WorldWideScience

Sample records for manufacturing temperature sensitive

  1. Investigation of technology for manufacturing the non-magnetic temperature-sensitive composite materials and their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobelev, A.G.; Kolesnikov, F.V.; Gul'bin, V.N.; Nikitin, I.S.

    2004-01-01

    Investigation results are presented on structure and properties of nonmagnetic thermobimetals on the basis of beryllium bronze which is used both as active and passive layers. The second layer of thermosensitive element consists of stainless steel 12Kh18N10T, titanium base alloy VT1-0 and aluminum base alloy AD1. The manufacturing of the layered composite materials includes explosion welding, plastic deformation and heat treatment. It is established that strain hardening of the thermobimetals results in an increase of yield strength, microstresses, hardness and specific resistance [ru

  2. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Low Temperature Materials Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, David E.; Moon, Ji-Won; Armstrong, Beth L.; Datskos, Panos G.; Duty, Chad E.; Gresback, Ryan; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Jellison, Gerald Earle; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C.; Jung, Hyunsung; Meyer, Harry M.; Phelps, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    The Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) low temperature materials synthesis project was established to demonstrate a scalable and sustainable process to produce nanoparticles (NPs) for advanced manufacturing. Previous methods to chemically synthesize NPs typically required expensive, high-purity inorganic chemical reagents, organic solvents and high temperatures. These processes were typically applied at small laboratory scales at yields sufficient for NP characterization, but insufficient to support roll-to-roll processing efforts or device fabrication. The new NanoFermentation processes described here operated at a low temperature (~60 C) in low-cost, aqueous media using bacteria that produce extracellular NPs with controlled size and elemental stoichiometry. Up-scaling activities successfully demonstrated high NP yields and quality in a 900-L pilot-scale reactor, establishing this NanoFermentation process as a competitive biomanufacturing strategy to produce NPs for advanced manufacturing of power electronics, solid-state lighting and sensors.

  3. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Low Temperature Materials Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moon, Ji-Won [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Armstrong, Beth L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Datskos, Panos G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gresback, Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ivanov, Ilia N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jacobs, Christopher B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jellison, Gerald Earle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jang, Gyoung Gug [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joshi, Pooran C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jung, Hyunsung [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Meyer, III, Harry M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Phelps, Tommy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) low temperature materials synthesis project was established to demonstrate a scalable and sustainable process to produce nanoparticles (NPs) for advanced manufacturing. Previous methods to chemically synthesize NPs typically required expensive, high-purity inorganic chemical reagents, organic solvents and high temperatures. These processes were typically applied at small laboratory scales at yields sufficient for NP characterization, but insufficient to support roll-to-roll processing efforts or device fabrication. The new NanoFermentation processes described here operated at a low temperature (~60 C) in low-cost, aqueous media using bacteria that produce extracellular NPs with controlled size and elemental stoichiometry. Up-scaling activities successfully demonstrated high NP yields and quality in a 900-L pilot-scale reactor, establishing this NanoFermentation process as a competitive biomanufacturing strategy to produce NPs for advanced manufacturing of power electronics, solid-state lighting and sensors.

  4. Electrocutaneous sensitivity: effects of skin temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, W D; Reilly, J P

    1986-01-01

    The effect of human skin temperature on electrocutaneous sensitivity was examined using brief capacitive discharges. Stimuli were designed to ensure that sensory effects would be independent of skin resistance and would reflect underlying neural excitability as closely as possible. Skin temperature was manipulated by immersing the forearm in circulating hot or cold air. Detection thresholds on the arm and fingertip were raised by cooling, but were not altered by heating. Temperature-related sensitivity shifts were described by the same multiplicative factors for both threshold and suprathreshold levels. The temperature coefficient (Q10) for cutaneous sensitivity under these conditions was approximately 1.3.

  5. Advances in High Temperature Materials for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Nurul Amira Binti; Johar, Muhammad Akmal Bin; Ibrahim, Mohd Halim Irwan Bin; Marwah, Omar Mohd Faizan bin

    2017-08-01

    In today’s technology, additive manufacturing has evolved over the year that commonly known as 3D printing. Currently, additive manufacturing have been applied for many industries such as for automotive, aerospace, medical and other commercial product. The technologies are supported by materials for the manufacturing process to produce high quality product. Plus, additive manufacturing technologies has been growth from the lowest to moderate and high technology to fulfil manufacturing industries obligation. Initially from simple 3D printing such as fused deposition modelling (FDM), poly-jet, inkjet printing, to selective laser sintering (SLS), and electron beam melting (EBM). However, the high technology of additive manufacturing nowadays really needs high investment to carry out the process for fine products. There are three foremost type of material which is polymer, metal and ceramic used for additive manufacturing application, and mostly they were in the form of wire feedstock or powder. In circumstance, it is crucial to recognize the characteristics of each type of materials used in order to understand the behaviours of the materials on high temperature application via additive manufacturing. Therefore, this review aims to provide excessive inquiry and gather the necessary information for further research on additive material materials for high temperature application. This paper also proposed a new material based on powder glass, which comes from recycled tempered glass from automotive industry, having a huge potential to be applied for high temperature application. The technique proposed for additive manufacturing will minimize some cost of modelling with same quality of products compare to the others advanced technology used for high temperature application.

  6. Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-05-15

    The goal of the Development of High Temperature Capacitor Technology and Manufacturing Capability program was to mature a production-ready supply chain for reliable 250°C FPE (fluorinated polyester) film capacitors by 2011. These high-temperature film capacitors enable both the down hole drilling and aerospace industries by enabling a variety of benefits including: - Deeper oil exploration in higher temperature and pressure environments - Enabling power electronic and control equipment to operate in higher temperature environments - Enabling reduced cooling requirements of electronics - Increasing reliability and life of capacitors operating below rated temperature - Enabling capacitors to handle higher electrical losses without overheating. The key challenges to bringing the FPE film capacitors to market have been manufacturing challenges including: - FPE Film is difficult to handle and wind, resulting in poor yields - Voltage breakdown strength decreases when the film is wound into capacitors (~70% decrease) - Encapsulation technologies must be improved to enable higher perature operation - Manufacturing and test cycle time is very long As a direct result of this program most of the manufacturing challenges have been met. The FPE film production metalization and winding yield has increased to over 82% from 70%, and the voltage breakdown strength of the wound capacitors has increased 270% to 189 V/μm. The high temperature packaging concepts are showing significant progress including promising results for lead attachments and hermetic packages at 200°C and non-hermetic packages at 250°C. Manufacturing and test cycle time will decrease as the market for FPE capacitors develops.

  7. The DARPA manufacturing initiative in high temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, K.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has a very aggressive Technology Base program in high temperature superconductivity. This program is expected to provide the basis for a specialized set of military products - passive microwave and millimeter wave devices - within the next three years. In order to get these high leverage products into military systems, a manufacturing base must be developed for HTSC components. A plan for DARPA in HTSC manufacturing is directly coupled with the ongoing DARPA materials and device oriented R and D program. In essence, this plan recommends a three phased effort: 1. Phase I (two years); Fund companies through R and D contracts for specialized HTSC components; prepare a detailed plan and develop an HTSC consortium. 2. Phase II (six years): Establish an HTSC Sematech initiative for electronic applications, including active devices. 3. Phase III (optional): Continue the HTSC Sematech with emphasis on high power applications

  8. How Nutrition Sensitive Are the Nutrition Policies of New Zealand Food Manufacturers? A Benchmarking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doonan, Rebecca; Field, Penny

    2017-12-19

    Nutrition sensitive policy addresses the underlying determinants of nutrition-related disease and is a powerful tool in reducing the incidence of non-communicable disease. Some members of the food industry have long standing commitments to health-oriented nutrition policies. The aim of this study was to develop and apply a balanced scorecard of nutrition sensitive indicators to the policies of influential New Zealand food and beverage manufacturers and explore factors affecting policy processes. The average nutrition sensitivity score of the twenty influential manufacturers policies was 42 against a benchmark of 75. Some manufacturers performed well whilst others had substantial scope for improvement, the largest variation was in policy development and implementation, whereas nutrition quality was relatively consistent. Manufacturers with written policy ( n = 11) scored on average three times higher than their counterparts with verbal policy. The value a manufacturer placed on nutrition influenced whether formal nutrition policies were developed. The reputational risk of failing to deliver on publicly declared nutrition commitments acted as an informal accountability mechanism. We conclude the balanced scorecard offers a useful tool for assessing the nutrition sensitivity of influential food and beverage manufacturers' policies. Our results provide a baseline for repeat assessments of the nutrition sensitivity of food manufacturers' policies.

  9. The Development of High Temperature Thermoplastic Composite Materials for Additive Manufactured Autoclave Tooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lindahl, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hassen, Ahmed A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In this work, ORNL and Techmer investigated and screened different high temperature thermoplastic reinforced materials to fabricate composite molds for autoclave processes using Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques. This project directly led to the development and commercial release of two printable, high temperature composite materials available through Techmer PM. These new materials are targeted for high temperature tooling made via large scale additive manufacturing.

  10. Temperature sheets and aspect sensitive radar echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Luce

    Full Text Available here have been years of discussion and controversy about the existence of very thin and stable temperature sheets and their relationship to the VHF radar aspect sensitivity. It is only recently that very high-resolution in situ temperature observations have brought credence to the reality and ubiquity of these structures in the free atmosphere and to their contribution to radar echo enhancements along the vertical. Indeed, measurements with very high-resolution sensors are still extremely rare and rather difficult to obtain outside of the planetary boundary layer. They have only been carried out up to the lower stratosphere by Service d’A´ eronomie (CNRS, France for about 10 years. The controversy also persisted due to the volume resolution of the (Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere VHF radars which is coarse with respect to sheet thickness, although widely sufficient for meteorological or mesoscale investigations. The contribution within the range gate of many of these structures, which are advected by the wind, and decay and grow at different instants and could be distorted either by internal gravity waves or turbulence fields, could lead to radar echoes with statistical properties similar to those produced by anisotropic turbulence. Some questions thus remain regarding the manner in which temperature sheets contribute to VHF radar echoes. In particular, the zenithal and azimuthal angular dependence of the echo power may not only be produced by diffuse reflection on stable distorted or corrugated sheets, but also by extra contributions from anisotropic turbulence occurring in the stratified atmosphere. Thus, for several years, efforts have been put forth to improve the radar height resolution in order to better describe thin structures. Frequency interferometric techniques are widely used and have been recently further developed with the implementation of high-resolution data processings. We begin by reviewing briefly some characteristics

  11. Temperature sheets and aspect sensitive radar echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Luce

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available here have been years of discussion and controversy about the existence of very thin and stable temperature sheets and their relationship to the VHF radar aspect sensitivity. It is only recently that very high-resolution in situ temperature observations have brought credence to the reality and ubiquity of these structures in the free atmosphere and to their contribution to radar echo enhancements along the vertical. Indeed, measurements with very high-resolution sensors are still extremely rare and rather difficult to obtain outside of the planetary boundary layer. They have only been carried out up to the lower stratosphere by Service d’A´ eronomie (CNRS, France for about 10 years. The controversy also persisted due to the volume resolution of the (Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere VHF radars which is coarse with respect to sheet thickness, although widely sufficient for meteorological or mesoscale investigations. The contribution within the range gate of many of these structures, which are advected by the wind, and decay and grow at different instants and could be distorted either by internal gravity waves or turbulence fields, could lead to radar echoes with statistical properties similar to those produced by anisotropic turbulence. Some questions thus remain regarding the manner in which temperature sheets contribute to VHF radar echoes. In particular, the zenithal and azimuthal angular dependence of the echo power may not only be produced by diffuse reflection on stable distorted or corrugated sheets, but also by extra contributions from anisotropic turbulence occurring in the stratified atmosphere. Thus, for several years, efforts have been put forth to improve the radar height resolution in order to better describe thin structures. Frequency interferometric techniques are widely used and have been recently further developed with the implementation of high-resolution data processings. We begin by reviewing briefly some characteristics

  12. How Nutrition Sensitive Are the Nutrition Policies of New Zealand Food Manufacturers? A Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doonan, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Nutrition sensitive policy addresses the underlying determinants of nutrition-related disease and is a powerful tool in reducing the incidence of non-communicable disease. Some members of the food industry have long standing commitments to health-oriented nutrition policies. The aim of this study was to develop and apply a balanced scorecard of nutrition sensitive indicators to the policies of influential New Zealand food and beverage manufacturers and explore factors affecting policy processes. Results: The average nutrition sensitivity score of the twenty influential manufacturers policies was 42 against a benchmark of 75. Some manufacturers performed well whilst others had substantial scope for improvement, the largest variation was in policy development and implementation, whereas nutrition quality was relatively consistent. Manufacturers with written policy (n = 11) scored on average three times higher than their counterparts with verbal policy. The value a manufacturer placed on nutrition influenced whether formal nutrition policies were developed. The reputational risk of failing to deliver on publicly declared nutrition commitments acted as an informal accountability mechanism. We conclude the balanced scorecard offers a useful tool for assessing the nutrition sensitivity of influential food and beverage manufacturers’ policies. Our results provide a baseline for repeat assessments of the nutrition sensitivity of food manufacturers’ policies. PMID:29257049

  13. How Nutrition Sensitive Are the Nutrition Policies of New Zealand Food Manufacturers? A Benchmarking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Doonan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition sensitive policy addresses the underlying determinants of nutrition-related disease and is a powerful tool in reducing the incidence of non-communicable disease. Some members of the food industry have long standing commitments to health-oriented nutrition policies. The aim of this study was to develop and apply a balanced scorecard of nutrition sensitive indicators to the policies of influential New Zealand food and beverage manufacturers and explore factors affecting policy processes. Results: The average nutrition sensitivity score of the twenty influential manufacturers policies was 42 against a benchmark of 75. Some manufacturers performed well whilst others had substantial scope for improvement, the largest variation was in policy development and implementation, whereas nutrition quality was relatively consistent. Manufacturers with written policy (n = 11 scored on average three times higher than their counterparts with verbal policy. The value a manufacturer placed on nutrition influenced whether formal nutrition policies were developed. The reputational risk of failing to deliver on publicly declared nutrition commitments acted as an informal accountability mechanism. We conclude the balanced scorecard offers a useful tool for assessing the nutrition sensitivity of influential food and beverage manufacturers’ policies. Our results provide a baseline for repeat assessments of the nutrition sensitivity of food manufacturers’ policies.

  14. Temperature sensitive surfaces and methods of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang [Richland, WA; Rieke, Peter C [Pasco, WA; Alford, Kentin L [Pasco, WA

    2002-09-10

    Poly-n-isopropylacrylamide surface coatings demonstrate the useful property of being able to switch charateristics depending upon temperature. More specifically, these coatings switch from being hydrophilic at low temperature to hydrophobic at high temperature. Research has been conducted for many years to better characterize and control the properties of temperature sensitive coatings. The present invention provides novel temperature sensitive coatings on articles and novel methods of making temperature sensitive coatings that are disposed on the surfaces of various articles. These novel coatings contain the reaction products of n-isopropylacrylamide and are characterized by their properties such as advancing contact angles. Numerous other characteristics such as coating thickness, surface roughness, and hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic transition temperatures are also described. The present invention includes articles having temperature-sensitve coatings with improved properties as well as improved methods for forming temperature sensitive coatings.

  15. Sensitivity to temperature of nuclear energy generation by hydrogen burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitalas, R.

    1981-01-01

    The sensitivity to temperature of nuclear energy generation by hydrogen burning is discussed. The complexity of the sensitivity is due to the different equilibration time-scales of the constituents of the p-p chain and CN cycle and the dependence of their abundances and time-scales on temperature. The time-scale of the temperature perturbation, compared to the equilibrium time-scale of a constituent, determines whether the constituent is in equilibrium and affects the sensitivity. The temperature sensitivity of the p-p chain for different values of hydrogen abundance, when different constituents come into equilibrium is presented, as well as its variation with 3 He abundance. The temperature sensitivity is drastically different from n 11 , the temperature sensitivity of the proton-proton reaction, unless the time-scale of temperature perturbation is long enough for 3 He to remain in equilibrium. Even in this case the sensitivity of the p-p chain differs significantly from n 11 , unless the temperature is so low that PP II and PP III chains can be neglected. The variation of the sensitivity of CN energy generation is small for different time-scales of temperature variation, because the temperature sensitivities of individual reactions are so similar. The combined sensitivity to temperature of energy generation by hydrogen burning is presented and shown to have a maximum of 16.4 at T 6 = 24.5. For T 6 > 25 the temperature sensitivity is given by the sensitivity of 14 N + p reaction. (author)

  16. Temperature sensitive self-actuated scram mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The apparatus, described in detail, accurately infers the average coolant temperature exiting from the reactor core in a liquid metal cooled reactor and rapidly and reliably actuates a safety rod release mechanism on the occurrence of a critical temperature. The output temperature is inferred from the cooperative effect of the flow rate through a coolant flow path within the safety assembly and the heat generated by sensor fuel pins. The inferred temperature is sensed by a confined fluid having a high expansion coefficient; the expansion is transferred to a linear force used to actuate the release mechanism. The system may be contained within the safety assembly and does not interfere with the operation of the plant protection system scram mode. It is resetable after a scram. The time interval between the overtemperature and the insertion of the safety rods is short enough to preclude fuel damage. (U.K.)

  17. Divergent apparent temperature sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystem respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing Song; Shuli Niu; Ruise Luo; Yiqi Luo; Jiquan Chen; Guirui Yu; Janusz Olejnik; Georg Wohlfahrt; Gerard Kiely; Ako Noormets; Leonardo Montagnani; Alessandro Cescatti; Vincenzo Magliulo; Beverly Elizabeth Law; Magnus Lund; Andrej Varlagin; Antonio Raschi; Matthias Peichl; Mats B. Nilsson; Lutz Merbold

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies revealed convergent temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration (Re) within aquatic ecosystems and between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We do not know yet whether various terrestrial ecosystems have consistent or divergent temperature sensitivity. Here, we synthesized 163 eddy covariance flux sites across the world and...

  18. Ultrahigh temperature-sensitive silicon MZI with titania cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Moo eLee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a possibility of intensifying temperature sensitivity of a silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI by using a highly negative thermo-optic property of titania (TiO2. Temperature sensitivity of an asymmetric silicon MZI with a titania cladding is experimentally measured from +18pm/C to -340 pm/C depending on design parameters of MZI.

  19. Temperature sensitive self-actuated scram mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuggio, N.; Noyes, R.C.; Zaman, S.U.

    1982-01-01

    This invention provides a mechanism for rapidly dropping a neutron absorbing poison material into the core of an LMFBR type reactor, and in particular a mechanism that is self-actuated when the reactor coolant temperature reaches a critical value. A safety duct located in the reactor core and extending above the core contains an inner column that provides a vertical coolant flow path through the duct. One or more fuel pins are located in the duct, with a temperature-responsive actuator near their upper ends. A poison bundle surrounds the inner column within the duct, held in position by a release mechanism connected to the actuator. The inferred core temperature is sensed by a fluid confined within the actuator, and the expansion of the fluid is translated into a linear force used to activate the release mechanism

  20. Temperature sensitive self-actuated scram mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuggio, N.; Noyes, R.C.; Zaman, S.U.

    1980-01-01

    A self-actuated mechanism within a safety assembly in a liquid metal nuclear reactor comprising sensor fuel pins located in a reactor coolant flow path, a sensor bulb containing NaK located near the upper end of the sensor fuel pins and in the reactor coolant flow path, and a sensor tube connecting the sensor bulb to a metal bellows and push rod. The motion of the push rod resulting from the temperature dependent change in the NaK volume actuates a safety rod release mechanism when a predetermined coolant temperature is reached

  1. Effect of Temperature on the Toughness of Locally Manufactured Low Alloy Steel SUP9 Used for Manufacturing Leaf Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ishaque Abro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat treatment on locally manufactured low alloy steel grade SUP9 most frequently used in making leaf springs for automobiles was studied. While for determination of toughness and hardness Charpy impact testing machine and Rockwell hardness tester were used. The cryogenic test temperatures were achieved by soaking the samples in liquid nitrogen and temperature was measured using digital thermometer capable of reading the temperature from -40-200oC. Hardening, tempering and austempering treatments were conducted using muffle furnace and salt bath furnace. After heat treatment samples were quenched in oil. The results of present work confirmed that toughness and hardness are inversely related with each other and are highly dependent on the type of heat treatment employed. Highest toughness was measured after austempering at 450oC. Effect of test temperature revealed that toughness of the samples increased significantly with decreasing temperature. DBTT (Ductile to Brittle Transition Temperature of the austempered samples was observed at -10oC, whereas, that of tempered samples could not be determined. Based on the test results authors wish to recommend the 600oC tempering temperature in place of 450oC where normally tempering is practiced in Alwin industry Karachi during manufacturing of leaf spring.

  2. Greater temperature sensitivity of plant phenology at colder sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prevey, Janet; Vellend, Mark; Ruger, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Warmer temperatures are accelerating the phenology of organisms around the world. Temperature sensitivity of phenology might be greater in colder, higher latitude sites than in warmer regions, in part because small changes in temperature constitute greater relative changes in thermal balance...

  3. Sensitivity of stock market indices to oil prices: Evidence from manufacturing sub-sectors in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eksi Halil Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil price is a critical cost factor for manufacturing industries that are of vital importance for economic growth. This study examines the relationship between crude oil prices and the indices of seven Turkish manufacturing sub-sectors over the period 1997:01-2009:12. The error correction model results reveal the long term causality from crude oil prices to chemical petroleum-plastic and basic metal sub-sectors indicating that these sub-sectors are highly sensitive to crude oil prices. We find no causal relationship for other sector indices for short or long time periods.

  4. Dopamine modulates metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Ueno

    Full Text Available Homeothermal animals, such as mammals, maintain their body temperature by heat generation and heat dissipation, while poikilothermal animals, such as insects, accomplish it by relocating to an environment of their favored temperature. Catecholamines are known to regulate thermogenesis and metabolic rate in mammals, but their roles in other animals are poorly understood. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used as a model system for the genetic studies of temperature preference behavior. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic rate and temperature sensitivity of some temperature sensitive behaviors are regulated by dopamine in Drosophila. Temperature-sensitive molecules like dTrpA1 and shi(ts induce temperature-dependent behavioral changes, and the temperature at which the changes are induced were lowered in the dopamine transporter-defective mutant, fumin. The mutant also displays a preference for lower temperatures. This thermophobic phenotype was rescued by the genetic recovery of the dopamine transporter in dopamine neurons. Flies fed with a dopamine biosynthesis inhibitor (3-iodo-L-tyrosine, which diminishes dopamine signaling, exhibited preference for a higher temperature. Furthermore, we found that the metabolic rate is up-regulated in the fumin mutant. Taken together, dopamine has functions in the temperature sensitivity of behavioral changes and metabolic rate regulation in Drosophila, as well as its previously reported functions in arousal/sleep regulation.

  5. High temperature structural ceramic materials manufactured by the CNTD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiglich, J.J. Jr.; Bhat, D.G.; Holzl, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Controlled Nucleation Thermochemical Deposition (CNTD) has emerged from classical chemical deposition (CVD) technology. This paper describes the techniques of thermochemical grain refinement. The effects of such refinement on mechanical properties of materials at room temperature and at elevated temperatures are outlined. Emphasis is given to high temperature structural ceramic materials such as SiC, Si 3 N 4 , AlN, and TiB 2 and ZrB 2 . An example of grain refinement accompanied by improvements in mechanical properties is SiC. Grain sizes of 500 to 1000 A have been observed in CNTD SiC with room temperature MOR of 1380 to 2070 MPa (4 pt bending) and MOR of 3450 to 4140 MPa (4 pt bending) at 1350 0 C. Various applications of these materials to the solution of high temperature structural problems are described. (author)

  6. Temperature sensitivity of respiration scales with organic matter recalcitrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craine, J. M.; Fierer, N.; McLauchlan, K. K.

    2010-12-01

    Microbial decomposition of soil organic matter is a key process in determining the carbon sequestration potential of ecosystems and carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. Since microbial decomposition is highly sensitive to short-term changes in temperature, predicting the temperature sensitivity of microbial decomposition is critical to predicting future atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and feedbacks to anthropogenic warming. Fundamental principles of enzyme kinetics, embodied in the carbon-quality temperature hypothesis, predict that the temperature sensitivity of microbial decomposition should increase with increasing biochemical recalcitrance of a substrate. To test the generality of this principle, we measured the temperature sensitivity of microbial respiration of soil organic matter with serial short-term temperature manipulations over 365 days for 28 North American soils. When joined with data from similar studies that represent a wide variety of contrasts, we show that the temperature sensitivity of organic matter decomposition scales with biochemical recalcitrance. With physico-chemical protection likely an important covariate for relating plant and soil organic matter decomposition scalars, biochemically recalcitrant organic matter is highly susceptible to short-term increases in temperature, a key link in predicting the effects of warming on carbon cycling.

  7. Fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer with controllable temperature sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinpu; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Yang

    2015-12-01

    We proposed a fiber taper based on the Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer structure with controllable temperature sensitivity. The FP interferometer is formed by inserting a segment of tapered fiber tip into the capillary and subsequently splicing the other end of the capillary to a single-mode fiber (SMF), the tapered fiber endface, and the spliced face form the FP cavity. Through controlling the inserted tapered fiber length, a series of FP interferometers were made. Because the inserted taper tip has the degree of freedom along the fiber axial, when the FP interferometer is subjected to temperature variation, the thermal expansion of the fiber taper tip will resist the FP cavity length change caused by the evolution of capillary length, and we can control the temperature sensitivity by adjusting the inserted taper length. In this structure, the equivalent thermal expansion coefficient of the FP interferometer can be defined; it was used to evaluate the temperature sensitivity of the FP interferometer, which provides an effective method to eliminate the temperature effect and to enhance other measurement accuracy. We fabricated the FP interferometers and calibrated their temperature characters by measuring the wavelength shift of the resonance dips in the reflection spectrum. In a temperature range of 50°C to 150°C, the corresponding temperature sensitivities can be controlled between 0 and 1.97 pm/°C when the inserted taper is between 75 and 160 μm. Because of its controllable temperature sensitivity, ease of fabrication, and low cost, this FP interferometer can meet different temperature sensitivity requirements in various application areas, especially in the fields which need temperature insensitivity.

  8. Articles for high temperature service and methods for their manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafi-Nour, Reza; Meschter, Peter Joel; Johnson, Curtis Alan; Luthra, Krishan Lal; Rosenzweig, Larry Steven

    2016-06-14

    An article for use in aggressive environments is presented. In one embodiment, the article comprises a substrate and a self-sealing and substantially hermetic sealing layer comprising an alkaline-earth aluminosilicate disposed over the bondcoat. The substrate may be any high-temperature material, including, for instance, silicon-bearing ceramics and ceramic matrix composites. A method for making such articles is also presented. The method comprises providing a substrate; disposing a self-sealing alkaline-earth aluminosilicate layer over the substrate; and heating the sealing layer to a sealing temperature at which at least a portion of the sealing layer will flow.

  9. Effect of Propellant Composition to the Temperature Sensitivity of Composite Propellant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Amir; Mamat, Rizalman; Amin, Makeen; Wan Ali, Wan Khairuddin

    2012-01-01

    The propellant composition is one of several parameter that influencing the temperature sensitivity of composite propellant. In this paper, experimental investigation of temperature sensitivity in burning rate of composite propellant was conducted. Four sets of different propellant compositions had been prepared with the combination of ammonium perchlorate (AP) as an oxidizer, aluminum (Al) as fuel and hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) as fuel and binder. For each mixture, HTPB binder was fixed at 15% and cured with isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). By varying AP and Al, the effect of oxidizer- fuel mixture ratio (O/F) on the whole propellant can be determined. The propellant strands were manufactured using compression molded method and burnt in a strand burner using wire technique over a range of pressure from 1 atm to 31 atm. The results obtained shows that the temperature sensitivity, a, increases with increasing O/F. Propellant p80 which has O/F ratio of 80/20 gives the highest value of temperature sensitivity which is 1.687. The results shows that the propellant composition has significant effect on the temperature sensitivity of composite propellant

  10. Targeted drug delivery using temperature-sensitive liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magin, R.L.; Niesman, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Liposomes are receiving considerable attention as vehicles for selective drug delivery. One method of targeting liposomal contents involves the combination of local hyperthermia with temperature-sensitive liposomes. Such liposomes have been used to increase the uptake of methotrexate and cis-platinum into locally heated mouse tumors. However, additional information is needed on the mechanism of liposome drug release and the physiologic deposition of liposomes in vivo before clinical trails are begun. Current research is directed at studying the encapsulation and release of water soluble drugs from temperature-sensitive liposomes. The influence of liposome size, structure, and composition on the rapid release in plasma of cytosine arabinoside, cis-platinum, and the radiation sensitizer SR-2508 are described. These results demonstrate potential applications for temperature-sensitive liposomes in selective drug delivery

  11. Sensitivity calculation of the coolant temperature regarding the thermohydraulic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Lima, F.R. de; Silva, F.C. da; Thome Filho, Z.D.; Alvim, A.C.M.; Oliveira Barroso, A.C. de.

    1985-01-01

    It's studied the application of the Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) in the sensitivity calculation of thermalhydraulic problems, aiming at verifying the viability of the extension of the method. For this, the axial distribution, transient, of the coolant temperature in a PWR channel are considered. Perturbation expressions are developed using the GPT formalism, and a computer code (Tempera) is written, to calculate the channel temperature distribution and the associated importance function, as well as the effect of the thermalhydraulic parameters variations in the coolant temperature (sensitivity calculation). The results are compared with those from the direct calculation. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Monitoring the effects of atmospheric ethylene near polyethylene manufacturing plants with two sensitive plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Berge, W.F. ten; Jansen, B.P.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric ethylene from polyethylene manufacturing plants adversely affected the number of flowers and growth of field-grown marigold and petunia. - Data of a multi-year (1977-1983) biomonitoring programme with marigold and petunia around polyethylene manufacturing plants was analysed to assess plant responses to atmospheric ethylene and to determine the area at risk for the phytotoxic effects of this pollutant. In both species, flower formation and growth were severely reduced close to the emission sources and plant performance improved with increasing distance. Plants exposed near the border of the research area had more flowers than the unexposed control while their growth was normal. Measurements of ethylene concentrations at a border site revealed that the growing season mean was 61.5 μg m -3 in 1982 and 15.6 μg m -3 in 1983. In terms of number of flowers, petunia was more sensitive than marigold and adverse effects were observed within ca. 400 m distance from the sources for marigold and within ca. 460 m for petunia. The area at risk (ca. 870 m) for ethylene-induced growth reduction was also limited to the industrial zone. Plants were more sensitive to ethylene in terms of growth reduction than in terms of inhibition of flowering. In the Netherlands, maximum permissible levels of ethylene are currently based on information from laboratory and greenhouse studies. Our results indicate that these levels are rather conservative in protecting field-grown plants against ethylene-induced injury near polyethylene manufacturing plants

  13. Manufacturing error sensitivity analysis and optimal design method of cable-network antenna structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yali; Hu, Naigang; Duan, Baoyan; Yang, Guigeng; Cao, Hongjun; Xu, Wanye

    2016-03-01

    Inevitable manufacturing errors and inconsistency between assumed and actual boundary conditions can affect the shape precision and cable tensions of a cable-network antenna, and even result in failure of the structure in service. In this paper, an analytical sensitivity analysis method of the shape precision and cable tensions with respect to the parameters carrying uncertainty was studied. Based on the sensitivity analysis, an optimal design procedure was proposed to alleviate the effects of the parameters that carry uncertainty. The validity of the calculated sensitivities is examined by those computed by a finite difference method. Comparison with a traditional design method shows that the presented design procedure can remarkably reduce the influence of the uncertainties on the antenna performance. Moreover, the results suggest that especially slender front net cables, thick tension ties, relatively slender boundary cables and high tension level can improve the ability of cable-network antenna structures to resist the effects of the uncertainties on the antenna performance.

  14. Trial manufacture of liquid nitrogen cooling High Temperature Superconductivity Motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, H; Nishikawa, T; Tsuda, T; Hondou, Y; Akita, Y; Takeda, T; Okazaki, T; Ohashi, S; Yoshida, Y

    2006-01-01

    We present a new high temperature superconductivity (HTS) synchronous motor using the liquid nitrogen as the refrigerant in this paper. This motor is designed to be used as the propulsion motor in ship. Because we use the liquid nitrogen as the refrigerant, it is possible to simplify the cooling equipments in the motor. And in our design, we apply the axial flux type of motor to simplify the cryostat of the HTS wires used to make the field coils. Here, the fields using the bismuth HTS wire for the HTS coils are fixed. Moreover, the cores used in the fields are separated from cryostat, and the armature applies the core-less structure. According to various the electromagnetic field analysis results, the new motor was designed and produced. The diameter of the motor is 650mm, and the width of the motor is 360mm. The motor's rated output is 8.8kW at 100rpm, while the overload output is 44kW, and the maximum efficiency is 97.7%. Also, in order to further miniaturize the motor, other magnetic field analysis have been done when the high-current-density type HTS wire was used and the permendur was used instead of magnetic steel plates. In this case, the motor's rated output is 12kW, and the overload output is 60kW

  15. Cryogenic fiber optic temperature sensor and method of manufacturing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochergin, Vladimir (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention teaches the fiber optic sensors temperature sensors for cryogenic temperature range with improved sensitivity and resolution, and method of making said sensors. In more detail, the present invention is related to enhancement of temperature sensitivity of fiber optic temperature sensors at cryogenic temperatures by utilizing nanomaterials with a thermal expansion coefficient that is smaller than the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber but larger in absolute value than the thermal expansion coefficient of the optical fiber at least over a range of temperatures.

  16. Adaptive Process Controls and Ultrasonics for High Temperature PEM MEA Manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walczyk, Daniel F. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2015-08-26

    The purpose of this 5-year DOE-sponsored project was to address major process bottlenecks associated with fuel cell manufacturing. New technologies were developed to significantly reduce pressing cycle time for high temperature PEM membrane electrode assembly (MEA) through the use of novel, robust ultrasonic (U/S) bonding processes along with low temperature (<100°C) PEM MEAs. In addition, greater manufacturing uniformity and performance was achieved through (a) an investigation into the causes of excessive variation in ultrasonically and thermally bonded MEAs using more diagnostics applied during the entire fabrication and cell build process, and (b) development of rapid, yet simple quality control measurement techniques for use by industry.

  17. Temperature Crosstalk Sensitivity of the Kummerow Rainfall Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Roy W.; Petrenko, Boris

    1999-01-01

    Even though the signal source for passive microwave retrievals is thermal emission, retrievals of non-temperature geophysical parameters typically do not explicitly take into account the effects of temperature change on the retrievals. For global change research, changes in geophysical parameters (e.g. water vapor, rainfall, etc.) are referenced to the accompanying changes in temperature. If the retrieval of a certain parameter has a cross-talk response from temperature change alone, the retrievals might not be very useful for climate research. We investigated the sensitivity of the Kummerow rainfall retrieval algorithm to changes in air temperature. It was found that there was little net change in total rainfall with air temperature change. However, there were non-negligible changes within individual rain rate categories.

  18. Calculation of coolant temperature sensitivity related to thermohydraulic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.C. da; Andrade Lima, F.R. de

    1985-01-01

    It is verified the viability to apply the generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) in the calculation of sensitivity for thermal-hydraulic problems. It was developed the TEMPERA code in FORTRAN-IV to transient calculations in the axial temperature distribution in a channel of PWR reactor and the associated importance function, as well as effects of variations of thermalhydraulic parameters in the coolant temperature. The results are compared with one which were obtained by direct calculation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. The identification of a sensitizing component used in the manufacturing of an ink ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Tapp, Loren; Durgam, Srinivas; Meade, B. Jean; Jackson, Laurel G.; Cohen, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Skin diseases including dermatitis constitute ≈ 30% of all occupational illnesses, with a high incidence in the printing industry. An outbreak of contact dermatitis among employees at an ink ribbon manufacturing plant was investigated by scientists from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Employees in the process areas of the plant were exposed to numerous chemicals and many had experienced skin rashes, especially after the introduction of a new ink ribbon product. To identify the causative agent(s) of the occupational dermatitis, the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) was used to identify the potential of the chemicals used in the manufacture of the ink ribbon to induce allergic contact dermatitis. Follow-up patch testing with the suspected allergens was conducted on exposed employees. Polyvinyl butyral, a chemical component used in the manufacture of the ink ribbon in question and other products, tested positive in the LLNA, with an EC3 of 3.6%, which identifies it as a potential sensitizer; however, no employees tested positive to this chemical during skin patch testing. This finding has implications beyond those described in this report because of occupational exposure to polyvinyl butyral outside of the printing industry. PMID:22375946

  20. Monitoring the effects of atmospheric ethylene near polyethylene manufacturing plants with two sensitive plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Berge, W.F. ten; Jansen, B.P

    2003-05-01

    Atmospheric ethylene from polyethylene manufacturing plants adversely affected the number of flowers and growth of field-grown marigold and petunia. - Data of a multi-year (1977-1983) biomonitoring programme with marigold and petunia around polyethylene manufacturing plants was analysed to assess plant responses to atmospheric ethylene and to determine the area at risk for the phytotoxic effects of this pollutant. In both species, flower formation and growth were severely reduced close to the emission sources and plant performance improved with increasing distance. Plants exposed near the border of the research area had more flowers than the unexposed control while their growth was normal. Measurements of ethylene concentrations at a border site revealed that the growing season mean was 61.5 {mu}g m{sup -3} in 1982 and 15.6 {mu}g m{sup -3} in 1983. In terms of number of flowers, petunia was more sensitive than marigold and adverse effects were observed within ca. 400 m distance from the sources for marigold and within ca. 460 m for petunia. The area at risk (ca. 870 m) for ethylene-induced growth reduction was also limited to the industrial zone. Plants were more sensitive to ethylene in terms of growth reduction than in terms of inhibition of flowering. In the Netherlands, maximum permissible levels of ethylene are currently based on information from laboratory and greenhouse studies. Our results indicate that these levels are rather conservative in protecting field-grown plants against ethylene-induced injury near polyethylene manufacturing plants.

  1. The relationship between virtual body ownership and temperature sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llobera, Joan; Sanchez-Vives, M. V.; Slater, Mel

    2013-01-01

    In the rubber hand illusion, tactile stimulation seen on a rubber hand, that is synchronous with tactile stimulation felt on the hidden real hand, can lead to an illusion of ownership over the rubber hand. This illusion has been shown to produce a temperature decrease in the hidden hand, suggesting that such illusory ownership produces disownership of the real hand. Here, we apply immersive virtual reality (VR) to experimentally investigate this with respect to sensitivity to temperature change. Forty participants experienced immersion in a VR with a virtual body (VB) seen from a first-person perspective. For half the participants, the VB was consistent in posture and movement with their own body, and in the other half, there was inconsistency. Temperature sensitivity on the palm of the hand was measured before and during the virtual experience. The results show that temperature sensitivity decreased in the consistent compared with the inconsistent condition. Moreover, the change in sensitivity was significantly correlated with the subjective illusion of virtual arm ownership but modulated by the illusion of ownership over the full VB. This suggests that a full body ownership illusion results in a unification of the virtual and real bodies into one overall entity—with proprioception and tactile sensations on the real body integrated with the visual presence of the VB. The results are interpreted in the framework of a ‘body matrix’ recently introduced into the literature. PMID:23720537

  2. Sensitivities and uncertainties of modeled ground temperatures in mountain environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gubler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Model evaluation is often performed at few locations due to the lack of spatially distributed data. Since the quantification of model sensitivities and uncertainties can be performed independently from ground truth measurements, these analyses are suitable to test the influence of environmental variability on model evaluation. In this study, the sensitivities and uncertainties of a physically based mountain permafrost model are quantified within an artificial topography. The setting consists of different elevations and exposures combined with six ground types characterized by porosity and hydraulic properties. The analyses are performed for a combination of all factors, that allows for quantification of the variability of model sensitivities and uncertainties within a whole modeling domain. We found that model sensitivities and uncertainties vary strongly depending on different input factors such as topography or different soil types. The analysis shows that model evaluation performed at single locations may not be representative for the whole modeling domain. For example, the sensitivity of modeled mean annual ground temperature to ground albedo ranges between 0.5 and 4 °C depending on elevation, aspect and the ground type. South-exposed inclined locations are more sensitive to changes in ground albedo than north-exposed slopes since they receive more solar radiation. The sensitivity to ground albedo increases with decreasing elevation due to shorter duration of the snow cover. The sensitivity in the hydraulic properties changes considerably for different ground types: rock or clay, for instance, are not sensitive to uncertainties in the hydraulic properties, while for gravel or peat, accurate estimates of the hydraulic properties significantly improve modeled ground temperatures. The discretization of ground, snow and time have an impact on modeled mean annual ground temperature (MAGT that cannot be neglected (more than 1 °C for several

  3. Temperature sensitive riboflavin mutants of Penicillium vermiculatum Dangeard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, J.; Chaudhari, K.L.

    1974-01-01

    Two temperature sensitive UV induced riboflavin mutants rib 1 and rib 6 have been physiologically and genetically characterized. The two mutants behave differently with regard to their temperature sensitivity. The rib 1 mutant exhibits a leaky growth in minimal medium between 15 0 C and 30 0 C but grows well when the medium is supplemented with riboflavin. At 35 0 C the growth response of the mutant is at its max. and at 40 0 C and below 15 0 C it ceases to grow. The rib 6 mutant which is red brown in colour shows wild type character at temp. below 25 0 C in minimal medium but requires riboflavin at 30 0 C and above. Heterokaryotic analysis revealed the nonallelic nature of the two temperature mutants. Genetic tests of allelic relationship between riboflavin markers by crossing were also done. (author)

  4. On the sensitivity of annual streamflow to air temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, Paul C.D.; Kam, Jonghun; Dunne, Krista A.

    2018-01-01

    Although interannual streamflow variability is primarily a result of precipitation variability, temperature also plays a role. The relative weakness of the temperature effect at the annual time scale hinders understanding, but may belie substantial importance on climatic time scales. Here we develop and evaluate a simple theory relating variations of streamflow and evapotranspiration (E) to those of precipitation (P) and temperature. The theory is based on extensions of the Budyko water‐balance hypothesis, the Priestley‐Taylor theory for potential evapotranspiration ( ), and a linear model of interannual basin storage. The theory implies that the temperature affects streamflow by modifying evapotranspiration through a Clausius‐Clapeyron‐like relation and through the sensitivity of net radiation to temperature. We apply and test (1) a previously introduced “strong” extension of the Budyko hypothesis, which requires that the function linking temporal variations of the evapotranspiration ratio (E/P) and the index of dryness ( /P) at an annual time scale is identical to that linking interbasin variations of the corresponding long‐term means, and (2) a “weak” extension, which requires only that the annual evapotranspiration ratio depends uniquely on the annual index of dryness, and that the form of that dependence need not be known a priori nor be identical across basins. In application of the weak extension, the readily observed sensitivity of streamflow to precipitation contains crucial information about the sensitivity to potential evapotranspiration and, thence, to temperature. Implementation of the strong extension is problematic, whereas the weak extension appears to capture essential controls of the temperature effect efficiently.

  5. Two mutations which confer temperature-sensitive radiation sensitivity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, K.S.Y.; Mortimer, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    X-ray survival curves for two mutations, rad54 and rad55, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are presented. These mutations confer temperature sensitive X-ray sensitivity; that is, rad54 and rad55 strains display a wild type X-ray survival response at permissive temperatures and a radiosensitive X-ray survival response at restrictive temperatures. The survival response of cells which were shifted from a permissive to a restrictive temperature or vice versa at various post-irradiation times indicates that repair and fixation of X-ray induced lesions is largely complete three hours after X-irradiation. Experiments to determine the utilization sequence of the rad54 and rad55 gene products in the repair of X-ray induced damage suggest that the two products are required in an interdependent manner

  6. Validation of temperature-sensitive radio transmitters for measurement of body temperature in small animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Joseph B.; Tieleman, B. I.; Shobrak, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study on the core body temperature (T(b)) of desert birds, we purposed to use temperature-sensitive implantable radio transmitters. Because of the difficulty in recapturing these birds, we needed to know if these electronic devices held their calibration over the duration of normal

  7. Sensitivity of LUCC on the Surface Temperature of Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, W.; Deng, X.; Wu, F.

    2016-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau has an important effect on the ecological security in China, even in Asia, which makes the region become the hot spot in recently research. Under the joint influence of global change and human activities, ecosystem destabilizing and the increasing pressure on resources and environment emerge on the Tibetan Plateau, but the potential spatial sensitivity of land use and land cover changes(LUCC) on surface temperature has not been quantitatively analyzed. This study analyzed the mainly types of LUCC, urbanization, grassland degradation, deforestation on Tibetan Plateau along with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The LUCC in recent decades was first quantitatively analyzed in this study to give the basic fact with a significant increase in temperatures, reduced precipitation and increased evaporation. This study focused on the future spatio-temporal heterogeneity of the temperature and precipitation. Finally, the influencing factors with LUCC on Tibetan Plateau were simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and the sensitivity of different land use types was spatially analyzed with Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). The results indicate that the large-area alpine grassland plays a more important role in alleviating global warming than other vegetation types do. The changes of the landscape structure resulting from the urban expansion play a significant role in intensifying regional temperature increase. In addition, the effects of LUCC on monthly average temperature change would vary from month to month with obviously spatial heterogeneity.

  8. Water Recycling removal using temperature-sensitive hydronen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana B. Gupta

    2002-10-30

    The overall objective of this project was to study the proposed Water Recycling/Removal Using Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogels. The main element of this technology is the design of a suitable hydrogel that can perform needed water separation for pulp and paper industry. The specific topics studied are to answer following questions: (a) Can water be removed using hydrogel from large molecules such as lignin? (b) Can the rate of separation be made faster? (c) What are the molecular interactions with hydrogel surface? (d) Can a hydrogel be designed for a high ionic strength and high temperature? Summary of the specific results are given.

  9. Manufacturing and Characterization of Temperature-Stable, Novel, Viscoelastic Polyurea Based Foams for Impact Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Brian Josue

    The aim of this thesis was to develop advance, high performance polyurea foams for multi-hit capability in protective equipment that respond over a range of impact energies, temperatures, and strain rates. In addition, the microstructure of these materials should be tunable such that the peak stress (or force) transmitted across the foam section can be limited to a specific value defined by an injury threshold while maximizing impact energy absorption. Novel polyurea foams were manufactured and found to exhibit a reversible viscoelastic shear deformation at the molecular level. The intrinsic shear dissipation process is synergistically coupled to controlled collapse of a novel pore structure. The microstructure compromises of stochastic polyhedral cells ranging from 200 - 500 mum with perforated membranes with small apertures ( 20 mum). This makes them strain rate sensitive as the rate at which the air escapes the cells depend upon the loading rate. These mechanisms operate simultaneously and sequentially, thereby significantly reducing the transmitted impact forces across the foam section. Thus, they behave as an elastically modulated layered composite because the cells stiffen or soften in response to the changing loading rate. Therefore, the newly developed polyurea foams are able to manage the varying material strain rate that occurs within the same loading event without the need to modulate the stiffness or density. Additionally, polyurea foams were found to retain its excellent impact properties over a range of temperatures (0°C to 40°C) by having a glass transition temperature well below 0°C. This is in contrast to commercially available high performance foams that have the glass transition temperature near 0°C and absorb energy through phase transformation at ambient conditions, but significantly stiffen at lower temperatures, and dramatically soften at higher temperatures. This expands the application domain of polyurea foam material considerably as it

  10. Temperature dependence of heat sensitization and thermotolerance induction with ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henle, K.J.; Nagle, W.A.; Moss, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Cytoxicity of 1 M ethanol was strongly temperature dependent; survival curves between 34 0 and 39 0 C were similar to heat survival curves between 40 and 45 0 without ethanol. Ethanol was non-toxic at 22 0 ; at 34.5 0 and 35.5 0 ethanol survival curves were biphasic. The major effect of 1 M ethanol was an effective temperature shift of 6.4 Celsius degrees, although temperatures between 34 0 and 36 0 caused additional sensitization reminiscent of the stepdown heating phenomenon. Induction of thermotolerance with equitoxic ethanol exposures at 35.5 0 and 37 0 or with heat alone (10 min, 45 0 ) resulted in tolerance development with similar kinetics; in contrast, ethanol exposures at 22 0 did not induce any tolerance development with similar kinetics; in contrast, ethanol exposures at 22 0 did not induce any tolerance to hyperthermia. These data provide a rationale for conflicting reports in the literature regarding thermotolerance induction by ethanol and suggest that ethanol causes ''heat'' stress at temperatures that are generally considered to be physiological. This interpretation predicts that the use of ethanol and other organic solvents in high concentrations will cause effects at 37 0 that normally occur only at hyperthermic temperatures, including membrane perturbations and HSP synthesis, and that ''physiological'' temperatures must be precisely controlled under those conditions

  11. A Promising IFN-Deficient System to Manufacture IFN-Sensitive Influenza Vaccine Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Can; Fan, Wenhui; Li, Jing; Zheng, Weinan; Zhang, Shuang; Yang, Limin; Liu, Di; Liu, Wenjun; Sun, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-sensitive and replication-incompetent influenza viruses are likely to be the alternatives to inactivated and attenuated virus vaccines. Some IFN-sensitive influenza vaccine candidates with modified non-structural protein 1 (NS1) are highly attenuated in IFN-competent hosts but induce robust antiviral immune responses. However, little research has been done on the manufacturability of these IFN-sensitive vaccine viruses. Here, RIG-I-knockout 293T cells were used to package the IFN-sensitive influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus expressing the mutant NS1 R38A/K41A. We found that the packaging efficiency of the NS1 R38A/K41A virus in RIG-I-knockout 293T cells was much higher than that in 293T cells. Moreover, the NS1 R38A/K41A virus almost lost its IFN antagonist activity and could no longer replicate in A549, MDCK, and Vero cells after 3-6 passages. This indicated that the replication of NS1 R38A/K41A virus is limited in conventional cells. Therefore, we further established a stable Vero cell line expressing the wild-type (WT) NS1 of the WSN virus, based on the Tet-On 3G system. The NS1 R38A/K41A virus was able to steadily propagate in this IFN-deficient cell line for at least 20 passages. In a mouse model, the NS1 R38A/K41A virus showed more than a 4-log reduction in lung virus titers compared to the WT virus at 3 and 5 days post infection. Furthermore, we observed that the NS1 R38A/K41A virus triggered high-level of IFN-α/β production in lung tissues and was eliminated from the host in a relatively short period of time. Additionally, this virus induced high-titer neutralizing antibodies against the WT WSN, A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8), or A/California/04/2009 (CA04) viruses and provided 100% protection against the WT WSN virus. Thus, we found that the replication of the NS1 R38A/K41A virus was limited in IFN-competent cells and mice. We also presented a promising IFN-deficient system, involving a RIG-I-knockout 293T cell line to package the IFN-sensitive

  12. Low-Cost Wireless Temperature Measurement: Design, Manufacture, and Testing of a PCB-Based Wireless Passive Temperature Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Yang, Yong; Hong, Yingping; Liang, Ting; Yao, Zong; Chen, Xiaoyong; Xiong, Jijun

    2018-02-10

    Low-cost wireless temperature measurement has significant value in the food industry, logistics, agriculture, portable medical equipment, intelligent wireless health monitoring, and many areas in everyday life. A wireless passive temperature sensor based on PCB (Printed Circuit Board) materials is reported in this paper. The advantages of the sensor include simple mechanical structure, convenient processing, low-cost, and easiness in integration. The temperature-sensitive structure of the sensor is a dielectric-loaded resonant cavity, consisting of the PCB substrate. The sensitive structure also integrates a patch antenna for the transmission of temperature signals. The temperature sensing mechanism of the sensor is the dielectric constant of the PCB substrate changes with temperature, which causes the resonant frequency variation of the resonator. Then the temperature can be measured by detecting the changes in the sensor's working frequency. The PCB-based wireless passive temperature sensor prototype is prepared through theoretical design, parameter analysis, software simulation, and experimental testing. The high- and low-temperature sensing performance of the sensor is tested, respectively. The resonant frequency decreases from 2.434 GHz to 2.379 GHz as the temperature increases from -40 °C to 125 °C. The fitting curve proves that the experimental data have good linearity. Three repetitive tests proved that the sensor possess well repeatability. The average sensitivity is 347.45 KHz / ℃ from repetitive measurements conducted three times. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the PCB-based wireless passive sensor, which provides a low-cost temperature sensing solution for everyday life, modern agriculture, thriving intelligent health devices, and so on, and also enriches PCB product lines and applications.

  13. Identification of a novel temperature sensitive promoter in cho cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesse Friedemann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO expression system is the leading production platform for manufacturing biopharmaceuticals for the treatment of numerous human diseases. Efforts to optimize the production process also include the genetic construct encoding the therapeutic gene. Here we report about the successful identification of an endogenous highly active gene promoter obtained from CHO cells which shows conditionally inducible gene expression at reduced temperature. Results Based on CHO microarray expression data abundantly transcribed genes were selected as potential promoter candidates. The S100a6 (calcyclin and its flanking regions were identified from a genomic CHO-K1 lambda-phage library. Computational analyses showed a predicted TSS, a TATA-box and several TFBSs within the 1.5 kb region upstream the ATG start signal. Various constructs were investigated for promoter activity at 37°C and 33°C in transient luciferase reporter gene assays. Most constructs showed expression levels even higher than the SV40 control and on average a more than two-fold increase at lower temperature. We identified the core promoter sequence (222 bp comprising two SP1 sites and could show a further increase in activity by duplication of this minimal sequence. Conclusions This novel CHO promoter permits conditionally high-level gene expression. Upon a shift to 33°C, a two to three-fold increase of basal productivity (already higher than SV40 promoter is achieved. This property is of particular advantage for a process with reduced expression during initial cell growth followed by the production phase at low temperature with a boost in expression. Additionally, production of toxic proteins becomes feasible, since cell metabolism and gene expression do not directly interfere. The CHO S100a6 promoter can be characterized as cold-shock responsive with the potential for improving process performance of mammalian expression systems.

  14. Temperature uniformity mapping in a high pressure high temperature reactor using a temperature sensitive indicator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grauwet, T.; Plancken, van der I.; Vervoort, L.; Matser, A.M.; Hendrickx, M.; Loey, van A.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the first prototype ovomucoid-based pressure–temperature–time indicator (pTTI) for high pressure high temperature (HPHT) processing was described. However, for temperature uniformity mapping of high pressure (HP) vessels under HPHT sterilization conditions, this prototype needs to be

  15. Manufacturing and material properties of forgings for reactor pressure vessel of high temperature engineering test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, I.; Suzuki, K.

    1994-01-01

    For the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) which has been developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel is used first in the world. Material confirmation test has been carried out to demonstrate good applicability of forged low Si 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel to the RPV of HTTR. Recently, JSW has succeeded in the manufacturing of large size ring forgings and large size forged cover dome integrated with nozzles for stand pipe for the RPV. This paper describes the results of the material confirmation test as well as the manufacturing and material properties of the large forged cover dome integrated with nozzles for stand pipe. (orig.)

  16. Temperature sensitivity study of eddy current and digital gauge probes for nuclear fuel rod oxide measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Faith R.; Lind, R. Paul; Smith, James A.

    2018-04-01

    Novel fuels are part of the nationwide effort to reduce the enrichment of Uranium for energy production. Performance of such fuels is determined by irradiating their surfaces. To test irradiated samples, the instrumentation must operate remotely. The plate checker used in this experiment at Idaho National Lab (INL) performs non-destructive testing on fuel rod and plate geometries with two different types of sensors: eddy current and digital thickness gauges. The sensors measure oxide growth and total sample thickness on research fuels, respectively. Sensor measurement accuracy is crucial because even 10 microns of error is significant when determining the viability of an experimental fuel. One parameter known to affect the eddy current and thickness gauge sensors is temperature. Since both sensor accuracies depend on the ambient temperature of the system, the plate checker has been characterized for these sensitivities. The manufacturer of the digital gauge probes has noted a rather large coefficient of thermal expansion for their linear scale. It should also be noted that the accuracy of the digital gauge probes are specified at 20°C, which is approximately 7°C cooler than the average hot-cell temperature. In this work, the effect of temperature on the eddy current and digital gauge probes is studied, and thickness measurements are given as empirical functions of temperature.

  17. Sensitivity of regional climate to global temperature and forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tebaldi, Claudia; O’Neill, Brian; Lamarque, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity of regional climate to global average radiative forcing and temperature change is important for setting global climate policy targets and designing scenarios. Setting effective policy targets requires an understanding of the consequences exceeding them, even by small amounts, and the effective design of sets of scenarios requires the knowledge of how different emissions, concentrations, or forcing need to be in order to produce substantial differences in climate outcomes. Using an extensive database of climate model simulations, we quantify how differences in global average quantities relate to differences in both the spatial extent and magnitude of climate outcomes at regional (250–1250 km) scales. We show that differences of about 0.3 °C in global average temperature are required to generate statistically significant changes in regional annual average temperature over more than half of the Earth’s land surface. A global difference of 0.8 °C is necessary to produce regional warming over half the land surface that is not only significant but reaches at least 1 °C. As much as 2.5 to 3 °C is required for a statistically significant change in regional annual average precipitation that is equally pervasive. Global average temperature change provides a better metric than radiative forcing for indicating differences in regional climate outcomes due to the path dependency of the effects of radiative forcing. For example, a difference in radiative forcing of 0.5 W m −2 can produce statistically significant differences in regional temperature over an area that ranges between 30% and 85% of the land surface, depending on the forcing pathway. (letter)

  18. Design and Manufacture of Pin Tools for Friction Stir Welding of Temperature-Resistant Materials, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary goal of this SBIR Phase I project is to advance the development of low-cost, functionally graded laser additive manufactured high temperature refractory...

  19. Neighborhood properties are important determinants of temperature sensitive mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Lockwood

    Full Text Available Temperature-sensitive (TS mutants are powerful tools to study gene function in vivo. These mutants exhibit wild-type activity at permissive temperatures and reduced activity at restrictive temperatures. Although random mutagenesis can be used to generate TS mutants, the procedure is laborious and unfeasible in multicellular organisms. Further, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the TS phenotype are poorly understood. To elucidate TS mechanisms, we used a machine learning method-logistic regression-to investigate a large number of sequence and structure features. We developed and tested 133 features, describing properties of either the mutation site or the mutation site neighborhood. We defined three types of neighborhood using sequence distance, Euclidean distance, and topological distance. We discovered that neighborhood features outperformed mutation site features in predicting TS mutations. The most predictive features suggest that TS mutations tend to occur at buried and rigid residues, and are located at conserved protein domains. The environment of a buried residue often determines the overall structural stability of a protein, thus may lead to reversible activity change upon temperature switch. We developed TS prediction models based on logistic regression and the Lasso regularized procedure. Through a ten-fold cross-validation, we obtained the area under the curve of 0.91 for the model using both sequence and structure features. Testing on independent datasets suggested that the model predicted TS mutations with a 50% precision. In summary, our study elucidated the molecular basis of TS mutants and suggested the importance of neighborhood properties in determining TS mutations. We further developed models to predict TS mutations derived from single amino acid substitutions. In this way, TS mutants can be efficiently obtained through experimentally introducing the predicted mutations.

  20. Western Arctic Temperature Sensitivity Varies under Different Mean States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, W.; Russell, J. M.; Morrill, C.; Longo, W. M.; Giblin, A. E.; Holland-Stergar, P.; Hu, A.; Huang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is warming faster than anywhere on earth. Predictions of future change, however, are hindered by uncertainty in the mechanisms that underpin Arctic amplification. Data from Beringia (Alaska and Eastern Siberia) are particularly inconclusive with regards to both glacial-interglacial climate change as well as the presence or absence of abrupt climate change events such as the Younger Dryas. Here we investigate temperature change in Beringia from the last glacial maximum (LGM) to present using a unique 30 kyr lacustrine record of leaf wax hydrogen isotope ratios (δDwax) from Northern Alaska. We evaluate our results in the context of PMIP3 climate simulations as well as sensitivity tests of the effects of sea level and Bering Strait closure on Arctic Alaskan climate. The amplitude of LGM cooling in Alaska (-3.2 °C relative to pre-industrial) is smaller than other parts of North America and areas proximal to LGM ice sheets, but similar to Arctic Asia and Europe. This suggests that the local feedbacks (vegetation, etc.) had limited impacts on regional temperatures during the last ice-age, and suggests most of the Arctic exhibited similar responses to global climate boundary conditions. Deglacial warming was superimposed by a series of rapid warming events that encompass most of the temperature increase. These events are largely synchronous with abrupt events in the North Atlantic, but are amplified, muted, or even reversed in comparison depending on the mean climate state. For example, we observe warming during Heinrich 1 and during the submergence of the Bering Land Bridge, which are associated with cooling in the North Atlantic. Climate modeling suggests that opening of the Bering Strait controlled the amplitude and sign of millennial-scale temperature changes across the glacial termination.

  1. Sensitivity of Sump Water Temperature to Containment Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Misuk; Kim, Seoung Rae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    This paper is focused on the containment behavior analysis in the above described cases using GOTHIC-IST (generation of thermal-hydraulic information for containments, industry standard toolset). GOTHIC-IST version 7.2a is an integrated, general purpose thermal-hydraulics software package for design, licensing, safety and operating analysis of nuclear power plant containments and other confinement buildings. In this study, we perform the sensitivity the sump water temperature to containment integrity. For 35% RIH break accident with the malfunction of spray system, local air coolers, ECC(emergency core cooling) pump and heat exchanger, the peak pressure at boiler room do not exceed the design pressure 124kPa(g) of the containment and containment integrity is secured. If accompanied the malfunction of heat exchanger or pump in the time of low pressure safety injection, of ECCS, it will be one of the aggravating factors to the integrity of core and containment.

  2. Pattern centric design based sensitive patterns and process monitor in manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, Chingyun; Cheng, Guojie; Wu, Kechih

    2017-03-01

    When design rule is mitigating to smaller dimension, process variation requirement is tighter than ever and challenges the limits of device yield. Masks, lithography, etching and other processes have to meet very tight specifications in order to keep defect and CD within the margins of the process window. Conventionally, Inspection and metrology equipments are utilized to monitor and control wafer quality in-line. In high throughput optical inspection, nuisance and review-classification become a tedious labor intensive job in manufacturing. Certain high-resolution SEM images are taken to validate defects after optical inspection. These high resolution SEM images catch not only optical inspection highlighted point, also its surrounding patterns. However, this pattern information is not well utilized in conventional quality control method. Using this complementary design based pattern monitor not only monitors and analyzes the variation of patterns sensitivity but also reduce nuisance and highlight defective patterns or killer defects. After grouping in either single or multiple layers, systematic defects can be identified quickly in this flow. In this paper, we applied design based pattern monitor in different layers to monitor process variation impacts on all kinds of patterns. First, the contour of high resolutions SEM image is extracted and aligned to design with offset adjustment and fine alignment [1]. Second, specified pattern rules can be applied on design clip area, the same size as SEM image, and form POI (pattern of interest) areas. Third, the discrepancy of contour and design measurement at different pattern types in measurement blocks. Fourth, defective patterns are reported by discrepancy detection criteria and pattern grouping [4]. Meanwhile, reported pattern defects are ranked by number and severity by discrepancy. In this step, process sensitive high repeatable systematic defects can be identified quickly Through this design based process pattern

  3. Temperature-sensitive elastin-mimetic dendrimers: Effect of peptide length and dendrimer generation to temperature sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Chie; Irie, Kotaro; Tada, Tomoko; Tanaka, Naoki

    2014-06-01

    Dendrimers are synthetic macromolecules with unique structure, which are a potential scaffold for peptides. Elastin is one of the main components of extracellular matrix and a temperature-sensitive biomacromolecule. Previously, Val-Pro-Gly-Val-Gly peptides have been conjugated to a dendrimer for designing an elastin-mimetic dendrimer. In this study, various elastin-mimetic dendrimers using different length peptides and different dendrimer generations were synthesized to control the temperature dependency. The elastin-mimetic dendrimers formed β-turn structure by heating, which was similar to the elastin-like peptides. The elastin-mimetic dendrimers exhibited an inverse phase transition, largely depending on the peptide length and slightly depending on the dendrimer generation. The elastin-mimetic dendrimers formed aggregates after the phase transition. The endothermal peak was observed in elastin-mimetic dendrimers with long peptides, but not with short ones. The peptide length and the dendrimer generation are important factors to tune the temperature dependency on the elastin-mimetic dendrimer. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Time-temperature-sensitization and time-temperature-precipitation behavior of alloy 625

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, M.; Heubner, U.

    1996-01-01

    Time-Temperature-Sensitization diagrams have been established for a low-carbon version of alloy 625 (UNS N06625). Sensitization in terms of a 50 microm (2 mils) intergranular penetration criterion starts after about 3 h aging time at 750 C (soft annealed condition) or after less than 1 h aging time at 800 C (solution annealed condition) when tested according to ASTM-G 28 method A. Grain boundary precipitation of carbides occurs during aging of both the soft annealed and the solution annealed material, but the soft annealed material exhibits a more pronounced general precipitation of Ni 3 (Nb,Mo) phase giving rise to more distinct loss of ductility. Sensitization of alloy 625 may be retarded by lowering its iron content

  5. Trends and Variability in Temperature Sensitivity of Lilac Flowering Phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanjiong; Dai, Junhu; Rutishauser, This; Gonsamo, Alemu; Wu, Chaoyang; Ge, Quansheng

    2018-03-01

    The responses of plant phenology to temperature variability have many consequences for ecological processes, agriculture, forestry, and human health. Temperature sensitivity (ST) of phenology could measure how and to what degree plant could phenologically track climate change. The long-term trends and spatial patterns in ST have been well studied for vegetative phenology such as leaf unfolding, but trends to be expected for reproductive phenology in the future remain unknown. Here we investigate trends and factors driving the temporal variation of ST of first bloom date (FBD). Using the long-term FBD records during 1963-2013 for common lilac (Syringa vulgaris) from 613 stations in Europe, we compared changes in ST from the beginning to the end of the study period. The Spearman partial correlations were used to assess the importance of four influencing factors. The results showed that the temporal changes in ST of FBD varied considerably among time scales. Mean ST decreased significantly by 0.92 days °C-1 from 1963-1972 to 2004-2013 (P plant species in other climates and environments using similar methods to our study.

  6. Additive Manufacturing of NiTiHf High Temperature Shape Memory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benafan, Othmane; Bigelow, Glen S.; Elahinia, Mohammad; Moghaddam, Narges Shayesteh; Amerinatanzi, Amirhesam; Saedi, Soheil; Toker, Guher Pelin; Karaca, Haluk

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing of a NiTi-20Hf high temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) was investigated. A selective laser melting (SLM) process by Phenix3D Systems was used to develop components from NiTiHf powder (of approximately 25-75 m particle fractions), and the thermomechanical response was compared to the conventionally vacuum induction skull melted counterpart. Transformation temperatures of the SLM material were found to be slightly lower due to the additional oxygen pick up from the gas atomization and melting process. The shape memory response in compression was measured for stresses up to 500 MPa, and transformation strains were found to be very comparable (Up to 1.26 for the as-extruded; up to 1.52 for SLM).

  7. High-Sensitivity Temperature-Independent Silicon Photonic Microfluidic Biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kangbaek

    Optical biosensors that can precisely quantify the presence of specific molecular species in real time without the need for labeling have seen increased use in the drug discovery industry and molecular biology in general. Of the many possible optical biosensors, the TM mode Si biosensor is shown to be very attractive in the sensing application because of large field amplitude on the surface and cost effective CMOS VLSI fabrication. Noise is the most fundamental factor that limits the performance of sensors in development of high-sensitivity biosensors, and noise reduction techniques require precise studies and analysis. One such example stems from thermal fluctuations. Generally SOI biosensors are vulnerable to ambient temperature fluctuations because of large thermo-optic coefficient of silicon (˜2x10 -4 RIU/K), typically requiring another reference ring and readout sequence to compensate temperature induced noise. To address this problem, we designed sensors with a novel TM-mode shallow-ridge waveguide that provides both large surface amplitude for bulk and surface sensing. With proper design, this also provides large optical confinement in the aqueous cladding that renders the device athermal using the negative thermo-optic coefficient of water (~ --1x10-4RIU/K), demonstrating cancellation of thermo-optic effects for aqueous solution operation near 300K. Additional limitations resulting from mechanical actuator fluctuations, stability of tunable lasers, and large 1/f noise of lasers and sensor electronics can limit biosensor performance. Here we also present a simple harmonic feedback readout technique that obviates the need for spectrometers and tunable lasers. This feedback technique reduces the impact of 1/f noise to enable high-sensitivity, and a DSP lock-in with 256 kHz sampling rate can provide down to micros time scale monitoring for fast transitions in biomolecular concentration with potential for small volume and low cost. In this dissertation, a novel

  8. Improvements in quality of as-manufactured fuels for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Kazuo; Kikuchi, Hironobu; Tobita, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Kousaku; Kaneko, Mitsunobu; Suzuki, Nobuyuki; Yoshimuta, Shigeharu; Tomimoto, Hiroshi.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms of coating failure of the fuel particles for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors during coating and compaction processes of the fuel fabrication were studied to determine a way to reduce the defective particle fraction of the as-manufactured fuels. Through the observation of the defective particles, it was found that the coating failure during the coating process was mainly caused by the strong mechanical shocks to the particles given by violent particle fluidization in the coater and by unloading and loading of the particles. The coating failure during the compaction process was probably related to the direct contact with neighboring particles in the fuel compacts. The coating process was improved by optimizing the mode of the particle fluidization and by developing the process without unloading and loading of the particles at intermediate coating process. The compaction process was improved by optimizing the combination of the pressing temperature and the pressing speed of the overcoated particles. Through these modifications of the fabrication process, the quality of the as-manufactured fuel compacts was improved outstandingly. (author)

  9. Temperature-sensitive leaf color mutation in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Qingyao; Liu Guifu; Xia Yingwu

    1996-01-01

    Studies on the leaf color appearance of 4 chlorophyll-deficient mutation lines both in field and in phytotron were carried out. The mutation lines were induced by 60 Co gamma rays, and showed that white or yellow leaves at seedling stage were quite different from their-parent 2177 S, a thermal sensitive genie male sterile line and any other rice materials. The temperature had great influence on the expression of leaf color at seedling stage in the mutation lines. the leaf color was white at 30∼35 degree C for the lines W 4 and W 11 . The chlorophyll content of 1.5-leaf-age seedlings was 0.0219 and 0.0536 mg/g FW respectively for W 4 and W 11 at 35 degree C. When the temperature dropped to 20∼25 degree C, the seedlings showed yellow or yellowish and the chlorophyll content reached to 0.2410 and 0.3431 mg/g FW at 25 degree C, respectively. However, the responses to temperature for W 17 and W 25 were just the opposite. They were white at 20∼25 degree C, but appeared greenish at 30∼35 degree C. The chlorophyll content increased from 0.0813 and 0.0172 mg/g FW at 25 degree C to 1.0570 and 1.1367 mg/g FW at 35 degree C for the lines W 1 -7 and W 25 , respectively. The parent line 2177 S showed normal green and the chlorophyll content was between 2.108 and 2.118 mg/g FW. The W 11 is exception, which showed yellow to light green in lifetime, and all the mutation lines could convert to normal green after the extension of the fourth leaf. The chlorophyll content of 3.5-leaf-age W 4 and W 17 seedlings grown under 25 degree C reached to 2.2190 and 1.993 mg/g FW, which was about 86. 6% and 81.1% of that of 2177 S at the same stage. When grown at the temperature bellow 20 degree C, W 25 maintained white and could not changed into green after the 4th leaf extension, and showed a conditional lethal status

  10. High Temperature Thermoplastic Additive Manufacturing Using Low-Cost, Open-Source Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John M.; Stelter, Christopher J.; Yashin, Edward A.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) via Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), also known as Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), is a process where material is placed in specific locations layer-by-layer to create a complete part. Printers designed for FFF build parts by extruding a thermoplastic filament from a nozzle in a predetermined path. Originally developed for commercial printers, 3D printing via FFF has become accessible to a much larger community of users since the introduction of Reprap printers. These low-cost, desktop machines are typically used to print prototype parts or novelty items. As the adoption of desktop sized 3D printers broadens, there is increased demand for these machines to produce functional parts that can withstand harsher conditions such as high temperature and mechanical loads. Materials meeting these requirements tend to possess better mechanical properties and higher glass transition temperatures (Tg), thus requiring printers with high temperature printing capability. This report outlines the problems and solutions, and includes a detailed description of the machine design, printing parameters, and processes specific to high temperature thermoplastic 3D printing.

  11. Emergent constraint on equilibrium climate sensitivity from global temperature variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Peter M; Huntingford, Chris; Williamson, Mark S

    2018-01-17

    Equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) remains one of the most important unknowns in climate change science. ECS is defined as the global mean warming that would occur if the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration were instantly doubled and the climate were then brought to equilibrium with that new level of CO 2 . Despite its rather idealized definition, ECS has continuing relevance for international climate change agreements, which are often framed in terms of stabilization of global warming relative to the pre-industrial climate. However, the 'likely' range of ECS as stated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has remained at 1.5-4.5 degrees Celsius for more than 25 years. The possibility of a value of ECS towards the upper end of this range reduces the feasibility of avoiding 2 degrees Celsius of global warming, as required by the Paris Agreement. Here we present a new emergent constraint on ECS that yields a central estimate of 2.8 degrees Celsius with 66 per cent confidence limits (equivalent to the IPCC 'likely' range) of 2.2-3.4 degrees Celsius. Our approach is to focus on the variability of temperature about long-term historical warming, rather than on the warming trend itself. We use an ensemble of climate models to define an emergent relationship between ECS and a theoretically informed metric of global temperature variability. This metric of variability can also be calculated from observational records of global warming, which enables tighter constraints to be placed on ECS, reducing the probability of ECS being less than 1.5 degrees Celsius to less than 3 per cent, and the probability of ECS exceeding 4.5 degrees Celsius to less than 1 per cent.

  12. Emergent constraint on equilibrium climate sensitivity from global temperature variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Peter M.; Huntingford, Chris; Williamson, Mark S.

    2018-01-01

    Equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) remains one of the most important unknowns in climate change science. ECS is defined as the global mean warming that would occur if the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration were instantly doubled and the climate were then brought to equilibrium with that new level of CO2. Despite its rather idealized definition, ECS has continuing relevance for international climate change agreements, which are often framed in terms of stabilization of global warming relative to the pre-industrial climate. However, the ‘likely’ range of ECS as stated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has remained at 1.5-4.5 degrees Celsius for more than 25 years. The possibility of a value of ECS towards the upper end of this range reduces the feasibility of avoiding 2 degrees Celsius of global warming, as required by the Paris Agreement. Here we present a new emergent constraint on ECS that yields a central estimate of 2.8 degrees Celsius with 66 per cent confidence limits (equivalent to the IPCC ‘likely’ range) of 2.2-3.4 degrees Celsius. Our approach is to focus on the variability of temperature about long-term historical warming, rather than on the warming trend itself. We use an ensemble of climate models to define an emergent relationship between ECS and a theoretically informed metric of global temperature variability. This metric of variability can also be calculated from observational records of global warming, which enables tighter constraints to be placed on ECS, reducing the probability of ECS being less than 1.5 degrees Celsius to less than 3 per cent, and the probability of ECS exceeding 4.5 degrees Celsius to less than 1 per cent.

  13. Hypomorphic temperature-sensitive alleles of NSDHL cause CK syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarren, Keith W; Severson, Tesa M; du Souich, Christèle; Stockton, David W; Kratz, Lisa E; Cunningham, David; Hendson, Glenda; Morin, Ryan D; Wu, Diane; Paul, Jessica E; An, Jianghong; Nelson, Tanya N; Chou, Athena; DeBarber, Andrea E; Merkens, Louise S; Michaud, Jacques L; Waters, Paula J; Yin, Jingyi; McGillivray, Barbara; Demos, Michelle; Rouleau, Guy A; Grzeschik, Karl-Heinz; Smith, Raffaella; Tarpey, Patrick S; Shears, Debbie; Schwartz, Charles E; Gecz, Jozef; Stratton, Michael R; Arbour, Laura; Hurlburt, Jane; Van Allen, Margot I; Herman, Gail E; Zhao, Yongjun; Moore, Richard; Kelley, Richard I; Jones, Steven J M; Steiner, Robert D; Raymond, F Lucy; Marra, Marco A; Boerkoel, Cornelius F

    2010-12-10

    CK syndrome (CKS) is an X-linked recessive intellectual disability syndrome characterized by dysmorphism, cortical brain malformations, and an asthenic build. Through an X chromosome single-nucleotide variant scan in the first reported family, we identified linkage to a 5 Mb region on Xq28. Sequencing of this region detected a segregating 3 bp deletion (c.696_698del [p.Lys232del]) in exon 7 of NAD(P) dependent steroid dehydrogenase-like (NSDHL), a gene that encodes an enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. We also found that males with intellectual disability in another reported family with an NSDHL mutation (c.1098 dup [p.Arg367SerfsX33]) have CKS. These two mutations, which alter protein folding, show temperature-sensitive protein stability and complementation in Erg26-deficient yeast. As described for the allelic disorder CHILD syndrome, cells and cerebrospinal fluid from CKS patients have increased methyl sterol levels. We hypothesize that methyl sterol accumulation, not only cholesterol deficiency, causes CKS, given that cerebrospinal fluid cholesterol, plasma cholesterol, and plasma 24S-hydroxycholesterol levels are normal in males with CKS. In summary, CKS expands the spectrum of cholesterol-related disorders and insight into the role of cholesterol in human development. Copyright © 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Oil prices, SUVs, and Iraq. An investigation of automobile manufacturer oil price sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, Ken [United States Navy (United States); Schnusenberg, Oliver [Department of Accounting and Finance, Coggin College of Business, The University of North Florida, 1 UNF Drive, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    There has been much speculation about the recent upsurge in crude oil prices and the effect it will have on the economy and business. The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between oil prices and stock prices of automobile manufacturers. We add an oil price factor, measured alternatively by the excess change in WTI crude oil prices or the excess return on an energy ETF, to the Fama-French three-factor model over the period March 20, 2001 to September 30, 2008. Our dependent variable is the excess return on a price-weighted index of automobile manufacturers. Results indicate that oil prices add value to the pricing model, particularly for manufacturers specializing in SUVs and for a subperiod following the Iraq invasion on March 19, 2003. (author)

  15. Design and manufacture of ceramic heat pipes for high temperature applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, Peter; Jobst, Matthias; Lippmann, Wolfgang; Hurtado, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Heat exchangers based on ceramic heat pipes were designed for use under highly abrasive and corrosive atmospheres at temperatures in the range of 800–1200 °C for high-temperature power-engineering applications. The presented heat pipes are gravity assisted and based on a multi-layer concept comprising a ceramic cladding and an inner metal tube that contains sodium as the working fluid. Hermetical encapsulation of the working fluid was achieved by electron-beam welding of the inner metal tube. Subsequently, closure of the surrounding ceramic tube was performed by laser brazing technology using a glass solder. Temperature resistance and functionality of the manufactured ceramic thermosyphons could be confirmed experimentally in a hot combustion gas atmosphere at temperatures up to 1100 °C. The ceramic tubes used had an outer diameter of 22 mm and a total length of 770 mm. The measured axial heat transfer of the ceramic gravity assisted heat pipes at the stationary operating point with cold/hot gas temperature of 100 °C/900 °C was 400 W. The result of the calculation using the created mathematical model amounted to 459 W. - Highlights: • Heat-pipe design consists of a ceramic shell and an inner metallic tube. • Laser brazing technology is suitable to seal ceramic heat-pipes. • Thermal characteristic of double wall thermosyphon was modelled using FEM code. • Experimental investigations demonstrated functionality of double wall thermosyphons

  16. Self propagating high temperature synthesis of mixed carbide and boride powder systems for cutting tools manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallauri, D.; Cola, P.L. de; Piscone, F.; Amato, I.

    2001-01-01

    TiC-TiB 2 composites have been produced via SHS technique starting from low cost raw materials like TiO 2 , B 4 C, Mg. The influence of the diluent phase (Mg, TiC) content on combustion temperature has been investigated. The use of magnesium as the reductant phase allowed acid leaching of the undesired oxide product (MgO), leaving pure hard materials with fine particle size suitable to be employed in cutting tools manufacturing through cold pressing and sintering route. The densification has shown to be strongly dependent on the wetting additions. The influence of the metal binder and wetting additions on the sintering process has been investigated. A characterization of the obtained materials was performed by the point of view of cutting tools life (hardness, toughness, strength). (author)

  17. Human body temperature and new approaches to constructing temperature-sensitive bacterial vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Matthew D; Bosio, Catharine M; Duplantis, Barry N; Nano, Francis E

    2011-09-01

    Many of the live human and animal vaccines that are currently in use are attenuated by virtue of their temperature-sensitive (TS) replication. These vaccines are able to function because they can take advantage of sites in mammalian bodies that are cooler than the core temperature, where TS vaccines fail to replicate. In this article, we discuss the distribution of temperature in the human body, and relate how the temperature differential can be exploited for designing and using TS vaccines. We also examine how one of the coolest organs of the body, the skin, contains antigen-processing cells that can be targeted to provoke the desired immune response from a TS vaccine. We describe traditional approaches to making TS vaccines, and highlight new information and technologies that are being used to create a new generation of engineered TS vaccines. We pay particular attention to the recently described technology of substituting essential genes from Arctic bacteria for their homologues in mammalian pathogens as a way of creating TS vaccines.

  18. Monitoring the effects of atmospheric ethylene near polyethylene manufacturing plants with two sensitive plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonneijck, A.E.G.; Berge, ten W.F.; Jansen, B.P.

    2003-01-01

    Data of a multi-year (1977-1983) biomonitoring programme with marigold and petunia around polyethylene manufacturing plants was analysed to assess plant responses to atmospheric ethylene and to determine the area at risk for the phytotoxic effects of this pollutant. In both species, flower formation

  19. Sensitivity Modeling of On-chip Capacitances : Parasitics Extraction for Manufacturing Variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bi, Y.

    2012-01-01

    With each new generation of IC process technologies, the impact of manufacturing variability is increasing. As such, design optimality is harder and harder to achieve and effective modeling tools and methods are needed to capture the effects of variability in such a way that it is understandable and

  20. Temperature sensitivity of the penicillin-induced autolysis mechanism in nongrowing cultures of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Kusser, W; Ishiguro, E E

    1987-01-01

    The effect of incubation temperature on the ampicillin-induced autolysis of nongrowing Escherichia coli was determined. The autolysis mechanisms in amino acid-deprived relA mutant cells treated with chloramphenicol were temperature sensitive. This temperature-sensitive autolysis was demonstrated in three independent ways: turbidimetric determinations, viable cell counts, and solubilization of radiolabeled peptidoglycan.

  1. Influence of temperature on the formation and encapsulation of gold nanoparticles using a temperature-sensitive template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Peter Bengzon Tan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article describes the synthesis of temperature-sensitive and amine-rich microgel particle as a dual reductant and template to generate smart gold/polymer nanocomposite particle. TEM images illustrate the influence of reaction temperature on the formation and in-site encapsulation of gold nanoparticles using the temperature-sensitive microgel template. Thermal stability of the resultant gold/polymer composite particles was also examined.

  2. Manufacturing a Long-Period Grating with Periodic Thermal Diffusion Technology on High-NA Fiber and Its Application as a High-Temperature Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiang; Dai, Bin; Xing, Yingbin; Yang, Luyun; Li, Haiqing; Li, Jinyan; Peng, Jingang

    2018-05-08

    We demonstrated a kind of long-period fiber grating (LPFG), which is manufactured with a thermal diffusion treatment. The LPFG was inscribed on an ultrahigh-numerical-aperture (UHNA) fiber, highly doped with Ge and P, which was able to easily diffuse at high temperatures within a few seconds. We analyzed how the elements diffused at a high temperature over 1300 °C in the UHNA fiber. Then we developed a periodically heated technology with a CO₂ laser, which was able to cause the diffusion of the elements to constitute the modulations of an LPFG. With this technology, there is little damage to the outer structure of the fiber, which is different from the traditional LPFG, as it is periodically tapered. Since the LPFG itself was manufactured under high temperature, it can withstand higher temperatures than traditional LPFGs. Furthermore, the LPFG presents a higher sensitivity to high temperature due to the large amount of Ge doping, which is approximately 100 pm/°C. In addition, the LPFG shows insensitivity to the changing of the environment’s refractive index and strain.

  3. Low-temperature fabrication of TiO2 nanocrystalline film electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, G.; Lee, K.E.; Charboneau, C.; Demopoulos, G.P.; Gauvin, R. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Chimique

    2008-07-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have the potential to render solar energy widely accessible. The deposition of titania nano-crystalline powders on a substrate is an important step in the manufacture of the DSSC. The deposition forms a mesoporous thin film that is followed by thermal treatment and sensitization. Usually titania films are deposited on glass by screen printing and then annealed at temperatures as high as 530 degrees C to provide a good electrical contact between the semiconductor particles and crystallization of the anatase phase. Several research and development efforts have focused on the deposition of titania film on flexible plastic substrates that will simplify the whole manufacturing process in terms of flexibility, weight, application and cost. Lower temperature processing is needed for the preparation of plastic-based titania film electrodes, but this has proven to be counterproductive when it comes to the cell's conversion efficiency. This paper presented a comprehensive evaluation of the different coating and annealing techniques at low temperature as well as important processing factors for improvement. To date, these techniques include pressing, hydrothermal process, electrodeposition, electrophoretic deposition, microwave or UV irradiation, and lift-off technique.

  4. Determination of Strain Rate Sensitivity of Micro-struts Manufactured Using the Selective Laser Melting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümrük, Recep; Mines, R. A. W.; Karadeniz, Sami

    2018-03-01

    Micro-lattice structures manufactured using the selective laser melting (SLM) process provides the opportunity to realize optimal cellular materials for impact energy absorption. In this paper, strain rate-dependent material properties are measured for stainless steel 316L SLM micro-lattice struts in the strain rate range of 10-3 to 6000 s-1. At high strain rates, a novel version of the split Hopkinson Bar has been developed. Strain rate-dependent materials data have been used in Cowper-Symonds material model, and the scope and limit of this model in the context of SLM struts have been discussed. Strain rate material data and the Cowper-Symonds model have been applied to the finite element analysis of a micro-lattice block subjected to drop weight impact loading. The model output has been compared to experimental results, and it has been shown that the increase in crush stress due to impact loading is mainly the result of strain rate material behavior. Hence, a systematic methodology has been developed to investigate the impact energy absorption of a micro-lattice structure manufactured using additive layer manufacture (SLM). This methodology can be extended to other micro-lattice materials and configurations, and to other impact conditions.

  5. Passive Wireless Temperature Sensors with Enhanced Sensitivity and Range, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes the development of passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) temperature sensors with enhanced sensitivity and detection range for NASA application...

  6. The source of investment cash flow sensitivity in manufacturing firms: Is it asymmetric information or agency costs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Makina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, positive investment cash flow sensitivity is attributed to either asymmetric information induced financing constraints or the agency costs of free cash flow. Using data from a sample of 68 manufacturing firms listed on the South African JSE, this paper contributes to the literature by investigating the source of investment cash flow sensitivity. We have found that asymmetric information explains the positive investment cash flow sensitivity better than agency costs. Furthermore, asymmetric information has been observed to be more pronounced in low-dividend-paying firms and small firms. Despite South Africa’s having a developed financial system by international standards, small firms are seen to be financially constrained. We attribute the absence of investment cash flow sensitivity due to agency costs to good corporate governance of South African listed firms. Thus the paper provides further evidence in support of the proposition in the literature that the source of investment cash flow sensitivity may depend on the institutional setting of a country, such as its corporate governance.

  7. Implementing high-temperature short-time media treatment in commercial-scale cell culture manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlscheidt, Michael; Charaniya, Salim; Kulenovic, Fikret; Corrales, Mahalia; Shiratori, Masaru; Bourret, Justin; Meier, Steven; Fallon, Eric; Kiss, Robert

    2014-04-01

    The production of therapeutic proteins by mammalian cell culture is complex and sets high requirements for process, facility, and equipment design, as well as rigorous regulatory and quality standards. One particular point of concern and significant risk to supply chain is the susceptibility to contamination such as bacteria, fungi, mycoplasma, and viruses. Several technologies have been developed to create barriers for these agents to enter the process, e.g. filtration, UV inactivation, and temperature inactivation. However, if not implemented during development of the manufacturing process, these types of process changes can have significant impact on process performance if not managed appropriately. This article describes the implementation of the high-temperature short-time (HTST) treatment of cell culture media as an additional safety barrier against adventitious agents during the transfer of a large-scale commercial cell culture manufacturing process. The necessary steps and experiments, as well as subsequent results during qualification runs and routine manufacturing, are shown.

  8. Elevated Temperature, Residual Compressive Strength of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Structure Manufactured Out-of-Autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Sutter, James K.; Burke, Eric R.; Dixon, Genevieve D.; Gyekenyesi, Thomas G.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.

    2012-01-01

    Several 1/16th-scale curved sandwich composite panel sections of a 10 m diameter barrel were fabricated to demonstrate the manufacturability of large-scale curved sections using minimum gauge, [+60/-60/0]s, toughened epoxy composite facesheets co-cured with low density (50 kilograms per cubic meters) aluminum honeycomb core. One of these panels was fabricated out of autoclave (OoA) by the vacuum bag oven (VBO) process using Cycom(Registered Trademark) T40-800b/5320-1 prepreg system while another panel with the same lay-up and dimensions was fabricated using the autoclave-cure, toughened epoxy prepreg system Cycom(Registered Trademark) IM7/977-3. The resulting 2.44 m x 2 m curved panels were investigated by non-destructive evaluation (NDE) at NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) to determine initial fabrication quality and then cut into smaller coupons for elevated temperature wet (ETW) mechanical property characterization. Mechanical property characterization of the sandwich coupons was conducted including edge-wise compression (EWC), and compression-after-impact (CAI) at conditions ranging from 25 C/dry to 150 C/wet. The details and results of this characterization effort are presented in this paper.

  9. Innovative Processing Methods for the Affordable Manufacture of Multifunctional High Temperature Coatings, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research is proposed to investigate the feasibility of using advanced manufacturing techniques to enable the affordable application of multi-functional high...

  10. Sensitivity of a soil-plant-atmosphere model to changes in air temperature, dew point temperature, and solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luxmoore, R.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab.,TN); Stolzy, J.L.; Holdeman, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    Air temperature, dew point temperature and solar radiation were independently varied in an hourly soil-plant-atmosphere model in a sensitivity analysis of these parameters. Results suggested that evapotranspiration in eastern Tennessee is limited more by meteorological conditions that determine the vapor-pressure gradient than by the necessary energy to vaporize water within foliage. Transpiration and soil water drainage were very sensitive to changes in air and dew point temperature and to solar radiation under low atmospheric vapor-pressure deficit conditions associated with reduced air temperature. Leaf water potential and stomatal conductance were reduced under conditions having high evapotranspiration. Representative air and dew point temperature input data for a particular application are necessary for satisfactory results, whereas irradiation may be less well characterized for applications with high atmospheric vapor-pressure deficit. The effects of a general rise in atmospheric temperature on forest water budgets are discussed.

  11. Cell membrane temperature rate sensitivity predicted from the Nernst equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, F S

    1984-01-01

    A hyperpolarized current is predicted from the Nernst equation for conditions of positive temperature derivatives with respect to time. This ion current, coupled with changes in membrane channel conductivities, is expected to contribute to a transient potential shift across the cell membrane for silent cells and to a change in firing rate for pacemaker cells.

  12. Temperature sensitivity of the oxygenation reaction of stripped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -operativity (n) at all three experimental temperatures compared to L. capensis. The heat of oxygenation (",H) between 8"C (pH 7,63) and. 23"C (pH 7,49) calculated for L capensis haemoglobin (-56,3 kJ.mol ') exceeded that of C. gariepinus ...

  13. Low-temperature magnetic modification of sensitive biological materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospišková, K.; Šafařík, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 142, mar (2015), s. 184-188 ISSN 0167-577X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13021 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : magnetic iron oxides particles * microwave-assisted synthesis * low-temperature magnetic modification * immobilized enzymes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.437, year: 2015

  14. Snapshot of methanogen sensitivity to temperature in Zoige wetland from Tibetan plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eFu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Zoige wetland in Tibetan plateau represents a cold environment at high altitude where significant methane emission has been observed. However, it remains unknown how the production and emission of CH4 from Zoige wetland will respond to a warming climate. Here we investigated the temperature sensitivity of methanogen community in a Zoige wetland soil under the laboratory incubation conditions. One soil sample was collected and the temperature sensitivity of the methanogenic activity, the structure of methanogen community and the methanogenic pathways were determined. We found that the response of methanogenesis to temperature could be separated into two phases, a high sensitivity in the low temperature range and a modest sensitivity under mesophilic conditions, respectively. The aceticlastic methanogens Methanosarcinaceae were the main methanogens at low temperatures, while hydrogenotrophic Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales and Methanocellales were more abundant at higher temperatures. The total abundance of mcrA genes increased with temperature indicating that the growth of methanogens was stimulated. The growth of hydrogenotrophic methanogens, however, was faster than aceticlastic ones resulting in the shift of methanogen community. Determination of carbon isotopic signatures indicated that methanogenic pathway was also shifted from mainly aceticlastic methanogenesis to a mixture of hydrogenotrophic and aceticlastic methanogenesis with the increase of temperature. Collectively, the shift of temperature responses of methanogenesis was in accordance with the changes in methanogen composition and methanogenic pathway in this Zoige wetland sample. It appears that the aceticlastic methanogenesis dominated at low temperatures is more sensitive than the hydrogenotrophic one at higher temperatures.

  15. Sensitivity of microorganisms distributed through Japanese tea manufacturing process by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, M.; Kimura, S.; Sugimoto, Y.; Jo, N.; Nosaka, K.; Iwasaki, I.; Nishimoto, S.

    2002-01-01

    The number of bacteria adhering to Japanese tea is 10E7-10E8 cfu/g in picked fresh tea leaves (almost radiation irresistance), decreasing every heat-treatment in manufacturing process to 10E3-10E4 cfu/g in tea on the market (only radiation resistance). Still more, its decreasing one figures after half a year by effect of anti-bacterium component contained Japanese tea. The number of fungi adhering to almost samples is below 50cfu/g, but that adhering to some powdered tea is 10E2 cfu/g. At heat treatment (80degC, 15min), the number of bacteria decrease very little. The other side, by EB-irradiated treatment (2kGy), its below 10E2 cfu/g (D sub(10-)value; 1.4 ~ 3.8kGy). The needed dose to decrease 10E2 cfu/g is 0.9 ~ 2.5kGy

  16. Low-temperature deposition manufacturing: A novel and promising rapid prototyping technology for the fabrication of tissue-engineered scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Daming; Huang, Jianghong; Wei, You; Xiong, Jianyi; Zhu, Weimin; Duan, Li; Chen, Jielin; Sun, Rong; Wang, Daping

    2017-01-01

    Developed in recent years, low-temperature deposition manufacturing (LDM) represents one of the most promising rapid prototyping technologies. It is not only based on rapid deposition manufacturing process but also combined with phase separation process. Besides the controlled macropore size, tissue-engineered scaffold fabricated by LDM has inter-connected micropores in the deposited lines. More importantly, it is a green manufacturing process that involves non-heating liquefying of materials. It has been employed to fabricate tissue-engineered scaffolds for bone, cartilage, blood vessel and nerve tissue regenerations. It is a promising technology in the fabrication of tissue-engineered scaffold similar to ideal scaffold and the design of complex organs. In the current paper, this novel LDM technology is introduced, and its control parameters, biomedical applications and challenges are included and discussed as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Methodology for Modeling Confined, Temperature Sensitive Cushioning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    thickness of cushion T, and®- s temperature 0, and as a dependent variable, G, the peak acceleration. The initial model, Equation (IV-11), proved deficient ...k9) = TR * TCTH ALV(60) = Tk * TCTH AL2 V6)= Tk2 * FCTH V2 =TRk * TCrFH *AL V(6~3) =THZ * TC.TH AU! V(,34) =TRa * TCTH 141 Yj)=Tks * T(-Th * AL V(.4b

  18. Further studies on a temperature-sensitive mutant of Escherichia coli with defective repair capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfiadakis, I.; Geissler, E.; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Zentralinstitut fuer Molekularbiologie)

    1981-01-01

    A temperature-sensitive mutant of E. coli, WG24, was studied with respect to its sensitivity to photodynamic action, its capacity to perform host controlled reactivation, and its sensitivity to transduction at elevated temperatures. Mutant cells are much more sensitive than wild type cells to photodynamic action by thiopyronine and visible light at elevated temperatures. As well defined rec mutants, WG24 cells are less able to reactivate UV irradiated lambdac phages at elevated temperatures, while their ability to repair T1 phages is less impaired. Mutant cells cannot be transduced to T6 resistance at a detectable rate at elevated temperature. It is concluded, therefore, that some rec gene carries a ts mutation in this mutant. (author)

  19. Study on temperature sensitivity of topological insulators based on long-period fiber grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianhua; Zhao, Chenghai; Li, Jianbo; He, Mengdong

    2017-06-01

    Based on a long-period fiber grating, we conducted experimental research on the temperature sensitivity of topological insulators. The long-period fiber grating and topological insulators solution were encapsulated in a capillary tube using UV glue, and the temperature response was measured. Within a range of 35 to 75 centigrade, one resonance dip of a long-period fiber grating exhibits a redshift of 1.536 nm. The temperature sensitivity is about 7.7 times of an ordinary long-period fiber grating's sensitivity (0.005 nm/°C). A numerical simulation is also performed on the basis of the experiments.

  20. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration is dependent on readily decomposable C substrate concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionova, A. A.; Yevdokimov, I. V.; Bykhovets, S. S.

    2007-06-01

    Temperature acclimation of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is one of the major uncertainties in predicting soil CO2 efflux by the increase in global mean temperature. A reasonable explanation for an apparent acclimation proposed by Davidson and colleagues (2006) based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics suggests that temperature sensitivity decreases when both maximal activity of respiratory enzymes (Vmax) and half- saturation constant (Ks) cancel each other upon temperature increase. We tested the hypothesis of the canceling effect by the mathematical simulation of the data obtained in the incubation experiments with forest and arable soils. Our data confirm the hypothesis and suggest that concentration of readily decomposable C substrate as glucose equivalent is an important factor controlling temperature sensitivity. The highest temperature sensitivity was observed when C substrate concentration was much lower than Ks. Increase of substrate content to the half-saturation constant resulted in temperature acclimation associated with the canceling effect. Addition of the substrate to the level providing respiration at a maximal rate Vmax leads to the acclimation of the whole microbial community as such. However, growing microbial biomass was more sensitive to the temperature alterations. This study improves our understanding of the instability of temperature sensitivity of soil respiration under field conditions, explaining this phenomenon by changes in concentration of readily decomposable C substrate. It is worth noting that this pattern works regardless of the origin of C substrate: production by SOM decomposition, release into the soil by rhizodeposition, litter fall or drying-rewetting events.

  1. Field Effect Devices Sensitive to CO at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo ARAG?N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available [5,10,15-Tris(2,6-dichlorophenylcorrolate] cobalt(III was used to chemisorb CO selectively, on the gap-gate of MOS capacitors and the state of charge monitored by voltage shifts of the photocurrent induced by pulsed illumination under constant D. C. bias, proportionally to CO concentration in air. Negative chemically induced charges at room temperature induce positive responses above and negative shifts below the threshold voltage, conforming to acceptor behavior, and the dynamic range (125 ppm is limited by the silicon doping concentration. The linear proportionality between CO concentration and surface charge (6.46[ppm.m2.µC-1] corresponds to the low concentration limit of the Langmuir isotherm. Sluggish CO desorption can be compensated by photo stimulation at 395 nm.

  2. Modeling FBG sensors sensitivity from cryogenic temperatures to room temperature as a function of metal coating thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendittozzi, Cristian; Felli, Ferdinando; Lupi, Carla

    2018-05-01

    Fiber optics with photo-imprinted Bragg grating have been studied in order to be used as temperature sensors in cryogenic applications. The main disadvantage presented by Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors is the significant drop in sensitivity as temperature decreases, mainly due to the critical lowering of the thermo-optic coefficient of the fiber and the very low thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) of fused silica at cryogenic temperatures. Thus, especially for the latter, it is important to enhance sensitivity to temperature by depositing a metal coating presenting higher CTE. In this work the thermal sensitivity of metal-coated FBG sensors has been evaluated by considering their elongation within temperature variations in the cryogenic range, as compared to bare fiber sensors. To this purpose, a theoretical model simulating elongation of metal-coated sensors has been developed. The model has been used to evaluate the behaviour of different metals which can be used as coating (Ni, Cu, Al, Zn, Pb and In). The optimal coating thickness has been calculated at different fixed temperature (from 5 K to 100 K) for each metal. It has been found that the metal coating effectiveness depends on thickness and operating temperature in accordance to our previous experimental work and theory suggest.

  3. Low-Temperature Synthesis and Gas Sensitivity of Perovskite-Type LaCoO3 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Gildo Ortiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LaCoO3 nanoparticles with perovskite-type structure were prepared by a microwave-assisted colloidal method. Lanthanum nitrate, cobalt nitrate, and ethylenediamine were used as precursors and ethyl alcohol as solvent. The thermal decomposition of the precursors leads to the formation of LaCoO3 from a temperature of 500°C. The structural, morphological, and compositional properties of LaCoO3 nanoparticles were studied in this work by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Pellets were manufactured in order to test the gas sensing properties of LaCoO3 powders in carbon monoxide (CO and propane (C3H8 atmospheres. Agglomerates of nanoparticles with high connectivity, forming a porous structure, were observed from SEM and TEM analysis. LaCoO3 pellets presented a high sensitivity in both CO and C3H8 at different concentrations and operating temperatures. As was expected, sensitivity increased with the gas concentration and operation temperature increase.

  4. Sensitivity of photonic crystal fiber grating sensors: biosensing, refractive index, strain, and temperature sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Lars Henning; Bang, Ole

    2008-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of fiber grating sensors in the applications of strain, temperature, internal label-free biosensing, and internal refractive index sensing. New analytical expressions for the sensitivities, valid for photonic crystal fibers are rigorously derived. These are generally vali...

  5. Production of porous sintered materials using wastes of manufacturing engineering in self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Povstyana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of wastes produced by the manufacturing engineering, as well as their physical and mechanical properties and restorability provide a search for sphere of their application. The actual problem of modern science is the utilization of wastes and using them in further production that will minimize their harmful impact on the environment and reduce the cost of expensive raw materials. Wastes are ideally suitable for the manufacture of porous permeable materials (filters. Powder metallurgy allows obtaining products with controlled filtration, physical and mechanical properties. Such materials are good filters for regeneration of technical liquids, oils, cooling fluids, sewage etc. The article analyzes the methods and technologies for the manufacture of porous ceramic materials and a new technology for their manufacture, which is based on use of mill scale and natural mineral – saponite as the main components. Compression technology provides products at low pressures and sintering by passing high-temperature synthesis. The proposed technology is characterized by low cost and good physical and mechanical properties of the product that gives a reason to use them for filtering and regeneration of technical liquids.

  6. Manufacturing And High Temperature Oxidation Properties Of Electro-Sprayed Fe-24.5% Cr-5%Al Powder Porous Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kee-Ahn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Cr-Al based Powder porous metals were manufactured using a new electro-spray process, and the microstructures and high-temperature oxidation properties were examined. The porous materials were obtained at different sintering temperatures (1350°C, 1400°C, 1450°C, and 1500°C and with different pore sizes (500 μm, 450 μm, and 200 μm. High-temperature oxidation experiments (TGA, Thermal Gravimetry Analysis were conducted for 24 hours at 1000°C in a 79% N2+ 21% O2, 100 mL/min. atmosphere. The Fe-Cr-Al powder porous metals manufactured through the electro-spray process showed more-excellent oxidation resistance as sintering temperature and pore size increased. In addition, the fact that the densities and surface areas of the abovementioned powder porous metals had the largest effects on the metal’s oxidation properties could be identified.

  7. Temperature sensitivity analysis of polarity controlled electrostatically doped tunnel field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Kaushal; Pandey, Sunil; Kondekar, P. N.; Sharma, Dheeraj

    2016-09-01

    The conventional tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) have shown potential to scale down in sub-22 nm regime due to its lower sub-threshold slope and robustness against short-channel effects (SCEs), however, sensitivity towards temperature variation is a major concern. Therefore, for the first time, we investigate temperature sensitivity analysis of a polarity controlled electrostatically doped tunnel field-effect transistor (ED-TFET). Different performance metrics and analog/RF figure-of-merits were considered and compared for both devices, and simulations were performed using Silvaco ATLAS device tool. We found that the variation in ON-state current in ED-TFET is almost temperature independent due to electrostatically doped mechanism, while, it increases in conventional TFET at higher temperature. Above room temperature, the variation in ION, IOFF, and SS sensitivity in ED-TFET are only 0.11%/K, 2.21%/K, and 0.63%/K, while, in conventional TFET the variations are 0.43%/K, 2.99%/K, and 0.71%/K, respectively. However, below room temperature, the variation in ED-TFET ION is 0.195%/K compared to 0.27%/K of conventional TFET. Moreover, it is analysed that the incomplete ionization effect in conventional TFET severely affects the drive current and the threshold voltage, while, ED-TFET remains unaffected. Hence, the proposed ED-TFET is less sensitive towards temperature variation and can be used for cryogenics as well as for high temperature applications.

  8. The dependence of thermoluminescence sensitivity upon the temperature of irradiation in meteorites and in terrestrial apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, S.A.; Al-Khalifa, I.J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements are reported on the TL sensitivity (i.e. TL glow output per unit γ ray test dose) of meteoritic specimens as well as terrestrial fluor- and chlor-apatites, as a function of irradiation temperature (T irr ). The irradiation temperatures ranged from liquid nitrogen to room temperature (77 - 293 K). A kilocurie 60 Co γ ray source was used to deliver test doses of 400 Gy (40 krad) and 40 (4 krad) to the various samples. A strong dependence of the TL sensitivity upon the temperature of irradiation was noted in the case of Kirin meteorite: its TL sensitivity (for the 493 K readout peak) decreased by a factor of ∼ 2 when T irr rose from liquid nitrogen (77 K) to dry ice in acetone (197 K) temperature, in the case of both 400 Gy and 40 Gy γ ray doses. In the case of the Antarctic meteorite specimen (ALHA 77182.13), there was a smaller effect, viz. a fall of ∼ 14% in the TL output corresponding to dry ice and higher irradiating temperatures as compared to the 77 K irradiation. For chlorapatite, the TL sensitivity decreased monotonically with increasing temperature for both the 563 K and the 448 K glow peaks. For the fluorapatite, the effect of reduced response was observed only between -17 0 C (256 K) and room temperature (293 K). Both the theoretical and the practical implications of these observations are discussed. (author)

  9. Temperature-Sensitive Mutants of Mouse Hepatitis Virus Strain A59: Isolation, Characterization and Neuropathogenic Properties.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.M. Koolen (Marck); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G. van Steenis (Bert); M.C. Horzinek; B.A.M. van der Zeijst (Ben)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractTwenty 5-fluorouracil-induced temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 were isolated from 1284 virus clones. Mutants were preselected on the basis of their inability to induce syncytia in infected cells at the restrictive temperature (40 degrees) vs the

  10. Sensitivity of summer stream temperatures to climate variability in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Luce; Brian Staab; Marc Kramer; Seth Wenger; Dan Isaak; Callie McConnell

    2014-01-01

    Estimating the thermal response of streams to a warming climate is important for prioritizing native fish conservation efforts. While there are plentiful estimates of air temperature responses to climate change, the sensitivity of streams, particularly small headwater streams, to warming temperatures is less well understood. A substantial body of literature correlates...

  11. Development of an ozone high sensitive sensor working at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, F; Ghaddab, B; Sanchez, J B; Mavon, C

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid SnO 2 /SWNTs thin layer were deposited by using sol-gel process. Such sensitive layers showed very high performances for O 3 flow detection at ambient temperature. Limit sensitivity, lower than 21,5 ppb of O 3 in air has been reached by using these hybrid layers. Compared to usefull metal oxide sensors, the main advantage of the use of such hybrid layers, is that these devices enable the detection of O 3 traces at room temperature. The influence of sensor's working temperature is discussed and finally a reactional mechanism for the detection of O 3 is proposed.

  12. Development and application of a species sensitivity distribution for temperature-induced mortality in the aquatic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de P.; Tamis, J.E.; Murk, A.J.; Smit, M.G.D.

    2008-01-01

    Current European legislation has static water quality objectives for temperature effects, based on the most sensitive species. In the present study a species sensitivity distribution (SSD) for elevated temperatures is developed on the basis of temperature sensitivity data (mortality) of 50 aquatic

  13. Low-Cost Nanocellulose-Reinforced High-Temperature Polymer Composites for Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL; Tekinalp, Halil L [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Nelson, Kim [American Process Inc.

    2016-07-13

    ORNL worked with American Process Inc. to demonstrate the potential use of bio-based BioPlus® lignin-coated cellulose nanofibrils (L-CNF) as a reinforcing agent in the development of polymer feedstock suitable for additive manufacturing. L-CNF-reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) testing coupons were prepared and up to 69% increase in tensile strength and 133% increase in elastic modulus were demonstrated.

  14. The effect of temperature on the sensitivity of Daphnia magna to cyanobacteria is genus dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochmuth, Jennifer D; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of 6 different genera of cyanobacteria on multiple endpoints of Daphnia magna in a 21-d life table experiment conducted at 3 different temperatures (15 °C, 19 °C, and 23 °C). The specific aims were to test if the effect of temperature on Daphnia's sensitivity to cyanobacteria differed among different cyanobacteria and if the rank order from most to least harmful cyanobacteria to Daphnia reproduction changed or remained the same across the studied temperature range. Overall, the authors observed a decrease in harmful effects on reproduction with increasing temperature for Microcystis, Nodularia, and Aphanizomenon, and an increase in harmful effects with increasing temperature for Anabaena and Oscillatoria. No effect of temperature was observed on Daphnia sensitivity to Cylindrospermopsis. Harmful effects of Microcystis and Nodularia on reproduction appear to be mirrored by a decrease in length. On the other hand, harmful effects of Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, and Oscillatoria on reproduction were correlated with a decrease in intrinsic rate of natural increase, which was matched by a later onset of reproduction in exposures to Oscillatoria. In addition, the results suggest that the cyanobacteria rank order of harmfulness may change with temperature. Higher temperatures may increase the sensitivity of D. magna to the presence of some cyanobacteria (Anabaena and Oscillatoria) in their diet, whereas the harmful effects of others (Microcystis, Nodularia, and Aphanizomenon) may be reduced by higher temperatures. © 2014 SETAC.

  15. Sensitive element of multifunctional sensor for measuring temperature, strain and magnetic field induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinin A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive element of multifunctional sensor for measuring temperature, strain and magnetic field induction has been developed based on the studies of electrical conductivity and magnetoresistance of silicon and germanium microcrystals in the temperature range 4.2—70 K, strain ±1.5*10–3 rel.un. and magnetic fields of 0—14 T. The feature of the sensitive element is the using of the p- and n-type conductivity germanium microcrystals as mechanical and magnetic field sensors, respectively, and the p-type silicon microcrystal — as temperature sensor. That allows providing the compensation of temperature influence on piezoresistance and on sensitivity to the magnetic field.

  16. Chemical, sensory, and functional properties of whey-based popsicles manufactured with watermelon juice concentrated at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carolina P C; Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius S; Esmerino, Erick A; Moraes, Jeremias; Pimentel, Tatiana C; Rocha, Ramon S; Freitas, Mônica Q; Santos, Jânio S; Ranadheera, C Senaka; Rosa, Lana S; Teodoro, Anderson J; Mathias, Simone P; Silva, Márcia C; Raices, Renata S L; Couto, Silvia R M; Granato, Daniel; Cruz, Adriano G

    2018-07-30

    The effects of the concentration of watermelon juice at different temperatures (45, 55, or 65 °C) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics, antioxidant capacity, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of whey-based popsicles were investigated. Total phenolic content, lycopene, citrulline, VOCs, melting rate, instrumental colour, antioxidant capacity, and the sensory characteristics (hedonic test and free listing) were determined. The temperature led to a significant decrease in bioactive compounds (total phenolics, lycopene, and citrulline). The popsicle manufactured with reconstituted watermelon juice concentrated to 60 °Brix at 65 °C presented higher antioxidant capacity and was characterized by the presence of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones and presented a similar acceptance to the untreated popsicle (except for flavour). It is possible to combine whey and concentrated watermelon juice for the manufacture of bioactive-rich popsicles, using the concentration temperature of 65 °C as a suitable processing condition for potential industrial applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A temperature monitor circuit with small voltage sensitivity using a topology-reconfigurable ring oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Tadashi; Ishihara, Tohru; Onodera, Hidetoshi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a temperature monitor circuit that exhibits a small supply voltage sensitivity adopting a circuit topology of a reconfigurable ring oscillator. The circuit topology of the monitor is crafted such that the oscillation frequency is determined by the amount of subthreshold leakage current, which has an exponential dependence on temperature. Another important characteristic of the monitor is its small supply voltage sensitivity. The measured oscillation frequency of a test chip fabricated in a 65 nm CMOS process varies only 2.6% under a wide range of supply voltages from 0.4 to 1.0 V at room temperature. The temperature estimation error ranges from -0.3 to 0.4 °C over a temperature range of 10 to 100 °C.

  18. SENSITIVITY TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE RESEARCH OF TV-CAMERAS BASED ON SILICON MATRIXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey N. Starchenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The research is dedicated to the analysis of sensitivity change patterns of the cameras based on silicon CMOS-matrixes in various ambient temperatures. This information is necessary for the correct camera application for photometric measurements in-situ. The paper deals with studies of sensitivity variations of two digital cameras with different silicon CMOS matrixes in visible and near IR regions of the spectrum at temperature change. Method. Due to practical restrictions the temperature changes were recorded in separate spectral intervals important for practical use of the cameras. The experiments were carried out with the use of a climatic chamber, providing change and keeping the temperature range from minus 40 to plus 50 °C at a pitch of 10 о С. Two cameras were chosen for research: VAC-135-IP with OmniVision OV9121 matrix and VAC-248-IP with OnSemiconductor VITA2000 matrix. The two tested devices were placed in a climatic chamber at the same time and illuminated by one radiation source with a color temperature about 3000 K in order to eliminate a number of methodological errors. Main Results. The temperature dependence of the signals was shown to be linear and the matrixes sensitivities were determined. The results obtained are consistent with theoretical views, in general. The coefficients of thermal sensitivity were computed by these dependencies. It is shown that the greatest affect of temperature on the sensitivity occurs in the area (0.7–1.1 mkm. Temperature coefficients of sensitivity increase with the downward radiation wavelength increase. The experiments carried out have shown that it is necessary to take into account the changes in temperature sensitivity of silicon matrixes in the red and near in IR regions of the spectrum. The effect reveals itself in a clearly negative way in cameras with an amplitude resolution of 10-12 bits used for aerospace and space spectrozonal photography. Practical Relevance

  19. Boundary integral method to calculate the sensitivity temperature error of microstructured fibre plasmonic sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Hamid; Arzi, Ezatollah; Légaré, François; Hassani, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, using the boundary integral method (BIM), we simulate the effect of temperature fluctuation on the sensitivity of microstructured optical fibre (MOF) surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors. The final results indicate that, as the temperature increases, the refractometry sensitivity of our sensor decreases from 1300 nm/RIU at 0 °C to 1200 nm/RIU at 50 °C, leading to ∼7.7% sensitivity reduction and the sensitivity temperature error of 0.15% °C −1 for this case. These results can be used for biosensing temperature-error adjustment in MOF SPR sensors, since biomaterials detection usually happens in this temperature range. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of our sensor decreases from 0.265 at 0 °C to 0.154 at 100 °C with the average reduction rate of ∼0.42% °C −1 . The results suggest that at lower temperatures the sensor has a higher SNR. (paper)

  20. Temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor in the 720-nm region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Grossmann, Benoist E.

    1991-01-01

    Recently measured properties of water vapor (H2O) absorption lines have been used in calculations to evalute the temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar (Dial) H2O measurements. This paper estimates the temperature sensitivity of H2O lines in the 717-733-nm region for both H2O mixing ratio and number density measurements, and discusses the influence of the H2O line ground state energies E-double-prime, the H2O absorption linewidths, the linewidth temperature dependence parameter, and the atmospheric temperature and pressure variations with altitude and location on the temperature sensitivity calculations. Line parameters and temperature sensitivity calculations for 67 H2O lines in the 720-nm band are given which can be directly used in field experiments. Water vapor lines with E-double-prime values in the 100-300/cm range were found to be optimum for Dial measurements of H2O number densities, while E-double-prime values in the 250-500/cm range were found to be optimum for H2O mixing ratio measurements.

  1. Temperature and strain registration by fibre-optic strain sensor in the polymer composite materials manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveenko; Kosheleva; Shardakov; Voronkov

    2018-04-01

    The presence of process-induced strains induced by various manufacturing and operational factors is one of the characteristics of polymer composite materials (PCM). Conventional methods of registration and evaluation of process-induced strains can be laborious, time-consuming and demanding in terms of technical applications. The employment of embedded fibre-optic strain sensors (FOSS) offers a real prospect of measuring residual strains. This paper demonstrates the potential for using embedded FOSS for recording technological strains in a PCM plate. The PCM plate is manufactured from prepreg, using the direct compression-moulding method. In this method, the prepared reinforcing package is placed inside a mould, heated, and then exposed to compaction pressure. The examined technology can be used for positioning FOSS between the layers of the composite material. Fibre-optic sensors, interacting with the material of the examined object, make it possible to register the evolution of the strain process during all stages of polymer-composite formation. FOSS data were recorded with interrogator ASTRO X 327. The obtained data were processed using specially developed algorithms.

  2. Isolation of temperature-sensitive mutants of 16 S rRNA in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triman, K; Becker, E; Dammel, C

    1989-01-01

    Temperature-sensitive mutants have been isolated following hydroxylamine mutagenesis of a plasmid containing Escherichia coli rRNA genes carrying selectable markers for spectinomycin resistance (U1192 in 16 S rRNA) and erythromycin resistance (G2058 in 23 S rRNA). These antibiotic resistance....... The mutations were localized by in vitro restriction fragment replacement followed by in vivo marker rescue and were identified by DNA sequence analysis. We report here seven single-base alterations in 16 S rRNA (A146, U153, A350, A359, A538, A1292 and U1293), five of which produce temperature......-sensitive spectinomycin resistance and two that produce unconditional loss of resistance. In each case, loss of ribosomal function can be accounted for by disruption of base-pairing in the secondary structure of 16 S rRNA. For the temperature-sensitive mutants, there is a lag period of about two generations between...

  3. Effect of the temperature in the sensitivity of CaSO4: Dy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, P.R.; Alcantara, B.C.; Azorin, J.; Furetta, C.

    2003-01-01

    Sensitivity of a Tl material is one of the most important properties for dosimetry. This property is optimized by means of various processes such as the incorporation of different dopants into the matrix material, the application of certain doses of ionizing radiation and carefully controlled thermal treatments among others. Results obtained of studying the sensitivity of diverse preparations of CaSO 4 : Dy submitted different thermal treatments are presented. The material, which presented the highest sensitivity, was that one it was heated to 800 C during one hour. When the temperature was raised over this value it was observed that sensitivity drops again. In other hand, as the heating rate in lowing down, during the readout, the height of the glow curve decreases proportionally. The temperature of the maximum of the main peak also decreases. (Author)

  4. The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) for Producing Hydrogen to Manufacture Liquid Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Peterson, P.F.; Ott, L.

    2004-01-01

    Conventional world oil production is expected to peak within a decade. Shortfalls in production of liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) from conventional oil sources are expected to be offset by increased production of fuels from heavy oils and tar sands that are primarily located in the Western Hemisphere (Canada, Venezuela, the United States, and Mexico). Simultaneously, there is a renewed interest in liquid fuels from biomass, such as alcohol; but, biomass production requires fertilizer. Massive quantities of hydrogen (H2) are required (1) to convert heavy oils and tar sands to liquid fuels and (2) to produce fertilizer for production of biomass that can be converted to liquid fuels. If these liquid fuels are to be used while simultaneously minimizing greenhouse emissions, nonfossil methods for the production of H2 are required. Nuclear energy can be used to produce H2. The most efficient methods to produce H2 from nuclear energy involve thermochemical cycles in which high-temperature heat (700 to 850 C) and water are converted to H2 and oxygen. The peak nuclear reactor fuel and coolant temperatures must be significantly higher than the chemical process temperatures to transport heat from the reactor core to an intermediate heat transfer loop and from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the chemical plant. The reactor temperatures required for H2 production are at the limits of practical engineering materials. A new high-temperature reactor concept is being developed for H2 and electricity production: the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR). The fuel is a graphite-matrix, coated-particle fuel, the same type that is used in modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs). The coolant is a clean molten fluoride salt with a boiling point near 1400 C. The use of a liquid coolant, rather than helium, reduces peak reactor fuel and coolant temperatures 100 to 200 C relative to those of a MHTGR. Liquids are better heat transfer fluids than gases

  5. Phenotypic characterization of adenovirus type 12 temperature-sensitive mutants in productive infection and transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, S; Kimura, G

    1980-01-01

    Eleven temperature-sensitive mutants of adenovirus type 12, capable of forming plaques in human cells at 33 C but not at 39.5 C, were isolated from a stock of a wild-type strain after treatment with either nitrous acid or hydroxylamine. Complementation tests in doubly infected human cells permitted a tentative assignment of eight of these mutants to six complementation groups. Temperature-shift experiments revealed that one mutant is affected early and most of the other mutants are affected late. Only the early mutant, H12ts505, was temperature sensitive in viral DNA replication. Infectious virions of all the mutants except H12ts505 and two of the late mutants produced at 33 C, appeared to be more heat labile than those of the wild type. Only H12ts505 was temperature sensitive for the establishment of transformation of rat 3Y1 cells. One of the late mutants (H12ts504) had an increased transforming ability at the permissive temperature. Results of temperature-shift transformation experiments suggest that a viral function affected in H12ts505 is required for "initiation" of transformation. Some of the growth properties of H12ts505-transformed cells were also temperature dependent, suggesting that a functional expression of a gene mutation in H12ts505 is required to maintain at least some aspects of the transformed state.

  6. Calcitonin gene-related peptide alters the firing rates of hypothalamic temperature sensitive and insensitive neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimm Eleanor R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transient hyperthermic shifts in body temperature have been linked to the endogenous hormone calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, which can increase sympathetic activation and metabolic heat production. Recent studies have demonstrated that these centrally mediated responses may result from CGRP dependent changes in the activity of thermoregulatory neurons in the preoptic and anterior regions of the hypothalamus (POAH. Results Using a tissue slice preparation, we recorded the single-unit activity of POAH neurons from the adult male rat, in response to temperature and CGRP (10 μM. Based on the slope of firing rate as a function of temperature, neurons were classified as either warm sensitive or temperature insensitive. All warm sensitive neurons responded to CGRP with a significant decrease in firing rate. While CGRP did not alter the firing rates of some temperature insensitive neurons, responsive neurons showed an increase in firing rate. Conclusion With respect to current models of thermoregulatory control, these CGRP dependent changes in firing rate would result in hyperthermia. This suggests that both warm sensitive and temperature insensitive neurons in the POAH may play a role in producing this hyperthermic shift in temperature.

  7. Resonance analysis of a high temperature piezoelectric disc for sensitivity characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgunde, Prathamesh N; Bond, Leonard J

    2018-07-01

    Ultrasonic transducers for high temperature (200 °C+) applications are a key enabling technology for advanced nuclear power systems and in a range of chemical and petro-chemical industries. Design, fabrication and optimization of such transducers using piezoelectric materials remains a challenge. In this work, experimental data-based analysis is performed to investigate the fundamental causal factors for the resonance characteristics of a piezoelectric disc at elevated temperatures. The effect of all ten temperature-dependent piezoelectric constants (ε 33 , ε 11 , d 33 , d 31 , d 15 , s 11 , s 12 , s 13 , s 33 , s 44 ) is studied numerically on both the radial and thickness mode resonances of a piezoelectric disc. A sensitivity index is defined to quantify the effect of each of the temperature-dependent coefficients on the resonance modes of the modified lead zirconium titanate disc. The temperature dependence of s 33 showed highest sensitivity towards the thickness resonance mode followed by ε 33 , s 11 , s 13 , s 12 , d 31 , d 33 , s 44 , ε 11 , and d 15 in the decreasing order of the sensitivity index. For radial resonance modes, the temperature dependence of ε 33 showed highest sensitivity index followed by s 11 , s 12 and d 31 coefficient. This numerical study demonstrates that the magnitude of d 33 is not the sole factor that affects the resonance characteristics of the piezoelectric disc at high temperatures. It appears that there exists a complex interplay between various temperature dependent piezoelectric coefficients that causes reduction in the thickness mode resonance frequencies which is found to be agreement in with the experimental data at an elevated temperature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitive Indicators of Zonal Stipa Species to Changing Temperature and Precipitation in Inner Mongolia Grassland, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xiliang

    2016-01-01

    Climate change often induces shifts in plant functional traits. However, knowledge related to sensitivity of different functional traits and sensitive indicator representing plant growth under hydrothermal change remains unclear. Inner Mongolia grassland is predicted to be one of the terrestrial ecosystems which are most vulnerable to climate change. In this study, we analyzed the response of four zonal Stipa species (S. baicalensis, S. grandis, S. breviflora, and S. bungeana) from Inner Mongolia grassland to changing temperature (control, increased 1.5, 2, 4, and 6°C), precipitation (decreased 30 and 15%, control, increased 15 and 30%) and their combined effects via climate control chambers. The relative change of functional traits in the unit of temperature and precipitation change was regarded as sensitivity coefficient and sensitive indicators were examined by pathway analysis. We found that sensitivity of the four Stipa species to changing temperature and precipitation could be ranked as follows: S. bungeana > S. grandis > S. breviflora > S. baicalensis. In particular, changes in leaf area, specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio could account for 86% of the changes in plant biomass in the four Stipa species. Also these three measurements were more sensitive to hydrothermal changes than the other functional traits. These three functional indicators reflected the combination of plant production capacity (leaf area), adaptive strategy (root/shoot ratio), instantaneous environmental effects (specific leaf area), and cumulative environmental effects (leaf area and root/shoot ratio). Thus, leaf area, specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio were chosen as sensitive indicators in response to changing temperature and precipitation for Stipa species. These results could provide the basis for predicting the influence of climate change on Inner Mongolia grassland based on the magnitude of changes in sensitive indicators. PMID:26904048

  9. The observed sensitivity of the global hydrological cycle to changes in surface temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkin, Phillip A; Janowiak, John; Smith, Thomas M; Sapiano, Mathew R P

    2010-01-01

    Climate models project large changes in global surface temperature in coming decades that are expected to be accompanied by significant changes in the global hydrological cycle. Validation of model simulations is essential to support their use in decision making, but observing the elements of the hydrological cycle is challenging, and model-independent global data sets exist only for precipitation. We compute the sensitivity of the global hydrological cycle to changes in surface temperature using available global precipitation data sets and compare the results against the sensitivities derived from model simulations of 20th century climate. The implications of the results for the global climate observing system are discussed.

  10. Spectral and Concentration Sensitivity of Multijunction Solar Cells at High Temperature: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Daniel J.; Steiner, Myles A.; Perl, Emmett E.; Simon, John

    2017-06-14

    We model the performance of two-junction solar cells at very high temperatures of ~400 degrees C and beyond for applications such as hybrid PV/solar-thermal power production, and identify areas in which the design and performance characteristics behave significantly differently than at more conventional near-room-temperature operating conditions. We show that high-temperature operation reduces the sensitivity of the cell efficiency to spectral content, but increases the sensitivity to concentration, both of which have implications for energy yield in terrestrial PV applications. For other high-temperature applications such as near-sun space missions, our findings indicate that concentration may be a useful tool to enhance cell efficiency.

  11. Influence of Temperature Variation on Optical Receiver Sensitivity and its Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Prokes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the influence of temperature variation on the sensitivity of an avalanche-photodiode-based optical receiver applied in the free space optical communication link is discussed. Communication systems of this type are exposed to a wide range of operating temperatures, which markedly affect many photodiode and preamplifier parameters. The paper presents a receiver sensitivity calculation, taking into consideration the temperature dependence of avalanche photodiode gain, excess noise factor, dark current and thermal noise of preamplifier resistances, and describes the compensation of temperature effects on photodiode gain based on a corresponding change in the reverse voltage applied to the diode. The calculations are demonstrated on the connection of a small-area silicon APD operating in the wavelength range from 820 to 1150 nm with a transimpedance preamplifier using a bipolar junction transistor.

  12. Species composition and forest structure explain the temperature sensitivity patterns of productivity in temperate forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Bohn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rising temperatures due to climate change influence the wood production of forests. Observations show that some temperate forests increase their productivity, whereas others reduce their productivity. This study focuses on how species composition and forest structure properties influence the temperature sensitivity of aboveground wood production (AWP. It further investigates which forests will increase their productivity the most with rising temperatures. We described forest structure by leaf area index, forest height and tree height heterogeneity. Species composition was described by a functional diversity index (Rao's Q and a species distribution index (ΩAWP. ΩAWP quantified how well species are distributed over the different forest layers with regard to AWP. We analysed 370 170 forest stands generated with a forest gap model. These forest stands covered a wide range of possible forest types. For each stand, we estimated annual aboveground wood production and performed a climate sensitivity analysis based on 320 different climate time series (of 1-year length. The scenarios differed in mean annual temperature and annual temperature amplitude. Temperature sensitivity of wood production was quantified as the relative change in productivity resulting from a 1 °C rise in mean annual temperature or annual temperature amplitude. Increasing ΩAWP positively influenced both temperature sensitivity indices of forest, whereas forest height showed a bell-shaped relationship with both indices. Further, we found forests in each successional stage that are positively affected by temperature rise. For such forests, large ΩAWP values were important. In the case of young forests, low functional diversity and small tree height heterogeneity were associated with a positive effect of temperature on wood production. During later successional stages, higher species diversity and larger tree height heterogeneity were an advantage. To achieve such a

  13. Species composition and forest structure explain the temperature sensitivity patterns of productivity in temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Friedrich J.; May, Felix; Huth, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Rising temperatures due to climate change influence the wood production of forests. Observations show that some temperate forests increase their productivity, whereas others reduce their productivity. This study focuses on how species composition and forest structure properties influence the temperature sensitivity of aboveground wood production (AWP). It further investigates which forests will increase their productivity the most with rising temperatures. We described forest structure by leaf area index, forest height and tree height heterogeneity. Species composition was described by a functional diversity index (Rao's Q) and a species distribution index (ΩAWP). ΩAWP quantified how well species are distributed over the different forest layers with regard to AWP. We analysed 370 170 forest stands generated with a forest gap model. These forest stands covered a wide range of possible forest types. For each stand, we estimated annual aboveground wood production and performed a climate sensitivity analysis based on 320 different climate time series (of 1-year length). The scenarios differed in mean annual temperature and annual temperature amplitude. Temperature sensitivity of wood production was quantified as the relative change in productivity resulting from a 1 °C rise in mean annual temperature or annual temperature amplitude. Increasing ΩAWP positively influenced both temperature sensitivity indices of forest, whereas forest height showed a bell-shaped relationship with both indices. Further, we found forests in each successional stage that are positively affected by temperature rise. For such forests, large ΩAWP values were important. In the case of young forests, low functional diversity and small tree height heterogeneity were associated with a positive effect of temperature on wood production. During later successional stages, higher species diversity and larger tree height heterogeneity were an advantage. To achieve such a development, one could plant

  14. Effect of cold work on low-temperature sensitization behaviour of austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kain, V. E-mail: vivkain@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Chandra, K.; Adhe, K.N.; De, P.K

    2004-09-01

    The effects of cold work and low-temperature sensitization heat treatment of non-sensitized austenitic stainless steels have been investigated and related to the cracking in nuclear power reactors. Types 304, 304L and 304LN developed martensite after 15% cold working. Heat treatment of these cold worked steels at 500 deg. C led to sensitization of grain boundaries and the matrix and a desensitization effect was seen in 11 days due to fast diffusion rate of chromium in martensite. Types 316L and 316LN did not develop martensite upon cold rolling due to its chemical composition suppressing the martensite transformation (due to deformation) temperature, hence these were not sensitized at 500 deg. C. The sensitization of the martensite phase was always accompanied by a hump in the reactivation current peak in the double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation test, thus providing a test to detect such sensitization. It was shown that bending does not produce martensite and therefore, is a better method to simulate weld heat affected zone. Bending and heating at 500 deg. C for 11 days led to fresh precipitation due to increased retained strain and desensitization of 304LN due to faster diffusion rate of chromium along dislocations. The as received or solution annealed 304 and 304LN with 0.15% nitrogen showed increased sensitization after heat treatment at 500 deg. C, indicating the presence of carbides/nitrides.

  15. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration rates enhanced by microbial community response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhu, Kristiina; Auffret, Marc D; Dungait, Jennifer A J; Hopkins, David W; Prosser, James I; Singh, Brajesh K; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wookey, Philip A; Agren, Göran I; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Gouriveau, Fabrice; Bergkvist, Göran; Meir, Patrick; Nottingham, Andrew T; Salinas, Norma; Hartley, Iain P

    2014-09-04

    Soils store about four times as much carbon as plant biomass, and soil microbial respiration releases about 60 petagrams of carbon per year to the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. Short-term experiments have shown that soil microbial respiration increases exponentially with temperature. This information has been incorporated into soil carbon and Earth-system models, which suggest that warming-induced increases in carbon dioxide release from soils represent an important positive feedback loop that could influence twenty-first-century climate change. The magnitude of this feedback remains uncertain, however, not least because the response of soil microbial communities to changing temperatures has the potential to either decrease or increase warming-induced carbon losses substantially. Here we collect soils from different ecosystems along a climate gradient from the Arctic to the Amazon and investigate how microbial community-level responses control the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. We find that the microbial community-level response more often enhances than reduces the mid- to long-term (90 days) temperature sensitivity of respiration. Furthermore, the strongest enhancing responses were observed in soils with high carbon-to-nitrogen ratios and in soils from cold climatic regions. After 90 days, microbial community responses increased the temperature sensitivity of respiration in high-latitude soils by a factor of 1.4 compared to the instantaneous temperature response. This suggests that the substantial carbon stores in Arctic and boreal soils could be more vulnerable to climate warming than currently predicted.

  16. A Novel High-Sensitivity, Low-Power, Liquid Crystal Temperature Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Algorri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel temperature sensor based on nematic liquid crystal permittivity as a sensing magnitude, is presented. This sensor consists of a specific micrometric structure that gives considerable advantages from other previous related liquid crystal (LC sensors. The analytical study reveals that permittivity change with temperature is introduced in a hyperbolic cosine function, increasing the sensitivity term considerably. The experimental data has been obtained for ranges from −6 °C to 100 °C. Despite this, following the LC datasheet, theoretical ranges from −40 °C to 109 °C could be achieved. These results have revealed maximum sensitivities of 33 mVrms/°C for certain temperature ranges; three times more than of most silicon temperature sensors. As it was predicted by the analytical study, the micrometric size of the proposed structure produces a high output voltage. Moreover the voltage’s sensitivity to temperature response can be controlled by the applied voltage. This response allows temperature measurements to be carried out without any amplification or conditioning circuitry, with very low power consumption.

  17. Recent advance in high manufacturing readiness level and high temperature CMOS mixed-signal integrated circuits on silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, M. H.; Clark, D. T.; Wright, S. N.; Gordon, D. L.; Duncan, M. A.; Kirkham, S. J.; Idris, M. I.; Chan, H. K.; Young, R. A. R.; Ramsay, E. P.; Wright, N. G.; Horsfall, A. B.

    2017-05-01

    A high manufacturing readiness level silicon carbide (SiC) CMOS technology is presented. The unique process flow enables the monolithic integration of pMOS and nMOS transistors with passive circuit elements capable of operation at temperatures of 300 °C and beyond. Critical to this functionality is the behaviour of the gate dielectric and data for high temperature capacitance-voltage measurements are reported for SiO2/4H-SiC (n and p type) MOS structures. In addition, a summary of the long term reliability for a range of structures including contact chains to both n-type and p-type SiC, as well as simple logic circuits is presented, showing function after 2000 h at 300 °C. Circuit data is also presented for the performance of digital logic devices, a 4 to 1 analogue multiplexer and a configurable timer operating over a wide temperature range. A high temperature micro-oven system has been utilised to enable the high temperature testing and stressing of units assembled in ceramic dual in line packages, including a high temperature small form-factor SiC based bridge leg power module prototype, operated for over 1000 h at 300 °C. The data presented show that SiC CMOS is a key enabling technology in high temperature integrated circuit design. In particular it provides the ability to realise sensor interface circuits capable of operating above 300 °C, accommodate shifts in key parameters enabling deployment in applications including automotive, aerospace and deep well drilling.

  18. Single-Crystal Tungsten Carbide in High-Temperature In-Situ Additive Manufacturing Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolopus, James A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boatner, Lynn A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-18

    Nanoindenters are commonly used for measuring the mechanical properties of a wide variety of materials with both industrial and scientific applications. Typically, these instruments employ an indenter made of a material of suitable hardness bonded to an appropriate shaft or holder to create an indentation on the material being tested. While a variety of materials may be employed for the indenter, diamond and boron carbide are by far the most common materials used due to their hardness and other desirable properties. However, as the increasing complexity of new materials demands a broader range of testing capabilities, conventional indenter materials exhibit significant performance limitations. Among these are the inability of diamond indenters to perform in-situ measurements at temperatures above 600oC in air due to oxidation of the diamond material and subsequent degradation of the indenters mechanical properties. Similarly, boron carbide also fails at high temperature due to fracture. [1] Transition metal carbides possess a combination of hardness and mechanical properties at high temperatures that offer an attractive alternative to conventional indenter materials. Here we describe the technical aspects for the growth of single-crystal tungsten carbide (WC) for use as a high-temperature indenter material, and we examine a possible approach to brazing these crystals to a suitable mount for grinding and attachment to the indenter instrument. The use of a by-product of the recovery process is also suggested as possibly having commercial value.

  19. Design of cross-sensitive temperature and strain sensor based on sampled fiber grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaohang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,a cross-sensitive temperature and strain sensor based on sampled fiber grating is designed.Its temperature measurement range is -50-200℃,and the strain measurement rangeis 0-2 000 με.The characteristics of the sensor are obtained using simulation method.Utilizing SPSS software,we found the dual-parameter matrix equations of measurement of temperature and strain,and calibrated the four sensing coefficients of the matrix equations.

  20. Low temperature carving of ZnO nanorods into nanotubes for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehghan Nayeri, Fatemeh, E-mail: F.d.nayeri@ut.ac.ir; Kolahdouz, Mohammadreza; Asl-Soleimani, Ebrahim; Mohajerzadeh, S.

    2015-06-05

    Highlights: • Large scale arrays of highly oriented ZnO NTs have been fabricated and investigated. • The DSSCs made of these 2.5 μm NRs and NTs resulted in conversion efficiencies of 0.34% and 0.9%, respectively. • EIS measurements have demonstrated that the NTs could acquire a higher electron lifetime compared to NRs. • Twofold electron lifetime electron accompanied by half electron transport time for ZnO NTs compared to NRs. - Abstract: High aspect ratio zinc oxide (ZnO) nanotubes (NT) were synthesized based on a two-steps approach. In the first step, ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays were prepared by chemical bath deposition from an aqueous of zinc nitrate. In the second step, the cores of ZnO NRs were carved selectively in a KCl solution, resulting in the formation of a tubular structure. The influence of KCL concentration, temperature, and immersion time on the ZnO NT formation process was completely characterized and investigated. 12.5 μm NRs and NTs have been utilized to manufacture dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and as a result, conversion efficiencies of 1.06% and 2.87% were obtained, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements have demonstrated that the NTs could acquire a higher electron lifetime compared to NRs which causes a faster electron collection. The overall improvement in NT-based DSSC performance demonstrates a new approach to enhance the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  1. Characterization of the temperature-sensitive mutations un-7 and png-1 in Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterle, Michael G; Wiest, Aric E; Plamann, Mike; McCluskey, Kevin

    2010-05-18

    The model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa has been studied for over fifty years and many temperature-sensitive mutants have been generated. While most of these have been mapped genetically, many remain anonymous. The mutation in the N. crassa temperature-sensitive lethal mutant un-7 was identified by a complementation based approach as being in the open reading frame designated NCU00651 on linkage group I. Other mutations in this gene have been identified that lead to a temperature-sensitive morphological phenotype called png-1. The mutations underlying un-7 result in a serine to phenylalanine change at position 273 and an isoleucine to valine change at position 390, while the mutation in png-1 was found to result in a serine to leucine change at position 279 although there were other conservative changes in this allele. The overall morphology of the strain carrying the un-7 mutation is compared to strains carrying the png-1 mutation and these mutations are evaluated in the context of other temperature-sensitive mutants in Neurospora.

  2. Low temperature sensitization of austenitic stainless steel: an ageing effect during BWR service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, B.K.; Sinha, A.K.; Rastogi, P.K.; Kulkarni, P.G.

    1994-01-01

    Sensitization in austenitic stainless steel refers to chromium carbide precipitation at the grain boundaries with concomitant depletion of chromium below 12% near grain boundaries. This makes the material susceptible to either intergranular corrosion (IGC) or intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). This effect is predominant whenever austenitic stainless steel is subjected to thermal exposure in the temperature range 723-1073K either during welding or during heat treatment. Low temperature sensitization (LTS) refers to sensitization at temperature below the typical range of sensitization i.e. 723-1073K. A prerequisite for LTS phenomenon is reported to be the presence of chromium carbide nuclei at the grain boundaries which can grow during boiling water reactor service even at a relatively lower temperature of around 560K. LTS can lead to failure of BWR pipe due to IGSCC. The paper reviews the phenomenological and mechanistic aspects of LTS. Studies carried out regarding effect of prior cold work on LTS are reported. Summary of the studies reported in literature to examine the occurrence of LTS during BWR service has also been included. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs

  3. Alginate microgels loaded with temperature sensitive liposomes for magnetic resonance imageable drug release and microgel visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Elk, Merel; Lorenzato, Cyril; Ozbakir, Burcin; Oerlemans, Chris; Storm, Gert; Nijsen, Frank; Deckers, Roel; Vermonden, Tina; Hennink, Wim E.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare and characterize alginate microgels loaded with temperature sensitive liposomes, which release their payload after mild hyperthermia. It is further aimed that by using these microgels both the drug release and the microgel deposition can be visualized by

  4. Shrub encroachment alters sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature and moisture 2115

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrub encroachment into grasslands creates a mosaic of different soil microsites ranging from open spaces to well-developed shrub canopies, and it is unclear how this affects the spatial variability in soil respiration characteristics, such as the sensitivity to soil temperature and moisture. This i...

  5. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study of Structural Changes in Temperature-Sensitive Microgel Colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stieger, M.A.; Richtering, W.; Pedersen, J.S.; Lindner, P.

    2004-01-01

    The structure of temperature-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microgels in dilute suspension was investigated by means of small-angle neutron scattering. A direct modeling expression for the scattering intensity distribution was derived which describes very well the experimental data at all

  6. Highly Sensitive Liquid Core Temperature Sensor Based on Multimode Interference Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Fuentes-Fuentes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel fiber optic temperature sensor based on a liquid-core multimode interference device is demonstrated. The advantage of such structure is that the thermo-optic coefficient (TOC of the liquid is at least one order of magnitude larger than that of silica and this, combined with the fact that the TOC of silica and the liquid have opposite signs, provides a liquid-core multimode fiber (MMF highly sensitive to temperature. Since the refractive index of the liquid can be easily modified, this allows us to control the modal properties of the liquid-core MMF at will and the sensor sensitivity can be easily tuned by selecting the refractive index of the liquid in the core of the device. The maximum sensitivity measured in our experiments is 20 nm/°C in the low-temperature regime up to 60 °C. To the best of our knowledge, to date, this is the largest sensitivity reported for fiber-based MMI temperature sensors.

  7. Effect of soil moisture on the temperature sensitivity of Northern soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minions, C.; Natali, S.; Ludwig, S.; Risk, D.; Macintyre, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic and boreal ecosystems are vast reservoirs of carbon and are particularly sensitive to climate warming. Changes in the temperature and precipitation regimes of these regions could significantly alter soil respiration rates, impacting atmospheric concentrations and affecting climate change feedbacks. Many incubation studies have shown that both temperature and soil moisture are important environmental drivers of soil respiration; this relationship, however, has rarely been demonstrated with in situ data. Here we present the results of a study at six field sites in Alaska from 2016 to 2017. Low-power automated soil gas systems were used to measure soil surface CO2 flux from three forced diffusion chambers and soil profile concentrations from three soil depth chambers at hourly intervals at each site. HOBO Onset dataloggers were used to monitor soil moisture and temperature profiles. Temperature sensitivity (Q10) was determined at each site using inversion analysis applied over different time periods. With highly resolved data sets, we were able to observe the changes in soil respiration in response to changes in temperature and soil moisture. Through regression analysis we confirmed that temperature is the primary driver in soil respiration, but soil moisture becomes dominant beyond a certain threshold, suppressing CO2 flux in soils with high moisture content. This field study supports the conclusions made from previous soil incubation studies and provides valuable insights into the impact of both temperature and soil moisture changes on soil respiration.

  8. Temperature and hydration effects on absorbance spectra and radiation sensitivity of a radiochromic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rink, Alexandra; Lewis, David F.; Varma, Sangya; Vitkin, I. Alex; Jaffray, David A. [Princess Margaret Hospital/Ontario Cancer Institute, Department of Medical Biophysics and Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Advanced Materials Group, International Specialty Products, Inc., Wayne, New Jersey 07470 (United States); Princess Margaret Hospital/Ontario Cancer Institute, Department of Medical Biophysics and Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    The effects of temperature on real time changes in optical density ({Delta}OD) of GAFCHROMIC EBT film were investigated. The spectral peak of maximum change in absorbance ({lambda}{sub max}) was shown to downshift linearly when the temperature of the film was increased from 22 to 38 degree sign C. The {Delta}OD values were also shown to decrease linearly with temperature, and this decrease could not be attributed to the shift in {lambda}{sub max}. A compensation scheme using {lambda}{sub max} and a temperature-dependent correction factor was investigated, but provided limited improvement. Part of the reason may be the fluctuations in hydration of the active component, which were found to affect both position of absorbance peaks and the sensitivity of the film. To test the effect of hydration, laminated and unlaminated films were desiccated. This shifted both the major and minor absorbance peaks in the opposite direction to the change observed with temperature. The desiccated film also exhibited reduced sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Rehydration of the desiccated films did not reverse the effects, but rather gave rise to another form of the polymer with absorbance maxima upshifted further 20 nm. Hence, the spectral characteristics and sensitivity of the film can be dependent on its history, potentially complicating both real-time and conventional radiation dosimetry.

  9. Temperature Sensitivity of an Atomic Vapor Cell-Based Dispersion-Enhanced Optical Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, K.; Smith, D. D.; Chang, H.; Luckay, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancement of the response of an optical cavity to a change in optical path length, through the use of an intracavity fast-light medium, has previously been demonstrated experimentally and described theoretically for an atomic vapor cell as the intracavity resonant absorber. This phenomenon may be used to enhance both the scale factor and sensitivity of an optical cavity mode to the change in path length, e.g. in gyroscopic applications. We study the temperature sensitivity of the on-resonant scale factor enhancement, S(sub o), due to the thermal sensitivity of the lower-level atom density in an atomic vapor cell, specifically for the case of the Rb-87 D(sub 2) transition. A semi-empirical model of the temperature-dependence of the absorption profile, characterized by two parameters, a(sub o)(T) and gamma(sub a)(T) allows the temperature-dependence of the cavity response, S(sub o)(T) and dS(sub o)/dT to be predicted over a range of temperature. We compare the predictions to experiment. Our model will be useful in determining the useful range for S(sub o), given the practical constraints on temperature stability for an atomic vapor cell.

  10. Embedding of MEMS pressure and temperature sensors in carbon fiber composites: a manufacturing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidinejad, Amir; Joshi, Shiv P.

    2000-06-01

    In this paper embedding of surface mount pressure and temperature sensors in the Carbon fiber composites are described. A commercially available surface mount pressure and temperature sensor are used for embedding in a composite lay- up of IM6/HST-7, IM6/3501 and AS4/E7T1-2 prepregs. The fabrication techniques developed here are the focus of this paper and provide for a successful embedding procedure of pressure sensors in fibrous composites. The techniques for positioning and insulating, the sensor and the lead wires, from the conductive carbon prepregs are described and illustrated. Procedural techniques are developed and discussed for isolating the sensor's flow-opening, from the exposure to the prepreg epoxy flow and exposure to the fibrous particles, during the autoclave curing of the composite laminate. The effects of the autoclave cycle (if any) on the operation of the embedded pressure sensor are discussed.

  11. Global sensitivity analysis of water age and temperature for informing salmonid disease management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri, Amir; Babbar-Sebens, Meghna; Alexander, Julie; Bartholomew, Jerri; Hallett, Sascha

    2018-06-01

    Many rivers in the Pacific Northwest region of North America are anthropogenically manipulated via dam operations, leading to system-wide impacts on hydrodynamic conditions and aquatic communities. Understanding how dam operations alter abiotic and biotic variables is important for designing management actions. For example, in the Klamath River, dam outflows could be manipulated to alter water age and temperature to reduce risk of parasite infections in salmon by diluting or altering viability of parasite spores. However, sensitivity of water age and temperature to the riverine conditions such as bathymetry can affect outcomes from dam operations. To examine this issue in detail, we conducted a global sensitivity analysis of water age and temperature to a comprehensive set of hydraulics and meteorological parameters in the Klamath River, California, where management of salmonid disease is a high priority. We applied an analysis technique, which combined Latin-hypercube and one-at-a-time sampling methods, and included simulation runs with the hydrodynamic numerical model of the Lower Klamath. We found that flow rate and bottom roughness were the two most important parameters that influence water age. Water temperature was more sensitive to inflow temperature, air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, flow rate, and wet bulb temperature respectively. Our results are relevant for managers because they provide a framework for predicting how water within 'high infection risk' sections of the river will respond to dam water (low infection risk) input. Moreover, these data will be useful for prioritizing the use of water age (dilution) versus temperature (spore viability) under certain contexts when considering flow manipulation as a method to reduce risk of infection and disease in Klamath River salmon.

  12. Surgical implantation of temperature-sensitive transmitters and data-loggers to record body temperature in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, D; Johnston, S D; Beard, L; Nicholson, V; Lisle, A; Gaughan, J; Larkin, R; Theilemann, P; Mckinnon, A; Ellis, W

    2016-01-01

    Under predicted climate change scenarios, koala distribution in Australia is expected to be adversely affected. Recent studies have attempted to identify suitable habitat, based on models of bioclimatic regions, but to more accurately reflect the thermal tolerance and behavioural adaptations of the various regional populations, the koala's response to periods of heat stress will need to be investigated at the individual animal level. To explore the safety and suitability of temperature-sensitive intra-abdominal implants for monitoring core body temperature in the koala. A temperature-sensitive radio transmitter and thermal iButton data-logger, waxed together as a package, were surgically implanted into the abdominal cavity of four captive koalas. In one animal the implant was tethered and in the other three, it was left free-floating. After 3 months, the implants were removed and all four koalas recovered without complications. The tethering of the package in the one koala resulted in minor inflammation and adhesion, so this practice was subsequently abandoned. The free-floating deployments were complication-free and revealed a diurnal body temperature rhythm, with daily ranges of 0.4-2.8°C. The minimum recorded body temperature was 34.2°C and the maximum was 37.7°C. The difference in the readings obtained from the transmitters and iButtons never exceeded 0.3°C. The suitability of the surgical approach was confirmed, from both the animal welfare and data collection points of view. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  13. Electrochemical polarization behavior of sensitized SUS 304 stainless steel in high temperature water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushiya, K [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Sugimoto, K; Ejima, T

    1978-11-01

    Anodic polarization curves for a solution-treated or sensitized SUS 304 stainless steel and solution-treated Fe-Ni-Cr ternary alloys containing 10%Ni and 6 to 14%Cr have been measured in deaerated 0.5 mol/l Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solutions of pH 2.0 to 5.9 at 298, 523 and 553 K. Corrosion potentials for U-bend SCC test specimens of sensitized SUS 304 stainless steel have also been monitored for a long time in the same solutions as those used for the polarization measurements except that they were aerated. It was found that the differences in the current densities in the passive state, i sub(pass), between the solution treated steel and the sensitized one and also between the ternary alloy with higher Cr content and the one with lower Cr content become large with increasing temperature and decreasing pH. This means that the difference in the values of i sub(pass) between grain bodies and Cr-depleted zones along grain boundaries of sensitized steel becomes larger and susceptibility to intergranular corrosion of the sensitized steel in the passivation region becomes higher with increasing temperature and decreasing pH. Since corrosion potentials for the U-bend SCC test specimens in air-satulated solutions lie in the passive region of anodic polarization curves for the sensitized steel in deaerated solutions, the intergranular stress-corrosion cracking of the sensitized steel in high temperature water with dissolved oxygen is considered to be caused by the preferential corrosion in the Cr-depleted zone.

  14. Fabricating a pearl/PLGA composite scaffold by the low-temperature deposition manufacturing technique for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mingen; Li Yanlei; Suo Hairui; Wang Qiujun; Ge Yakun; Xu Ying; Yan Yongnian; Liu Li

    2010-01-01

    Here we developed a composite scaffold of pearl/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (pearl/PLGA) utilizing the low-temperature deposition manufacturing (LDM). LDM makes it possible to fabricate scaffolds with designed microstructure and macrostructure, while keeping the bioactivity of biomaterials by working at a low temperature. Process optimization was carried out to fabricate a mixture of pearl powder, PLGA and 1,4-dioxane with the designed hierarchical structures, and freeze-dried at a temperature of -40 deg. C. Scaffolds with square and designated bone shape were fabricated by following the 3D model. Marrow stem cells (MSCs) were seeded on the pearl/PLGA scaffold and then cultured in a rotating cell culture system. The adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts were determined using scanning electronic microscopy, WST-1 assay, alkaline phosphatase activity assay, immunofluorescence staining and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the composite scaffold had high porosity (81.98 ± 3.75%), proper pore size (micropores: <10 μm; macropore: 495 ± 54 μm) and mechanical property (compressive strength: 0.81 ± 0.04 MPa; elastic modulus: 23.14 ± 0.75 MPa). The pearl/PLGA scaffolds exhibited better biocompatibility and osteoconductivity compared with the tricalcium phosphate/PLGA scaffold. All these results indicate that the pearl/PLGA scaffolds fulfill the basic requirements of bone tissue engineering scaffold.

  15. Thermal sterilization of heat-sensitive products using high-temperature short-time sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, A; Kiefer, M; Leuenberger, H

    2001-03-01

    High-temperature short-time (HTST) sterilization with a continuous-flow sterilizer, developed for this study, was evaluated. The evaluation was performed with respect to (a) the chemical degradation of two heat-sensitive drugs in HTST range (140-160 degrees C) and (b) the microbiological effect of HTST sterilization. Degradation kinetics of two heat-sensitive drugs showed that a high peak temperature sterilization process resulted in less chemical degradation for the same microbiological effect than a low peak temperature process. Both drugs investigated could be sterilized with acceptable degradation at HTST conditions. For the evaluation of the microbiological effect, Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 spores were used as indicator bacteria. Indicator spore kinetics (D(T), z value, k, and E(a)), were determined in the HTST range. A comparison between the Bigelow model (z value concept) and the Arrhenius model, used to describe the temperature coefficient of the microbial inactivation, demonstrated that the Bigelow model is more accurate in prediction of D(T) values in the HTST range. The temperature coefficient decreased with increasing temperature. The influence of Ca(2+) ions and pH value on the heat resistance of the indicator spores, which is known under typical sterilization conditions, did not change under HTST conditions.

  16. [Emission spectrum temperature sensitivity of Mg4FGeO6 : mn induced by laser].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Liu, Jing-Ru; Shao, Jun; Hu, Zhi-Yun; Tao, Bo; Huang, Mei-Sheng

    2013-08-01

    In order to develop a new sort of thermally sensitive phosphor coating, the emission spectrum thermally sensitivity of Mg4FGeO6 : Mn induced by laser was studied. The spectrum measurement system with heating function was set up, and the emission spectrum of Mg4FGeO6 : Mn at various temperatures were measured. Absorption spectrum was measured, and the mechanism of formation of the structure of double peak was analyzed with the perturbation theory of crystal lattice. The group of peaks around 630 nm is represented by the transitions 4F"2 to 4A2, whereas the group of peaks around 660 nm is due to the transitions 4F'2 to 4A2. The occupancy of both excited states 4F'2 and 4F"2 is in thermal equilibrium. Thus increasing temperature causes the intensity of the emission in the group around 630 nm to increase at the expense of the emission intensity of the group around 660 nm. The various spectral regions in emission differ with temperature, which could be used to support the intensity-ratio measurement method. The intensity-ratio change curve as a function of temperature was fitted, which shows that the range of temperature measurement is between room temperature and 800 K.

  17. A luminescent Lanthanide-free MOF nanohybrid for highly sensitive ratiometric temperature sensing in physiological range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Zhang, Denan; Zeng, Jin; Gan, Ning; Cuan, Jing

    2018-05-01

    Luminescent MOF materials with tunable emissions and energy/charge transfer processes have been extensively explored as ratiometric temperature sensors. However, most of the ratiometric MOF thermometers reported thus far are based on the MOFs containing photoactive lanthanides, which are potentially facing cost issue and serious supply shortage. Here, we present a ratiometric luminescent thermometer based on a dual-emitting lanthanide-free MOF hybrid, which is developed by encapsulation of a fluorescent dye into a robust nanocrystalline zirconium-based MOF through a one-pot synthesis approach. The structure and morphology of the hybrid product was characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), N 2 adsorption-desorption measurement and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pore confinement effect well isolates the guest dye molecules and therefore suppresses the nonradiative energy transfer process between dye molecules. The incorporated dye emission is mainly sensitized by the organic linkers within MOF through fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The ratiometric luminescence of the MOF hybrid shows a significant response to temperature due to the thermal-related back energy transfer process from dye molecules and organic linkers, thus can be exploited for self-calibrated temperature sensing. The maximum thermometric sensitivity is 1.19% °C -1 in the physiological temperature range, which is among the highest for the ratiomtric MOF thermometers that operating in 25-45°C. The temperature resolution is better than 0.1°C over the entire operative range (20-60°C). By integrating the advantages of excellent stability, nanoscale nature, and high sensitivity and precision in the physiological temperature range, this dye@MOF hybrid might have potential application in biomedical diagnosis. What' more, this work has expanded the possibility of non-lanthanide luminescent MOF materials for the development of ratiometric temperature sensors. Copyright © 2018

  18. Seasonal variation in the temperature sensitivity of proteolytic enzyme activity in temperate forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzostek, Edward R.; Finzi, Adrien C.

    2012-03-01

    Increasing soil temperature has the potential to alter the activity of the extracellular enzymes that mobilize nitrogen (N) from soil organic matter (SOM) and ultimately the availability of N for primary production. Proteolytic enzymes depolymerize N from proteinaceous components of SOM into amino acids, and their activity is a principal driver of the within-system cycle of soil N. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the soils of temperate forest tree species differ in the temperature sensitivity of proteolytic enzyme activity over the growing season and the role of substrate limitation in regulating temperature sensitivity. Across species and sampling dates, proteolytic enzyme activity had relatively low sensitivity to temperature with a mean activation energy (Ea) of 33.5 kJ mol-1. Ea declined in white ash, American beech, and eastern hemlock soils across the growing season as soils warmed. By contrast, Eain sugar maple soil increased across the growing season. We used these data to develop a species-specific empirical model of proteolytic enzyme activity for the 2009 calendar year and studied the interactive effects of soil temperature (ambient or +5°C) and substrate limitation (ambient or elevated protein) on enzyme activity. Declines in substrate limitation had a larger single-factor effect on proteolytic enzyme activity than temperature, particularly in the spring. There was, however, a large synergistic effect of increasing temperature and substrate supply on proteolytic enzyme activity. Our results suggest limited increases in N availability with climate warming unless there is a parallel increase in the availability of protein substrates.

  19. A low temperature co-fired ceramic power inductor manufactured using a glass-free ternary composite material system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanxun; Xie, Yunsong; Xie, Ru; Chen, Daming; Han, Likun; Su, Hua

    2018-03-01

    A glass-free ternary composite material system (CMS) manufactured employing the low temperature ( 890 ° C ) co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technique is reported. This ternary CMS consists of silver, NiCuZn ferrite, and Zn2SiO4 ceramic. The reported device fabricated from this ternary CMS is a power inductor with a nominal inductance of 1.0 μH. Three major highlights were achieved from the device and the material study. First, unlike most other LTCC methods, no glass is required to be added in either of the dielectric materials in order to co-fire the NiCuZn ferrite, Zn2SiO4 ceramic, and silver. Second, a successfully co-fired silver, NiCuZn, and Zn2SiO4 device can be achieved by optimizing the thermal shrinkage properties of both NiCuZn and Zn2SiO4, so that they have a very similar temperature shrinkage profile. We have also found that strong non-magnetic elemental diffusion occurs during the densification process, which further enhances the success rate of manufacturing co-fired devices. Last but not least, elemental mapping suggests that strong magnetic elemental diffusion between NiCuZn and Zn2SiO4 has been suppressed during the co-firing process. The investigation of electrical performance illustrates that while the ordinary binary CMS based power inductor can deal with 400 mA DC, the ternary CMS based power inductor is able to handle higher DC currents, 700 mA and 620 mA DC, according to both simulation and experiment demonstrations, respectively.

  20. Fabrication of a microfluidic chip by UV bonding at room temperature for integration of temperature-sensitive layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlautmann, S.; Besselink, G. A. J.; Radhakrishna Prabhu, G.; Schasfoort, R. B. M.

    2003-07-01

    A method for the bonding of a microfluidic device at room temperature is presented. The wafer with the fluidic structures was bonded to a sensor wafer with gold pads by means of adhesive bonding, utilizing an UV-curable glue layer. To avoid filling the fluidic channels with the glue, a stamping process was developed which allows the selective application of a thin glue layer. In this way a microfluidic glass chip was fabricated that could be used for performing surface plasmon resonance measurements without signs of leakage. The advantage of this method is the possibility of integration of organic layers as well as other temperature-sensitive layers into a microfluidic glass device.

  1. Sensitivity of glaciation in the arid subtropical Andes to changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargo, L. J.; Galewsky, J.; Rupper, S.; Ward, D. J.

    2018-04-01

    The subtropical Andes (18.5-27 °S) have been glaciated in the past, but are presently glacier-free. We use idealized model experiments to quantify glacier sensitivity to changes in climate in order to investigate the climatic drivers of past glaciations. We quantify the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) sensitivity (the change in ELA per change in climate) to temperature, precipitation, and shortwave radiation for three distinct climatic regions in the subtropical Andes. We find that in the western cordillera, where conditions are hyper-arid with the highest solar radiation on Earth, ELA sensitivity is as high as 34 m per % increase in precipitation, and 70 m per % decrease in shortwave radiation. This is compared with the eastern cordillera, where precipitation is the highest of the three regions, and ELA sensitivity is only 10 m per % increase in precipitation, and 25 m per % decrease in shortwave radiation. The high ELA sensitivity to shortwave radiation highlights the influence of radiation on mass balance of high elevation and low-latitude glaciers. We also consider these quantified ELA sensitivities in context of previously dated glacial deposits from the regions. Our results suggest that glaciation of the humid eastern cordillera was driven primarily by lower temperatures, while glaciations of the arid Altiplano and western cordillera were also influenced by increases in precipitation and decreases in shortwave radiation. Using paleoclimate records from the timing of glaciation, we find that glaciation of the hyper-arid western cordillera can be explained by precipitation increases of 90-160% (1.9-2.6× higher than modern), in conjunction with associated decreases in shortwave radiation of 7-12% and in temperature of 3.5 °C.

  2. Differences in SOM decomposition and temperature sensitivity among soil aggregate size classes in a temperate grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Dan; Wen, Xuefa; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Rongfu

    2015-01-01

    The principle of enzyme kinetics suggests that the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is inversely related to organic carbon (C) quality, i.e., the C quality-temperature (CQT) hypothesis. We tested this hypothesis by performing laboratory incubation experiments with bulk soil, macroaggregates (MA, 250-2000 μm), microaggregates (MI, 53-250 μm), and mineral fractions (MF, temperature and aggregate size significantly affected on SOM decomposition, with notable interactive effects (Ptemperature in the following order: MA>MF>bulk soil >MI(P classes (P temperature is closely associated withsoil aggregation and highlights the complex responses of ecosystem C budgets to future warming scenarios.

  3. The effect of nodalization and temperature of reactor upper region: Sensitivity analysis for APR-1400 LBLOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Gu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The nodalization of APR-1400 was modified to reflect the characteristic of upper region temperature. • The effect of nodalization and temperature of reactor upper region on LBLOCA consequence was evaluated. • The modification of nodalization is an essential prerequisite in APR-1400 LBLOCA analysis. - Abstract: In best estimate (BE) calculation, the definition of system nodalization is important step influencing the prediction accuracy for specific thermal-hydraulic phenomena. The upper region of reactor is defined as the region of the upper guide structure (UGS) and upper dome. It has been assumed that the temperature of upper region is close to average temperature in most large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) analysis cases. However, it was recently found that the temperature of upper region of APR-1400 reactor might be little lower than or similar to hot leg temperature through the review of detailed design data. In this study, the nodalization of APR-1400 was modified to reflect the characteristic of upper region temperature, and the effect of nodalization and temperature of reactor upper region on LBLOCA consequence was evaluated by sensitivity analysis including best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) calculation. In basecase calculation, in case of modified version, the peak cladding temperature (PCT) in blowdown phase became higher and the blowdown quenching (or cooling) was significantly deteriorated as compared to original case, and as a result, the cladding temperature in reflood phase became higher and the final quenching was also delayed. In addition, thermal-hydraulic parameters were compared and analyzed to investigate the effect of change of upper region on cladding temperature. In BEPU analysis, the 95 percentile PCT used in current regulatory practice was increased due to the modification of upper region nodalization, and it occurred in the reflood phase unlike original case.

  4. Sea-ice cover in the Nordic Seas and the sensitivity to Atlantic water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mari F.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Spall, Michael A.

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the sea-ice cover of the Nordic Seas have been proposed to play a key role for the dramatic temperature excursions associated with the Dansgaard-Oeschger events during the last glacial. However, with its proximity to the warm Atlantic water, how a sea-ice cover can persist in the Nordic Seas is not well understood. In this study, we apply an eddy-resolving configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model with an idealized topography to study the presence of sea ice in a Nordic Seas-like domain. We assume an infinite amount of warm Atlantic water present in the south by restoring the southern area to constant temperatures. The sea-surface temperatures are restored toward cold, atmospheric temperatures, and as a result, sea ice is present in the interior of the domain. However, the sea-ice cover in the margins of the Nordic Seas, an area with a warm, cyclonic boundary current, is sensitive to the amount of heat entering the domain, i.e., the restoring temperature in the south. When the temperature of the warm, cyclonic boundary current is high, the margins are free of sea ice and heat is released to the atmosphere. We show that with a small reduction in the temperature of the incoming Atlantic water, the Nordic Seas-like domain is fully covered in sea ice. Warm water is still entering the Nordic Seas, however, this happens at depths below a cold, fresh surface layer produced by melted sea ice. Consequently, the heat release to the atmosphere is reduced along with the eddy heat fluxes. Results suggest a threshold value in the amount of heat entering the Nordic Seas before the sea-ice cover disappears in the margins. We study the sensitivity of this threshold to changes in atmospheric temperatures and vertical diffusivity.

  5. High-temperature sensitivity and its acclimation for photosynthetic electron reactions of desert succulents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetti, M.B.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1987-08-01

    Photosynthetic electron reactions of succulent plants from hot deserts are able to tolerate extremely high temperatures and to acclimate to seasonal increase in temperature. In this study, we report the influence of relatively long, in vivo, high-temperature treatments on electron transport reactions for two desert succulents, Agave deserti and Opuntia ficus-indica, species which can tolerate 60{degree}C. Whole chain electron transport averaged 3{degree}C more sensitive to a 1-hour high-temperature treatment than did PSII (Photosystem II) which in turn averaged 3{degree}C more sensitive than did PSI. For plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30{degree}C/20{degree}C, treatment at 50{degree}C cause these reactions to be inhibited an average of 39% during the first hour, an additional 31% during the next 4 hours, and 100% by 12 hours. Upon shifting the plants from 30{degree}C/20{degree}C to 45{degree}C/35{degree}C, the high temperatures where activity was inhibited 50% increased 3{degree}C to 8{degree}C for the three electron transport reactions, the half-times for acclimation averaging 5 days for A. deserti and 4 days for O. ficus-indica. For the 45{degree}C/35{degree}C plants treated at 60{degree}C for 1 hour, PSI activity was reduced by 54% for A. deserti and 36% for O. ficus-indica. Acclimation leads to a toleration of very high temperatures without substantial disruption of electron transport for these desert succulents, facilitating their survival in hot deserts. Indeed, the electron transport reactions of these species tolerate longer periods at higher temperatures than any other vascular plants so far reported.

  6. Soil warming increases metabolic quotients of soil microorganisms without changes in temperature sensitivity of soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, Sara; Soong, Jenniffer L.; Leblans, Niki I. W.; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Dauwe, Steven; Fransen, Erik; Janssens, Ivan A.

    2017-04-01

    Increasing temperatures can accelerate soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and release large amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere, potentially inducing climate change feedbacks. Alterations to the temperature sensitivity and metabolic pathways of soil microorganisms in response to soil warming can play a key role in these soil carbon (C) losses. Here, we present results of an incubation experiment using soils from a geothermal gradient in Iceland that have been subjected to different intensities of soil warming (+0, +1, +3, +5, +10 and +20 °C above ambient) over seven years. We hypothesized that 7 years of soil warming would led to a depletion of labile organic substrates, with a subsequent decrease of the "apparent" temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. Associated to this C limitation and more sub-optimal conditions for microbial growth, we also hypothesized increased microbial metabolic quotients (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass), which is associated with increases in the relative amount of C invested into catabolic pathways along the warming gradient. Soil respiration and basal respiration rates decreased with soil warming intensity, in parallel with a decline in soil C availability. Contrasting to our first hypothesis, we did not detect changes in the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration with soil warming or on the availability of nutrients and of labile C substrates at the time of incubation. However, in agreement to our second hypothesis, microbial metabolic quotients (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass) increased at warmer temperatures, while the C retained in biomass decreased as substrate became limiting. Long-term (7 years) temperature increases thus triggered a change in the metabolic functioning of the soil microbial communities towards increasing energy costs for maintenance or resource acquisition, thereby lowering the capacity of C retention and stabilization of warmed soils. These results highlight the need

  7. In vivo non-invasive optical imaging of temperature-sensitive co-polymeric nanohydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyan; Zhang, Jian; Qian, Zhiyu; Liu, Fei; Chen, Xinyang; Hu, Yuzhu; Gu, Yueqing

    2008-05-01

    Assessment of hyperthermia in pathological tissue is a promising strategy for earlier diagnosis of malignant tumors. In this study, temperature-sensitive co-polymeric nanohydrogel poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (PNIPA-co-AA) was successfully synthesized by the precipitation polymerization method. The diameters of nanohydrogels were controlled to be less than 100 nm. Also the lower critical solution temperature (LCST, 40 °C) was manipulated above physiological temperature after integration of near-infrared (NIR) organic dye (heptamethine cyanine dye, HMCD) within its interior cores. NIR laser light (765 nm), together with sensitive charge coupled device (CCD) cameras, were designed to construct an NIR imaging system. The dynamic behaviors of PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites in denuded mice with or without local hyperthermia treatment were real-time monitored by an NIR imager. The results showed that the PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites accumulated in the leg treated with local heating and diffused much slower than that in the other leg without heating. The results demonstrated that the temperature-responsive PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites combining with an NIR imaging system could be an effective temperature mapping technique, which provides a promising prospect for earlier tumor diagnosis and thermally related therapeutic assessment.

  8. In vivo non-invasive optical imaging of temperature-sensitive co-polymeric nanohydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haiyan; Hu Yuzhu; Zhang Jian; Liu Fei; Chen Xinyang; Gu Yueqing; Qian Zhiyu

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of hyperthermia in pathological tissue is a promising strategy for earlier diagnosis of malignant tumors. In this study, temperature-sensitive co-polymeric nanohydrogel poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (PNIPA-co-AA) was successfully synthesized by the precipitation polymerization method. The diameters of nanohydrogels were controlled to be less than 100 nm. Also the lower critical solution temperature (LCST, 40 deg. C) was manipulated above physiological temperature after integration of near-infrared (NIR) organic dye (heptamethine cyanine dye, HMCD) within its interior cores. NIR laser light (765 nm), together with sensitive charge coupled device (CCD) cameras, were designed to construct an NIR imaging system. The dynamic behaviors of PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites in denuded mice with or without local hyperthermia treatment were real-time monitored by an NIR imager. The results showed that the PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites accumulated in the leg treated with local heating and diffused much slower than that in the other leg without heating. The results demonstrated that the temperature-responsive PNIPA-co-AA-HMCD composites combining with an NIR imaging system could be an effective temperature mapping technique, which provides a promising prospect for earlier tumor diagnosis and thermally related therapeutic assessment

  9. Process for the manufacture of an electrochemical high temperature cell. Verfahren zur Herstellung einer elektrochemischen Hochtemperaturzelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chobanov, T; Kunze, D; Woeffler, F

    1982-04-29

    Separators of such cells must be resistant to corrosion and insensitive to cyclical changes of volume. Appropriate materials (e.g. BeO, ThO/sub 2/, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/) are however not ion-conducting, and must therefore be used with an open structure. In well-known ceramic separators, the space between the electrodes has small separator material poured into it, and this causes variations in porosity and density; also the cells are loaded by the necessary shaking and vibration. The process of the invention consists of mixing the finely divided separator material and/or the electrodes with electrolyte powder and a plastic which is completely decomposed by heat. The mixture is rolled into a flat plate, and this is fitted in the cell individually or as a compound electrode/separator plate. After assembly, the whole cell is heated above the decomposition temperature of the plastic. A solution of polyisobutylene in cyclohexane is preferred, where the proportion is 2-5%. The separator material is used with two grain sizes, large particles of 2 mm diameter (40-80%) and fine particles in the range 5-60 ..mu..m (60-20%).

  10. Evaluation of stress-corrosion cracking of sensitized 304SS in low-temperature borated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Bruemmer, S.M.

    1981-05-01

    Intergranular stress corrosion cracking has been observed in constant extension rate tests, CERT and constant load tests of 304SS tested at 32 0 C in borated water plus 15 ppM C1 - . Evidence of IGSCC was obtained in CERT tests of welded pipe samples only when the original inner diameter surface was intact and with 15 ppM C1 - added to the borated water while IGSCC occurred in a furnace sensitized pipe sample after 500 h at a constant stress of 340 MPa in borated water containing 15 ppM C1 - . These results indicate that surface features associated with weld preparation grinding contributed to the susceptibility of sensitized 304SS to IGSCC in low temperature borated water; however, the constant load test indicates that such surface defects are not necessary for IGSCC in low temperature borated water

  11. Modeling programmable deformation of self-folding all-polymer structures with temperature-sensitive hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Wei; Zhou, Jinxiong; Li, Meie

    2013-01-01

    Combination of soft active hydrogels with hard passive polymers gives rise to all-polymer composites. The hydrogel is sensitive to external stimuli while the passive polymer is inert. Utilizing the different behaviors of two materials subject to environmental variation, for example temperature, results in self-folding soft machines. We report our efforts to model the programmable deformation of self-folding structures with temperature-sensitive hydrogels. The self-folding structures are realized either by constructing a bilayer structure or by incorporating hydrogels as hinges. The methodology and the results may aid the design, control and fabrication of 3D complex structures from 2D simple configurations through self-assembly. (paper)

  12. Temperature modulates coccolithophorid sensitivity of growth, photosynthesis and calcification to increasing seawater pCO₂.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarlett Sett

    Full Text Available Increasing atmospheric CO₂ concentrations are expected to impact pelagic ecosystem functioning in the near future by driving ocean warming and acidification. While numerous studies have investigated impacts of rising temperature and seawater acidification on planktonic organisms separately, little is presently known on their combined effects. To test for possible synergistic effects we exposed two coccolithophore species, Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica, to a CO₂ gradient ranging from ∼0.5-250 µmol kg⁻¹ (i.e. ∼20-6000 µatm pCO₂ at three different temperatures (i.e. 10, 15, 20°C for E. huxleyi and 15, 20, 25°C for G. oceanica. Both species showed CO₂-dependent optimum-curve responses for growth, photosynthesis and calcification rates at all temperatures. Increased temperature generally enhanced growth and production rates and modified sensitivities of metabolic processes to increasing CO₂. CO₂ optimum concentrations for growth, calcification, and organic carbon fixation rates were only marginally influenced from low to intermediate temperatures. However, there was a clear optimum shift towards higher CO₂ concentrations from intermediate to high temperatures in both species. Our results demonstrate that the CO₂ concentration where optimum growth, calcification and carbon fixation rates occur is modulated by temperature. Thus, the response of a coccolithophore strain to ocean acidification at a given temperature can be negative, neutral or positive depending on that strain's temperature optimum. This emphasizes that the cellular responses of coccolithophores to ocean acidification can only be judged accurately when interpreted in the proper eco-physiological context of a given strain or species. Addressing the synergistic effects of changing carbonate chemistry and temperature is an essential step when assessing the success of coccolithophores in the future ocean.

  13. Practical high temperature (80 °C) storage study of industrially manufactured Li-ion batteries with varying electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genieser, R.; Loveridge, M.; Bhagat, R.

    2018-05-01

    A previous study is focused on high temperature cycling of industrially manufactured Li-ion pouch cells (NMC-111/Graphite) with different electrolytes at 80 °C [JPS 373 (2018) 172-183]. Within this article the same test set-up is used, with cells stored for 30 days at different open circuit potentials and various electrolytes instead of electrochemical cycling. The most pronounced cell degradation (capacity fade and resistance increase) happens at high potentials. However appropriate electrolyte formulations are able to suppress ageing conditions by forming passivating surface films on both electrodes. Compared with electrochemical cycling at 80 °C, cells with enhanced electrolytes only show a slight resistance increase during storage and the capacity fade is much lower. Additionally it is shown for the first time, that the resistance is decreasing and capacity is regained once these cells are cycled again at room temperature. This is not the case for electrolytes without additives or just vinylene carbonate (VC) as an additive. It is further shown that the resistance increase of cells with the other electrolytes is accompanied by a reduction of the cell volume during further cycling. This behaviour is likely related to the reduction of CO2 at the anode to form additional SEI layer components.

  14. Temperature dependence of critical current and transport current losses of 4 mm YBCO coated conductors manufactured using nonmagnetic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitkovic, J.; Hatwar, R.; Pamidi, S. V.; Fleshler, S.; Thieme, C.

    2015-12-01

    The temperature dependence of the critical current and AC losses were measured on American Superconductor Corporation's (AMSC) second generation high temperature superconducting (2G HTS) wire produced by Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrate (RABiTS) and Metal Organic Deposition (MOD) process. Wires manufactured with two types of substrates were characterized. The magnetic substrate with composition Ni5a%W exhibits a magnetic signature and has non-negligible AC losses in AC power applications. A new nonmagnetic substrate with an alloy composition Ni9a%W has been developed by AMSC to address the AC losses in 2G HTS. The data presented show that the performance of the new conductor is identical to the conductor with magnetic substrate in terms of critical current density. The data on AC losses demonstrate the absence of ferromagnetic loss component in the new conductor and significantly reduced AC losses at low to moderate values of I/Ic. The reduced losses will translate into reduced capital costs and lower operating costs of superconducting electrical devices for AC applications.

  15. Transposition of Tn5096 from a temperature-sensitive transducible plasmid in Streptomyces spp.

    OpenAIRE

    McHenney, M A; Baltz, R H

    1991-01-01

    Transposon Tn5096 was inserted into a derivative of the temperature-sensitive plasmid pMT660 containing the bacteriophage FP43 pac site. The resulting plasmid, pRHB126, was transduced by FP43 into several Streptomyces species. Tn5096 transposed from pRHB126 into different sites in the genomes of Streptomyces ambofaciens, Streptomyces cinnamonensis, Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), Streptomyces fradiae, Streptomyces griseofuscus, and Streptomyces thermotolerans.

  16. Shrub encroachment alters sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Jessica M.; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Ogle, Kiona; Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitchell; Scott, Russell L.; Williams, David G.; Huxman, Travis E.

    2012-03-01

    A greater abundance of shrubs in semiarid grasslands affects the spatial patterns of soil temperature, moisture, and litter, resulting in fertile islands with potentially enhanced soil metabolic activity. The goal of this study was to quantify the microsite specificity of soil respiration in a semiarid riparian ecosystem experiencing shrub encroachment. We quantified the response of soil respiration to different microsite conditions created by big mesquite shrubs (near the trunk and the canopy edge), medium-sized mesquite, sacaton bunchgrasses, and open spaces. We hypothesized that soil respiration would be more temperature sensitive and less moisture sensitive and have a greater magnitude in shrub microsites compared with grass and open microsites. Field and incubation soil respiration data were simultaneously analyzed in a Bayesian framework to quantify the microsite-specific temperature and moisture sensitivities and magnitude of respiration. The analysis showed that shrub expansion increases the heterogeneity of respiration. Respiration has greater temperature sensitivity near the shrub canopy edge, and respiration rates are higher overall under big mesquite compared with those of the other microsites. Respiration in the microsites beneath medium-sized mesquites does not behave like a downscaled version of big mesquite microsites. The grass microsites show more similarity to big mesquite microsites than medium-sized shrubs. This study shows there can be a great deal of fine-scale spatial heterogeneity that accompanies shifts in vegetation structure. Such complexity presents a challenge in scaling soil respiration fluxes to the landscape for systems experiencing shrub encroachment, but quantifying this complexity is significantly important in determining overall ecosystem metabolic behavior.

  17. Refractive index and temperature sensitivity characteristics of a micro-slot fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Pouneh; Yan, Zhijun; Zhou, Kaiming; Zhang, Lin

    2012-07-10

    Fabrication and characterization of a UV inscribed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with a micro-slot liquid core is presented. Femtosecond (fs) laser patterning/chemical etching technique was employed to engrave a micro-slot with dimensions of 5.74 μm(h)×125 μm(w)×1388.72 μm(l) across the whole grating. The device has been evaluated for refractive index (RI) and temperature sensitivities and exhibited distinctive thermal response and RI sensitivity beyond the detection limit of reported fiber gratings. This structure has not just been RI sensitive, but also maintained the robustness comparing with the bare core FBGs and long-period gratings with the partial cladding etched off.

  18. Polarization-sensitive and broadband germanium sulfide photodetectors with excellent high-temperature performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dezhi; Zhang, Wenjin; Wang, Xiaofan; Koirala, Sandhaya; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Matsuda, Kazunari

    2017-08-31

    Layered materials, such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorene, have been established rapidly as intriguing building blocks for optoelectronic devices. Here, we introduce highly polarization sensitive, broadband, and high-temperature-operation photodetectors based on multilayer germanium sulfide (GeS). The GeS photodetector shows a high photoresponsivity of about 6.8 × 10 3 A W -1 , an extremely high specific detectivity of 5.6 × 10 14 Jones, and broad spectral response in the wavelength range of 300-800 nm. More importantly, the GeS photodetector has high polarization sensitivity to incident linearly polarized light, which provides another degree of freedom for photodetectors. Tremendously enhanced photoresponsivity is observed with a temperature increase, and high responsivity is achievable at least up to 423 K. The establishment of larger photoinduced reduction of the Schottky barrier height will be significant for the investigation of the photoresponse mechanism of 2D layered material-based photodetectors. These attributes of high photocurrent generation in a wide temperature range, broad spectral response, and polarization sensitivity coupled with environmental stability indicate that the proposed GeS photodetector is very suitable for optoelectronic applications.

  19. Temperature-sensitive host range mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koment, R.W.; Rapp, F.

    1975-01-01

    Herpesviruses are capable of several types of infection of a host cell. To investigate the early events which ultimately determine the nature of the virus-host cell interaction, a system was established utilizing temperature-sensitive mutants of herpes simplex virus type 2. Four mutants have been isolated which fail to induce cytopathic effects and do not replicate at 39 C in hamster embryo fibroblast cells. At least one mutant is virus DNA negative. Since intracellular complementation is detectable between pairs of mutants, a virus function is known to be temperature sensitive. However, all four mutants induce cytopathic effects and replicate to parental virus levels in rabbit kidney cells at 39 C. This suggests that a host cell function, lacking or nonfunctional in HEF cells but present in rabbit kidney cells at 39 C, is required for the replication of these mutants in hamster embryo fibroblast cells at 39 C. Therefore, we conclude that these mutants are both temperature sensitive and exhibit host range properties

  20. Martensitic transformation behaviour in sensitized SUS304 austenitic stainless steel during isothermal holding at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-hwa; Fukuda, Takashi; Kakeshita, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    We investigated martensitic transformation behaviour in sensitized SUS304 austenitic stainless steel to determine the stability of the austenitic phase at low temperatures. We found that a specimen that was sensitized at 973 K for 100 h exhibits an isothermal martensitic transformation when the specimen is held in the temperature range between 60 and 260 K. We constructed a time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram corresponding to the formation of 0.5 vol. % α'-martensite. A magnetization measurement was used to evaluate the volume fraction of a'-martensite. The TTT diagram shows a double-C curve with two noses located at about 100 and 200 K. In-situ optical microscope observations reveal that the double C-curve is due to two different transformation sequences. That is, the upper part of the C-curve is due to a direct γ → α' martensitic transformation and the lower part of the C-curve is due to a successive γ → ψ → α' martensitic transformation. The direct γ → α' transformation occurs in the vicinity of grain boundaries while the successive γ → ψ' → α' transformation occurs near the centre of grains. A scanning electron microscope observation reveals that carbide particles of M 23 C 6 are formed in the grain boundaries. The concentration difference between the centre of the grains and regions near grain boundaries is the reason for the difference in the isothermal transformation sequence for the sensitized SUS304 stainless steel.

  1. Histamine development and bacterial diversity in microbially-challenged tonggol (Thunnus tonggol) under temperature abuse during canning manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongpattarakere, Tipparat; Buntin, Nirunya; Nuylert, Aem

    2016-01-01

    Histamine formation and bacteriological changes caused by temperature abuse commonly occurring in the manufacturing process of standard canned tuna was assessed in microbiologically challenged tonggol (Thunnus tonggol). The in situ challenge was performed by water-soaking at 26-28 °C for 7 h to ensure the multiplication and active phase of fish microflora. Right after pre-cooking to back-bone temperature (BBT) of 50-52 °C, histamine dropped to 5.17 ± 2.71 ppm, and slowly reached 6.84 ± 1.69 ppm at 16 h abuse. On the contrary, histamine was reduced to 2.87 ± 1.23 ppm and eventually reached 5.01 ± 1.32 ppm at 24 h abuse in the pre-cooked fish previously frozen. The numbers of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobactericeae, psychrotroph, histamine forming bacteria (HFB) and diversity of fish microflora were revealed by cultural and nested PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) techniques. Interestingly, frozen storage effectively halted histamine formation in raw fish throughout 16 h abuse despite the presence of HFB. These included the prolific strains of Morganella morganii, Proteus penneri, Proteus mirabilin, Citrobacter spp. The nested PCR-DGGE profile confirmed the presence of M. morganii and Citrobacter spp. in raw fish. These prolific strains were hardly observed in the precooked fish previously frozen. Frozen storage did not only promote even histamine distribution throughout fish muscle but also enhanced histamine loss during thawing and pre-cooking. Therefore, pre-cooking and frozen storage were proven to be the effective combined hurdles not only to reduce but also prolong histamine formation of the challenged toggol throughout 24 h of temperature abuse during canning process.

  2. Sensitivities of dry season runoff to precipitation and temperature in southern Sierra Nevada streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safeeq, M.; Hunsaker, C. T.; Bales, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    In a mediterranean climate, dry season runoff sustains water supply and supports aquatic habitat and other ecosystems. Precipitation and temperature directly, by regulating recharge and evapotranspiration (ET), and indirectly, by regulating amount and timing of snowmelt, control the dry season runoff in the Sierra Nevada. Here, we explored relative impacts of precipitation and temperature variability on dry season runoff using path analysis. Specific objectives include: (i) to quantify the direct and indirect impacts of precipitation and temperature on 7-day average minimum flow (Qmin) and (ii) to explore the role of preceding year Qmin on fall season runoff (QF). We used daily runoff, air temperature, precipitation, and snow water equivalent (SWE) over 2004-2015 for the ten catchments in the Kings River Experimental Watersheds. For path analysis model of Qmin, we defined annual precipitation and temperature as exogenous variables and peak SWE, day of snow disappearance, and Qmin as endogenous variables. For QF, we defined current year fall precipitation and preceding year Qmin as exogenous variables and current year QF as an endogenous variable. Path analysis results for Qmin show precipitation as a dominant driver when compared to temperature, peak SWE, and day of snow disappearance. However, in half of the catchments that are mostly located at higher elevations the impact of temperature on Qmin was either comparable or exceeded that of precipitation. This relatively high sensitivity of Qmin to air temperature in high elevation catchments is consistent with the earlier findings of increased ET in proportion to warming. The direct effects of peak SWE and day of snow disappearance on Qmin were limited, and indirect effects of temperature and precipitation via peak SWE and day of snow disappearance were not significant. The preceding year Qmin and fall precipitation showed comparable impacts on QF, indicating that the storage in the preceding year modulates current

  3. Identification of ribonucleotide reductase mutation causing temperature-sensitivity of herpes simplex virus isolates from whitlow by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikoku, Tohru; Oyama, Yukari; Yajima, Misako; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Shimada, Yuka; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Miwa, Naoko; Okuda, Tomoko; Sata, Tetsutaro; Shiraki, Kimiyasu

    2015-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 caused a genital ulcer, and a secondary herpetic whitlow appeared during acyclovir therapy. The secondary and recurrent whitlow isolates were acyclovir-resistant and temperature-sensitive in contrast to a genital isolate. We identified the ribonucleotide reductase mutation responsible for temperature-sensitivity by deep-sequencing analysis.

  4. Effect of growth temperature on lipid composition and ultraviolet sensitivity of human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAleer, M.A.; Moore, S.P.; Moss, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    Human skin fibroblasts were incubated at either 25 or 37 0 C before UV irradiation. Cells incubated at 25 0 C were more resistant to near UV radiation than cells grown at 37 0 C, but cells grown at the lower temperature were more sensitive to 254 nm radiation. Fatty acid analysis of membranes of cells showed that cells incubated at the lower temperature contained significantly higher amounts of linoleic acid (18:2) and linolenic acid (18:3) than cells incubated at 37 0 C. To determine if this difference in fatty acid content of the membranes was responsible for the UV survival characteristics of cells incubated at different temperatures, cells were enriched with either linoleate or linolenate during a 37 0 C incubation period. Gas chromatography revealed that cells incorporated the supplied fatty acid. Fatty acid enriched cells were then irradiated with near UV, and survival characteristics were compared to those obtained with cells grown at the lower incubation temperature. The results suggest that the different proportion of fatty acid content of the cells is not the cause of different UV sensitivities of cells grown at 25 0 C compared to cells grown at 37 0 C. (author)

  5. Development of High Temperature/High Sensitivity Novel Chemical Resistive Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chunrui [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Enriquez, Erik [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Wang, Haibing [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Xu, Xing [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Bao, Shangyong [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Collins, Gregory [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2013-08-13

    The research has been focused to design, fabricate, and develop high temperature/high sensitivity novel multifunctional chemical sensors for the selective detection of fossil energy gases used in power and fuel systems. By systematically studying the physical properties of the LnBaCo2O5+d (LBCO) [Ln=Pr or La] thin-films, a new concept chemical sensor based high temperature chemical resistant change has been developed for the application for the next generation highly efficient and near zero emission power generation technologies. We also discovered that the superfast chemical dynamic behavior and an ultrafast surface exchange kinetics in the highly epitaxial LBCO thin films. Furthermore, our research indicates that hydrogen can superfast diffuse in the ordered oxygen vacancy structures in the highly epitaxial LBCO thin films, which suggest that the LBCO thin film not only can be an excellent candidate for the fabrication of high temperature ultra sensitive chemical sensors and control systems for power and fuel monitoring systems, but also can be an excellent candidate for the low temperature solid oxide fuel cell anode and cathode materials.

  6. Increase of ozone concentrations, its temperature sensitivity and the precursor factor in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised about the possible connections between the local and regional photochemical problem and global warming. The current study assesses the trend of ozone in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta (PRD in South China and investigates the interannual changes of sensitivity of ozone to air temperature, as well as the trends in regional precursors. Results reveal, at the three monitoring sites from the mid-1990s to 2010, an increase in the mean ozone concentrations from 1.0 to 1.6 µg m−3 per year. The increase occurred in all seasons, with the highest rate in autumn. This is consistent with trends and temperature anomalies in the region. The increase in the sensitivity of ozone to temperature is clearly evident from the correlation between ozone (OMI [Ozone Monitoring Instrument] column amount and surface air temperature (from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder displayed in the correlation maps for the PRD during the prominently high ozone period of July–September. It is observed to have increased from 2005 to 2010, the latter being the hottest year on record globally. To verify this temporal change in sensitivity, the ground-level trends of correlation coefficients/regression slopes are analysed. As expected, results reveal a statistically significant upward trend over a 14-year period (1997–2010. While the correlation revealed in the correlation maps is in agreement with the corresponding OMI ozone maps when juxtaposed, temperature sensitivity of surface ozone also shows an association with ozone concentration, with R=0.5. These characteristics of ozone sensitivity are believed to have adverse implications for the region. As shown by ground measurements and/or satellite analyses, the decrease in nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx in Hong Kong is not statistically significant while NO2 of the PRD has only very slightly changed. However, carbon dioxide has remarkably declined in the whole region. While these observations concerning

  7. Uncertainty of Wheat Water Use: Simulated Patterns and Sensitivity to Temperature and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarano, Davide; Roetter, Reimund P.; Asseng, Senthold; Ewert, Frank; Wallach, Daniel; Martre, Pierre; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Jones, James W.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Ruane, Alex C.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Projected global warming and population growth will reduce future water availability for agriculture. Thus, it is essential to increase the efficiency in using water to ensure crop productivity. Quantifying crop water use (WU; i.e. actual evapotranspiration) is a critical step towards this goal. Here, sixteen wheat simulation models were used to quantify sources of model uncertainty and to estimate the relative changes and variability between models for simulated WU, water use efficiency (WUE, WU per unit of grain dry mass produced), transpiration efficiency (Teff, transpiration per kg of unit of grain yield dry mass produced), grain yield, crop transpiration and soil evaporation at increased temperatures and elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]). The greatest uncertainty in simulating water use, potential evapotranspiration, crop transpiration and soil evaporation was due to differences in how crop transpiration was modelled and accounted for 50 of the total variability among models. The simulation results for the sensitivity to temperature indicated that crop WU will decline with increasing temperature due to reduced growing seasons. The uncertainties in simulated crop WU, and in particularly due to uncertainties in simulating crop transpiration, were greater under conditions of increased temperatures and with high temperatures in combination with elevated atmospheric [CO2] concentrations. Hence the simulation of crop WU, and in particularly crop transpiration under higher temperature, needs to be improved and evaluated with field measurements before models can be used to simulate climate change impacts on future crop water demand.

  8. Temperature dependence of energy-transducing functions and inhibitor sensitivity in chloroplasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuurmans, J.J.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Francke, J.A.; Torres-Pereira, J.M.G.; Kraayenhof, R.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the temperature dependence of energy-transducing reactions in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) chloroplasts and their sensitivity for uncouplers and energy-transfer inhibitors at different temperatures is presented. Arrhenius plots reveal two groups of transitions, around 19/sup 0/C and around 12/sup 0/C. Activities that show transitions around 19/sup 0/C include linear electron flow from water to ferricyanide, its coupled photophosphorylation, the dark-release of the fluorescent probe atebrin, and the slow component of the 515 nm (carotenoid) absorbance decay after a flash. The transitions around 12/sup 0/C are observed with pyocyanine-mediated cyclic photophosphorylation, light- and dithioerythritol-activated ATP hydrolysis, the dark-release of protons, and the fast 515 nm decay component. It is suggested that both groups of temperature transitions are determined by proton displacements in different domains of the exposed thylakoid membranes. The effects of various uncouplers and an energy-transfer inhibitor are temperature dependent. Some uncouplers also show a different relative inhibition of proton uptake and ATP synthesis at lower temperatures. The efficiency of energy transduction (ATP/e/sub 3/) varied with temperature and was optimal around 10/sup 0/C.

  9. Sensitivity Studies of Advanced Reactors Coupled to High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) Hydrogen Production Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwin A. Harvego; Michael G. McKellar; James E. O'Brien; J. Stephen Herring

    2007-01-01

    High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE), when coupled to an advanced nuclear reactor capable of operating at reactor outlet temperatures of 800 C to 950 C, has the potential to efficiently produce the large quantities of hydrogen needed to meet future energy and transportation needs. To evaluate the potential benefits of nuclear-driven hydrogen production, the UniSim process analysis software was used to evaluate different reactor concepts coupled to a reference HTE process design concept. The reference HTE concept included an Intermediate Heat Exchanger and intermediate helium loop to separate the reactor primary system from the HTE process loops and additional heat exchangers to transfer reactor heat from the intermediate loop to the HTE process loops. The two process loops consisted of the water/steam loop feeding the cathode side of a HTE electrolysis stack, and the steam or air sweep loop used to remove oxygen from the anode side. The UniSim model of the process loops included pumps to circulate the working fluids and heat exchangers to recover heat from the oxygen and hydrogen product streams to improve the overall hydrogen production efficiencies. The reference HTE process loop model was coupled to separate UniSim models developed for three different advanced reactor concepts (a high-temperature helium cooled reactor concept and two different supercritical CO2 reactor concepts). Sensitivity studies were then performed to evaluate the affect of reactor outlet temperature on the power cycle efficiency and overall hydrogen production efficiency for each of the reactor power cycles. The results of these sensitivity studies showed that overall power cycle and hydrogen production efficiencies increased with reactor outlet temperature, but the power cycle producing the highest efficiencies varied depending on the temperature range considered

  10. Optical temperature sensor with enhanced sensitivity by employing hybrid waveguides in a silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Xiaowei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2016-01-01

    We report on a novel design of an on-chip optical temperature sensor based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration where the two arms consist of hybrid waveguides providing opposite temperature-dependent phase changes to enhance the temperature sensitivity of the sensor. The sensitivity...... of the fabricated sensor with silicon/polymer hybrid waveguides is measured to be 172 pm/°C, which is two times larger than a conventional all-silicon optical temperature sensor (∼80 pm/°C). Moreover, a design with silicon/titanium dioxide hybrid waveguides is by calculation expected to have a sensitivity as high...

  11. Empirically Derived and Simulated Sensitivity of Vegetation to Climate Across Global Gradients of Temperature and Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quetin, G. R.; Swann, A. L. S.

    2017-12-01

    Successfully predicting the state of vegetation in a novel environment is dependent on our process level understanding of the ecosystem and its interactions with the environment. We derive a global empirical map of the sensitivity of vegetation to climate using the response of satellite-observed greenness and leaf area to interannual variations in temperature and precipitation. Our analysis provides observations of ecosystem functioning; the vegetation interactions with the physical environment, across a wide range of climates and provide a functional constraint for hypotheses engendered in process-based models. We infer mechanisms constraining ecosystem functioning by contrasting how the observed and simulated sensitivity of vegetation to climate varies across climate space. Our analysis yields empirical evidence for multiple physical and biological mediators of the sensitivity of vegetation to climate as a systematic change across climate space. Our comparison of remote sensing-based vegetation sensitivity with modeled estimates provides evidence for which physiological mechanisms - photosynthetic efficiency, respiration, water supply, atmospheric water demand, and sunlight availability - dominate the ecosystem functioning in places with different climates. Earth system models are generally successful in reproducing the broad sign and shape of ecosystem functioning across climate space. However, this general agreement breaks down in hot wet climates where models simulate less leaf area during a warmer year, while observations show a mixed response but overall more leaf area during warmer years. In addition, simulated ecosystem interaction with temperature is generally larger and changes more rapidly across a gradient of temperature than is observed. We hypothesize that the amplified interaction and change are both due to a lack of adaptation and acclimation in simulations. This discrepancy with observations suggests that simulated responses of vegetation to

  12. Regional Variation in the Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Organic Matter Decomposition in China's Forests and Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; He, N.; Zhu, J.; Yu, G.; Xu, L.; Niu, S.; Sun, X.; Wen, X.

    2017-12-01

    How to assess the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and its regional variation with high accuracy is one of the largest uncertainties in determining the intensity and direction of the global carbon (C) cycle in response to climate change. In this study, we collected a series of soils from 22 forest sites and 30 grassland sites across China to explore regional variation in Q10 and its underlying mechanisms. We conducted a novel incubation experiment with periodically changing temperature (5-30 °C), while continuously measuring soil microbial respiration rates. The results showed that Q10 varied significantly across different ecosystems, ranging from 1.16 to 3.19 (mean 1.63). Q10 was ordered as follows: alpine grasslands (2.01) > temperate grasslands (1.81) > tropical forests (1.59) > temperate forests (1.55) > subtropical forests (1.52). The Q10 of grasslands (1.90) was significantly higher than that of forests (1.54). Furthermore, Q10 significantly increased with increasing altitude and decreased with increasing longitude. Environmental variables and substrate properties together explained 52% of total variation in Q10 across all sites. Overall, pH and soil electrical conductivity primarily explained spatial variation in Q10. The general negative relationships between Q10 and substrate quality among all ecosystem types supported the C quality temperature (CQT) hypothesis at a large scale, which indicated that soils with low quality should have higher temperature sensitivity. Furthermore, alpine grasslands, which had the highest Q10, were predicted to be more sensitive to climate change under the scenario of global warming.

  13. What is the Right Temperature Sensitivity for Foraminiferal Mg/ca Paleothermometry in Ancient Oceans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggins, S.; Holland, K.; Hoenisch, B.; Spero, H. J.; Allen, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mg/Ca seawater thermometry has become a cornerstone of modern paleoceanography. Laboratory experiments, seafloor core-top samples, plankton trap and tow collected materials all indicate consistent temperature sensitivity (9-10% increase in Mg/Ca per °C) for a full range of modern planktic foraminifer species. While these results demonstrate the overall robustness of Mg/Ca paleothermometry for the modern ocean, it is an empirical tool for which there is limited understanding of its bio-physio-chemical basis and its applicability to ancient oceans. We have undertaken experimental cultures of Orbulina universa, Globigerinoides sacculifer and Globigerinoides ruber (pink) across a range of seawater compositions (temperature, carbonate chemistry and Mg/Casw) that encompass modern and ancient Paleogene and Cretaceous ocean compositions (Mg/Casw 0.25x to 2x modern and pCO2 = 200 to 1500 ppmv). Our results reveal that the sensitivity of the Mg/Ca-thermometer for planktic foraminifers reduces significantly with Mg/Casw, rather than remaining constant as has been widely assumed or, increasing at lower Mg/Casw as proposed recently by Evans and Müller (2012). These results indicate that the modern sensitivity of 9-10% increase in Mg/Ca per °C cannot yet be applied to obtain reliable relative temperature change estimates to ancient oceans. These results further suggest that variations in foraminiferal Mg/Ca compositions in ancient oceans with lower Mg/Casw may correspond to larger temperature variations than in the modern ocean. Evans D. and Müller W., Paleoceanography, vol. 27, PA4205, doi:10.1029/2012PA002315, 2012

  14. Numerical simulation of temperature's sensitivity of chamfer hole's resistance on hydraulic step cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinhua, Wang; Hanliang, Bo; Wenxiang, Zheng; Jinnong, Yang

    2003-01-01

    The control rod drive is a very important device for controlling nuclear reactor startup, operation, shut down, and power change. The ability of the control rod drive to move safely and reliably directly relates to reactor safety. The Hydraulic Control Rod Drive System (HCRDS) is a new type of control rod drive system developed by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University for Nuclear Heating Reactors. The HCRDS, designed using the hydrodynamic principle, has many advantages, including having the structure complete in the vessel, no possible ejection accident, short drive line, simple movable parts structure and safe shutdown during accidents. The hydraulic step cylinder is the key part for the HCRDS. In the process of reactor startup, the variation of temperature could make the water's density and viscosity change, and the force from the water flow would change accordingly. These factors could influence the performance of the hydraulic step cylinder. In this paper, the temperature sensitivity of the chamfer hole's resistance in the hydraulic step cylinder was studied with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) program CFX5.5. The results were satisfactory: the discipline of variation of the chamfer hole's resistance with the outer tube's position was the same at different temperatures, the discrepancy of the chamfer hole's resistance was small for the same position at different temperatures, the chamfer hole's resistance decreased gradually with the increase of temperature, and the decrease extent was relatively small

  15. Continuous cooling and low temperature sensitization of AISI types 316 SS and 304 SS with different degrees of cold work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvathavarthini, N.; Dayal, R.K.; Gnanamoorthy, J.B. (Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Metallurgy and Materials Programme); Seshadri, S.K. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering)

    This paper presents the results of investigations carried out to study the sensitization behaviour of AISI Types 316 SS and 304 SS with various degrees of cold work ranging from 0 to 25%. Initially Time-Temperature-Sensitization (TTS) diagrams were established using ASTM standard A262 Practice A and E tests. From these diagrams it was found that the rate of sensitization and overall susceptibility to intergranular corrosion increases up to 15% cold work and above that starts decreasing. Desensitization was observed to be faster for higher levels of cold work, especially in the higher sensitization temperature range. From the TTS diagrams, the critical linear cooling rate below which sensitization occurs was calculated. From these data, Continuous Cooling Sensitization (CCS) diagrams were established. The results show that as the degree of cold work increases up to 15%, time needed for sensitization decreases and hence faster cooling rates must be used in order to avoid sensitization. At temperatures sufficiently below the nose temperature of the TTS diagram, log t versus 1/T plots follow a linear relationship where t is the time needed for the onset of sensitization at temperature T. From the slope, the apparent activation energy for sensitization was estimated. The validity of extrapolating these linear plots to lower temperatures (725 to 775 K) (which lie in the operating temperature regime of fast reactors) has been verified by experiment. The effect of heat treatment and microstructure on the Low Temperature Sensitization (LTS) behaviour was investigated. The results indicate that carbides of optimum size and distribution are the essential pre-requisites for LTS and cold work enhances susceptibility of stainless steels to LTS. (orig.).

  16. Applicability of low-melting-point microcrystalline wax to develop temperature-sensitive formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kohei; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru

    2017-10-30

    Low-melting-point substances are widely used to develop temperature-sensitive formulations. In this study, we focused on microcrystalline wax (MCW) as a low-melting-point substance. We evaluated the drug release behavior of wax matrix (WM) particles using various MCW under various temperature conditions. WM particles containing acetaminophen were prepared using a spray congealing technique. In the dissolution test at 37°C, WM particles containing low-melting-point MCWs whose melting was starting at approx. 40°C (Hi-Mic-1045 or 1070) released the drug initially followed by the release of only a small amount. On the other hand, in the dissolution test at 20 and 25°C for WM particles containing Hi-Mic-1045 and at 20, 25, and 30°C for that containing Hi-Mic-1070, both WM particles showed faster drug release than at 37°C. The characteristic drug release suppression of WM particles containing low-melting-point MCWs at 37°C was thought attributable to MCW melting, as evidenced by differential scanning calorimetry analysis and powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Taken together, low-melting-point MCWs may be applicable to develop implantable temperature-sensitive formulations that drug release is accelerated by cooling at administered site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Low-Temperature Crystalline Titanium Dioxide by Atomic Layer Deposition for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Chandiran, Aravind Kumar

    2013-04-24

    Low-temperature processing of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is crucial to enable commercialization with low-cost, plastic substrates. Prior studies have focused on mechanical compression of premade particles on plastic or glass substrates; however, this did not yield sufficient interconnections for good carrier transport. Furthermore, such compression can lead to more heterogeneous porosity. To circumvent these problems, we have developed a low-temperature processing route for photoanodes where crystalline TiO2 is deposited onto well-defined, mesoporous templates. The TiO2 is grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD), and the crystalline films are achieved at a growth temperature of 200 C. The ALD TiO2 thickness was systematically studied in terms of charge transport and performance to lead to optimized photovoltaic performance. We found that a 15 nm TiO2 overlayer on an 8 μm thick SiO2 film leads to a high power conversion efficiency of 7.1% with the state-of-the-art zinc porphyrin sensitizer and cobalt bipyridine redox mediator. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. A Lower Temperature FDM 3D Printing for the Manufacture of Patient-Specific Immediate Release Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwuosa, Tochukwu C; Stefaniak, Dominika; Arafat, Basel; Isreb, Abdullah; Wan, Ka-Wai; Alhnan, Mohamed A

    2016-11-01

    The fabrication of ready-to-use immediate release tablets via 3D printing provides a powerful tool to on-demand individualization of dosage form. This work aims to adapt a widely used pharmaceutical grade polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), for instant on-demand production of immediate release tablets via FDM 3D printing. Dipyridamole or theophylline loaded filaments were produced via processing a physical mixture of API (10%) and PVP in the presence of plasticizer through hot-melt extrusion (HME). Computer software was utilized to design a caplet-shaped tablet. The surface morphology of the printed tablet was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The physical form of the drugs and its integrity following an FDM 3D printing were assessed using x-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), thermal analysis and HPLC. In vitro drug release studies for all 3D printed tablets were conducted in a USP II dissolution apparatus. Bridging 3D printing process with HME in the presence of a thermostable filler, talc, enabled the fabrication of immediate release tablets at temperatures as low as 110°C. The integrity of two model drugs was maintained following HME and FDM 3D printing. XRPD indicated that a portion of the loaded theophylline remained crystalline in the tablet. The fabricated tablets demonstrated excellent mechanical properties, acceptable in-batch variability and an immediate in vitro release pattern. Combining the advantages of PVP as an impeding polymer with FDM 3D printing at low temperatures, this approach holds a potential in expanding the spectrum of drugs that could be used in FDM 3D printing for on demand manufacturing of individualised dosage forms.

  19. A Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics Manufactured Power Inductor Based on A Ternary Hybrid Material System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunsong; Chen, Ru

    Low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) is one of the most important techniques to produce circuits with high working frequency, multi-functionality and high integration. We have developed a methodology to enable a ternary hybrid material system being implemented into the LTCC manufacturing process. The co-firing sintering process can be divided into a densification and cooling process. In this method, a successful ternary hybrid material densification process is achieved by tuning the sintering profile of each material to match each other. The system integrity is maintained in the cooling process is obtained by develop a strong bonding at the interfaces of each materials. As a demonstration, we have construct a power inductor device made of the ternary material system including Ag, NiCuZn ferrite and non-magnetic ceramic. The power inductors well maintains its physical integrity after sintering. The microscopic images show no obvious sign of cracks or structural deformation. More importantly, despite the bonding between the ferrite and ceramic is enhanced by non-magnetic element diffusion, the undesired magnetic elements diffusion is effectively suppressed. The electric performance shows that the power handling capability is comparable to the current state of art device.

  20. Effects of Soil Moisture on the Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Heterotrophic Respiration: A Laboratory Incubation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiping; Hui, Dafeng; Shen, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    The temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh) is an important ecological model parameter and may vary with temperature and moisture. While Q10 generally decreases with increasing temperature, the moisture effects on Q10 have been controversial. To address this, we conducted a 90-day laboratory incubation experiment using a subtropical forest soil with a full factorial combination of five moisture levels (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% water holding capacity - WHC) and five temperature levels (10, 17, 24, 31, and 38°C). Under each moisture treatment, Rh was measured several times for each temperature treatment to derive Q10 based on the exponential relationships between Rh and temperature. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial community structure and soil nutrients were also measured several times to detect their potential contributions to the moisture-induced Q10 variation. We found that Q10 was significantly lower at lower moisture levels (60%, 40% and 20% WHC) than at higher moisture level (80% WHC) during the early stage of the incubation, but became significantly higher at 20%WHC than at 60% WHC and not significantly different from the other three moisture levels during the late stage of incubation. In contrast, soil Rh had the highest value at 60% WHC and the lowest at 20% WHC throughout the whole incubation period. Variations of Q10 were significantly associated with MBC during the early stages of incubation, but with the fungi-to-bacteria ratio during the later stages, suggesting that changes in microbial biomass and community structure are related to the moisture-induced Q10 changes. This study implies that global warming’s impacts on soil CO2 emission may depend upon soil moisture conditions. With the same temperature rise, wetter soils may emit more CO2 into the atmosphere via heterotrophic respiration. PMID:24647610

  1. Sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage with single well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jun-Seo; Lee, Seung-Rae; Pasquinelli, Lisa; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2015-01-01

    High-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage system usually shows higher performance than other borehole thermal energy storage systems. Although there is a limitation in the widespread use of the HT-ATES system because of several technical problems such as clogging, corrosion, etc., it is getting more attention as these issues are gradually alleviated. In this study, a sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in two cases of HT-ATES system with a single well is conducted to select key parameters. For a fractional factorial design used to choose input parameters with uniformity, the optimal Latin hypercube sampling with an enhanced stochastic evolutionary algorithm is considered. Then, the recovery efficiency is obtained using a computer model developed by COMSOL Multiphysics. With input and output variables, the surrogate modeling technique, namely the Gaussian-Kriging method with Smoothly Clopped Absolute Deviation Penalty, is utilized. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is performed based on the variation decomposition. According to the result of sensitivity analysis, the most important input variables are selected and confirmed to consider the interaction effects for each case and it is confirmed that key parameters vary with the experiment domain of hydraulic and thermal properties as well as the number of input variables. - Highlights: • Main and interaction effects on recovery efficiency in HT-ATES was investigated. • Reliability depended on fractional factorial design and interaction effects. • Hydraulic permeability of aquifer had an important impact on recovery efficiency. • Site-specific sensitivity analysis of HT-ATES was recommended.

  2. Sensitivity study and functionalization of cross section to fuel and moderator temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, Sung Quun; Song, Jae Seung; Cho, Young Chul

    1995-11-01

    A reactor core neutronics code MASTER is under development as a part of Korean Core Design System ADONIS. MASTER solves two-group three-dimensional; neutron diffusion equation which requires fuel assembly-wise group constants, to calculate the neutron flux distribution in the core. The group constants are obtained from the fuel assembly multi-group neutron transport calculation, and inputted as functions of the core operating condition. The functionalization of the group constant requires sensitivity analysis to various core operating conditions. In this report, the sensitivity of group constant to fuel and moderator temperature were analyzed. Lumped higher order macroscopic cross section derivative method was developed to reduce the computer memory and the number of floating point operations to treat group constants in MASTER. 1 fig., 6 tabs., 2 refs. (Author) .new

  3. Fabrication of ultra-high sensitive and selective CH4 room temperature gas sensing of TiO2nanorods: Detailed study on the annealing temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshabalala, Zamaswazi P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Applications of ultra-highly sensitive and selective methane (CH(sub4)) room temperature gas sensors are important for various operations especially in underground mining environment. Therefore, this study is set out to investigate the effect...

  4. Sensitivity of surface temperature to radiative forcing by contrail cirrus in a radiative-mixing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Schumann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Earth's surface temperature sensitivity to radiative forcing (RF by contrail cirrus and the related RF efficacy relative to CO2 are investigated in a one-dimensional idealized model of the atmosphere. The model includes energy transport by shortwave (SW and longwave (LW radiation and by mixing in an otherwise fixed reference atmosphere (no other feedbacks. Mixing includes convective adjustment and turbulent diffusion, where the latter is related to the vertical component of mixing by large-scale eddies. The conceptual study shows that the surface temperature sensitivity to given contrail RF depends strongly on the timescales of energy transport by mixing and radiation. The timescales are derived for steady layered heating (ghost forcing and for a transient contrail cirrus case. The radiative timescales are shortest at the surface and shorter in the troposphere than in the mid-stratosphere. Without mixing, a large part of the energy induced into the upper troposphere by radiation due to contrails or similar disturbances gets lost to space before it can contribute to surface warming. Because of the different radiative forcing at the surface and at top of atmosphere (TOA and different radiative heating rate profiles in the troposphere, the local surface temperature sensitivity to stratosphere-adjusted RF is larger for SW than for LW contrail forcing. Without mixing, the surface energy budget is more important for surface warming than the TOA budget. Hence, surface warming by contrails is smaller than suggested by the net RF at TOA. For zero mixing, cooling by contrails cannot be excluded. This may in part explain low efficacy values for contrails found in previous global circulation model studies. Possible implications of this study are discussed. Since the results of this study are model dependent, they should be tested with a comprehensive climate model in the future.

  5. Influence of cycle number, temperature and manufacturing process on deformation-induced martensite in meta-stable austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkhof, D.; Niffenegger, M.; Grosse, M.; Bart, G.

    2002-01-01

    During cyclic loading of austenitic stainless steel, microstructural changes occur, which affect both the mechanical and the physical properties. Typical features are the rearrangement of dislocations and, in some cases, a deformation-induced martensitic phase transformation. In our investigation martensite formation was used as an indication for material degradation due to fatigue. Knowledge about mechanisms and influencing parameters of the martensitic transformation process is essential for the application in a lifetime monitoring system. The investigations showed that for a given meta-stable austenitic stainless steel the deformation-induced martensite depends on the applied strain amplitude, the cycle number (accumulated plastic strain) and the temperature. It was demonstrated that the volume fraction of martensite continuously increases with the cycle number. Therefore, martensite content could be used for indication of the fatigue usage. According to the Coffin-Manson relation the dependence of the martensite content on the cycle number could be described with a power law. The exponent was determined to be equal to 0.5 for the applied loading and temperature conditions. The influence of temperature on deformation-induced martensite was considered by means of a thermodynamic relation. Furthermore, the initial material state (initial defect density) played an important role for the martensite formation rate. Material properties and microstructures were characterised by metallography, neutron diffraction, and advanced magnetic non-destructive techniques. In order to investigate the correlation between the martensite content in the austenitic matrix and magnetic properties, the magnetic susceptibility was determined. Furthermore, a high sensitive Giant Magneto Resistant sensor was used to visualize the martensite distribution at the surface of the fatigue specimens. All applied techniques, neutron diffraction and advanced magnetic methods allowed the detection

  6. Steel billet reheat simulation with growth of oxide layer and investigation on zone temperature sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, Satish Kumar; Srinivasan, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional heat conduction numerical model and simulation of steel billet reheating in a reheat furnace. The model considers the growth of oxide scale on the billet surfaces. Control-volume approach and implicit scheme of finite difference method are used to discretize the transient heat conduction equation. The model is validated with analytical results subject to limited conditions. Simulations are carried out for predictions of three-dimensional temperature filed in the billet and oxide scale growth on the billet surfaces. The model predictions are in agreement with expected trends. It was found that the effect of oxide scale on billet heating is considerable. In order to investigate the effect of zone temperatures on the responses, a parametric sensitivity subject to six responses of interest are carried out using analysis of mean approach. The simulation approach and parametric study presented will be useful and applicable to the steel industry.

  7. Cohort Removal Induces Changes in Body Temperature, Pain Sensitivity, and Anxiety-Like Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Keizo; Shoji, Hirotaka; Hattori, Satoko; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal). Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests. PMID:27375443

  8. Cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keizo eTakao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mouse behavior is analyzed to elucidate the effects of various experimental manipulations, including gene mutation and drug administration. When the effect of a factor of interest is assessed, other factors, such as age, sex, temperature, apparatus, and housing, are controlled in experiments by matching, counterbalancing, and/or randomizing. One such factor that has not attracted much attention is the effect of sequential removal of animals from a common cage (cohort removal. Here we evaluated the effects of cohort removal on rectal temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior by analyzing the combined data of a large number of C57BL/6J mice that we collected using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Rectal temperature increased in a stepwise manner according to the position of sequential removal from the cage, consistent with previous reports. In the hot plate test, the mice that were removed first from the cage had a significantly longer latency to show the first paw response than the mice removed later. In the elevated plus maze, the mice removed first spent significantly less time on the open arms compared to the mice removed later. The results of the present study demonstrated that cohort removal induces changes in body temperature, pain sensitivity, and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Cohort removal also increased the plasma corticosterone concentration in mice. Thus, the ordinal position in the sequence of removal from the cage should be carefully counterbalanced between groups when the effect of experimental manipulations, including gene manipulation and drug administration, are examined using behavioral tests.

  9. Temperature- and pH-sensitive wearable materials for monitoring foot ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvo P

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pietro Salvo,1,2 Nicola Calisi,1 Bernardo Melai,1 Valentina Dini,3 Clara Paoletti,1 Tommaso Lomonaco,1 Andrea Pucci,1 Fabio Di Francesco,1 Alberto Piaggesi,4 Marco Romanelli3 1Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Pisa, 2Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research, 3Wound Healing Research Unit, Department of Dermatology, University of Pisa, 4Diabetic Foot Section, Department of Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Foot ulcers account for 15% of comorbidities associated with diabetes. Presently, no device allows the status of foot ulcers to be continuously monitored when patients are not hospitalized. In this study, we describe a temperature and a pH sensor capable of monitoring diabetic foot and venous leg ulcers developed in the frame of the seventh framework program European Union project SWAN-iCare (smart wearable and autonomous negative pressure device for wound monitoring and therapy. Temperature is measured by exploiting the variations in the electrical resistance of a nanocomposite consisting of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and poly(styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene-b-styrene. The pH sensor used a graphene oxide (GO layer that changes its electrical potential when pH changes. The temperature sensor has a sensitivity of ~85 Ω/°C in the range 25°C–50°C and a high repeatability (maximum standard deviation of 0.1% over seven repeated measurements. For a GO concentration of 4 mg/mL, the pH sensor has a sensitivity of ~42 mV/pH and high linearity (R2=0.99. Keywords: diabetic foot ulcer, wearable sensors, wound temperature, wound pH

  10. On the sensitivity of a helicopter combustor wall temperature to convective and radiative thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, S.; Richard, S.; Duchaine, F.; Staffelbach, G.; Gicquel, L.Y.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Coupling of LES, DOM and conduction is applied to an industrial combustor. • Thermal sensitivity of the combustor to convection and radiation is investigated. • CHT based on LES is feasible in an industrial context with acceptable CPU costs. • Radiation heat fluxes are of the same order of magnitude that the convective ones. • CHT with radiation are globally in good agreement with thermocolor test. - Abstract: The design of aeronautical engines is subject to many constraints that cover performance gain as well as increasingly sensitive environmental issues. These often contradicting objectives are currently being answered through an increase in the local and global temperature in the hot stages of the engine. As a result, hot spots could appear causing a premature aging of the combustion chamber. Today, the characterization of wall temperatures is performed experimentally by complex thermocolor tests in advanced phases of the design process. To limit such expensive experiments and integrate the knowledge of the thermal environment earlier in the design process, efforts are currently performed to provide high fidelity numerical tools able to predict the combustion chamber wall temperature including the main physical phenomena: combustion, convection and mixing of hot products and cold flows, radiative transfers as well as conduction in the solid parts. In this paper, partitioned coupling approaches based on a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) solver, a Discrete Ordinate Method radiation solver and an unsteady conduction code are used to investigate the sensitivity of an industrial combustor thermal environment to convection and radiation. Four computations including a reference adiabatic fluid only simulation, Conjugate Heat Transfer, Radiation-Fluid Thermal Interaction and fully coupled simulations are performed and compared with thermocolor experimental data. From the authors knowledge, such comparative study with LES has never been published. It

  11. Application of TAM III to study sensitivity of soil organic matter degradation to temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikegard, Peter; Barros, Nieves; Piñeiro, Verónica

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally, studies of soil biodegradation are based on CO2 dissipation rates. CO2 is a product of aerobic degradation of labile organic substrates like carbohydrates. That limits the biodegradation concept to just one of the soil organic matter fractions. This feature is responsible for some problems to settle the concept of soil organic matter (SOM) recalcitrance and for controversial results defining sensitivity of SOM to temperature. SOM consists of highly complex macromolecules constituted by fractions with different chemical nature and redox state affecting the chemical nature of biodegradation processes. Biodegradation of fractions more reduced than carbohydrates take place through metabolic pathways that dissipate less CO2 than carbohydrate respiration, that may not dissipate CO2, or that even may uptake CO2. These compounds can be considered more recalcitrant and with lower turnover times than labile SOM just because they are degraded at lower CO2 rates that may be just a consequence of the metabolic path. Nevertheless, decomposition of every kind of organic substrate always releases heat. For this reason, the measurement of the heat rate by calorimetry yields a more realistic measurement of the biodegradation of the SOM continuum. TAM III is one of the most recent calorimeters designed for directly measuring in real time the heat rate associated with any degradation process. It is designed as a multichannel system allowing the concomitant measurement of to up 24 samples at isothermal conditions or through a temperature scanning mode from 18 to 100ºC, allowing the continous measure of any sample at controlled non-isothermal conditions. The temperature scanning mode was tested in several soil samples collected at different depths to study their sensitivity to temperature changes from 18 to 35 ºC calculating the Q10 and the activation energy (EA) by the Arrhenius equation. It was attempted to associate the obtained EA values with the soil thermal

  12. Temperature sensitivity of void nucleation and growth parameters for single crystal copper: a molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, S; Chavan, V M; Warrier, M; Chaturvedi, S

    2011-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the void nucleation and growth is studied using the molecular dynamics (MD) code LAMMPS (Large-Scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator). Single crystal copper is triaxially expanded at 5 × 10 9  s −1 strain rate keeping the temperature constant. It is shown that the nucleation and growth of voids at these atomistic scales follows a macroscopic nucleation and growth (NAG) model. As the temperature increases there is a steady decrease in the nucleation and growth thresholds. As the melting point of copper is approached, a double-dip in the pressure–time profile is observed. Analysis of this double-dip shows that the first minimum corresponds to the disappearance of the long-range order due to the creation of stacking faults and the system no longer has a FCC structure. There is no nucleation of voids at this juncture. The second minimum corresponds to the nucleation and incipient growth of voids. We present the sensitivity of NAG parameters to temperature and the analysis of double-dip in the pressure–time profile for single crystal copper at 1250 K

  13. Body temperature and cold sensation during and following exercise under temperate room conditions in cold‐sensitive young trained females

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Naoto; Aoki‐Murakami, Erii; Tsuji, Bun; Kenny, Glen P.; Nagashima, Kei; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated cold sensation at rest and in response to exercise‐induced changes in core and skin temperatures in cold‐sensitive exercise trained females. Fifty‐eight trained young females were screened by a questionnaire, selecting cold‐sensitive (Cold‐sensitive, n = 7) and non‐cold‐sensitive (Control, n = 7) individuals. Participants rested in a room at 29.5°C for ~100 min after which ambient temperature was reduced to 23.5°C where they remained resting for 60 min. Participants then...

  14. Measurement of bovine body and scrotal temperature using implanted temperature sensitive radio transmitters, data loggers and infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallage, A. L.; Gaughan, J. B.; Lisle, A. T.; Beard, L.; Collins, C. W.; Johnston, S. D.

    2017-07-01

    Synchronous and continuous measurement of body (BT) and scrotal temperature (ST) without adverse welfare or behavioural interference is essential for understanding thermoregulation of the bull testis. This study compared three technologies for their efficacy for long-term measurement of the relationship between BT and ST by means of (1) temperature sensitive radio transmitters (RT), (2) data loggers (DL) and (3) infrared imaging (IRI). After an initial pilot study on two bulls to establish a surgical protocol, RTs and DLs were implanted into the flank and mid-scrotum of six Wagyu bulls for between 29 and 49 days. RT frequencies were scanned every 15 min, whilst DLs logged every 30 min. Infrared imaging of the body (flank) and scrotum of each bull was recorded hourly for one 24-h period and compared to RT and DL data. After a series of subsequent heat stress studies, bulls were castrated and testicular tissue samples processed for evidence of histopathology. Radio transmitters were less reliable than DLs; RTs lost >11 % of data, whilst 11 of the 12 DLs had 0 % data loss. IRI was only interpretable in 35.8 % of images recorded. Pearson correlations between DL and RT were strong for both BT ( r > 0.94, P 0.80, P animals post-surgery. Whilst scar tissue was observed at all surgical sutured sites when bulls were castrated, there was no evidence of testicular adhesion and normal active spermatogenesis was observed in six of the eight implanted testicles. There was no significant correlation of IRI with either DL or RT. We conclude that DLs provided to be a reliable continuous source of data for synchronous measurement of BT and ST.

  15. Differential chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA synthesis in temperature-sensitive mutants of Ustilago maydis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unrau, P.

    1977-01-01

    The amount and type of residual DNA synthesis was determined in eight temperature-sensitive mutants of the smut fungus Ustilago maydis after incubation at the restrictive temperature (32/sup 0/C) for eight hours. Mutants ts-220, ts-207, ts-432 and ts-346 were found to have an overall reduction in the synthesis of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in comparison to the wild-type. In mutants ts-20, tsd 1-1, ts-84 and pol 1-1 nuclear DNA synthesis was depressed relative to mitochondrial synthesis. The DNA-polymerase mutant pol 1-1 had persistent nuclear synthesis at about 50% of the rate of synthesis of mitochondrial DNA and similar behavior was observed in a diploid homozygous strain. Mutant ts-84 had an initial burst of DNA synthesis which was reduced for nuclear but not mitochondrial synthesis after three hours preincubation at 32/sup 0/C. tsd 1-1 and ts-20 had nuclear residual synthesis amounting to about 25% of the relative rate of mitochondrial synthesis which correlates to increasing UV sensitivity of these strains on incubation at 32/sup 0/C. A pol 1-1 ts-84 double mutant had an additive loss of nuclear DNA synthesis which indicates that the steps of replication involved may be sequential.

  16. Microarray study of temperature-dependent sensitivity and selectivity of metal/oxide sensing interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffany, Jason; Cavicchi, Richard E.; Semancik, Stephen

    2001-02-01

    Conductometric gas microsensors offer the benefits of ppm-level sensitivity, real-time data, simple interfacing to electronics hardware, and low power consumption. The type of device we have been exploring consists of a sensor film deposited on a "microhotplate"- a 100 micron platform with built-in heating (to activate reactions on the sensing surface) and thermometry. We have been using combinatorial studies of 36-element arrays to characterize the relationship between sensor film composition, operating temperature, and response, as measured by the device's sensitivity and selectivity. Gases that have been tested on these arrays include methanol, ethanol, dichloromethane, propane, methane, acetone, benzene, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide, and are of interest in the management of environmental waste sites. These experiments compare tin oxide films modified by catalyst overlayers, and ultrathin metal seed layers. The seed layers are used as part of a chemical vapor deposition process that uses each array element's microheater to activate the deposition of SnO2, and control its microstructure. Low coverage (20 Ê) catalytic metals (Pd, Cu, Cr, In, Au) are deposited on the oxides by masked evaporation or sputtering. This presentation demonstrates the value of an array-based approach for developing film processing methods, measuring performance characteristics, and establishing reproducibility. It also illustrates how temperature-dependent response data for varied metal/oxide compositions can be used to tailor a microsensor array for a given application.

  17. The clear-sky greenhouse effect sensitivity to a sea surface temperature change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvel, J. PH.; Breon, F. M.

    1991-01-01

    The clear-sky greenhouse effect response to a sea surface temperature (SST or Ts) change is studied using outgoing clear-sky longwave radiation measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. Considering geographical distributions for July 1987, the relation between the SST, the greenhouse effect (defined as the outgoing infrared flux trapped by atmospheric gases), and the precipitable water vapor content (W), estimated by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager, is analyzed first. A fairly linear relation between W and the normalized greenhouse effect g, is found. On the contrary, the SST dependence of both W and g exhibits nonlinearities with, especially, a large increase for SST above 25 C. This enhanced sensitivity of g and W can be interpreted in part by a corresponding large increase of atmospheric water vapor content related to the transition from subtropical dry regions to equatorial moist regions. Using two years of data (1985 and 1986), the normalized greenhouse effect sensitivity to the sea surface temperature is computed from the interannual variation of monthly mean values.

  18. Computational design and characterization of a temperature-sensitive plasmid replicon for gram positive thermophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Daniel G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temperature-sensitive (Ts plasmids are useful tools for genetic engineering, but there are currently none compatible with the gram positive, thermophilic, obligate anaerobe, Clostridium thermocellum. Traditional mutagenesis techniques yield Ts mutants at a low frequency, and therefore requires the development of high-throughput screening protocols, which are also not available for this organism. Recently there has been progress in the development of computer algorithms which can predict Ts mutations. Most plasmids currently used for genetic modification of C. thermocellum are based on the replicon of plasmid pNW33N, which replicates using the RepB replication protein. To address this problem, we set out to create a Ts plasmid by mutating the gene coding for the RepB replication protein using an algorithm designed by Varadarajan et al. (1996 for predicting Ts mutants based on the amino-acid sequence of the protein. Results A library of 34 mutant plasmids was designed, synthesized and screened, resulting in 6 mutants which exhibited a Ts phenotype. Of these 6, the one with the most temperature-sensitive phenotype (M166A was compared with the original plasmid. It exhibited lower stability at 48°C and was completely unable to replicate at 55°C. Conclusions The plasmid described in this work could be useful in future efforts to genetically engineer C. thermocellum, and the method used to generate this plasmid may be useful for others trying to make Ts plasmids.

  19. Influence of pre-deformation, sensitization and oxidation in high temperature water on corrosion resistance of AISI 304 stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Jinlong, E-mail: ljltsinghua@126.com [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liang, Tongxiang [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Lab of New Ceramic and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Luo, Hongyun [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Xueyuan Road 37, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The pre-strain accelerated desensitization and sensitization for austenitic stainless steels. • Low temperature sensitization (carbide precipitation) induced α′-martensite. • The sensitization level could affect directly corrosion resistance of the oxide film. - Abstract: The effects of pre-deformation on sensitization of AISI 304 stainless steel were investigated by the double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation test. The effects of pre-deformation and sensitization on high temperature oxidized film formed in high temperature water were analyzed by a XRD and SEM. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at room temperature was used to study corrosion resistance of oxidized film. The point defect density of oxidized film was calculated by Mott–Schottky plots. The results showed that the value of the degree of sensitization first decreased and then slight increased with the increasing of engineering strain. Moreover, low temperature promoted to form sensitization induced “secondary” α′-martensite. The sample with 20% engineering strain had higher impedance value than other samples. The result was supported by further Mott–Schottky experiments. Considering increased α′-martensite with the increasing of strain, the results of the impedance were more consistent with values of the degree of sensitization.

  20. Sensitivity of Distributions of Climate System Properties to Surface Temperature Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libardoni, A. G.; Forest, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    Predictions of climate change from models depend strongly on the representation of climate system properties emerging from the processes and feedbacks in the models. The quality of any model prediction can be evaluated by determining how well its output reproduces the observed climate system. With this evaluation, the reliability of climate projections derived from the model and provided for policy makers is assessed and quantified. In this study, surface temperature, upper-air temperature, and ocean heat content data are used to constrain the distributions of the parameters that define three climate system properties in the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model: climate sensitivity, the rate of ocean heat uptake into the deep ocean, and net anthropogenic aerosol forcing. In particular, we explore the sensitivity of the distributions to the surface temperature dataset used to estimate the likelihood of model output given the observed climate records. In total, five different reconstructions of past surface temperatures are used and the resulting parameter distribution functions differ from each other. Differences in estimates of climate sensitivity mode and mean are as great as 1 K between the datasets, with an overall range of 1.2 to 5.3 K using the 5-95 confidence intervals. Ocean effective diffusivity is poorly constrained regardless of which dataset is used. All distributions show broad distributions and only three show signs of a distribution mode. When a mode is present, they tend to be for low diffusivity values. Distributions for the net aerosol forcing show similar shapes and cluster into two groups that are shifted by approximately 0.1 watts per square meter. However, the overall spread of forcing values from the 5-95 confidence interval, -0.19 to -0.83 watts per square meter, is small compared to other uncertainties in climate forcings. Transient climate response estimates derived from these distributions range between 0.87 and 2.41 K. Similar to the

  1. Perovskite Nanoparticle-Sensitized Ga2O3 Nanorod Arrays for CO Detection at High Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Jan; Baltrus, John P; Gao, Haiyong; Ding, Yong; Nam, Chang-Yong; Ohodnicki, Paul; Gao, Pu-Xian

    2016-04-13

    Noble metal nanoparticles are extensively used for sensitizing metal oxide chemical sensors through the catalytic spillover mechanism. However, due to earth-scarcity and high cost of noble metals, finding replacements presents a great economic benefit. Besides, high temperature and harsh environment sensor applications demand material stability under conditions approaching thermal and chemical stability limits of noble metals. In this study, we employed thermally stable perovskite-type La(0.8)Sr(0.2)FeO3 (LSFO) nanoparticle surface decoration on Ga2O3 nanorod array gas sensors and discovered an order of magnitude enhanced sensitivity to carbon monoxide at 500 °C. The LSFO nanoparticle catalysts was of comparable performance to that achieved by Pt nanoparticles, with a much lower weight loading than Pt. Detailed electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies suggested the LSFO nanoparticle sensitization effect is attributed to a spillover-like effect associated with the gas-LSFO-Ga2O3 triple-interfaces that spread the negatively charged surface oxygen ions from LSFO nanoparticles surfaces over to β-Ga2O3 nanorod surfaces with faster surface CO oxidation reactions.

  2. Modelling firn thickness evolution during the last deglaciation: constraints on sensitivity to temperature and impurities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bréant

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of snow into ice is a complex phenomenon that is difficult to model. Depending on surface temperature and accumulation rate, it may take several decades to millennia for air to be entrapped in ice. The air is thus always younger than the surrounding ice. The resulting gas–ice age difference is essential to documenting the phasing between CO2 and temperature changes, especially during deglaciations. The air trapping depth can be inferred in the past using a firn densification model, or using δ15N of air measured in ice cores. All firn densification models applied to deglaciations show a large disagreement with δ15N measurements at several sites in East Antarctica, predicting larger firn thickness during the Last Glacial Maximum, whereas δ15N suggests a reduced firn thickness compared to the Holocene. Here we present modifications of the LGGE firn densification model, which significantly reduce the model–data mismatch for the gas trapping depth evolution over the last deglaciation at the coldest sites in East Antarctica (Vostok, Dome C, while preserving the good agreement between measured and modelled modern firn density profiles. In particular, we introduce a dependency of the creep factor on temperature and impurities in the firn densification rate calculation. The temperature influence intends to reflect the dominance of different mechanisms for firn compaction at different temperatures. We show that both the new temperature parameterization and the influence of impurities contribute to the increased agreement between modelled and measured δ15N evolution during the last deglaciation at sites with low temperature and low accumulation rate, such as Dome C or Vostok. We find that a very low sensitivity of the densification rate to temperature has to be used in the coldest conditions. The inclusion of impurity effects improves the agreement between modelled and measured δ15N at cold East Antarctic sites during the last

  3. Differences in SOM decomposition and temperature sensitivity among soil aggregate size classes in a temperate grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    Full Text Available The principle of enzyme kinetics suggests that the temperature sensitivity (Q10 of soil organic matter (SOM decomposition is inversely related to organic carbon (C quality, i.e., the C quality-temperature (CQT hypothesis. We tested this hypothesis by performing laboratory incubation experiments with bulk soil, macroaggregates (MA, 250-2000 μm, microaggregates (MI, 53-250 μm, and mineral fractions (MF, MF>bulk soil >MI(P <0.05. The Q10 values were highest for MA, followed (in decreasing order by bulk soil, MF, and MI. Similarly, the activation energies (Ea for MA, bulk soil, MF, and MI were 48.47, 33.26, 27.01, and 23.18 KJ mol-1, respectively. The observed significant negative correlations between Q10 and C quality index in bulk soil and soil aggregates (P<0.05 suggested that the CQT hypothesis is applicable to soil aggregates. Cumulative C emission differed significantly among aggregate size classes (P <0.0001, with the largest values occurring in MA (1101 μg g-1, followed by MF (976 μg g-1 and MI (879 μg g-1. These findings suggest that feedback from SOM decomposition in response to changing temperature is closely associated withsoil aggregation and highlights the complex responses of ecosystem C budgets to future warming scenarios.

  4. Effect of oxyanions on the IGSCC inhibition of sensitized 304 stainless steel in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuge, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Junichiro; Nagano, Hiroo.

    1983-01-01

    Effect of oxyanions such as MoO 4 2- , WO 4 2- , and CrO 4 2- on the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of Type 304 stainless steel in high temperature water was studied. The results obtained are as follows: 1) Addition of such oxyanion as MoO 4 2- , WO 4 2- , and CrO 4 2- suppresses IGSCC of sensitized Type 304 stainless steel in high temperature nondeaerated water. The effectiveness of the inhibitive action by the oxyanion is ranked in the order of MoO 4 2- >WO 4 2- >CrO 4 2- . 2) The mechanism of IGSCC inhibition by MoO 4 2- ion for sentized Type 304 stainless steel in high temperature water is considered as follows, i.e., the presence MoO 4 2- ion decreases the dissolution rate of Cr depleted zone at grain boundaries to the level of matrix by helping the formation of the Cr rich film containing MoO 3 or adsorbed MoO 4 2- ion on the surface of Type 304 stainless steel. (author)

  5. Ultra-sensitive quasi-distributed temperature sensor based on an apodized fiber Bragg grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Nazmi A; El Serafy, Hatem O

    2018-01-10

    This work targets a remarkable quasi-distributed temperature sensor based on an apodized fiber Bragg grating. To achieve this, the mathematical formula for a proposed apodization function is carried out and tested. Then, an optimization parametric process required to achieve the remarkable accuracy that is based on coupled mode theory (CMT) is done. A detailed investigation for the side lobe analysis, which is a primary judgment factor, especially in quasi-distributed configuration, is investigated. A comparison between elite selection of apodization profiles (extracted from related literatures) and the proposed modified-Nuttal profile is carried out covering reflectivity peak, full width half maximum (FWHM), and side lobe analysis. The optimization process concludes that the proposed modified-Nuttal profile with a length (L) of 15 mm and refractive index modulation amplitude (Δn) of 1.4×10 -4 is the optimum choice for single-stage and quasi-distributed temperature sensor networks. At previous values, the proposed profile achieves an acceptable reflectivity peak of 10 -0.426   dB, acceptable FWHM of 0.0808 nm, lowest side lobe maximum (SL max) of 7.037×10 -12   dB, lowest side lobe average (SL avg) of 3.883×10 -12   dB, and lowest side lobe suppression ratio (SLSR) of 1.875×10 -11   dB. These optimized characteristics lead to an accurate single-stage sensor with a temperature sensitivity of 0.0136 nm/°C. For the quasi-distributed scenario, a noteworthy total isolation of 91 dB is achieved without temperature, and an isolation of 4.83 dB is achieved while applying temperature of 110°C for a five-stage temperature-sensing network. Further investigation is made proving that consistency in choosing the apodization profile in the quasi-distributed network is mandatory. If the consistency condition is violated, the proposed profile still survives with a casualty of side lobe level rise of -73.2070  dB when adding uniform apodization and

  6. Effects of temperature, genetic variation and species competition on the sensitivity of algae populations to the antibiotic enrofloxacin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, Andreu; Zhao, Wenkai; Gillissen, Frits; Lürling, Miquel; Brink, van den Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    Primary producers are amongst the most sensitive organisms to antibiotic pollution in aquatic ecosystems. To date, there is little information on how different environmental conditions may affect their sensitivity to antibiotics. In this study we assessed how temperature, genetic variation and

  7. Manufacture of pooled platelets in additive solution and storage in an ELX container after an overnight warm temperature hold of platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhumaidan, Hiba; Cheves, Tracey; Holme, Stein; Sweeney, Joseph D

    2011-10-01

    The processing of whole blood-derived platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to a platelet concentrate and platelet-poor plasma is currently performed within 8 hours to comply with the requirements to manufacture fresh frozen plasma. Maintaining PRP at room temperature for a longer period can have the advantage of shifting the completion of component manufacture onto day shifts. Pairs of ABO-identical prepooled platelets were manufactured by the PRP method, using the current approach with platelet storage in a CLX HP container (Pall Medical, Covina, CA) and plasma, or a novel approach with an 18- to a 24-hour room temperature hold of the PRP and the manufacture of pooled platelets in a glucose-containing additive solution (AS) and storage in a new ELX container (Pall Medical). Standard in vitro assays were performed on days 2, 5, and 7. The results showed that the AS platelets in ELX have in vitro characteristics that are equivalent or superior to those of the standard product.

  8. Photo-sensitive Ge nanocrystal based films controlled by substrate deposition temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Stavarache, Ionel

    2017-07-21

    Lowering the temperature of crystallization by deposition of thin films on a heated substrate represents the easiest way to find new means to develop and improve new working devices based on nanocrystals embedded in thin films. The improvements are strongly related with the increasing of operation speed, substantially decreasing the energy consumption and reducing unit fabrication costs of the respective semiconductor devices. This approach avoids major problems, such as those related to diffusion or difficulties in controlling of nanocrystallites size, which appear during thermal treatments at high temperatures after deposition. It is reported here the significant progress introduced by synthesis procedure to the in-situ structuring of Ge nanocrystallites in SiO2 thin films by heating the substrate at low temperature, 400 °C during co-deposition of Ge and SiO2 by magnetron sputtering. As a proof-of-concept, a Si/Ge-NCs:SiO2 photo-sensitive structure was fabricated thereof and characterized. The structure shows superior performance on broad operation bandwidth from visible to near-infrared, as strong rectification properties in dark, significant current rise in the inversion mode when illuminated, high responsivity, high photo-detectivity of 1014 Jones, quick response and significant conversion efficiency of 850 %. This simple preparation approach brings an important contribution to the efort of structuring Ge nanocrystallites in SiO2 thin films at a lower temperature for the purpose of using these materials for devices in optoelectronics, solar cells and electronics on flexible substrates.

  9. Activation of temperature-sensitive TRPV1-like receptors in ARC POMC neurons reduces food intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Jeong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Proopiomelanocortin (POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC respond to numerous hormonal and neural signals, resulting in changes in food intake. Here, we demonstrate that ARC POMC neurons express capsaicin-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor (TRPV1-like receptors. To show expression of TRPV1-like receptors in ARC POMC neurons, we use single-cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology, TRPV1 knock-out (KO, and TRPV1-Cre knock-in mice. A small elevation of temperature in the physiological range is enough to depolarize ARC POMC neurons. This depolarization is blocked by the TRPV1 receptor antagonist and by Trpv1 gene knockdown. Capsaicin-induced activation reduces food intake that is abolished by a melanocortin receptor antagonist. To selectively stimulate TRPV1-like receptor-expressing ARC POMC neurons in the ARC, we generate an adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5 carrying a Cre-dependent channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP expression cassette under the control of the two neuronal POMC enhancers (nPEs. Optogenetic stimulation of TRPV1-like receptor-expressing POMC neurons decreases food intake. Hypothalamic temperature is rapidly elevated and reaches to approximately 39 °C during treadmill running. This elevation is associated with a reduction in food intake. Knockdown of the Trpv1 gene exclusively in ARC POMC neurons blocks the feeding inhibition produced by increased hypothalamic temperature. Taken together, our findings identify a melanocortinergic circuit that links acute elevations in hypothalamic temperature with acute reductions in food intake.

  10. Temperature-sensitive mutants of fowl plague virus: isolation and genetic characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almond, J.W.; McGeoch, D.; Barry, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-nine temperature-sensitive mutants of fowl plague virus (FPV) strain Rostock and four ts mutants of FPV-strain Dobson were isolated by utilizing two methods of plaque screening, after either spontaneous or chemically induced mutagenesis. Twenty-nine of the FPV-Rostock mutants were further characterized by genetic recombination studies and were found to fall into six high frequency recombination groups. The genome segment carrying the ts mutation in each group was identified by analyzing the gene composition of ts + recombinants generated from crosses between representatives of each group and ts mutants of FPV-Dobson. It was concluded that the six groups correspond to mutations in six different genome segments, namely, those coding for the P 1 , P 2 , P 3 , HA, NP, and NS proteins

  11. Fabrication of Polymeric Antireflection Film Manufactured by Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template on Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Kai Tsai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, high energy conversion efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were successfully fabricated by attaching a double anti-reflection (AR layer, which is composed of a subwavelength moth-eye structured polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA film and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS film. An efficiency of up to 6.79% was achieved. The moth-eye structured PMMA film was fabricated by using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template which is simple, low-cost and scalable. The nano-pattern of the AAO template was precisely reproduced onto the PMMA film. The photoanode was composed of Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs with a diameter of 25 nm deposited on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO glass substrate and the sensitizer N3. The double AR layer was proved to effectively improve the short-circuit current density (JSC and conversion efficiency from 14.77 to 15.79 mA/cm2 and from 6.26% to 6.79%, respectively.

  12. Immunolocalization and distribution of functional temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhan, Ubaidus; Sato, Masaki; Shinomiya, Takashi; Okubo, Migiwa; Tsumura, Maki; Muramatsu, Takashi; Kawaguchi, Mitsuru; Tazaki, Masakazu; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-11-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels are unique cellular sensors involved in multiple cellular functions. Their role in salivary secretion remains to be elucidated. The expression and localization of temperature-sensitive TRP channels in salivary (submandibular, sublingual and parotid) glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The effects of various TRP channel agonists on carbachol (CCh)-induced salivary secretion in the submandibular gland and on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in a submandibular epithelial cell line were also investigated. Immunohistochemistry revealed the expression of TRP-melastatin subfamily member 8 (TRPM8) and TRP-ankyrin subfamily member 1 (TRPA1) in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in the sublingual, submandibular and parotid glands. In addition, TRP-vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1), TRPV3 and TRPV4 were also expressed in myoepithelial, acinar and ductal cells in all three types of gland. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR results demonstrated the mRNA expression of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM8 and TRPA1 in acinar and ductal cells in these salivary glands. Perfusion of the entire submandibular gland with the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin (1 μM) via the submandibular artery significantly increased CCh-induced salivation, whereas perfusion with TRPM8 and TRPA1 agonists (0.5 μM WS12 and 100 μM allyl isothiocyanate) decreased it. Application of agonists for each of the thermosensitive TRP channels increased [Ca(2+)]i in a submandibular epithelial cell line. These results indicate that temperature-sensitive TRP channels are localized and distributed in acinar, ductal and myoepithelial cells in salivary glands and that they play a functional role in the regulation and/or modulation of salivary secretion.

  13. Dye-sensitized solar cells with ZnO nanoparticles fabricated at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sungjae; Moon, Byungjoon; Son, Dongick [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Wanju (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Byoungwook; Choi, Wonkook [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The authors investigated the microstructural and the electrical properties of ZnO based dyesensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated using a low-temperature-processed(200 .deg. C) dye-sensitized ZnO-nanoparticle thin film and a Pt catalyst deposited on ITO/glass by using RF magnetron sputtering. A hydropolymer containing PEG (poly(ethylene glycol)) and PEO (poly ethylene oxide) was used to make uniformly-distributed ZnO nanoparticle layer that form a nano-porous ZnO network after heat treatment and was then dye sensitized and sandwiched between two electrodes in an electrolyte to make a DSSC device. The highest measured parameters, the short circuit current density (J{sub sc}), the open circuit potential(V{sub oc}), the fill factor(FF), and the power conversion efficiency (η), of the DSSC fabricated under optimized conditions were observed to be 4.93 mA/cm{sup 2}, 0.56 V, 0.40, and 1.12%, respectively.

  14. Land surface temperature downscaling using random forest regression: primary result and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xin; Cao, Chen; Yang, Yingbao; Li, Xiaolong; Shan, Liangliang; Zhu, Xi

    2018-04-01

    The land surface temperature (LST) derived from thermal infrared satellite images is a meaningful variable in many remote sensing applications. However, at present, the spatial resolution of the satellite thermal infrared remote sensing sensor is coarser, which cannot meet the needs. In this study, LST image was downscaled by a random forest model between LST and multiple predictors in an arid region with an oasis-desert ecotone. The proposed downscaling approach was evaluated using LST derived from the MODIS LST product of Zhangye City in Heihe Basin. The primary result of LST downscaling has been shown that the distribution of downscaled LST matched with that of the ecosystem of oasis and desert. By the way of sensitivity analysis, the most sensitive factors to LST downscaling were modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI)/normalized multi-band drought index (NMDI), soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI)/ shortwave infrared reflectance (SWIR)/normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference building index (NDBI)/SAVI and SWIR/NDBI/MNDWI/NDWI for the region of water, vegetation, building and desert, with LST variation (at most) of 0.20/-0.22 K, 0.92/0.62/0.46 K, 0.28/-0.29 K and 3.87/-1.53/-0.64/-0.25 K in the situation of +/-0.02 predictor perturbances, respectively.

  15. Structural properties and in vitro digestibility of edible and pH-sensitive films made from guinea arrowroot starch and wastes from wine manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Tomy J; Herniou-Julien, Clémence; Álvarez, Kelvia; Alvarez, Vera A

    2018-03-15

    A non-conventional starch obtained from guinea arrowroot tubers (Calathea allouia) grown in the Amazon was used as a polymeric matrix for the development of edible films. The films were manufactured by blending/thermo molding and plasticized with glycerol. Agro-industrial wastes from wine manufacture (grape waste flour and grape waste extract) were used as natural fillers of the thermoplastic starch (TPS) matrices. The results showed that the natural fillers caused cross-linking in the TPS matrix. This led to the production of films with higher resistant starch (RS) content, especially RS type 4 (RS4), although the DSC results showed that the films developed also contained RS type 3 (RS3). As expected, the presence of RS reduced the in vitro digestibility rate. Films made with the natural fillers were also less hydrophilic, had a greater thermal resistance, and tended towards ductile mechanical behavior. Finally, the edible film containing grape waste flour as a natural filler proved to be pH-sensitive, although this material disintegrated under alkaline conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Temperature sensitivity of extreme precipitation events in the south-eastern Alpine forelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, Katharina; Kirchengast, Gottfried

    2016-04-01

    factors leads to the urgent questions of what we might expect from future heavy precipitation, particularly summertime convective storms, and how the associated risks will change if the observed trends persist. Working on an event basis allows us to consider a robust diversity of indicators such as storm duration, total sums, and peak intensities of the individual rainfall events in our analysis. First results suggest that the temperature sensitivity of precipitation events in the study region generally rises in accordance with the CC rate, but rates diverge dependent on the spatio-temporal properties of the sampling. At high temperatures above about 25 °C, the heaviest events do not show increases beyond the CC rate, as have been reported in some other studies for temperatures below 25°C. This is likely due to limitations of moisture availability in hot summer conditions. Observations of relative humidity available for 77 out of the 188 stations used support this hypothesis. When events where humidity is well below saturation are excluded from the sample, quantile regression results show higher scaling rates. The preliminary findings underline the need for a more sophisticated analysis of the temperature-precipitation relationship especially in heterogeneous regions with complex terrain.

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF THE TEMPERATURE CONTROL SCHEME FOR ROLLER COMPACTED CONCRETE DAMS BASED ON FINITE ELEMENT AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Achieving an effective combination of various temperature control measures is critical for temperature control and crack prevention of concrete dams. This paper presents a procedure for optimizing the temperature control scheme of roller compacted concrete (RCC dams that couples the finite element method (FEM with a sensitivity analysis method. In this study, seven temperature control schemes are defined according to variations in three temperature control measures: concrete placement temperature, water-pipe cooling time, and thermal insulation layer thickness. FEM is employed to simulate the equivalent temperature field and temperature stress field obtained under each of the seven designed temperature control schemes for a typical overflow dam monolith based on the actual characteristics of a RCC dam located in southwestern China. A sensitivity analysis is subsequently conducted to investigate the degree of influence each of the three temperature control measures has on the temperature field and temperature tensile stress field of the dam. Results show that the placement temperature has a substantial influence on the maximum temperature and tensile stress of the dam, and that the placement temperature cannot exceed 15 °C. The water-pipe cooling time and thermal insulation layer thickness have little influence on the maximum temperature, but both demonstrate a substantial influence on the maximum tensile stress of the dam. The thermal insulation thickness is significant for reducing the probability of cracking as a result of high thermal stress, and the maximum tensile stress can be controlled under the specification limit with a thermal insulation layer thickness of 10 cm. Finally, an optimized temperature control scheme for crack prevention is obtained based on the analysis results.

  18. Flowering time of butterfly nectar food plants is more sensitive to temperature than the timing of butterfly adult flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharouba, Heather M; Vellend, Mark

    2015-09-01

    1. Variation among species in their phenological responses to temperature change suggests that shifts in the relative timing of key life cycle events between interacting species are likely to occur under climate warming. However, it remains difficult to predict the prevalence and magnitude of these shifts given that there have been few comparisons of phenological sensitivities to temperature across interacting species. 2. Here, we used a broad-scale approach utilizing collection records to compare the temperature sensitivity of the timing of adult flight in butterflies vs. flowering of their potential nectar food plants (days per °C) across space and time in British Columbia, Canada. 3. On average, the phenology of both butterflies and plants advanced in response to warmer temperatures. However, the two taxa were differentially sensitive to temperature across space vs. across time, indicating the additional importance of nontemperature cues and/or local adaptation for many species. 4. Across butterfly-plant associations, flowering time was significantly more sensitive to temperature than the timing of butterfly flight and these sensitivities were not correlated. 5. Our results indicate that warming-driven shifts in the relative timing of life cycle events between butterflies and plants are likely to be prevalent, but that predicting the magnitude and direction of such changes in particular cases is going to require detailed, fine-scale data. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  19. Weak Hydrological Sensitivity to Temperature Change over Land, Independent of Climate Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Forster, P. M.; Hodnebrog, O.; Andrews, T.; Boucher, O.; Faluvegi, G.; Flaeschner, D.; Kasoar, M.; Kharin, V.; hide

    2018-01-01

    We present the global and regional hydrological sensitivity (HS) to surface temperature changes, for perturbations to CO2, CH4, sulfate and black carbon concentrations, and solar irradiance. Based on results from ten climate models, we show how modeled global mean precipitation increases by 2-3% per kelvin of global mean surface warming, independent of driver, when the effects of rapid adjustments are removed. Previously reported differences in response between drivers are therefore mainly ascribable to rapid atmospheric adjustment processes. All models show a sharp contrast in behavior over land and over ocean, with a strong surface temperature-driven (slow) ocean HS of 3-5%/K, while the slow land HS is only 0-2%/K. Separating the response into convective and large-scale cloud processes, we find larger inter-model differences, in particular over land regions. Large-scale precipitation changes are most relevant at high latitudes, while the equatorial HS is dominated by convective precipitation changes. Black carbon stands out as the driver with the largest inter-model slow HS variability, and also the strongest contrast between a weak land and strong sea response. We identify a particular need for model investigations and observational constraints on convective precipitation in the Arctic, and large-scale precipitation around the Equator.

  20. On the sensitivities of idealized moist baroclinic waves to environmental temperature and moist convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshbaum, Daniel; Merlis, Timothy; Gyakum, John; McTaggart-Cowan, Ron

    2017-04-01

    The impact of cloud diabatic heating on baroclinic life cycles has been studied for decades, with the nearly universal finding that this heating enhances the system growth rate. However, few if any studies have systematically addressed the sensitivity of baroclinic waves to environmental temperature. For a given relative humidity, warmer atmospheres contain more moisture than colder atmospheres. They also are more prone to the development of deep moist convection, which is itself a major source of diabatic heating. Thus, it is reasonable to expect faster baroclinic wave growth in warmer systems. To address this question, this study performs idealized simulations of moist baroclinic waves in a periodic channel, using initial environments with identical relative humidities, dry stabilities, and dry available potential energies but varying environmental temperatures and moist instabilities. While the dry versions of these simulations exhibit virtually identical wave growth, the moist versions exhibit major differences in life cycle. Counter-intuitively, despite slightly faster initial wave growth, the warmer and moister waves ultimately develop into weaker baroclinic systems with an earlier onset of the decay phase. An energetics analysis reveals that the reduced wave amplitude in the warmer cases stems from a reduced transfer of available potential energy into eddy potential energy. This reduced energy transfer is associated with an unfavorable phasing of mid-to-upper-level thermal and vorticity anomalies, which limits the meridional heat flux.

  1. Isolation of temperature-sensitive mutations in murC of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Mihoko; Kurokawa, Kenji; Nishida, Satoshi; Ueno, Kohji; Matsuo, Miki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2007-09-01

    Enzymes in the bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway are important targets for novel antibiotics. Of 750 temperature-sensitive (TS) mutants of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, six were complemented by the murC gene, which encodes the UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid:l-alanine ligase. Each mutation resulted in a single amino acid substitution and, in all cases, the TS phenotype was suppressed by high osmotic stress. In mutant strains with the G222E substitution, a decrease in the viable cell number immediately after shift to the restrictive temperature was observed. These results suggest that S. aureus MurC protein is essential for cell growth. The MurC H343Y mutation is located in the putative alanine recognition pocket. Consistent with this, allele-specific suppression was observed of the H343Y mutation by multiple copies of the aapA gene, which encodes an alanine transporter. The results suggest an in vivo role for the H343 residue of S. aureus MurC protein in high-affinity binding to L-alanine.

  2. Radiation synthesis of the water-soluble, temperature sensitive polymer, copolymer and study on their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Maolin; Yin Min; Ha Hongfei

    1994-01-01

    In order to obtain the water-soluble, temperature sensitive polymer and activated copolymer, the radiation polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm), radiation copolymerization of NIPAAm and N-acryloxysuccide (NASI) in aqueous solution or in buffer solution (PBS pH = 7.4) have been carried out by γ-rays from 60 Co source at room temperature. The optimum dose range (1-7 kGy), dose rate (>40 Gy/min) and monomer concentration (1%) were chosen through determining the monomer conversion yield and molecular weight (M w = 6.8 x 10 5 ) of product. Synthesis of the reversible linear polymer was performed in tetrahydrofuran (THF) as well. In this way a white powder product could be obtained which possesses of thermally reversible property too, when it was dissolved in water or PBS. The only disadvantages of this method is that the molecular weight of the polymer produced in THF was much lower than that in aqueous solution

  3. Moisture Sensitivity of Crumb Rubber Modified Modifier Warm Mix Asphalt Additive for Two Different Compaction Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilema, Munder A.; Aman, Mohamad Y.; Hassan, Norhidayah A.; Ahmad, Kabiru A.; Elghatas, Hamza M.; Radwan, Ashraf A.; Shyaa, Ahmed S.

    2018-04-01

    Crumb rubber obtained from scrap tires has been incorporated with asphalt binder to improve the performance of asphalt mixtures in the past decades. Pavements containing crumb-rubber modified (CRM) binders present one major drawback: larger amounts of greenhouse gas emissions are produced as there is rise in the energy consumption at the asphalt plant due to the higher viscosity of these type of binders compared with a conventional mixture. The objective of this paper is to calculate the optimum bitumen content for each percentage and evaluate the moisture sensitivity of crumb rubber modified asphalt at two different compacting temperatures. In this study, crumb rubber modified percentages was 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% from the binder weight, with adding 1.5% warm mix asphalt additive (Sasobit) and crush granite aggregate of 9.5mm Nominal maximum size was used after assessing its properties. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) used by 2% from fine aggregate. The wet method was using to mix the CRM with bitumen, the CRM conducted at 177°C for 30 min with 700rpm and Sasobit conducted at 120°C for 10 min with 1000rpm. As a result, from this study the optimum bitumen content (OBC) was increased with increased crumb rubber content. For performance test, it was conducted using the AASHTO T283 (2007): Resistance of Compacted Bituminous Mixture to Moisture-Induced Damage. The result was as expected and it was within the specification of the test, the result show that the moisture damage increased with increased the crumb rubber content but it is not exceeding the limit of specification 80% for indirect tension strength ratio (ITSR). For the temperature was with lowing the temperature the moisture damage increased.

  4. Photo-sensitive Ge nanocrystal based films controlled by substrate deposition temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavarache, Ionel; Maraloiu, Valentin Adrian; Negrila, Catalin; Prepelita, Petronela; Gruia, Ion; Iordache, Gheorghe

    2017-10-01

    Lowering the temperature of crystallization by deposition of thin films on a heated substrate represents the easiest way to find new means to develop and improve new working devices based on nanocrystals embedded in thin films. The improvements are strongly related with the increasing of operation speed, substantially decreasing the energy consumption and reducing unit fabrication costs of the respective semiconductor devices. This approach avoids major problems, such as those related to diffusion or difficulties in controlling nanocrystallites size, which appear during thermal treatments at high temperatures after deposition. This article reports on a significant progress given by structuring Ge nanocrystals (Ge-NCs) embedded in silicon dioxide (SiO2) thin films by heating the substrate at 400 °C during co-deposition of Ge and SiO2 by magnetron sputtering. As a proof-of-concept, a Si/Ge-NCs:SiO2 photo-sensitive structure was fabricated thereof and characterized. The structure shows superior performance on broad operation bandwidth from visible to near-infrared, as strong rectification properties in dark, significant current rise in the inversion mode when illuminated, high responsivity, high photo-detectivity of 1014 Jones, quick response and significant conversion efficiency with peak value reaching 850% at -1 V and about 1000 nm. This simple preparation approach brings an important contribution to the effort of structuring Ge nanocrystallites in SiO2 thin films at a lower temperature for the purpose of using these materials for devices in optoelectronics, solar cells and electronics on flexible substrates.

  5. Late Quaternary glacier sensitivity to temperature and precipitation distribution in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ann V. Rowan; Simon H. Brocklehurst; David M. Schultz; Mitchell A. Plummer; Leif S. Anderson; Neil F. Glasser

    2014-05-01

    Glaciers respond to climate variations and leave geomorphic evidence that represents an important terrestrial paleoclimate record. However, the accuracy of paleoclimate reconstructions from glacial geology is limited by the challenge of representing mountain meteorology in numerical models. Precipitation is usually treated in a simple manner and yet represents difficult-to-characterize variables such as amount, distribution, and phase. Furthermore, precipitation distributions during a glacial probably differed from present-day interglacial patterns. We applied two models to investigate glacier sensitivity to temperature and precipitation in the eastern Southern Alps of New Zealand. A 2-D model was used to quantify variations in the length of the reconstructed glaciers resulting from plausible precipitation distributions compared to variations in length resulting from change in mean annual air temperature and precipitation amount. A 1-D model was used to quantify variations in length resulting from interannual climate variability. Assuming that present-day interglacial values represent precipitation distributions during the last glacial, a range of plausible present-day precipitation distributions resulted in uncertainty in the Last Glacial Maximum length of the Pukaki Glacier of 17.1?km (24%) and the Rakaia Glacier of 9.3?km (25%), corresponding to a 0.5°C difference in temperature. Smaller changes in glacier length resulted from a 50% decrease in precipitation amount from present-day values (-14% and -18%) and from a 50% increase in precipitation amount (5% and 9%). Our results demonstrate that precipitation distribution can produce considerable variation in simulated glacier extents and that reconstructions of paleoglaciers should include this uncertainty.

  6. Linking temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition to its molecular structure, accessibility, and microbial physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagai, Rota; Kishimoto-Mo, Ayaka W; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Shirato, Yasuhito; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Yagasaki, Yasumi

    2013-04-01

    Temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition may have a significant impact on global warming. Enzyme-kinetic hypothesis suggests that decomposition of low-quality substrate (recalcitrant molecular structure) requires higher activation energy and thus has greater temperature sensitivity than that of high-quality, labile substrate. Supporting evidence, however, relies largely on indirect indices of substrate quality. Furthermore, the enzyme-substrate reactions that drive decomposition may be regulated by microbial physiology and/or constrained by protective effects of soil mineral matrix. We thus tested the kinetic hypothesis by directly assessing the carbon molecular structure of low-density fraction (LF) which represents readily accessible, mineral-free SOM pool. Using five mineral soil samples of contrasting SOM concentrations, we conducted 30-days incubations (15, 25, and 35 °C) to measure microbial respiration and quantified easily soluble C as well as microbial biomass C pools before and after the incubations. Carbon structure of LFs (soil was measured by solid-state (13) C-NMR. Decomposition Q10 was significantly correlated with the abundance of aromatic plus alkyl-C relative to O-alkyl-C groups in LFs but not in bulk soil fraction or with the indirect C quality indices based on microbial respiration or biomass. The warming did not significantly change the concentration of biomass C or the three types of soluble C despite two- to three-fold increase in respiration. Thus, enhanced microbial maintenance respiration (reduced C-use efficiency) especially in the soils rich in recalcitrant LF might lead to the apparent equilibrium between SOM solubilization and microbial C uptake. Our results showed physical fractionation coupled with direct assessment of molecular structure as an effective approach and supported the enzyme-kinetic interpretation of widely observed C quality-temperature relationship for short-term decomposition. Factors

  7. Data indicating temperature response of Ti–6Al–4V thin-walled structure during its additive manufacture via Laser Engineered Net Shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett J. Marshall

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An OPTOMEC Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™ 750 system was retrofitted with a melt pool pyrometer and in-chamber infrared (IR camera for nondestructive thermal inspection of the blown-powder, direct laser deposition (DLD process. Data indicative of temperature and heat transfer within the melt pool and heat affected zone atop a thin-walled structure of Ti–6Al–4V during its additive manufacture are provided. Melt pool temperature data were collected via the dual-wavelength pyrometer while the dynamic, bulk part temperature distribution was collected using the IR camera. Such data are provided in Comma Separated Values (CSV file format, containing a 752×480 matrix and a 320×240 matrix of temperatures corresponding to individual pixels of the pyrometer and IR camera, respectively. The IR camera and pyrometer temperature data are provided in blackbody-calibrated, raw forms. Provided thermal data can aid in generating and refining process-property-performance relationships between laser manufacturing and its fabricated materials.

  8. Microstructure and High Temperature Oxidation Property of Fe-Cr-B Based Metal/Ceramic Composite Manufactured by Powder Injection Molding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Yeun-Ah; Kim, Young-Kyun; Yoon, Tae-Sik; Lee, Kee-Ahn

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the microstructure and high temperature oxidation property of Fe-Cr-B metal/ceramic composite manufactured using powder injection molding process. Observations of initial microstructure showed a unique structure where α-Fe and (Cr, Fe)2B form a continuous three-dimensional network. High temperature oxidation tests were performed at 900, 1000 and 1100 °C, for 24 h, and the oxidation weight gain according to each temperature condition was 0.13, 0.84 and 6.4 mg/cm2, respectively. The oxidation results according to time at 900 and 1000 °C conditions represented parabolic curves, and at 1100 °C condition formed a rectilinear curve. Observation and phase analysis results of the oxides identified Cr2O3 and SiO2 at 900 and 1000 °C. In addition to Cr2O3 and SiO2, CrBO3 and FeCr2O4 formed due to phase decomposition of boride were identified at 1100 °C. Based on the findings above, this study suggested the high temperature oxidation mechanism of Fe-Cr-B metal/ceramic composite manufactured using powder injection molding, and the possibility of its application as a high temperature component material was also discussed.

  9. Low temperature sensitization behavior in the weld metal of austenitic stainless steel. Study on low temperature sensitization in weldments of austenitic stainless steels and its improvement by laser surface melting treatment. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Hiroaki; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi; Nakao, Yoshikuni

    1996-01-01

    Low temperature sensitization (LTS) behavior in the weld metal of Type308 stainless steel was investigated in this study. Three kinds of Type308 stainless steels, of which carbon contents were 0.04%, 0.06% and 0.08%, were used for this study. TIG welding method was adopted to make the weld metals. Weld metals were subjected to the sensitizing heat treatment in the temperature range between 773 K and 1073 K. The degree of sensitization were examined by the EPR method and the Strauss test. Chromium carbide was absorbed to precipitate at δ/γ grain boundaries in the as-welded weld metals Corrosion test results have shown that the higher carbon content in the weld metal is, the earlier sensitization yields in it. Sensitization in weld metals is found to occur faster than in those solution heat-treated at 1273 K prior to sensitizing heat-treatment. This fact suggests that preexisted chromium carbides have an effect to accelerate sensitization. That is, it is apparent that LTS phenomenon occur even in the weld metal. Moreover, sensitization in the weld metal has occurred in much shorter time than in HAZ, which is attributed to the preferential precipitation of chromium carbide at δ/γ grain boundaries in the weld metals. (author)

  10. Arabidopsis ZED1-related kinases mediate the temperature-sensitive intersection of immune response and growth homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhicai; Cui, Dayong; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Cheng; Xin, Wei; Li, Yuan; Liu, Na; Ren, Dongtao; Tang, Dingzhong; Hu, Yuxin

    2017-07-01

    Activation of the immune response in plants antagonizes growth and development in the absence of pathogens, and such an autoimmune phenotype is often suppressed by the elevation of ambient temperature. However, molecular regulation of the ambient temperature-sensitive intersection of immune response and growth is largely elusive. A genetic screen identified an Arabidopsis mutant, zed1-D, by its high temperature-dependent growth retardation. A combination of molecular, cytological and genetic approaches was used to investigate the molecular basis behind the temperature-sensitive growth and immune response in zed1-D. A dominant mutation in HOPZ-ETI-DEFICIENT 1 (ZED1) is responsible for a high temperature-dependent autoimmunity and growth retardation in zed1-D. The autoimmune phenotype in zed1-D is dependent on the HOPZ-ACTIVATED RESISTANCE 1 (ZAR1). ZED1 and some ZED1-related kinases (ZRKs) are induced by elevated temperature and function cooperatively to suppress the immune response by modulating the transcription of SUPPRESSOR OF NPR1-1 CONSTITUTIVE 1 (SNC1) in the absence of pathogens. Our data reveal a previously unidentified role of ZRKs in the ambient temperature-sensitive immune response in the absence of pathogens, and thus reveals a possible molecular mechanism underlying the temperature-mediated intersection of immune response and growth in plants. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Effect of annealing temperature and dopant concentration on the thermoluminescence sensitivity in LiF:Mg,Cu,Ag material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaabadi, Akram; Torkzadeh, Falamarz; Rezaei Ochbelagh, Dariush; Hosseini Pooya, Seyed Mahdi

    2018-04-24

    LiF:Mg,Cu,Ag is a new dosimetry material that is similar to LiF:Mg,Cu,P in terms of dosimetric properties. The effect of the annealing temperature in the range of 200 to 350°C on the thermoluminescence (TL) sensitivity and the glow curve structure of this material at different concentrations of silver (Ag) was investigated. It has been demonstrated that the optimum values of the annealing temperature and the Ag concentration are 240°C and 0.1 mol% for better sensitivity, respectively. The TL intensity decreases at annealing temperatures lower than 240°C or higher than 240°C, reaching a minimum at 300°C and then again increases for various Ag concentrations. It was observed that the glow curve structure altered and the area under the low temperature peak as well as the area under the main dosimetric peak decreased with increasing annealing temperature. The position of the main dosimetric peak moved in the direction of higher temperatures, but at 320 and 350°C annealing temperatures, it shifted to lower temperatures. It was also observed that the TL sensitivity could partially be recovered by a combined annealing procedure. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Advances in second generation high temperature superconducting wire manufacturing and R and D at American Superconductor Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupich, Martin W; Li Xiaoping; Thieme, Cees; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; Fleshler, Steven; Tucker, David; Thompson, Elliot; Schreiber, Jeff; Lynch, Joseph; Buczek, David; DeMoranville, Ken; Inch, James; Cedrone, Paul; Slack, James, E-mail: mrupich@amsc.co [American Superconductor Corporation, 64 Jackson Road, Devens, MA 01434-4020 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    The RABiTS(TM)/MOD-YBCO (rolling assisted biaxially textured substrate/metal-organic deposition of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}) route has been established as a low-cost manufacturing process for producing high performance second generation (2G) wire. American Superconductor Corporation (AMSC) has used this approach to establish a production scale manufacturing line based on a wide-web manufacturing process. This initial production line is currently capable of producing 2G wire in lengths to 500 m with critical currents exceeding 250 A cm{sub width}{sup -1} at 77 K, in the self-field. The wide-web process, combined with slitting and lamination processes, allows customization of the 2G wire width and stabilizer composition to meet application specific wire requirements. The production line is currently supplying 2G wire for multiple cable, fault current limiter and coil applications. Ongoing R and D is focused on the development of thicker YBCO layers and improved flux pinning centers. This paper reviews the history of 2G wire development at AMSC, summarizes the current capability of the 2G wire manufacturing at AMSC, and describes future R and D improvements.

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of RCW Temperature on the Moderator Subcooling Margin for the LBLOCA of Wolsong NPP Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Si Won; Kim, Jong Hyun; Choi, Sung Soo [Atomic Creative Technology Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Min [Central Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Moderator subcooling margin has been analyzed using the MODTURC{sub C}LAS code in the Large LOCA FSAR PARTs C and F. Performance of moderator heat exchangers depends on RCW (Raw reCirculated Water) temperature. And also the temperature is affected by sea water temperature. Unfortunately, sea water temperature is gradually increasing by global warming. So it will cause increase of RCW temperature inevitably. There is no assessment result of moderator subcooling with increasing RCW temperature even if it is important problem. Therefore, sensitivity analysis is performed to give information about the relation between RCW temperature and moderator subcooling in the present study. The moderator subcooling margin has to be ensured to establish the moderator heat removal when Large LOCA with LOECI and Loss of Class IV Power occurs. However, sea water temperature is increasing gradually due to global warming. So it is necessary that sensitivity analysis of RCW temperature on the moderator subcooling margin to estimate the availability of the moderator heat removal. In the present paper, the moderator subcooling analysis is performed using the same methodology and assumptions except for RCW temperature used in FSAR Large LOCA PART F.

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of RCW Temperature on the Moderator Subcooling Margin for the LBLOCA of Wolsong NPP Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Si Won; Kim, Jong Hyun; Choi, Sung Soo; Kim, Sung Min

    2016-01-01

    Moderator subcooling margin has been analyzed using the MODTURC_CLAS code in the Large LOCA FSAR PARTs C and F. Performance of moderator heat exchangers depends on RCW (Raw reCirculated Water) temperature. And also the temperature is affected by sea water temperature. Unfortunately, sea water temperature is gradually increasing by global warming. So it will cause increase of RCW temperature inevitably. There is no assessment result of moderator subcooling with increasing RCW temperature even if it is important problem. Therefore, sensitivity analysis is performed to give information about the relation between RCW temperature and moderator subcooling in the present study. The moderator subcooling margin has to be ensured to establish the moderator heat removal when Large LOCA with LOECI and Loss of Class IV Power occurs. However, sea water temperature is increasing gradually due to global warming. So it is necessary that sensitivity analysis of RCW temperature on the moderator subcooling margin to estimate the availability of the moderator heat removal. In the present paper, the moderator subcooling analysis is performed using the same methodology and assumptions except for RCW temperature used in FSAR Large LOCA PART F.

  15. A novel and fully scalable Agrobacterium spray-based process for manufacturing cellulases and other cost-sensitive proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Simone; Giritch, Anatoli; Bartels, Doreen; Bortesi, Luisa; Gleba, Yuri

    2015-06-01

    Transient transfection of plants by vacuum infiltration of Agrobacterium vectors represents the state of the art in plant-based protein manufacturing; however, the complexity and cost of this approach restrict it to pharmaceutical proteins. We demonstrated that simple spraying of Nicotiana plants with Agrobacterium vectors in the presence of a surfactant can substitute for vacuum inoculation. When the T-DNA of Agrobacterium encodes viral replicons capable of cell-to-cell movement, up to 90% of the leaf cells can be transfected and express a recombinant protein at levels up to 50% of total soluble protein. This simple, fast and indefinitely scalable process was successfully applied to produce cellulases, one of the most volume- and cost-sensitive biotechnology products. We demonstrate here for the first time that representatives of all hydrolase classes necessary for cellulosic biomass decomposition can be expressed at high levels, stored as silage without significant loss of activity and then used directly as enzyme additives. This process enables production of cellulases, and other potential high-volume products such as noncaloric sweetener thaumatin and antiviral protein griffithsin, at commodity agricultural prices and could find broad applicability in the large-scale production of many other cost-sensitive proteins. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A High-Sensitivity Gas Sensor Toward Methanol Using ZnO Microrods: Effect of Operating Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, M.; Mahapatra, R.; Mondal, B.; Ghosh, R.

    2017-04-01

    In the present work, zinc oxide (ZnO) microrods with the average diameter of 350 nm have been synthesized on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate using a hydrothermal reaction process at a low temperature of 90°C. The methanol gas sensing behaviour of as-synthesized ZnO microrods have been studied at different operating temperatures (100-300°C). The gas sensing results show that the ZnO microrods exhibit excellent sensitivity, selectivity, and stability toward methanol gas at 300°C. The as-grown ZnO microrods sensor also shows the good sensitivity for methanol even at a low operating temperature of 100°C. The ultra-high sensitivity of 4.41 × 104% [gas sensitivity, S g = ( I g - I a)/ I a × 100%] and 5.11 × 102% to 100 ppm methanol gas at a temperature of 300°C and 100°C, respectively, has been observed. A fast response time of 200 ms and 270 ms as well as a recovery time of 120 ms and 1330 ms to methanol gas have also been found at an operating temperature of 300°C and 100°C, respectively. The response and recovery time decreases with increasing operation temperature of the sensor.

  17. Improved Sterilization of Sensitive Biomaterials with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide at Low Temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bernhardt

    Full Text Available The development of bio-resorbable implant materials is rapidly going on. Sterilization of those materials is inevitable to assure the hygienic requirements for critical medical devices according to the medical device directive (MDD, 93/42/EG. Biopolymer-containing biomaterials are often highly sensitive towards classical sterilization procedures like steam, ethylene oxide treatment or gamma irradiation. Supercritical CO₂ (scCO₂ treatment is a promising strategy for the terminal sterilization of sensitive biomaterials at low temperature. In combination with low amounts of additives scCO₂ treatment effectively inactivates microorganisms including bacterial spores. We established a scCO₂ sterilization procedure under addition of 0.25% water, 0.15% hydrogen peroxide and 0.5% acetic anhydride. The procedure was successfully tested for the inactivation of a wide panel of microorganisms including endospores of different bacterial species, vegetative cells of gram positive and negative bacteria including mycobacteria, fungi including yeast, and bacteriophages. For robust testing of the sterilization effect with regard to later application of implant materials sterilization all microorganisms were embedded in alginate/agarose cylinders that were used as Process Challenge Devices (PCD. These PCD served as surrogate models for bioresorbable 3D scaffolds. Furthermore, the impact of scCO₂ sterilization on mechanical properties of polysaccharide-based hydrogels and collagen-based scaffolds was analyzed. The procedure was shown to be less compromising on mechanical and rheological properties compared to established low-temperature sterilization methods like gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide exposure as well as conventional steam sterilization. Cytocompatibility of alginate gels and scaffolds from mineralized collagen was compared after sterilization with ethylene oxide, gamma irradiation, steam sterilization and scCO₂ treatment. Human

  18. Soil respiration sensitivities to water and temperature in a revegetated desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Shan; Dong, Xue-Jun; Xu, Bing-Xin; Chen, Yong-Le; Zhao, Yang; Gao, Yan-Hong; Hu, Yi-Gang; Huang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Soil respiration in water-limited ecosystems is affected intricately by soil water content (SWC), temperature, and soil properties. Eight sites on sand-fixed dunes that revegetated in different years since 1950s, with several topographical positions and various biological soil crusts (BSCs) and soil properties, were selected, as well as a moving sand dune (MSD) and a reference steppe in the Tengger Desert of China. Intact soil samples of 20 cm in depth were taken and incubated randomly at 12 levels of SWC (0 to 0.4 m3 m-3) and at 9 levels of temperature (5 to 45°C) in a growth chamber; additionally, cryptogamic and microbial respirations (RM) were measured. Total soil respiration (RT, including cryptogamic, microbial, and root respiration) was measured for 2 years at the MSD and five sites of sand-fixed dunes. The relationship between RM and SWC under the optimal SWC condition (0.25 m3 m-3) is linear, as is the entire range of RT and SWC. The slope of linear function describes sensitivity of soil respiration to water (SRW) and reflects to soil water availability, which is related significantly to soil physical properties, BSCs, and soil chemical properties, in decreasing importance. Inversely, Q10 for RM is related significantly to abovementioned factors in increasing importance. However, Q10 for RT and respiration rate at 20°C are related significantly to soil texture and depth of BSCs and subsoil only. In conclusion, through affecting SRW, soil physical properties produce significant influences on soil respiration, especially for RT. This indicates that a definition of the biophysical meaning of SRW is necessary, considering the water-limited and coarse-textured soil in most desert ecosystems.

  19. Signal detection in global mean temperatures after "Paris": an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Hans; Dangendorf, Sönke; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Bregman, Bram; Petersen, Arthur C.

    2018-02-01

    In December 2015, 195 countries agreed in Paris to hold the increase in global mean surface temperature (GMST) well below 2.0 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C. Since large financial flows will be needed to keep GMSTs below these targets, it is important to know how GMST has progressed since pre-industrial times. However, the Paris Agreement is not conclusive as regards methods to calculate it. Should trend progression be deduced from GCM simulations or from instrumental records by (statistical) trend methods? Which simulations or GMST datasets should be chosen, and which trend models? What is pre-industrial and, finally, are the Paris targets formulated for total warming, originating from both natural and anthropogenic forcing, or do they refer to anthropogenic warming only? To find answers to these questions we performed an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis where datasets and model choices have been varied. For all cases we evaluated trend progression along with uncertainty information. To do so, we analysed four trend approaches and applied these to the five leading observational GMST products. We find GMST progression to be largely independent of various trend model approaches. However, GMST progression is significantly influenced by the choice of GMST datasets. Uncertainties due to natural variability are largest in size. As a parallel path, we calculated GMST progression from an ensemble of 42 GCM simulations. Mean progression derived from GCM-based GMSTs appears to lie in the range of trend-dataset combinations. A difference between both approaches appears to be the width of uncertainty bands: GCM simulations show a much wider spread. Finally, we discuss various choices for pre-industrial baselines and the role of warming definitions. Based on these findings we propose an estimate for signal progression in GMSTs since pre-industrial.

  20. Signal detection in global mean temperatures after “Paris”: an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Visser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In December 2015, 195 countries agreed in Paris to hold the increase in global mean surface temperature (GMST well below 2.0 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C. Since large financial flows will be needed to keep GMSTs below these targets, it is important to know how GMST has progressed since pre-industrial times. However, the Paris Agreement is not conclusive as regards methods to calculate it. Should trend progression be deduced from GCM simulations or from instrumental records by (statistical trend methods? Which simulations or GMST datasets should be chosen, and which trend models? What is pre-industrial and, finally, are the Paris targets formulated for total warming, originating from both natural and anthropogenic forcing, or do they refer to anthropogenic warming only? To find answers to these questions we performed an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis where datasets and model choices have been varied. For all cases we evaluated trend progression along with uncertainty information. To do so, we analysed four trend approaches and applied these to the five leading observational GMST products. We find GMST progression to be largely independent of various trend model approaches. However, GMST progression is significantly influenced by the choice of GMST datasets. Uncertainties due to natural variability are largest in size. As a parallel path, we calculated GMST progression from an ensemble of 42 GCM simulations. Mean progression derived from GCM-based GMSTs appears to lie in the range of trend–dataset combinations. A difference between both approaches appears to be the width of uncertainty bands: GCM simulations show a much wider spread. Finally, we discuss various choices for pre-industrial baselines and the role of warming definitions. Based on these findings we propose an estimate for signal progression in GMSTs since pre-industrial.

  1. Temperature sensitivity of extracellular enzyme kinetics in subtropical wetland soils under different nutrient and water level conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, S.; Inglett, K.; Inglett, P.

    2012-12-01

    Microbial extracellular enzymes play an important role in the initial steps of soil organic matter decomposition and are involved in regulating nutrient cycle processes. Moreover, with the recent concern of climate change, microbial extracellular enzymes may affect the functioning (C losses, C sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions, vegetation changes) of different ecosystems. Hence, it is imperative to understand the biogeochemical processes that may be climate change sensitive. Here, we have measured the Michaelis Menten Kinetics [maximal rate of velocity (Vmax) and half-saturation constant (Km)] of 6 enzymes involved in soil organic matter decomposition (phosphatase, phosphodiesterase, β-D-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, leucine aminopeptidase, N-Acetyl-β-D glucosaminidase) in different nutrient(P) concentration both aerobically and anaerobically in Everglade water conservation area 2A (F1, F4-slough and U3-slough). Temperature sensitivity of different enzymes is assessed within soil of different P concentrations. We hypothesized that the temperature sensitivity of the enzyme changes with the biogeochemical conditions including water level and nutrient condition. Furthermore, we have tested specific hypothesis that higher P concentration will initiate more C demand for microbes leading to higher Vmax value for carbon processing enzymes in high P site. We found temperature sensitivity of all enzymes for Vmax and Km under both aerobic and anaerobic condition ranges from 0.6 to 3.2 for Vmax and 0.5 to 2.5 for Km. Q10 values of Km for glucosidase indicate more temperature sensitivity under anaerobic condition. Under aerobic condition higher temperature showed significant effect on Vmax for bisphosphatase between high P and low P site. Decreasing P concentration from F1 site to U3-S site had showed significant effect in all temperature on carbon processing enzyme. This suggests that in high P site, microbes will use more carbon-processing enzyme to get more carbon

  2. Highly Sensitive Temperature Sensors Based on Fiber-Optic PWM and Capacitance Variation Using Thermochromic Sensing Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rajibur Rahaman Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a temperature/thermal sensor that contains a Rhodamine-B sensing membrane. We applied two different sensing methods, namely, fiber-optic pulse width modulation (PWM and an interdigitated capacitor (IDC-based temperature sensor to measure the temperature from 5 °C to 100 °C. To the best of our knowledge, the fiber-optic PWM-based temperature sensor is reported for the first time in this study. The proposed fiber-optic PWM temperature sensor has good sensing ability; its sensitivity is ~3.733 mV/°C. The designed temperature-sensing system offers stable sensing responses over a wide dynamic range, good reproducibility properties with a relative standard deviation (RSD of ~0.021, and the capacity for a linear sensing response with a correlation coefficient of R2 ≈ 0.992 over a wide sensing range. In our study, we also developed an IDC temperature sensor that is based on the capacitance variation principle as the IDC sensing element is heated. We compared the performance of the proposed temperature-sensing systems with different fiber-optic temperature sensors (which are based on the fiber-optic wavelength shift method, the long grating fiber-optic Sagnac loop, and probe type fiber-optics in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range, and linearity. We observed that the proposed sensing systems have better sensing performance than the above-mentioned sensing system.

  3. Classifying Multi-Model Wheat Yield Impact Response Surfaces Showing Sensitivity to Temperature and Precipitation Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronzek, Stefan; Pirttioja, Nina; Carter, Timothy R.; Bindi, Marco; Hoffmann, Holger; Palosuo, Taru; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Tao, Fulu; Trnka, Miroslav; Acutis, Marco; hide

    2017-01-01

    Crop growth simulation models can differ greatly in their treatment of key processes and hence in their response to environmental conditions. Here, we used an ensemble of 26 process-based wheat models applied at sites across a European transect to compare their sensitivity to changes in temperature (minus 2 to plus 9 degrees Centigrade) and precipitation (minus 50 to plus 50 percent). Model results were analysed by plotting them as impact response surfaces (IRSs), classifying the IRS patterns of individual model simulations, describing these classes and analysing factors that may explain the major differences in model responses. The model ensemble was used to simulate yields of winter and spring wheat at four sites in Finland, Germany and Spain. Results were plotted as IRSs that show changes in yields relative to the baseline with respect to temperature and precipitation. IRSs of 30-year means and selected extreme years were classified using two approaches describing their pattern. The expert diagnostic approach (EDA) combines two aspects of IRS patterns: location of the maximum yield (nine classes) and strength of the yield response with respect to climate (four classes), resulting in a total of 36 combined classes defined using criteria pre-specified by experts. The statistical diagnostic approach (SDA) groups IRSs by comparing their pattern and magnitude, without attempting to interpret these features. It applies a hierarchical clustering method, grouping response patterns using a distance metric that combines the spatial correlation and Euclidian distance between IRS pairs. The two approaches were used to investigate whether different patterns of yield response could be related to different properties of the crop models, specifically their genealogy, calibration and process description. Although no single model property across a large model ensemble was found to explain the integrated yield response to temperature and precipitation perturbations, the

  4. Locally Targeted Delivery of a Micron-Size Radiation Therapy Source Using Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yusung, E-mail: yusung-kim@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Seol, Dong Rim [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Mohapatra, Sucheta [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Sunderland, John J. [Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Schultz, Michael K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Domann, Frederick E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Department of Surgery, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Lim, Tae-Hong [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To propose a novel radiation therapy (RT) delivery modality: locally targeted delivery of micron-size RT sources by using temperature-sensitive hydrogel (RT-GEL) as an injectable vehicle. Methods and Materials: Hydrogel is a water-like liquid at room temperature but gels at body temperature. Two US Food and Drug Administration-approved polymers were synthesized. Indium-111 (In-111) was used as the radioactive RT-GEL source. The release characteristics of In-111 from polymerized RT-GEL were evaluated. The injectability and efficacy of RT-GEL delivery to human breast tumor were tested using animal models with control datasets of RT-saline injection. As proof-of-concept studies, a total of 6 nude mice were tested by injecting 4 million tumor cells into their upper backs after a week of acclimatization. Three mice were injected with RT-GEL and 3 with RT-saline. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and CT scans were performed on each mouse at 0, 24, and 48 h after injection. The efficacy of RT-GEL was determined by comparison with that of the control datasets by measuring kidney In-111 accumulation (mean nCi/cc), representing the distant diffusion of In-111. Results: RT-GEL was successfully injected into the tumor by using a 30-gauge needle. No difficulties due to polymerization of hydrogel during injection and intratumoral pressure were observed during RT-GEL injection. No back flow occurred for either RT-GEL or RT-saline. The residual tumor activities of In-111 were 49% at 24 h (44% at 48 h, respectively) for RT-GEL and 29% (22%, respectively) for RT-saline. Fused SPECT-CT images of RT-saline showed considerable kidney accumulation of In-111 (2886%, 261%, and 262% of RT-GEL at 0, 24, and 48 h, respectively). Conclusions: RT-GEL was successfully injected and showed much higher residual tumor activity: 170% (200%, respectively), than that of RT-saline at 24 h (48 h, respectively) after injection with a minimal accumulation of In-111 to the

  5. UV-B-inducible and temperature-sensitive photoreactivation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Qishen; Hays, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CBPDs) in vivo from the DNA of UV-irradiated eight-leaf seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana was rapid in the presence of visible light (half-life about 1 hour); removal of CBPDs in the dark, presumably via excision repair, was an order of magnitude slower. Extracts of plants contained significant photolyase in vitro, as assayed by restoration of transforming activity to UV-irradiated Escherichia coli plasmids; activity was maximal from four-leaf to 12-leaf stages. UV-B treatment of seedlings for 6 hours increased photolyase specific activity in extracts twofold. Arabidopsis photolyase was markedly temperature-sensitive, both in vitro (half-life at 30C about 12 minutes) and in vivo (half-life at 30C, 30 to 45 minutes). The wavelength dependency of the photoreactivation cross-section showed a broad peak at 375 to 400 nm, and is thus similar to that for maize pollen; it overlaps bacterial and yeast photolyase action spectra

  6. Effect of Low-Temperature Sensitization on Hydrogen Embrittlement of 301 Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh Yu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of metastable austenite on the hydrogen embrittlement (HE of cold-rolled (30% reduction in thickness 301 stainless steel (SS was investigated. Cold-rolled (CR specimens were hydrogen-charged in an autoclave at 300 or 450 °C under a pressure of 10 MPa for 160 h before tensile tests. Both ordinary and notched tensile tests were performed in air to measure the tensile properties of the non-charged and charged specimens. The results indicated that cold rolling caused the transformation of austenite into α′ and ε-martensite in the 301 SS. Aging at 450 °C enhanced the precipitation of M23C6 carbides, G, and σ phases in the cold-rolled specimen. In addition, the formation of α′ martensite and M23C6 carbides along the grain boundaries increased the HE susceptibility and low-temperature sensitization of the 450 °C-aged 301 SS. In contrast, the grain boundary α′-martensite and M23C6 carbides were not observed in the as-rolled and 300 °C-aged specimens.

  7. An Updated Collection of Sequence Barcoded Temperature-Sensitive Alleles of Yeast Essential Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Megan; Milbury, Karissa L; Chiang, Jennifer H; Sinha, Sunita; Ben-Aroya, Shay; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Hieter, Philip; Stirling, Peter C

    2015-07-14

    Systematic analyses of essential gene function using mutant collections in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been conducted using collections of heterozygous diploids, promoter shut-off alleles, through alleles with destabilized mRNA, destabilized protein, or bearing mutations that lead to a temperature-sensitive (ts) phenotype. We previously described a method for construction of barcoded ts alleles in a systematic fashion. Here we report the completion of this collection of alleles covering 600 essential yeast genes. This resource covers a larger gene repertoire than previous collections and provides a complementary set of strains suitable for single gene and genomic analyses. We use deep sequencing to characterize the amino acid changes leading to the ts phenotype in half of the alleles. We also use high-throughput approaches to describe the relative ts behavior of the alleles. Finally, we demonstrate the experimental usefulness of the collection in a high-content, functional genomic screen for ts alleles that increase spontaneous P-body formation. By increasing the number of alleles and improving the annotation, this ts collection will serve as a community resource for probing new aspects of biology for essential yeast genes. Copyright © 2015 Kofoed et al.

  8. Radiation sensitivities of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from chicken meat and their growth at refrigeration temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsojo; Banati, D.; Ito, H.

    1997-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes were isolated in 5 lots, more than one cell in each 25-g sample of 10 lots of chicken meat, which was obtained from several different areas in Japan. From taxonomic study, the psychrotrophic type of 3 isolates grew well at 4°C on Trypticase soy agar slant, whereas 2 isolates grew poorly. Cells of all isolates were sensitive to γ-irradiation in phosphate buffer, and the D 10 values obtained were 0.16 to 0.18 kGy under aerobic irradiation conditions similar to the values of salmonellae. In the chicken meat sample, the D 10 value obtained was 0.42 kGy the same value as in phosphate buffer under anaerobic irradiation conditions, and the necessary dose for inactivation of L. monocytogenes was estimated to be 2 kGy in raw chicken meat below 10 -4 CFU (colony forming unit) per gram. In the storage study of chicken meat which was inoculated with about 3×10 3 CFU per gram of L. monocytogenes, the psychrotrophic type of the isolates grew quickly at 7 to 10°C storage. However, a dose of 1 kGy was also effective to suppress the growth of L. monocytogenes at refrigeration temperatures below 10°C

  9. Highly sensitive room temperature ammonia gas sensor based on Ir-doped Pt porous ceramic electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenlong [College of pharmacy and biological engineering, Chengdu University, Chengdu, 610106 (China); Department of chemical and materials engineering, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taichung 411, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yen-Yu [Department of chemical and materials engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Do, Jing-Shan, E-mail: jsdo@ncut.edu.tw [Department of chemical and materials engineering, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taichung 411, Taiwan (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijing@cdu.edu.cn [College of pharmacy and biological engineering, Chengdu University, Chengdu, 610106 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Water vapors seem to hugely improve the electrochemical activity of the Pt and Pt-Ir porous ceramic electrodes. • The gas sensors based on the Pt and Pt-Ir alloy electrodes possess good sensing performances. • The reaction path of the ammonia on platinum has been discussed. - Abstract: Room temperature NH{sub 3} gas sensors based on Pt and Pt-Ir (Ir doping Pt) porous ceramic electrodes have been fabricated by both electroplating and sputtering methods. The properties of the gaseous ammonia sensors have been examined by polarization and chronoamperometry techniques. The influence of humidity on the features of the resulting sensors in the system has also been discussed, and the working potential was optimized. Water vapors seem to hugely improve the electrochemical activity of the electrode. With increasing the relative humidity, the response of the Pt-Ir(E)/Pt(S)/PCP sensor to NH{sub 3} gas could be enhanced remarkably, and the sensitivity increases from 1.14 to 12.06 μA ppm{sup −1} cm{sup −2} .Then we have also discussed the sensing mechanism of the Pt-Ir sensor and the result has been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the electrode surface before and after reaction in the end.

  10. Expression of temperature-sensitive ion channel TRPM8 in sperm cells correlates with vertebrate evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Majhi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transient Receptor Potential cation channel, subfamily Melastatin, member 8 (TRPM8 is involved in detection of cold temperature, different noxious compounds and in execution of thermo- as well as chemo-sensitive responses at cellular levels. Here we explored the molecular evolution of TRPM8 by analyzing sequences from various species. We elucidate that several regions of TRPM8 had different levels of selection pressure but the 4th–5th transmembrane regions remain highly conserved. Analysis of synteny suggests that since vertebrate origin, TRPM8 gene is linked with SPP2, a bone morphogen. TRPM8, especially the N-terminal region of it, seems to be highly variable in human population. We found 16,656 TRPM8 variants in 1092 human genomes with top variations being SNPs, insertions and deletions. A total of 692 missense mutations are also mapped to human TRPM8 protein of which 509 seem to be delateroiours in nature as supported by Polyphen V2, SIFT and Grantham deviation score. Using a highly specific antibody, we demonstrate that TRPM8 is expressed endogenously in the testis of rat and sperm cells of different vertebrates ranging from fish to higher mammals. We hypothesize that TRPM8 had emerged during vertebrate evolution (ca 450 MYA. We propose that expression of TRPM8 in sperm cell and its role in regulating sperm function are important factors that have guided its molecular evolution, and that these understandings may have medical importance.

  11. Lattice Boltzmann simulation for temperature-sensitive magnetic fluids in a porous square cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Licong; Zhang Xinrong; Niu Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    A lattice Boltzmann method is developed to simulate temperature-sensitive magnetic fluids in a porous cavity. In the simulation, the magnetic force, efficient gravity, viscous loss term and geometric loss term in porous medium are imported to the momentum equation. To test the reliability of the method, a validation with water in porous cavity is carried out. Good agreements with the previous results verify that the present lattice Boltzmann method is promising for simulation of magnetic fluids in porous medium. In this study, we investigate the change of magnetization with external magnetic field, and we present numerical results for the streamlines, isotherms, and magnetization at vertical or horizontal mid-profiles for different values of Ram. In addition, Nusselt numbers changing with magnetic Rayleigh numbers are also investigated. - Highlights: → Developed a lattice Boltzmann method for magnetic nano-fluids in porous cavity. → Clarified flow and heat transfer for different values of (magnetic) Rayleigh numbers. → Heat transfer enhancement for magnetic fluid in porous cavity.

  12. Evolution of vertebrate transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 channels: opposite temperature sensitivity between mammals and western clawed frogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Saito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient Receptor Potential (TRP channels serve as temperature receptors in a wide variety of animals and must have played crucial roles in thermal adaptation. The TRP vanilloid (TRPV subfamily contains several temperature receptors with different temperature sensitivities. The TRPV3 channel is known to be highly expressed in skin, where it is activated by warm temperatures and serves as a sensor to detect ambient temperatures near the body temperature of homeothermic animals such as mammals. Here we performed comprehensive comparative analyses of the TRPV subfamily in order to understand the evolutionary process; we identified novel TRPV genes and also characterized the evolutionary flexibility of TRPV3 during vertebrate evolution. We cloned the TRPV3 channel from the western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis to understand the functional evolution of the TRPV3 channel. The amino acid sequences of the N- and C-terminal regions of the TRPV3 channel were highly diversified from those of other terrestrial vertebrate TRPV3 channels, although central portions were well conserved. In a heterologous expression system, several mammalian TRPV3 agonists did not activate the TRPV3 channel of the western clawed frog. Moreover, the frog TRPV3 channel did not respond to heat stimuli, instead it was activated by cold temperatures. Temperature thresholds for activation were about 16 °C, slightly below the lower temperature limit for the western clawed frog. Given that the TRPV3 channel is expressed in skin, its likely role is to detect noxious cold temperatures. Thus, the western clawed frog and mammals acquired opposite temperature sensitivity of the TRPV3 channel in order to detect environmental temperatures suitable for their respective species, indicating that temperature receptors can dynamically change properties to adapt to different thermal environments during evolution.

  13. Body temperature and cold sensation during and following exercise under temperate room conditions in cold-sensitive young trained females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Aoki-Murakami, Erii; Tsuji, Bun; Kenny, Glen P; Nagashima, Kei; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated cold sensation at rest and in response to exercise-induced changes in core and skin temperatures in cold-sensitive exercise trained females. Fifty-eight trained young females were screened by a questionnaire, selecting cold-sensitive (Cold-sensitive, n  = 7) and non-cold-sensitive (Control, n  = 7) individuals. Participants rested in a room at 29.5°C for ~100 min after which ambient temperature was reduced to 23.5°C where they remained resting for 60 min. Participants then performed 30-min of moderate intensity cycling (50% peak oxygen uptake) followed by a 60-min recovery. Core and mean skin temperatures and cold sensation over the whole-body and extremities (fingers and toes) were assessed throughout. Resting core temperature was lower in the Cold-sensitive relative to Control group (36.4 ± 0.3 vs. 36.7 ± 0.2°C). Core temperature increased to similar levels at end-exercise (~37.2°C) and gradually returned to near preexercise rest levels at the end of recovery (>36.6°C). Whole-body cold sensation was greater in the Cold-sensitive relative to Control group during resting at a room temperature of 23.5°C only without a difference in mean skin temperature between groups. In contrast, cold sensation of the extremities was greater in the Cold-sensitive group prior to, during and following exercise albeit this was not paralleled by differences in mean extremity skin temperature. We show that young trained females who are sensitive to cold exhibit augmented whole-body cold sensation during rest under temperate ambient conditions. However, this response is diminished during and following exercise. In contrast, cold sensation of extremities is augmented during resting that persists during and following exercise. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  14. Temperature-sensitive porous membrane production through radiation co-grafting of NIPAAm on/in PVDF porous membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qi; Zhu Zhiyong; Yang Xiaomin; Chen Xiliang; Song Yufeng

    2007-01-01

    N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) monomer was grafted on and in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) micro-pore membrane by γ-irradiation. The influence of irradiation and reaction conditions on the grafting yield was investigated in detail. The chemical structure of NIPAAm-grafted PVDF (NIPAAm-g-PVDF) membrane was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectra measurements. The morphology of the sample surface as well as the cross-section before and after grafting was characterized by scanning electron microscope. The temperature sensitive properties of the membrane were monitored by measuring the conductance as well as the water flux through the sample thickness. The results show that the membrane exhibits clearly temperature-sensitive permeability to water as expected, i.e. the permeability of water changes dramatically as the temperature goes over the lower critical solution temperature of NIPAAm

  15. Effects of Temperature on Sensitivity of Bacilus licheniformis RI 75-1 Vegetative Cells at Gamma Quantum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Larrea Vega, O.; Rios Brito, F.; Marquez Alvarez, M.; Padron Soler, E.

    1986-01-01

    It is known that strains of E. Coli with wild genotype for reparation, when are irradiated at temperature between 42 0 C and 45 0 C, shown an increase of radioresistance. At the given temperature the number of double strands breaks of DNA decrease. Some authors report that the radioresistance increased is due to the elevation of the irradiation temperature is related to the cell membrane status. The paper includes reports on the effects of increased temperature on the sensitivity - at gamma quantum - of Bacillus licheniformis RI 75-1 vegetative cells. Temperatures of 42 0 C and 60 0 C during irradiation were employed. An increase in radioresistance was found when the temperature of irradiation was increased to 42 0 C. However, a decrease in viability was observed. Heat treatment prior to irradiation showed an increase in the number of radioresistance colonies when compared. (author)

  16. Enhancement of NH3 gas sensitivity at room temperature by carbon nanotube-based sensor coated with Co nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lich Quang; Phan, Pho Quoc; Duong, Huyen Ngoc; Nguyen, Chien Duc; Nguyen, Lam Huu

    2013-01-30

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film has been fabricated onto Pt-patterned alumina substrates using the chemical vapor deposition method for NH(3) gas sensing applications. The MWCNT-based sensor is sensitive to NH(3) gas at room temperature. Nanoclusters of Co catalysts have been sputtered on the surface of the MWCNT film to enhance gas sensitivity with respect to unfunctionalized CNT films. The gas sensitivity of Co-functionalized MWCNT-based gas sensors is thus significantly improved. The sensor exhibits good repeatability and high selectivity towards NH(3), compared with alcohol and LPG.

  17. Enhancement of NH3 Gas Sensitivity at Room Temperature by Carbon Nanotube-Based Sensor Coated with Co Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lich Quang Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT film has been fabricated onto Pt-patterned alumina substrates using the chemical vapor deposition method for NH3 gas sensing applications. The MWCNT-based sensor is sensitive to NH3 gas at room temperature. Nanoclusters of Co catalysts have been sputtered on the surface of the MWCNT film to enhance gas sensitivity with respect to unfunctionalized CNT films. The gas sensitivity of Co-functionalized MWCNT-based gas sensors is thus significantly improved. The sensor exhibits good repeatability and high selectivity towards NH3, compared with alcohol and LPG.

  18. Enhancement of the sensitivity of a temperature sensor based on fiber Bragg gratings via weak value amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Serrano, L J; Barrera, D; Amaya, W; Sales, S; Pruneri, V; Capmany, J; Torres, J P

    2015-09-01

    We present a proof-of-concept experiment aimed at increasing the sensitivity of Fiber-Bragg-gratings temperature sensors by making use of a weak-value-amplification scheme. The technique requires only linear optics elements for its implementation and appears as a promising method for increasing the sensitivity than state-of the-art sensors can currently provide. The device implemented here is able to generate a shift of the centroid of the spectrum of a pulse of ∼0.035  nm/°C, a nearly fourfold increase in sensitivity over the same fiber-Bragg-grating system interrogated using standard methods.

  19. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing-Smirnov Test of Skin Surface Temperatures' Dynamic Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WU Hai-yan; WANG Yun-yi

    2004-01-01

    Skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing is the theoretic foundation of thermal insulation clothing design.By a new method of researching on clothing comfort perception,the skin temperature live changing procedure of human body sections affected by the same cold stimulation is inspected.Furthermore with the Smirnov test the skin temperatures dynamic changing patterns of main human body sections are obtained.

  20. Behavioural thermoregulation in a temperature-sensitive coral reef fish, the five-lined cardinalfish (Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nay, Tiffany J.; Johansen, Jacob L.; Habary, Adam

    2015-01-01

    provide a strategy to cope with changing conditions. A temperature-sensitive coral reef cardinalfish (Cheilodipterusquinquelineatus) was exposed to 28 °C (average at collection site) or 32 °C (predicted end-of-century) for 6 weeks. Tpref was determined using a shuttlebox system, which allowed fish...... than night-time movements. Understanding temperature-mediated movements is imperative for predicting how ocean warming will influence coral reef species and distribution patterns....

  1. Effects of Heat Treatment on the Microstructures and High Temperature Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic Al-14Si-Cu-Mg Alloy Manufactured by Liquid Phase Sintering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Joon-Young; Gwon, Jin-Han; Park, Jong-Kwan; Lee, Kee-Ahn

    2018-05-01

    Hypereutectic Al-Si alloy is an aluminum alloy containing at least 12.6 wt.% Si. It is necessary to evenly control the primary Si particle size and distribution in hypereutectic Al-Si alloy. In order to achieve this, there have been attempts to manufacture hypereutectic Al-Si alloy through a liquid phase sintering. This study investigated the microstructures and high temperature mechanical properties of hypereutectic Al-14Si-Cu-Mg alloy manufactured by liquid phase sintering process and changes in them after T6 heat treatment. Microstructural observation identified large amounts of small primary Si particles evenly distributed in the matrix, and small amounts of various precipitation phases were found in grain interiors and grain boundaries. After T6 heat treatment, the primary Si particle size and shape did not change significantly, but the size and distribution of CuAl2 ( θ) and AlCuMgSi ( Q) changed. Hardness tests measured 97.36 HV after sintering and 142.5 HV after heat treatment. Compression tests were performed from room temperature to 300 °C. The results represented that yield strength was greater after heat treatment (RT 300 °C: 351 93 MPa) than after sintering (RT 300 °C: 210 89 MPa). Fracture surface analysis identified cracks developing mostly along the interface between the primary Si particles and the matrix with some differences among temperature conditions. In addition, brittle fracture mode was found after T6 heat treatment.

  2. Cold-Adapted Viral Attenuation (CAVA): Highly Temperature Sensitive Polioviruses as Novel Vaccine Strains for a Next Generation Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Barbara P; de Los Rios Oakes, Isabel; van Hoek, Vladimir; Bockstal, Viki; Kamphuis, Tobias; Uil, Taco G; Song, Yutong; Cooper, Gillian; Crawt, Laura E; Martín, Javier; Zahn, Roland; Lewis, John; Wimmer, Eckard; Custers, Jerome H H V; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Cello, Jeronimo; Edo-Matas, Diana

    2016-03-01

    The poliovirus vaccine field is moving towards novel vaccination strategies. Withdrawal of the Oral Poliovirus Vaccine and implementation of the conventional Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (cIPV) is imminent. Moreover, replacement of the virulent poliovirus strains currently used for cIPV with attenuated strains is preferred. We generated Cold-Adapted Viral Attenuation (CAVA) poliovirus strains by serial passage at low temperature and subsequent genetic engineering, which contain the capsid sequences of cIPV strains combined with a set of mutations identified during cold-adaptation. These viruses displayed a highly temperature sensitive phenotype with no signs of productive infection at 37°C as visualized by electron microscopy. Furthermore, decreases in infectious titers, viral RNA, and protein levels were measured during infection at 37°C, suggesting a block in the viral replication cycle at RNA replication, protein translation, or earlier. However, at 30°C, they could be propagated to high titers (9.4-9.9 Log10TCID50/ml) on the PER.C6 cell culture platform. We identified 14 mutations in the IRES and non-structural regions, which in combination induced the temperature sensitive phenotype, also when transferred to the genomes of other wild-type and attenuated polioviruses. The temperature sensitivity translated to complete absence of neurovirulence in CD155 transgenic mice. Attenuation was also confirmed after extended in vitro passage at small scale using conditions (MOI, cell density, temperature) anticipated for vaccine production. The inability of CAVA strains to replicate at 37°C makes reversion to a neurovirulent phenotype in vivo highly unlikely, therefore, these strains can be considered safe for the manufacture of IPV. The CAVA strains were immunogenic in the Wistar rat potency model for cIPV, inducing high neutralizing antibody titers in a dose-dependent manner in response to D-antigen doses used for cIPV. In combination with the highly productive

  3. Insights on the High-Temperature Operational Limits of ZrO2-Y2O3 TBCs Manufactured via Air Plasma Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rogerio S.; Marple, Basil R.

    2017-03-01

    The effective high-temperature operation limit of a ZrO2-7-8 wt.%Y2O3 (YSZ) thermal barrier coating (TBC) manufactured via air plasma spray (APS) is considered to be 1300 °C. This is related to the metastable tetragonal t'-phase formed during the rapid quenching of the YSZ particles during spraying. The t'-phase transforms into the equilibrium tetragonal and cubic phases at temperatures ≥ 1300 °C, which can lead to the formation of the monoclinic phase of YSZ upon cooling to room temperature. This formation of the monoclinic phase is accompanied by a volume expansion that leads to TBC failure due to extensive micro-cracking. To further investigate this limitation, an APS YSZ TBC was sprayed on a CMSX-4 substrate. By using a thermal (laser) gradient cyclic testing, a temperature gradient was generated across the TBC/substrate system. The YSZ T- front and substrate backside T- back temperature levels were 1500 and 1000 °C, respectively. In cycle conditions (5-min or 1-h hot and 2-min cool), no TBC failure has been observed. This behavior was partially attributed to the unexpected absence of the monoclinic phase of the YSZ in the cycled coatings. Although preliminary, these results are promising regarding increasing the effective high-temperature operational limits of APS YSZ TBCs.

  4. Enzymatic- and temperature-sensitive controlled release of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxides (USPIOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shann S; Scherer, Randy L; Ortega, Ryan A; Bell, Charleson S; O'Neil, Conlin P; Hubbell, Jeffrey A; Giorgio, Todd D

    2011-02-27

    Drug and contrast agent delivery systems that achieve controlled release in the presence of enzymatic activity are becoming increasingly important, as enzymatic activity is a hallmark of a wide array of diseases, including cancer and atherosclerosis. Here, we have synthesized clusters of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxides (USPIOs) that sense enzymatic activity for applications in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To achieve this goal, we utilize amphiphilic poly(propylene sulfide)-bl-poly(ethylene glycol) (PPS-b-PEG) copolymers, which are known to have excellent properties for smart delivery of drug and siRNA. Monodisperse PPS polymers were synthesized by anionic ring opening polymerization of propylene sulfide, and were sequentially reacted with commercially available heterobifunctional PEG reagents and then ssDNA sequences to fashion biofunctional PPS-bl-PEG copolymers. They were then combined with hydrophobic 12 nm USPIO cores in the thin-film hydration method to produce ssDNA-displaying USPIO micelles. Micelle populations displaying complementary ssDNA sequences were mixed to induce crosslinking of the USPIO micelles. By design, these crosslinking sequences contained an EcoRV cleavage site. Treatment of the clusters with EcoRV results in a loss of R2 negative contrast in the system. Further, the USPIO clusters demonstrate temperature sensitivity as evidenced by their reversible dispersion at ~75°C and re-clustering following return to room temperature. This work demonstrates proof of concept of an enzymatically-actuatable and thermoresponsive system for dynamic biosensing applications. The platform exhibits controlled release of nanoparticles leading to changes in magnetic relaxation, enabling detection of enzymatic activity. Further, the presented functionalization scheme extends the scope of potential applications for PPS-b-PEG. Combined with previous findings using this polymer platform that demonstrate controlled drug release in oxidative

  5. Enzymatic- and temperature-sensitive controlled release of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxides (USPIOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega Ryan A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug and contrast agent delivery systems that achieve controlled release in the presence of enzymatic activity are becoming increasingly important, as enzymatic activity is a hallmark of a wide array of diseases, including cancer and atherosclerosis. Here, we have synthesized clusters of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxides (USPIOs that sense enzymatic activity for applications in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. To achieve this goal, we utilize amphiphilic poly(propylene sulfide-bl-poly(ethylene glycol (PPS-b-PEG copolymers, which are known to have excellent properties for smart delivery of drug and siRNA. Results Monodisperse PPS polymers were synthesized by anionic ring opening polymerization of propylene sulfide, and were sequentially reacted with commercially available heterobifunctional PEG reagents and then ssDNA sequences to fashion biofunctional PPS-bl-PEG copolymers. They were then combined with hydrophobic 12 nm USPIO cores in the thin-film hydration method to produce ssDNA-displaying USPIO micelles. Micelle populations displaying complementary ssDNA sequences were mixed to induce crosslinking of the USPIO micelles. By design, these crosslinking sequences contained an EcoRV cleavage site. Treatment of the clusters with EcoRV results in a loss of R2 negative contrast in the system. Further, the USPIO clusters demonstrate temperature sensitivity as evidenced by their reversible dispersion at ~75°C and re-clustering following return to room temperature. Conclusions This work demonstrates proof of concept of an enzymatically-actuatable and thermoresponsive system for dynamic biosensing applications. The platform exhibits controlled release of nanoparticles leading to changes in magnetic relaxation, enabling detection of enzymatic activity. Further, the presented functionalization scheme extends the scope of potential applications for PPS-b-PEG. Combined with previous findings using this polymer platform that

  6. The Usher Syndrome Type IIIB Histidyl-tRNA Synthetase Mutation Confers Temperature Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jamie A; Guth, Ethan; Kim, Cindy; Regan, Cathy; Siu, Victoria M; Rupar, C Anthony; Demeler, Borries; Francklyn, Christopher S; Robey-Bond, Susan M

    2017-07-18

    Histidyl-tRNA synthetase (HARS) is a highly conserved translation factor that plays an essential role in protein synthesis. HARS has been implicated in the human syndromes Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) Type 2W and Type IIIB Usher (USH3B). The USH3B mutation, which encodes a Y454S substitution in HARS, is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and associated with childhood deafness, blindness, and episodic hallucinations during acute illness. The biochemical basis of the pathophysiologies linked to USH3B is currently unknown. Here, we present a detailed functional comparison of wild-type (WT) and Y454S HARS enzymes. Kinetic parameters for enzymes and canonical substrates were determined using both steady state and rapid kinetics. Enzyme stability was examined using differential scanning fluorimetry. Finally, enzyme functionality in a primary cell culture was assessed. Our results demonstrate that the Y454S substitution leaves HARS amino acid activation, aminoacylation, and tRNA His binding functions largely intact compared with those of WT HARS, and the mutant enzyme dimerizes like the wild type does. Interestingly, during our investigation, it was revealed that the kinetics of amino acid activation differs from that of the previously characterized bacterial HisRS. Despite the similar kinetics, differential scanning fluorimetry revealed that Y454S is less thermally stable than WT HARS, and cells from Y454S patients grown at elevated temperatures demonstrate diminished levels of protein synthesis compared to those of WT cells. The thermal sensitivity associated with the Y454S mutation represents a biochemical basis for understanding USH3B.

  7. Weather/temperature-sensitive vasomotor rhinitis may be refractory to intranasal corticosteroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Robert; Lieberman, Philip; Kent, Edward; Silvey, MaryJane; Locantore, Nicholas; Philpot, Edward E

    2009-01-01

    Vasomotor rhinitis (VMR) is a common but poorly understood disorder of which there are two major subgroups: VMR(w/t), triggered by weather/temperature and VMR(ir), triggered by airborne irritants. No specific biological pathways or specific treatments for VMR(w/t) or VMR(ir) have been identified. However, intranasal corticosteroids (INSs) are effective in treating many forms of nonallergic rhinitis that include these conditions. A recently introduced INS with established efficacy in allergic rhinitis and enhanced affinity, fluticasone furoate, may possess the potency and safety profile required to treat chronic VMR(w/t). Two replicate studies (FFR30006 and FFR30007) were conducted in six countries to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fluticasone furoate nasal spray in subjects with VMR(w/t). After a 7- to 14-day screening period, subjects (n = 699) with symptomatic VMR(w/t) received fluticasone furoate, 110 mug q.d. or placebo for 4 weeks in these two randomized, double-blind, parallel-group studies. Subjects rated their nasal symptoms (congestion, rhinorrhea, and postnasal drip) twice daily on a 4-point categorical scale and evaluated their overall response to treatment at study end. Fluticasone furoate did not significantly improve daily reflective total nasal symptom scores, the primary end point, versus placebo (p = 0.259) and there was no improvement in any other measure of efficacy. The active treatment was well tolerated. Fluticasone furoate was not effective in treating subjects with a newly defined condition, weather-sensitive VMR. These unexpected results suggest that VMR(w/t) is a distinct subgroup of VMR that is refractory to treatment with INSs. Additional study of other treatments for VMR(w/t) (including INSs) is warranted.

  8. Sensitivity of Support Vector Machine Predictions of Passive Microwave Brightness Temperature Over Snow-covered Terrain in High Mountain Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, J. A.; Forman, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    High Mountain Asia (HMA) serves as a water supply source for over 1.3 billion people, primarily in south-east Asia. Most of this water originates as snow (or ice) that melts during the summer months and contributes to the run-off downstream. In spite of its critical role, there is still considerable uncertainty regarding the total amount of snow in HMA and its spatial and temporal variation. In this study, the NASA Land Information Systems (LIS) is used to model the hydrologic cycle over the Indus basin. In addition, the ability of support vector machines (SVM), a machine learning technique, to predict passive microwave brightness temperatures at a specific frequency and polarization as a function of LIS-derived land surface model output is explored in a sensitivity analysis. Multi-frequency, multi-polarization passive microwave brightness temperatures as measured by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) over the Indus basin are used as training targets during the SVM training process. Normalized sensitivity coefficients (NSC) are then computed to assess the sensitivity of a well-trained SVM to each LIS-derived state variable. Preliminary results conform with the known first-order physics. For example, input states directly linked to physical temperature like snow temperature, air temperature, and vegetation temperature have positive NSC's whereas input states that increase volume scattering such as snow water equivalent or snow density yield negative NSC's. Air temperature exhibits the largest sensitivity coefficients due to its inherent, high-frequency variability. Adherence of this machine learning algorithm to the first-order physics bodes well for its potential use in LIS as the observation operator within a radiance data assimilation system aimed at improving regional- and continental-scale snow estimates.

  9. Temperature sensitivity of drought-induced tree mortality portends increased regional die-off under global-change-type drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Henry D.; Guardiola-Claramonte, Maite; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Villegas, Juan Camilo; Breshears, David D.; Zou, Chris B.; Troch, Peter A.; Huxman, Travis E.

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale biogeographical shifts in vegetation are predicted in response to the altered precipitation and temperature regimes associated with global climate change. Vegetation shifts have profound ecological impacts and are an important climate-ecosystem feedback through their alteration of carbon, water, and energy exchanges of the land surface. Of particular concern is the potential for warmer temperatures to compound the effects of increasingly severe droughts by triggering widespread vegetation shifts via woody plant mortality. The sensitivity of tree mortality to temperature is dependent on which of 2 non-mutually-exclusive mechanisms predominates—temperature-sensitive carbon starvation in response to a period of protracted water stress or temperature-insensitive sudden hydraulic failure under extreme water stress (cavitation). Here we show that experimentally induced warmer temperatures (≈4 °C) shortened the time to drought-induced mortality in Pinus edulis (piñon shortened pine) trees by nearly a third, with temperature-dependent differences in cumulative respiration costs implicating carbon starvation as the primary mechanism of mortality. Extrapolating this temperature effect to the historic frequency of water deficit in the southwestern United States predicts a 5-fold increase in the frequency of regional-scale tree die-off events for this species due to temperature alone. Projected increases in drought frequency due to changes in precipitation and increases in stress from biotic agents (e.g., bark beetles) would further exacerbate mortality. Our results demonstrate the mechanism by which warmer temperatures have exacerbated recent regional die-off events and background mortality rates. Because of pervasive projected increases in temperature, our results portend widespread increases in the extent and frequency of vegetation die-off. PMID:19365070

  10. Influence of annealing temperature and organic dyes as sensitizers on sol–gel derived TiO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rani, Mamta; Abbas, Saeed J.; Tripathi, S.K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Preparation of rice shaped TiO{sub 2} nanorods with anatase structure by sol–gel method. • Effect of post deposition annealing on structural properties of TiO{sub 2} is studied. • Unlike individual dye, absorption of Cocktail dye with TiO{sub 2} nanorods is broader. • Cocktail dye sensitized TiO{sub 2} film has more photosensitivity than EY, RB, AO. • Increase in photosensitivity up to optimum temperature is due to hole passivation. - Abstract: Five different organic dyes and reported cocktail dye composed of these dyes are used as sensitizer for titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}). Rice shaped (TiO{sub 2}) nanorods are prepared by using sol–gel method. The films annealed at 673 K and above are crystalline with anatase structure. The effect of post annealing temperature is studied on various structural parameters. Cocktail dye shows broader absorption with TiO{sub 2} nanorods in visible region compared with five dyes. Maximum photosensitivity is obtained with RhB dye, followed by FGF and cocktail dye sensitized TiO{sub 2} films. Increase in photosensitivity is due to passivating some hole traps on the surface up to some optimum temperature, above which photosensitivity decreases due to a higher photo activation energy compared to dark conductivity in low temperature region and also may be due to damage of the dye molecule. This work may prove its worth for understanding the electron transport in dye sensitized nanodevices.

  11. Manufacturing Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  12. Sensitivity analysis of power depression and axial power factor effect on fuel pin to temperature and related properties distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwardi, S.

    2001-01-01

    The presented paper is a preliminary step to evaluate the effect of radial and axial distribution of power generation on thermal analysis of whole fuel pin model with large L/D ratio. The model takes into account both radial and axial distribution of power generation due to power depression and core geometry, temperature and microstructure dependent on thermal conductivity. The microstructure distribution and the gap conductance for typical steady-state situation are given for the sensitivity analysis. The temperature and thermal conductivity distribution along the radial and axial directions obtained by different power distribution is used to indicate the sensitivity of power depression and power factor on thermal aspect. The evaluation is made for one step of incremental time and steady state approach is used. The analysis has been performed using a finite element-finite difference model. The result for typical reactor fuel shows that the sensitivity is too important to be omitted in thermal model

  13. The usage of ceramics in the manufacture of the lining of temperature sensors for the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingues, R.O.; Yadava, Y.P.; Sanguinetti Ferreira, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    In the oil production, many types of sensors are used in order to monitor some important parameters such as temperature, pressure and flow. These sensors are subjected to harsh operating conditions. Therefore they must present an inert and stable behavior in these conditions. The temperature sensors that are more suited to the oil industry are the Temperature Detectors by Resistance (TDR), because they have high accuracy and wide temperature range. Usually these devices are built with metals as detectors of temperature by encapsulated resistance in inert ceramics. The main objective of this research is to produce new ceramics of a Ca_2AlZrO_5_,_5 cubic complex perovskite structure for the encapsulation of temperature sensors. The stoichiometric amounts of the constituent chemicals, with a high degree of purity, are homogenized, through a solid state reaction in a high energy ball mill. They are then compacted by uniaxial pressing and calcined at 1200°C for 24 hours. Soon after, the tablet is crushed giving place to a ceramic powder and the analysis of X-ray diffraction is performed. According to the sintering behavior of the ceramic powder, the microstructure and the homogeneity are studied by the Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results are presented in terms of the potential of this ceramic for applications as components of temperature sensors. (author)

  14. Highly Sensitive Reentrant Cavity-Microstrip Patch Antenna Integrated Wireless Passive Pressure Sensor for High Temperature Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel reentrant cavity-microstrip patch antenna integrated wireless passive pressure sensor was proposed in this paper for high temperature applications. The reentrant cavity was analyzed from aspects of distributed model and equivalent lumped circuit model, on the basis of which an optimal sensor structure integrated with a rectangular microstrip patch antenna was proposed to better transmit/receive wireless signals. In this paper, the proposed sensor was fabricated with high temperature resistant alumina ceramic and silver metalization with weld sealing, and it was measured in a hermetic metal tank with nitrogen pressure loading. It was verified that the sensor was highly sensitive, keeping stable performance up to 300 kPa with an average sensitivity of 981.8 kHz/kPa at temperature 25°C, while, for high temperature measurement, the sensor can operate properly under pressure of 60–120 kPa in the temperature range of 25–300°C with maximum pressure sensitivity of 179.2 kHz/kPa. In practical application, the proposed sensor is used in a method called table lookup with a maximum error of 5.78%.

  15. Sensitivity of decomposition rates of soil organic matter with respect to simultaneous changes in temperature and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Carlos A.; Trumbore, Susan E.; Davidson, Eric A.; Vicca, Sara; Janssens, I.

    2015-03-01

    The sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition to global environmental change is a topic of prominent relevance for the global carbon cycle. Decomposition depends on multiple factors that are being altered simultaneously as a result of global environmental change; therefore, it is important to study the sensitivity of the rates of soil organic matter decomposition with respect to multiple and interacting drivers. In this manuscript, we present an analysis of the potential response of decomposition rates to simultaneous changes in temperature and moisture. To address this problem, we first present a theoretical framework to study the sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition when multiple driving factors change simultaneously. We then apply this framework to models and data at different levels of abstraction: (1) to a mechanistic model that addresses the limitation of enzyme activity by simultaneous effects of temperature and soil water content, the latter controlling substrate supply and oxygen concentration for microbial activity; (2) to different mathematical functions used to represent temperature and moisture effects on decomposition in biogeochemical models. To contrast model predictions at these two levels of organization, we compiled different data sets of observed responses in field and laboratory studies. Then we applied our conceptual framework to: (3) observations of heterotrophic respiration at the ecosystem level; (4) laboratory experiments looking at the response of heterotrophic respiration to independent changes in moisture and temperature; and (5) ecosystem-level experiments manipulating soil temperature and water content simultaneously.

  16. Krokot (Portulaca oleracea L As a Natural Sensitizer for TiO2 Dye-sensitized Solar Cells: The Effect of Temperature Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyza Anni Mufidah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The solar cell is formed by a sandwich structure, in which two electrodes flank the primary electrolyte that is containing redox I-/based on PEG (Polyethylene Glycol. The working-electrode which is TiO2 layer on an ITO glass substrate is sensitized with krokot dye as the electron donor. The counter electrode is a layer of carbon. The fabrication cell is immersed with the krokot dye with 40°C, 50°C, 60°C extract temperature. The result of the UV-Vis shows that the absorption of wave-length from dye extract of krokot is located in the visible region with the absorbance peak in 420,5 nm and 665,5 nm which are the peak of chlorophyll. For the UV-Vis solid system, there are the highest band gap  in  50°C extract temperature that make the capability of absorption toward UV spectrum is large. Furthermore, in the functional group analysed by FT-IR, there are shiften-carbonil and hydroxyl group after they are sensitized. From the current and voltage test with I-V meter keithley 2400 is resulted that on the 50°C extract temperature produces the highest efficiency of reaches which is 2.63 x 10-3 %.

  17. Sensitivity of soil respiration to variability in soil moisture and temperature in a humid tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tana Wood; M. Detto; W.L. Silver

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation and temperature are important drivers of soil respiration. The role of moisture and temperature are generally explored at seasonal or inter-annual timescales; however, significant variability also occurs on hourly to daily time-scales. We used small (1.54 m2), throughfall exclusion shelters to evaluate the role soil moisture and temperature as temporal...

  18. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS LIGNIN DERIVED FROM CORN STOVER AS AN INTRINSTIC BINDER FOR BIO-COMPOSITES MANUFACTURE: EFFECT OF FIBER MOISTURE CONTENT AND PRESSING TEMPERATURE ON BOARDS’ PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanben Du

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Binderless fiberboards from enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL and cotton stalk fibers were prepared under various manufacturing conditions, and their physico-mechanical properties were evaluated. Full factorial experimental design was used to assess the effect of fiber moisture content and pressing temperature on boards’ properties. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to obtain the glass transition temperature (Tg of EHL. We found that both fiber moisture content and pressing temperature had significant effects on binderless fiberboards’ properties. High fiber moisture content and pressing temperature are suggested to contribute to the self-bonding improvement among fibers with lignin-rich surface mainly by thermal softening enzymatic hydrolysis lignin. In this experiment, the optimized pressing temperature applied in binderless fiberboard production should be as high as 190°C in accordance with the EHL Tg value of 189.4°C, and the fiber moisture content should be limited to less than 20% with a higher board density of 950 kg/m3 to avoid the delamination of boards during hot pressing.

  19. Benchmarking the expected stack manufacturing cost of next generation, intermediate-temperature protonic ceramic fuel cells with solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Alexis; Ricote, Sandrine; Braun, Robert J.

    2017-11-01

    Recent progress in the performance of intermediate temperature (500-600 °C) protonic ceramic fuel cells (PCFCs) has demonstrated both fuel flexibility and increasing power density that approach commercial application requirements. These developments may eventually position the technology as a viable alternative to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs). The PCFCs investigated in this work are based on a BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ (BZY20) thin electrolyte supported by BZY20/Ni porous anodes, and a triple conducting cathode material comprised of BaCo0.4Fe0.4Zr0.1Y0.1O3-δ (BCFZY0.1). These cells are prepared using a low-cost solid-state reactive sintering (SSRS) process, and are capable of power densities of 0.156 W cm-2 at 500 °C operating directly from methane fuel. We develop a manufacturing cost model to estimate the Nth generation production costs of PCFC stack technology using high volume manufacturing processes and compare them to the state-of-the-art in SOFC technology. The low-cost cell manufacturing enabled by the SSRS technique compensates for the lower PCFC power density and the trade-off between operating temperature and efficiency enables the use of lower-cost stainless steel materials. PCFC stack production cost estimates are found to be as much as 27-37% lower at 550 °C than SOFCs operating at 800 °C.

  20. Evaluation of bituminous sub-ballast manufactured at low temperatures as an alternative for the construction of more sustainable railway structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pirozzolo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hot bituminous mixtures are becoming widely used in modern railway tracks in the sub-ballast layer. The reason is that these materials allow for both an increase in bearing capacity and greater protection of the substructure respect the traditional granular sub-ballast. Despite these advantages, the fact that these materials are manufactured at a temperature of 160°C means that their application can lead to an important increase in construction costs, pollution and energy consumption. This paper aims to study the possibility of using WMA manufactured at lower temperatures, as bituminous sub-ballast, in order to save energy and reduce emissions throughout the production process, as well as diminish the global costs of this layer. To this end, this study focuses on a comparison of the mechanical behaviour of warm and hot bituminous mixtures as sub-ballast under various loading conditions. The results indicate that WMA offers mechanical behaviour that is comparable to conventional HMA.

  1. Data on the experiments of temperature-sensitive hydrogels for pH-sensitive drug release and the characterizations of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article contains experimental data on the strain sweep, the calibration curve of drug (doxorubicin, DOX and the characterizations of materials. Data included are related to the research article “Injectable and body temperature sensitive hydrogels based on chitosan and hyaluronic acid for pH sensitive drug release” (Zhang et al., 2017 [1]. The strain sweep experiments were performed on a rotational rheometer. The calibration curves were obtained by analyzing the absorbance of DOX solutions on a UV–vis-NIR spectrometer. Molecular weight (Mw of the hyaluronic acid (HA and chitosan (CS were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The deacetylation degree of CS was measured by acid base titration.

  2. Temperature sensitivity and enzymatic mechanisms of soil organic matter decomposition along an altitudinal gradient on Mount Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, Еvgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Khomyakov, Nikita; Myachina, Olga; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-02-01

    Short-term acceleration of soil organic matter decomposition by increasing temperature conflicts with the thermal adaptation observed in long-term studies. Here we used the altitudinal gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro to demonstrate the mechanisms of thermal adaptation of extra- and intracellular enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose, chitin and phytate and oxidize monomers (14C-glucose) in warm- and cold-climate soils. We revealed that no response of decomposition rate to temperature occurs because of a cancelling effect consisting in an increase in half-saturation constants (Km), which counteracts the increase in maximal reaction rates (Vmax with temperature). We used the parameters of enzyme kinetics to predict thresholds of substrate concentration (Scrit) below which decomposition rates will be insensitive to global warming. Increasing values of Scrit, and hence stronger canceling effects with increasing altitude on Mt. Kilimanjaro, explained the thermal adaptation of polymer decomposition. The reduction of the temperature sensitivity of Vmax along the altitudinal gradient contributed to thermal adaptation of both polymer and monomer degradation. Extrapolating the altitudinal gradient to the large-scale latitudinal gradient, these results show that the soils of cold climates with stronger and more frequent temperature variation are less sensitive to global warming than soils adapted to high temperatures.

  3. A temperature-sensitive winter wheat chlorophyll mutant derived from space mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongbin; Guo Huijun; Zhao Linshu; Gu Jiayu; Zhao Shirong; Li Junhui; Liu Luxiang

    2010-01-01

    A temperature-sensitive winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chlorophyll mutant Mt18, induced by spaceflight mutagenesis, was studied on agronomic traits, ultrastructure of chloroplast and photosynthesis characteristics. The leaf color of the mutant Mt18 showed changes from green to albino and back to green during the whole growth period. Plant height, productive tillers, spike length, grains and grain weight per plant, and 1000-grain weight of the mutant were lower than those of the wild type. The ultrastructural observation showed that no significant difference was found between the mutant and the wild type during prior albino stage, however, at the albino stage the number of granum-thylakoids and grana lamellae became fewer or completely disappeared, but the strom-thylakoid was obviously visible. After turning green,the structure of most chloroplasts recovered to normal, but number of chloroplast was still lower than that of the wild type. When exposed to photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) of 110 μmol·m -2 ·s -1 , the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of mutant was significantly lower than that of the wild type, and the non-regulated energy dissipation (Y NO ) was significantly higher than that of the wild type, while the change of the maximum photosystem II quantum yield (F v /F m ), potential activity of photosystem II (F v /F o ), photochemical quenching (q P ), effective quantum yield (Y PSI I) and regulated non-photochemical energy dissipation (Y NPQ ) were different at various stages. In addition, the differences of the electron transport rate (ETR), photochemical quenching (q P ), and effective quantum yield (Y PSI I) between mutant and wild type varied under different PAR conditions. It was concluded that with the change of chloroplast ultrastructure, the leaf color and photosynthesis of the wheat mutant Mt18 change correspondingly. The chloroplast ultrastructure was obviously different from that of wild type, and the photosynthetic efficiency

  4. Comparison of conventional chemotherapy, stealth liposomes and temperature-sensitive liposomes in a mathematical model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Gasselhuber

    Full Text Available Various liposomal drug carriers have been developed to overcome short plasma half-life and toxicity related side effects of chemotherapeutic agents. We developed a mathematical model to compare different liposome formulations of doxorubicin (DOX: conventional chemotherapy (Free-DOX, Stealth liposomes (Stealth-DOX, temperature sensitive liposomes (TSL with intra-vascular triggered release (TSL-i, and TSL with extra-vascular triggered release (TSL-e. All formulations were administered as bolus at a dose of 9 mg/kg. For TSL, we assumed locally triggered release due to hyperthermia for 30 min. Drug concentrations were determined in systemic plasma, aggregate body tissue, cardiac tissue, tumor plasma, tumor interstitial space, and tumor cells. All compartments were assumed perfectly mixed, and represented by ordinary differential equations. Contribution of liposomal extravasation was negligible in the case of TSL-i, but was the major delivery mechanism for Stealth-DOX and for TSL-e. The dominant delivery mechanism for TSL-i was release within the tumor plasma compartment with subsequent tissue- and cell uptake of released DOX. Maximum intracellular tumor drug concentrations for Free-DOX, Stealth-DOX, TSL-i, and TSL-e were 3.4, 0.4, 100.6, and 15.9 µg/g, respectively. TSL-i and TSL-e allowed for high local tumor drug concentrations with reduced systemic exposure compared to Free-DOX. While Stealth-DOX resulted in high tumor tissue concentrations compared to Free-DOX, only a small fraction was bioavailable, resulting in little cellular uptake. Consistent with clinical data, Stealth-DOX resulted in similar tumor intracellular concentrations as Free-DOX, but with reduced systemic exposure. Optimal release time constants for maximum cellular uptake for Stealth-DOX, TSL-e, and TSL-i were 45 min, 11 min, and <3 s, respectively. Optimal release time constants were shorter for MDR cells, with ∼4 min for Stealth-DOX and for TSL-e. Tissue concentrations

  5. Mass rearing of the Medfly temperature sensitive lethal genetic sexing strain in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caceres, C.; Fisher, K.; Rendon, P.

    2000-01-01

    Field tests have demonstrated the increased efficiency of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wied.), when only male Medflies are released (Robinson et al. 1986, Nitzan et al. 1993, McInnis et al. 1994, Rendon 1996). Genetic sexing strains (GSS) of Medflies, containing temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) and white pupae colour (wp) mutations (Franz et al. 1994) developed by FAO/IAEA, allow the separation of male flies from female flies. GSS technology has reached a stage where it is being used in large-scale operational programmes, such as the Moscamed Program in Guatemala. GSS based on the wp/tsl have the advantages of: 1) not requiring sophisticated equipment for sex separation, 2) a high accuracy of separation (> 99.5% males) is possible and, 3) separation is achieved during egg development, which excludes the unnecessary rearing of females (Franz et al. 1996). It was shown by Franz et al. (1994) that tsl GSS are genetically stable for many generations under small-scale rearing conditions. However, under the large-scale rearing of operational programmes such as Moscamed (Hentze and Mata 1987), a gradual loss of the sex separation mechanism through recombination remains a problem, as has been demonstrated in Guatemala during 1994-1996. This in no way precludes the use of GSS technology, but it does mean that a management system must be used to control this gradual loss of stability; a strategy for colony management which maintains a stable and high level of accuracy of male-only production. The El Pino facility, which mass produces sterile flies for the Guatemala Medflies SIT Program, has introduced a filter rearing system (FRS) (Fisher and Caceres 1999), and has demonstrated in a Medfly tsl GSS known as VIENNA 4/Tol-94, that genetic stability can be maintained. We report the operation of the FRS and its impact upon genetic stability and male-only production. The concept of the FRS has the potential to improve the

  6. Temperature shock, injury and transient sensitivity to nisin in Gram negatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boziaris, I S; Adams, M R

    2001-10-01

    The effect of thermal stresses on survival, injury and nisin sensitivity was investigated in Salmonella Enteritidis PT4, PT7 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Heating at 55 degrees C, rapid chilling to 0.5 degrees C or freezing at -20 degrees C produced transient sensitivity to nisin. Cells were only sensitive if nisin was present during stress. Resistance recovered rapidly afterwards, though some cells displayed residual injury. Injury was assessed by SDS sensitivity, hydrophobicity changes, lipopolysaccharide release and NPN uptake. LPS release and hydrophobicity were not always associated with transient nisin sensitivity. Uptake of NPN correlated better but persisted longer after treatment. Thermal shocks produce transient injury to the outer membrane, allowing nisin access. After treatment, the permeability barrier is rapidly restored by a process apparently involving reorganization rather than biosynthetic repair. Inclusion of nisin during food treatments that impose sub-lethal stress on Gram negatives could increase process lethality, enhancing microbiological safety and stability.

  7. Manufacture and evaluation of integrated metal-oxide electrode prototype for corrosion monitoring in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Yoshinori; Tani, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an integrated metal-oxide (M/O) electrode based on an yttria-stabilized-zirconia-(YSZ)-membrane M/O electrode, which was used as a reference electrode for corrosion monitoring in high temperature water. The YSZ-membrane M/O electrode can operate at high temperatures because of the conductivity of YSZ membrane tube. We cannot utilize it for long term monitoring at a wide range of temperatures. It also has a braze juncture between the YSZ membrane and metal tubes, which may corrode in high-temperature water. This corrosion should be prevented to improve the performance of the M/O electrode. An integrated M/O electrode was developed (i.e., integrated metal-oxide electrode, IMOE) to eliminate the braze juncture and increase the conductivity of YSZ. These issues should be overcome to improve the performance of M/O electrode. So we have developed two type of IMOE prototype with sputter - deposition or thermal oxidation. In this paper we will present and discuss the performance of our IMOEs in buffer solution at room temperature. (author)

  8. Cascaded-cavity Fabry-Perot interferometer for simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain with cross-sensitivity compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiajun; Jiao, Yuzhu; Ji, Shaobo; Dong, Xiaolong; Yao, Yong

    2018-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate a fiber sensor for simultaneous temperature and strain measurements. The proposed sensor is implemented by a cascaded-cavity Fabry-Perot (FP) fiber interferometer. The two cascaded FP cavities comprise a micro-air-cavity in a hollow-core tube fiber and a micro-silica-cavity in a standard single-mode fiber. To separate the interference spectrum of each FP cavity, the total spectrum is filtered in the frequency domain through band-pass filters, whose central frequencies were predesigned based on the relationship between the spatial frequency and free spectral range of each FP cavity. The different cross-sectional areas and thermal-optic coefficients of the two FP cavities confer different sensitivities to temperature and strain. Both parameters were measured simultaneously by tracking the wavelength shifts in the filtered interference spectra of the FP cavities. Moreover, the temperature-strain cross-sensitivity was compensated by solving a sensitivity-coefficient matrix equation for the two cavities, using the calibrated temperatures and strains. Other advantages of the proposed sensor are simple fabrication and an all-fiber structure. Owing to these properties, the proposed sensor is potentially applicable to real sensing applications.

  9. TRPA1 channels in Drosophila and honey bee ectoparasitic mites share heat sensitivity and temperature-related physiological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangda Peng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1 is conserved between many arthropods, and in some has been shown to function as a chemosensor for noxious compounds. Activation of arthropod TRPA1 channels by temperature fluctuations has been tested in only a few insect species, and all of them were shown to be activated by heat. The recent identification of chemosensitive TRPA1 channels from two honey bee ectoparasitic mite species (VdTRPA1 and TmTRPA1 have provided an opportunity to study the temperature-dependent activation and the temperature-associated physiological functions of TRPA1 channels in non-insect arthropods. We found that both mite TRPA1 channels are heat sensitive and capable of rescuing the temperature-related behavioral defects of a Drosophila melanogaster trpA1 mutant. These results suggest that heat-sensitivity of TRPA1 could be conserved between many arthropods despite its amino acid sequence diversity. Nevertheless, the ankyrin repeats (ARs 6 and 7 are well-conserved between six heat-sensitive arthropod TRPA1 channels and have critical roles for the heat activation of VdTRPA1.

  10. Behavioural thermoregulation in a temperature-sensitive coral reef fish, the five-lined cardinalfish ( Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, Tiffany J.; Johansen, Jacob L.; Habary, Adam; Steffensen, John F.; Rummer, Jodie L.

    2015-12-01

    As global temperatures increase, fish populations at low latitudes are thought to be at risk as they are adapted to narrow temperature ranges and live at temperatures close to their thermal tolerance limits. Behavioural movements, based on a preference for a specific temperature ( T pref), may provide a strategy to cope with changing conditions. A temperature-sensitive coral reef cardinalfish ( Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus) was exposed to 28 °C (average at collection site) or 32 °C (predicted end-of-century) for 6 weeks. T pref was determined using a shuttlebox system, which allowed fish to behaviourally manipulate their thermal environment. Regardless of treatment temperature, fish preferred 29.5 ± 0.25 °C, approximating summer average temperatures in the wild. However, 32 °C fish moved more frequently to correct their thermal environment than 28 °C fish, and daytime movements were more frequent than night-time movements. Understanding temperature-mediated movements is imperative for predicting how ocean warming will influence coral reef species and distribution patterns.

  11. Effects of ambient temperature on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity test outcomes in normal and obese C57 male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudele, Anete; Rasmussen, Gitte Marie; Mayntz, David; Malte, Hans; Lund, Sten; Wang, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Mice are commonly used as animal models to study human metabolic diseases, but experiments are typically performed at room temperature, which is far below their thermoneutral zone and is associated with elevated heart rate, food intake, and energy expenditure. We set out to study how ambient temperature affects glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in control and obese male mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were housed at room temperature (23°C) for 6 weeks and fed either control or high fat diet. They were then fasted for 6 h before glucose or insulin tolerance tests were performed at 15, 20, 25, or 30°C. To ensure that behavioral thermoregulation did not counterbalance the afflicted ambient temperatures, oxygen consumption was determined on mice with the same thermoregulatory opportunities as during the tests. Decreasing ambient temperatures increased oxygen consumption and body mass loss during fasting in both groups. Mice fed high fat diet had improved glucose tolerance at 30°C and increased levels of fasting insulin followed by successive decrease of fasting glucose. However, differences between control and high-fat diet mice were present at all temperatures. Ambient temperature did not affect glucose tolerance in control group and insulin tolerance in either of the groups. Ambient temperature affects glucose metabolism in mice and this effect is phenotype specific. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  12. Elimination of bus voltage impact on temperature sensitive electrical parameter during turn-on transition for junction temperature estimation of high-power IGBT modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Haoze; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Junction temperature is of great importance to safe operating area of IGBT modules. Various information of the IGBT operating state is reflected on electrical characteristics during turn-on transient. A unified extraction method for internal junction temperature via dynamic thermo......-sensitive electrical parameters (DTSEP) during turn-on transient is proposed. Two DTSEP, turn-on delay time (tdon) and the maximum increasing rate of collector current dic/dt(max), are combined to eliminate the bus voltage impact. Using the inherent emitter-auxiliary inductor LeE in high-power modules, the temperature......-dependent DTSEPs can be converted into a low-voltage and measurable signal. Finally, experiment results are exhibited to verify the effectiveness of proposed method....

  13. Social manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Hamalainen, Markko; Karjalainen, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    New business models harnessing the power of individuals have already revolutionized service industries and digital content production. In this study, we investigate whether a similar phenomenon is taking place in manufacturing industries. We start by conceptually defining two distinct forms of firm-individual collaboration in manufacturing industries: (1) social cloud manufacturing, in which firms outsource manufacturing to individuals, and (2) social platform manufacturing, in which firms pr...

  14. Sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage with single well

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeon, Jun-Seo; Lee, Seung-Rae; Pasquinelli, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    ., it is getting more attention as these issues are gradually alleviated. In this study, a sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in two cases of HT-ATES system with a single well is conducted to select key parameters. For a fractional factorial design used to choose input parameters with uniformity...... with Smoothly Clopped Absolute Deviation Penalty, is utilized. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is performed based on the variation decomposition. According to the result of sensitivity analysis, the most important input variables are selected and confirmed to consider the interaction effects for each case...

  15. Small sensitivity to temperature variations of Si-photonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer using Si and SiN waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Tatsurou; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Yamada, Koji; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrated a small sensitivity to temperature variations of delay-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer (DL MZI) on a Si photonics platform. The key technique is to balance a thermo-optic effect in the two arms by using waveguide made of different materials. With silicon and silicon nitride waveguides, the fabricated DL MZI with a free-spectrum range of ~40 GHz showed a wavelength shift of -2.8 pm/K with temperature variations, which is 24 times smaller than that of the conventional Si-waveguide DL MZI. We also demonstrated the decoding of the 40-Gbit/s differential phase-shift keying signals to on-off keying signals with various temperatures. The tolerable temperature variation for the acceptable power penalty was significantly improved due to the small wavelength shifts.

  16. Investigation, sensitivity analysis, and multi-objective optimization of effective parameters on temperature and force in robotic drilling cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbi, Vahid; Ghoreishi, Majid; Zolfaghari, Mojtaba

    2017-11-01

    The bone drilling process is very prominent in orthopedic surgeries and in the repair of bone fractures. It is also very common in dentistry and bone sampling operations. Due to the complexity of bone and the sensitivity of the process, bone drilling is one of the most important and sensitive processes in biomedical engineering. Orthopedic surgeries can be improved using robotic systems and mechatronic tools. The most crucial problem during drilling is an unwanted increase in process temperature (higher than 47 °C), which causes thermal osteonecrosis or cell death and local burning of the bone tissue. Moreover, imposing higher forces to the bone may lead to breaking or cracking and consequently cause serious damage. In this study, a mathematical second-order linear regression model as a function of tool drilling speed, feed rate, tool diameter, and their effective interactions is introduced to predict temperature and force during the bone drilling process. This model can determine the maximum speed of surgery that remains within an acceptable temperature range. Moreover, for the first time, using designed experiments, the bone drilling process was modeled, and the drilling speed, feed rate, and tool diameter were optimized. Then, using response surface methodology and applying a multi-objective optimization, drilling force was minimized to sustain an acceptable temperature range without damaging the bone or the surrounding tissue. In addition, for the first time, Sobol statistical sensitivity analysis is used to ascertain the effect of process input parameters on process temperature and force. The results show that among all effective input parameters, tool rotational speed, feed rate, and tool diameter have the highest influence on process temperature and force, respectively. The behavior of each output parameters with variation in each input parameter is further investigated. Finally, a multi-objective optimization has been performed considering all the

  17. Thermal aging of traditional and additively manufactured foams: analysis by time-temperature-superposition, constitutive, and finite-element models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Weisgraber, T. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Small, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lewicki, J. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Duoss, E. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Spadaccini, C. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pearson, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chinn, S. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wilson, T. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Maxwell, R. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-08

    Cellular solids or foams are a very important class of materials with diverse applications ranging from thermal insulation and shock absorbing support cushions, to light-weight structural and floatation components, and constitute crucial components in a large number of industries including automotive, aerospace, electronics, marine, biomedical, packaging, and defense. In many of these applications the foam material is subjected to long periods of continuous stress, which can, over time, lead to a permanent change in structure and a degradation in performance. In this report we summarize our modeling efforts to date on polysiloxane foam materials that form an important component in our systems. Aging of the materials was characterized by two measured quantities, i.e., compression set and load retention. Results of accelerated aging experiments were analyzed by an automated time-temperaturesuperposition (TTS) approach, which creates a master curve that can be used for long-term predictions (over decades) under ambient conditions. When comparing such master curves for traditional (stochastic) foams with those for recently 3D-printed (i.e., additively manufactured, or AM) foams, it became clear that AM foams have superior aging behavior. To gain deeper understanding, we imaged the microstructure of both foams using X-ray computed tomography, and performed finite-element analysis of the mechanical response within these microstructures. This indicates a wider stress variation in the stochastic foam with points of more extreme local stress as compared to the 3D printed material.

  18. Signal detection in global mean temperatures after "Paris" : An uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Hans; Dangendorf, Sönke; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Bregman, Bram; Petersen, Arthur C.

    2018-01-01

    In December 2015, 195 countries agreed in Paris to "hold the increase in global mean surface temperature (GMST) well below 2.0 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C. Since large financial flows will be needed to keep GMSTs below these

  19. A survey of new temperature-sensitive, embryonic-lethal mutations in C. elegans: 24 alleles of thirteen genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M O'Rourke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To study essential maternal gene requirements in the early C. elegans embryo, we have screened for temperature-sensitive, embryonic lethal mutations in an effort to bypass essential zygotic requirements for such genes during larval and adult germline development. With conditional alleles, multiple essential requirements can be examined by shifting at different times from the permissive temperature of 15°C to the restrictive temperature of 26°C. Here we describe 24 conditional mutations that affect 13 different loci and report the identity of the gene mutations responsible for the conditional lethality in 22 of the mutants. All but four are mis-sense mutations, with two mutations affecting splice sites, another creating an in-frame deletion, and one creating a premature stop codon. Almost all of the mis-sense mutations affect residues conserved in orthologs, and thus may be useful for engineering conditional mutations in other organisms. We find that 62% of the mutants display additional phenotypes when shifted to the restrictive temperature as L1 larvae, in addition to causing embryonic lethality after L4 upshifts. Remarkably, we also found that 13 out of the 24 mutations appear to be fast-acting, making them particularly useful for careful dissection of multiple essential requirements. Our findings highlight the value of C. elegans for identifying useful temperature-sensitive mutations in essential genes, and provide new insights into the requirements for some of the affected loci.

  20. Comparative transcriptome profiling of a thermal resistant vs. sensitive silkworm strain in response to high temperature under stressful humidity condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfu Xiao

    Full Text Available Thermotolerance is important particularly for poikilotherms such as insects. Understanding the mechanisms by which insects respond to high temperatures can provide insights into their adaptation to the environment. Therefore, in this study, we performed a transcriptome analysis of two silkworm strains with significantly different resistance to heat as well as humidity; the thermo-resistant strain 7532 and the thermos-sensitive strain Knobbed. We identified in total 4,944 differentially expressed genes (DEGs using RNA-Seq. Among these, 4,390 were annotated and 554 were novel. Gene Ontology (GO analysis of 747 DEGs identified between RT_48h (Resistant strain with high-temperature Treatment for 48 hours and ST_48h (Sensitive strain with high-temperature Treatment for 48 hours showed significant enrichment of 12 GO terms including metabolic process, extracellular region and serine-type peptidase activity. Moreover, we discovered 12 DEGs that may contribute to the heat-humidity stress response in the silkworm. Our data clearly showed that 48h post-exposure may be a critical time point for silkworm to respond to high temperature and humidity. These results provide insights into the genes and biological processes involved in high temperature and humidity tolerance in the silkworm, and advance our understanding of thermal tolerance in insects.

  1. A quasi-distributed temperature sensor interrogated by a wavelength-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crunelle, C; Wuilpart, M; Caucheteur, C; Mégret, P

    2009-01-01

    In this note, we present a quasi-distributed temperature monitoring system based on the concatenation of identical low-reflective fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and interrogated by means of an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR). An original wavelength-sensitive system placed before the OTDR detector is used to analyze the reflected signal. This system allows the height of the FBG reflection peaks in the OTDR trace to depend on their resonance wavelength, and therefore to the local temperature. In addition, a simple but original reference method is proposed. The configuration of the whole interrogating device is kept very basic, as a standard OTDR and some passive components are used. The cost of the overall system is therefore very limited. In this note, the wavelength-sensitive system is studied in details, as well as the reference method. Experimental results are reported. (technical design note)

  2. Boundary-Layer Detection at Cryogenic Conditions Using Temperature Sensitive Paint Coupled with a Carbon Nanotube Heating Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kyle Z.; Lipford, William E.; Watkins, Anthony Neal

    2016-01-01

    Detection of flow transition on aircraft surfaces and models can be vital to the development of future vehicles and computational methods for evaluating vehicle concepts. In testing at ambient conditions, IR thermography is ideal for this measurement. However, for higher Reynolds number testing, cryogenic facilities are often used, in which IR thermography is difficult to employ. In these facilities, temperature sensitive paint is an alternative with a temperature step introduced to enhance the natural temperature change from transition. Traditional methods for inducing the temperature step by changing the liquid nitrogen injection rate often change the tunnel conditions. Recent work has shown that adding a layer consisting of carbon nanotubes to the surface can be used to impart a temperature step on the model surface with little change in the operating conditions. Unfortunately, this system physically degraded at 130 K and lost heating capability. This paper describes a modification of this technique enabling operation down to at least 77 K, well below the temperature reached in cryogenic facilities. This is possible because the CNT layer is in a polyurethane binder. This was tested on a Natural Laminar Flow model in a cryogenic facility and transition detection was successfully visualized at conditions from 200 K to 110 K. Results were also compared with the traditional temperature step method.

  3. Boundary-Layer Detection at Cryogenic Conditions Using Temperature Sensitive Paint Coupled with a Carbon Nanotube Heating Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Z. Goodman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of flow transition on aircraft surfaces and models can be vital to the development of future vehicles and computational methods for evaluating vehicle concepts. In testing at ambient conditions, IR thermography is ideal for this measurement. However, for higher Reynolds number testing, cryogenic facilities are often used, in which IR thermography is difficult to employ. In these facilities, temperature sensitive paint is an alternative with a temperature step introduced to enhance the natural temperature change from transition. Traditional methods for inducing the temperature step by changing the liquid nitrogen injection rate often change the tunnel conditions. Recent work has shown that adding a layer consisting of carbon nanotubes to the surface can be used to impart a temperature step on the model surface with little change in the operating conditions. Unfortunately, this system physically degraded at 130 K and lost heating capability. This paper describes a modification of this technique enabling operation down to at least 77 K, well below the temperature reached in cryogenic facilities. This is possible because the CNT layer is in a polyurethane binder. This was tested on a Natural Laminar Flow model in a cryogenic facility and transition detection was successfully visualized at conditions from 200 K to 110 K. Results were also compared with the traditional temperature step method.

  4. SU-F-T-474: Evaluation of Dose Perturbation, Temperature and Sensitivity Variation With Accumulated Dose of MOSFET Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, B; Prakasarao, A; Singaravelu, G [Anna University, Chennai, TamilNadu (India); Palraj, T; Rai, R [Dr. Rai Memorial Cancer Institute, Chennai, TamilNadu (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The use of mega voltage gamma and x-ray sources with their skin sparring qualities in radiation therapy has been a boon in relieving patient discomfort and allowing high tumor doses to be given with fewer restrictions due to radiation effects in the skin. However, high doses given to deep tumors may require careful consideration of dose distribution in the buildup region in order to avoid irreparable damage to the skin. Methods: To measure the perturbation of MOSFET detector in Co60,6MV and 15MV the detector was placed on the surface of the phantom covered with the brass build up cap. To measure the effect of temperature the MOSFET detector was kept on the surface of hot water polythene container and the radiation was delivere. In order to measure the sensitivity variation with accumulated dose Measurements were taken by delivering the dose of 200 cGy to MOSFET until the MOSFET absorbed dose comes to 20,000 cGy Results: the Measurement was performed by positioning the bare MOSFET and MOSFET with brass build up cap on the top surface of the solid water phantom for various field sizes in order to find whether there is any attenuation caused in the dose distribution. The response of MOSFET was monitored for temperature ranging from 42 degree C to 22 degree C. The integrated dose dependence of MOSFET dosimeter sensitivity over different energy is not well characterized. This work investigates the dual-bias MOSFET dosimeter sensitivity response to 6 MV and 15 MV beams. Conclusion: From this study it is observed that unlike diode, bare MOSFET does not perturb the radiation field.. It is observed that the build-up influences the temperature dependency of MOSFET and causes some uncertainty in the readings. In the case of sensitivity variation with accumulated dose MOSFET showed higher sensitivity with dose accumulation for both the energies.

  5. SU-F-T-474: Evaluation of Dose Perturbation, Temperature and Sensitivity Variation With Accumulated Dose of MOSFET Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, B; Prakasarao, A; Singaravelu, G; Palraj, T; Rai, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The use of mega voltage gamma and x-ray sources with their skin sparring qualities in radiation therapy has been a boon in relieving patient discomfort and allowing high tumor doses to be given with fewer restrictions due to radiation effects in the skin. However, high doses given to deep tumors may require careful consideration of dose distribution in the buildup region in order to avoid irreparable damage to the skin. Methods: To measure the perturbation of MOSFET detector in Co60,6MV and 15MV the detector was placed on the surface of the phantom covered with the brass build up cap. To measure the effect of temperature the MOSFET detector was kept on the surface of hot water polythene container and the radiation was delivere. In order to measure the sensitivity variation with accumulated dose Measurements were taken by delivering the dose of 200 cGy to MOSFET until the MOSFET absorbed dose comes to 20,000 cGy Results: the Measurement was performed by positioning the bare MOSFET and MOSFET with brass build up cap on the top surface of the solid water phantom for various field sizes in order to find whether there is any attenuation caused in the dose distribution. The response of MOSFET was monitored for temperature ranging from 42 degree C to 22 degree C. The integrated dose dependence of MOSFET dosimeter sensitivity over different energy is not well characterized. This work investigates the dual-bias MOSFET dosimeter sensitivity response to 6 MV and 15 MV beams. Conclusion: From this study it is observed that unlike diode, bare MOSFET does not perturb the radiation field.. It is observed that the build-up influences the temperature dependency of MOSFET and causes some uncertainty in the readings. In the case of sensitivity variation with accumulated dose MOSFET showed higher sensitivity with dose accumulation for both the energies.

  6. Arctic sea ice signatures: L-band brightness temperature sensitivity comparison using two radiation transfer models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Richter

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice is a crucial component for short-, medium- and long-term numerical weather predictions. Most importantly, changes of sea ice coverage and areas covered by thin sea ice have a large impact on heat fluxes between the ocean and the atmosphere. L-band brightness temperatures from ESA's Earth Explorer SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity have been proven to be a valuable tool to derive thin sea ice thickness. These retrieved estimates were already successfully assimilated in forecasting models to constrain the ice analysis, leading to more accurate initial conditions and subsequently more accurate forecasts. However, the brightness temperature measurements can potentially be assimilated directly in forecasting systems, reducing the data latency and providing a more consistent first guess. As a first step towards such a data assimilation system we studied the forward operator that translates geophysical parameters provided by a model into brightness temperatures. We use two different radiative transfer models to generate top of atmosphere brightness temperatures based on ORAP5 model output for the 2012/2013 winter season. The simulations are then compared against actual SMOS measurements. The results indicate that both models are able to capture the general variability of measured brightness temperatures over sea ice. The simulated brightness temperatures are dominated by sea ice coverage and thickness changes are most pronounced in the marginal ice zone where new sea ice is formed. There we observe the largest differences of more than 20 K over sea ice between simulated and observed brightness temperatures. We conclude that the assimilation of SMOS brightness temperatures yields high potential for forecasting models to correct for uncertainties in thin sea ice areas and suggest that information on sea ice fractional coverage from higher-frequency brightness temperatures should be used simultaneously.

  7. Arctic sea ice signatures: L-band brightness temperature sensitivity comparison using two radiation transfer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Friedrich; Drusch, Matthias; Kaleschke, Lars; Maaß, Nina; Tian-Kunze, Xiangshan; Mecklenburg, Susanne

    2018-03-01

    Sea ice is a crucial component for short-, medium- and long-term numerical weather predictions. Most importantly, changes of sea ice coverage and areas covered by thin sea ice have a large impact on heat fluxes between the ocean and the atmosphere. L-band brightness temperatures from ESA's Earth Explorer SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) have been proven to be a valuable tool to derive thin sea ice thickness. These retrieved estimates were already successfully assimilated in forecasting models to constrain the ice analysis, leading to more accurate initial conditions and subsequently more accurate forecasts. However, the brightness temperature measurements can potentially be assimilated directly in forecasting systems, reducing the data latency and providing a more consistent first guess. As a first step towards such a data assimilation system we studied the forward operator that translates geophysical parameters provided by a model into brightness temperatures. We use two different radiative transfer models to generate top of atmosphere brightness temperatures based on ORAP5 model output for the 2012/2013 winter season. The simulations are then compared against actual SMOS measurements. The results indicate that both models are able to capture the general variability of measured brightness temperatures over sea ice. The simulated brightness temperatures are dominated by sea ice coverage and thickness changes are most pronounced in the marginal ice zone where new sea ice is formed. There we observe the largest differences of more than 20 K over sea ice between simulated and observed brightness temperatures. We conclude that the assimilation of SMOS brightness temperatures yields high potential for forecasting models to correct for uncertainties in thin sea ice areas and suggest that information on sea ice fractional coverage from higher-frequency brightness temperatures should be used simultaneously.

  8. High Temperature and High Sensitive NOx Gas Sensor with Hetero-Junction Structure using Laser Ablation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Shi, Liqin; Hasegawa, Yuki; Katsube, Teruaki

    In order to develop a high temperature (200°C˜400°C) and high sensitive NOx gas sensor, we developed a new structure of SiC-based hetero-junction device Pt/SnO2/SiC/Ni, Pt/In2O3/SiC/Ni and Pt/WO3/SiC/Ni using a laser ablation method for the preparation of both metal (Pt) electrode and metal-oxide film. It was found that Pt/In2O3/SiC/Ni sensor shows higher sensitivity to NO2 gas compared with the Pt/SnO2/SiC/Ni and Pt/WO3/SiC/Ni sensor, whereas the Pt/WO3/SiC/Ni sensor had better sensitivity to NO gas. These results suggest that selective detection of NO and NO2 gases may be obtained by choosing different metal oxide films.

  9. Interspecific Differences in Metabolic Rate and Metabolic Temperature Sensitivity Create Distinct Thermal Ecological Niches in Lizards (Plestiodon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charles M; Burggren, Warren W

    2016-01-01

    Three congeneric lizards from the southeastern United States (Plestiodon fasciatus, P. inexpectatus, and P. laticeps) exhibit a unique nested distribution. All three skink species inhabit the US Southeast, but two extend northward to central Ohio (P. fasciatus and P. laticeps) and P. fasciatus extends well into Canada. Distinct interspecific differences in microhabitat selection and behavior are associated with the cooler temperatures of the more Northern ranges. We hypothesized that interspecific differences in metabolic temperature sensitivity locally segregates them across their total range. Resting oxygen consumption was measured at 20°, 25° and 30°C. Plestiodon fasciatus, from the coolest habitats, exhibited greatly elevated oxygen consumption compared to the other species at high ecologically-relevant temperatures (0.10, 0.17 and 0.83 ml O2. g-1. h-1 at 20°, 25° and 30°C, respectively). Yet, P. inexpectatus, from the warmest habitats, exhibited sharply decreased oxygen consumption compared to the other species at lower ecologically-relevant temperatures (0.09, 0.27 and 0.42 ml O2. g-1. h-1 at 20°, 25° and 30°C, respectively). Plestiodon laticeps, from both open and closed microhabitats and intermediate latitudinal range, exhibited oxygen consumptions significantly lower than the other two species (0.057, 0.104 and 0.172 ml O2. g-1. h-1 at 20°, 25° and 30°C, respectively). Overall, Plestiodon showed metabolic temperature sensitivities (Q10s) in the range of 2-3 over the middle of each species' normal temperature range. However, especially P. fasciatus and P. inexpectatus showed highly elevated Q10s (9 to 25) at the extreme ends of their temperature range. While morphologically similar, these skinks are metabolically distinct across the genus' habitat, likely having contributed to their current distribution.

  10. Can climate sensitivity be estimated from short-term relationships of top-of-atmosphere net radiation and surface temperature?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Bing; Min Qilong; Sun Wenbo; Hu Yongxiang; Fan, Tai-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Increasing the knowledge in climate radiative feedbacks is critical for current climate studies. This work focuses on short-term relationships between global mean surface temperature and top-of-atmosphere (TOA) net radiation. The relationships may be used to characterize the climate feedback as suggested by some recent studies. As those recent studies, an energy balance model with ocean mixed layer and both radiative and non-radiative heat sources is used here. The significant improvement of current model is that climate system memories are considered. Based on model simulations, short-term relationship between global mean surface temperature and TOA net radiation (or the linear striation feature as suggested by previous studies) might represent climate feedbacks when the system had no memories. However, climate systems with the same short-term feedbacks but different memories would have a similar linear striation feature. This linear striation feature reflects only fast components of climate feedbacks and may not represent the total climate feedback even when the memory length of climate systems is minimal. The potential errors in the use of short-term relationships in estimations of climate sensitivity could be big. In short time scales, fast climate processes may overwhelm long-term climate feedbacks. Thus, the climate radiative feedback parameter obtained from short-term data may not provide a reliable estimate of climate sensitivity. This result also suggests that long-term observations of global surface temperature and TOA radiation are critical in the understanding of climate feedbacks and sensitivities.

  11. Highly sensitive and selective room-temperature NO_2 gas sensor based on bilayer transferred chemical vapor deposited graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seekaew, Yotsarayuth; Phokharatkul, Ditsayut; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Wongchoosuk, Chatchawal

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Simple and low-cost fabrication of bilayer graphene gas sensor was presented. • Layer effects of graphene on NO_2 gas-sensing properties were investigated. • Bilayer graphene sensor exhibited a high linear NO_2 sensitivity of 1.409 ppm"−"1. • The NO_2-sensing mechanisms based on band diagram were highlighted. - Abstract: This work presents a highly sensitive room-temperature gas sensor based on bilayer graphene fabricated by an interfacial transfer of chemical vapor deposited graphene onto nickel interdigitated electrodes. Scanning electron microscopic and Raman spectroscopic characterizations confirm the presence of graphene on interdigitated nickel electrodes with varying numbers of graphene layers. The NO_2 detection performances of bilayer graphene gas sensor have been investigated in comparison with those of monolayer and multilayer graphene gas sensors at room temperature. From results, the bilayer graphene gas sensor exhibits higher response, sensitivity and selectivity to NO_2 than monolayer and multilayer graphene. The sensitivity of bilayer graphene gas sensor is 1.409 ppm"−"1 towards NO_2 over a concentration range of 1–25 ppm, which is more than twice higher than that of monolayer graphene. The NO_2-sensing mechanism of graphene sensing film has been explained based on the direct charge transfer process due to the adsorption of NO_2 molecules.

  12. On the sensitivity of Land Surface Temperature estimates in arid irrigated lands using MODTRAN

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge; Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) derived from thermal infrared (TIR) satellite data has been reliably used as a remote indicator of evapotranspiration (ET) and surface moisture status. However, in order to retrieve the ET with an accuracy approaching

  13. Sensitivity of Inferred Electron Temperature from X-ray Emission of NIF Cryogenic DT Implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klem, Michael [Univ. of Dallas, Irving, TX (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory seeks to achieve thermonuclear ignition through inertial confinement fusion. The accurate assessment of the performance of each implosion experiment is a crucial step. Here we report on work to derive a reliable electron temperature for the cryogenic deuteriumtritium implosions completed on the NIF using the xray signal from the Ross filter diagnostic. These Xrays are dominated by bremsstrahlung emission. By fitting the xray signal measured through each of the individual Ross filters, the source bremsstrahlung spectrum can be inferred, and an electron temperature of the implosion hot spot inferred. Currently, each filter is weighted equally in this analysis. We present work quantifying the errors with such a technique and the results from investigating the contribution of each filter to the overall accuracy of the temperature inference. Using this research, we also compare the inferred electron temperature against other measured implosion quantities to develop a more complete understanding of the hotspot physics.

  14. Microsystem with integrated capillary leak to mass spectrometer for high sensitivity temperature programmed desorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, Ulrich; Jensen, Søren; Hansen, Ole

    2004-01-01

    leak minimizes dead volumes in the system, resulting in increased sensitivity and reduced response time. These properties make the system ideal for TPD experiments in a carrier gas. With CO desorbing from platinum as model system, it is shown that CO desorbing in 105 Pa of argon from as little as 0.......5 cm2 of platinum foil gives a clear desorption peak. By using the microfabricated flow system, TPD experiments can be performed in a carrier gas with a sensitivity approaching that of TPD experiments in vacuum. ©2004 American Institute of Physics...

  15. Glass transition in thaumatin crystals revealed through temperature-dependent radiation-sensitivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warkentin, Matthew, E-mail: maw64@cornell.edu; Thorne, Robert E. [Physics Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Radiation damage to protein crystals exhibits two regimes of temperature-activated behavior between T = 300 and 100 K, with a crossover at the protein glass transition near 200 K. These results have implications for mechanistic studies of proteins and for structure determination when cooling to T = 100 K creates excessive disorder. The temperature-dependence of radiation damage to thaumatin crystals between T = 300 and 100 K is reported. The amount of damage for a given dose decreases sharply as the temperature decreases from 300 to 220 K and then decreases more gradually on further cooling below the protein-solvent glass transition. Two regimes of temperature-activated behavior were observed. At temperatures above ∼200 K the activation energy of 18.0 kJ mol{sup −1} indicates that radiation damage is dominated by diffusive motions in the protein and solvent. At temperatures below ∼200 K the activation energy is only 1.00 kJ mol{sup −1}, which is of the order of the thermal energy. Similar activation energies describe the temperature-dependence of radiation damage to a variety of solvent-free small-molecule organic crystals over the temperature range T = 300–80 K. It is suggested that radiation damage in this regime is vibrationally assisted and that the freezing-out of amino-acid scale vibrations contributes to the very weak temperature-dependence of radiation damage below ∼80 K. Analysis using the radiation-damage model of Blake and Phillips [Blake & Phillips (1962 ▶), Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation at the Molecular Level, pp. 183–191] indicates that large-scale conformational and molecular motions are frozen out below T = 200 K but become increasingly prevalent and make an increasing contribution to damage at higher temperatures. Possible alternative mechanisms for radiation damage involving the formation of hydrogen-gas bubbles are discussed and discounted. These results have implications for mechanistic studies of proteins and for

  16. Effect of nitrogen concentration and temperature on the critical resolved shear stress and strain rate sensitivity of vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehbein, D.K.

    1980-08-01

    The critical resolved shear stress and strain rate sensitivity were measured over the temperature range from 77 to 400 0 K for vanadium-nitrogen alloys containing from 0.0004 to 0.184 atom percent nitrogen. These properties were found to be strongly dependent on both the nitrogen concentration and temperature. The following observations were seen in this investigation: the overall behavior of the alloys for the temperature and concentration range studied follows a form similar to that predicted; the concentration dependence of the critical resolved shear stress after subtracting the hardening due to the pure vanadium lattice obeys Labusch's c/sup 2/3/ relationship above 200 0 K and Fleischer's c/sup 1/2/ relationship below 200 0 K; the theoretical predictions of Fleischer's model for the temperature dependence of the critical resolved shear stress are in marked disagreement with the behavior found; and the strain rate sensitivity, par. delta tau/par. deltaln γ, exhibits a peak at approximately 100 0 K that decreases in height as the nitrogen concentration increases. A similar peak has been observed in niobium by other investigators but the effect of concentration on the peak height is quite different

  17. Temperature sensitivity of gaseous elemental mercury in the active layer of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Zhijia; Peng, Fei; Xue, Xian; Zhang, Xiaoshan

    2018-07-01

    Soils represent the single largest mercury (Hg) reservoir in the global environment, indicating that a tiny change of Hg behavior in soil ecosystem could greatly affect the global Hg cycle. Climate warming is strongly altering the structure and functions of permafrost and then would influence the Hg cycle in permafrost soils. However, Hg biogeochemistry in climate-sensitive permafrost is poorly investigated. Here we report a data set of soil Hg (0) concentrations in four different depths of the active layer in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau permafrost. We find that soil Hg (0) concentrations exhibited a strongly positive and exponential relationship with temperature and showed different temperature sensitivity under the frozen and unfrozen condition. We conservatively estimate that temperature increases following latest temperature scenarios of the IPCC could result in up to a 54.9% increase in Hg (0) concentrations in surface permafrost soils by 2100. Combining the simultaneous measurement of air-soil Hg (0) exchange, we find that enhanced Hg (0) concentrations in upper soils could favor Hg (0) emissions from surface soil. Our findings indicate that Hg (0) emission could be stimulated by permafrost thawing in a warmer world. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Temperature-sensitive microemulsion gel: an effective topical delivery system for simultaneous delivery of vitamins C and E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Branka; Zvonar, Alenka; Falson, Francoise; Gasperlin, Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Microemulsions (ME)--nanostructured systems composed of water, oil, and surfactants--have frequently been used in attempts to increase cutaneous drug delivery. The primary objective addressed in this work has been the development of temperature-sensitive microemulsion gel (called gel-like ME), as an effective and safe delivery system suitable for simultaneous topical application of a hydrophilic vitamin C and a lipophilic vitamin E. By changing water content of liquid o/w ME (o/w ME), a gel-like ME with temperature-sensitive rheological properties was formed. The temperature-driven changes in its microstructure were confirmed by rotational rheometry, viscosity measurements, and droplet size determination. The release studies have shown that the vitamins' release at skin temperature from gel-like ME were comparable to those from o/w ME and were much faster and more complete than from o/w ME conventionally thickened with polymer (o/w ME carbomer). According to effectiveness in skin delivery of both vitamins, o/w ME was found the most appropriate, followed by gel-like ME and by o/w ME carbomer, indicating that no simple correlation between vitamins release and skin absorption could be found. The cytotoxicity studies revealed good cell viability after exposure to ME and confirmed all tested microemulsions as nonirritant.

  19. Temperature sensitive molecularly imprinted microspheres for solid-phase dispersion extraction of malachite green, crystal violet and their leuko metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Lei; Chen, Kuncai; He, Rong; Peng, Rongfei; Huang, Cong

    2016-01-01

    This article demonstrates the feasibility of an alternative strategy for producing temperature sensitive molecularly imprinted microspheres (MIMs) for solid-phase dispersion extraction of malachite green, crystal violet and their leuko metabolites. Thermo-sensitive MIMs can change their structure following temperature stimulation. This allows capture and release of target molecules to be controlled by temperature. The fabrication technique provides surface molecular imprinting in acetonitrile using vinyl modified silica microspheres as solid supports, methacrylic acid and N-isopropyl acrylamide as the functional monomers, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, and malachite green as the template. After elution of the template, the MIMs can be used for fairly group-selective solid phase dispersion extraction of malachite green, crystal violet, leucomalachite green, and leucocrystal violet from homogenized fish samples at a certain temperature. Following centrifugal separation of the microspheres, the analytes were eluted with a 95:5 mixture of acetonitrile and formic acid, and then quantified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with isotope internal calibration. The detection limits for malachite green, crystal violet and their metabolites typically are 30 ng·kg −1 . Positive samples were identified by UHPLC-MS/MS in the positive ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring. The method was applied to the determination of the dyes and the respective leuko dyes in fish samples, and accuracy and precision were validated by comparative analysis of the samples by using aluminum neutral columns. (author)

  20. Radiation synthesis of a water-soluble temperature sensitive polymer, activated copolymer and applications in immobilization of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Maolin; Ha Hongfei; Wu Jilan

    1993-01-01

    In this work the radiation polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAM) in aqueous solutions has been carried out and a water-soluble, temperature sensitive polymer and copolymer were obtained by using γ-rays from Co-60 source at room temperature. We have gained the optimum dose and dose-rate of radiation synthesis of linear polyNIPAAM through determining conversion yield and viscosity. In order to immobilize protein (BSA) and enzyme (HRP) into this water-soluble polymer, we prepared an activated copolymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N-acryloxysuccinimide). The BSA and HRP has been immobilized onto the activated copolymer. The BSA (HRP)/copolymer conjugates still kept the original thermally sensitive properties of the linear polyNIPAAM. The conjugation yield of BSA to the activated copolymer decreased with increasing dose. Immobilized HRP was stable at 0 o C for a long time and has, at least, 4 days stability at room temperature. Immobilized HRP activity was lowered when the temperature was raised. This phenomenon was reversible and the immobilized HRP regained activity. The optimum pH of the immobilized HRP shifted from ca.5 upward to ca. 7. (author)

  1. The influence of the albedo-temperature feedback on climate sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bintanja, R.; Oerlemans, J.

    1995-01-01

    A vertically integrated, zonally averaged energy-balance climate model coupled to a two-dimensional ocean model with prescribed overturning pattern is employed to assess the seasonally and latitudinally varying response of the climate system to changes in radiative forcing. Since the sensitivity

  2. Classifying multi-model wheat yield impact response surfaces showing sensitivity to temperature and precipitation change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronzek, Stefan; Pirttioja, Nina; Carter, Timothy R.; Bindi, Marco; Hoffmann, Holger; Palosuo, Taru; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Tao, Fulu; Trnka, Miroslav; Acutis, Marco; Asseng, Senthold; Baranowski, Piotr; Basso, Bruno; Bodin, Per; Buis, Samuel; Cammarano, Davide; Deligios, Paola; Destain, Marie France; Dumont, Benjamin; Ewert, Frank; Ferrise, Roberto; François, Louis; Gaiser, Thomas; Hlavinka, Petr; Jacquemin, Ingrid; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian; Kollas, Chris; Krzyszczak, Jaromir; Lorite, Ignacio J.; Minet, Julien; Minguez, M.I.; Montesino, Manuel; Moriondo, Marco; Müller, Christoph; Nendel, Claas; Öztürk, Isik; Perego, Alessia; Rodríguez, Alfredo; Ruane, Alex C.; Ruget, Françoise; Sanna, Mattia; Semenov, Mikhail A.; Slawinski, Cezary; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Supit, Iwan; Waha, Katharina; Wang, Enli; Wu, Lianhai; Zhao, Zhigan; Rötter, Reimund P.

    2018-01-01

    Crop growth simulation models can differ greatly in their treatment of key processes and hence in their response to environmental conditions. Here, we used an ensemble of 26 process-based wheat models applied at sites across a European transect to compare their sensitivity to changes in

  3. Classifying multi-model wheat yield impact response surfaces showing sensitivity to temperature and precipitation change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fronzek, S.; Pirttioja, N. K.; Carter, T. R.; Bindi, M.; Hoffmann, H.; Palosuo, T.; Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Tao, F.; Trnka, Miroslav; Acutis, M.; Asseng, S.; Baranowski, P.; Basso, B.; Bodin, P.; Buis, S.; Cammarano, D.; Deligios, P.; Destain, M. F.; Dumont, B.; Ewert, F.; Ferrise, R.; Francois, L.; Gaiser, T.; Hlavinka, Petr; Jacquemin, I.; Kersebaum, K. C.; Kollas, C.; Krzyszczak, J.; Lorite, I. J.; Minet, J.; Ines Minguez, M.; Montesino, M.; Moriondo, M.; Mueller, C.; Nendel, C.; Öztürk, I.; Perego, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruane, A. C.; Ruget, F.; Sanna, M.; Semenov, M. A.; Slawinski, C.; Stratonovitch, P.; Supit, I.; Waha, K.; Wang, E.; Wu, L.; Zhao, Z.; Rötter, R.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 159, jan (2018), s. 209-224 ISSN 0308-521X Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : climate - change * crop models * probabilistic assessment * simulating impacts * british catchments * uncertainty * europe * productivity * calibration * adaptation * Classification * Climate change * Crop model * Ensemble * Sensitivity analysis * Wheat Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy OBOR OECD: Agronomy, plant breeding and plant protection Impact factor: 2.571, year: 2016

  4. A broadening temperature sensitivity range with a core-shell YbEr@YbNd double ratiometric optical nanothermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, L.; Prorok, K.; Francés-Soriano, L.; Pérez-Prieto, J.; Bednarkiewicz, A.

    2016-02-01

    The chemical architecture of lanthanide doped core-shell up-converting nanoparticles can be engineered to purposely design the properties of luminescent nanomaterials, which are typically inaccessible to their homogeneous counterparts. Such an approach allowed to shift the up-conversion excitation wavelength from ~980 to the more relevant ~808 nm or enable Tb or Eu up-conversion emission, which was previously impossible to obtain or inefficient. Here, we address the issue of limited temperature sensitivity range of optical lanthanide based nano-thermometers. By covering Yb-Er co-doped core nanoparticles with the Yb-Nd co-doped shell, we have intentionally combined temperature dependent Er up-conversion together with temperature dependent Nd --> Yb energy transfer, and thus have expanded the temperature response range ΔT of a single nanoparticle based optical nano-thermometer under single ~808 nm wavelength photo-excitation from around ΔT = 150 K to over ΔT = 300 K (150-450 K). Such engineered nanocrystals are suitable for remote optical temperature measurements in technology and biotechnology at the sub-micron scale.The chemical architecture of lanthanide doped core-shell up-converting nanoparticles can be engineered to purposely design the properties of luminescent nanomaterials, which are typically inaccessible to their homogeneous counterparts. Such an approach allowed to shift the up-conversion excitation wavelength from ~980 to the more relevant ~808 nm or enable Tb or Eu up-conversion emission, which was previously impossible to obtain or inefficient. Here, we address the issue of limited temperature sensitivity range of optical lanthanide based nano-thermometers. By covering Yb-Er co-doped core nanoparticles with the Yb-Nd co-doped shell, we have intentionally combined temperature dependent Er up-conversion together with temperature dependent Nd --> Yb energy transfer, and thus have expanded the temperature response range ΔT of a single nanoparticle

  5. Sensitization of erbium in silicon-rich silica : the effect of annealing temperature and hydrogen passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, A.R.; Forcales, M.; Elliman, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the effect of annealing temperature and hydrogen passivation on the excitation cross-section and photoluminescence of erbium in silicon-rich silica. Samples were prepared by co-implantation of Si and Er into SiO 2 followed by a single thermal anneal at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1100 degrees C, and with or without hydrogen passivation performed at 500 degrees C. Using time-resolved photoluminescence, the effective erbium excitation cross-section is shown to increase by a factor 3, while the number of optically active erbium ions decreases by a factor of 4 with increasing annealing temperature. Hydrogen passivation is shown to increase the luminescence intensity and to shorten the luminescence lifetime at 1.54 μm only in the presence of Si nanocrystals. The implications fo these results for realizing a silicon-based optical amplifier are also discussed. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs

  6. Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers Containing Temperature Sensitive and Degradable Chain Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hong-Liang; Lei, Lei; Shi, Shu-Xian; Xia, Yu-Zheng; Chen, Xiao-Nong

    2018-05-01

    In this work, polylactide-b-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) were synthesized by the combination of controlled ring-opening polymerization and reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. These block copolymers with molecular weight range from 7,900 to 12,000 g/mol and narrow polydispersity (≤1.19) can self-assemble into micelles (polylactide core, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) shell) in water at certain temperature range, which have been evidenced by laser particle size analyzer proton nuclear magnetic resonance and transmission electron microscopy. Such micelles exhibit obvious thermo-responsive properties: (1) Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) blocks collapse on the polylactide core as system temperature increase, leading to reduce of micelle size. (2) Micelles with short poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) blocks tend to aggregate together when temperature increased, which is resulted from the reduction of the system hydrophilicity and the decreased repulsive force between micelles.

  7. The sensitivity of soil respiration to soil temperature, moisture, and carbon supply at the global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursh, Andrew; Ballantyne, Ashley; Cooper, Leila; Maneta, Marco; Kimball, John; Watts, Jennifer

    2017-05-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) is a major pathway by which fixed carbon in the biosphere is returned to the atmosphere, yet there are limits to our ability to predict respiration rates using environmental drivers at the global scale. While temperature, moisture, carbon supply, and other site characteristics are known to regulate soil respiration rates at plot scales within certain biomes, quantitative frameworks for evaluating the relative importance of these factors across different biomes and at the global scale require tests of the relationships between field estimates and global climatic data. This study evaluates the factors driving Rs at the global scale by linking global datasets of soil moisture, soil temperature, primary productivity, and soil carbon estimates with observations of annual Rs from the Global Soil Respiration Database (SRDB). We find that calibrating models with parabolic soil moisture functions can improve predictive power over similar models with asymptotic functions of mean annual precipitation. Soil temperature is comparable with previously reported air temperature observations used in predicting Rs and is the dominant driver of Rs in global models; however, within certain biomes soil moisture and soil carbon emerge as dominant predictors of Rs. We identify regions where typical temperature-driven responses are further mediated by soil moisture, precipitation, and carbon supply and regions in which environmental controls on high Rs values are difficult to ascertain due to limited field data. Because soil moisture integrates temperature and precipitation dynamics, it can more directly constrain the heterotrophic component of Rs, but global-scale models tend to smooth its spatial heterogeneity by aggregating factors that increase moisture variability within and across biomes. We compare statistical and mechanistic models that provide independent estimates of global Rs ranging from 83 to 108 Pg yr -1 , but also highlight regions of uncertainty

  8. Effects of non-uniform core flow on peak cladding temperature: MOXY/SCORE sensitivity calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.C.

    1979-08-15

    The MOXY/SCORE computer program is used to evaluate the potential effect on peak cladding temperature of selective cooling that may result from a nonuniform mass flux at the core boundaries during the blowdown phase of the LOFT L2-4 test. The results of this study indicate that the effect of the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries will be neutralized by a strong radial flow redistribution in the neighborhood of core boundaries. The implication is that the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries has no significant effect on the thermal-hydraulic behavior and cladding temperature at the hot plane.

  9. Effects of non-uniform core flow on peak cladding temperature: MOXY/SCORE sensitivity calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    The MOXY/SCORE computer program is used to evaluate the potential effect on peak cladding temperature of selective cooling that may result from a nonuniform mass flux at the core boundaries during the blowdown phase of the LOFT L2-4 test. The results of this study indicate that the effect of the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries will be neutralized by a strong radial flow redistribution in the neighborhood of core boundaries. The implication is that the flow nonuniformity at the core boundaries has no significant effect on the thermal-hydraulic behavior and cladding temperature at the hot plane

  10. Sensitivity analysis and thermoeconomic comparison of ORCs (organic Rankine cycles) for low temperature waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yaning; Li, Bingxi; Yang, Jinfu; Shi, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The sensitivity analysis for low temperature ORCs (organic Rankine cycles), as well as the thermoeconomic comparison between the basic ORC and regenerative ORC using Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II), are conducted in this paper. The derivatives of five system parameters on system performance are used to evaluate the parametric sensitiveness. The exergy efficiency and the APR (heat exchanger area per unit net power output) are selected as the objective functions for multi-objective optimization using R123 under the low temperature heat source of 423 K. The Pareto frontier solution with bi-objective for maximizing exergy efficiency and minimizing APR is obtained and compared with the corresponding single-objective solutions. The results indicate that the prior consideration of improving thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency is to increase the evaporator outlet temperature. A fitting curve can be yielded from the Pareto frontier between the thermodynamic performance and economic factor. The optimum exergy efficiency and APR of the regenerative ORC obtained from the Pareto-optimal solution are 59.93% and 3.07 m 2 /kW, which are 8.10% higher and 15.89% lower than that of the basic ORC, respectively. The Pareto optimization compromises the thermodynamic performance and economic factor, therefore being more suitable for decision making. - Highlights: • The sensitivity analysis of the basic ORC is conducted. • The Pareto-optimal solution is compared with the single-objective solutions. • Evaporator outlet temperature should be preferentially considered. • 8.10% higher exergy efficiency and 15.89% lower APR for the regenerative ORC

  11. Evaluation of the sensitivity of the mineralizable pool of soil organic matter to changes in temperature and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulina, A. S.; Semenov, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    The sensitivity of the potentially mineralizable pool of soil organic matter (Cpm) to changes in temperature and moisture has been assessed from the temperature coefficient ( Q10) and the moisture coefficient ( W 10), which indicate how much the Cpm size changes, when the temperature changes by 10°C and the soil water content changes by 10 wt %, respectively. Samples of gray forest soil, podzolized chernozem, and dark chestnut soil taken from arable plots have been incubated at 8, 18, and 28°C and humidity of 10, 25, and 40 wt %. From the data on the production of C-CO2 by soil samples during incubation for 150 days, the content of Cpm has been calculated. It has been shown that, on average for the three soils, an increase in temperature accounts for 63% of the rise in the pool of potentially mineralizable organic matter, whereas an increase in moisture accounts for 8% of that rise. The temperature coefficients of the potentially mineralizable pool are 2.71 ± 0.64, 1.27 ± 0.20, and 1.85 ± 0.30 in ranges of 8-18, 18-28, and 8-28°C, respectively; the moisture coefficients are 1.19 ± 0.11, 1.09 ± 0.05, and 1.14 ± 0.06 in ranges of 10-25, 25-40, and 10-40 wt %, respectively. The easily mineralizable fraction (C1, k 1 > 0.1 days-1) of the active pool of soil organic matter is less sensitive to temperature than the hardly mineralizable fraction (C3, 0.01 > k 3 > 0.001 days-1); their Q 10 values are 0.91 ± 0.15 and 2.40 ± 0.31, respectively. On the contrary, the easily mineralizable fraction is more sensitive to moistening than the hardly mineralizable fraction: their W 10 values are 1.22 ± 0.06 and 1.03 ± 0.08, respectively. The intensification of mineralization with rising temperature and water content during a long-term incubation results in the exhausting of the active pool, which reduces the production of CO2 by the soils during the repeated incubation under similar conditions nonlimiting mineralization.

  12. Comparative sensitivity of six scleractinian corals to temperature and solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scleractinian corals were subjected to six combinations of temperature and solar radiation regimes to evaluate their effects on coral bleaching, survival, and tissue surface area changes during and after an exposure period. A recirculating coral exposure system was coupled to a ...

  13. Forest ecotone response to climate change: sensitivity to temperature response functional forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C. [National Council for Air and Stream Improvement, Naperville, IL (United States)

    2000-10-01

    Past simulation studies have been in general agreement that climatic change could have adverse effects on forests, including geographic range shrinkages, conversion to grassland, and catastrophic forest decline or dieback. Some other recent studies, however, concluded that this agreement is generally based on parabolic temperature response rather than functional responses or data, and may therefore exaggerate dieback effects. This paper proposes a new model of temperature response that is based on a trade-off between cold tolerance and growth rate. In this model, the growth rate increases at first, and then levels off with increasing growing degree-days. Species from more southern regions have a higher minimum temperature and a faster maximum height growth rate. It is argued that faster growth rates of southern types lead to their competitive superiority in warmer environments and that such temperature response should produce less dieback and slower rates of change than the more common parabolic response model. Theoretical justification of this model is provided, followed by application of the model to a simulated ecotone under a warming scenario. Results of the study based on the proposed asymptotic model showed no dieback and only a gradual ecotone movement north, suggesting that ecotone shifts will, in fact, take many hundreds to thousands of years, with the result that species will not face the risk of extinction. 56 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  14. A cross-coupled-structure-based temperature sensor with reduced process variation sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tie Meng; Cheng Xu, E-mail: tiemeng@mprc.pku.edu.c [Microprocessor Research and Development Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-04-15

    An innovative, thermally-insensitive phenomenon of cascaded cross-coupled structures is found. And a novel CMOS temperature sensor based on a cross-coupled structure is proposed. This sensor consists of two different ring oscillators. The first ring oscillator generates pulses that have a period, changing linearly with temperature. Instead of using the system clock like in traditional sensors, the second oscillator utilizes a cascaded cross-coupled structure to generate temperature independent pulses to capture the result from the first oscillator. Due to the compensation between the two ring oscillators, errors caused by supply voltage variations and systematic process variations are reduced. The layout design of the sensor is based on the TSMC13G process standard cell library. Only three inverters are modified for proper channel width tuning without any other custom design. This allows for an easy integration of the sensor into cell-based chips. Post-layout simulations results show that an error lower than +-1.1 deg. C can be achieved in the full temperature range from -40 to 120 deg. C. As shown by SPICE simulations, the thermal insensitivity of the cross-coupled inverters can be realized for various TSMC technologies: 0.25 mum, 0.18 mum, 0.13 mum, and 65 nm.

  15. Exogenous Nitrogen Addition Reduced the Temperature Sensitivity of Microbial Respiration without Altering the Microbial Community Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition is changing in both load quantity and chemical composition. The load effects have been studied extensively, whereas the composition effects remain poorly understood. We conducted a microcosm experiment to study how N chemistry affected the soil microbial community composition characterized by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs and activity indicated by microbial CO2 release. Surface and subsurface soils collected from an old-growth subtropical forest were supplemented with three N-containing materials (ammonium, nitrate, and urea at the current regional deposition load (50 kg ha-1 yr-1 and incubated at three temperatures (10, 20, and 30°C to detect the interactive effects of N deposition and temperature. The results showed that the additions of N, regardless of form, did not alter the microbial PLFAs at any of the three temperatures. However, the addition of urea significantly stimulated soil CO2 release in the early incubation stage. Compared with the control, N addition consistently reduced the temperature dependency of microbial respiration, implying that N deposition could potentially weaken the positive feedback of the warming-stimulated soil CO2 release to the atmosphere. The consistent N effects for the surface and subsurface soils suggest that the effects of N on soil microbial communities may be independent of soil chemical contents and stoichiometry.

  16. The effective temperature of the DBV's, and the sensitivity of DB model atmospheres to input physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thejll, P.; Delaware Univ., Newark, DE; Vennes, S.; Shipman, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    A new grid of DB models is applied to the problem of the DBV temperatures and the DB gap. It is found that the DBV instability strip lies lower than thought before. This has consequences for the calibration of mixing-length theories and the reality of the DB gap. The DBV GD358 is discussed in detail. (orig.)

  17. Carbon dynamics modelization and biological community sensitivity to temperature in an oligotrophic freshwater Antarctic lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonio Villaescusa, Juan; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Rochera, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    food web. This preliminary model aims to describe part of the carbon dynamics, especially for bacterioplankton and associated factors, in this maritime Antarctic lake highly affected by temperature increase linked to regional warming. To describe the system, the effects of the variation of different...

  18. Variable temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon in North American forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinzia Fissore; Christian P. Giardina; Christopher W. Swanston; Gary M. King; Randall K. Kolka

    2009-01-01

    We investigated mean residence time (MRT) for soil organic carbon (SOC) sampled from paired hardwood and pine forests located along a 22 °C mean annual temperature (MAT) gradient in North America. We used acid hydrolysis fractionation, radiocarbon analyses, long-term laboratory incubations (525-d), and a three-pool model to describe the size and kinetics of...

  19. Moisture effects on temperature sensitivity of CO2 exchange in a subarctic heath ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illeris, Lotte; Christensen, TR; Mastepanov, M

    2004-01-01

    Carbon fluxes between natural ecosystems and the atmosphere have received increased attention in recent years due to the impact they have on climate. In order to investigate independently how soil moisture and temperature control carbon fluxes into and out of a dry subarctic dwarf shrub dominated...

  20. Multi parametric sensitivity study applied to temperature measurement of metallic plasma facing components in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumeunier, M-H.; Corre, Y.; Firdaouss, M.; Gauthier, E.; Loarer, T.; Travere, J-M.; Gardarein, J-L.; EFDA JET Contributor

    2013-06-01

    In nuclear fusion experiments, the protection system of the Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) is commonly ensured by infrared (IR) thermography. Nevertheless, the surface monitoring of new metallic plasma facing component, as in JET and ITER is being challenging. Indeed, the analysis of infrared signals is made more complicated in such a metallic environment since the signals will be perturbed by the reflected photons coming from high temperature regions. To address and anticipate this new measurement environment, predictive photonic models, based on Monte-Carlo ray tracing (SPEOS R CAA V5 Based), have been performed to assess the contribution of the reflective part in the total flux collected by the camera and the resulting temperature error. This paper deals with the effects of metals features, as the emissivity and reflectivity models, on the accuracy of the surface temperature estimation. The reliability of the features models is discussed by comparing the simulation with experimental data obtained with the wide angle IR thermography system of JET ITER like wall. The impact of the temperature distribution is studied by considering two different typical plasma scenarios, in limiter (ITER start-up scenario) and in X-point configurations (standard divertor scenario). The achievable measurement performances of IR system and risks analysis on its functionalities are discussed. (authors)

  1. Cluster analysis of midlatitude oceanic cloud regimes: mean properties and temperature sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Gordon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Clouds play an important role in the climate system by reducing the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the surface and the amount of longwave radiation escaping to space. Accurate simulation of clouds in computer models remains elusive, however, pointing to a lack of understanding of the connection between large-scale dynamics and cloud properties. This study uses a k-means clustering algorithm to group 21 years of satellite cloud data over midlatitude oceans into seven clusters, and demonstrates that the cloud clusters are associated with distinct large-scale dynamical conditions. Three clusters correspond to low-level cloud regimes with different cloud fraction and cumuliform or stratiform characteristics, but all occur under large-scale descent and a relatively dry free troposphere. Three clusters correspond to vertically extensive cloud regimes with tops in the middle or upper troposphere, and they differ according to the strength of large-scale ascent and enhancement of tropospheric temperature and humidity. The final cluster is associated with a lower troposphere that is dry and an upper troposphere that is moist and experiencing weak ascent and horizontal moist advection.

    Since the present balance of reflection of shortwave and absorption of longwave radiation by clouds could change as the atmosphere warms from increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases, we must also better understand how increasing temperature modifies cloud and radiative properties. We therefore undertake an observational analysis of how midlatitude oceanic clouds change with temperature when dynamical processes are held constant (i.e., partial derivative with respect to temperature. For each of the seven cloud regimes, we examine the difference in cloud and radiative properties between warm and cold subsets. To avoid misinterpreting a cloud response to large-scale dynamical forcing as a cloud response to temperature, we require horizontal and vertical

  2. Change in the sensitivity of CR-39 for alpha-tracks after the storage at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Hiroko; Ishigure, Nobuhito

    2000-01-01

    The effect of storage on track registration property of CR-39 has been investigated. Pieces of CR-39 plate were irradiated with normally incident α-particles and fission fragments using a 252 Cf source prior and posterior to the storage of them in air for one year at different temperatures of -80degC, -23degC, 4degC, 23degC and 35degC. Periodical etching was performed for the pieces stored at different temperatures using the solution of NaOH with 7 mol+l -1 at 70degC for 4 hours. Bulk etch rate (V b ) was obtained from the etch pit diameter (D f ) of fission tracks using the equation: V b =D f /(2t), where t is etching time (h). The sensitivity for α-tracks (S) was obtained from the ratio of the etch pit diameters between α-tracks (D a ) and fission-tracks using the equation: S={1+(D a /D f ) 2 }/{1-(D a /D f ) 2 }-1. The present results show that both the bulk etch rate and α-track sensitivity are not constant, which tend to decrease with storage times and storage temperatures. At -80degC, -23degC and 4degC the change in the sensitivity was negligible. On the other hand, the storage at 23degC for 1 year decreased the sensitivity down to 74%. The most significant effect was observed on the α-track sensitivity at 35degC, which was reduced to 80% for one month, 61% for three months, 42% for six months and 32% for one year. By the comparison of experiments between fading and ageing it is shown that such storage effect is attributed not to fading of latent tracks but mainly to some changes in the detector itself. When CR-39 is used of radon monitoring or neutron monitoring, the following points should be paid attention to: (1) the detector should be stored in a refrigerator before exposure and until etching after the exposure, (2) the change in the sensitivity between the time of calibration and the time of use should be evaluated and the counting efficiency at the measurement should be corrected and (3) for comparison or for interpretation of experimental results

  3. Post-deposition annealing temperature dependence TiO_2-based EGFET pH sensor sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkefle, M. A.; Rahman, R. A.; Yusoff, K. A.; Abdullah, W. F. H.; Rusop, M.; Herman, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    EGFET pH sensor is one type of pH sensor that is used to measure and determine pH of a solution. The sensing membrane of EGFET pH sensor plays vital role in the overall performance of the sensor. This paper studies the effects of different annealing temperature of the TiO_2 sensing membranes towards sensitivity of EGFET pH sensor. Sol-gel spin coating was chosen as TiO_2 deposition techniques since it is cost-effective and produces thin film with uniform thickness. Deposited TiO_2 thin films were then annealed at different annealing temperatures and then were connected to the gate of MOSFET as a part of the EGFET pH sensor structure. The thin films now act as sensing membranes of the EGFET pH sensor and sensitivity of each sensing membrane towards pH was measured. From the results it was determined that sensing membrane annealed at 300 °C gave the highest sensitivity followed by sample annealed at 400 °C and 500 °C.

  4. Post-deposition annealing temperature dependence TiO{sub 2}-based EGFET pH sensor sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulkefle, M. A., E-mail: alhadizulkefle@gmail.com; Rahman, R. A., E-mail: rohanieza.abdrahman@gmail.com; Yusoff, K. A., E-mail: khairul.aimi.yusof@gmail.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdullah, W. F. H., E-mail: wanfaz@salam.uitm.edu.my [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Rusop, M., E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.edu.my [NANO-Science Technology (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Herman, S. H., E-mail: hana1617@salam.uitm.edu.my [Core of Frontier Materials & Industry Applications, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    EGFET pH sensor is one type of pH sensor that is used to measure and determine pH of a solution. The sensing membrane of EGFET pH sensor plays vital role in the overall performance of the sensor. This paper studies the effects of different annealing temperature of the TiO{sub 2} sensing membranes towards sensitivity of EGFET pH sensor. Sol-gel spin coating was chosen as TiO{sub 2} deposition techniques since it is cost-effective and produces thin film with uniform thickness. Deposited TiO{sub 2} thin films were then annealed at different annealing temperatures and then were connected to the gate of MOSFET as a part of the EGFET pH sensor structure. The thin films now act as sensing membranes of the EGFET pH sensor and sensitivity of each sensing membrane towards pH was measured. From the results it was determined that sensing membrane annealed at 300 °C gave the highest sensitivity followed by sample annealed at 400 °C and 500 °C.

  5. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  6. Bidirectional shifts of TRPM8 channel gating by temperature and chemical agents modulate the cold sensitivity of mammalian thermoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mälkiä, Annika; Madrid, Rodolfo; Meseguer, Victor; de la Peña, Elvira; Valero, María; Belmonte, Carlos; Viana, Félix

    2007-05-15

    TRPM8, a member of the melastatin subfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels, is activated by voltage, low temperatures and cooling compounds. These properties and its restricted expression to small sensory neurons have made it the ion channel with the most advocated role in cold transduction. Recent work suggests that activation of TRPM8 by cold and menthol takes place through shifts in its voltage-activation curve, which cause the channel to open at physiological membrane potentials. By contrast, little is known about the actions of inhibitors on the function of TRPM8. We investigated the chemical and thermal modulation of TRPM8 in transfected HEK293 cells and in cold-sensitive primary sensory neurons. We show that cold-evoked TRPM8 responses are effectively suppressed by inhibitor compounds SKF96365, 4-(3-chloro-pyridin-2-yl)-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid (4-tert-butyl-phenyl)-amide (BCTC) and 1,10-phenanthroline. These antagonists exert their effect by shifting the voltage dependence of TRPM8 activation towards more positive potentials. An opposite shift towards more negative potentials is achieved by the agonist menthol. Functionally, the bidirectional shift in channel gating translates into a change in the apparent temperature threshold of TRPM8-expressing cells. Accordingly, in the presence of the antagonist compounds, the apparent response-threshold temperature of TRPM8 is displaced towards colder temperatures, whereas menthol sensitizes the response, shifting the threshold in the opposite direction. Co-application of agonists and antagonists produces predictable cancellation of these effects, suggesting the convergence on a common molecular process. The potential for half maximal activation of TRPM8 activation by cold was approximately 140 mV more negative in native channels compared to recombinant channels, with a much higher open probability at negative membrane potentials in the former. In functional terms, this difference translates

  7. Uncertainty in climate-carbon-cycle projections associated with the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Chris D.; Cox, Peter; Huntingford, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Carbon-cycle feedbacks have been shown to be very important in predicting climate change over the next century, with a potentially large positive feedback coming from the release of carbon from soils as global temperatures increase. The magnitude of this feedback and whether or not it drives the terrestrial carbon cycle to become a net source of carbon dioxide during the next century depends particularly on the response of soil respiration to temperature. Observed global atmospheric CO 2 concentration, and its response to naturally occurring climate anomalies, is used to constrain the behaviour of soil respiration in our coupled climate-carbon-cycle GCM. This constraint is used to quantify some of the uncertainties in predictions of future CO 2 levels. The uncertainty is large, emphasizing the importance of carbon-cycle research with respect to future climate change predictions

  8. Parametric sensitivity analysis of a SOLRGT system with the indirect upgrading of low/mid-temperature solar heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuan Yuan; Zhang, Na; Cai, Rui Xian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A solar-assisted methane chemically recuperated gas turbine cycle has been proposed. ► The parametric sensitivity analysis of a SOLRGT system has been carried out. ► The concept of indirect upgrading of solar heat proves to be feasible. -- Abstract: Development of novel solar–fossil fuel hybrid system is important for the efficient utilization of low temperature solar heat. A solar-assisted methane chemically recuperated gas turbine (SOLRGT) system was proposed by Zhang and co-worker, which integrated solar heat into a high efficiency power system. The low temperature solar heat is first converted into vapor latent heat provided for a reformer, and then indirectly upgraded to high-grade generated syngas chemical energy by the reformation reaction. In this paper, based on the above mentioned cycle, a parametric analysis is performed using ASPEN PLUS code to further evaluate the effect of key thermodynamics parameters on the SOLRGT performance. It can be shown that solar collector temperature, steam/air mass ratio, turbine inlet pressure, and turbine inlet temperature have significant effects on system efficiency, solar-to-electricity efficiency, fossil fuel saving ratio, specific CO 2 emission and so on. The solar collector temperature is varied between 140 and 240 °C and the maximum net solar-to-electricity efficiency and system efficiency for a given turbine inlet condition (turbine inlet temperature of 1308 °C and pressure ratio of 15) is 30.2% and 52.9%, respectively. The fossil fuel saving ratio can reach up to 21.8% and the reduction of specific CO 2 emission is also 21.8% compared to the reference system. The system performance is promising for an optimum pressure ratio at a given turbine inlet temperature.

  9. Sensitivity of extreme precipitation to temperature: the variability of scaling factors from a regional to local perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, K.; Kirchengast, G.

    2018-06-01

    Potential increases in extreme rainfall induced hazards in a warming climate have motivated studies to link precipitation intensities to temperature. Increases exceeding the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) rate of 6-7%/°C-1 are seen in short-duration, convective, high-percentile rainfall at mid latitudes, but the rates of change cease or revert at regionally variable threshold temperatures due to moisture limitations. It is unclear, however, what these findings mean in term of the actual risk of extreme precipitation on a regional to local scale. When conditioning precipitation intensities on local temperatures, key influences on the scaling relationship such as from the annual cycle and regional weather patterns need better understanding. Here we analyze these influences, using sub-hourly to daily precipitation data from a dense network of 189 stations in south-eastern Austria. We find that the temperature sensitivities in the mountainous western region are lower than in the eastern lowlands. This is due to the different weather patterns that cause extreme precipitation in these regions. Sub-hourly and hourly intensities intensify at super-CC and CC-rates, respectively, up to temperatures of about 17 °C. However, we also find that, because of the regional and seasonal variability of the precipitation intensities, a smaller scaling factor can imply a larger absolute change in intensity. Our insights underline that temperature precipitation scaling requires careful interpretation of the intent and setting of the study. When this is considered, conditional scaling factors can help to better understand which influences control the intensification of rainfall with temperature on a regional scale.

  10. Ammonia oxidation kinetics and temperature sensitivity of a natural marine community dominated by Archaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Rachel E A; Qin, Wei; Schauer, Andy J; Armbrust, E Virginia; Ingalls, Anitra E; Moffett, James W; Stahl, David A; Devol, Allan H

    2013-01-01

    Archaeal ammonia oxidizers (AOAs) are increasingly recognized as prominent members of natural microbial assemblages. Evidence that links the presence of AOA with in situ ammonia oxidation activity is limited, and the abiotic factors that regulate the distribution of AOA natural assemblages are not well defined. We used quantitative PCR to enumerate amoA (encodes α-subunit of ammonia monooxygenase) abundances; AOA amoA gene copies greatly outnumbered ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and amoA transcripts were derived primarily from AOA throughout the water column of Hood Canal, Puget Sound, WA, USA. We generated a Michaelis–Menten kinetics curve for ammonia oxidation by the natural community and found that the measured Km of 98±14 nmol l−1 was close to that for cultivated AOA representative Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1. Temperature did not have a significant effect on ammonia oxidation rates for incubation temperatures ranging from 8 to 20 °C, which is within the temperature range for depths of measurable ammonia oxidation at the site. This study provides substantial evidence, through both amoA gene copies and transcript abundances and the kinetics response, that AOA are the dominant active ammonia oxidizers in this marine environment. We propose that future ammonia oxidation experiments use a Km for the natural community to better constrain ammonia oxidation rates determined with the commonly used 15NH4+ dilution technique. PMID:23657360

  11. Temperature sensitivity indicates that chlorination of organic matter in forest soil is primarily biotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastviken, David; Svensson, Teresia; Karlsson, Susanne; Sandén, Per; Oberg, Gunilla

    2009-05-15

    Old assumptions that chloride is inert and that most chlorinated organic matter in soils is anthropogenic have been challenged by findings of naturally formed organochlorines. Such natural chlorination has been recognized for several decades, but there are still very few measurements of chlorination rates or estimates of the quantitative importance of terrestrial chlorine transformations. While much is known about the formation of specific compounds, bulk chlorination remains poorly understood in terms of mechanisms and effects of environmental factors. We quantified bulk chlorination rates in coniferous forest soil using 36Cl-chloride in tracer experiments at different temperatures and with and without molecular oxygen (O2). Chlorination was enhanced by the presence of O2 and had a temperature optimum at 20 degrees C. Minimum rates were found at high temperatures (50 degrees C) or under anoxic conditions. The results indicate (1) that most of the chlorination between 4 and 40 degrees C was biotic and driven by O2 dependent enzymes, and (2) that there is also slower background chlorination occurring under anoxic conditions at 20 degrees C and under oxic conditions at 50 degrees C. Hence, while oxic and biotic chlorination clearly dominated, chlorination by other processes including possible abiotic reactions was also detected.

  12. Mg/Ca- Δ CO3porewater2- -temperature calibration for Globobulimina spp.: A sensitive paleothermometer for deep-sea temperature reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldeab, Syee; Arce, Adam; Kasten, Sabine

    2016-03-01

    Existing benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca-temperature calibrations are surrounded by substantial uncertainties mainly due to low temperature sensitivity of Mg/Ca in most benthic foraminifers and the effect of carbonate ion concentration on benthic foraminiferal Mg/Ca. Here we present Mg/Ca analysis of Rose Bengal stained and exceptionally well-preserved tests of the infaunal benthic foraminifer Globobulimina spp. from 39 eastern equatorial Atlantic core top samples. Mg/Ca in Globobulimina spp. varies between 2.5 mmol/mol and 9.1 mmol/mol corresponding to bottom water temperatures (BWT) between 1.8 °C and 19.1 °C and Δ CO3pore water2- between 33.7 ± 4 and - 34.3 ± 4 μmol /kg in sediment depths between 1 and 10 cm. Mg/Ca and BWT are linearly correlated with a best fit of Mg/Ca [mmol/mol] = (0.36 ± 0.02) * BWT [°C] + 2.22 ± 0.19 (r2 = 0.92, p-value: 11 *10-20, and n = 39). Using total alkalinity and pH data of pore water samples from 64 Atlantic multi-corer sites, we obtained Δ CO3pore water2- data from the depth habitat range of Globobulimina spp. (≥1 cm ≤ 10 cm below sediment surface). We show that Δ CO3pore waterSUP>2- is significantly lower than and linearly co-varies with the ΔCO2-3 of the overlying bottom water: Δ CO3pore water2- = (0.67 ± 0.05) * Δ CO3bottom water2- - (39.84 ± 1.98); r2 = 0.75, p-value: 6 *10-20, n = 64. We found a Mg/Ca sensitivity of 0.009 ± 0.0044 mmol /mol per μmol/kg Δ CO3pore water2- and Mg/Ca temperature sensitivity of 0.32 ± 0.06 mmol /mol / °C after a correction for the Δ CO3pore water2- effect. This study provides a robust Mg/Ca-temperature calibration, highlights that Δ CO3pore water2- is spatially and most likely temporally variable, and contradicts the notion that infaunal foraminiferal Mg/Ca is relatively immune from ΔCO2-3 changes in the overlying bottom water. Furthermore, comparison of down core Mg/Ca data of Cibicides pachyderma and Globobulimina spp. demonstrates that the high temperature sensitivity of

  13. Temperature-sensitive defects of the GSP1gene, yeast Ran homologue, activate the Tel1-dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Naoyuki; Murakami, Seishi; Tsurusaki, Susumu; Nagaura, Zen-ichiro; Oki, Masaya; Nishitani, Hideo; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Shimizu, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi; Nishimoto, Takeharu

    2007-01-01

    RanGTPase is involved in many cellular processes. It functions in nuclear-cytosolic transport and centrosome formation. Ran also localizes to chromatin as RCC1 does, its guanine nucleotide exchange factor, but Ran's function on chromatin is not known. We found that gsp1, a temperature-sensitive mutant of GSP1, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ran homologue, suppressed the hydroxyurea (HU) and ultra violet (UV) sensitivities of the mec1 mutant. In UV-irradiated mec1 gsp1 cells, Rad53 was phosphorylated despite the lack of Mec1. This suppression depended on the TEL1 gene, given that the triple mutant, mec1 gsp1 tel1, was unable to grow. The gsp1 mutations also suppressed the HU sensitivity of the rad9 mutant in a Tel1-dependent manner, but not the HU sensitivity of the rad53 mutant. These results indicated that Rad53 was activated by the Tel1 pathway in mec1 gsp1 cells, suggesting that Gsp1 helps regulate the role switching the ATM family kinases Mec1 and Tel1

  14. [Temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon mineralization and β-glucosidase enzymekinetics in the northern temperate forests at different altitudes, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jin-juan; Li, Dan-dan; Zhang, Xin-yu; He, Nian-peng; Bu, Jin-feng; Wang, Qing; Sun, Xiao-min; Wen, Xue-fa

    2016-01-01

    Soil samples, which were collected from three typical forests, i.e., Betula ermanii forest, coniferous mixed broad-leaved forest, and Pinus koraiensis forest, at different altitudes along the southern slope of Laotuding Mountain of Changbai Mountain range in Liaoning Province of China, were incubated over a temperature gradient in laboratory. Soil organic carbon mineralization rates (Cmin), soil β-1,4-glucosidase (βG) kinetics and their temperature sensitivity (Q₁₀) were measured. The results showed that both altitude and temperature had significant effects on Cmin · Cmin increased with temperature and was highest in the B. ermanii forest. The temperature sensitivity of Cmin [Q₁₀(Cmin)] ranked in order of B. ermanii forest > P. koraiensis forest > coniferous mixed broad-leaved forest, but did not differ significantly among the three forests. Both the maximum activity (Vmax) and the Michaelis constant (Km) of the βG responded positively to temperature for all the forests. The temperature sensitivity of Vmax [Q₁₀(Vmax)] ranged from 1.78 to 1.90, and the temperature sensitivity of Km [Q₁₀(Km)] ranged from 1.79 to 2.00. The Q₁₀(Vmax)/Q10(Km) ratios were significantly greater in the B. ermanii soil than in the other two forest soils, suggesting that the βG kinetics-dependent impacts of the global warming or temperature increase on the decomposition of soil organic carbon were temperature sensitive for the forests at the higher altitudes.

  15. The probability distribution of intergranular stress corrosion cracking life for sensitized 304 stainless steels in high temperature, high purity water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Masatsune; Kenjyo, Takao; Matsukura, Shinji; Kawamoto, Teruaki

    1984-01-01

    In order to discuss the probability distribution of intergranular stress corrsion carcking life for sensitized 304 stainless steels, a series of the creviced bent beem (CBB) and the uni-axial constant load tests were carried out in oxygenated high temperature, high purity water. The following concludions were resulted; (1) The initiation process of intergranular stress corrosion cracking has been assumed to be approximated by the Poisson stochastic process, based on the CBB test results. (2) The probability distribution of intergranular stress corrosion cracking life may consequently be approximated by the exponential probability distribution. (3) The experimental data could be fitted to the exponential probability distribution. (author)

  16. Temperature-sensitive gating of hCx26: high-resolution Raman spectroscopy sheds light on conformational changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniggendorf, Ann-Kathrin; Meinhardt-Wollweber, Merve; Yuan, Xiaogang; Roth, Bernhard; Seifert, Astrid; Fertig, Niels; Zeilinger, Carsten

    2014-07-01

    The temperature-sensitive gating of human Connexin 26 (hCx26) was analyzed with confocal Raman microscopy. High-resolution Raman spectra covering the spectral range between 400 and 1500 rel. cm(-1) with a spectral resolution of 1 cm(-1) were fully annotated, revealing notable differences between the spectrum recorded from solubilized hCx26 in Ca(2+)-buffered POPC at 10°C and any other set of protein conditions (temperature, Ca(2+) presence, POPC presence). Spectral components originating from specific amino acids show that the TM1/EL1 parahelix and probably the TM4 trans-membrane helix and the plug domain are involved in the gating process responsible for fully closing the hemichannel.

  17. Temperature sensitivity differences with depth and season between carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycling enzyme activities in an ombrotrophic peatland system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinweg, J. M.; Kostka, J. E.; Hanson, P. J.; Schadt, C. W.

    2017-12-01

    Northern peatlands have large amounts of soil organic matter due to reduced decomposition. Breakdown of organic matter is initially mediated by extracellular enzymes, the activity of which may be controlled by temperature, moisture, and substrate availability, all of which vary seasonally throughout the year and with depth. In typical soils the majority of the microbial biomass and decomposition occurs within the top 30cm due to reduced organic matter inputs in the subsurface however peatlands by their very nature contain large amounts of organic matter throughout their depth profile. We hypothesized that potential enzyme activity would be greatest at the surface of the peat due to a larger microbial biomass compared to 40cm and 175cm below the surface and that temperature sensitivity would be greatest at the surface during winter but lowest during the summer due to high temperatures and enzyme efficiency. Peat samples were collected in February, July, and August 2012 from the DOE Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change project at Marcell Experimental Forest S1 bog. We measured potential activity of hydrolytic enzymes involved in three different nutrient cycles: beta-glucosidase (carbon), leucine amino peptidase (nitrogen), and phosphatase (phosphorus) at 15 temperature points ranging from 3°C to 65°C. Enzyme activity decreased with depth as expected but there was no concurrent change in activation energy (Ea). The reduction in enzyme activity with depth indicates a smaller pool which coincided with a decreased microbial biomass. Differences in enzyme activity with depth also mirrored the changes in peat composition from the acrotelm to the catotelm. Season did play a role in temperature sensitivity with Ea of β-glucosidase and phosphatase being the lowest in August as expected but leucine amino peptidase (a nitrogen acquiring enzyme) Ea was not influenced by season. As temperatures rise, especially in winter months, enzymatic

  18. Region-specific sensitivity of anemophilous pollen deposition to temperature and precipitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timme H Donders

    Full Text Available Understanding relations between climate and pollen production is important for several societal and ecological challenges, importantly pollen forecasting for pollinosis treatment, forensic studies, global change biology, and high-resolution palaeoecological studies of past vegetation and climate fluctuations. For these purposes, we investigate the role of climate variables on annual-scale variations in pollen influx, test the regional consistency of observed patterns, and evaluate the potential to reconstruct high-frequency signals from sediment archives. A 43-year pollen-trap record from the Netherlands is used to investigate relations between annual pollen influx, climate variables (monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation values, and the North Atlantic Oscillation climate index. Spearman rank correlation analysis shows that specifically in Alnus, Betula, Corylus, Fraxinus, Quercus and Plantago both temperature in the year prior to (T-1, as well as in the growing season (T, are highly significant factors (TApril rs between 0.30 [P<0.05[ and 0.58 [P<0.0001]; TJuli-1 rs between 0.32 [P<0.05[ and 0.56 [P<0.0001] in the annual pollen influx of wind-pollinated plants. Total annual pollen prediction models based on multiple climate variables yield R2 between 0.38 and 0.62 (P<0.0001. The effect of precipitation is minimal. A second trapping station in the SE Netherlands, shows consistent trends and annual variability, suggesting the climate factors are regionally relevant. Summer temperature is thought to influence the formation of reproductive structures, while temperature during the flowering season influences pollen release. This study provides a first predictive model for seasonal pollen forecasting, and also aides forensic studies. Furthermore, variations in pollen accumulation rates from a sub-fossil peat deposit are comparable with the pollen trap data. This suggests that high frequency variability pollen records from natural

  19. Design, Fabrication and Temperature Sensitivity Testing of a Miniature Piezoelectric-Based Sensor for Current Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Lao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Grid capacity, reliability, and efficient distribution of power have been major challenges for traditional power grids in the past few years. Reliable and efficient distribution within these power grids will continue to depend on the development of lighter and more efficient sensing units with lower costs in order to measure current and detect failures across the grid. The objective of this paper is to present the development of a miniature piezoelectric-based sensor for AC current measurements in single conductors, which are used in power transmission lines. Additionally presented in this paper are the thermal testing results for the sensor to assess its robustness for various operating temperatures.

  20. Sensitivity of encapsulated diamond-protein transistor renewed by low temperature hydrogen plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krátká, Marie; Neykova, Neda; Ukraintsev, Egor; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2013), s. 1598-1608 ISSN 1452-3981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GAP108/12/0996; GA ČR GD202/09/H041 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * solution-gated field-effect transistor * low temperature hydrogen termination * proteins * encapsulation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.956, year: 2013 http://www.electrochemsci.org/list13.htm#current

  1. Generation and thermally adjustable catalysis of silver nanoparticle immobilized temperature-sensitive nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Lei; Shen, Xiaoke; Li, Xiaohui; Li, Huijun; Xu, Zhouqing; Cao, Jianliang

    2017-03-01

    The rise in environmental issues due to the catalytic degradation of pollutants in water has received much attention. In this report, a facile method was developed for the generation of a novel thermosensitive Ag-decorated catalyst, SiO2@PNIPAM@Ag (the average particle size is around 540 nm), through atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and mild reducing reactions. First, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) was used to create a shell around mercapto-silica spheres that allowed for enhanced catalyst support dispersion into water. Second, through a mild reducing reaction, these Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were then anchored to the surface of SiO2@PNIPAM spheres. The resulting catalyst revealed catalytic activity to degrade various nitrobenzenes and organic dyes in an aqueous solution with sodium borohydride (NaBH4) at ambient temperature. The catalytic activity can be adjusted in different temperatures through the aggregation or dispersion of Ag catalyst on the polymer supporters, which is due to the thermosensitive PNIPAM shell. The ease of preparation and efficient catalytic activity of the catalyst can make it a promising candidate for the use in degrading organic pollutants for environmental remediation.

  2. Sensitivity of Horn of Africa Rainfall to Regional Sea Surface Temperature Forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewdu T. Segele

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP version 4.4 Regional Climate Model (RegCM4 is used to investigate the rainfall response to cooler/warmer sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA forcing in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. The effect of SSTA forcing in a specific ocean basin is identified by ensemble, averaging 10 individual simulations in which a constant or linearly zonally varying SSTA is prescribed in individual basins while specifying the 1971–2000 monthly varying climatological sea surface temperature (SST across the remaining model domain. The nonlinear rainfall response to SSTA amplitude also is investigated by separately specifying +1K, +2K, and +4K SSTA forcing in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. The simulation results show that warm SSTs over the entire Indian Ocean produce drier conditions across the larger Blue Nile catchment, whereas warming ≥ +2K generates large positive rainfall anomalies exceeding 10 mm·day−1 over drought prone regions of Northeastern Ethiopia. However, the June–September rainy season tends to be wetter (drier when the SST warming (cooling is limited to either the Northern or Southern Indian Ocean. Wet rainy seasons generally are characterized by deepening of the monsoon trough, east of 40°E, intensification of the Mascarene high, strengthening of the Somali low level jet and the tropical easterly jet, enhanced zonal and meridional vertically integrated moisture fluxes, and steeply vertically decreasing moist static energy. The opposite conditions hold for dry monsoon seasons.

  3. Generation and thermally adjustable catalysis of silver nanoparticle immobilized temperature-sensitive nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jun; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Lei, E-mail: jlxj@hpu.edu.cn; Shen, Xiaoke; Li, Xiaohui; Li, Huijun; Xu, Zhouqing; Cao, Jianliang, E-mail: caojianliang@hpu.edu.cn [Henan Polytechnic University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2017-03-15

    The rise in environmental issues due to the catalytic degradation of pollutants in water has received much attention. In this report, a facile method was developed for the generation of a novel thermosensitive Ag-decorated catalyst, SiO{sub 2}@PNIPAM@Ag (the average particle size is around 540 nm), through atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and mild reducing reactions. First, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) was used to create a shell around mercapto-silica spheres that allowed for enhanced catalyst support dispersion into water. Second, through a mild reducing reaction, these Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were then anchored to the surface of SiO{sub 2}@PNIPAM spheres. The resulting catalyst revealed catalytic activity to degrade various nitrobenzenes and organic dyes in an aqueous solution with sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) at ambient temperature. The catalytic activity can be adjusted in different temperatures through the aggregation or dispersion of Ag catalyst on the polymer supporters, which is due to the thermosensitive PNIPAM shell. The ease of preparation and efficient catalytic activity of the catalyst can make it a promising candidate for the use in degrading organic pollutants for environmental remediation.

  4. Unfolding of a Temperature-Sensitive Domain Controls Voltage-Gated Channel Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Cristina; Rohaim, Ahmed; Shaya, David; Findeisen, Felix; Stein, Richard A; Nurva, Shailika Reddy; Mishra, Smriti; Mchaourab, Hassane S; Minor, Daniel L

    2016-02-25

    Voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) are outfitted with diverse cytoplasmic domains that impact function. To examine how such elements may affect VGIC behavior, we addressed how the bacterial voltage-gated sodium channel (BacNa(V)) C-terminal cytoplasmic domain (CTD) affects function. Our studies show that the BacNa(V) CTD exerts a profound influence on gating through a temperature-dependent unfolding transition in a discrete cytoplasmic domain, the neck domain, proximal to the pore. Structural and functional studies establish that the BacNa(V) CTD comprises a bi-partite four-helix bundle that bears an unusual hydrophilic core whose integrity is central to the unfolding mechanism and that couples directly to the channel activation gate. Together, our findings define a general principle for how the widespread four-helix bundle cytoplasmic domain architecture can control VGIC responses, uncover a mechanism underlying the diverse BacNa(V) voltage dependencies, and demonstrate that a discrete domain can encode the temperature-dependent response of a channel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of temperature, genetic variation and species competition on the sensitivity of algae populations to the antibiotic enrofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Andreu; Zhao, Wenkai; Gillissen, Frits; Lürling, Miquel; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2018-02-01

    Primary producers are amongst the most sensitive organisms to antibiotic pollution in aquatic ecosystems. To date, there is little information on how different environmental conditions may affect their sensitivity to antibiotics. In this study we assessed how temperature, genetic variation and species competition may affect the sensitivity of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and the green-algae Scenedesmus obliquus to the antibiotic enrofloxacin. First, we performed single-species tests to assess the toxicity of enrofloxacin under different temperature conditions (20°C and 30°C) and to assess the sensitivity of different species strains using a standard temperature (20°C). Next, we investigated how enrofloxacin contamination may affect the competition between M. aeruginosa and S. obliquus. A competition experiment was performed following a full factorial design with different competition treatments, defined as density ratios (i.e. initial bio-volume of 25/75%, 10/90% and 1/99% of S. obliquus/M. aeruginosa, respectively), one 100% S. obliquus treatment and one 100% M. aeruginosa treatment, and four different enrofloxacin concentrations (i.e. control, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10mg/L). Growth inhibition based on cell number, bio-volume, chlorophyll-a concentration as well as photosynthetic activity were used as evaluation endpoints in the single-species tests, while growth inhibition based on measured chlorophyll-a was primarily used in the competition experiment. M. aeruginosa photosynthetic activity was found to be the most sensitive endpoint to enrofloxacin (EC50-72h =0.02mg/L), followed by growth inhibition based on cell number. S. obliquus was found to be slightly more sensitive at 20°C than at 30°C (EC50-72h cell number growth inhibition of 38 and 41mg/L, respectively), whereas an opposite trend was observed for M. aeruginosa (0.047 and 0.037mg/L, respectively). Differences in EC50-72h values between algal strains of the same species were within a factor

  6. Cytoskeletal Regulation Dominates Temperature-Sensitive Proteomic Changes of Hibernation in Forebrain of 13-Lined Ground Squirrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    13-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, are obligate hibernators that transition annually between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy – wherein they exploit episodic torpor bouts. Despite cerebral ischemia during torpor and rapid reperfusion during arousal, hibernator brains resist damage and the animals emerge neurologically intact each spring. We hypothesized that protein changes in the brain underlie winter neuroprotection. To identify candidate proteins, we applied a sensitive 2D gel electrophoresis method to quantify protein differences among forebrain extracts prepared from ground squirrels in two summer, four winter and fall transition states. Proteins that differed among groups were identified using LC-MS/MS. Only 84 protein spots varied significantly among the defined states of hibernation. Protein changes in the forebrain proteome fell largely into two reciprocal patterns with a strong body temperature dependence. The importance of body temperature was tested in animals from the fall; these fall animals use torpor sporadically with body temperatures mirroring ambient temperatures between 4 and 21°C as they navigate the transition between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy. Unlike cold-torpid fall ground squirrels, warm-torpid individuals strongly resembled the homeotherms, indicating that the changes observed in torpid hibernators are defined by body temperature, not torpor per se. Metabolic enzymes were largely unchanged despite varied metabolic activity across annual and torpor-arousal cycles. Instead, the majority of the observed changes were cytoskeletal proteins and their regulators. While cytoskeletal structural proteins tended to differ seasonally, i.e., between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy, their regulatory proteins were more strongly affected by body temperature. Changes in the abundance of various isoforms of the microtubule assembly and disassembly regulatory proteins dihydropyrimidinase

  7. Cytoskeletal regulation dominates temperature-sensitive proteomic changes of hibernation in forebrain of 13-lined ground squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson G Hindle

    Full Text Available 13-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, are obligate hibernators that transition annually between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy - wherein they exploit episodic torpor bouts. Despite cerebral ischemia during torpor and rapid reperfusion during arousal, hibernator brains resist damage and the animals emerge neurologically intact each spring. We hypothesized that protein changes in the brain underlie winter neuroprotection. To identify candidate proteins, we applied a sensitive 2D gel electrophoresis method to quantify protein differences among forebrain extracts prepared from ground squirrels in two summer, four winter and fall transition states. Proteins that differed among groups were identified using LC-MS/MS. Only 84 protein spots varied significantly among the defined states of hibernation. Protein changes in the forebrain proteome fell largely into two reciprocal patterns with a strong body temperature dependence. The importance of body temperature was tested in animals from the fall; these fall animals use torpor sporadically with body temperatures mirroring ambient temperatures between 4 and 21°C as they navigate the transition between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy. Unlike cold-torpid fall ground squirrels, warm-torpid individuals strongly resembled the homeotherms, indicating that the changes observed in torpid hibernators are defined by body temperature, not torpor per se. Metabolic enzymes were largely unchanged despite varied metabolic activity across annual and torpor-arousal cycles. Instead, the majority of the observed changes were cytoskeletal proteins and their regulators. While cytoskeletal structural proteins tended to differ seasonally, i.e., between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy, their regulatory proteins were more strongly affected by body temperature. Changes in the abundance of various isoforms of the microtubule assembly and disassembly regulatory proteins

  8. Acute toxicity tests using rotifers. 4. Effects of cyst age, temperature, and salinity on the sensitivity of Brachionus calyciflorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, T.W.; Moffat, B.D.; Janssen, C.; Persoone, G. (University of Tampa, Florida (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Several aspects of the response to toxicants using a standardized toxicity test with the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus are described. Test animals are obtained by hatching cysts which produce animals of similar age and physiological condition. The acute toxicity of 28 compounds is described with 24-hr LC50's. The LC50's span five orders of magnitude, from silver at 0.008 mg.liter-1 to benzene at more than 1000 mg.liter-1. Control mortality in 84 tests averaged 2% with a standard deviation of 3%, indicating very consistent test sensitivity. Only once in 84 trials did a test fail because of excessive control mortality, yielding a failure rate of 1.2%. Cyst age from 0 to 18 months had no effect on the sensitivity of neonates to reference toxicants. Both high and low temperatures increased rotifer sensitivity to reference toxicants. Copper sensitivity was greater at 10, 25, and 30 degrees C compared with results at 20 degrees C. Likewise, sodium pentachlorophenol toxicity was greater at 10 and 30 degrees C compared with results at 20 degrees C. Survivorship curves at 25 degrees C of neonates under control conditions indicated that mortality begins at about 30 hr. This places a practical limit on toxicant exposure for the assay of 24 hr. B. calyciflorus cysts hatch at salinities up to 5 ppt and acute toxicity tests using pentachlorophenol at this salinity yielded LC50's about one-half those of standard freshwater. B. calyciflorus is preferred over Brachionus plicatilis for toxicity tests in salinities up to 5 ppt because it is consistently more sensitive.

  9. Temperature dependence of the electrical, mechanical and electromechanical properties of high sensitivity novel piezoceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algueró, M.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The temperature dependence of the ε33 T dielectric permittivity and losses of piezoelectric Mn doped 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.35PbTiO3 ceramics has been measured up to 350oC at frequencies between 1 and 100 kHz by impedance spectroscopy. The temperature dependence of the low frequency Young´s modulus and mechanical losses of the ceramics has been measured in the same temperature range by dynamic mechanical analysis in three points bending configuration. Complex ε33 T, s11 E compliance and d31 piezoelectric coefficients have been obtained from radial piezoelectric resonances at temperatures up to 90oC (before depolarisation by an automatic iterative method. All the measurements reflect the occurrence of the ferroelectric rhombohedral to ferroelectric tetragonal phase transition, which is thougth to be responsible of the high electromechanical response of the PMN-PT system, and allow describing some of its characteristics for the investigated ceramics.

    Se ha medido por espectroscopía de impedancias la dependencia con la temperatura hasta 350oC de la permitividad y las pérdidas dieléctricas, ε33 T y tan δ, de cerámicas piezoeléctricas de 0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-0.35PbTiO3 dopadas con Mn a frecuencias entre 1 y 100 kHz. Se ha medido por análisis mecánico dinámico en la configuración de flexión por tres puntos la dependencia con la temperatura en el mismo rango del módulo de Young y las pérdidas mecánicas de baja frecuencia de las cerámicas. Se han obtenido por un método automático iterativo los coeficientes del material ε33 T, módulo elástico s11 E y coeficiente piezoeléctrico d31 en forma compleja a partir de resonancias radiales piezoeléctricas a temperaturas entre ambiente y 90oC (antes de la despolarización. Todas las medidas reflejan la existencia de la transición de la fase ferroeléctrica con estructura romboédrica a la fase ferroeléctrica con estructura tetragonal, que se cree responsable de la alta respuesta

  10. Hydration, phase separation and nonlinear rheology of temperature-sensitive water-soluble polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Fumihiko; Koga, Tsuyoshi [Department of Polymer Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Kaneda, Isamu [Department of Food Science, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan); Winnik, Francoise M, E-mail: ftanaka@phys.polym.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry and Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Montreal, Montreal, H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2011-07-20

    The collapse of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) chain upon heating and the phase diagrams of aqueous PNIPAM solutions with a very flat lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase separation line are theoretically studied on the basis of cooperative dehydration (simultaneous dissociation of bound water molecules in a group of correlated sequence), and compared with the experimental observation of temperature-induced coil-globule transition by light scattering methods. The transition becomes sharper with the cooperativity parameter {sigma} of hydration. The reentrant coil-globule-coil transition and cononsolvency in a mixed solvent of water and methanol are also studied from the viewpoint of competitive hydrogen bonds between polymer-water and polymer-methanol. The downward shift of the cloud-point curves (LCST cononsolvency) with the mol fraction of methanol due to the competition is calculated and compared with the experimental data. Aqueous solutions of hydrophobically modified PNIPAM carrying short alkyl chains at both chain ends (telechelic PNIPAM) are theoretically and experimentally studied. The LCST of these solutions is found to shift downward along the sol-gel transition curve as a result of end-chain association (association-induced phase separation), and separate from the coil-globule transition line. Associated structures in the solution, such as flower micelles, mesoglobules, and higher fractal assembly, are studied by ultra small-angle neutron scattering with theoretical modeling of the scattering function. Dynamic-mechanical modulus, nonlinear stationary viscosity, and stress build-up in start-up shear flows of the associated networks are studied on the basis of the affine and non-affine transient network theory. The molecular conditions for thickening, strain hardening, and stress overshoot are found in terms of the nonlinear amplitude A of the chain tension and the tension-dissociation coupling constant g.

  11. Soil respiration fluxes in a temperate mixed forest: seasonality and temperature sensitivities differ among microbial and root-rhizosphere respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehr, Nadine K; Buchmann, Nina

    2010-02-01

    Although soil respiration, a major CO(2) flux in terrestrial ecosystems, is known to be highly variable with time, the response of its component fluxes to temperature and phenology is less clear. Therefore, we partitioned soil respiration (SR) into microbial (MR) and root-rhizosphere respiration (RR) using small root exclusion treatments in a mixed mountain forest in Switzerland. In addition, fine root respiration (FRR) was determined with measurements of excised roots. RR and FRR were strongly related to each other (R(2) = 0.92, n = 7), with RR contributing about 46% and FRR about 32% to total SR. RR rates increased more strongly with temperature (Q(10) = 3.2) than MR rates (Q(10) = 2.3). Since the contribution of RR to SR was found to be higher during growing (50%) than during dormant periods (40%), we separated the 2-year data set into phenophases. During the growing period of 2007, the temperature sensitivity of RR (Q(10) = 2.5, R(2) = 0.62) was similar to that of MR (Q(10) = 2.2, R(2) = 0.57). However, during the dormant period of 2006/2007, RR was not related to soil temperature (R(2) = 0.44, n.s.), in contrast to MR (Q(10) = 7.2; R(2) = 0.92). To better understand the influence of plant activity on root respiration, we related RR and FRR rates to photosynthetic active radiation (both R(2) = 0.67, n = 7, P = 0.025), suggesting increased root respiration rates during times with high photosynthesis. During foliage green-up in spring 2008, i.e., from bud break to full leaf expansion, RR increased by a factor of 5, while soil temperature increased only by about 5 degrees C, leading to an extraordinary high Q(10) of 10.6; meanwhile, the contribution of RR to SR increased from 29 to 47%. This clearly shows that root respiration and its apparent temperature sensitivity highly depend on plant phenology and thus on canopy assimilation and carbon allocation belowground.

  12. Investigating the Strain, Temperature and Humidity Sensitivity of a Multimode Graded-Index Perfluorinated Polymer Optical Fiber with Bragg Grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yulong; Bremer, Kort; Roth, Bernhard

    2018-05-05

    In this work we investigate the strain, temperature and humidity sensitivity of a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) inscribed in a near infrared low-loss multimode perfluorinated polymer optical fiber based on cyclic transparent optical polymer (CYTOP). For this purpose, FBGs were inscribed into the multimode CYTOP fiber with a core diameter of 50 µm by using a krypton fluoride (KrF) excimer laser and the phase mask method. The evolution of the reflection spectrum of the FBG detected with a multimode interrogation technique revealed a single reflection peak with a full width at half maximum (FHWM) bandwidth of about 9 nm. Furthermore, the spectral envelope of the single FBG reflection peak can be optimized depending on the KrF excimer laser irradiation time. A linear shift of the Bragg wavelength due to applied strain, temperature and humidity was measured. Furthermore, depending on irradiation time of the KrF excimer laser, both the failure strain and strain sensitivity of the multimode fiber with FBG can be controlled. The inherent low light attenuation in the near infrared wavelength range (telecommunication window) of the multimode CYTOP fiber and the single FBG reflection peak when applying the multimode interrogation set-up will allow for new applications in the area of telecommunication and optical sensing.

  13. Highly sensitive work function hydrogen gas sensor based on PdNPs/SiO2/Si structure at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Behzadi pour

    Full Text Available In this study, fabrication of highly sensitive PdNPs/SiO2/Si hydrogen gas sensor using experimental and theoretical methods has been investigated. Using chemical method the PdNPs are synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The average size of PdNPs is 11 nm. The thickness of the oxide film was 20 nm and the surface of oxide film analyzed using Atomic-force microscopy (AFM. The C-V curve for the PdNPs/SiO2/Si hydrogen gas sensor in 1% hydrogen concentration and at the room temperature has been reported. The response time and recovery time for 1% hydrogen concentration at room temperature were 1.2 s and 10 s respectively. The response (R% for PdNPs/SiO2/Si MOS capacitor hydrogen sensor was 96%. The PdNPs/SiO2/Si MOS capacitor hydrogen sensor showed very fast response and recovery times compared to SWCNTs/PdNPs, graphene/PdNPs, nanorod/PdNPs and nanowire/PdNPs hydrogen gas sensors. Keywords: Sensitive, Oxide film, Capacitive, Resistance

  14. Simulated sensitivity of the tropical cyclone eyewall replacement cycle to the ambient temperature profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xulin; He, Jie; Ge, Xuyang

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the impacts of the environmental temperature profile on the tropical cyclone eyewall replacement cycle are examined using idealized numerical simulations. It is found that the environmental thermal condition can greatly affect the formation and structure of a secondary eyewall and the intensity change during the eyewall replacement cycle. Simulation with a warmer thermal profile produces a larger moat and a prolonged eyewall replacement cycle. It is revealed that the enhanced static stability greatly suppresses convection, and thus causes slow secondary eyewall formation. The possible processes influencing the decay of inner eyewall convection are investigated. It is revealed that the demise of the inner eyewall is related to a choking effect associated with outer eyewall convection, the radial distribution of moist entropy fluxes within the moat region, the enhanced static stability in the inner-core region, and the interaction between the inner and outer eyewalls due to the barotropic instability. This study motivates further research into how environmental conditions influence tropical cyclone dynamics and thermodynamics.

  15. Residential Load Manageability Factor Analyses by Load Sensitivity Affected by Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Eskandari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Load side management is the basic and significant principle to keeping the balance between generation side and consumption side of electrical power energy. Load side management on typical medium voltage feeder is the power energy consumption control of connected loads with variation of essential parameters that loads do reaction to their variation. Knowing amount of load's reaction to each parameters variation in typical medium voltage feeder during the day, leads to gain Load Manageability Factor (LMF for that specific feeder that helps power utilities to manage their connected loads. Calculating this LMF needs to find out each types of load with unique inherent features behavior to each parameters variation. This paper results and future work results will help us to catch mentioned LMF. In this paper analysis of residential load behavior due to temperature variation with training artificial neural network will be done. Load behavior due to other essential parameters variations like energy pricing variation, major event happening, and power utility announcing to the customers, and etc will study in future works. Collecting all related works results in a unit mathematical equation or an artificial neural network will gain LMF.

  16. Contrasting effects of elevated CO2 and warming on temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition in a Chinese paddy field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaozhi; Wang, Bingyu; Wang, Jinyang; Pan, Genxing; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2015-10-01

    Climate changes including elevated CO2 and temperature have been known to affect soil carbon (C) storage, while the effects of climate changes on the temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter (SOM) are unclear. A 365-day laboratory incubation was used to investigate the temperature sensitivity for decomposition of labile (Q 10-L) and recalcitrant (Q 10-R) SOMs by comparing the time required to decompose a given amount of C at 25 and 35 °C. Soils were collected from a paddy field that was subjected to four treatments: ambient CO2 and temperature, elevated CO2 (500 μmol/mol), enhanced temperature (+2 °C), and their combination. The results showed that the temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition increased with increasing SOM recalcitrance in this paddy soil (Q 10-L = 2.21 ± 0.16 vs. Q 10-R = 2.78 ± 0.42; mean ± SD). Elevated CO2 and enhanced temperature showed contrasting effects on the temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition. Elevated CO2 stimulated Q 10-R but had no effect on Q 10-L; in contrast, enhanced temperature increased Q 10-L but had no effect on Q 10-R. Furthermore, the elevated CO2 combined with enhanced temperature treatment significantly increased Q 10-L and Q 10-R by 18.9 and 10.2 %, respectively, compared to the ambient conditions. Results suggested that the responses of SOM to temperature, especially for the recalcitrant SOM pool, were altered by climate changes. The greatly enhanced temperature sensitivity of SOM decomposition by elevated CO2 and temperature indicates that more CO2 will be released to the atmosphere and losses of soil C may be even greater than that previously expected in paddy field.

  17. Vegetation types alter soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity at the field scale in an estuary wetland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxuan Han

    Full Text Available Vegetation type plays an important role in regulating the temporal and spatial variation of soil respiration. Therefore, vegetation patchiness may cause high uncertainties in the estimates of soil respiration for scaling field measurements to ecosystem level. Few studies provide insights regarding the influence of vegetation types on soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity in an estuary wetland. In order to enhance the understanding of this issue, we focused on the growing season and investigated how the soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity are affected by the different vegetation (Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and bare soil in the Yellow River Estuary. During the growing season, there were significant linear relationships between soil respiration rates and shoot and root biomass, respectively. On the diurnal timescale, daytime soil respiration was more dependent on net photosynthesis. A positive correlation between soil respiration and net photosynthesis at the Phragmites australis site was found. There were exponential correlations between soil respiration and soil temperature, and the fitted Q10 values varied among different vegetation types (1.81, 2.15 and 3.43 for Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and bare soil sites, respectively. During the growing season, the mean soil respiration was consistently higher at the Phragmites australis site (1.11 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1, followed by the Suaeda salsa site (0.77 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1 and the bare soil site (0.41 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1. The mean monthly soil respiration was positively correlated with shoot and root biomass, total C, and total N among the three vegetation patches. Our results suggest that vegetation patchiness at a field scale might have a large impact on ecosystem-scale soil respiration. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the differences in vegetation types when using models to evaluate soil respiration in an estuary wetland.

  18. Vegetation Types Alter Soil Respiration and Its Temperature Sensitivity at the Field Scale in an Estuary Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guangxuan; Xing, Qinghui; Luo, Yiqi; Rafique, Rashad; Yu, Junbao; Mikle, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation type plays an important role in regulating the temporal and spatial variation of soil respiration. Therefore, vegetation patchiness may cause high uncertainties in the estimates of soil respiration for scaling field measurements to ecosystem level. Few studies provide insights regarding the influence of vegetation types on soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity in an estuary wetland. In order to enhance the understanding of this issue, we focused on the growing season and investigated how the soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity are affected by the different vegetation (Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and bare soil) in the Yellow River Estuary. During the growing season, there were significant linear relationships between soil respiration rates and shoot and root biomass, respectively. On the diurnal timescale, daytime soil respiration was more dependent on net photosynthesis. A positive correlation between soil respiration and net photosynthesis at the Phragmites australis site was found. There were exponential correlations between soil respiration and soil temperature, and the fitted Q 10 values varied among different vegetation types (1.81, 2.15 and 3.43 for Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and bare soil sites, respectively). During the growing season, the mean soil respiration was consistently higher at the Phragmites australis site (1.11 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1), followed by the Suaeda salsa site (0.77 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1) and the bare soil site (0.41 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1). The mean monthly soil respiration was positively correlated with shoot and root biomass, total C, and total N among the three vegetation patches. Our results suggest that vegetation patchiness at a field scale might have a large impact on ecosystem-scale soil respiration. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the differences in vegetation types when using models to evaluate soil respiration in an estuary wetland. PMID:24608636

  19. Numerical Simulation of Heavy Rainfall in August 2014 over Japan and Analysis of Its Sensitivity to Sea Surface Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Minamiguchi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model version 3.7 for simulating a series of rainfall events in August 2014 over Japan and investigated the impact of uncertainty in sea surface temperature (SST on simulated rainfall in the record-high precipitation period. WRF simulations for the heavy rainfall were conducted for six different cases. The heavy rainfall events caused by typhoons and rain fronts were similarly accurately reproduced by three cases: the TQW_5km case with grid nudging for air temperature, humidity, and wind and with a horizontal resolution of 5 km; W_5km with wind nudging and 5-km resolution; and W_2.5km with wind nudging and 2.5-km resolution. Because the nudging for air temperature and humidity in TQW_5km suppresses the influence of SST change, and because W_2.5km requires larger computational load, W_5km was selected as the baseline case for a sensitivity analysis of SST. In the sensitivity analysis, SST around Japan was homogeneously changed by 1 K from the original SST data. The analysis showed that the SST increase led to a larger amount of precipitation in the study period in Japan, with the mean increase rate of precipitation being 13 ± 8% K−1. In addition, 99 percentile precipitation (100 mm d−1 in the baseline case increased by 13% K−1 of SST warming. These results also indicate that an uncertainty of approximately 13% in the simulated heavy rainfall corresponds to an uncertainty of 1 K in SST data around Japan in the study period.

  20. Microstructure and High Temperature Mechanical Property of Fe-Cr-B Based Metal/Ceramic Composite Manufactured by Metal Injection Molding Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kee-Ahn; Gwon, Jin-Han; Yoon, Tae-Sik

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the microstructure and the room and high temperature mechanical properties of Fe-Cr-B alloy manufactured by metal injection molding. In addition, hot isostatic pressing was performed to increase the density of the material, and a comparison of properties was made. Microstructural observation confirmed a bi-continuous structure composed of a three-dimensional network of α-Fe phase and (Cr,Fe)2B phase. The HIPed specimen featured a well-formed adhesion between the α-Fe phase and boride, and the number of fine pores was significantly reduced. The tensile results confirmed that the HIPed specimen (RT to 900 °C) had higher strengths compared to the as-sintered specimen, and the change of elongation starting from 700 °C was significantly greater in the HIPed specimen. Fractography suggested that cracks propagated mostly along the interface between the α-Fe matrix and boride in the as-sintered specimen, while direct fracture of boride was observed in addition to interface separation in the HIPed specimen.

  1. Additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumith, A; Thomas, M; Shah, Z; Coathup, M; Blunn, G

    2018-04-01

    Increasing innovation in rapid prototyping (RP) and additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is bringing about major changes in translational surgical research. This review describes the current position in the use of additive manufacturing in orthopaedic surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:455-60.

  2. Manufacturing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  3. A new sensor for ammonia based on cyanidin-sensitized titanium dioxide film operating at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao-wei, Huang [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, 212013 Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Xiao-bo, Zou, E-mail: zou_xiaobo@ujs.edu.cn [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, 212013 Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Agricultural Equipment and Technology, 301 Xuefu Road, 212013 Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Ji-yong, Shi; Jie-wen, Zhao; Yanxiao, Li [School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, 212013 Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Limin, Hao; Jianchun, Zhang [The Research Center of China Hemp Materials, Beijing (China)

    2013-07-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •TiO{sub 2} was prepared by sol–gel method film and then functionalized with the cyanidin dye. •The morphology and the absorption spectra of films were examined. •The hybrid organic–inorganic formed film here can detect ammonia reversibly at room temperature. •The low humidity could promote the sensitivity of the sensors. -- Abstract: Design and fabrication of an ammonia sensor operating at room temperature based on pigment-sensitized TiO{sub 2} films was described. TiO{sub 2} was prepared by sol–gel method and deposited on glass slides containing gold electrodes. Then, the film immersed in a 2.5 × 10{sup −4} M ethanol solution of cyanidin to absorb the pigment. The hybrid organic–inorganic formed film here can detect ammonia reversibly at room temperature. The relative change resistance of the films at a potential difference of 1.5 V is determined when the films are exposed to atmospheres containing ammonia vapors with concentrations over the range 10–50 ppm. The relative change resistance, S, of the films increased almost linearly with increasing concentrations of ammonia (r = 0.92). The response time to increasing concentrations of the ammonia is about 180–220 s, and the corresponding values for decreasing concentrations 240–270 s. At low humidity, ammonia could be ionized by the cyanidin on the TiO{sub 2} film and thereby decrease in the proton concentration at the surface. Consequently, more positively charged holes at the surface of the TiO{sub 2} have to be extracted to neutralize the adsorbed cyanidin and water film. The resistance response to ammonia of the sensors was nearly independent on temperature from 10 to 50 °C. These results are not actually as good as those reported in the literature, but this preliminary work proposes simpler and cheaper processes to realize NH{sub 3} sensor for room temperature applications.

  4. Temperature effects on CO2-sensitive intrapulmonary chemoreceptors in the lizard, Tupinambis nigropunctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douse, M A; Mitchell, G S

    1988-06-01

    Body temperature (Tb) effects on CO2 responses of 17 intrapulmonary chemoreceptors (IPC) were investigated in 9 anesthetized (pentobarbital; 30 mg/kg) and unidirectionally ventilated tegu lizards (Tupinambis nigropunctatus). At 30 degrees C, all IPC (n = 15) had a stable discharge pattern. At 20 degrees C, IPC discharge (n = 14) was stable at high PCO2 but irregular at low PCO2 and often (10/14) consisted of bursts of activity separated by one or more seconds of quiescence. Responses of IPC to static and dynamic changes in PCO2 were quantified at both Tb and the discharge rate vs PCO2 response curves were compared. Static discharge frequency (fSTAT) decreased as PCO2 increased at both Tb. At 20 degrees C: (1) fSTAT was diminished at all PCO2 levels relative to 30 degrees C; and (2) the slope of the fSTAT vs PCO2 relationship was markedly attenuated. The Q10 was 3.7 +/- 0.5 and was independent of PCO2. The peak discharge associated with a step decrease in PCO2 (dynamic response; fDYN) also decreased as PCO2 increased. At 20 degrees C: (1) fDYN was diminished at all PCO2 levels relative to 30 degrees C; but (2) the slope of the fDYN vs PCO2 relationship was similar at both Tb. The Q10 was 2.6 +/- 0.3 and was significantly less than the Q10 of fSTAT (P less than 0.05). Acute changes in Tb exert large effects on the CO2 response and discharge pattern of IPC; these effects on IPC may be important in ventilatory control at different Tb in lizards.

  5. On the sensitivity of Land Surface Temperature estimates in arid irrigated lands using MODTRAN

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge

    2015-11-29

    Land surface temperature (LST) derived from thermal infrared (TIR) satellite data has been reliably used as a remote indicator of evapotranspiration (ET) and surface moisture status. However, in order to retrieve the ET with an accuracy approaching 10%, LST should be retrieved to within 1 ◦C or better, disregarding other elements of uncertainty. The removal of atmospheric effects is key towards achieving a precise estimation of LST and it requires detailed information on water vapor. The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) onboard Landsat 8 captures data in two long wave thermal bands with 100-meter resolution. However, the US Geological Survey has reported a calibration problem of TIRS bands caused by stray light, resulting in a higher bias in one of its two bands (4% in band 11, 2% in band 10). Therefore, split-window algorithms for the estimation of LST might not be reliable. Our work will focus on the impact of using different atmospheric profiles (e.g. weather prediction models, satellite) for the estimation of LST derived from MODTRAN by using one of the TIRS bands onboard Landsat 8 (band 10). Sites with in-situ measurements of LST are used as evaluation sources. Comparisons between the measured LST and LST derived based on different atmospheric profile inputs to MODTRAN are carried out from 2 Landsat-overpass days (DOY 153 and 160 2015). Preliminary results show a mean absolute error of around 3 ◦C between in-situ and estimated LST over two different crops (alfalfa and carrot) and bare soil.

  6. Effects of preannealing temperature of ZnO thin films on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, M.C.; Chen, H.Z.; Young, S.L. [Hsiuping Institute of Technology, Department of Electronic Engineering, Taichung (China)

    2010-03-15

    The preferred (002) orientation zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystalline thin films have been deposited on FTO-coated glass substrates by sol-gel spin-coating technology and rapid thermal annealing for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The effects of preannealing temperature (100 and 300 C) on the microstructure, morphology and optical properties of ZnO thin films were studied. The ZnO thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The photoelectric performance of DSSC was studied by I-V curve and the incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE), respectively. From the results, the intensities of (002) peaks of ZnO thin films increases with increasing preannealing temperature from 100 C to 300 C. The increase in pore size and surface area of ZnO films crystallized at the increased preannealing temperature contributed to the improvement on the absorption of N3 dye onto the films, the short-circuit photocurrent (J{sub sc}) and open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of DSSC. The higher efficiency ({eta}) of 2.5% with J{sub sc} and V{sub oc} of 8.2 mA/cm{sup 2} and 0.64 V, respectively, was obtained by the ZnO film preannealed at 300 C. (orig.)

  7. Analysis of DNA Methylation of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis Under Temperature Stress Using the Methylation Sensitive Amplification Polymorphism (MSAP) Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chong; Sui, Zhenghong; Zhou, Wei; Hu, Yiyi; Mi, Ping; Jiang, Minjie; Li, Xiaodong; Ruan, Xudong

    2018-06-01

    Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis is an economically important agarophyte, which contains high quality gel and shows a high growth rate. Wild population of G. lemaneiformis displayed resident divergence, though with a low genetic diversity as was revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) analyses. In addition, different strains of G. lemaneiformis are diverse in morphology. The highly inconsistence between genetic background and physiological characteristics recommends strongly to the regulation at epigenetic level. In this study, the DNA methylation change in G. lemaneiformis among different generation branches and under different temperature stresses was assessed using methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique. It was shown that DNA methylation level among different generation branches was diverse. The full and total methylated DNA level was the lowest in the second generation branch and the highest in the third generation. The total methylation level was 61.11%, 60.88% and 64.12% at 15°C, 22°C and 26°C, respectively. Compared with the control group (22°C), the fully methylated and totally methylated ratios were increased in both experiment groups (15°C and 26°C). All of the cytosine methylation/demethylation transform (CMDT) was further analyzed. High temperature treatment could induce more CMDT than low temperature treatment did.

  8. Paleolimnologic and modeling perspectives on the physical and ecological sensitivity of Arctic tundra lakes to temperature changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, W.; Russel, J.; Giblin, A. E.; Longo, W. M.; Morrill, C.; Holland-Stergar, P.; Rose, R.; Huang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Temperatures are warming rapidly across the Arctic, with the potential to substantially alter freshwater ecosystem structure and functioning. Some important processes, such as allochthonous loading or carbon burial, may respond too slowly to observe in modern monitoring efforts, and therefore require alternative approaches to accurately assess. Here we analyze the physical and ecological sensitivity of Alaska tundra lakes to climate change through the lenses of paleolimnology and lake thermal modeling. We compare a 10,000 year long record of biomarker-inferred temperature change (leaf wax hydrogen isotopes) to independent indicators of lake primary production (chlorophyll a), algal community structure (diatom assemblages), and allochthonous inputs (XRF chemistry) from Lake E5 and Upper Capsule Lake near the Toolik Field Station in Alaska (69 °N, 150 °W). Temperatures varied on the order of 2-5 °C over the last 10,000 years, and warmed 1-2 °C during the post-industrial period. Shifts in diatom communities in both lakes reflect increased lake stratification and lake pH during warmer intervals of the Holocene. While lake stratification is a direct response to temperature, we propose that the pH response is due to a combination of two factors. First, an increase in the length of the ice-free season promotes ventilation of respired CO2 out of the lakes. Thermal modeling suggests that lake ice coverage changes by approximately 6-8 days/°C, and so we expect that ice-cover changed by as much as 3-4 weeks throughout the Holocene. Secondarily, sediment core calcium concentrations suggest increased base cation and alkalinity inputs during warmer periods, most likely due to the thermal-induced deepening of the soil active layer and enhanced carbonate rock weathering. Carbon and chlorophyll concentrations appear negatively correlated with temperature over most the Holocene, attributable to the temperature effect on organic matter respiration, although periods of enhanced

  9. Development and application of genetic sexing systems for the Mediterranean fruit fly based on a temperature sensitive lethal mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.; Willhoeft, U.; Kerremans, P.; Hendrichs, J.; Rendon, P.

    1997-01-01

    The present status in genetic sexing for the Mediterranean fruit fly is discussed. This includes the selection of the appropriate sexing gene (which determines the feasibility and practical applicability of the sexing system) as well as the selection of the appropriate Y-autosome translocation (which determines the stability of the sexing system). A temperature sensitive lethal mutation is used to eliminate females during the egg stage. This mutation in combination with new Y-autosome translocations allowed the construction of a genetic sexing strain, named VIENNA-42, that is stable enough for large scale mass rearing. Also described are the analysis of this strain under field cage and field conditions and, in preparation for large scale tests in Guatemala, the outcrossing of VIENNA-42 with genetic material from the target area. (author)

  10. High sensitivity ethanol gas sensor based on Sn - doped ZnO under visible light irradiation at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Peishuo; Pan, Guofeng; Zhang, Bingqiang; Zhen, Jiali; Sun, Yicai, E-mail: pgf@hebut.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronic, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin (China)

    2014-07-15

    Pure ZnO and 5at%, 7at%, 9at% Sn - doped ZnO materials are prepared by the chemical co - precipitation method. They were annealed by furnace at temperature range of 300 - 700ºC in air for 1h. The ZnO materials are characterized by X - ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the Sn - doped ZnO materials appear rough porous structures. The maximum sensitivity can be achieved by doping the amount of 7 at%. It has much better sensing performance towards ethanol vapor under visible light irradiation. The response and recovery time are ~1s and ~5s, respectively. The mechanism for the improvement in the sensing properties can be explained with the surface adsorption theory and the photoactivation theory. (author)

  11. Measurement of the temperature dependence of Young's modulus of cartilage by phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C H; Li, J; Singh, M; Larin, K V [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas (United States); Skryabina, M N [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Sobol, E N [Institute of Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    The development of an effective system to monitor the changes in the elastic properties of cartilage tissue with increasing temperature in laser reconstruction is an urgent practical task. In this paper, the use of phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography for detection of elastic waves in the sample has allowed Young's modulus of cartilage tissue to be measured directly during heating. Young's modulus was calculated from the group velocity of propagation of elastic waves excited by means of a system supplying focused air pulses. The measurement results are in agreement with the results of measurements of the modulus of elasticity under mechanical compression. The technique developed allows for noninvasive measurements; its development is promising for the use in vivo. (laser biophotonics)

  12. A major QTL affects temperature sensitive adult lethality and inbreeding depression in life span in Drosophila melanogaster.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Bijlsma, R.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2008-01-01

    of inbreeding effects in specific traits, such as age-specific mortality and life span, provide a good starting point, as a limited set of genes is expected to be involved. Results Here we report on a QTL mapping study on inbreeding related and temperature sensitive lethality in male Drosophila melanogaster...... and the molecular properties of genes that give rise to or modulate its deleterious effects is lacking. These questions warrant the detailed study of genetic loci giving rise to inbreeding depression. However, the complex and polygenic nature of general inbreeding depression makes this a daunting task. Study...... simple, being due mainly to a single recessive QTL on the left arm of chromosome 2. This locus colocalised with a QTL that conditioned variation in female life span, acting as an overdominant locus for this trait. Male life span was additionally affected by variation at the X-chromosome. Conclusion...

  13. pH and temperature dual-sensitive liposome gel based on novel cleavable mPEG-Hz-CHEMS polymeric vaginal delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daquan; Sun, Kaoxiang; Mu, Hongjie; Tang, Mingtan; Liang, Rongcai; Wang, Aiping; Zhou, Shasha; Sun, Haijun; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Jianwen; Liu, Wanhui

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, a pH and temperature dual-sensitive liposome gel based on a novel cleavable hydrazone-based pH-sensitive methoxy polyethylene glycol 2000-hydrazone-cholesteryl hemisuccinate (mPEG-Hz-CHEMS) polymer was used for vaginal administration. Methods The pH-sensitive, cleavable mPEG-Hz-CHEMS was designed as a modified pH-sensitive liposome that would selectively degrade under locally acidic vaginal conditions. The novel pH-sensitive liposome was engineered to form a thermogel at body temperature and to degrade in an acidic environment. Results A dual-sensitive liposome gel with a high encapsulation efficiency of arctigenin was formed and improved the solubility of arctigenin characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The dual-sensitive liposome gel with a sol-gel transition at body temperature was degraded in a pH-dependent manner, and was stable for a long period of time at neutral and basic pH, but cleavable under acidic conditions (pH 5.0). Arctigenin encapsulated in a dual-sensitive liposome gel was more stable and less toxic than arctigenin loaded into pH-sensitive liposomes. In vitro drug release results indicated that dual-sensitive liposome gels showed constant release of arctigenin over 3 days, but showed sustained release of arctigenin in buffers at pH 7.4 and pH 9.0. Conclusion This research has shed some light on a pH and temperature dual-sensitive liposome gel using a cleavable mPEG-Hz-CHEMS polymer for vaginal delivery. PMID:22679372

  14. Investigating the sensitivity of hurricane intensity and trajectory to sea surface temperatures using the regional model WRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevahir Kilic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sea surface temperature (SST anomalies on the hurricane characteristics are investigated in a set of sensitivity experiments employing the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The idealised experiments are performed for the case of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The first set of sensitivity experiments with basin-wide changes of the SST magnitude shows that the intensity goes along with changes in the SST, i.e., an increase in SST leads to an intensification of Katrina. Additionally, the trajectory is shifted to the west (east, with increasing (decreasing SSTs. The main reason is a strengthening of the background flow. The second set of experiments investigates the influence of Loop Current eddies idealised by localised SST anomalies. The intensity of Hurricane Katrina is enhanced with increasing SSTs close to the core of a tropical cyclone. Negative nearby SST anomalies reduce the intensity. The trajectory only changes if positive SST anomalies are located west or north of the hurricane centre. In this case the hurricane is attracted by the SST anomaly which causes an additional moisture source and increased vertical winds.

  15. Elaborate Manipulation for Sub-10 nm Hollow Catalyst Sensitized Heterogeneous Oxide Nanofibers for Room Temperature Chemical Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji-Soo; Choi, Seon-Jin; Koo, Won-Tae; Kim, Sang-Joon; Cheong, Jun Young; Kim, Il-Doo

    2017-07-26

    Room-temperature (RT) operation sensors are constantly in increasing demand because of their low power consumption, simple operation, and long lifetime. However, critical challenges such as low sensing performance, vulnerability under highly humid state, and poor recyclability hinder their commercialization. In this work, sub-10 nm hollow, bimetallic Pt-Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully formed by galvanic replacement reaction in bioinspired hollow protein templates and sensitized on the multidimensional SnO 2 -WO 3 heterojunction nanofibers (HNFs). Formation of hollow, bimetallic NPs resulted in the double-side catalytic effect, rendering both surface and inner side chemical reactions. Subsequently, SnO 2 -WO 3 HNFs were synthesized by incorporating 2D WO 3 nanosheets (NSs) with 0D SnO 2 sphere by c-axis growth inhibition effect and fluid dynamics of liquid Sn during calcination. Hierarchically assembled HNFs effectively modulate surface depletion layer of 2D WO 3 NSs by electron transfers from WO 3 to SnO 2 stemming from creation of heterojunction. Careful combination of bimetallic catalyst NPs with HNFs provided an extreme recyclability under exhaled breath (95 RH%) with outstanding H 2 S sensitivity. Such sensing platform clearly distinguished between the breath of healthy people and simulated halitosis patients.

  16. West-WRF Sensitivity to Sea Surface Temperature Boundary Condition in California Precipitation Forecasts of AR Related Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Cornuelle, B. D.; Martin, A.; Weihs, R. R.; Ralph, M.

    2017-12-01

    We evaluated the merit in coastal precipitation forecasts by inclusion of high resolution sea surface temperature (SST) from blended satellite and in situ observations as a boundary condition (BC) to the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale model through simple perturbation tests. Our sensitivity analyses shows that the limited improvement of watershed scale precipitation forecast is credible. When only SST BC is changed, there is an uncertainty introduced because of artificial model state equilibrium and the nonlinear nature of the WRF model system. With the change of SST on the order of a fraction of a degree centigrade, we found that the part of random perturbation forecast response is saturated after 48 hours when it reaches to the order magnitude of the linear response. It is important to update the SST at a shorter time period, so that the independent excited nonlinear modes can cancel each other. The uncertainty in our SST configuration is quantitatively equivalent to adding to a spatially uncorrelated Guasian noise of zero mean and 0.05 degree of standard deviation to the SST. At this random noise perturbation magnitude, the ensemble average behaves well within a convergent range. It is also found that the sensitivity of forecast changes in response to SST changes. This is measured by the ratio of the spatial variability of mean of the ensemble perturbations over the spatial variability of the corresponding forecast. The ratio is about 10% for surface latent heat flux, 5 % for IWV, and less than 1% for surface pressure.

  17. Micro Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing deals with systems that include products, processes, materials and production systems. These systems have functional requirements, constraints, design parameters and process variables. They must be decomposed in a systematic manner to achieve the best possible system performance....... If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development...... processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing...

  18. Smart Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  19. Junction temperature measurements via thermo-sensitive electrical parameters and their application to condition monitoring and active thermal control of power converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Liserre, Marco; Dupont, L.

    2013-01-01

    implementation of active thermal control to reduce losses and increase lifetime can be performed given an accurate knowledge of temperature. Temperature measurements via thermo-sensitive electrical parameters (TSEP) are one way to carry out immediate temperature readings on fully packaged devices. However...... scale implementation of these methods are discussed. Their potential use in the aforementioned goals in condition monitoring and active thermal control is also described....

  20. The defective phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthase in a temperature-sensitive prs-2 mutant of Escherichia coli is compensated by increased enzyme synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, David A.; Switzer, Robert L.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1996-01-01

    An Escherichia coli strain which is temperature-sensitive for growth due to a mutation (prs-2) causing a defective phosphoribosyl diphosphate (PRPP) synthase has been characterized. The temperature-sensitive mutation was mapped to a 276 bp HindIII-BssHII DNA fragment located within the open reading...... temperature shift to 42 degrees C. The other mutation was a C -> T transition located 39 bp upstream of the G -> A mutation, i.e. outside the coding sequence and close to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence. Cells harbouring only the C -> T mutation in a plasmid contained approximately three times as much PRPP...

  1. The microbial temperature sensitivity to warming is controlled by thermal adaptation and is independent of C-quality across a pan-continental survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Eva; Rousk, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Climate models predict that warming will result in an increased loss of soil organic matter (SOM). However, field experiments suggest that although warming results in an immediate increase in SOM turnover, the effect diminishes over time. Although the use and subsequent turnover of SOM is dominated by the soil microbial community, the underlying physiology underpinning warming responses are not considered in current climate models. It has been suggested that a reduction in the perceived quality of SOM to the microbial community, and changes in the microbial thermal adaptation, could be important feed-backs to soil warming. Thus, studies distinguishing between temperature relationships and how substrate quality influences microbial decomposition are a priority. We examined microbial communities and temperature sensitivities along a natural climate gradient including 56 independent samples from across Europe. The gradient included mean annual temperatures (MAT) from ca -4 to 18 ˚ C, along with wide spans of environmental factors known to influence microbial communities, such as pH (4.0 to 8.8), nutrients (C/N from 7 to 50), SOM (from 4 to 94%), and plant communities, etc. The extensive ranges of environmental conditions resulted in wide ranges of substrate quality, indexed as microbial respiration per unit SOM, from 5-150 μg CO2g-1 SOM g-1 h-1. We hypothesised microbial communities to (1) be adapted to the temperature of their climate, leading to warm adapted bacterial communities that were more temperature sensitive (higher Q10s) at higher MAT; (2) have temperature sensitivities affected by the quality of SOM, with higher Q10s for lower quality SOM. To determine the microbial use of SOM and its dependence on temperature, we characterized microbial temperature dependences of bacterial growth (leu inc), fungal growth (ac-in-erg) and soil respiration in all 56 sites. Temperature dependences were determined using brief (ca. 1-2 h at 25˚ C) laboratory incubation

  2. Pengaruh Preparasi Pasta dan Temperatur Annealing pada Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC Berbasis Nanopartikel ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Syukron

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Telah difabrikan Dye-sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC berbasis nanopartikel ZnO dengan variasi metode preparasi pasta sesuai dengan Yonekawa dan Gratzel dan temperatur fabrikasi. Nanopartikel ZnO dibuat dengan metode kopresipitasi yaitu dengan mereaksikan prekursor Zinc Asetat dengan DEG (diethylene glycol. Prepararasi fotoelektroda ZnO dilakukan dengan memvariasikan komposisi pasta berdasarkan metode yang dilakukan oleh Gratzel dan Yonekawa untuk mendapatkan efisiensi yang besar. Selain itu, dilakukan variasi temperatur pada proses anil fotoelektroda. Fabrikasi DSSC menggunakan pewarna manggis sebagai pewarna alami. DSSC difabrikasi dalam bentuk struktur sandwich dengan menggunakan pasangan redoks I3-/I- dan elektroda pembanding platina/karbon. Hasil karakterisasi ZnO menunjukkan ZnO berdispersi tunggal dengan ukuran agregat dan partikel sebesar ~300nm dan 13,93 nm. Energi band gap yang dihasilkan dari nanopartikel ZnO adalah 3,29 eV. Berdasarkan karakteristik kurva I-V dan IPCE, diperoleh bahwa efisiensi terbaik berada pada suhu 200°C dengan menggunakan metode Yonekawa sebesar 0,11% dengan IPCE 0,0005%, FF 61,41%, Isc 2,79µA, Voc 232,4 mV.

  3. Temperature-sensitive mutations for live-attenuated Rift Valley fever vaccines: Implications from other RNA viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko eNishiyama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease endemic to the African continent. RVF is characterized by high rate of abortions in ruminants and hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis or blindness in humans. RVF is caused by the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV: genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae. Vaccination is the only known effective strategy to prevent the disease, but there are no licensed RVF vaccines available for humans. A live-attenuated vaccine candidate derived from the wild-type pathogenic Egyptian ZH548 strain, MP-12, has been conditionally licensed for veterinary use in the United States. MP-12 displays a temperature-sensitive (ts phenotype and does not replicate at 41oC. The ts mutation limits viral replication at a specific body temperature and may lead to an attenuation of the virus. Here we will review well-characterized ts mutations for RNA viruses, and further discuss the potential in designing novel live-attenuated vaccines for RVF.

  4. Low-temperature fabrication of flexible TiO{sub 2} electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qinghui; Qi, Bin [Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronic Functional Materials and Molecular Engineering, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhong-guan-cun, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhong-guan-cun, Beijing 100190 (China); Yu, Yuan; Wu, Liangzhuan; Zhi, Jinfang [Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronic Functional Materials and Molecular Engineering, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhong-guan-cun, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-09-15

    A novel method for preparing flexible porous titania electrode from commercial TiO{sub 2} particles at low temperature for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was introduced. In this method, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as an additive was added to form a good-quality TiO{sub 2}/HPMC film on indium-tin-oxide-coated polyethylene naphthalate flexible substrate (PEN/ITO). The additive was subsequently decomposed via the TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic degradation process under 365 nm UV-light illumination at room temperature to form flexible multiporous TiO{sub 2} electrode film. Electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis indicated that the resistance of TiO{sub 2} film markedly decreased, and photocurrent-voltage curves showed that the photocurrent dramatically increased when the additive (HPMC) was removed from the flexible titania electrode film. The photocurrent conversion efficiency was estimated at 3.25% under 100 mW/cm{sup 2} illuminations using this flexible film as the DSSC photoanode. Photocurrent versus voltages of the as-prepared flexible DSSCs under AM 1.5 at 100 mW/cm{sup 2} illumination: photoanode made from HPMC-free TiO{sub 2} paste ({open_square}) and photoanodes made from HPMC/TiO{sub 2} paste with UV-light illumination from 0 to 10 h. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Ratiometric highly sensitive luminescent nanothermometers working in the room temperature range. Applications to heat propagation in nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brites, Carlos D. S.; Lima, Patrícia P.; Silva, Nuno J. O.; Millán, Angel; Amaral, Vitor S.; Palacio, Fernando; Carlos, Luís D.

    2013-07-01

    There is an increasing demand for accurate, non-invasive and self-reference temperature measurements as technology progresses into the nanoscale. This is particularly so in micro- and nanofluidics where the comprehension of heat transfer and thermal conductivity mechanisms can play a crucial role in areas as diverse as energy transfer and cell physiology. Here we present two luminescent ratiometric nanothermometers based on a magnetic core coated with an organosilica shell co-doped with Eu3+ and Tb3+ chelates. The design of the hybrid host and chelate ligands permits the working of the nanothermometers in a nanofluid at 293-320 K with an emission quantum yield of 0.38 +/- 0.04, a maximum relative sensitivity of 1.5% K-1 at 293 K and a spatio-temporal resolution (constrained by the experimental setup) of 64 × 10-6 m/150 × 10-3 s (to move out of 0.4 K - the temperature uncertainty). The heat propagation velocity in the nanofluid, (2.2 +/- 0.1) × 10-3 m s-1, was determined at 294 K using the nanothermometers' Eu3+/Tb3+ steady-state spectra. There is no precedent of such an experimental measurement in a thermographic nanofluid, where the propagation velocity is measured from the same nanoparticles used to measure the temperature.There is an increasing demand for accurate, non-invasive and self-reference temperature measurements as technology progresses into the nanoscale. This is particularly so in micro- and nanofluidics where the comprehension of heat transfer and thermal conductivity mechanisms can play a crucial role in areas as diverse as energy transfer and cell physiology. Here we present two luminescent ratiometric nanothermometers based on a magnetic core coated with an organosilica shell co-doped with Eu3+ and Tb3+ chelates. The design of the hybrid host and chelate ligands permits the working of the nanothermometers in a nanofluid at 293-320 K with an emission quantum yield of 0.38 +/- 0.04, a maximum relative sensitivity of 1.5% K-1 at 293 K and a spatio

  6. Temperature sensitive lethal factors and puparial colour sex separation mechanisms in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch-Petersen, E.

    1990-01-01

    A programme to develop genetic sexing mechanisms in the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was initiated at the IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf, in 1983. Because of the potential benefits arising from the elimination of females early in the developmental cycle, combined with the anticipated relative ease of inducing temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) factors, it was decided to attempt to induce and isolate tsl factors active in the egg or early larval stages. Initially, five recombination suppressor (RS) strains were isolated. The degree of recombination suppression ranged from 77.6% to 99.1%. The viability of each of the five RS strains was assessed and RS 30/55 was selected as the most suitable strain. Ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) was used to induce the tsl factors, by feeding two-day old adult males with a suspension of EMS in a 10% solution of sugar in the drinking water supply. Temperature tolerance tests indicated a discriminating temperature of 32 deg. C when isolating tsl factors active in the egg stage and 35 deg. C when isolating such factors in the early larval stage. A total of 39 and 22 tsl factors have been isolated in the two stages, respectively. However, none has yet proved stable. Induction of tsl factors with a reduced dose of EMS is now being attempted. An alternative genetic sexing programme was initiated in 1985, based on the use of pupal colour dimorphisms. Previously, a genetic sexing strain, T:Y(wp + )101, based on a white female/brown male puparial colour dimorphism, had twice been assessed for stability under mass rearing conditions. In both cases the sexual colour dimorphism disintegrated immediately. Another similarly dimorphic strain, T:Y(wp + )30C, was developed. This strain remained stable for seven generations of mass rearing, after which it started to disintegrate. Disintegration of this strain was probably caused by accidental contamination by wild type medflies. 34 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Modelling tree ring cellulose δ18O variations in two temperature-sensitive tree species from North and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lavergne

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen isotopes in tree rings (δ18OTR are widely used to reconstruct past climates. However, the complexity of climatic and biological processes controlling isotopic fractionation is not yet fully understood. Here, we use the MAIDENiso model to decipher the variability in δ18OTR of two temperature-sensitive species of relevant palaeoclimatological interest (Picea mariana and Nothofagus pumilio and growing at cold high latitudes in North and South America. In this first modelling study on δ18OTR values in both northeastern Canada (53.86° N and western Argentina (41.10° S, we specifically aim at (1 evaluating the predictive skill of MAIDENiso to simulate δ18OTR values, (2 identifying the physical processes controlling δ18OTR by mechanistic modelling and (3 defining the origin of the temperature signal recorded in the two species. Although the linear regression models used here to predict daily δ18O of precipitation (δ18OP may need to be improved in the future, the resulting daily δ18OP values adequately reproduce observed (from weather stations and simulated (by global circulation model δ18OP series. The δ18OTR values of the two species are correctly simulated using the δ18OP estimation as MAIDENiso input, although some offset in mean δ18OTR levels is observed for the South American site. For both species, the variability in δ18OTR series is primarily linked to the effect of temperature on isotopic enrichment of the leaf water. We show that MAIDENiso is a powerful tool for investigating isotopic fractionation processes but that the lack of a denser isotope-enabled monitoring network recording oxygen fractionation in the soil–vegetation–atmosphere compartments limits our capacity to decipher the processes at play. This study proves that the eco-physiological modelling of δ18OTR values is necessary to interpret the recorded climate signal more reliably.

  8. Use of a temperature-sensitive p53 mutant to evaluate mechanisms of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine-mediated radiosensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naida, J.D.; Davis, M.A.; Lawrence, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Evidence exists that fluorodeoxyuridine (FdUrd)-mediated radiosensitization occurs in HT29 human colon carcinoma cells (which are p53 mutant) when these cells progress past the G 1 /S boundary in the presence of the drug. It has been demonstrated that wild type p53 levels increase following fluoropyrimidine treatment and that G 1 arrest is associated with increased p53 levels. We hypothesized that the restoration of wild type p53 function might restore G 1 /S arrest after FdUrd treatment, and that this would prevent FdUrd-mediated radiosensitization. Similarly, we hypothesized that cells containing wild type p53 would not be radiosensitized by FdUrd. Materials and Methods: Two clones of HT29 human colon cancer cells (ts29-A and ts29-G) containing murine temperature-sensitive p53 were constructed using electroporation and Geneticin selection. Incubation of these cells at the permissive temperature of 32 deg. C produces wild type p53 function and at the non permissive temperature of 38 deg. C causes mutant p53 function. A G418 resistant control cell line was also constructed (HT29neo). Cells were incubated at either 32 deg. C or 38 deg. C for 24 hours prior to irradiation and with FdUrd (100 nM) or medium only during the last 14 hours of the temperature shift. To assess progression into S phase, single-parameter (propidium iodide (PI)) and two-parameter (PI and bromodeoxyuridine) flow cytometry were performed at the end of drug exposure. A standard clonogenic assay was used. Results: We found that when ts29-A and ts29-G cells were incubated at the non-permissive (inactive p53 conformation) temperature, they progressed into S phase following exposure to FdUrd and were radiosensitized (enhancement ratio 1.5) to a degree similar to that seen in parental HT29 cells. Cells incubated at the permissive (wild-type p53 conformation) temperature demonstrated G 1 arrest, S phase depletion, and G2 arrest. In addition, FdUrd-mediated radiosensitization was

  9. Computer modeling of the sensitivity of a laser water vapor sensor to variations in temperature and air speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, George F.

    1994-01-01

    Currently, there is disagreement among existing methods of determining atmospheric water vapor concentration at dew-points below -40 C. A major source of error is wall effects which result from the necessity of bringing samples into the instruments. All of these instruments also have response times on the order of seconds. NASA Langley is developing a water vapor sensor which utilizes the absorption of the infrared radiation produced by a diode laser to estimate water vapor concentration. The laser beam is directed through an aircraft window to a retroreflector located on an engine. The reflected beam is detected by an infrared detector located near the laser. To maximize signal to noise, derivative signals are analyzed. By measuring the 2f/DC signal and correcting for ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure and air speed (which results in a Doppler shifting of the laser beam), the water vapor concentration can be retrieved. Since this is an in situ measurement there are no wall effects and measurements can be made at a rate of more than 20 per second. This allows small spatial variations of water vapor to be studied. In order to study the sensitivity of the instrument to variations in temperature and air speed, a computer program which generated the 2f, 3f, 4f, DC and 2f/DC signals of the instrument as a function of temperature, pressure and air speed was written. This model was used to determine the effect of errors in measurement of the temperature and air speed on the measured water vapor concentration. Future studies will quantify the effect of pressure measurement errors, which are expected to be very small. As a result of these studied, a retrieval algorithm has been formulated, and will be applied to data taken during the PEM-West atmospheric science field mission. Spectroscopic studies of the water vapor line used by the instrument will be used to refine this algorithm. To prepare for these studies, several lasers have been studied to determine their

  10. Preparation of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles using low hydrothermal temperature for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofyan, N.; Ridhova, A.; Yuwono, A. H.; Udhiarto, A.

    2018-03-01

    One device being developed as an alternative source of renewable energy by utilizing solar energy source is dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). This device works using simple photosynthetic-electrochemical principle in the molecular level. In this device, the inorganic oxide semiconductor of titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a great potential for the absorption of the photon energy from the solar energy source, especially in the form of TiO2 nanoparticle structure. This nanoparticle structure is expected to improve the performance of DSSC because the surface area to weight ratio of this nanostructures is very large. In this study, the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticle from its precursors has been performed along with the fabrication of the DSSC device. Effort to improve the size of nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 was accomplished by low hydrothermal treatment at various temperatures whereas the crystallinity of the anatase phase in the structure was performed by calcination process. Characterization of the materials was performed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the DSSC performance was examined through a high precision current versus voltage (I-V) curve analyzer. The results showed that pure anatase TiO2 nanoparticles could be obtained at low hydrothermal of 100, 125, and 150 °C followed by calcination at 450 °C. The best performance of photocurrent-voltage characteristic was given by TiO2 hydrothermally synthesized at 150 °C with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.40 %, whereas the standard TiO2 nanoparticles has PCE only 4.02 %. This result is very promising in terms low temperature and thus low cost of anatase TiO2 semiconductor preparation for DSSC application.

  11. Characterization of the rate and temperature sensitivities of bacterial remineralization of dissolved organic phosphorus by natural populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelicque E. White

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Production, transformation, and degradation are the principal components of the cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM in marine systems. Heterotrophic Bacteria (and Archaea play a large part in this cycling via enzymatic decomposition and intracellular transformations of organic material to inorganic carbon (C, nitrogen (N , and phosphorus (P. The rate and magnitude of inorganic nutrient regeneration from DOM is related to the elemental composition and lability of DOM substrates as well as the nutritional needs of the mediating organisms. While many previous efforts have focused on C and N cycling of DOM, less is known in regards to the controls of organic P utilization and remineralization by natural populations of bacteria. In order to constrain the relative time scales and degradation of select dissolved organic P (DOP compounds we have conducted a series of experiments focused on (1 assessment of the short-term lability of a range of DOP compounds, (2 characterization of labile DOP remineralization rates and (3 examination of temperature sensitivities of labile DOP remineralization for varying bacterial populations. Results reinforce previous findings of monoester and polyphosphate lability and the relative recalcitrance of a model phosphonate: 2-aminoethylphosphonate. High resolution time-series of P monoester remineralization indicates decay constants on the order of 0.67-7.04 d-1 for bacterial populations isolated from coastal and open ocean surface waters. The variability of these rates is predictably related to incubation temperature and initial concentrations of heterotrophic bacteria. Additional controls on DOP hydrolysis included seasonal shifts in bacterial populations and the physiological state of bacteria at the initiation of DOP addition experiments. Composite results indicate that bacterial hydrolysis of P-monoesters exceeds bacterial P demand and thus DOP remineralization efficiency may control P availability to autotrophs.

  12. The feasibility of retrieving vertical temperature profiles from satellite nadir UV observations: A sensitivity analysis and an inversion experiment with neural network algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellitto, P.; Del Frate, F.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric temperature profiles are inferred from passive satellite instruments, using thermal infrared or microwave observations. Here we investigate on the feasibility of the retrieval of height resolved temperature information in the ultraviolet spectral region. The temperature dependence of the absorption cross sections of ozone in the Huggins band, in particular in the interval 320–325 nm, is exploited. We carried out a sensitivity analysis and demonstrated that a non-negligible information on the temperature profile can be extracted from this small band. Starting from these results, we developed a neural network inversion algorithm, trained and tested with simulated nadir EnviSat-SCIAMACHY ultraviolet observations. The algorithm is able to retrieve the temperature profile with root mean square errors and biases comparable to existing retrieval schemes that use thermal infrared or microwave observations. This demonstrates, for the first time, the feasibility of temperature profiles retrieval from space-borne instruments operating in the ultraviolet. - Highlights: • A sensitivity analysis and an inversion scheme to retrieve temperature profiles from satellite UV observations (320–325 nm). • The exploitation of the temperature dependence of the absorption cross section of ozone in the Huggins band is proposed. • First demonstration of the feasibility of temperature profiles retrieval from satellite UV observations. • RMSEs and biases comparable with more established techniques involving TIR and MW observations

  13. Influence of seed layer treatment on low temperature grown ZnO nanotubes: Performances in dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameen, Sadia [Energy Materials and Surface Science Laboratory, Solar Energy Research Center, School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Akhtar, M. Shaheer [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering and Solar Energy Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); New and Renewable Energy Material Development Center (NewREC), Chonbuk National University, Buan-gun, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Soon [Energy Materials and Surface Science Laboratory, Solar Energy Research Center, School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, O-Bong [School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering and Solar Energy Research Center, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyung-Shik, E-mail: hsshin@jbnu.ac.k [Energy Materials and Surface Science Laboratory, Solar Energy Research Center, School of Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-01

    Non-aligned and highly densely aligned ZnO nanotube (NTs), synthesized by low temperature solution method were applied as photoanode materials for the fabrication of efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The crystalline and the morphological analysis revealed that the grown aligned ZnO NTs possessed a typical hexagonal crystal structure of outer and inner diameter {approx}250 nm and {approx}100 nm, respectively. ZnO seeding on FTO substrates is an essential step to achieve the aligned ZnO NTs. A DSSC fabricated with aligned ZnO NTs photoanode achieved high solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency of {approx}2.2% with short circuit current (J{sub SC}) of 5.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.65 V and fill factor (FF) of 0.61. Significantly, the aligned ZnO NTs photoanode showed three times improved solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency than DSSC fabricated with non-aligned ZnO NTs. The enhanced performances were credited to the aligned morphology of ZnO NTs which executed the high charge collection and the transfer of electrons at the interfaces of ZnO NTs and electrolyte layer.

  14. Automatic CT-based finite element model generation for temperature-based death time estimation: feasibility study and sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkl, Sebastian; Muggenthaler, Holger; Hubig, Michael; Erdmann, Bodo; Weiser, Martin; Zachow, Stefan; Heinrich, Andreas; Güttler, Felix Victor; Teichgräber, Ulf; Mall, Gita

    2017-05-01

    Temperature-based death time estimation is based either on simple phenomenological models of corpse cooling or on detailed physical heat transfer models. The latter are much more complex but allow a higher accuracy of death time estimation, as in principle, all relevant cooling mechanisms can be taken into account.Here, a complete workflow for finite element-based cooling simulation is presented. The following steps are demonstrated on a CT phantom: Computer tomography (CT) scan Segmentation of the CT images for thermodynamically relevant features of individual geometries and compilation in a geometric computer-aided design (CAD) model Conversion of the segmentation result into a finite element (FE) simulation model Computation of the model cooling curve (MOD) Calculation of the cooling time (CTE) For the first time in FE-based cooling time estimation, the steps from the CT image over segmentation to FE model generation are performed semi-automatically. The cooling time calculation results are compared to cooling measurements performed on the phantoms under controlled conditions. In this context, the method is validated using a CT phantom. Some of the phantoms' thermodynamic material parameters had to be determined via independent experiments.Moreover, the impact of geometry and material parameter uncertainties on the estimated cooling time is investigated by a sensitivity analysis.

  15. Sensitivity of the crystal quality of SiGe layers grown at low temperatures by trisilane and germane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedin, A., E-mail: aabedin@kth.se; Moeen, M.; Cappetta, C.; Östling, M.; Radamson, H.H., E-mail: rad@kth.se

    2016-08-31

    This work investigates the crystal quality of SiGe layers grown at low temperatures using trisilane, and germane precursors. The crystal quality sensitivity was monitored for hydrogen chloride and/or minor oxygen amount during SiGe epitaxy or at the interface of SiGe/Si layers. The quality of the epi-layers was examined by quantifying noise parameter, K{sub 1/f} obtained from the power spectral density vs. 1/f curves. The results indicate that while it is difficult to detect small defect densities in SiGe layers by physical material characterization, the noise measurement could reveal the effects of oxygen contamination as low as 0.16 mPa inside and in the interface of the layers. - Highlights: • SiGe layers were grown using trisilane and germane. • Effect of HCl flow on Ge content and growth rate was investigated. • O{sub 2} partial pressures up to 4.3 mPa did not affect x-ray diffraction pattern. • O{sub 2} partial pressures as low as 0.16 mPa increased the noise level. • HCl increased metal contaminations of the layers and the noise level consequently.

  16. Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Respiration to Nitrogen Fertilization: Varying Effects between Growing and Non-Growing Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingfang; Wang, Rui; Li, Rujian; Hu, Yaxian; Guo, Shengli

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization has a considerable effect on food production and carbon cycling in agro-ecosystems. However, the impacts of N fertilization rates on the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) were controversial. Five N rates (N0, N45, N90, N135, and N180) were applied to a continuous winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop on the semi-arid Loess Plateau, and the in situ soil respiration was monitored during five consecutive years from 2008 to 2013. During the growing season, the mean soil respiration rates increased with increasing N fertilization rates, peaking at 1.53 μmol m−2s−1 in the N135 treatment. A similar dynamic pattern was observed during the non-growing season, yet on average with 7.3% greater soil respiration rates than the growing season. In general for all the N fertilization treatments, the mean Q10 value during the non-growing season was significantly greater than that during the growing season. As N fertilization rates increased, the Q10 values did not change significantly in the growing season but significantly decreased in the non-growing season. Overall, N fertilization markedly influenced soil respirations and Q10 values, in particular posing distinct effects on the Q10 values between the growing and non-growing seasons. PMID:27992576

  17. Temperature effect on the photoinduced reduction of methyl viologen with several sensitizers and the evolution of hydrogen from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenadovic, M.T.; Micic, O.I.; Rajh, T.; Savic, D.

    1983-01-01

    Irradiation by visible light of an aqueous solution containing a photosensitizer, methyl viologen (MV/sup 2 +/) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid leads to the formation of the reduced form of methyl viologen (MV/sup +/). The quantum yield for the formation of MV/sup +/ depends strongly on the time during which the formation is observed owing to the reaction of MV/sup +/ with oxidative products and its reduction to MV/sup 0/. Proflavin, acridine yellow and ruthenium(II)tris(2,2-bipyridyl) were used as photosensitizers and showed the same ability to promote hydrogen evolution. When CdS was used as a sensitizer a factor of 10 less hydrogen was obtained than when the dyes were used. The redox catalysts platinum, Pt-TiO/sub 2/-RuO/sub 2/ and Pt-CdS in colloidal systems showed approximately the same activity towards the reduction of water. The reduction of MV/sup 2 +/ and the evolution of hydrogen were enhanced at higher temperatures (70/sup 0/C). The optimum conditions for water reduction on redox catalysts in colloidal system under continuous illumination are analysed.

  18. A preliminary study on induction and identification of chlorophyll mutants of indica type temperature sensitive genie male-sterile rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yingwu; Liu Guifu; Shu Qingyao; Jiang Ronghua; Xie Jiahua

    1995-01-01

    Chlorophyll mutants of different type were obtained from indica type temperature sensitive genie male-sterile rice (cv. 2177s) by using 60 Co γ-rays irradiation. The total chlorophyll mutation frequency reached to 0.26% in M 2 generation. However only about 4.50% of these mutants could survived. Among them, 33 heritable chlorophyll mutant lines were easily distinguished, and were screened and studied. The mutants either showed chlorosis or yellowing or expressed only at seedling period or persisted all growth cycle. The expression of mutant character was stable under different environment. It is suggested that they are useful as the marker traits in two-line hybrid rice. Moreover, the agronomic traits of most of these lines changed in different levels compared with the parent line 2177S. Every mutation line seemed to be controlled by one recessive gene as the F 1 plants of reciprocal crosses between mutant and 2177S showed normal leaf color. And the ratio of green plants/mutant plants was 3:1 in the segregated F 2 population

  19. Assignment of simian rotavirus SA11 temperature-sensitive mutant groups B and E to genome segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombold, J.L.; Estes, M.K.; Ramig, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Recombinant (reassortant) viruses were selected from crosses between temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of simian rotavirus SA11 and wild-type human rotavirus Wa. The double-stranded genome RNAs of the reassortants were examined by electrophoresis in Tris-glycine-buffered polyacrylamide gels and by dot hybridization with a cloned DNA probe for genome segment 2. Analysis of replacements of genome segments in the reassortants allowed construction of a map correlating genome segments providing functions interchangeable between SA11 and Wa. The reassortants revealed a functional correspondence in order of increasing electrophoretic mobility of genome segments. Analysis of the parental origin of genome segments in ts+ SA11/Wa reassortants derived from the crosses SA11 tsB(339) X Wa and SA11 tsE(1400) X Wa revealed that the group B lesion of tsB(339) was located on genome segment 3 and the group E lesion of tsE(1400) was on segment 8

  20. Assignment of simian rotavirus SA11 temperature-sensitive mutant groups B and E to genome segments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombold, J.L.; Estes, M.K.; Ramig, R.F.

    1985-05-01

    Recombinant (reassortant) viruses were selected from crosses between temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of simian rotavirus SA11 and wild-type human rotavirus Wa. The double-stranded genome RNAs of the reassortants were examined by electrophoresis in Tris-glycine-buffered polyacrylamide gels and by dot hybridization with a cloned DNA probe for genome segment 2. Analysis of replacements of genome segments in the reassortants allowed construction of a map correlating genome segments providing functions interchangeable between SA11 and Wa. The reassortants revealed a functional correspondence in order of increasing electrophoretic mobility of genome segments. Analysis of the parental origin of genome segments in ts+ SA11/Wa reassortants derived from the crosses SA11 tsB(339) X Wa and SA11 tsE(1400) X Wa revealed that the group B lesion of tsB(339) was located on genome segment 3 and the group E lesion of tsE(1400) was on segment 8.

  1. LEAN Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne

    . The mission with the strategy is to obtain competitive production in Denmark and in Western Europe based on the right combination of manufacturing principles, motivated and trained employees, level of automation, and cooperation with suppliers and customers worldwide. The strategy has resulted in technical...

  2. Low soil moisture during hot periods drives apparent negative temperature sensitivity of soil respiration in a dryland ecosystem: A multi-model comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Colin; Reed, Sasha C.

    2016-01-01

    Arid and semiarid ecosystems (drylands) may dominate the trajectory of biosphere-to-atmosphere carbon (C) flux over the coming century. Accordingly, understanding dryland CO2 efflux controls is important for understanding C cycling at the global-scale: key unknowns regarding how temperature and moisture interact to regulate dryland C cycling remain. Further, the patchiness of dryland vegetation can create ‘islands of fertility’, with spatially heterogeneous rates of soil respiration (Rs). At our study site in southeastern Utah, USA we added or removed litter (0 to 650% of control) in paired plots that were either associated with a shrub or with interspaces between vascular plants. We measured Rs, soil temperature, and water content (θ) on eight sampling dates between October 2013 and November 2014. Rs was highest following monsoon rains in late summer when soil temperature was ~30°C. During mid-summer, Rs was low, associated with high soil temperatures (>40°C), resulting in an apparent negative temperature sensitivity of Rs at high temperatures, and positive temperature sensitivity at low-moderate temperatures. We used Bayesian statistical methods to compare multiple competing models capturing a wide range of hypothesized relationships between temperature, moisture, and Rs. The best fit model indicates apparent negative temperature sensitivity of soil respiration at high temperatures reflects the control of soil moisture – not high temperatures – in limiting Rs. The modeled Q10 ranged from 2.7 at 5°C to 1.4 at 45°C. Litter addition had no effect on temperature sensitivity or reference respiration (Rref = Rs at 20°C and optimum moisture) beneath shrubs, and little effect on Rref in interspaces, yet Rref was 1.5 times higher beneath shrubs than in interspaces. Together, these results suggest reduced Rs often observed at high temperatures in drylands is dominated by the control of moisture, and that variable litter inputs – at least over the short

  3. pH and temperature dual-sensitive liposome gel based on novel cleavable mPEG-Hz-CHEMS polymeric vaginal delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Daquan Chen,1,2 Kaoxiang Sun,1,2 Hongjie Mu,1 Mingtan Tang,3 Rongcai Liang,1,2 Aiping Wang,1,2 Shasha Zhou,1 Haijun Sun,1 Feng Zhao,1 Jianwen Yao,1 Wanhui Liu1,21School of Pharmacy, Yantai University, 2State Key Laboratory of Longacting and Targeting Drug Delivery Systems, Yantai, 3School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: In this study, a pH and temperature dual-sensitive liposome gel based on a novel cleavable hydrazone-based pH-sensitive methoxy polyethylene glycol 2000-hydrazone-cholesteryl hemisuccinate (mPEG-Hz-CHEMS polymer was used for vaginal administration.Methods: The pH-sensitive, cleavable mPEG-Hz-CHEMS was designed as a modified pH-sensitive liposome that would selectively degrade under locally acidic vaginal conditions. The novel pH-sensitive liposome was engineered to form a thermogel at body temperature and to degrade in an acidic environment.Results: A dual-sensitive liposome gel with a high encapsulation efficiency of arctigenin was formed and improved the solubility of arctigenin characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The dual-sensitive liposome gel with a sol-gel transition at body temperature was degraded in a pH-dependent manner, and was stable for a long period of time at neutral and basic pH, but cleavable under acidic conditions (pH 5.0. Arctigenin encapsulated in a dual-sensitive liposome gel was more stable and less toxic than arctigenin loaded into pH-sensitive liposomes. In vitro drug release results indicated that dual-sensitive liposome gels showed constant release of arctigenin over 3 days, but showed sustained release of arctigenin in buffers at pH 7.4 and pH 9.0.Conclusion: This research has shed some light on a pH and temperature dual-sensitive liposome gel using a cleavable mPEG-Hz-CHEMS polymer for vaginal delivery.Keywords: mPEG-Hz-CHEMS polymer, pH-sensitive liposomes, thermosensitive

  4. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  5. The effect of thermal treatment on the quality changes of Antartic krill meal during the manufacturing process: High processing temperatures decrease product quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Bruheim, Inge; Ale, Marcel Tutor

    2015-01-01

    The quality of krill products is influenced by their manufacturing process and could be evaluated by their degradation products from lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions. The main objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate the effect of thermal treatment on these two reacti...

  6. Alginate Microspheres Containing Temperature Sensitive Liposomes (TSL for MR-Guided Embolization and Triggered Release of Doxorubicin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merel van Elk

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop and characterize alginate microspheres suitable for embolization with on-demand triggered doxorubicin (DOX release and whereby the microspheres as well as the drug releasing process can be visualized in vivo using MRI.For this purpose, barium crosslinked alginate microspheres were loaded with temperature sensitive liposomes (TSL/TSL-Ba-ms, which release their payload upon mild hyperthermia. These TSL contained DOX and [Gd(HPDO3A(H2O], a T1 MRI contrast agent, for real time visualization of the release. Empty alginate microspheres crosslinked with holmium ions (T2* MRI contrast agent, Ho-ms were mixed with TSL-Ba-ms to allow microsphere visualization. TSL-Ba-ms and Ho-ms were prepared with a homemade spray device and sized by sieving. Encapsulation of TSL in barium crosslinked microspheres changed the triggered release properties only slightly: 95% of the loaded DOX was released from free TSL vs. 86% release for TSL-Ba-ms within 30 seconds in 50% FBS at 42°C. TSL-Ba-ms (76 ± 41 μm and Ho-ms (64 ± 29 μm had a comparable size, which most likely will result in a similar in vivo tissue distribution after an i.v. co-injection and therefore Ho-ms can be used as tracer for the TSL-Ba-ms. MR imaging of a TSL-Ba-ms and Ho-ms mixture (ratio 95:5 before and after hyperthermia allowed in vitro and in vivo visualization of microsphere deposition (T2*-weighted images as well as temperature-triggered release (T1-weighted images. The [Gd(HPDO3A(H2O] release and clusters of microspheres containing holmium ions were visualized in a VX2 tumor model in a rabbit using MRI.In conclusion, these TSL-Ba-ms and Ho-ms are promising systems for real-time, MR-guided embolization and triggered release of drugs in vivo.

  7. Old and stable soil organic matter is not necessarily chemically recalcitrant: Implications for modeling concepts and temperature sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleber, M.; Nico, P.S.; Plante, A.; Filley, T.; Kramer, M.; Swanston, C.; Sollins, P.

    2010-03-01

    of complex or 'recalcitrant' compounds will erroneously attribute a greater temperature sensitivity to those materials than they may actually possess.

  8. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  9. Effects of Temperature on Auditory Sensitivity in Eurythermal Fishes: Common Carp Cyprinus carpio (Family Cyprinidae) versus Wels Catfish Silurus glanis (Family Siluridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiditsch, Isabelle Pia; Ladich, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Background In ectothermal animals such as fish, -temperature affects physiological and metabolic processes. This includes sensory organs such as the auditory system. The reported effects of temperature on hearing in eurythermal otophysines are contradictory. We therefore investigated the effect on the auditory system in species representing two different orders. Methodology/Principal Findings Hearing sensitivity was determined using the auditory evoked potentials (AEP) recording technique. Auditory sensitivity and latency in response to clicks were measured in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (order Cypriniformes) and the Wels catfish Silurus glanis (order Siluriformes) after acclimating fish for at least three weeks to two different water temperatures (15°C, 25°C and again 15°C). Hearing sensitivity increased with temperature in both species. Best hearing was detected between 0.3 and 1 kHz at both temperatures. The maximum increase occurred at 0.8 kHz (7.8 dB) in C. carpio and at 0.5 kHz (10.3 dB) in S. glanis. The improvement differed between species and was in particular more pronounced in the catfish at 4 kHz. The latency in response to single clicks was measured from the onset of the sound stimulus to the most constant positive peak of the AEP. The latency decreased at the higher temperature in both species by 0.37 ms on average. Conclusions/Significance The current study shows that higher temperature improves hearing (lower thresholds, shorter latencies) in eurythermal species from different orders of otophysines. Differences in threshold shifts between eurythermal species seem to reflect differences in absolute sensitivity at higher frequencies and they furthermore indicate differences to stenothermal (tropical) species. PMID:25255456

  10. HIGH-TEMPERATURE VACUUM CEMENTATION – THE RESERVE TO REDUCE THE ENERGY INTENSITY OF MANUFACTURE AND IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF TRANSMISSIONS GEARWHEELS OF HIGH-ENERGY MACHINES

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Shipko; S. P. Rudenko; A. L. Valko; A. N. Chichin

    2016-01-01

    Results of research of influence of high-temperature vacuum chemical heat treatment on the amount of grain structural steels are presented. The efficiency of hereditary fine-grained steel for high temperature vacuum carburizing are shown.

  11. HIGH-TEMPERATURE VACUUM CEMENTATION – THE RESERVE TO REDUCE THE ENERGY INTENSITY OF MANUFACTURE AND IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF TRANSMISSIONS GEARWHEELS OF HIGH-ENERGY MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shipko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of research of influence of high-temperature vacuum chemical heat treatment on the amount of grain structural steels are presented. The efficiency of hereditary fine-grained steel for high temperature vacuum carburizing are shown.

  12. Chromosome condensation may enhance X-ray-related cell lethality in a temperature-sensitive mutant (tsBN2) of baby hamster kidney cells (BHK21)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, H.; Nishimoto, T.

    1987-01-01

    In the tsBN2 cell line, which has a temperature-sensitive defect in the regulatory mechanism for chromosome condensation, the lethal effect of X rays was enhanced by incubating the cells at a nonpermissive temperature (40 degrees C) following X irradiation. This enhancement was suppressed in the presence of cycloheximide, which inhibits induction of premature chromosome condensation. The findings obtained in the case of delayed incubation at 40 degrees C and in synchronized cells indicate that X-ray-related potentially lethal damage, which can be expressed by chromosome condensation, is produced in the cells at any stage of the cell cycle, but it is repairable for all cells except those at around the late G2-M phase, where chromosome condensation occurs at a permissive temperature (33.5 degrees C). These observations suggest that the high sensitivity of late G2-M cells to X rays is caused by the events associated with chromosome condensation

  13. Topology Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders

    This PhD thesis deals with the combination of topology optimization and additive man-ufacturing (AM, also known as 3D-printing). In addition to my own works, the thesis contains a broader review and assessment of the literature within the field. The thesis first presents a classification...... of the various AM technologies, a review of relevant manufacturing materials, the properties of these materials in the additively manufactured part, as well as manufacturing constraints with a potential for design optimization. Subsequently, specific topology optimization formulations relevant for the most im...... for scalable manufacturing. In relation to interface problems it is shown how a flexible void area may be included into a standard minimum compliance problem by employing an additional design variable field and a sensitivity filter. Furthermore, it is shown how the design of coated structures may be modeled...

  14. Low temperature modification of gamma-irradiation effect on peas. II.Low temperature effect on the radio-sensitivity and the chlorophyll mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najdenova, N.; Vasileva, M.

    1976-01-01

    Dry pea seeds of cv.Ramonskii 77 with 11-12% moisture were γ-irradiated by 60 Co in doses 5, 15, 20 and 30 krad. Low temperature (-78 deg C) was effected in the form of dry ice for a 24 h period prior to, at the time of and post irradiation. As control were used: (a) dry non-irradiated seeds, stored at room temperature; (b) non-irradiated seeds subjected to low temperature (-78 deg C) for a 24 h period. and (c) seeds irradiated by the named doses, stored at room temperature until the time of irradiation. Treated and control seeds were sown in the field. Germination, survival rate and sterility were recorded in M 1 , while in M 2 chlorophyll mutations were scored. Results obtained showed that low temperature modification effect on the various irradiation doses depended on the time of its application; low temperature (-78 deg C) treatment prior to seed irradiation with doses 15, 20 and 30 krad increased germination percentage, plant survival and yield components in M 1 . The post-irradiation treatment did not have a significant effect on gamma-rays; highest protection effect was obtained in case seeds were irradiated at low temperature and then received supplementary treatment at high temperature. In this way the damaging effect of radiation was reduced to a maximum degree; low temperature treatment prior to irradiation with doses of 15 and 20 krad or at the time of irradiation with doses of 15, 20 and 30 krad resulted in a considerably wider chlorophyll mutation spectrum. (author)

  15. Low temperature annealed amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) as a pH sensitive layer for applications in field effect based sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Narendra [Materials Science Programme, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur-208016 (India); Samtel Centre for Display Technologies, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur-208016 (India); Kumar, Jitendra [Materials Science Programme, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur-208016 (India); Panda, Siddhartha, E-mail: spanda@iitk.ac.in [Materials Science Programme, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur-208016 (India); Samtel Centre for Display Technologies, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur-208016 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur-208016 (India)

    2015-06-15

    The use of a-IGZO instead of the conventional high-k dielectrics as a pH sensitive layer could lead to the simplification of fabrication steps of field effect based devices. In this work, the pH sensitivities of a-IGZO films directly deposited over a SiO{sub 2}/Si surface were studied utilizing electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structures. Annealing of the films was found to affect the sensitivity of the devices and the device with the film annealed at 400 {sup o}C in N{sub 2} ambience showed the better sensitivity, which reduced with further increase in the annealing temperature to 500 {sup o}C. The increased pH sensitivity with the film annealed at 400 {sup o}C in N{sub 2} gas was attributed to the enhanced lattice oxygen ions (based on the XPS data) and improved C-V characteristics, while the decrease in sensitivity at an increased annealing temperature of 500 {sup o}C was attributed to defects in the films as well as the induced traps at the IGZO/SiO{sub 2} interface based on the stretched accumulation and the peak in the inversion region of C-V curves. This study could help to develop a sensor where the material (a-IGZO here) used as the active layer in a thin film transistors (TFTs) possibly could also be used as the pH sensitive layer without affecting the TFT characteristics, and thus obviating the need of high-K dielectrics for sensitivity enhancement.

  16. Low temperature annealed amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO as a pH sensitive layer for applications in field effect based sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of a-IGZO instead of the conventional high-k dielectrics as a pH sensitive layer could lead to the simplification of fabrication steps of field effect based devices. In this work, the pH sensitivities of a-IGZO films directly deposited over a SiO2/Si surface were studied utilizing electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS structures. Annealing of the films was found to affect the sensitivity of the devices and the device with the film annealed at 400 oC in N2 ambience showed the better sensitivity, which reduced with further increase in the annealing temperature to 500 oC. The increased pH sensitivity with the film annealed at 400 oC in N2 gas was attributed to the enhanced lattice oxygen ions (based on the XPS data and improved C-V characteristics, while the decrease in sensitivity at an increased annealing temperature of 500 oC was attributed to defects in the films as well as the induced traps at the IGZO/SiO2 interface based on the stretched accumulation and the peak in the inversion region of C-V curves. This study could help to develop a sensor where the material (a-IGZO here used as the active layer in a thin film transistors (TFTs possibly could also be used as the pH sensitive layer without affecting the TFT characteristics, and thus obviating the need of high-K dielectrics for sensitivity enhancement.

  17. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy links structural moieties of soil organic matter to the temperature sensitivity of its decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Erhagen, Björn; Öquist, Mats; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) represents a huge carbon pool, specifically in boreal ecosystems. Warming-induced release of large amounts of CO2 from the soil carbon pool might become a significant exacerbating feedback to global warming, if decomposition rates of boreal soils were more sensitive to increased temperatures. Despite a large number of studies dedicated to the topic, it has proven difficult to elucidate how the organo-chemical composition of SOM influences its decomposition, or its quality as a substrate for microbial metabolism. A great part of this challenge results from our inability to achieve a detailed characterization of the complex composition of SOM on the level of molecular structural moieties. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a common tool to characterize SOM. However, SOM is a very complex mixture and the chemical shift regions distinguished in the 13C NMR spectra often represent many different molecular fragments. For example, in the carbohydrates region, signals of all monosaccharides present in many different polymers overlap. This overlap thwarts attempts to identify molecular moieties, resulting in insufficient information to characterize SOM composition. We applied two-dimensional (2D) NMR to characterize SOM with highly increased resolution. We directly dissolved finely ground litters and forest floors'fibric and humic horizons'of both coniferous and deciduous boreal forests in dimethyl sulfoxide and analyzed the resulting solution with a 2D 1H-13C NMR experiment. In the 2D planes of these spectra, signals of CH groups can be resolved based on their 13C and 1H chemical shifts, hence the resolving power and information content of these NMR spectra is hugely increased. The 2D spectra indeed resolved overlaps observed in 1D 13C spectra, so that hundreds of distinct CH groups could be observed and many molecular fragments could be identified. For instance, in the aromatics region, signals from individual lignin units could

  18. Summary of decontamination cover manufacturing experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, G.B.; Berry, H.W.

    1995-02-01

    Decontamination cover forming cracks and vent cup assembly leaks through the decontamination covers were early manufacturing problems. The decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield was as low as 55%. Applicable tooling and procedures were examined. All manufacturing steps from foil fabrication to final assembly leak testing were considered as possible causes or contributing factors to these problems. The following principal changes were made to correct these problems: (1) the foil annealing temperature was reduced from 1375 degrees to 1250 degrees C, (2) the decontamination cover fabrication procedure (including visual inspection for surface imperfections and elimination of superfluous operations) was improved, (3) the postforming dye penetrant inspection procedure was revised for increased sensitivity, (4) a postforming (prewelding) 1250 degrees C/1 h vacuum stress-relief operation was added, (5) a poststress relief (prewelding) decontamination cover piece-part leak test was implemented, (6) the hold-down fixture used during the decontamination cover-to-cup weld was modified, and concomitantly, and (7) the foil fabrication process was changed from the extruding and rolling of 63-mm-diam vacuum arc-remelted ingots (extrusion process) to the rolling of 19-mm-square arc-melted drop castings (drop cast process). Since these changes were incorporated, the decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield has been 91 %. Most importantly, more than 99% of the decontamination covers welded onto vent cup assemblies were acceptable. The drastic yield improvement is attributed primarily to the change in the foil annealing temperature from 1375 degrees to 1250 degrees C and secondarily to the improvements in the decontamination cover fabrication procedure

  19. Multiple temperature effects on up-conversion fluorescences of Er3+-Y b3+-Mo6+ codoped TiO2 and high thermal sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Cao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We report multiple temperature effects on green and red up-conversion emissions in Er3+-Y b3+-Mo6+ codoped TiO2 phosphors. With increasing temperature, the decrease of the red emission from 4F9/2→4I15/2, the increase of green emission from 2H11/2→4I15/2 and another unchanged green emission from 4S3/2→4I15/2 were simultaneously observed, which are explained by steady-state rate equations analysis. Due to different evolution with temperature of the two green emissions, higher thermal sensitivity of optical thermal sensor was obtained based on the transitions with the largest fluorescence intensity ratio. Two parameters, maximum theoretical sensitivity (Smax and optimum operating temperature (Tmax are given to describe thermal sensing properties of the produced sensors. The intensity ratio and energy difference ΔE of a pair of energy levels are two main factors for the sensitivity and accuracy of sensors, which should be referred to design sensors with optimized sensing properties.

  20. Emissions from laboratory combustor tests of manufactured wood products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkening, R.; Evans, M.; Ragland, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Baker, A. [USDA Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Manufactured wood products contain wood, wood fiber, and materials added during manufacture of the product. Manufacturing residues and the used products are burned in a furnace or boiler instead of landfilling. Emissions from combustion of these products contain additional compounds from the combustion of non-wood material which have not been adequately characterized to specify the best combustion conditions, emissions control equipment, and disposal procedures. Total hydrocarbons, formaldehyde, higher aldehydes and carbon monoxide emissions from aspen flakeboard and aspen cubes were measured in a 76 mm i.d. by 1.5 m long fixed bed combustor as a function of excess oxygen, and temperature. Emissions of hydrocarbons, aldehydes and CO from flakeboard and from clean aspen were very sensitive to average combustor temperature and excess oxygen. Hydrocarbon and aldehyde emissions below 10 ppM were achieved with 5% excess oxygen and 1,200{degrees}C average temperature for aspen flakeboard and 1,100{degrees}C for clean aspen at a 0.9 s residence time. When the average temperature decreased below these levels, the emissions increased rapidly. For example, at 950{degrees}C and 5% excess oxygen the formaldehyde emissions were over 1,000 ppM. These laboratory tests reinforce the need to carefully control the temperature and excess oxygen in full-scale wood combustors.

  1. The influence of annealing temperature on the interface and photovoltaic properties of CdS/CdSe quantum dots sensitized ZnO nanorods solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaofeng; Chen, Ling; Gong, Haibo; Zhu, Min; Han, Jun; Zi, Min; Yang, Xiaopeng; Ji, Changjian; Cao, Bingqiang

    2014-09-15

    Arrays of ZnO/CdS/CdSe core/shell nanocables with different annealing temperatures have been investigated for CdS/CdSe quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). CdS/CdSe quantum dots were synthesized on the surface of ZnO nanorods that serve as the scaffold via a simple ion-exchange approach. The uniform microstructure was verified by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. UV-Visible absorption spectrum and Raman spectroscopy analysis indicated noticeable influence of annealing temperature on the interface structural and optical properties of the CdS/CdSe layers. Particularly, the relationship between annealing temperatures and photovoltaic performance of the corresponding QDSSCs was investigated employing photovoltaic conversion, quantum efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectra. It is demonstrated that higher cell efficiency can be obtained by optimizing the annealing temperature through extending the photoresponse range and improving QD layer crystal quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation of optimal manufacturing process for freeze-dried formulations: Observation of frozen solutions by low temperature X-ray diffraction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egawa, Hiroaki; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Terada, Katsuhide

    2005-01-01

    Freeze-drying is used for the production of sterile injections in the pharmaceutical industry. However, most pharmaceutical compounds are obtained as less stable amorphous form. Freeze crystallization by annealing is an effective method for pharmaceutical compounds that fail to crystallize in the freeze-drying process. Crystallization occurs in the frozen solution during the thermal treatment. In order to establish suitable annealing conditions efficiently, it is important to observe the crystallization process directly in the frozen solution. Recently, low temperature X-ray diffraction has been used to observe frozen solutions. In order to investigate the crystallization process kinetically, the temperature of the low temperature X-ray diffraction instrument must be accurately controlled. We calibrated the temperature of X-ray diffraction instrument by measuring eutectic temperatures of solutions for a series of compounds. Each eutectic crystal was observed in frozen solution with ice crystal below the eutectic temperature. Eutectic temperatures were detected by the decrease in diffraction intensity associated with heating from below the eutectic temperature. Good correlation was obtained between values in the literature and experimental values

  3. NASA/ORNL/AFRL Project Work on EBM LSHR: Additive Manufacturing of High-Temperature Gamma-Prime Strengthened Ni-Based Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudbrack, Chantal K.; Kirka, Michael M.; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Carter, Robert W.; Semiatin, Sheldon L.; Gabb, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    Powder-bed fabrication of aerospace alloys may revolutionize production by eliminating the need for extensive machining and expensive tooling. Heated-bed electron-beam melting (EBM) offers advantages over non-heated laser additive manufacturing (AM) methods, including lower residual stress, reduced risk of contamination, slower cooling rates, and faster build times. NASA Glenn Research Center has joint project work with Oak Ridge National Lab and the Air Force Research Laboratory to explore the feasibility of fabricating advanced Ni-based gamma-prime superalloys with EBM AM.

  4. A three-stage hybrid model for regionalization, trends and sensitivity analyses of temperature anomalies in China from 1966 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feifei; Yang, XiaoHua; Shen, Zhenyao

    2018-06-01

    Temperature anomalies have received increasing attention due to their potentially severe impacts on ecosystems, economy and human health. To facilitate objective regionalization and examine regional temperature anomalies, a three-stage hybrid model with stages of regionalization, trends and sensitivity analyses was developed. Annual mean and extreme temperatures were analyzed using the daily data collected from 537 stations in China from 1966 to 2015, including the annual mean, minimum and maximum temperatures (Tm, TNm and TXm) as well as the extreme minimum and maximum temperatures (TNe and TXe). The results showed the following: (1) subregions with coherent temperature changes were identified using the rotated empirical orthogonal function analysis and K-means clustering algorithm. The numbers of subregions were 6, 7, 8, 9 and 8 for Tm, TNm, TXm, TNe and TXe, respectively. (2) Significant increases in temperature were observed in most regions of China from 1966 to 2015, although warming slowed down over the last decade. This warming primarily featured a remarkable increase in its minimum temperature. For Tm and TNm, 95% of the stations showed a significant upward trend at the 99% confidence level. TNe increased the fastest, at a rate of 0.56 °C/decade, whereas 21% of the stations in TXe showed a downward trend. (3) The mean temperatures (Tm, TNm and TXm) in the high-latitude regions increased more quickly than those in the low-latitude regions. The maximum temperature increased significantly at high elevations, whereas the minimum temperature increased greatly at middle-low elevations. The most pronounced warming occurred in eastern China in TNe and northwestern China in TXe, with mean elevations of 51 m and 2098 m, respectively. A cooling trend in TXe was observed at the northwestern end of China. The warming rate in TNe varied the most among the subregions (0.63 °C/decade).

  5. Genetic variation for lettuce seed thermoinhibition is associated with temperature-sensitive expression of abscisic Acid, gibberellin, and ethylene biosynthesis, metabolism, and response genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyris, Jason; Dahal, Peetambar; Hayashi, Eiji; Still, David W; Bradford, Kent J

    2008-10-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa 'Salinas') seeds fail to germinate when imbibed at temperatures above 25 degrees C to 30 degrees C (termed thermoinhibition). However, seeds of an accession of Lactuca serriola (UC96US23) do not exhibit thermoinhibition up to 37 degrees C in the light. Comparative genetics, physiology, and gene expression were analyzed in these genotypes to determine the mechanisms governing the regulation of seed germination by temperature. Germination of the two genotypes was differentially sensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) at elevated temperatures. Quantitative trait loci associated with these phenotypes colocated with a major quantitative trait locus (Htg6.1) from UC96US23 conferring germination thermotolerance. ABA contents were elevated in Salinas seeds that exhibited thermoinhibition, consistent with the ability of fluridone (an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor) to improve germination at high temperatures. Expression of many genes involved in ABA, GA, and ethylene biosynthesis, metabolism, and response was differentially affected by high temperature and light in the two genotypes. In general, ABA-related genes were more highly expressed when germination was inhibited, and GA- and