on 10 agricultural soils was examined, and its correlations with soil physico-chemical properties were also elucidated. S. suis sorption isotherms conformed to the linear equation, with partition coefficients (Ks) ranging from 12.7 mL g(-1) to 100.1 mL g(-1). Bacteria were observed to sorb on the external surfaces of soil aggregates by scanning electron microscopy. Using Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis, solution pH was found to have significant negative correlations with Ks. Stepwise multiple regression and path analysis revealed that pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were the main factors influencing sorption behaviors. The obtained overall model (Ks=389.6-45.9×pH-1.3×CEC, R(2)=0.943, PKs values. However, the variability in Ks was less dependent on soil organic matter, specific surface area, soil texture and zeta potential, probably due to the internal-surface shielding phenomenon of soil aggregates. Additionally, the sorption trends cannot be interpreted by interaction energy barriers calculated using the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, suggesting the limits of DLVO theory in describing pathogen sorption on natural soils. Our results also indicated soil pH and CEC should be preferentially considered when modeling S. suis sorption process.

  8. Reduced persistence of the macrolide antibiotics erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin in agricultural soil following several years of exposure in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topp, Edward, E-mail: ed.topp@agr.gc.ca; Renaud, Justin; Sumarah, Mark; Sabourin, Lyne

    2016-08-15

    The macrolide antibiotics erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin are very important in human and animal medicine, and can be entrained onto agricultural ground through application of sewage sludge or manures. In the present study, a series of replicated field plots were left untreated or received up to five annual spring applications of a mixture of three drugs to achieve a nominal concentration for each of 10 or 0.1 mg kg{sup −1} soil; the latter an environmentally relevant concentration. Soil samples were incubated in the laboratory, and supplemented with antibiotics to establish the dissipation kinetics of erythromycin and clarithromycin using radioisotope methods, and azithromycin using HPLC-MS/MS. All three drugs were dissipated significantly more rapidly in soils with a history of field exposure to 10 mg kg{sup −1} macrolides, and erythromycin and clarithromycin were also degraded more rapidly in field soil exposed to 0.1 mg kg{sup −1} macrolides. Rapid mineralization of {sup 14}C-labelled erythromycin and clarithromycin are consistent with biodegradation. Analysis of field soils revealed no carryover of parent compound from year to year. Azithromycin transformation products were detected consistent with removal of the desosamine and cladinose moieties. Overall, these results have revealed that following several years of exposure to macrolide antibiotics these are amenable to accelerated degradation. The potential accelerated degradation of these drugs in soils amended with manure and sewage sludge should be investigated as this phenomenon would attenuate environmental exposure and selection pressure for clinically relevant resistance. - Highlights: • The impact of field exposure on persistence of macrolide antibiotics was evaluated. • Soil samples were incubated in the laboratory with macrolides. • Field exposure resulted in more rapid dissipation of all macrolides. • Radiolabelled erythromycin and clarithromycin were rapidly mineralized

  9. Determination of doramectin, an emergent veterinary contaminant, in soil and manure, using HPLC with fluorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil-Diaz, M.; Martinez-Inigo, M. J.; Urquia, J. J.; Martin, M.; Lobo, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Doramectin is a macrolide endectocide belonging to avermectin group; it is widely used as anthelmintic because of their broad spectrum activity against ecto-and endo-parasites of cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, horses as well as cats and dogs. All avermectins are excreted mainly through faeces as non-metabolised drugs. Consequently, the application of residues from cattle to soil could represent a source of diffuse pollution, being the veterinarian treatments emergent contaminants towards soil and water. (Author)

  10. Thermodynamic Properties of NH4+ Fixation in Manured Loess Soil in Shaanxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANXIAOLIN; JUANGTZOCHUAN; 等

    1997-01-01

    Some thermodynamic properties of NH4+ fixation by loess soil in plowing and clay layers are discussed.The results indicate that the four ion adsorption equations commonly used can describe the properties of NH4+ fixation in these soils under constant temperature.Among the four adsorption equations,the single-surface Langmuir equation is the best.When the concentration of NH4Cl solution is 10-1 mol below,the Freundlich equation can be used. The changes of apparent standard free energy(△G°),enthalpy(△H°)and entropy(△S°)ilustrate that NH4+ fixation in soil is an endothermic adsorption and spontaneous reaction,and the process can be enhanced by a higher temperature and clay content in soil. The"proper value of NH4+ fixation by soil(K1×qm)imcreased with increasing clay content and temper-ature.The heat of NH4+ fixation in soil(Qm) confirms the conclusions made in this paper.

  11. Concentrations of Trace Elements in Organic Fertilizers and Animal Manures and Feeds and Cadmium Contamination in Herbal Tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Prachoom, Norratouch; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2016-04-27

    Thailand is predominantly an agriculture-based country. Organic farming is enlisted as an important national agenda to promote food safety and international export. The present study aimed to determine the concentrations of trace elements in commercial organic fertilizers (fermented and nonfermented) composed of pig and cattle manures available in Thailand. Pig and cattle manures as well as animal feeds were also collected from either animal farms or markets. The results were compared to the literature data from other countries. Fermented fertilizer composed of pig manure contained higher concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) than fertilizer composed of cattle manure. High concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were also found in fertilizers and manures. Some organic fertilizers had high concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). The range of As concentration in these fertilizers was 0.50-24.4 mg/kg, whereas the ranges of Cd and Pb were 0.10-11.4 and 1.13-126 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, pig manure contained As and Cd (15.7 and 4.59 mg/kg, respectively), higher than their levels in cattle manure (1.95 and 0.16 mg/kg, respectively). The use of pig manure as soil supplement also resulted in high Cd contamination in herbal tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino; GP). The Cd concentration in GP plants positively correlated with the Cd concentration in the soil. Therefore, the application of some organic fertilizers or animal manures to agricultural soil could increase some potentially toxic elements in soil, which may be absorbed by plants and, thus, increase the risk of contamination in agricultural products.

  12. Copper, nickel and zinc accumulations in lettuce grown in soil amended with contaminated cattle manure vermicompost after sequential cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordão, Cláudio P; de Andrade, Renato P; Cotta, Aloísio J B; Cecon, Paulo R; Neves, Júlio C L; Fontes, Mauricio P F; Fernandes, Raphael B A

    2013-01-01

    The Cu, Ni and Zn accumulations in leaves and roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) grown in soil amended with natural and contaminated cattle manure vermicompost were evaluated. The vermicompost residues containing relatively high metal concentrations used in this work were obtained from a previous experiment, in which vermicompost was applied to removing metals from electroplating wastes. Sequential lettuce cultivations were conducted in pots containing the residual substrates from the first cultivation by adding metal-enriched vermicompost residues. In general, the Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations in leaves and roots of lettuce plants grown in vermicompost enriched with these metals were higher than in the treatment using the natural vermicompost. The metal concentrations in leaves from treatments with natural vermicompost were below the critical concentrations of toxicity to plants. However, the metal concentrations in leaves of the third cultivation in which metal-enriched vermicompost was applied were greater than the upper limit that causes plant toxicity, but no visual damage was observed in the plants. Treatment with Zn-enriched vermicompost resulted in toxicity symptoms, but plant damage did not result in the death of the plant. The chemical fractionation of Cu, Ni and Zn in residues from lettuce cultivation was evaluated by using a sequential extraction procedure and metal concentrations were increased in the different chemical fractions according to the increase of vermicompost dose.

  13. Sorption-desorption and transport of trimethoprim and sulfonamide antibiotics in agricultural soil: effect of soil type, dissolved organic matter, and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Lei; Lin, Shuang-Shuang; Dai, Chao-Meng; Shi, Lu; Zhou, Xue-Fei

    2014-05-01

    Use of animal manure is a main source of veterinary pharmaceuticals (VPs) in soil and groundwater through a series of migration processes. The sorption-desorption and transport of four commonly used VPs including trimethoprim (TMP), sulfapyridine, sulfameter, and sulfadimethoxine were investigated in three soil layers taken from an agricultural field in Chongming Island China and two types of aqueous solution (0.01 M CaCl2 solution and wastewater treatment plant effluent). Results from sorption-desorption experiments showed that the sorption behavior of selected VPs conformed to the Freundlich isotherm equation. TMP exhibited higher distribution coefficients (K d = 6.73-9.21) than other sulfonamides (K d = 0.03-0.47), indicating a much stronger adsorption capacity of TMP. The percentage of desorption for TMP in a range of 8-12 % is not so high to be considered significant. Low pH (soil organic matter (e.g., 0-20 cm soil sample) had a positive impact on sorption of VPs. Slightly lower distribution coefficients were obtained for VPs in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, which suggested that dissolved organic matter might affect their sorption behavior. Column studies indicated that the transport of VPs in the soil column was mainly influenced by sorption capacity. The weakly adsorbed sulfonamides had a high recovery rate (63.6-98.0 %) in the leachate, while the recovery rate of TMP was only 4.2-10.4 %. The sulfonamides and TMP exhibited stronger retaining capacity in 20-80 cm and 0-20 cm soil samples, respectively. The transport of VPs was slightly higher in the columns leached by WWTP effluent than by CaCl2 solution (0.01 M) due to their sorption interactions.

  14. CO2 emissions from organic soils under agricultural use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Cédric; Leifeld, Jens; Müller, Moritz; Schulin, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    The organic soils of peatlands represent a major global sink for terrestrial carbon. Agricultural use of organic soils requires drainage, changing conditions in these soils from anoxic to oxic. As a consequence, the organic carbon that had been accumulated often over millennia is rapidly mineralized, so that these soils then are no longer a sink but become a source of CO2. The aim of our study is to analyse the amount and origin of CO2 emitted from organic soils under three land-use types (forest, arable cropland and grassland). Our study area is located in the Bernese Lakeland (CH). The peatlands of this region were drained in the 1870ies, and the site as well as the surrounding area are now managed by a state prison. Since decades our study site is under the same land-use. In Oktober 2013 we took 4 replicate soil cores of all land-uses with respect to a certain distance from a major drainage ditch. Each core was analysed for its bulk density and carbon content. 9 soil samples from a depth of 20-30 cm were analysed for their F14C and δ13C values and later divided into 18 subsamples. Half of them were mixed with 0.2-0.4 g of labelled corn stalk enriched in δ13C (δ13C=2000) in order to mimic plant residue inputs in the field. The moisture content of these samples was equilibrated at a pF-value of 2 before incubating the samples in a Respicond VII analyser for several weeks at 20° C. By trapping the respired CO2 in NaOH and precipitating it as BaCO3 we were able to analyse its F14C and δ13C value. This enabled us to determine to what extent the CO2 originated from old peat, young plant residues or the added maize stalk. Generally the cropland samples showed the highest respiration rates, lowest F14C values and highest carbon stocks. The organic soils under the forest were degraded the most and showed low respiration rates. Analyzing the F14C values of the CO2 revealed that peat contributes most to the respiration and its degradation is fastest in the cropland

  15. Estimating annual soil carbon loss in agricultural peatland soils using a nitrogen budget approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie R Kirk

    Full Text Available Around the world, peatland degradation and soil subsidence is occurring where these soils have been converted to agriculture. Since initial drainage in the mid-1800s, continuous farming of such soils in the California Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta has led to subsidence of up to 8 meters in places, primarily due to soil organic matter (SOM oxidation and physical compaction. Rice (Oryza sativa production has been proposed as an alternative cropping system to limit SOM oxidation. Preliminary research on these soils revealed high N uptake by rice in N fertilizer omission plots, which we hypothesized was the result of SOM oxidation releasing N. Testing this hypothesis, we developed a novel N budgeting approach to assess annual soil C and N loss based on plant N uptake and fallow season N mineralization. Through field experiments examining N dynamics during growing season and winter fallow periods, a complete annual N budget was developed. Soil C loss was calculated from SOM-N mineralization using the soil C:N ratio. Surface water and crop residue were negligible in the total N uptake budget (3 - 4 % combined. Shallow groundwater contributed 24 - 33 %, likely representing subsurface SOM-N mineralization. Assuming 6 and 25 kg N ha-1 from atmospheric deposition and biological N2 fixation, respectively, our results suggest 77 - 81 % of plant N uptake (129 - 149 kg N ha-1 was supplied by SOM mineralization. Considering a range of N uptake efficiency from 50 - 70 %, estimated net C loss ranged from 1149 - 2473 kg C ha-1. These findings suggest that rice systems, as currently managed, reduce the rate of C loss from organic delta soils relative to other agricultural practices.

  16. Monitoring Soil C Stocks and Turnover in Agricultural Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, S. M.; Paustian, K.

    2008-12-01

    Soils are a large reservoir of carbon in the biosphere, and have the potential to act as a sink or source of carbon to the atmosphere, depending on a variety of driving variables such as land use, management, and climate change. Given the potential for carbon change in the future, modeling and measurement approaches are needed to monitor C stocks and turnover in soils, with a reasonable level of accuracy and precision for informing decision makers. We have developed an approach combining simulation modeling with input driving data to monitor soil organic C stocks in agricultural lands. The approach is applied using the USDA National Resource Inventory providing land use and management data for the past few decades at about 400,000 points locations in the conterminous US. Uncertainties are addressed using a combination of a Monte Carlo simulation approach and an empirically-based method comparing model results to measurements. In the past decade, soil organic C stock change has ranged from 15 to 18 Tg C per year for the conterminous US. Uncertainties range from several 100 percent at local NRI sites to 20 percent at the national scale. Reducing uncertainties will depend on model improvements, but also depend on an expanded network of measurements to evaluate uncertainties in the model results. Moreover, analyses suggest that the network should include at least 3000 locations to minimize uncertainties in the soil organic C change estimates. Ultimately, modeling along with a measurement network to assess uncertainties can provide the framework and confidence in results to support policy and management decisions.

  17. Improvement of Soil Chemistry Characteristic of Upland with Rock Phosphate, Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Farm Yard Manure For Increase of SoybeanYield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidi Noor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available he experiment aims to know the role of rock phosphate, phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and farm yard manure application in improve quality of acid upland and its influence to soybean yield. Experiment was conducted in the greenhouse using Ultisols from Kentrong at 2001 year. Factorial experiment design with two factors was used in randomized complete block design with three replications. The first factors was rock phosphate dosages i.e. : 0; 30; 60; 90 kg P ha-1, and the second factor was combination of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB and farm yard manure (FYM i.e. : without PSB and FYM (control; PSB (Pseudomonas fluorescens; FYM 10 t ha-1, and PSB+FYM. Results indicated that rock phosphate and combination of PSB and FYM application increased available P and decrase exchangeable Al of soils, increase nutrient uptake N, P, nodulation and grain yield of soybean. Application of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and farm yard manure combination with rock phosphate 30 kg P ha-1 dosages average increase grain yield soybean 23.5% compared with control. Grain yield of soybean 87% affected by variables of available P soils (X1, nutrient uptake N (X4 and P (X5, with multiple regression equation : Y = 0.241 + 0.03900 X1 + 0.00470 X4 + 0.04263 X5.

  18. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake as emergent property of agricultural soils following bio-based residue application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, A.; Reim, A.; Kim, S.; Meima-Franke, M.; Termorshuizen, A.; Boer, de W.; Putten, van der W.H.; Bodelier, P.

    2015-01-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing, and

  19. Effects of different agricultural systems on soil quality in Northern Limón province, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Emma

    2014-09-01

    Conversion of native rainforest ecosystems in Limón Province of Costa Rica to banana and pineapple monoculture has led to reductions in biodiversity and soil quality. Agroforestry management of cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an alternative system that may maintain the agricultural livelihood of the region while more closely mimicking native ecosystems. This study compared physical, biological and chemical soil quality indicators of a cacao plantation under organic agroforestry management with banana, pineapple, and pasture systems; a native forest nearby served as a control. For bulk density and earthworm analysis, 18 samples were collected between March and April 2012 from each ecosystem paired with 18 samples from the cacao. Cacao had a lower bulk density than banana and pineapple monocultures, but greater than the forest (p agroecosystem paired with three samples from the cacao plantation. Forest and pineapple ecosystems had the lowest pH, cation exchange capacity, and exchangeable nutrient cations, while cacao had the greatest (p < 0.05). Total nutrient levels of P and N were slightly greater in banana, pineapple and pasture than in cacao; probably related to addition of chemical fertilizer and manure from cattle grazing. Forest and cacao also had greater %C, than other ecosystems, which is directly related to soil organic matter content (p < 0.0001). Overall, cacao had more favorable physical, biological and chemical soil characteristics than banana and pineapple monocultures, while trends were less conclusive compared to the pastureland. While organic cacao was inferior to native forest in some soil characteristics such as bulk density and organic carbon, its soil quality did best mimic that of the native forest. This supports the organic cultivation of cacao as a desirable alternative to banana and pineapple monoculture.

  20. The pre-history of soil science: Jethro Tull, the invention of the seed drill, and the foundations of modern agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Laura B.

    Eighteenth-century British gentleman farmer Jethro Tull (1674-1741) is popularly regarded as the inventor of the seed drill, widely cited by agricultural historians, soil scientists and school history textbooks alike. Whether Tull was in fact the first to experiment with a mechanical seed drill and the horse-drawn cultivators drilling made possible is doubtful, but he did do much to make their acceptance in the long run more widespread. What is less well known is that Tull’s mechanical innovations were accompanied by a theory of plant nutrition-and a social agenda-that were equally important to the adoption of the new machines. Although he came to be celebrated by later generations, Tull’s work attracted fierce critics in his own day and immediately after, not least because he categorically rejected the value of manures in maintaining soil fertility. Instead, he proposed a mechanistic theory of plant nutrition in which the stirring of the soil with the cultivator could substitute for the processes of decomposition thought to be contributed by manures, with less labor and expense. For Tull, the drill was part of an explicit strategy to minimize reliance on an unruly labor force. He also directly challenged the idea that Virgil and other classical authorities could be of any practical use in farm management. In other words, Tull was an anti-georgic improver, and could only be reinserted into the canon of agricultural history through the efforts of later agriculturists to gloss over the objectionable parts of his work. This paper explores how, a century before Liebig, Tull’s Horse-Hoeing Husbandry ( 1731 and later editions) sparked heated debates over a constellation of issues that are still with us today: no-till vs. tillage, net profits vs. gross yields, soil biology vs. soil chemistry, yield per acre vs. yield per unit of labor, rotation costs vs. input costs.

  1. Use of Trichoderma spp.on soil microbiology improvement for organic agriculture in Costa Rica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel Obregón-Gómez

    2004-01-01

    @@ The soil is a complex system where processes have direct influence on crop nutrition and plant health.Unfortunately, most of the agricultural soil management practices, compact them producing poor oxygenation, low benefic microorganism populations and metabolic disorders in plants.