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Sample records for mankin tnu laas

  1. First fruits of LAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The LAA programme is divided into nine specialized areas - high precision tracking, calorimetry, large area devices, leading particle detection, special applications of integrated circuits, data acquisition and analysis, supercomputers and simulation studies, high magnetic fields, and high temperature superconductivity. (orig./HSI).

  2. LAA~Ah

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    411<0 = 1000 dalton, 1 dalton = 1.66024 x 10-24 g. ______ LAA~Ah ... energy use. These changes led to a reduction in food intake and the percentage of body fat, along with an ... of the brain called the hypothalamus may be important in ...

  3. THE RELIABILITY OF THE MANKIN SCORE FOR OSTEOARTHRITIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluijs, J.A.; GEESINK, RGT; van der Linden, A.J.; BULSTRA, SK; Kuijer, Roelof; DRUKKER, J

    For the histopathological classification of the severity of osteoarthritic lesions of cartilage, the Mankin score is frequently used. A necessary constraint on the validity of this scoring system is the consistency with which cartilage lesions are classified. The intra- and interobserver agreement

  4. Labor tirib haigused päevavalgele / Eda Laas ; interv. Eevi Kuht

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laas, Eda

    2005-01-01

    Piiral tegutseva veterinaar- ja toidulabori juhataja Eda Laas peab kõige ohtlikumaks uuritavaks loomahaiguseks ka inimesele levivat surmaga lõppevat marutaudi, mille vastu võitlemiseks on riik eriprogrammi kokku pannud

  5. Rundum artist-run space and its elusive form / Hanna Laura Kaljo, Mari-Leen Kiipli, Kulla Laas ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Rundum on 2013. a septembris Tallinnas loodud liikuv loominguline platvorm, mille eesmärgiks on suhestuda erinevate kohtadega, reageerida tühikutele Eesti loomemaastikus ning uurida sealjuures ka omaalgatuslike praktikate võimalikkust kohalikus kontekstis. Vestlusringis Rundumi algatajad Mari-Leen Kiipli, Kulla Laas, Aap Tepper, Mari Volens, Kristina Õllek

  6. LAAS GEEL (SOMALILAND: 5000 YEAR-OLD PAINTINGS CAPTURED IN 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Grenier

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Discovered in 2002 by a French archaeology team conducted by Prof. X. Gutherz, Laas Geel (Somaliland, is probably one of the most remarkable archaeological site in the horn of Africa. Located in an isolated arid region, it is made of natural rocky shelters on which hundreds of colored paintings still remain in a particularly good state of conservation. The first studies achieved in the last decade let suppose that they are 5000 years old. After several studying and exploring expeditions, a 3Ddigitizing campaign has been carried out by Art Graphique et Patrimoine, under the direction of X. Gutherz, with the support of the cultural service of the French Embassy in Djibouti. The project was focused on three main goals: production of a high accuracy 3D-documentation for scientific needs, archiving the 3D digital print recorded on site for the conservation and the saving of this heritage, and finally diffusing the results throughout various kinds of media to reveal the site to the public, insisting on its vulnerability.

  7. Laas Geel (somaliland): 5000 Year-Old Paintings Captured in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, L.; Antoniotti, P.; Hamon, G.; Happe, D.

    2013-07-01

    Discovered in 2002 by a French archaeology team conducted by Prof. X. Gutherz, Laas Geel (Somaliland), is probably one of the most remarkable archaeological site in the horn of Africa. Located in an isolated arid region, it is made of natural rocky shelters on which hundreds of colored paintings still remain in a particularly good state of conservation. The first studies achieved in the last decade let suppose that they are 5000 years old. After several studying and exploring expeditions, a 3Ddigitizing campaign has been carried out by Art Graphique et Patrimoine, under the direction of X. Gutherz, with the support of the cultural service of the French Embassy in Djibouti. The project was focused on three main goals: production of a high accuracy 3D-documentation for scientific needs, archiving the 3D digital print recorded on site for the conservation and the saving of this heritage, and finally diffusing the results throughout various kinds of media to reveal the site to the public, insisting on its vulnerability.

  8. - LAA Occluder View for post-implantation Evaluation (LOVE) - standardized imaging proposal evaluating implanted left atrial appendage occlusion devices by cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnes, Michael; Akin, Ibrahim; Sartorius, Benjamin; Fastner, Christian; El-Battrawy, Ibrahim; Borggrefe, Martin; Haubenreisser, Holger; Meyer, Mathias; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Henzler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A standardized imaging proposal evaluating implanted left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion devices by cardiac computed tomography angiography (cCTA) has never been investigated. cCTA datasets were acquired on a 3 rd generation dual-source CT system and reconstructed with a slice thickness of 0.5 mm. An interdisciplinary evaluation was performed by two interventional cardiologists and one radiologist on a 3D multi-planar workstation. A standardized multi-planar reconstruction algorithm was developed in order to assess relevant clinical aspects of implanted LAA occlusion devices being outlined within a pictorial essay. The following clinical aspects of implanted LAA occlusion devices were evaluated within the most appropriate cCTA multi-planar reconstruction: (1) topography to neighboring structures, (2) peri-device leaks, (3) coverage of LAA lobes, (4) indirect signs of neo-endothelialization. These are illustrated within concise CT imaging examples emphasizing the potential value of the proposed cCTA imaging algorithm: Starting from anatomical cCTA planes and stepwise angulation planes perpendicular to the base of the LAA devices generates an optimal LAA Occluder View for post-implantation Evaluation (LOVE). Aligned true axial, sagittal and coronal LOVE planes offer a standardized and detailed evaluation of LAA occlusion devices after percutaneous implantation. This pictorial essay presents a standardized imaging proposal by cCTA using multi-planar reconstructions that enables systematical follow-up and comparison of patients after LAA occlusion device implantation. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12880-016-0127-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  9. Effect of Dietary L-ascorbic Acid (L-AA on Production Performance, Egg Quality Traits and Fertility in Japanese Quail ( at Low Ambient Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shit

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stress boosts the levels of stress hormones and accelerates energy expenditure which subsequently imbalance the body’s homeostasis. L-ascorbic acid (L-AA has been recognized to mitigate the negative impact of environmental stress on production performances in birds. The present investigation was carried out to elucidate the effect of different dietary levels of L-AA on production performance, egg quality traits and fertility in Japanese quail at low ambient temperature. Sixty matured females (15 wks were equally divided into three groups (20/group based on the different dietary levels of L-AA (0, 250 and 500 ppm and coupled with an equal number of males (1:1 obtained from the same hatch. They were managed in uniform husbandry conditions without restriction of feed and water at 14 h photo-schedule. Except for feed efficiency, body weight change, feed consumption and hen-day egg production were recorded highest in 500 ppm L-AA supplemented groups. Among the all egg quality traits studied, only specific gravity, shell weight and thickness differed significantly (p<0.05 in the present study. Fertility was improved significantly (p<0.01 to a dose dependent manner of L-AA. The findings of the present study concluded that dietary L-AA can be a caring management practice at least in part to alleviate the adverse effect of cold induced stress on production performance in Japanese quail.

  10. LaaA, a novel high-active alkalophilic alpha-amylase from deep-sea bacterium Luteimonas abyssi XH031(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinghao; Wang, Yan; Yin, Chong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-amylase is a kind of broadly used industrial enzymes, most of which have been exploited from terrestrial organism. Comparatively, alpha-amylase from marine environment was largely undeveloped. In this study, a novel alkalophilic alpha-amylase with high activity, Luteimonas abyssi alpha-amylase (LaaA), was cloned from deep-sea bacterium L. abyssi XH031(T) and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The gene has a length of 1428bp and encodes 475 amino acids with a 35-residue signal peptide. The specific activity of LaaA reached 8881U/mg at the optimum pH 9.0, which is obvious higher than other reported alpha-amylase. This enzyme can remain active at pH levels ranging from 6.0 to 11.0 and temperatures below 45°C, retaining high activity even at low temperatures (almost 38% residual activity at 10°C). In addition, 1mM Na(+), K(+), and Mn(2+) enhanced the activity of LaaA. To investigate the function of potential active sites, R227G, D229K, E256Q/H, H327V and D328V mutants were generated, and the results suggested that Arg227, Asp229, Glu256 and Asp328 were total conserved and essential for the activity of alpha-amylase LaaA. This study shows that the alpha-amylase LaaA is an alkali-tolerant and high-active amylase with strong potential for use in detergent industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Muulased Eestis / Kaljo Laas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laas, Kaljo

    2002-01-01

    Autor käsitleb Eesti muulasi rahvastikuteaduse ja rahvastikugeograafia aspektist. Samas analüüsib ta 2000. aasta rahvaloenduse andmeil muulaste rahvuselist, vanuselist koosseisu ja paiknemist ning Eestisse saabumise asjaolusid. Tabel ja diagramm: muulased Eestis sünniriigi järgi ; muulaste vanuseline koosseis

  12. Characterization of Personal Privacy Devices (PPD) radiation pattern impact on the ground and airborne segments of the local area augmentation system (LAAS) at GPS L1 frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Abualkair M. Khair

    Personal Privacy Devices (PPDs) are radio-frequency transmitters that intentionally transmit in a frequency band used by other devices for the intent purpose of denying service to those devices. These devices have shown the potential to interfere with the ground and air sub-systems of the Local Area Augmentation Systems (LAAS), a GPS-based navigation aids at commercial airports. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is concerned by the potential impact of these devices to GPS navigation aids at airports and has commenced an activity to determine the severity of this threat. In support of this situation, the research in this dissertation has been conducted under (FAA) Cooperative Agreement 2011-G-012, to investigate the impact of these devices on the LAAS. In order to investigate the impact of PPDs Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) on the ground and air sub-systems of the LAAS, the work presented in phase one of this research is intended to characterize the vehicle's impact on the PPD's Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP). A study was conceived in this research to characterize PPD performance by examining the on-vehicle radiation patterns as a function of vehicle type, jammer type, jammer location inside a vehicle and jammer orientation at each location. Phase two was to characterize the GPS Radiation Pattern on Multipath Limiting Antenna. MLA has to meet stringent requirements for acceptable signal detection and multipath rejection. The ARL-2100 is the most recent MLA antenna proposed to be used in the LAAS ground segment. The ground-based antenna's radiation pattern was modeled. This was achieved via (HFSS) a commercial-off the shelf CAD-based modeling code with a full-wave electromagnetic software simulation package that uses the Finite Element Analysis. Phase three of this work has been conducted to study the characteristics of the GPS Radiation Pattern on Commercial Aircraft. The airborne GPS antenna was modeled and the resulting radiation pattern on

  13. Mait Laas : see oli intrigeeriv eksperiment / Mait Laas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laas, Mait, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Kinos Sõprus on ekraanil Ida-Euroopa kuue noore režissööri filmiprojekt "Kaotatud ja leitud" ("Lost and Found"), mille seob tervikuks Mait Laasi nukufilm "Gene+Ratio". Režissöör räägib projektist lähemalt

  14. LAA~AA, ______ __ 'VVVVV v

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the students should know. Two of the important topics that need more explicit attention are minimal polynomials of linear operators and simultaneous diagonalisation of commuting operators, although these are touched upon in an indirect way in the exercises. We hope that these topics will be included in a future edition.

  15. Juristist fotograafiks / Graham Mitchell ; intervjueerinud Roberta Laas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mitchell, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Eestis töötav fotograaf ja digitaalkunstnik Graham Mitchell räägib oma elust, huvist fotograafia vastu, inspiratsiooniallikatest. On spetsialiseerunud inimeste pildistamisele moe ja reklaami tarbeks

  16. Sugupooltest ja valitsemisest laienevas Euroopas / Anu Laas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laas, Anu

    2003-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu projektist "EL laienemine, sotsiaalne sugu ja valitsemine" (EGG), mille peamiseks eesmärgiks on analüüsida, millises ulatuses esindusinstitutsioonid ja organisatsioonid (parteid, erakonnad, ametiühingud ja teised valitsusvälised organisatsioonid) võimaldavad naiste osavõttu ning esindatust otsuste tegemisel EL-iga ühinevates riikides. Lisa lk. 46

  17. TNU-9 Zeolite: Aluminum Distribution and Extra-Framework Sites of Divalent Cations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karcz, R.; Dědeček, Jiří; Supronowicz, B.; Thomas, Haunani M.; Klein, Petr; Tabor, Edyta; Sazama, Petr; Pashková, Veronika; Sklenák, Štěpán

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, JUL 2017 (2017), s. 8857-8870 ISSN 1521-3765 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14007S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Grant - others:Ga MŠk(CZ) LM2015070 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Aluminum * Cobalt * Density functional calculations * Structure elucidation * Zeolites Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry

  18. Kohtuveskid jahvatavad / Kaija Uuskam; kommenteerinud Maario Laas, Ute Wohlrab

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Eesti Hobusekasvatajate Seltsi ja Vana-Tori Hobuse Ühingu vahelisest kohtuvaidlusest tori hobuse tõuraamatu pidamise õiguste üle. Veterinaar ja Toiduameti seisukohti antud küsimuses tutvustab Veterinaar- ja Toiduameti põllumajandusloomade aretuse ja turukorralduse osakonna juhataja Kaija Uuskam

  19. Authors: A Laas and T Boezaart THE LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    on the advantages of a restorative justice approach to bullying and her ... Children's Act 38 of 2005 and the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996 call for ..... sometimes just the perception that a child is weak or too academically inclined.43 ... those grounds listed in section 9 of the Constitution on which discrimination may not.

  20. Authors: A Laas and T Boezaart THE LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Children's Act 38 of 2005 and the South African Schools Act 84 of 1996 call for critical analysis. 1.2 .... behaviour is aimed at exercising control over the victim. .... birth.41 The importance of equality in the bullying phenomenon pertains to the.

  1. Renessansiaegsed meistritööd - Tallinna rae piltvaibad = Renaissance Masterpieces in Tallinn - Tapestries of the Town Hall Magistracy / Urve Mankin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mankin, Urve

    2004-01-01

    1547. a. raesaali tellitud seitsmest Enghienis kootud piltvaibast. Kaks seinavaipa (140 x 860 cm, 140 x 830 cm) kujutavad maastiku taustal sündmusi kuningas Saalomoni elust ja tegevusest. Viis vaipa on rikkaliku taimornamendiga, nn verdüürid (laius 110 cm, pikkus 762, 757, 622, 555 ja 420 cm). Raekojas paiknevad praegu raevaipade koopiad

  2. Ajude defitsiit : [kraadiõpe ei suuda katta isegi mitte prioriteetsete erialade vajadusi] / Jaan Laas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laas, Jaan, 1938-

    2002-01-01

    Akadeemilise järelkasvu probleeme Eestis. Magistrite ja doktorite vähene koosseis ei vasta riigi majandusliku ja ühiskonna kultuurilise arengu vajadustele. 6.dets. 2001 Riigikogus heaks kiidetud dokumendis "Teadmistepõhine Eesti. Eesti teadus- ja arendustegevuse strateegia 2001-2006" prioriteedina märgitud erialad on kraadiõppega sama hästi kui katmata. Joon.: Teaduse finantseerimine 6 teadussuuna ja 59 teadusala lõikes a. 1998-2000

  3. Mängud ja koostöö = Games and collaboration / Oliver Laas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laas, Oliver, 1985-

    2015-01-01

    Mari Prekupi, Ott Jesseri, Raivo Kelomehe, James Connori, Sven Pärteli ja Johann Taeli ühisnäitusest "Elektra 2015" Tallinna Linnagaleriis. Enamik eksponeeritud töödest on mängud, mis vajavad aktiveerimiseks näitusekülastajate koostööd

  4. Koolide sulgemise aegu : hääbuvasustuse doktriin / Jaan Laas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laas, Jaan

    2006-01-01

    Eesti maa-asustuse ja koolivõrgu arengust viimase kuuekümne aasta vältel. Kolmkümmend aastat tagasi kujundati uus asustus- ja majanduspoliitika alusdoktriin, mis puudutas kõige otsesemalt ka koolivõrku. Maakoolide võrgu arendusdilemmadest. Joonis: Rahvastiku asustustihedus (elanikku km2 kohta), 31.03.2000

  5. Saksa Trakeeni Liidu külaskäik Peroni juurde / Maario Laas ; kommenteerinud Peeter Viiard

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laas, Maario

    2014-01-01

    14.-17. veebruarini külastasid Eestit Saksamaa Trakeeni Liidu turundus ja spordijuht Andre Hahn ning Andreas Loebnitz omanimelisest trakeenikasvandusest, eesmärgiga tutvuda Eestis kasvatatavate trakeenidega ja teha kaupa Trakehner Hengstmarketil ning Neumünsteri galashowl sakslastele silma jäänud Peroni asjus

  6. Carotid Artery Distensibility and Hormone Therapy and Menopause: The Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study (LAAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shufelt, Chrisandra; Elboudwarej, Omeed; Johnson, B. Delia; Mehta, Puja; Bittner, Vera; Braunstein, Glenn; Berga, Sarah; Stanczyk, Frank; Dwyer, Kathleen; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2015-01-01

    Objective Observational studies suggest that arterial distensibility decreases during menopause; however, the relation to hormone therapy use is controversial. We prospectively studied distensibility and hormone therapy use during different menopause stages. Methods 161 women between 42–61 years of age without cardiovascular disease had carotid artery measurements by ultrasound to calculate the distensibility index at baseline and 3 years later. Menopause stage was classified at each visit as premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal. Over 3 years of prospective observation, women were classified as remaining premenopausal, remaining postmenopausal, or transitioning, defined as change from premenopausal-to-perimenopausal, premenopausal-to-postmenopausal, perimenopausal-to-perimenopausal, or perimenopausal-to-postmenopausal. Results Distensibility declined over time in all menopause stages (pmenopause transition is associated with reduced vascular compliance. Hormone therapy is associated with better arterial distensibility only during menopause transition. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings and to determine if hormone therapy use beyond menopause transition is related to distensibility. PMID:26308234

  7. Grand Prix' võitis reklaamfilmistuudio Division / Mait Laas, Jaak Lõhmus, Ants Vist...[jt.] ; interv. Tiiu Leis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Pärnu filmipäevadel 'Do Re Vi' võitis Grand Prix ehk skulptuuri 'Oskar & Ella' reklaamistuudio 'Division', kullatud videokassetid said 'Polarfilm' (dok. film), Martin Pedanik (video) ja Edith Sepp ('Tingimustega Tallinnas'); osalejate M. Laasi, J. Lõhmuse, A. Visti ja I. Raagi kommentaare ürituse kohta;

  8. EPR study of non-axial Cr/sup 3 +/ complexes in LaA10/sub 3/ single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, W; Hedewy, S; Meleshina, V A [Polska Akademia Nauk, Poznan. Inst. Fizyki

    1976-01-01

    The spectrum of four magnetically non-equivalent rhombic clusters was observed. Spin-hamiltonian parameters at room temperature were determined. There are two pairs of clusters with equal principal g-tensor values and fine structure parameters.

  9. Suur rahvusvaheline välisbalti arhiivide konverents südasuvises Tartus / Mai Raud-Pähn ; fotod Madis Laas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud-Pähn, Mai, 1920-

    2006-01-01

    Ettekannetega esinesid: Tiiu Kravtsev, Riina Reinvelt, Juta Kivimäe, Piret Noorhani, Merike Kiipus, Anu Korb, Anne Valmas, Mihkel Volt, Mare Rand, Inga Kuljus, Enn Mainla, Roland Weiler, Teas Tanner, Tiina Kirss, Jüri Kivimäe, Enda-Mai Michelson-Holland, Andrae, Carl Göran, Katrin Meerits ja Maie Barrow

  10. Elastic relaxations associated with the Pm3m-R3c transition in LaA103 III: superattenuation of acoustic resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Timothy W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carpenter, M A [UNIV OF CAMBRIDGE; Buckley, A [UNIV OF CAMBRIDGE; Taylor, P A [UNIV OF CAMBRIDGE; Mcknight, R E A [UNIV OF CAMBRIDGE

    2009-01-01

    Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy has been used to characterize elastic softening and a variety of new acoustic dissipation processes associated with the Pm{bar 3}m {leftrightarrow} R{bar 3}c transition in single crystal and ceramic samples of LaAlO{sub 3}. Softening of the cubic structure ahead of the transition point is not accompanied by an increase in dissipation but follows different temperature dependences for the bulk modulus, 1/3(C{sub 11} + 2C{sub 12}), and the shear components 1/2(C{sub 11}-C{sub 12}) and C{sub 44} as if the tilting instability contains two slightly different critical temperatures. The transition itself is marked by the complete disappearance of resonance peaks (superattenuation), which then reappear below {approx}700 K in spectra from single crystals. Comparison with low frequency, high stress data from the literature indicate that the dissipation is not due to macroscopic displacement of needle twins. An alternative mechanism, local bowing of twin walls under low dynamic stress, is proposed. Pinning of the walls with respect to this displacement process occurs below {approx}350 K. Anelasticity maps, analogous to plastic deformation mechanism maps, are proposed to display dispersion relations and temperature/frequency/stress fields for different twin wall related dissipation mechanisms. An additional dissipation process, with an activation energy of 43 {+-} 6 kJ.mole{sup -1}, occurs in the vicinity of 250 K. The mechanism for this is not known, but it is associated with C{sub 44} and therefore appears to be related in some way to the cubic {leftrightarrow} rhombohedral transition at {approx}817 K. Slight softening in the temperature interval {approx}220 {yields} 70 K of resonance peaks determined by shear elastic constants hints at an incipient E{sub g} ferroelastic instability in LaAlO{sub 3}. The softening interval ends with a further dissipation peak at {approx} 60 K, the origin of which is discussed in terms of freezing of atomic motions of La and/or Al away from their high symmetry positions in the R{bar 3}c structure. LaAlO{sub 3} thus shows evidence of incipient instabilities at low temperatures which is potentially analogous with the phenomenologically rich behavior of SrTiO{sub 3}.

  11. Ostsillaatori stabiilsus stohhastilise resonantsi korral = Stability of an oscillator in the case of stochastic resonance : I koht magistritööde kategoorias / Katrin Laas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laas, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    Töö eesmärgiks on leida, kuidas sõltub harmoonilise jõu poolt võnkuma pandud ostsillaatoris ilmnev stohhastiline resonants keskkonna mittetasakaaluliste fluktuatsioonide parameetritest ning analüüsida stohhastilise ostsillaatori stabiilsust

  12. Dva nové dokumenty o návštěvě prezidenta Edvarda Beneše ve Spojených státech amerických a Kanadě v květnu a červnu 1943

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dejmek, Jindřich

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2008), s. 291-320 ISSN 1210-6860 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80150510 Keywords : History of Czechoslovak Foreign Policy * History of Diplomacy * History of International Relations Subject RIV: AB - History

  13. Hra na flétnu v předškolním věku a význam hudby v dalším životě dítěte

    OpenAIRE

    PAVLIŠOVÁ, Irena

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis called "Playing a Flute at Preschool Age and the Importance of Music for Further Life of a Child" aims to find out what is the importance of music for further life of children who learnt to play a flute at preschool age. The theoretical part introduces terms such as a recorder, it also focuses on the therapeutic playing a flute and its history and it also deals with the idea of professor Václav Žilka as reflected in his book called "Veselé pískání - zdravé dýchání". Other...

  14. lAA and BAP affect protein phosphorylation-dependent processes during sucrose-mediated G1 to S and G2 to M transitions in root meristem cells of Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Teresa Polit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In carbohydrate-starved root meristems of Vicia faba subsp. minor, the expression of two Principal Control Points located at the final stages of the G1 (PCP1 and G2 (PCP2 phases has been found to be correlated with a marked decrease of protein phosphorylation within cell nuclei, nucleoli and cytoplasm. Adopting the same experimental model in our present studies, monoclonal FITC conjugated antibodies that recognize phosphorylated form of threonine (αTPab-FITC were used to obtain an insight about how the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, benzyl-6-aminopurine (BAP, and the mixture of both phytohormones influence the time-course changes in an overall protein phosphorylation during sucrose-mediated PCP1→S and PCP2→M transitions. Unsuspectedly, neither IAA, BAP, nor the mixture of both phytohormones supplied in combination with sucrose did up-regulate protein phosphorylation. However using the block-and-release method, it was shown that root meristems of Vicia provided with sucrose alone indicated higher levels of αTPab-FITC. Contrarily, phytohormones supplied in combination with sucrose induced apparent decline in phosphorylation of cell proteins, which - when compared with the influence of sucrose alone - became increasingly evident in time. Thus, it seems probable, that a general decline in the amount of αTPab-FITC labeled epitopes may overlay specific phosphorylations and dephosphorylations governed by the main cell cycle kinases and phosphatases.

  15. A study of the minimum number of slices required for quantification of pulmonary emphysema by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitsuda, Yutaka; Igishi, Tadashi; Kawasaki, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    We attempted to determine the minimum number of slices required for quantification of overall emphysema by computed tomography (CT). Forty-nine patients underwent CT scanning with a 15-mm slice interval, and 13 to 18 slices per patient were obtained. The percentage of low attenuation area (LAA%) per slice was measured with a method that we reported on previously, utilizing a CT program and NIH image. The average LAA% values for 1, 2, 3, and 6 slices evenly spaced through the lungs [LAA% (1), LAA% (2), LAA% (3), and LAA% (6)] were compared with those for all slices [LAA% (All)]. The correlation coefficients for LAA% (1), LAA% (2), LAA% (3), and LAA% (6) with LAA% (All) were 0.961, 0.981, 0.993, and 0.997, respectively. Mean differences ±SD were -3.20±4.21%, -2.32±3.00, -0.20±1.84, and -0.16±1.26, respectively. From these results, we concluded that overall emphysema can be quantified by using at least three slices: one each of the upper, middle, and lower lung. (author)

  16. Catalytic transformation of methyl benzenes over zeolite catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Khattaf, S.; Akhtar, M. N.; Odedairo, T.; Aitani, A.; Tukur, N. M.; Kubů, M.; Musilová -Pavlačková , Z.; Čejka, J.

    2011-01-01

    experiments were carried out in the temperature range of 300-400 °C to understand the transformation of these alkyl benzenes over large pore (mordenite and SSZ-33) in contrast to medium-pore (ZSM-5 and TNU-9) zeolite-based catalysts. The effect of reaction

  17. On the Use of a Cumulative Distribution as a Utility Function in Educational or Employment Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    economic applications. LI In the previous section, we discussed some properties of the TNU function. A GBU with a> 1 and b> 1 has similar characteristics...76/443 1 Dir :ctor, Office of Manpower Utilization Maxwell AFB, AL 36112 HQ, Marine Corps ( MPU ) BCB, Bldg. 2009 1 Dr. Earl A. Alluisi Quantico, VA

  18. Tähelepanu, lätlased tulevad...! / Peeter Järvelaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Järvelaid, Peeter, 1957-

    1991-01-01

    Arvustus: Tartu Ülikooli õigusteaduskonna lõpetanute ja õigusteadust õpetanute nimekiri 1919-1989. Tartu, 1989 ; Latvijas Universitātes Tiesību Zinātnu Nodalas absolventu saraksts 1920-1940. Hamburg, 1990. - Sisaldab andmeid ka prof. Dietrich André Loeberi kohta

  19. Heavy-traffic analysis for the GI/G/1 queue with heavy-tailed distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.J. Boxma (Onno); J.W. Cohen

    1997-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a $GI/G/1$ queue in which the service time distribution and/or the interarrival time distribution has a heavy tail, i.e., a tail behaviour like $t^{-nu$ with $1

  20. L-ascorbic acid losses in Kenyan vegetables during cooking as determined by high performance liquid chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    N.M.N. Wekesa; S.C. Chhabra; H.M. Thairu

    2001-01-01

    The loss of L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) in 14 different cooked local vegetables found in Nairobi markets was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The effect of quantity of water on the loss of L-AA during cooking was studied with cowpea leaves. It was found that more L-AA was lost when larger amount of water was used than when smaller amount was used. The effect of the sharpness of the knife on the loss of L-AA was studied with spinach. It was found that more loss of L-AA occurred...

  1. Assessment of left atrial appendage function by transthoracic pulsed Doppler echocardiography: Comparing against transesophageal interrogation and predicting echocardiographic risk factors for stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Shin Hnin; Kyu, Kyu; Galupo, Mary Joyce; Songco, Geronica G; Kong, William K F; Lee, Chi Hang; Yeo, Tiong Cheng; Poh, Kian Keong

    2017-10-01

    Transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) findings of left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombus, spontaneous echo contrast (SEC), and LAA dysfunction are established risk factors of cardioembolic stroke. The semi-invasive nature of TEE limits its utility as a routine risk stratification tool. We aim to correlate TEE and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) pulsed Doppler measurements of LAA flow velocities and use TTE measurements to predict TEE findings. We prospectively measured pulsed Doppler LAA flow velocities in 103 consecutive patients on TEE and TTE. There was a strong correlation between TEE and TTE LAA emptying velocity (LAA E) (r = .88, P < .001) and a moderate correlation between LAA filling velocities (r = .50, P < .001). TTE LAA E predicted the presence of thrombus or SEC independent of atrial fibrillation (AF). To predict the presence of thrombus or SEC, the optimal TTE LAA E cutoff was ≤30 cm/s in all patients (75% sensitive, 90% specific) and ≤31 cm/s in AF patients (80% sensitive, 79% specific). To predict LAA dysfunction (TEE E ≤ 20 cm/s), the optimal TTE LAA E cutoff was ≤27 cm/s (100% sensitive, 89% specific in all patients and 100% sensitive, 74% specific in AF patients). TTE assessment of LAA function is feasible and correlates well with the more invasive TEE method. It predicts the presence of thrombus, SEC, and LAA dysfunction on TEE. TTE LAA assessment has incremental value in thromboembolic risk stratification and should be utilized more frequently. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. L-ascorbic acid losses in Kenyan vegetables during cooking as determined by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M.N. Wekesa

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The loss of L-ascorbic acid (L-AA in 14 different cooked local vegetables found in Nairobi markets was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The effect of quantity of water on the loss of L-AA during cooking was studied with cowpea leaves. It was found that more L-AA was lost when larger amount of water was used than when smaller amount was used. The effect of the sharpness of the knife on the loss of L-AA was studied with spinach. It was found that more loss of L-AA occurred when a blunt (edge thickness 0.08 cm knife was used for cutting the vegetables than when a sharp knife (edge thickness 0.04 cm was used during cooking. L-AA was also determined when vegetables were cooked in different size pieces (surface are >1 cm2

  3. Comparative analysis of general characteristics of ischemic stroke of BAD and non-BAD CISS subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Bin; Liu, Guang-zhi; Yang, Yang; Liu, Yu-min; Cao, Jiang-hui; Zhang, Jun-jian

    2015-12-01

    Based on the recently proposed Chinese ischemic stroke subclassification (CISS) system, intracranial branch atheromatous disease (BAD) is divided into large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and penetrating artery disease (PAD). In the current retrospective analysis, we compared the general characteristics of BAD-LAA with BAD-PAD, BAD-LAA with non-BAD-LAA and BAD-PAD with non-BAD-PAD. The study included a total of 80 cases, including 45 cases of BAD and 35 cases of non-BAD. Subjects were classified using CISS system: BAD-LAA, BAD-PAD, non-BAD-LAA and non-BAD-PAD. In addition to analysis of general characteristics, the correlation between the factors and the two subtypes of BAD was evaluated. The number of cases included in the analysis was: 32 cases of BAD-LAA, 13 cases of BAD-PAD, 21 cases of non-BAD-LAA, and 14 cases of non-BAD-PAD. Diabetes mellitus affected more non-BAD-LAA patients than BAD-LAA patients (P=0.035). In comparison with non-BAD-PAD, patients with BAD-PAD were younger (P=0.040), had higher initial NIHSS score (PBAD, the PAD subtype was associated with smoking (OR=0.043; P=0.011), higher low-density lipoprotein (OR=5.339; P=0.029), ischemic heart disease (OR=9.383; P=0.047) and diabetes mellitus (OR=12.59; P=0.020). It was concluded that large artery atherosclerosis was the primary mechanism of BAD. The general characteristics showed no significant differences between the CISS subtypes of LAA and PAD within BAD, as well as between the BAD and non-BAD within LAA subtype. Several differences between PAD subtypes of BAD and non-BAD were revealed.

  4. Predicting Peri-Device Leakage of Left Atrial Appendage Device Closure Using Novel Three-Dimensional Geometric CT Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyemoon; Jeon, Byunghwan; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Han, Dongjin; Shim, Hackjoon; Cho, In Jeong; Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Kim, Jung-Sun; Jang, Yangsoo; Chung, Namsik

    2015-12-01

    After left atrial appendage (LAA) device closure, peri-device leakage into the LAA persists due to incomplete occlusion. We hypothesized that pre-procedural three-dimensional (3D) geometric analysis of the interatrial septum (IAS) and LAA orifice can predict this leakage. We investigated the predictive parameters of LAA device closure obtained from baseline cardiac computerized tomography (CT) using a novel 3D analysis system. We conducted a retrospective study of 22 patients who underwent LAA device closure. We defined peri-device leakage as the presence of a Doppler signal inside the LAA after device deployment (group 2, n = 5) compared with patients without peri-device leakage (group 1, n = 17). Conventional parameters were measured by cardiac CT. Angles θ and φ were defined between the IAS plane and the line, linking the LAA orifice center and foramen ovale. Group 2 exhibited significantly better left atrial (LA) function than group 1 (p = 0.031). Pre-procedural θ was also larger in this group (41.9° vs. 52.3°, p = 0.019). The LAA cauliflower-type morphology was more common in group 2. Overall, the patients' LA reserve significantly decreased after the procedure (21.7 mm(3) vs. 17.8 mm(3), p = 0.035). However, we observed no significant interval changes in pre- and post-procedural values of θ and φ in either group (all p > 0.05). Angles between the IAS and LAA orifice might be a novel anatomical parameter for predicting peri-device leakage after LAA device closure. In addition, 3D CT analysis of the LA and LAA orifice could be used to identify clinically favorable candidates for LAA device closure.

  5. L-ascorbic acid losses in Kenyan vegetables during cooking as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the sharpness of the knife on the loss of L-AA was studied with spinach. It was found that more loss of L-AA occurred when a blunt (edge thickness 0.08 cm) knife was used for cutting the vegetables than when a sharp knife (edge thickness 0.04 cm) was used during cooking. L-AA was also determined when ...

  6. Longitudinal study of spatially heterogeneous emphysema progression in current smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Tanabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke is the main risk factor for emphysema, which is a key pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Low attenuation areas (LAA in computed tomography (CT images reflect emphysema, and the cumulative size distribution of LAA clusters follows a power law characterized by the exponent D. This property of LAA clusters can be explained by model simulation, where mechanical force breaks alveolar walls causing local heterogeneous lung tissue destruction. However, a longitudinal CT study has not investigated whether continuous smoking causes the spatially heterogeneous progression of emphysema. METHODS: We measured annual changes in ratios of LAA (LAA%, D and numbers of LAA clusters (LAN in CT images acquired at intervals of ≥ 3 years from 22 current and 31 former smokers with COPD to assess emphysema progression. We constructed model simulations using CT images to morphologically interpret changes in current smokers. RESULTS: D was decreased in current and former smokers, whereas LAA% and LAN were increased only in current smokers. The annual changes in LAA%, D, and LAN were greater in current, than in former smokers (1.03 vs. 0.37%, p=0.008; -0.045 vs. -0.01, p=0.004; 13.9 vs. 1.1, p=0.007, respectively. When LAA% increased in model simulations, the coalescence of neighboring LAA clusters decreased D, but the combination of changes in D and LAN in current smokers could not be explained by the homogeneous emphysema progression model despite cluster coalescence. Conversely, a model in which LAAs heterogeneously increased and LAA clusters merged somewhat in relatively advanced emphysematous regions could reflect actual changes. CONCLUSIONS: Susceptibility to parenchymal destruction induced by continuous smoking is not uniform over the lung, but might be higher in local regions of relatively advanced emphysema. These could result in the spatially heterogeneous progression of emphysema in current smokers.

  7. «Enfre la vinya e·l fenollar»? La composició del «Llibre d'Amic e Amat» i l'experiència mística de Ramon Llull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Soler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The essay's main purpose is to eradicate the topic that the Blaquerna is in fact Llull’s autobiography and that the LAA reflects in a direct way R. Llull's mystical experience. While the LAA fits perfectly the general structure of the Blaquerna and could very well nave originally been conceived as a part of this novel, the evidence so far available seems to indicate that the LAA never existed as an independent text.

  8. Nukulavastus sai Brestis auhinna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Nuku- ja Noorsooteatri nukulavastus "Tsuhh, tsuhh, tsuhh..." ( autor ja lavastaja Helle Laas) võitis Valgevenes Brestis toimunud rahvusvahelisel teatrifestivalil Belaja Vezha lastelavastuste võistlusprogrammi peapreemia

  9. Motion of left atrial appendage as a determinant of thrombus formation in patients with a low CHADS2 score receiving warfarin for persistent nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Koji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to define the independent determinants of left atrial appendage (LAA thrombus among various echocardiographic parameters measured by Velocity Vector Imaging (VVI in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF receiving warfarin, particularly in patients with a low CHADS2 score. Methods LAA emptying fraction (EF and LAA peak longitudinal strain were measured by VVI using transesophageal echocardiography in 260 consecutive patients with nonvalvular persistent AF receiving warfarin. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence (n=43 or absence (n=217 of LAA thrombus. Moreover, the patients within each group were further divided into subgroups according to a CHADS2 score ≤1. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that LAAEF was an independent determinant of LAA thrombus in the subgroup of 140 with a low CHADS2 score. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis showed that an LAAEF of 21% was the optimal cutoff value for predicting LAA thrombus. Conclusions LAA thrombus formation depended on LAA contractility. AF patients with reduced LAA contractile fraction (LAAEF ≤21% require strong anticoagulant therapy to avoid thromboembolic events regardless of a low CHADS2 score (≤1.

  10. Velocity encoded cardiovascular magnetic resonance to assess left atrial appendage emptying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muellerleile Kai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of impaired left atrial appendage (LAA function identifies patients who are prone to thrombus formation in the LAA and therefore being at high risk for subsequent cardioembolic stroke. LAA function is typically assessed by measurements of LAA emptying velocities using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE in clinical routine. This study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of assessing LAA emptying by velocity encoded (VENC cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Methods This study included 30 patients with sinus rhythm (n = 18 or atrial fibrillation (n = 12. VENC-CMR velocity measurements were performed perpendicular to the orifice of the LAA. Peak velocities were measured of passive diastolic LAA emptying (e-wave in all patients. Peak velocities of active, late-diastolic LAA emptying (a-wave were assessed in patients with sinus rhythm. Correlation and agreement was analyzed between VENC-CMR and TEE measurements of e- and a-wave peak velocities. Results A significant correlation and good agreement was found between VENC-CMR and TEE measurements of maximal e-wave velocities (r = 0.61, P  Conclusions The assessment of active and passive LAA emptying by VENC-CMR is feasible. Further evaluation is required of potential future clinical applications such as risk stratification for cardioembolic stroke.

  11. Tutorial on Using LISP Object-Oriented Programming for Blackboards: Solving the Radar Tracking Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    1977. Pp. 1-229. 25. V. Lesser and R. Fennell. "Parallelism in Aritificial Intelligence Problem Solving: A Case Study of Hearsay II," IEEE Transactions...artificial intelligence architecture used to solve the radar tracking problem. The research described was performed at Purdue University during long...TION 1 COSA TI CODES 18 SUBJECT TERMS in ,,tnu; . ’ .’ , .., ,’ a-, ,’£ ,i-, ,4’o4,, nun br) ,LD I GROUP SUB.GROu P Artificial intelligence Object

  12. Catalytic transformation of methyl benzenes over zeolite catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Khattaf, S.

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic transformation of three methyl benzenes (toluene, m-xylene, and 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene) has been investigated over ZSM-5, TNU-9, mordenite and SSZ-33 catalysts in a novel riser simulator at different operating conditions. Catalytic experiments were carried out in the temperature range of 300-400 °C to understand the transformation of these alkyl benzenes over large pore (mordenite and SSZ-33) in contrast to medium-pore (ZSM-5 and TNU-9) zeolite-based catalysts. The effect of reaction conditions on the isomerization to disproportionation product ratio, distribution of trimethylbenzene (TMB) isomers, and p-xylene/o-xylene ratios are reported. The sequence of reactivity of the three alkyl benzenes depends upon the pore structure of zeolites. The zeolite structure controls primarily the diffusion of reactants and products while the acidity of these zeolites is of a secondary importance. In the case of medium pore zeolites, the order of conversion was m-xylene > 1,2,4-TMB > toluene. Over large pore zeolites the order of reactivity was 1,2,4-TMB > m-xylene > toluene for SSZ-33 catalyst, and m-xylene ∼ 1,2,4-TMB > toluene over mordenite. Significant effect of pore size between ZSM-5 and TNU-9 was observed; although TNU-9 is also 3D 10-ring channel system, its slightly larger pores compared with ZSM-5 provide sufficient reaction space to behave like large-pore zeolites in transformation of aromatic hydrocarbons. We have also carried out kinetic studies for these reactions and activation energies for all three reactants over all zeolite catalysts under study have been calculated. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Ethylene formation by dehydration of ethanol over medium pore zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołąbek, Kinga; Tarach, Karolina A.; Filek, Urszula; Góra-Marek, Kinga

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the role of pore arrangement of 10-ring zeolites ZSM-5, TNU-9 and IM-5 on their catalytic properties in ethanol transformation were investigated. Among all the studied catalysts, the zeolite IM-5, characterized by limited 3-dimensionality, presented the highest conversion of ethanol and the highest yields of diethyl ether (DEE) and ethylene. The least active and selective to ethylene and C3 + products was zeolite TNU-9 with the largest cavities formed on the intersection of 10-ring channels. The catalysts varied, however, in lifetime, and their deactivation followed the order: IM-5 > TNU-9 > ZSM-5. The processes taking place in the microporous zeolite environment were tracked by IR spectroscopy and analysed by the 2D correlation analysis (2D COS) allowing for an insight into the nature of chemisorbed adducts and transition products of the reaction. The cage dimension was found as a decisive factor influencing the tendency for coke deposition, herein identified as polymethylated benzenes, mainly 1,2,4-trimethyl-benzene.

  14. Left atrial appendage morphology in patients with suspected cardiogenic stroke without known atrial fibrillation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miika Korhonen

    Full Text Available The left atrial appendage (LAA is the typical origin for intracardiac thrombus formation. Whether LAA morphology is associated with increased stroke/TIA risk is controversial and, if it does, which morphological type most predisposes to thrombus formation. We assessed LAA morphology in stroke patients with cryptogenic or suspected cardiogenic etiology and in age- and gender-matched healthy controls. LAA morphology and volume were analyzed by cardiac computed tomography in 111 patients (74 males; mean age 60 ± 11 years with acute ischemic stroke of cryptogenic or suspected cardiogenic etiology other than known atrial fibrillation (AF. A subgroup of 40 patients was compared to an age- and gender-matched control group of 40 healthy individuals (21 males in each; mean age 54 ± 9 years. LAA was classified into four morphology types (Cactus, ChickenWing, WindSock, CauliFlower modified with a quantitative qualifier. The proportions of LAA morphology types in the main stroke group, matched stroke subgroup, and control group were as follows: Cactus (9.0%, 5.0%, 20.0%, ChickenWing (23.4%, 37.5%, 10.0%, WindSock (47.7%, 35.0%, 67.5%, and CauliFlower (19.8%, 22.5%, 2.5%. The distribution of morphology types differed significantly (P<0.001 between the matched stroke subgroup and control group. The proportion of single-lobed LAA was significantly higher (P<0.001 in the matched stroke subgroup (55% than the control group (6%. LAA volumes were significantly larger (P<0.001 in both stroke study groups compared to controls patients. To conclude, LAA morphology differed significantly between stroke patients and controls, and single-lobed LAAs were overrepresented and LAA volume was larger in patients with acute ischemic stroke of cryptogenic or suspected cardiogenic etiology.

  15. Development of digital phantoms based on a finite element model to simulate low-attenuation areas in CT imaging for pulmonary emphysema quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diciotti, Stefano; Nobis, Alessandro; Ciulli, Stefano; Landini, Nicholas; Mascalchi, Mario; Sverzellati, Nicola; Innocenti, Bernardo

    2017-09-01

    To develop an innovative finite element (FE) model of lung parenchyma which simulates pulmonary emphysema on CT imaging. The model is aimed to generate a set of digital phantoms of low-attenuation areas (LAA) images with different grades of emphysema severity. Four individual parameter configurations simulating different grades of emphysema severity were utilized to generate 40 FE models using ten randomizations for each setting. We compared two measures of emphysema severity (relative area (RA) and the exponent D of the cumulative distribution function of LAA clusters size) between the simulated LAA images and those computed directly on the models output (considered as reference). The LAA images obtained from our model output can simulate CT-LAA images in subjects with different grades of emphysema severity. Both RA and D computed on simulated LAA images were underestimated as compared to those calculated on the models output, suggesting that measurements in CT imaging may not be accurate in the assessment of real emphysema extent. Our model is able to mimic the cluster size distribution of LAA on CT imaging of subjects with pulmonary emphysema. The model could be useful to generate standard test images and to design physical phantoms of LAA images for the assessment of the accuracy of indexes for the radiologic quantitation of emphysema.

  16. Improvement of a snow albedo parameterization in the Snow-Atmosphere-Soil Transfer model: evaluation of impacts of aerosol on seasonal snow cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Efang; Li, Qian; Sun, Shufen; Chen, Wen; Chen, Shangfeng; Nath, Debashis

    2017-11-01

    The presence of light-absorbing aerosols (LAA) in snow profoundly influence the surface energy balance and water budget. However, most snow-process schemes in land-surface and climate models currently do not take this into consideration. To better represent the snow process and to evaluate the impacts of LAA on snow, this study presents an improved snow albedo parameterization in the Snow-Atmosphere-Soil Transfer (SAST) model, which includes the impacts of LAA on snow. Specifically, the Snow, Ice and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model is incorporated into the SAST model with an LAA mass stratigraphy scheme. The new coupled model is validated against in-situ measurements at the Swamp Angel Study Plot (SASP), Colorado, USA. Results show that the snow albedo and snow depth are better reproduced than those in the original SAST, particularly during the period of snow ablation. Furthermore, the impacts of LAA on snow are estimated in the coupled model through case comparisons of the snowpack, with or without LAA. The LAA particles directly absorb extra solar radiation, which accelerates the growth rate of the snow grain size. Meanwhile, these larger snow particles favor more radiative absorption. The average total radiative forcing of the LAA at the SASP is 47.5 W m-2. This extra radiative absorption enhances the snowmelt rate. As a result, the peak runoff time and "snow all gone" day have shifted 18 and 19.5 days earlier, respectively, which could further impose substantial impacts on the hydrologic cycle and atmospheric processes.

  17. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1B9OA-1LAAA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1B9OA-1LAAA 1B9O 1LAA A A KQFTKCELSQLLKDI--DGYGGIALPELICTMFHTSGYD...pdbChain> 1LAAA TLKRLGMDGYRG HHHH GGG...Chain>A 1LAAA TNYNAGDRSTEY1LAA A 1LAAA RVVRDPQGIRA ...>A 1LAAA NRCQNRDVRQY H GGG

  18. Normal spectrum of pulmonary parametric response map to differentiate lung collapsibility: distribution of densitometric classifications in healthy adult volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Mario; Nemec, Stefan F.; Dufresne, Valerie; Occhipinti, Mariaelena; Heidinger, Benedikt H.; Bankier, Alexander A.; Chamberlain, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary parametric response map (PRM) was proposed for quantitative densitometric phenotypization of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known about this technique in healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to describe the normal spectrum of densitometric classification of pulmonary PRM in a group of healthy adults. 15 healthy volunteers underwent spirometrically monitored chest CT at total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual capacity (FRC). The paired CT scans were analyzed by PRM for voxel-by-voxel characterization of lung parenchyma according to 4 densitometric classifications: normal lung (TLC ≥ -950 HU, FRC ≥ -856 HU); expiratory low attenuation area (LAA) (TLC ≥ -950 HU, FRC < -856 HU); dual LAA (TLC<-950 HU, FRC < -856 HU); uncharacterized (TLC < -950 HU, FRC ≥ -856 HU). PRM spectrum was 78 % ± 10 % normal lung, 20 % ± 8 % expiratory LAA, and 1 % ± 1 % dual LAA. PRM was similar between genders, there was moderate correlation between dual LAA and spirometrically assessed TLC (R = 0.531; p = 0.042), and between expiratory LAA and Vol Exp/Insp ratio (R = -0.572; p = 0.026). PRM reflects the predominance of normal lung parenchyma in a group of healthy volunteers. However, PRM also confirms the presence of physiological expiratory LAA seemingly related to air trapping and a minimal amount of dual LAA likely reflecting emphysema. (orig.)

  19. The effect of percutaneous transcatheter occlusion of left atrial appendage on left atrium and adjacent anatomic structure in canine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhihong; Wu Hong; Qin Yongwen; Hu Jianqiang; Ding Zhongru; Liu Zongjun; Liu Biao; Zheng Xing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of percutaneous transcatheter occlusion of left atrial appendage (LAA) with a new self-manufactured LAA occluder on left atrium and adjacent anatomic structure in canine. Methods: A new self-manufactured LAA occluder was implanted into the LAA through a transseptal catheter in 20 dogs. Before and after the procedure, the experimental dogs were anaesthetized and examined by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to measure the diameter and the volume of the left atrium, the left superior pulmonary vein flow velocity and the left atrioventricular valve flow velocity separately. The contrast radiography of the LAA and the left coronary arteriography were performed. Results: The new LAA occluder was implanted successfully in 14 dogs. No obvious changes in the diameter and the volume of the left atrium, in left superior pulmonary vein flow velocity and in left atrioventricular valve flow velocity were found. On arteriography, left circumflex artery was normally displayed after the procedure. No migration of the occluder was seen on TTE and angiography after procedure. Conclusion: Percutaneous transcatheter occlusion of left atrial appendage with a new self-manufactured LAA occluder has no obvious effect on left atrium and adjacent anatomic structure in experimental canine, which indicates that the new-type device is a safe and feasible occluder for LAA. (authors)

  20. The Value of 3D Printing Models of Left Atrial Appendage Using Real-Time 3D Transesophageal Echocardiographic Data in Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion: Applications toward an Era of Truly Personalized Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Liu, Rijing; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yingfeng; Tang, Xiaoming; Cheng, Yanzhen

    The objective of this study was to assess the clinical feasibility of generating 3D printing models of left atrial appendage (LAA) using real-time 3D transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) data for preoperative reference of LAA occlusion. Percutaneous LAA occlusion can effectively prevent patients with atrial fibrillation from stroke. However, the anatomical structure of LAA is so complicated that adequate information of its structure is essential for successful LAA occlusion. Emerging 3D printing technology has the demonstrated potential to structure more accurately than conventional imaging modalities by creating tangible patient-specific models. Typically, 3D printing data sets are acquired from CT and MRI, which may involve intravenous contrast, sedation, and ionizing radiation. It has been reported that 3D models of LAA were successfully created by the data acquired from CT. However, 3D printing of the LAA using real-time 3D TEE data has not yet been explored. Acquisition of 3D transesophageal echocardiographic data from 8 patients with atrial fibrillation was performed using the Philips EPIQ7 ultrasound system. Raw echocardiographic image data were opened in Philips QLAB and converted to 'Cartesian DICOM' format and imported into Mimics® software to create 3D models of LAA, which were printed using a rubber-like material. The printed 3D models were then used for preoperative reference and procedural simulation in LAA occlusion. We successfully printed LAAs of 8 patients. Each LAA costs approximately CNY 800-1,000 and the total process takes 16-17 h. Seven of the 8 Watchman devices predicted by preprocedural 2D TEE images were of the same sizes as those placed in the real operation. Interestingly, 3D printing models were highly reflective of the shape and size of LAAs, and all device sizes predicted by the 3D printing model were fully consistent with those placed in the real operation. Also, the 3D printed model could predict operating difficulty and the

  1. Algorithm of pulmonary emphysema extraction using thoracic 3-D CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, Shinsuke; Kubo, Mitsuru; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Nakano, Yasutaka; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Tominaga, Keigo; Eguchi, Kenji; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2008-03-01

    Emphysema patients have the tendency to increase due to aging and smoking. Emphysematous disease destroys alveolus and to repair is impossible, thus early detection is essential. CT value of lung tissue decreases due to the destruction of lung structure. This CT value becomes lower than the normal lung- low density absorption region or referred to as Low Attenuation Area (LAA). So far, the conventional way of extracting LAA by simple thresholding has been proposed. However, the CT value of CT image fluctuates due to the measurement conditions, with various bias components such as inspiration, expiration and congestion. It is therefore necessary to consider these bias components in the extraction of LAA. We removed these bias components and we proposed LAA extraction algorithm. This algorithm has been applied to the phantom image. Then, by using the low dose CT(normal: 30 cases, obstructive lung disease: 26 cases), we extracted early stage LAA and quantitatively analyzed lung lobes using lung structure.

  2. Assessment of blood stasis in left-atrial appendage with electron-beam CT: filling delay in atrial fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Tadashi [Dept. of Radiology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Hamada, Seiki [Dept. of Radiology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Takamiya, Makoto [Dept. of Radiology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kuribayashi, Sachio [Dept. of Radiology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Naito, Hiroaki [Biomedical Research Center, Osaka Univ. School of Medicine, Suita (Japan)

    1994-10-01

    The left-atrial appendage (LAA) is the most frequent site of thrombus formation. The most probable reason is its anatomical structure and blood stasis. We hypothesized that peak time delay should occur in the LAA with stagnant blood flow. We measured peak time delay in LAA against left atrium with the flow-mode study of electron-beam CT for 49 patients (including 23 patients with atrial fibrillation [AF]). Volume-mode scannings were also performed to detect intracardiac thrombi. Patients with atrial fibrillation showed a larger value than those with sinus rhythm. Some AF patients with no filling of contrast media into the LAA and/or thrombus showed a larger value than the others. The value obtained by the flow-mode study might have the potential by the flow-mode study might have the potential to assess blood stasis and to predict the jeopardized state in the LAA. (orig.)

  3. CAD system for quantifying emphysema severity based on multi-class classifier using CT image and spirometry information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimura, Yukitaka; Mori, Kensaku; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Honma, Hirotoshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Many diagnosis methods based on CT image processing are proposed for quantifying emphysema. The most of these diagnosis methods extract lesions as Low-Attenuation Areas (LAA) by simple threshold processing and evaluate their severity by calculating the LAA (LAA%) in the lung. However, pulmonary emphysema is diagnosed by not only the LAA but also the changes of pulmonary blood vessel and the spirometric measurements. This paper proposes a novel computer-aided detection (CAD) system for quantifying emphysema by combining spirometric measurements and results of CT image processing. The experimental results revealed that the accuracy rate of the proposed method was 78.3%. It is 13.1% improvement compared with the method based on only the LAA%. (author)

  4. Assessment of blood stasis in left-atrial appendage with electron-beam CT: filling delay in atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tadashi; Hamada, Seiki; Takamiya, Makoto; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Naito, Hiroaki

    1994-01-01

    The left-atrial appendage (LAA) is the most frequent site of thrombus formation. The most probable reason is its anatomical structure and blood stasis. We hypothesized that peak time delay should occur in the LAA with stagnant blood flow. We measured peak time delay in LAA against left atrium with the flow-mode study of electron-beam CT for 49 patients (including 23 patients with atrial fibrillation [AF]). Volume-mode scannings were also performed to detect intracardiac thrombi. Patients with atrial fibrillation showed a larger value than those with sinus rhythm. Some AF patients with no filling of contrast media into the LAA and/or thrombus showed a larger value than the others. The value obtained by the flow-mode study might have the potential by the flow-mode study might have the potential to assess blood stasis and to predict the jeopardized state in the LAA. (orig.)

  5. Left atrial appendage segmentation and quantitative assisted diagnosis of atrial fibrillation based on fusion of temporal-spatial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Feng, Jianjiang; Wang, Lei; Yu, Heng; Liu, Jiang; Lu, Jiwen; Zhou, Jie

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present an approach for left atrial appendage (LAA) multi-phase fast segmentation and quantitative assisted diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF) based on 4D-CT data. We take full advantage of the temporal dimension information to segment the living, flailed LAA based on a parametric max-flow method and graph-cut approach to build 3-D model of each phase. To assist the diagnosis of AF, we calculate the volumes of 3-D models, and then generate a "volume-phase" curve to calculate the important dynamic metrics: ejection fraction, filling flux, and emptying flux of the LAA's blood by volume. This approach demonstrates more precise results than the conventional approaches that calculate metrics by area, and allows for the quick analysis of LAA-volume pattern changes of in a cardiac cycle. It may also provide insight into the individual differences in the lesions of the LAA. Furthermore, we apply support vector machines (SVMs) to achieve a quantitative auto-diagnosis of the AF by exploiting seven features from volume change ratios of the LAA, and perform multivariate logistic regression analysis for the risk of LAA thrombosis. The 100 cases utilized in this research were taken from the Philips 256-iCT. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can construct the 3-D LAA geometries robustly compared to manual annotations, and reasonably infer that the LAA undergoes filling, emptying and re-filling, re-emptying in a cardiac cycle. This research provides a potential for exploring various physiological functions of the LAA and quantitatively estimating the risk of stroke in patients with AF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlation of right atrial appendage velocity with left atrial appendage velocity and brain natriuretic Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bu-Kyung; Heo, Jung-Ho; Lee, Jae-Woo; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Byung-Joo; Cha, Tae-Joon

    2012-03-01

    Left atrial appendage (LAA) anatomy and function have been well characterized both in healthy and diseased people, whereas relatively little attention has been focused on the right atrial appendage (RAA). We sought to evaluate RAA flow velocity and to compare these parameters with LAA indices and with a study of biomarkers, such as brain natriuretic peptide, among patients with sinus rhythm (SR) and atrial fibrillation (AF). In a series of 79 consecutive patients referred for transesophageal echocardiography, 43 patients (23 with AF and 20 controls) were evaluated. AF was associated with a decrease in flow velocity for both LAA and RAA [LAA velocity-SR vs. AF: 61 ± 22 vs. 29 ± 18 m/sec (p vs. AF: 46 ± 20 vs. 19 ± 8 m/sec (p brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). AF was associated with decreased RAA and LAA flow velocities. RAA velocity was found to be positively correlated with LAA velocity and negatively correlated with BNP. The plasma BNP concentration may serve as a determinant of LAA and RAA functions.

  7. Black Carbon, Dust and Organic Matter at South Cascade Glacier in Washington State, USA: A Comprehensive Characterization of Temporal (1865-2014) and Spatial Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspari, S.; Pittenger, D.; Swick, M.; Skiles, M.; Perez, A.; Sethi, H.; Sevier, E.

    2017-12-01

    Rising temperatures are a widely recognized cause of glacial retreat in Washington, however light absorbing aerosols (LAA, including black carbon (BC), dust and organic matter) can also contribute to increased melt by reducing snow albedo. We present updated results of BC and dust variability at South Cascade (SOCAS) glacier spanning 1865-1994 using a 158 m ice core. Peak BC deposition occurred between 1940-1958, when median BC concentrations were 25 times higher than background levels. Post 1958 BC concentrations decrease, followed by an increase post 1980 associated with melt consolidation and/or trans-Pacific aerosol transport. Dust deposition at SOCAS is dominated by local sources. Albedo reductions from LAA are dominated by dust deposition, except during high BC deposition events from wildfires, and during the 1940-1958 period when BC contributes equally to albedo reductions. Results from a 2014 field campaign that included collection of 3 shallow ice cores, surface snow, and snow albedo measurements allow the 1865-1994 ice core record to be extended toward present, and spatial variability in LAA to be characterized. Snow albedo transects were measured using a spectrometer. BC concentrations were measured using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Gravimetric filtration was used to determine the total LAA, and a thermal gravimetric technique was used to partition the LAA between dust and organic matter. The organic matter was partitioned into organic and elemental carbon using a thermal optical method. These methods allow LAA abundances be measured, but to partition the contribution of the LAA to albedo reductions requires characterization of LAA optical properties. This was accomplished using a Hyperspectral Imaging Microscope Spectrometer method that allows particle reflectance to be measured at 138 nm2 pixel resolution. By combining these methods, we provide a comprehensive characterization of spatial and temporal LAA variability at SOCAS.

  8. Recommended Practices for Measurement of Gas Path Pressures and Temperatures for Performance Assessment of Aircraft Turbine Engines and Components (Les Methodes Recommandees pour la Mesure de la Pression et de la Temperature de la Veine Gazeuse en Vue de l’Evaluation des Performances des Turbines Aeronautiques et de leurs Composants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    and the attachment of the tag To Engine Center Line while satisfying the requirements in I above. Aluminium or stainless steel are preferred. Two...1IP~g 11211 U TNU yl j 7/PjM U! UZZZPUMU IM iL PI/P$| ________ L_____/ ___ Neau PKUK UTISL PTT /Pu WO12 ENME MU STL T/PM Fig. 2.10-2 Examples of...uncertainty distortion produced by intrusive probes of an types estimation as well. A diagram of the components of one must be controlled; and

  9. Biografická glosa: Šedesátiny Františka Znebejánka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Kubátová

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available V květnu 2011 oslavil významné životní jubileum PhDr. František Znebejánek, Ph.D., odborný asistent na Katedře sociologie a andragogiky Filozofické fakulty Univerzity Palackého v Olomouci. V neposlední řadě tak ovšem jubiluje také významný člen redakční rady časopisu Historická sociologie.

  10. The clot thickens: an incompletely ligated left  atrial appendage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merrill Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Our patient presented with known mechanical mitral valve endocarditis documented by 2D transesophageal echocardiogram (TOE from a recent hospitalization at an outside facility. On admission to our center, there was no prior knowledge of an incompletely ligated left atrial appendage (LAA according to patient- or family-reported history, review of outside records or the outside facility’s 2D TOE report. A 3D TOE performed at our center to assess her pathology, since a month had passed from her prior hospitalization, revealed a LAA ligation with evidence of communication to the left atrium and with clot present in the appendage. This case report highlights the common finding of incomplete closure of the LAA following surgical ligation, thus making it inadequate for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation, and that 3D TOE plays a valuable role in assessing the durability of LAA ligation.

  11. Nukufilm lasi käiku pooletunnise 3D-seiklusfilmi / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2009-01-01

    Stuudios Nukufilm algasid pooletunnise 3D-nukufilmi "Lisa Limone ja Maroc Orange'i tormakas armulugu" võtted. Filmi režissöör on Mait Laas, stsenaristid Kati Kovacs ja Peep Pedmanson, produtsent Arvo Nuut

  12. Akna varastamine : eesti Y-kirjandus / Berk Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-

    2014-01-01

    Valdur Mikita, Erkki Luuk'i, Kiwa, Kaspari ja kirjanike rühmituse “14 NÜ” (Mait Laas, Paavo Matsin, Marko Mägi, Erkki Kadarik, Marianne Ravi, Maarja Vaino, Trip Jarvis, Johannes Üksi) loomingust

  13. Inimesed ja mesilased / Rein Tootmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tootmaa, Rein

    2005-01-01

    Nukufilm "Gene+ratio" : stsenarist, kunstnik ja režissöör Mait Laas : konsultant Paavo Matsin : operaatorid Ragnar Neljandi, Raivo Möllits : helilooja Tiit Kikas : Nukufilm OÜ - Icon Film (Saksamaa) 2005

  14. Safety and efficacy of transcatheter left atrial appendage closure using the Watchman device in Egyptian patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Khamis

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: LAA closure with the Watchman device can be safely performed, and may be a reasonable alternative to consider for patients at high risk for stroke but with contraindications to systemic oral anticoagulation or with high risk of bleeding.

  15. Device Interventions for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Amulet LAA closure devices are not available for sale in the United States. What to Expect Before ... site. Your Personal Message Send Message Share on Social ... Online Network Follow Us: Follow Circulation on ...

  16. Can contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography replace transesophageal echocardiography for the detection of thrombogenic milieu and thrombi in the left atrial appendage. A prospective study with 124 patients; Kann die kontrastmittelverstaerkte Mehrzeilen-Computertomografie die transoesophageale Echokardiografie bei der Detektion von thrombogenem Milieu und Vorhofohrthromben ersetzen? Eine prospektive Studie mit 124 Patienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homsi, R.; Luetkens, J.A.; Schild, H.H.; Naehle, C.P. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Nath, B. [SHG-KLliniken Voelklingen (Germany). Dept. of Medicine I - Cardiology; Schwab, J.O. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Medicine I - Cardiology

    2016-01-15

    To assess the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (MD-CT) for identifying patients with left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombus or circulatory stasis. 124 patients with a history of atrial fibrillation and/or cerebral ischemia (83 men, mean age 58.6 ± 12.4 years) and with a clinical indication for MD-CT of the heart and for transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) were included in the study. LAA thrombus or thrombogenic milieu was visually identified in TEE and MD-CT. In addition, MD-CT was analyzed quantitatively measuring the Hounsfield units (HU) of the left atrium (LA), the LAA and the ascending aorta (AA), and calculating the HU ratios LAA/AA (HU [LAA/AA]) und LAA/LA (HU [LAA/LA]). Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated. The prevalence of a thrombus or thrombogenic milieu as assessed by TEE was 21.8 %. The HU ratio was lower in patients with thrombus or thrombogenic milieu (HU [LAA/AA]: 0.590 ± 0.248 vs. 0.909 ± 0.141; p < 0.001 und HU [LAA/LA] 0.689 ± 0.366 vs. 1.082 ± 0.228; p < 0.001). For the diagnosis of thrombus or a thrombogenic milieu, visual analysis yielded a sensitivity of 81.5 %, a specificity of 96.9 %, a PPV of 87.5 % and a NPV of 95.2 %. By combining visual and quantitative analysis with one criterion being positive, the specificity decreased to 91.8 %, the sensitivity to 77.8 %, the PPV to 72.4 %, and the NPV to 94.9 %. Visual analysis of the LAA in the evaluation of thrombus or thrombogenic milieu yields a high NPV of 95.1 % and may especially be useful to rule out LAA thrombi in patients with contraindications for TEE. Additional calculation of HU ratios did not improve the diagnostic performance of MD-CT.

  17. Left atrial appendage function in prediction of paroxysmal atrial fibrilation in patients with untreated hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Agca, Fahriye Vatansever; Karaagac, Kemal; Ozluk, Ozlem Arican; Peker, Tezcan; Kuzeytemiz, Mustafa; Senturk, Muhammed; Yılmaz, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The onset of AF results in a significant increase in mortality rates and morbidity in hypertensive patients and this rhythm disorder exposes patients to a significantly increased risk of cerebral or peripheral embolisms. Tissue Doppler imaging was found to be useful in early detection of myocardial dysfunction in several diseases. It was shown that tissue Doppler analysis of the walls of the left atrial appendage (LAA) can give accurate information about the function of the LAA in hypertensive patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate and identify the specific predictive parameters for the onset of AF in patients with hypertension with tissue Doppler imaging of LAA. We studied age and sex matched 57 untreated hypertensive patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) and 27 untreated hypertensive subjects without PAF. With transthoracic echocardiography, diastolic mitral A-velocity and LA maximal volume index which reflects reservoir function of left atrium was measured, with transesophageal echocardiography, LAA emptying velocity (LAA-PW D2) and tissue Doppler contracting velocity of LAA (LAA-TDI-D2) were measured. LA maximal volume index of the groups (22.28 ± 3.59 mL/m(2) in Group 1 versus 20.37 ± 3.97 mL/m(2) in Group 2, p = 0.07) and diastolic mitral A-velocity [0.93 (0.59-1.84) m/s in patients with PAF versus 0.90 (0.62-1.76) m/s in patients without PAF, p = 0.26] was not significantly different between study groups, during TEE, LAA-PW D2 (0.31 ± 0.04 m/s in Group 1 versus 0.33 ± 0.03 m/s in Group 2, p = 0.034) and LAA-TDI-D2 (0.18 ± 0.04 m/s in Group 1 versus 0.21 ± 0.05 m/s in Group 2, p = 0.014) were significantly decreased in Group 1. In this study, we found that in hypertensive PAF patients despite normal global LA functions, LAA contracting function was deteriorated. Tissue Doppler analysis of LAA is clinically usefull approach to detect the risk of developing PAF in

  18. Obesity and extent of emphysema depicted at CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, S.; Li, R.; Leader, J.K.; Zheng, B.; Bon, J.; Gur, D.; Sciurba, F.; Jin, C.; Pu, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the underlying relationship between obesity and the extent of emphysema depicted at CT. Methods and materials: A dataset of 477 CT examinations was retrospectively collected from a study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The low attenuation areas (LAAs; ≤950 HU) of the lungs were identified. The extent of emphysema (denoted as %LAA) was defined as the percentage of LAA divided by the lung volume. The association between log-transformed %LAA and body mass index (BMI) adjusted for age, sex, the forced expiratory volume in one second as percent predicted value (FEV1% predicted), and smoking history (pack years) was assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results: After adjusting for age, gender, smoking history, and FEV1% predicted, BMI was negatively associated with severe emphysema in patients with COPD. Specifically, one unit increase in BMI is associated with a 0.93-fold change (95% CI: 0.91–0.96, p < 0.001) in %LAA; the estimated %LAA for males was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.36–2.26, p < 0.001) times that of females; per 10% increase in FEV1% predicated is associated with a 0.72-fold change (95% CI: 0.69–0.76, p < 0.001) in %LAA. Conclusion: Increasing obesity is negatively associated with severity of emphysema independent of gender, age, and smoking history. - Highlights: • BMI is inversely associated with emphysema depicted on CT. • Emphysema severity in men was higher than that in women. • ∼50% of the subjects with COPD in our dataset were either overweight or obese. • Age and smoking status are not significantly associated with %LAA

  19. Fungi outcompete bacteria under increased uranium concentration in culture media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Parry, David L.; McGuinness, Keith A.; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S.

    2013-01-01

    As a key part of water management at the Ranger Uranium Mine (Northern Territory, Australia), stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water was applied to natural woodland on the mine lease in accordance with regulatory requirements. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium concentrations. Soil samples were collected from LAAs with different concentrations of uranium and extracts were plated onto LB media containing no (0 ppm), low (3 ppm), medium (250 ppm), high (600 ppm) and very high (1500 ppm) uranium concentrations. These concentrations were similar to the range of measured uranium concentrations in the LAAs soils. Bacteria grew on all plates except for the very high uranium concentrations, where only fungi were recovered. Identifications based on bacterial 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria belonged to the genus Bacillus. Members of the genera Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Klebsiella, Microbacterium and Chryseobacterium were also isolated from the LAAs soil samples. Fungi were identified by sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer region, and members of the genera Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Penicillium and Curvularia were dominant on plates with very high uranium concentrations. Members of the Paecilomyces and Alternaria were also present but in lower numbers. These findings indicate that fungi can tolerate very high concentrations of uranium and are more resistant than bacteria. Bacteria and fungi isolated at the Ranger LAAs from soils with high concentrations of uranium may have uranium binding capability and hence the potential for uranium bioremediation. -- Highlights: ► Fungi outcompete bacteria under increased uranium concentration in culture media. ► Soil microorganisms isolated from the Ranger Land Application Areas (LAAs) were resistant to uranium. ► Bacillus was the most abundant cultivable genus retrieved from the Ranger LAAs soils. ► Uranium in LAAs soils is

  20. Incidence of thromboembolism following detection by trans-oesophageal echocardiography of left atrial thrombus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara Mahon

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: This is the only study to date that has looked at the incidence of ischemic stroke following a confirmed LAA thrombus, LA thrombus or pre-thrombus state. This single centre study found low stroke rates over a six month follow-up period in patients with a confirmed LAA thrombus, LA thrombus or pre-thrombus state and optimization of OAC. Larger studies would be required to confirm these findings.

  1. Left atrial appendage occlusion for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Hasib; Belley-Cote, Emilie P; Alotaibi, Abdullah; Dvirnik, Nazari; Neupane, Binod; Beyene, Joseph; Eikelboom, John W; Holmes, David; Whitlock, Richard P

    2018-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the leading causes of stroke. Risks associated with oral anticoagulation (OAC) limit adherence to recommended therapy. Left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion is a treatment alternative in patients with AF. We performed a network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomized trials evaluating the efficacy of LAA occlusion compared with oral anticoagulant, antiplatelet, and placebo for stroke prevention. We also assessed the impact of LAA occlusion on mortality, major bleeding, and operative time. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Library for randomized trials comparing percutaneous or surgical LAA occlusion with standard of care in AF patients. Conventional meta-analysis found no difference between groups for stroke (5 trials, 1285 patients;RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.47-1.29), and a significant reduction in mortality (5 trials, 1285 patients; RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.51-0.99) favouring LAA occlusion. NMA demonstrated a trend towards reduction in stroke (OR 0.84, 95% CrI 0.47-1.55) and mortality (OR 0.69, 95% CrI 0.44-1.10) for LAA occlusion versus warfarin, but no statistically significant effect. Statistical ranking curves placed LAA occlusion as the most efficacious treatment on the outcomes of stroke and mortality when compared to warfarin, aspirin, or placebo. No significant differences between groups were seen in major bleeding or operative time for surgical trials. The overall quality of the evidence was low as assessed by GRADE. LAA occlusion appears to preserve the benefits of OAC therapy for stroke prevention in patients with AF, but the current evidence is of low quality.

  2. Ticagrelor, but not clopidogrel active metabolite, displays antithrombotic properties in the left atrial endocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Martin F; Breitenstein, Alexander; Holy, Erik W; Glanzmann, Martina; Amstalden, Heidi; Stämpfli, Simon F; Bonetti, Nicole R; Falk, Volkmar; Keller, Stephan; Savarese, Gianluigi; Benussi, Stefano; Maisano, Francesco; Lüscher, Thomas F; Beer, Jürg H; Steffel, Jan; Camici, Giovanni G

    2017-03-21

    Oral anticoagulation is considered standard therapy for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF). Endocardial activation triggers expression of pro-thrombotic mediators including tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and contributes to thrombus formation in the left atrial appendage (LAA) of AF patients. Recently, pleiotropic effects of specific P2Y12 receptor antagonists were demonstrated; however, whether these drugs possess antithrombotic effects on LAA endocardial cells currently remains unknown. LAA were obtained from 14 patients with known AF undergoing elective cardiac surgery including LAA removal at the University Hospital Zurich. LAA endocardial cells were isolated and pre-incubated with ticagrelor (10-7, 10-6, 10-5M) or clopidogrel active metabolite (CAM) (1.5 × 10-8, 1.5 × 10-7, 1.5 × 10-6 M) before stimulation with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (10 ng/mL). Finally, TF and PAI-1 expression and activity were analysed. Ticagrelor, unlike CAM, concentration dependently decreased TNF-α-induced TF expression and TF activity in LAA endocardial cells. Further, ticagrelor, but not CAM reduced PAI-1 expression and enzyme activity in TNF-α-stimulated LAA endocardial cells. In contrast, TF pathway inhibitor (TFPI) remained unaffected by both dugs. Ticagrelor, but not CAM, reduces expression and activity of TF and PAI-1 in LAA endocardial cells isolated from patients with AF, indicating possible local antithrombotic effects. Such pleiotropic properties of ticagrelor may contribute to a reduction in thromboembolic complications in patients with AF. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Quantitative OCT and MRI biomarkers for the differentiation of cartilage degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebelung, Sven; Brill, Nicolai; Tingart, Markus; Jahr, Holger; Pufe, Thomas; Kuhl, Christiane; Truhn, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of quantitative parameters obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the comprehensive assessment of human articular cartilage degeneration. Human osteochondral samples of variable degeneration (n = 45) were obtained from total knee replacements and assessed by MRI sequences measuring T1, T1ρ, T2 and T2* relaxivity and by OCT-based quantification of irregularity (OII, optical irregularity index), homogeneity (OHI, optical homogeneity index) and attenuation (OAI, optical attenuation index). Samples were also assessed macroscopically (Outerbridge classification) and histologically (Mankin classification) as grade-0 (Mankin scores 0-4)/grade-I (scores 5-8)/grade-II (scores 9-10)/grade-III (score 11-14). After data normalisation, differences between Mankin grades and correlations between imaging parameters were assessed using ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test and Spearman's correlation coefficients, respectively. Sensitivities and specificities in the detection of Mankin grade-0 were calculated. Significant degeneration-related increases were found for T2 and OII and decreases for OAI, while T1, T1ρ, T2* or OHI did not reveal significant changes in relation to degeneration. A number of significant correlations between imaging parameters and histological (sub)scores were found, in particular for T2 and OII. Sensitivities and specificities in the detection of Mankin grade-0 were highest for OHI/T1 and OII/T1ρ, respectively. Quantitative OCT and MRI techniques seem to complement each other in the comprehensive assessment of cartilage degeneration. Sufficiently large structural and compositional changes in the extracellular matrix may thus be parameterized and quantified, while the detection of early degeneration remains challenging. (orig.)

  4. Quantitative OCT and MRI biomarkers for the differentiation of cartilage degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebelung, Sven [Aachen University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Aachen (Germany); Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Brill, Nicolai [Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology, Aachen (Germany); Tingart, Markus; Jahr, Holger [Aachen University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Aachen (Germany); Pufe, Thomas [Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Kuhl, Christiane; Truhn, Daniel [Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aachen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of quantitative parameters obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the comprehensive assessment of human articular cartilage degeneration. Human osteochondral samples of variable degeneration (n = 45) were obtained from total knee replacements and assessed by MRI sequences measuring T1, T1ρ, T2 and T2* relaxivity and by OCT-based quantification of irregularity (OII, optical irregularity index), homogeneity (OHI, optical homogeneity index) and attenuation (OAI, optical attenuation index). Samples were also assessed macroscopically (Outerbridge classification) and histologically (Mankin classification) as grade-0 (Mankin scores 0-4)/grade-I (scores 5-8)/grade-II (scores 9-10)/grade-III (score 11-14). After data normalisation, differences between Mankin grades and correlations between imaging parameters were assessed using ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test and Spearman's correlation coefficients, respectively. Sensitivities and specificities in the detection of Mankin grade-0 were calculated. Significant degeneration-related increases were found for T2 and OII and decreases for OAI, while T1, T1ρ, T2* or OHI did not reveal significant changes in relation to degeneration. A number of significant correlations between imaging parameters and histological (sub)scores were found, in particular for T2 and OII. Sensitivities and specificities in the detection of Mankin grade-0 were highest for OHI/T1 and OII/T1ρ, respectively. Quantitative OCT and MRI techniques seem to complement each other in the comprehensive assessment of cartilage degeneration. Sufficiently large structural and compositional changes in the extracellular matrix may thus be parameterized and quantified, while the detection of early degeneration remains challenging. (orig.)

  5. Validity of gradient-echo three-dimensional delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of hip joint cartilage: A histologically controlled study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilkens, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.zilkens@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Moorenstraße 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Miese, Falk, E-mail: falk.miese@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstraße 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Herten, Monika, E-mail: Moherten@web.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Moorenstraße 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Kurzidem, Sabine, E-mail: sabine.kurzidem@uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Moorenstraße 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Jäger, Marcus [Univ Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, D-45147 Essen (Germany); König, Dietmar, E-mail: Dietmarpierre.koenig@lvr.de [LVR Clinic for Orthopedic Surgery, D-41749 Viersen (Germany); Antoch, Gerald, E-mail: antoch@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstraße 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Krauspe, Rüdiger, E-mail: krauspe@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Moorenstraße 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Bittersohl, Bernd, E-mail: bernd.bittersohl@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Moorenstraße 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Objective: To validate gradient-echo three-dimensional (3D) delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) by means of histological analyses in the assessment of hip joint cartilage. Materials and methods: Twenty-one femoral head specimens collected from 21 patients (7 males, 14 females, mean age: 60.9 ± 9.6 years; range: 37.6–77.3 years), who underwent total hip replacement for symptomatic hip joint osteoarthritis, underwent MRI and histological assessment. A region of 2 cm{sup 2} at the weight-bearing area was marked with four pins to enable multi-planar MRI reformatting to be matched with histological sections. MRI was performed at 3 T with a 3D double-echo steady-state (DESS) sequence for morphological cartilage assessment and 3D Volumetric Interpolated Breathhold Examination (VIBE) for T1{sub Gd} mapping. Histological sections were evaluated according to the Mankin score system. Total Mankin score, grade of toluidine staining (sensitive for glycosaminoglycan content) and a modified Mankin score classification system with four sub-groups of cartilage damage were correlated with MRI data. Results: Spearman's rho correlation analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between T1{sub Gd} mapping and histological analyses in all categories including total Mankin score (r = −0.658, p-value ≤ 0.001), toluidine staining (r = −0.802, p-value < 0.001) and modified Mankin score (r = −0.716, p-value < 0.001). The correlation between morphological MRI and histological cartilage assessment was statistically significant but inferior to the biochemical cartilage MRI (r-values ranging from −0.411 to 0.525, p-values < 0.001). Conclusions: Gradient-echo dGEMRIC is reliable while offering the unique features of high image resolution and 3D biochemically sensitive MRI for the assessment of early cartilage degeneration.

  6. Detection of left atrial thrombus in patients with mitral stenosis and atrial fibrillation: retrospective comparison of two-phase computed tomography, transoesophageal echocardiography and surgical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bo Hwa; Ko, Sung Min [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Medical Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hweung Kon [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Meong Gun; Shin, Je Kyoun [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Department of Thoracic surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Woon Seok; Kim, Tae-Yop [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    This retrospective study aims to assess the accuracy of two-phase computed tomography (CT) and transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for the detection of left atrial (LA) thrombus in patients with mitral stenosis (MS) and atrial fibrillation (AF), by using intraoperative findings as the reference standard. Preoperative two-phase CT and intraoperative TEE were performed in 106 patients with MS and AF. The ratio (LAA/AA{sub L}) of Hounsfield units (HU) in the LA appendage (LAA) to the ascending aorta (AA) was calculated on the late-phase CT image. LA echodense masses on TEE and LA filling defects on two-phase CT were observed in 29 and 39 patients, respectively. Thirty-five LA thrombi were identified at surgery in 27 patients. Compared with the intraoperative findings, per-patient sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of two-phase CT were 100 %, 85 %, 69 % and 100 %, and those by using TEE were 93 %, 95 %, 86 % and 97 % in detecting LAA thrombus. After adopting the cut-off value of 0.5 for the LAA/AA{sub L} HU ratio, the specificity and positive predictive value of two-phase CT were increased to 96 % and 90 %, respectively. Two-phase CT with a cut-off value of LAA/AA{sub L} HU ratio of 0.5 provides high performance for the detection of LAA thrombus. (orig.)

  7. Nuclear protein import is reduced in cells expressing nuclear envelopathy-causing lamin A mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Albert; Kiel, Tilman; Heupel, Wolfgang-M.; Wehnert, Manfred; Huebner, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, not only constitute an important determinant of nuclear architecture, but additionally play essential roles in many nuclear functions. Mutations in A-type lamins cause a wide range of human genetic disorders (laminopathies). The importance of lamin A (LaA) in the spatial arrangement of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) prompted us to study the role of LaA mutants in nuclear protein transport. Two mutants, causing prenatal skin disease restrictive dermopathy (RD) and the premature aging disease Hutchinson Gilford progeria syndrome, were used for expression in HeLa cells to investigate their impact on the subcellular localization of NPC-associated proteins and nuclear protein import. Furthermore, dynamics of the LaA mutants within the nuclear lamina were studied. We observed affected localization of NPC-associated proteins, diminished lamina dynamics for both LaA mutants and reduced nuclear import of representative cargo molecules. Intriguingly, both LaA mutants displayed similar effects on nuclear morphology and functions, despite their differences in disease severity. Reduced nuclear protein import was also seen in RD fibroblasts and impaired lamina dynamics for the nucleoporin Nup153. Our data thus represent the first study of a direct link between LaA mutant expression and reduced nuclear protein import.

  8. Assessment of normal left atrial appendage anatomy and function over gender and ages by dynamic cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucebci, Samy; Velasco, Stephane; Duboe, Pier-Olivier; Tasu, Jean-Pierre; Pambrun, Thomas; Ingrand, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate variations in anatomy and function according to age and gender using cardiac computed tomography (CT) in a large prospective cohort of healthy patients. The left atrial appendage (LAA) is considered the most frequent site of intracardiac thrombus formation. However, variations in normal in vivo anatomy and function according to age and gender remain largely unknown. Three-dimensional (3D) cardiac reconstructions of the LAA were performed from CT scans of 193 consecutive patients. Parameters measured included LAA number of lobes, anatomical position of the LAA tip, angulation measured between the proximal and distal portions, minimum (iVol min ) and maximum (iVol max ) volumes indexed to body surface area (BSA), and ejection fraction (LAAEF). Relationship with age was assessed for each parameter. We found that men had longer and wider LAAs. The iVol min and iVol max increased by 0.23 and 0.19 ml per decade, respectively, while LAAEF decreased by 2 % per decade in both sexes. Although LAA volumes increase, LAAEF decreases with age in both sexes. (orig.)

  9. Assessment of normal left atrial appendage anatomy and function over gender and ages by dynamic cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucebci, Samy; Velasco, Stephane; Duboe, Pier-Olivier; Tasu, Jean-Pierre [University of Poitiers, University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Poitiers (France); Pambrun, Thomas [University of Poitiers, University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Poitiers (France); Ingrand, Pierre [University of Poitiers, University Institute of Public Health, Poitiers (France)

    2016-05-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate variations in anatomy and function according to age and gender using cardiac computed tomography (CT) in a large prospective cohort of healthy patients. The left atrial appendage (LAA) is considered the most frequent site of intracardiac thrombus formation. However, variations in normal in vivo anatomy and function according to age and gender remain largely unknown. Three-dimensional (3D) cardiac reconstructions of the LAA were performed from CT scans of 193 consecutive patients. Parameters measured included LAA number of lobes, anatomical position of the LAA tip, angulation measured between the proximal and distal portions, minimum (iVol{sub min}) and maximum (iVol{sub max}) volumes indexed to body surface area (BSA), and ejection fraction (LAAEF). Relationship with age was assessed for each parameter. We found that men had longer and wider LAAs. The iVol{sub min} and iVol{sub max} increased by 0.23 and 0.19 ml per decade, respectively, while LAAEF decreased by 2 % per decade in both sexes. Although LAA volumes increase, LAAEF decreases with age in both sexes. (orig.)

  10. A novel device for the occlusion of left atrial appendage: an experimental study in canine models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhihong; Qin Yongwen; Wu Hong; Hu Jianqiang; Wang Shengqiang; Ding Zhongru; Liu Zongjun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, safety and biocompatibility of a novel device designed by the authors for the occlusion of left atrial appendage (LAA) in canine models. Methods: The occlusion of LAA was performed in 20 experimental dogs by using a novel LAA occluder, which was delivered to the LAA through a transseptal catheter. During the period of 2 weeks to 6 months after the procedure, the dogs were kept under observation for the device healing, migration, perforation and the formation of thrombus. Both scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to examine the endothelial growth on the surface of the occluder and the structure of the endothelial cells. Results: Of the total 20 dogs, the novel device was successfully implanted in 14. The LAA was occluded completely in 13 dogs. No mobile thrombi caused by the implantation procedure were observed. Endothelialization of the atrium-facing surface was observed at one month after the procedure, and the surface was completely covered with endothelial cells at 3 months after the treatment, which was confirmed by gross, histological and SEM examinations. TEM examination showed that the structure of endothelial cells, the mitochondrion and sarcomere of atrial cardiocyte were all normal. Gross and light microscopic examination of the kidney, lung spleen and liver showed that there was no evidence of embolism or infarction. Conclusion: The novel device is safe and feasible for the occlusion of the LAA in experimental dogs. Further study is needed to observe its long-term safety. (authors)

  11. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  12. Atypical cleavage of protonated N-fatty acyl amino acids derived from aspartic acid evidenced by sequential MS3 experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukerche, Toufik Taalibi; Alves, Sandra; Le Faouder, Pauline; Warnet, Anna; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Bouchekara, Mohamed; Belbachir, Mohammed; Tabet, Jean-Claude

    2016-12-01

    Lipidomics calls for information on detected lipids and conjugates whose structural elucidation by mass spectrometry requires to rationalization of their gas phase dissociations toward collision-induced dissociation (CID) processes. This study focused on activated dissociations of two lipoamino acid (LAA) systems composed of N-palmitoyl acyl coupled with aspartic and glutamic acid mono ethyl esters (as LAA (*D) and LAA (*E) ). Although in MS/MS, their CID spectra show similar trends, e.g., release of water and ethanol, the [(LAA (*D/*E) +H)-C 2 H 5 OH] + product ions dissociate via distinct pathways in sequential MS 3 experiments. The formation of all the product ions is rationalized by charge-promoted cleavages often involving stepwise processes with ion isomerization into ion-dipole prior to dissociation. The latter explains the maleic anhydride or ketene neutral losses from N-palmitoyl acyl aspartate and glutamate anhydride fragment ions, respectively. Consequently, protonated palmitoyl acid amide is generated from LAA (*D), whereas LAA (*E) leads to the [*E+H-H 2 O] + anhydride. The former releases ammonia to provide acylium, which gives the C n H (2n-1) and C n H (2n-3) carbenium series. This should offer structural information, e.g., to locate either unsaturation(s) or alkyl group branching present on the various fatty acyl moieties of lipo-aspartic acid in further studies based on MS n experiments.

  13. Contrast-enhanced CMR in patients after percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersen Steffen E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the feasibility and value of first-pass contrast-enhanced dynamic and post-contrast 3D CMR in patients after transcatheter occlusion of left atrial appendage (LAA to identify incorrect placement and persistent leaks. Methods 7 patients with different occluder systems (n = 4 PLAATO; n = 2 Watchman; n = 1 ACP underwent 2 contrast-enhanced (Gd-DOTA CMR sequences (2D TrueFISP first-pass perfusion and 3D-TurboFLASH to assess localization, artifact size and potential leaks of the devices. Perfusion CMR was analyzed visually and semi-quantitatively to identify potential leaks. Results All occluders were positioned within the LAA. The ACP occluder presented the most extensive artifact size. Visual assessment revealed a residual perfusion of the LAA apex in 4 cases using first-pass perfusion and 3D-TurboFLASH indicating a suboptimal LAA occlusion. By assessing signal-to-time-curves the cases with a visually detected leak showed a 9-fold higher signal-peak in the LAA apex (567 ± 120% increase from baseline signal than those without a leak (61 ± 22%; p Conclusion This CMR pilot study provides valuable non-invasive information in patients after transcatheter occlusion of the LAA to identify correct placement and potential leaks. We recommend incorporating CMR in future clinical studies to evaluate new device types.

  14. Achieving Lower Nitrogen Balance and Higher Nitrogen Recovery Efficiency Reduces Nitrous Oxide Emissions in North America's Maize Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex A. Omonode

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have assessed the common, yet unproven, hypothesis that an increase of plant nitrogen (N uptake and/or recovery efficiency (NRE will reduce nitrous oxide (N2O emission during crop production. Understanding the relationships between N2O emissions and crop N uptake and use efficiency parameters can help inform crop N management recommendations for both efficiency and environmental goals. Analyses were conducted to determine which of several commonly used crop N uptake-derived parameters related most strongly to growing season N2O emissions under varying N management practices in North American maize systems. Nitrogen uptake-derived variables included total aboveground N uptake (TNU, grain N uptake (GNU, N recovery efficiency (NRE, net N balance (NNB in relation to GNU [NNB(GNU] and TNU [NNB(TNU], and surplus N (SN. The relationship between N2O and N application rate was sigmoidal with relatively small emissions for N rates <130 kg ha−1, and a sharp increase for N rates from 130 to 220 kg ha−1; on average, N2O increased linearly by about 5 g N per kg of N applied for rates up to 220 kg ha−1. Fairly strong and significant negative relationships existed between N2O and NRE when management focused on N application rate (r2 = 0.52 or rate and timing combinations (r2 = 0.65. For every percentage point increase, N2O decreased by 13 g N ha−1 in response to N rates, and by 20 g N ha−1 for NRE changes in response to rate-by-timing treatments. However, more consistent positive relationships (R2 = 0.73–0.77 existed between N2O and NNB(TNU, NNB(GNU, and SN, regardless of rate and timing of N application; on average N2O emission increased by about 5, 7, and 8 g N, respectively, per kg increase of NNB(GNU, NNB(TNU, and SN. Neither N source nor placement influenced the relationship between N2O and NRE. Overall, our analysis indicated that a careful selection of appropriate N rate applied at the right time can both increase NRE and reduce N

  15. Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of the Left Atrial Appendage to Predict Thrombosis Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Maria Bosi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During Atrial Fibrillation (AF more than 90% of the left atrial thrombi responsible for thromboembolic events originate in the left atrial appendage (LAA, a complex small sac protruding from the left atrium (LA. Current available treatments to prevent thromboembolic events are oral anticoagulation, surgical LAA exclusion, or percutaneous LAA occlusion. However, the mechanism behind thrombus formation in the LAA is poorly understood. The aim of this work is to analyse the hemodynamic behaviour in four typical LAA morphologies - “Chicken wing”, “Cactus”, “Windsock” and “Cauliflower” - to identify potential relationships between the different shapes and the risk of thrombotic events. Computerised tomography (CT images from four patients with no LA pathology were segmented to derive the 3D anatomical shape of LAA and LA. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD analyses based on the patient-specific anatomies were carried out imposing both healthy and AF flow conditions. Velocity and shear strain rate (SSR were analysed for all cases. Residence time in the different LAA regions was estimated with a virtual contrast agent washing out. CFD results indicate that both velocity and SSR decrease along the LAA, from the ostium to the tip, at each instant in the cardiac cycle, thus making the LAA tip more prone to fluid stagnation, and therefore to thrombus formation. Velocity and SSR also decrease from normal to AF conditions. After four cardiac cycles, the lowest washout of contrast agent was observed for the Cauliflower morphology (3.27% of residual contrast in AF, and the highest for the Windsock (0.56% of residual contrast in AF. This suggests that the former is expected to be associated with a higher risk of thrombosis, in agreement with clinical reports in the literature. The presented computational models highlight the major role played by the LAA morphology on the hemodynamics, both in normal and AF conditions, revealing the potential

  16. A comparative study of the effects of vitamin C, sirolimus, and paclitaxel on the growth of endothelial and smooth muscle cells for cardiovascular medical device applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakade S

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sandeep Kakade, Gopinath ManiBiomedical Engineering Program, The University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD, USAAbstract: Antiproliferative drugs such as sirolimus (SIR and paclitaxel (PAT are currently released from stents and vascular grafts to inhibit the growth of smooth muscle cells (SMCs, thereby preventing neointimal hyperplasia. However, these drugs delay or impair the growth of endothelial cells (ECs on implant surfaces causing late thrombosis. Hence, there is a need to use alternative drugs in these implants to encourage the growth of ECs and to inhibit the growth of SMCs. Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid [L-AA] is one such drug which has been shown to encourage EC growth and inhibit SMC growth when orally administered or added directly to the cell cultures. In this research, four sets of in vitro cell culture experiments were carried out to compare the effects of L-AA, SIR, and PAT on the growth of ECs and SMCs under similar conditions, and to compare the effects of different doses of L-AA to determine the optimal dose for promoting maximum EC growth and inhibiting SMC growth. The ECs and SMCs treated with different drugs were characterized for their viability and proliferation, and morphology using the quantitative resazurin assay (as well as qualitative fluorescence microscopy characterization and phase contrast microscopy, respectively, for up to 7 days. Also, the phenotype of ECs was characterized using immunofluorescence microscopy. Both SIR and PAT significantly inhibited the EC growth while L-AA significantly encouraged EC growth even more than that of the controls with no drugs. Also, L-AA significantly inhibited SMC growth although the inhibitory effect was inferior to that of SIR and PAT. The L-AA dosage study demonstrated that 100 µg and 300 µg of L-AA showed maximum EC growth after 7 days when compared to other dosages (1 µg, 500 µg, and 1000 µg of L-AA and controls investigated in this study. Also, the 100 µg and 300 µg

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Percutaneous Closure of the Left Atrial Appendage in Atrial Fibrillation Based on Results From PROTECT AF Versus PREVAIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, James V; Hutton, David W; Barnes, Geoffrey D; Zhu, Ruo P; Owens, Douglas K; Garber, Alan M; Go, Alan S; Hlatky, Mark A; Heidenreich, Paul A; Wang, Paul J; Al-Ahmad, Amin; Turakhia, Mintu P

    2016-06-01

    Randomized trials of left atrial appendage (LAA) closure with the Watchman device have shown varying results, and its cost effectiveness compared with anticoagulation has not been evaluated using all available contemporary trial data. We used a Markov decision model to estimate lifetime quality-adjusted survival, costs, and cost effectiveness of LAA closure with Watchman, compared directly with warfarin and indirectly with dabigatran, using data from the long-term (mean 3.8 year) follow-up of Percutaneous Closure of the Left Atrial Appendage Versus Warfarin Therapy for Prevention of Stroke in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (PROTECT AF) and Prospective Randomized Evaluation of the Watchman LAA Closure Device in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation (PREVAIL) randomized trials. Using data from PROTECT AF, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios compared with warfarin and dabigatran were $20 486 and $23 422 per quality-adjusted life year, respectively. Using data from PREVAIL, LAA closure was dominated by warfarin and dabigatran, meaning that it was less effective (8.44, 8.54, and 8.59 quality-adjusted life years, respectively) and more costly. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50 000 per quality-adjusted life year, LAA closure was cost effective 90% and 9% of the time under PROTECT AF and PREVAIL assumptions, respectively. These results were sensitive to the rates of ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage for LAA closure and medical anticoagulation. Using data from the PROTECT AF trial, LAA closure with the Watchman device was cost effective; using PREVAIL trial data, Watchman was more costly and less effective than warfarin and dabigatran. PROTECT AF enrolled more patients and has substantially longer follow-up time, allowing greater statistical certainty with the cost-effectiveness results. However, longer-term trial results and postmarketing surveillance of major adverse events will be vital to determining the value of the Watchman in clinical

  18. Reduced-dose chest CT with 3D automatic exposure control vs. standard chest CT: Quantitative assessment of emphysematous changes in smokers’ lung parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Hisanobu; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Yamazaki, Youichi; Matsumoto, Keiko; Onishi, Yumiko; Takenaka, Daisuke; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Nishio, Mizuho; Matsumoto, Sumiaki; Murase, Kenya; Nishimura, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the capability of reduced-dose chest CT with three-dimensional (3D) automatic exposure control (AEC) on quantitative assessment of emphysematous change in smoker’ lung parenchyma, compared to standard chest CT. Methods: Twenty consecutive smoker patients (mean age 62.8 years) underwent CT examinations using a standard protocol (150 mAs) and a protocol with 3D-AEC. In this study, the targeted standard deviations number was set to 160. For quantitative assessment of emphysematous change in lung parenchyma in each subject using the standard protocol, a percentage of voxels less than −950 HU in the lung (%LAA −950 ) was calculated. The 3D-AEC protocol's %LAA was computed from of voxel percentages under selected threshold CT value. The differences of radiation doses between these two protocols were evaluated, and %LAAs −950 was compared with the 3D-AEC protocol %LAAs. Results: Mean dose length products were 780.2 ± 145.5 mGy cm (standard protocol), and 192.0 ± 95.9 (3D-AEC protocol). There was significant difference between them (paired Student's t test, p −950 and 3D-AEC protocol %LAAs. In adopting the feasible threshold CT values of the 3D-AEC protocol, the 3D-AEC protocol %LAAs were significantly correlated with %LAAs −950 (r = 0.98, p < 0.001) and limits of agreement from Bland–Altman analysis was 0.52 ± 4.3%. Conclusions: Changing threshold CT values demonstrated that reduced-dose chest CT with 3D-AEC can substitute for the standard protocol in assessments of emphysematous change in smoker’ lung parenchyma.

  19. Quantification of Mitral Regurgitation in Anatolian Shepherd Dogs with Asymptomatic Degenerative Mitral Valve Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kursad Turgut1*, Yilmaz Koc2, Hasan Guzelbektes1,3, Amir Naseri1, Mehmet Ege Ince1 and Ismail Sen1

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Degenerative mitral valvular disease (DMVD is the most frequent cardiac disease, causing mitral regurgitation (MR in dogs. The purpose of this study was to compare the ratio of the regurgitant jet area (RJA to the left atrial area (LAA (RJA/LAA with subtracting method to quantify regurgitant volume (RegV and regurgitant fraction (RF in asymptomatic Anatolian Shepherd Dogs (ASHs with DMVD. Thirty-eight ASHs with DMVD were used as experimental group. The control group consisted of 35 healthy ASHs. In 38 ASHs with DMVD (20 B1 dogs and 18 B2 dogs, the severity of MR was assessed by RJA/LAA and subtraction method. No differences were noted between the assays measuring the severity of MR by χ2 analysis. The observed agreement between the assays was 81% for RJA/LAA vs RegV and was 73% for RJA/LAA vs RF, and the kappa statistic values for RJA/LAA vs RegV and for RJA/LAA vs RF were 0.63 (substantial agreement and 0.50 (moderate agreement, respectively. Our results indicate that each quantification method was valuable to estimate the acuteness of the disease in ASHs with MR and all were in good accordance with the echocardiographic heart size and N-terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP measurements. Therefore, the each of these non-invasive methods may be functional to serially estimate the acuteness of MR in DMVD in order to monitor the progression of disease. Future studies have to evaluate, if these will be useful to anticipate the risk or time of decompensation in asymptomatic dogs.

  20. CD4(+)and CD8(+)T-cell reactions against leukemia-associated- or minor-histocompatibility-antigens in AML-patients after allogeneic SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Brigitte; Milosevic, Slavoljub; Doessinger, Georg; Reuther, Susanne; Liepert, Anja; Braeu, Marion; Schick, Julia; Vogt, Valentin; Schuster, Friedhelm; Kroell, Tanja; Busch, Dirk H; Borkhardt, Arndt; Kolb, Hans-Jochem; Tischer, Johanna; Buhmann, Raymund; Schmetzer, Helga

    2014-04-01

    T-cells play an important role in the remission-maintenance in AML-patients (pts) after SCT, however the role of LAA- (WT1, PR1, PRAME) or minor-histocompatibility (mHag, HA1) antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+)T-cells is not defined. A LAA/HA1-peptide/protein stimulation, cloning and monitoring strategy for specific CD8(+)/CD4(+)T-cells in AML-pts after SCT is given. Our results show that (1) LAA-peptide-specific CD8+T-cells are detectable in every AML-pt after SCT. CD8(+)T-cells, recognizing two different antigens detectable in 5 of 7 cases correlate with long-lasting remissions. Clonal TCR-Vβ-restriction exemplarily proven by spectratyping in PRAME-specific CD8(+)T-cells; high PRAME-peptide-reactivity was CD4(+)-associated, as shown by IFN-γ-release. (2) Two types of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) were tested for presentation of LAA/HA1-proteins to CD4(+)T-cells: miniEBV-transduced lymphoblastoid cells (B-cell-source) and CD4-depleted MNC (source for B-cell/monocyte/DC). We provide a refined cloning-system for proliferating, CD40L(+)CD4(+)T-cells after LAA/HA1-stimulation. CD4(+)T-cells produced cytokines (GM-CSF, IFN-γ) upon exposure to LAA/HA1-stimulation until after at least 7 restimulations and demonstrated cytotoxic activity against naive blasts, but not fibroblasts. Antileukemic activity of unstimulated, stimulated or cloned CD4(+)T-cells correlated with defined T-cell-subtypes and the clinical course of the disease. In conclusion we provide immunological tools to enrich and monitor LAA/HA1-CD4(+)- and CD8(+)T-cells in AML-pts after SCT and generate data with relevant prognostic value. We were able to demonstrate the presence of LAA-peptide-specific CD8(+)T-cell clones in AML-pts after SCT. In addition, we were also able to enrich specific antileukemic reactive CD4(+)T-cells without GvH-reactivity upon repeated LAA/HA1-protein stimulation and limiting dilution cloning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Mr-Proanp Rises during Exercise Even after Surgical Closure of the Left Atrial Appendage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagdrup, Christian; Hansen, Jesper Park; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2017-01-01

    bicycle exercise test, at least six weeks after the operation. Closure of the LAA was confirmed by Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE). Venous blood samples were collected before the test, and within the first two minutes of recovery after maximum work-load. Results: Baseline ANP showed (non-closed vs....... closed LAA): 163.3pM (95% CI: 121.9 – 204.8) vs. 137.5 pM (95% CI: 69.5 – 205.6), p=0.4575. Maximum work-load was similar for both groups. MR-proANP concentration rose significantly: Max ANP (non-closed vs. closed LAA): 197.4pM (95% CI: 146.9 - 247.9) vs. 164.3pM (95% CI: 89.1 - 239.6), p=0.4061MR......-proANP increase was not different between the groups. Delta ANP (non-closed vs. closed LAA): 34.1pM (95% CI: 22.1 – 46.1) vs. 26.8pM (95% CI: 15.3 – 38.3), p=0.3352 Conclusion: This study shows that plasma MR-proANP increases during exercise, and that surgical LAA closure did not reduce the increase of MR...

  2. Risk factors associated with airway allergic diseases from exposure to laboratory animal allergens among veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowiak, Anna; Wiszniewska, Marta; Krawczyk, Patrycja; Szulc, Bogdan; Wittczak, Tomasz; Walusiak, Jolanta; Pałczynski, Cezary

    2007-05-01

    Investigate the risk factors for the development of occupational airway allergy (OAA) from exposure to laboratory animal allergens (LAA) among Polish veterinarians. Two hundred veterinarians responded to the questionnaire and were subjected to skin prick test (SPT) to common allergens and LAA (rat, mouse, hamster, guinea pig, rabbit). Evaluation of total serum IgE level and specific IgE against occupational allergens was performed. In addition, bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were measured before and after specific challenge testing (SCT) only in the subjects with work-related symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma (OA). The prevalence of asthmatic and ocular symptoms was statistically more prevalent in the group of veterinarians sensitised to LAA versus non-sensitised subjects. The most frequent occupational allergens of skin and serum reactivity were LAA (44.5 and 31.5%, respectively). In 41 (20.5%) and in 22 (11%) subjects out of 200 veterinarians, serum specific IgE to natural rubber latex (NRL) allergens and disinfectants was also found. Serum sensitisation to cat allergens and daily contact with laboratory animals (LA) increased the risk for developing isolated occupational rhinitis. Furthermore, working time of more than 10 years and daily contact with LA were also significant risk factors for the development of OAA. Measuring PEFR and BHR before and after SCT is a useful method to confirm the presence of OA. Allergy to LAA is an important health problem among veterinary medicine practitioners in Poland.

  3. [New technology for prevention of embolic events in atrial fibrillation: a systematic review on percutaneous endovascular left atrial appendage closure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna, Paolo; Sagone, Antonio; Proietti, Riccardo; Arensi, Andrea; Viecca, Maurizio; Santangeli, Pasquale; Di Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea

    2012-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. The mortality rate of patients with AF is doubled as compared to non-fibrillating controls. The most relevant complication of AF is a major increase in the risk of stroke. The gold standard in reducing cerebrovascular events in AF is warfarin therapy, which is not free from contraindications and limitations. The left atrial appendage (LAA) is the main source of emboli causing stroke in AF. LAA closure is a seducing approach to stroke risk reduction in AF without anticoagulation. Since 1949, heart surgeons have performed LAA closure or amputation in patients with AF. Percutaneous endovascular LAA closure is a new, less invasive, technique to reach the goal. Several devices have been used to perform this intervention, and the results of published trials are encouraging in terms of effectiveness and relative safety of this attractive technique. In this review we examine the published trials and data on percutaneous LAA closure, with particular attention to the risks and benefits of this procedure.

  4. Sources of light-absorbing aerosol in arctic snow and their seasonal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean A. Hegg

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Two data sets consisting of measurements of light absorbing aerosols (LAA in arctic snow together with suites of other corresponding chemical constituents are presented; the first from Siberia, Greenland and near the North Pole obtained in 2008, and the second from the Canadian arctic obtained in 2009. A preliminary differentiation of the LAA into black carbon (BC and non-BC LAA is done. Source attribution of the light absorbing aerosols was done using a positive matrix factorization (PMF model. Four sources were found for each data set (crop and grass burning, boreal biomass burning, pollution and marine. For both data sets, the crops and grass biomass burning was the main source of both LAA species, suggesting the non-BC LAA was brown carbon. Depth profiles at most of the sites allowed assessment of the seasonal variation in the source strengths. The biomass burning sources dominated in the spring but pollution played a more significant (though rarely dominant role in the fall, winter and, for Greenland, summer. The PMF analysis is consistent with trajectory analysis and satellite fire maps.

  5. Uudiseid füüsikalaborist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    TLÜ täppisteaduste valdkonnas on viimastel aastatel lisandunud uus uurimissuund: kõrgetemperatuurse plasma ja materjalide vastastikmõju, millega tegeletakse koostöös kolleegidega Varssavist, Prahast ja Moskvast. Uuringute läbi viimiseks ehitati valmis kaasaegne plasmafüüsika laboratoorium. Alates 2005. a. on TLÜ füüsikud kaasatud NATO "Teadus rahu eest" finantseeritavasse projekti. Prof. Romi Mankin selgitab füüsika valdkonna teadussuundi

  6. Assessment of Biomarkers Associated with Joint Injury and Subsequent Post Traumatic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    quantitative scales, and osteophyte score. Parametric analyses were performed for bone morphological measures and histological assessment. Mankin...p=0.0204) and the medial tibia (p=0.0015). Subchondral bone thickening was significantly increased in the C57BL/6 mice compared to the MRL/MpJ mice...modified synovitis score with semi-quantitative scales, and osteophyte score [1,5,6,7,8]. Parametric analyses were performed for bone morphological

  7. Relationship between inflammation, the gut microbiota, and metabolic osteoarthritis development: studies in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, K H; Paul, H A; Reimer, R A; Seerattan, R A; Hart, D A; Herzog, W

    2015-11-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) may result from intrinsic inflammation related to metabolic disturbance. Obesity-associated inflammation is triggered by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from the gut microbiota. However, the relationship between gut microbiota, LPS, inflammation, and OA remain unclear. To evaluate the associations between gut microbiota, systemic LPS levels, serum and local inflammatory profiles, and joint damage in a high fat/high sucrose diet induced obese rat model. 32 rats were randomized to a high fat/high sucrose diet (diet-induced obese (DIO), 40% fat, 45% sucrose, n = 21) or chow diet group (12% fat, 3.7% sucrose n = 11) for 28 weeks. After a 12-week obesity induction period, DIO animals were stratified into Obesity Prone (DIO-P, top 33% by change in body mass, n = 7), and Obesity Resistant groups (DIO-R, bottom 33%, n = 7). At sacrifice, joints were scored using a Modified Mankin Criteria. Blood and synovial fluid analytes, serum LPS, and fecal gut microbiota were analyzed. DIO animals had greater Modified Mankin scores than chow animals (P = 0.002). There was a significant relationship (r = 0.604, p = 0.001) between body fat, but not body mass, and Modified Mankin score. Eighteen synovial fluid and four serum analytes were increased in DIO animals. DIO serum LPS levels were increased compared to chow (P = 0.031). Together, Lactobacillus species (spp.) and Methanobrevibacter spp. abundance had a strong predictive relationship with Modified Mankin Score (r(2) = 0.5, P gut microbiota and adiposity-derived inflammation and metabolic OA warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. T2* mapping of hip joint cartilage in various histological grades of degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittersohl, B; Miese, F R; Hosalkar, H S; Herten, M; Antoch, G; Krauspe, R; Zilkens, C

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate T2* values in various histological severities of osteoarthritis (OA). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and T2* mapping including a three-dimensional (3D) double-echo steady-state (DESS) sequence for morphological cartilage assessment and a 3D multiecho data image combination (MEDIC) sequence for T2* mapping were conducted in 21 human femoral head specimens with varying severities of OA. Subsequently, histological assessment was undertaken in all specimens to correlate the observations of T2* mapping with histological analyses. According to the Mankin score, four grades of histological changes were determined: grade 0 (Mankin scores of 0-4), grade I (scores of 5-8), grade II (scores of 9-10), and grade III (scores of 11-14). For reliability assessment, cartilage T2* measurements were repeated after 4 weeks in 10 randomly selected femoral head specimens. T2* values decreased significantly with increasing cartilage degeneration (total P-values fair correlation between T2* values and Mankin score (correlation coefficient = -0.362) that was statistically significant (P-value advantages of the T2* mapping technique with no need for contrast medium, high image resolution and ability to perform 3D biochemically sensitive imaging, T2* mapping may be a strong addition to the currently evolving era of cartilage biochemical imaging. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The main principles of medical rehabilitation of the injured persons in the system of organization of medical aid after radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadezhina, N.M.; Lelyuk, V.G.; Galstyan, I.A.; Uvacheva, I.V.; Chubchenkova, Zh.N.; Kutuzova, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    Results of clinical examination of participants of liquidation of the after-effects of the accident (LAA) at Chernobyl for several years are presented. For participants of LAA with an acute radial disease of various degree of severity, a great importance is attached to the aspect of local radial injuries (LRI). The following principles of their medical rehabilitation have been elaborated; generally roborant treatment along with psycho-therapeutic correction, therapy of radial cataract (surgical); prophylaxis and therapy of late manifestations of LRI; treatment and prophylaxis of concomitant somatic diseases; efficient provision of employment of patients and their return to active social position in family and society life. The complex of rehabilitation measures for participants of LAA exposed to radiation without development of acute radial disease should contain generally accepted principles; thorough and timely diagnostics and treatment of general somatic diseases; correction of the consequences of mental stress, sanitation of life regimen with rational nutrition and physical strain. 13 refs.; 1 tab

  10. Left Atrial Appendage Closure in Atrial Fibrillation: A World without Anticoagulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmeed Contractor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial Fibrillation (AF is a common arrhythmia with an incidence that is as high as 10% in the elderly population. Given the large proportion of strokes caused by AF as well as the associated morbidity and mortality, reducing stroke burden is the most important part of AF management. While warfarin significantly reduces the risk of AF-related stroke, perceived bleeding risks and compliance limit its widespread use in the high-risk AF population. The left atrial appendage is believed to be the “culprit” for thrombogenesis in nonvalvular AF and is a new therapeutic target for stroke prevention. The purpose of this review is to explore the evolving field of percutaneous LAA occlusion. After briefly highlighting the risk of stroke with AF, problems with warfarin, and the role of the LAA in clot formation, this article discusses the feasibility and efficacy of various devices which have been developed for percutaneous LAA occlusion.

  11. Quantitative evaluation of interstitial pneumonia using 3D-curved high-resolution CT imaging parallel to the chest wall: A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyasu Umakoshi

    Full Text Available To quantify the imaging findings of patients with interstitial pneumonia (IP and emphysema using three-dimensional curved high-resolution computed tomography (3D-cHRCT at a constant depth from the chest wall, and compare the results to visual assessment of IP and each patient's diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLco.We retrospectively reviewed the axial CT findings and pulmonary function test results of 95 patients with lung cancer (72 men and 23 women, aged 45-84 years with or without IP, as follows: non-IP (n = 47, mild IP (n = 31, and moderate IP (n = 17. The 3D-cHRCT images of the lung at a 1-cm depth from the chest wall were reconstructed automatically using original software; total area (TA, high-attenuation area (HAA >-500 HU, and low-attenuation area (LAA <-950 HU were calculated on a workstation. The %HAA and %LAA were calculated as follows: [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text].The %HAA and %LAA respective values were 3.2±0.9 and 27.7±8.2, 3.9±1.2 and 27.6±5.9, and 6.9±2.2 and 25.4±8.7 in non-IP, mild IP, and moderate IP patients, respectively. There were significant differences in %HAA between the 3 groups of patients (P<0.001, but no differences in %LAA (P = 0.558. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that %HAA and %LAA were negatively correlated with predicted DLco (standard partial regression coefficient [b*] = -0.453, P<0.001; b* = -0.447, P<0.001, respectively.The %HAA and %LAA values computed using 3D-cHRCT were significantly correlated with DLco and may be important quantitative parameters for both IP and emphysema.

  12. Size-based emphysema cluster analysis on low attenuation area in 3D volumetric CT: comparison with pulmonary functional test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minho; Kim, Namkug; Lee, Sang Min; Seo, Joon Beom; Oh, Sang Young

    2015-03-01

    To quantify low attenuation area (LAA) of emphysematous regions according to cluster size in 3D volumetric CT data of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and to compare these indices with their pulmonary functional test (PFT). Sixty patients with COPD were scanned by a more than 16-multi detector row CT scanner (Siemens Sensation 16 and 64) within 0.75mm collimation. Based on these LAA masks, a length scale analysis to estimate each emphysema LAA's size was performed as follows. At first, Gaussian low pass filter from 30mm to 1mm kernel size with 1mm interval on the mask was performed from large to small size, iteratively. Centroid voxels resistant to the each filter were selected and dilated by the size of the kernel, which was regarded as the specific size emphysema mask. The slopes of area and number of size based LAA (slope of semi-log plot) were analyzed and compared with PFT. PFT parameters including DLco, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC were significantly (all p-value< 0.002) correlated with the slopes (r-values; -0.73, 0.54, 0.69, respectively) and EI (r-values; -0.84, -0.60, -0.68, respectively). In addition, the D independently contributed regression for FEV1 and FEV1/FVC (adjust R sq. of regression study: EI only, 0.70, 0.45; EI and D, 0.71, 0.51, respectively). By the size based LAA segmentation and analysis, we evaluated the Ds of area, number, and distribution of size based LAA, which would be independent factors for predictor of PFT parameters.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Percutaneous Closure of the Left Atrial Appendage in Atrial Fibrillation Based on Results from PROTECT AF vs. PREVAIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, James V.; Hutton, David W.; Barnes, Geoffrey D.; Zhu, Ruo P.; Owens, Douglas K.; Garber, Alan M.; Go, Alan S.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Heidenreich, Paul A.; Wang, Paul J.; Al-Ahmad, Amin; Turakhia, Mintu P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Randomized trials of left atrial appendage (LAA) closure with the Watchman device have shown varying results, and its cost-effectiveness compared to anticoagulation has not been evaluated using all available contemporary trial data. Methods and Results We used a Markov decision model to estimate lifetime quality-adjusted survival, costs, and cost-effectiveness of LAA closure with Watchman, compared directly with warfarin and indirectly with dabigatran, using data from the long-term (mean 3.8 year) follow-up of PROTECT AF and PREVAIL randomized trials. Using data from PROTECT AF, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) compared to warfarin and dabigatran were $20,486 and $23,422 per quality adjusted life year (QALY), respectively. Using data from PREVAIL, LAA closure was dominated by warfarin and dabigatran, meaning that it was less effective (8.44, 8.54, and 8.59 QALYs, respectively) and more costly. At a willingness-to-pay-threshold of $50,000 per QALY, LAA closure was cost-effective 90% and 9% of the time under PROTECT AF and PREVAIL assumptions, respectively. These results were sensitive to the rates of ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage for LAA closure and medical anticoagulation. Conclusions Using data from the PROTECT AF trial, LAA closure with the Watchman device was cost-effective; using PREVAIL trial data, Watchman was more costly and less effective than warfarin and dabigatran. PROTECT AF enrolled more patients and has substantially longer follow-up time, allowing greater statistical certainty with the cost-effectiveness results. However, longer term trial results and post-marketing surveillance of major adverse events will be vital to determining the value of the Watchman in clinical practice. PMID:27307517

  14. Retinal artery occlusion and associated recurrent vascular risk with underlying etiologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ho Hong

    Full Text Available RAO is caused by various etiologies and subsequent vascular events may be associated with underlying etiologies. Our aim is to investigate the etiologies of RAO, the occurrence of subsequent vascular events and their association in patients with RAO.We analyzed data from 151 consecutive patients presenting with acute non-arteritic RAO between 2003 and 2013 in a single tertiary-care hospital. The primary outcome was the occurrence of a vascular event defined as stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death within 365 days of the RAO onset. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard model were used to estimate the hazard ratio of the vascular events.Large artery atherosclerosis (LAA was the etiology more frequently associated with of RAO (41.1%, 62/151. During the one year follow-up, ischemic stroke and vascular events occurred in 8.6% and 9.9% of patients, respectively. Ten vascular events occurred in RAO patients attributed to LAA and 4 occurred in undetermined etiology. RAO patients with LAA had a nearly four times higher risk of vascular events compared to those without LAA (hazard ratio 3.94, 95% confidence interval 1.21-12.81. More than a half of all events occurred within one month and over three fourths of ischemic strokes occurred ipsilateral to the RAO.After occurrence of RAO, there is a high risk of a subsequent vascular event, particularly ipsilateral stroke, within one month. LAA is an independent factor for the occurrence of a subsequent vascular event. Management for the prevention of secondary vascular events is necessary in patients with RAO especially with LAA. Large clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  15. Echocardiographic Risk Factors for Stroke and Outcomes in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Anticoagulated With Apixaban or Warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinereanu, Dragos; Lopes, Renato D; Mulder, Hillary; Gersh, Bernard J; Hanna, Michael; de Barros E Silva, Pedro G M; Atar, Dan; Wallentin, Lars; Granger, Christopher B; Alexander, John H

    2017-12-01

    Few data exist on the long-term outcomes of patients with spontaneous echo contrast (SEC), left atrial/left atrial appendage (LA/LAA) thrombus, and complex aortic plaque (CAP), in patients with atrial fibrillation receiving oral anticoagulation. We explored the relationship between these 3 echocardiographic findings and clinical outcomes, and the comparative efficacy and safety of apixaban and warfarin for each finding. Patients from the ARISTOTLE trial (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) with SEC, LA/LAA thrombus, or CAP diagnosed by either transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiography were compared with patients with none of these findings on transesophageal echocardiography. A total of 1251 patients were included: 217 had SEC, 127 had LA/LAA thrombus, 241 had CAP, and 746 had none. The rates of stroke/systemic embolism were not significantly different among patients with and without these echocardiographic findings (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-3.60 for SEC; hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-6.86 for LA/LAA thrombus; hazard ratio, 2.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-6.85 for CAP). Rates of ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death were also not different between patients with and without these findings. For patients with either SEC or CAP, there was no evidence of a differential effect of apixaban over warfarin. For patients with LA/LAA thrombus, there was also no significant interaction, with the exception of all-cause death and any bleeding where there was a greater benefit of apixaban compared with warfarin among patients with no LA/LAA thrombus. In anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation and risk factors for stroke, echocardiographic findings do not seem to add to the risk of thromboembolic events. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00412984. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Left atrial appendage obliteration in atrial fibrillation patients undergoing bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, X P; Zhu, T Y; Han, J; Li, Y; Meng, X

    2016-02-01

    Left atrial appendage (LAA) obliteration is a proven stroke-preventive measure for patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the efficacy of LAA obliteration for patients with AF after bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement (MVR) remains unclear. This study aimed to estimate the efficacy of LAA obliteration in preventing embolism and to investigate the predictors of thromboembolism after bioprosthetic MVR. We retrospectively studied 173 AF subjects with bioprosthetic MVR; among them, 81 subjects underwent LAA obliteration using an endocardial running suture method. The main outcome measure was the occurrence of thrombosis events (TEs). The mean follow-up time was 40 ± 17 months. AF rhythm was observed in 136 patients postoperatively. The incidence rate of TEs was 13.97 % for postoperative AF subjects; a dilated left atrium (LA; > 49.5 mm) was identified as an independent risk factor of TEs (OR = 10.619, 95 % CI = 2.754-40.94, p = 0.001). For postoperative AF patients with or without LAA, the incidence rate of TEs was 15.8 % (9/57) and 12.7 % (10/79; p = 0.603), respectively. The incidence rate of TEs was 2.7 % (1/36) and 4.2 % (2/48) for the subgroup patients with a left atrial diameter of  49.5 mm (p = 0.346). Surgical LAA obliteration in patients with valvular AF undergoing bioprosthetic MVR did not reduce TEs, even when the CHA2DS2-VASc score (a score for estimating the risk of stroke in AF) was ≥ 2 points.

  17. Relationship between diminution of small pulmonary vessels and emphysema in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashimo, Shuko; Chubachi, Shotaro; Tsutsumi, Akihiro; Kameyama, Naofumi; Sasaki, Mamoru; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Asano, Koichiro; Reilly, John J; Betsuyaku, Tomoko

    To investigate the relationship between small pulmonary vessels and extent of emphysema on CT in individual lungs with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Forty-nine patients were included. The percentage of cross-sectional area of vessels emphysema were assessed. Less than half of the COPD patients demonstrated an inverse correlation between %CSA <5 and percentage of low attenuation area (LAA%). In the remaining patients, %CSA <5 was homogeneously distributed. Not all patients with COPD demonstrated an inverse correlation of the distributions between %CSA <5 and LAA% in individual lungs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reliability and comparison of acromion assessment techniques on x-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (reliability of acromion assessment techniques)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viskontas, D.G.; MacDermid, J.C.; Drosdowech, D.S.; Garvin, G.J.; Romano, W.M.; Faber, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    To determine the reliability and correlation of plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the assessment of acromion morphology. Materials and Methods: Acromion morphology was assessed using the lateral acromion angle (LAA) and the acromion-humeral interval (AHI). Thirty patients who had x-rays and MRI for impingement syndrome were included. Six blinded observers assessed the acromion morphology subjectively and objectively. Results: Neither acromion assessment technique demonstrated a positive correlation (kappa and intraclass coefficient 0.55) when measured objectively by experienced observers. Conclusion: The LAA and the AHI are both reliable acromion assessment techniques on X-ray and MRI when measured objectively and by experienced observers. (author)

  19. Anisotropic scattering effect in calculations of nuclear reactor cells by the surface preseudosource method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laletin, N.I.; Sultanov, N.V.; Boyarinov, V.F.

    1992-01-01

    Estimation is fulfilled of an influence of scattering anisotropy on K ef the TRX and BAPL assemblies by the WIMS-D4 program in the transport (TA) and linear-anisotropic (LAA) approximations. It is shown that account for the scattering anisotropy in the LAA in comparison with TA decreases K ef by 0.8% for TRX assemblies and by 0.5-0.6% for BAPL ones. For more detailed account for the scattering anisotropy in calculations of cylindrical and cluster cells in the one-velocity approximation is developed a technique for account for the anisotropy in the methods of surface pseudosources

  20. How different do visuo-tactile criteria assess caries lesions activity status on occlusal surfaces?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floriano, I; Bonini, G C; Matos, R

    2015-01-01

    the International Caries Detection and Assessment System with an additional criteria--Lesion Activity Assessment (ICDAS + LAA), and a reference examiner classified lesions regarding plaque stagnation, colour, lustre, cavities, depth and texture. Logistic regressions were used to test associations. For analyses, we...... lesions present lustre. CONCLUSION: Most clinical signs associated with active caries lesions were similar, but texture and severity tend to have a greater importance when using ICDAS + LAA for distinguishing caries activity status. Attention should be given to differences due to texture and lustre when...

  1. A study on quantifying COPD severity by combining pulmonary function tests and CT image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Honma, Hirotoshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi; Mori, Kensaku

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes a novel method that can evaluate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severity by combining measurements of pulmonary function tests and measurements obtained from CT image analysis. There is no cure for COPD. However, with regular medical care and consistent patient compliance with treatments and lifestyle changes, the symptoms of COPD can be minimized and progression of the disease can be slowed. Therefore, many diagnosis methods based on CT image analysis have been proposed for quantifying COPD. Most of diagnosis methods for COPD extract the lesions as low-attenuation areas (LAA) by thresholding and evaluate the COPD severity by calculating the LAA in the lung (LAA%). However, COPD is usually the result of a combination of two conditions, emphysema and chronic obstructive bronchitis. Therefore, the previous methods based on only LAA% do not work well. The proposed method utilizes both of information including the measurements of pulmonary function tests and the results of the chest CT image analysis to evaluate the COPD severity. In this paper, we utilize a multi-class AdaBoost to combine both of information and classify the COPD severity into five stages automatically. The experimental results revealed that the accuracy rate of the proposed method was 88.9% (resubstitution scheme) and 64.4% (leave-one-out scheme).

  2. An Authorization Logic with Explicit Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-02

    that η-logic can be used in specifying the behavior of systems with time-dependent authorization policies. In such cases, the logic can be used to...10(4):265– 310, November 1992. [26] Christopher Lesniewski-Laas, Bryan Ford, Jacob Strauss, M. Frans Kaashoek, and Robert Morris. Alpaca : extensible

  3. Development and initial validation of a measure of attachment security in late adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G; Ramos, Katherine; Kim, Mijin

    2018-05-10

    Attachment theory-guided studies of older adults have generally relied on self-report measures that were validated on young adult samples and that focus on fears of rejection by romantic partners and on experiences of chronic discomfort with romantic intimacy as the key indicators of adult attachment security. These assessment characteristics raise important questions as to whether these measures are appropriate for use with older adults. Unlike their younger adult counterparts, older adults may face distinctive life stage-related threats to their attachment security such as declining health and autonomy, spousal loss, and increased dependence on younger family members for instrumental and emotional support. In response to these concerns, we conducted two independent studies aimed at developing and validating a novel measure of attachment security in older adults-the Late Adulthood Attachment Scale (LAAS). In study one (N = 287), exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) methods were used to identify and support a 2-factor structure (Fearful Avoidance, Secure Engagement) underlying LAAS scores. In study two (N = 417), ESEM and regression analyses confirmed the 2-factor structure and demonstrated the ability of LAAS scores to predict participants' well-being over a 3-month interval (n = 93). Findings from both studies support the psychometric adequacy of the LAAS as an alternative measure of attachment security for use with older adult samples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Limb ischemia, an alarm signal to a thromboembolic cascade - renal infarction and nephrectomy followed by surgical suppression of the left atrial appendage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraşca, Cosmin; Borda, Angela; Incze, Alexandru; Caraşca, Emilian; Frigy, Attila; Suciu, HoraŢiu

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 55-year-old male with mild hypertension and brief episodes of paroxysmal self-limiting atrial fibrillation (AF) since 2010. Despite a small cardioembolic risk score, CHA2DS2-Vasc=1 (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age=75, Diabetes melitus, prior Stroke), the patient is effectively anticoagulated using acenocumarol. In December 2014, he showed signs of plantar transitory ischemia, for which he did not address the doctor. In early January 2015, he urgently presented at the hospital with left renal pain, caused by a renal infarction, diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) angiography. Left nephrectomy was performed with pathological confirmation. He was discharged with effective anticoagulation treatment. Within the next two weeks, he suffered a transitory ischemic event and a stroke, associated with right sided hemiparesis. On admission, AF was found and converted to sinus rhythm with effective anticoagulation - international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.12. Transthoracic echocardiography detected no pathological findings. Transesophageal echocardiography showed an expended left atrial appendage (LAA) with a slow blood flow (0.2 m÷s) and spontaneous echocontrast. Considering these clinical circumstances, surgical LAA suppression was decided on as a last therapeutic resort. Postoperative evolution was favorable; the patient is still free of ischemic events, one year post-intervention. Some morphological and hemodynamic characteristics of LAA may add additional thromboembolic risk factors, not included in scores. Removing them by surgical LAA suppression may decrease the risk of cardioembolic events. Intraoperative presence of thrombus makes it an indisputable proof.

  5. Left atrial appendages from adult hearts contain a reservoir of diverse cardiac progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi V Leinonen

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence supporting the claim that endogenous cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs are key players in cardiac regeneration, but the anatomic source and phenotype of the master cardiac progenitors remains uncertain. Our aim was to investigate the different cardiac stem cell populations in the left atrial appendage (LAA and their fates.We investigated the CPC content and profile of adult murine LAAs using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. We demonstrate that the LAA contains a large number of CPCs relative to other areas of the heart, representing over 20% of the total cell number. We grew two distinct CPC populations from the LAA by varying the degree of proteolysis. These differed by their histological location, surface marker profiles and growth dynamics. Specifically, CD45(pos cells grew with milder proteolysis, while CD45(neg cells grew mainly with more intense proteolysis. Both cell types could be induced to differentiate into cells with cardiomyocyte markers and organelles, albeit by different protocols. Many CD45(pos cells expressed CD45 initially and rapidly lost its expression while differentiating.Our results demonstrate that the left atrial appendage plays a role as a reservoir of multiple types of progenitor cells in murine adult hearts. Two different types of CPCs were isolated, differing in their epicardial-myocardial localization. Considering studies demonstrating layer-specific origins of different cardiac progenitor cells, our findings may shed light on possible pathways to study and utilize the diversity of endogenous progenitor cells in the adult heart.

  6. A comparative study of different imaging modalities for successful percutaneous left atrial appendage closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chow, Danny Hf; Bieliauskas, Gintautas; Sawaya, Fadi J

    2017-01-01

    Bland-Altman method, MSCT-based perimeter-derived mean diameter was shown to be the best parameter to guide LAA device size selection for ‘closed-end’ devices (Amulet, WatchmanFLX), whereas the maximal diameter was the best parameter for the ‘open-end’ Watchman device. CONCLUSIONS: Preprocedural...

  7. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    historical character and are not subject to repeatable experiments. He stresses the self-correcting character of science, and students and teachers alike will find his remarks on research and communication "so serious that you can only joke about them." ______ LAA~AAA __ ------. V V V V V v. RESONANCE I July 1996.

  8. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anyway, Havel decided that the conjecture was too good to simply throw out, and thus only slightly modified it: If G is a planar graph for which d ~ 2, then G can be coloured with three colours. Then - oops! The following year he disproved his own. FigureS. ______ LAA~AAA ______ __. RESONANCE I February 1999.

  9. Journal Article: Localized Pleural Thickening: Smoking and Exposure to Libby Vermiculite

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is limited research on the combined effects of smoking and asbestos exposure on risk of localized pleural thickening (LPT). This analysis uses data from the Marysville cohort of workers occupationally exposed to Libby amphibole asbestos (LAA). Workers were interviewed to ...

  10. 432 püksipaari Riia kongresside palee fassaadil / Lauri Kärk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kärk, Lauri, 1954-

    2000-01-01

    Filmifestivalil "Arsenals" sai parima režissööri kujukese Mait Laas nukufilmi "Teekond Nirvaanasse" eest, teise koha preemia Valentin Kuigi mängufilm "Lurjus" ja Riho Undi nukufilm "Saamuel internetis". Peaauhinna andis loos shoti naisrežissööri Lynne Ramsay mängufilmile "Rotipüüdja" ("Ratcatcher")

  11. Leo Burnett wins agency of the year title in Estonia and Lithuania

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Eesti Kuldmuna reklaamikonkursil, Leedu reklaamifestivalil Adrenalinas aasta reklaamiagentuuri tiitli pälvinud ettevõttest Kontuur Leo Burnett. Madis Laas, Tomas Ramanauskas ja Marius Petrukaitis vastavad küsimustele firma edu võimalike põhjuste ja tulevikuplaanide kohta

  12. [Quantitative Measurements on the Blood Flow Fields of Left Atrial Appendage using Vector Flow Mapping in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yu-Yan; Wei, Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Gu-Yue; Li, Xi; Tang, Hong

    2018-01-01

    To quantify the hemodynamic characteristics of patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Twenty patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and 15 patients with persistent atrial fibrillation enrolled in this study,while 12 patients with sinus rhythms served as controls. The hemodynamic characteristics of the patients in left atrial appendage were measured by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and vector flow mapping (VFM) using indicators such as vectors,vortex and energy loss (EL). ① Significant differences appeared between the patients with atrial fibrillation and the controls in heart rate,size of left atrium,size of left atrial appendage (LAA),and velocities of LAA filling and emptying. ② Regular vectors in LAA in early systole and late diastole were found in the patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and the controls; whereas,irregular vectors with direction alternating were visualized in the whole cardiac cycle in the patients with persistent atrial fibrillation. ③ Small vortexes were observed at the opening of the left atrial appendage in late diastole in the patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and the controls. ④ Peak EL values occurred in early systole and late diastole in the patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and the controls. But the patients with persistent atrial fibrillation had increased EL values over the whole cardiac cycle. VFM can visualize and quantify the hemodynamics of LAA in patients with different heart rhythms. It may provide a new method for assessing atrial fibrillation. CopyrightCopyright© by Editorial Board of Journal of Sichuan University (Medical Science Edition).

  13. Riho Pätsi Koolimuusika Fond austab uusi laureaate / Inge Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsepp, Inge

    2009-01-01

    4. septembril saavad Riho Pätsi Koolimuusika Fond laureaaditiitli muusikaõpetaja Koidu Ilmjärv, tšellopedagoog Mart Laas, helilooja Mart Siimer, dirigent Jüri-Ruut Kangur, Tallinna Ülikooli muusikaosakonna juhataja Tiina Selke

  14. Correlation of grading of pulmonary emphysema by computed tomography to pulmonary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Masahiko; Mori, Masaki; Hirai, Hideyuki; Mori, Yuji; Koba, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akira

    1988-01-01

    We studied the CT findings of 17 emphysema patients with special reference to the extent of emphysematous changes. Characteristic CT findings were low-attenuation area (LAA) and vascular abnormality and the appearance of various images on CT. To assess the extent of emphysematous changes, we classified the CT images into 4 grades based on the distribution and size of LAAs. As the grades progressed, the distribution and size of LAAs became wider and larger and vascular abnormalities were clearly evident. Although this CT-grading is a semiquantitative method, it is simple to use and gives information on the approximate extent of disease. This CT-grading was also used to show pulmonary function. The RV/TLC and expiratory flow showed a tendency to be impaired in Grade IV and the diffusion capacity was impaired parallel to CT-grading. CT is able to demonstrate the presence and distribution of LAAs noninvasively. Therefore it is considered that CT is useful for clinical diagnosis and the assessment of the extent of pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  15. Studies on antioxidant capacity of anthocyanin extract from purple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... The radical scavenging effects by α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ... also displayed potent antioxidant effects against the DPPH radical and .... method described by Giannopolites and Ries (1977), with some .... The IC50 values of anthocyanins and L-AA were low, .... effects of ionizing radiation.

  16. Trafficking In Women And Children In Yorubaland: A Pre And Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To them, there is a proverb that says that ati kekere laa ti pe kan iroko, to ba dagba tan apa ko nii kaa mo (children are better caught young, or else it would be difficult to mould them when they grow up). This informs the training of children at tender age in the business of trading and engagement in other forms of work.

  17. [Öös on valgust...] / Karl Kello

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kello, Karl, 1950-

    2009-01-01

    Iirimaalt alguse saanud liikumise Libertas, millest on kujunemas esimene üleeuroopaline erakond, eesmärkidest muuta Euroopa paremini toimivaks. Esikohale on seatud demokraatia arendamine esmatasandil ning läbipaistvuse ja vastutuse suurendamine, samuti võitlus eurobürokraatia vastu. Libertas Eesti Erakonna esimees on Jaan Laas

  18. 25 kaadrit sekundis / Liis Auväärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Auväärt, Liis

    2009-01-01

    Nukufilmis käib töö filmiga "Lisa Limone & Maroc Orange", režissöör Mait Laas, animaatorid Triin Sarapik-Kivi, Märt Kivi, operaator Ragnar Neljandi, nukumeistrid Heigo Eeriksoo, Taivo Müürsep, Ene Mellow ja Kreeta Käeri. Dekoratsioonimeistrid Mait Erik ja Roman Kuznetsov

  19. determined by high perforiviance liquid chromatography

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    more loss of L-AA occurred when a blunt {edge thickness 0.08 cm) knife was used for cutting the vegetables than when ... determined when vegetables were cooked in different size pieces (surface are >1 cm? and <1 c-mil using cabbage. ... less susceptible to interference. but is :1 lengthy and elaborate analytical technique.

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barakat, LAA. Vol 29, No 1 (2011) - Articles Effects of L-Carnitine and Taurine on associated biochemical changes in Alloxan induced diabetic rats. Abstract. ISSN: 1687-1502. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  1. Nirvaana, susla ja internet / Tarmo Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Tarmo, 1958-

    2000-01-01

    Kolm stuudio Nukufilm uut nukufilmi : "Saamueli Internet" : Stsenarist Andrus Kivirähk : režissöör ja kunstnik Riho Unt; "Teekond Nirvaanasse" : Stsenarist, režissöör ja kunstnik Mait Laas; "Eilne vedur" : režissöörid Mikk Rand ja Kalju Kivi

  2. Kultuurilooline allee seljatas võhikud / Silvia Paluoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paluoja, Silvia, 1956-

    2007-01-01

    Pärnu südalinnas sae alla minevateks arvatud pärnade ja Vanapargi allee saatuse kohta ärgitas arutama riigikogu liige Mark Soosaar, kes asjatundjate ja huvilistega pargis kohtus. Pargikohtumisel osales ka riigikogu liige Mart Jüssi. Kommenteerib maaülikooli õppejõud Eino Laas

  3. Two-port Laparoscopic-assisted Appendicectomy Under Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report | Jul-Dec 2011 | Vol-3 | Issue-2. 84. Two-port Laparoscopic-assisted ... appendicectomy (LAA) using the two-port technique under local anesthesia in adults. As a pilot study we .... of failure are the reasons for avoidance of using local anesthesia for surgical procedures.

  4. Increased myosin heavy chain-beta with atrial expression of ventricular light chain-2 in canine cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Geraldine A; Bicer, Sabahattin; Hamlin, Robert L; Yamaguchi, Mamoru; Reiser, Peter J

    2007-10-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a naturally occurring disease in humans and dogs. Human studies have shown increased levels of myosin heavy chain (MHC)-beta in failing ventricles and the left atria (LA) and of ventricular light chain (VLC)-2 in the right atria in dilated cardiomyopathy. This study evaluates the levels of MHC-beta in all heart chambers in prolonged canine right ventricular pacing. In addition, we determined whether levels of VLC2 were altered in these hearts. Failing hearts demonstrated significantly increased levels of MHC-beta in the right atria, right atrial appendage, LA, left atrial appendage (LAA), and right ventricle compared with controls. Significant levels of VLC2 were detected in the right atria of paced hearts. Differences in MHC-beta expression were observed between the LA and the LAA of paced and control dogs. MHC-beta expression was significantly greater in the LA of paced and control dogs compared with their respective LAA. The cardiac myosin isoform shifts in this study were similar to those observed in end-stage human heart failure and more severe than those reported in less prolonged pacing models, supporting the use of this model for further study of end-stage human heart failure. The observation of consistent differences between sampling sites, especially LA versus LAA, indicates the need for rigorous sampling consistency in future studies.

  5. Eesti osaleb suurejoonelises filmiprojektis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    pPIK mare 2010

    2004-01-01

    Filmiprojekt tööpealkirjaga "Generation", mis on plaanitud täispikaks mängufilmilaadseks filmiks. Tegemisse on kaasatud kuus noort režissööri Ida-Euroopast. Eestit esindab animafilmide režissöör Mait Laas, kes teeb valmivale filmile raamjutustuse

  6. Nick Park pani Wallace'ile ja Gromitile libaküüliku needuse / Mart Rummo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rummo, Mart

    2005-01-01

    Uus animafilm "Wallace ja Gromit : Libaküüliku needus" ("Wallace & Gromit : The Curse of the Were-Rabbit") : režissöör Nick Park : Suurbritannia 2005. Selle loojast ja tema loometeest. Lisatud : Nick Park (filmograafia, auhindu), "Teised Nick Parkist" (Lauri Kaare, Mait Laas, Riho Unt)

  7. Nukufilmi erootika / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2005-01-01

    Kaks eesti nukufilmi - "Laud" : autorid Jelena Girlin ning Mari-Liis Bassovskaja : operaator ja kaasrežissöör Urmas Jõemees : helilooja Malle Maltis : Nukufilm OÜ 2004 ja "Generatio" : stsenarist, kunstnik ja režissöör Mait Laas : konsultant Paavo Matsin : operaatorid Ragnar Neljandi, Raivo Möllits : helilooja Tiit Kikas : Nukufilm OÜ - Icon Film (Saksamaa) 2005

  8. Use of the CHA2DS2VASc score to reduce utilisation of transoesophageal echocardiography prior to ablation for atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Atkinson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE is frequently performed prior to atrial fibrillation (AF ablation to exclude left atrial appendage (LAA thrombus. However, patients undergoing AF ablation are usually anticoagulated, thus making the presence of thrombus unlikely in most cases. This study aimed to determine whether the CHA2DS2VASc scoring system can be used to identify patients that do not require TOE prior to AF ablation. In this single-centre retrospective study, local institutional and primary care databases and electronic patient records were searched to identify patients that had undergone TOE prior to AF ablation. Patient demographics, CHA2DS2VASc score, TOE findings and anticoagulation status were collected for analysis. Over a 7-year period (2008–2014, 332 patients (age 57 ± 10 years; 74% male underwent TOE prior to proposed AF ablation. CHA2DS2VASc scores of 0, 1, 2 and >2 were found in 39, 34, 15 and 12% of patients, respectively. The prevalence of LAA thrombus was 0.6% (2 patients and these 2 patients had risk scores of 2 and 4. No patients with a score of 0 or 1 had LAA thrombus. Patients that are classed as low risk by the CHA2DS2VASc score do not require a pre-ablation TOE to screen for LAA thrombus provided they are adequately anticoagulated. This would lead to a significant reduction in health care expenditures by reducing unnecessary TOE requests and thereby improve patient experience.

  9. Multifilm kui tõsine asi / Marko Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Marko

    1998-01-01

    Esilinastus 6 animafilmi : "Vares ja hiired", autorid Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; "Just märried", autor Peep Pedmanson; "Päevavalgus", autor Mait Laas; "Tom ja Fluffy", režissöörid Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits; "Bermuda", autor Ülo Pikkov; "Primavera", režissöörid Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer

  10. Eesti animafilme igale maitsele / Sulev Teinemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teinemaa, Sulev, 1947-

    1998-01-01

    Esilinastus 6 animafilmi : "Vares ja hiired", autorid Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; "Just märried", autor Peep Pedmanson; "Päevavalgus", autor Mait Laas; "Tom ja Fluffy", režissöörid Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits; "Bermuda", autor Ülo Pikkov; "Primavera", režissöörid Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer

  11. Kuus uut Eesti filmi korraga ekraanil / Tarmo Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Tarmo

    1998-01-01

    21. mail esilinastuvad kinos Sõprus 'Just märried', rezh. Peep Pedmanson; 'Päevavalgus', rezh. Mait Laas; 'Primavera', rezh. Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer; 'Vares ja hiired', rezh. Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; 'Bermuda', rezh. Ülo Pikkov; 'Tom ja Fluffy', rezh. Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits

  12. Aimdusi tsivilisatsioonist / Tarmo Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Tarmo, 1958-

    1998-01-01

    Esilinastus 6 animafilmi : "Vares ja hiired", autorid Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; "Just märried", autor Peep Pedmanson; "Päevavalgus", autor Mait Laas; "Tom ja Fluffy", režissöörid Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits; "Bermuda", autor Ülo Pikkov; "Primavera", režissöörid Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer

  13. Animaalselt ja humaanselt / Karlo Funk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Funk, Karlo, 1971-

    1998-01-01

    Esilinastus 6 animafilmi : "Vares ja hiired", autorid Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; "Just märried", autor Peep Pedmanson; "Päevavalgus", autor Mait Laas; "Tom ja Fluffy", režissöörid Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits; "Bermuda", autor Ülo Pikkov; "Primavera", režissöörid Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer

  14. Transkateterlukning af venstre atriums aurikel til forebyggelse af apoplexia cerebri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loupis, Anastasia M; De Backer, Ole; Ihlemann, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and increased risk of stroke, oral anticoagulation (OAC) is the standard treatment for stroke prevention - however, this therapy also carries a high risk of bleeding. Percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage (LAA) has been suggested to be an alte...

  15. Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure for stroke prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, Ole; Loupis, Anastasia M; Ihlemann, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with an increased stroke risk, oral anticoagulation (OAC) is the standard treatment for stroke prevention. However, this therapy carries a high risk of major bleeding. Percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage (LAA) is suggested as an alt...

  16. Functional image guided radiation therapy planning in volumetric modulated arc therapy for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko Doi, MD

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Significant reductions in fV5, fV10, fMLD, V5, and MLD were achieved with the functional image guided VMAT plan without negative effects on other factors. LAA-based functional image guided radiation therapy planning in VMAT is a feasible method to spare the functional lung in patients with MPM.

  17. Growth and characterization of pure and doped NLO L-arginine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    NLO; SHG; solution growth; LAA. 1. Introduction. L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) was first repor- ted by Xu et al (1983) as a promising nonlinear optical. (NLO) material. LAP is nearly three times more nonlinear than KDP. Monaco et al (1987) reported the formation of. LAP and its chemical analogs from the strongly ...

  18. Ilmar Külvetist ja Ilmar Külveti mälestusõhtust / Urve Karuks ; fotod: V. Sarapuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karuks, Urve, 1936-2015

    2005-01-01

    3. detsembril 2005 Tartu College´i saalis. Üritus nimega "Lugemisteater ILUTULI - Ilmar Külveti mälestuslavastus" oli mõeldud Ilmari 85. sünniaastapäeva tähistamiseks. Lavastajaks Aarne H. Vahtra, katkendeid loomingust esitasid: Killi Mirka, Kaljo Anja, Veikko Kalep, Laas Leivat, Mart Pikkov ja Eerik Purje, laulis Andres Tamm

  19. The New 3D Printed Left Atrial Appendage Closure with a Novel Holdfast Device: A Pre-Clinical Feasibility Animal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Brzeziński

    Full Text Available Many patients undergoing cardiac surgery have risk factors for both atrial fibrillation (AF and stroke. The left atrial appendage (LAA is the primary site for thrombi formation. The most severe complication of emboli derived from LAA is stroke, which is associated with a 12-month mortality rate of 38% and a 12-month recurrence rate of 17%. The most common form of treatment for atrial fibrillation and stroke prevention is the pharmacological therapy with anticoagulants. Nonetheless this form of therapy is associated with high risk of major bleeding. Therefore LAA occlusion devices should be tested for their ability to reduce future cerebral ischemic events in patients with high-risk of haemorrhage.The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of a novel left atrial appendage exclusion device with a minimally invasive introducer in a swine model.A completely novel LAA device, which is composed of two tubes connected together using a specially created bail, was designed using finite element modelling (FEM to obtain an optimal support force of 36 N at the closure line. The monolithic form of the occluder was obtained by using additive manufacturing of granular PA2200 powder with the technology of selective laser sintering (SLS. Fifteen swine were included in the feasibility tests, with 10 animals undergoing fourteen days of follow-up and 5 animals undergoing long-term observation of 3 months. For one animal, the follow-up was further prolonged to 6 months. The device was placed via minithoracotomy. After the observation period, all of the animals were euthanized, and their hearts were tested for LAA closure and local inflammatory and tissue response.After the defined observation period, all fifteen hearts were explanted. In all cases the full closure of the LAA was achieved. The macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of the explanted hearts showed that all devices were securely integrated in the surrounding tissues. No

  20. Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion: Effect of device positioning on outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfrum, Mathias; Attinger-Toller, Adrian; Shakir, Samera; Gloekler, Steffen; Seifert, Burkhardt; Moschovitis, Aris; Khattab, Ahmed; Maisano, Francesco; Meier, Bernhard; Nietlispach, Fabian

    2016-10-01

    The study in patients with percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion investigates clinical outcomes according to the position of the Amplatzer Cardiac Plug (ACP) disc. The ACP consists of a disc and an anchoring lobe. The disc is meant to cover the ostium of the LAA, but frequently retracts partially or completely into the neck of the LAA. It is not known whether a retracted disc affects outcome. Outcomes of 169 consecutive patients (age 73.1 ± 10.4 years; 76% male) with successful LAA closure were analyzed according to the position of the ACP disc: group A had complete coverage of the LAA ostium; in group B the disc prolapsed partially or completely into the LAA-neck. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed 1-6 months after ACP implantation. The safety endpoint was the composite of clinically significant pericardial effusion, device embolization, procedure-related stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA), major bleeding, or device thrombus. The efficacy endpoint was the composite of death, neurological events (ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, TIA), or systemic embolism during follow-up. Group A comprised 76 patients (age 73.0 ± 9.9 years; 74% male) and group B 93 patients (age 73.3 ± 10.9 years; 79% male). Mean CHA 2 DS 2 -Vasc score and HASBLED score were 4.2 ± 1.7 (group A 4.3 ± 1.6; group B 4.2 ± 1.8) and 2.9 ± 1.1 (group A 2.9 ± 1.0; group B 3.0 ± 1.2), respectively. Mean follow-up of the study population was 13.0 ± 10.4 months. Overall, the composite safety and efficacy endpoints occurred in 20 (12%) and 6 patients (4%), respectively. There was no significant difference between groups A and B in the occurrence of the safety endpoint (13% vs. 11%, P = 0.64), or the efficacy endpoint (4% vs. 3%, P = 1.0). No evidence for a difference in the occurrence of the safety and efficacy endpoint was found between patients with complete vs. incomplete ACP disc coverage of the LAA ostium. The risk of

  1. [Stroke. are there any difference between patients with or without patent foramen ovale in left atrial appendage systolic function?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Alejandro E; Perrote, Federico; Concari, Ignacio; Brenna, Eduardo J; Lucero, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the systolic function of the left atrial appendage (LAA) in a group with and without patent foramen ovale (PFO) who suffered ischemic cerebrovascular events. Between September 2010 and October 2011, 17 patients were referred for transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) after suffering a stroke. PFO was defined as the passage of at least one bubble through atrial septum with bubble test. We compared systolic velocity in the appendage between patients with and without PFO and a control group. Were 8 women and 9 men, mean age 54.1 ± 19.5 years and 8 patients were under 55 years of age. All patients had suffered a ischemic cerebrovascular events, 41.2% had stroke, 52.9% transient ischemic attack and amaurosis fugax 5.9%. In the assessment of TEE, 11.8% had atrial septal aneurysm and 35.3% PFO. Mean LAA systolic velocity was 66.3 ± 20.3 cm / sec. There was no difference in systolic velocity of the LAA between patients with and without PFO (67.5 ± 11.8 cm / sec vs 65.7 ± 24.3 cm / sec respectively, p = 0.87). The control group of 8 patients, 5 women and 3 men, mean age 39.5 ± 18 years, had a LAA systolic velocity of 77.6 ± 28.9 cm / sec, no significant differences with ischemic patients. There were no differences in systolic function of the LAA between patients with and without PFO with ischemic cerebrovascular event.

  2. Verapamil eliminates the hierarchical nature of activation frequencies from the pulmonary veins to the atria during paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushiyama, Yasunori; Osaka, Toshiyuki; Yokoyama, Eriko; Hasebe, Hideyuki; Kuroda, Yusuke; Kamiya, Kaichiro; Kodama, Itsuo

    2010-05-01

    There is evidence that verapamil promotes the persistence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). Little is known about the underlying mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of verapamil on dominant frequencies (DFs) in the pulmonary veins (PVs) and atria during paroxysmal AF with reference to its potential arrhythmogenicity. Forty-three patients with paroxysmal AF were studied. Bipolar electrograms were recorded simultaneously during AF from the right atrial free wall (RAFW), coronary sinus (CS) and three PVs, or two PVs and the left atrial appendage (LAA). The DFs were obtained by fast Fourier transform analysis before and after infusion of verapamil (0.1 mg/kg, intravenously). At baseline, the maximum DF among the PVs (6.9 +/- 0.9 Hz) was significantly higher than the DF in the RAFW (6.2 +/- 0.7 Hz), CS (5.7 +/- 0.5 Hz), or LAA (5.9 +/- 0.7 Hz) (Patrial DF gradient (RAFW 0.7 +/- 0.9, CS 1.1 +/- 0.7, LAA 0.7 +/- 0.9 Hz). Verapamil increased the atrial DF to 6.9 +/- 0.8, 6.6 +/- 0.7, and 7.2 +/- 1.0 Hz in the RAFW, CS, and LAA, respectively (Patrial DF gradient was eliminated after verapamil (RAFW 0.2 +/- 0.8, CS 0.5 +/- 0.6, LAA -0.4 +/- 0.8 Hz; Patrial DF gradient during paroxysmal AF. Copyright 2010 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Epicardial clip occlusion of the left atrial appendage during cardiac surgery provides optimal surgical results and long-term stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurfirst, Vojtech; Mokrácek, Aleš; Canádyová, Júlia; Frána, Radim; Zeman, Petr

    2017-07-01

    Occlusion of the left atrial appendage (LAA) has become an integral and important part of the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation. Different methods of surgical occlusion of the LAA have been associated with varying levels of short- and long-term success for closure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term results of epicardial placement and endocardial occlusion in patients undergoing cardiac operative procedures. A total of 101 patients (average age 65.7 years) undergoing cardiac operative procedures with the epicardial AtriClip Exclusion System of the LAA were enrolled in the study. The AtriClip was placed via a sternotomy or a thoracotomy or from a thoracoscopic approach. Postoperative variables, such as thromboembolic events, clip stability and endocardial leakage around the device, were examined by transoesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and/or computed tomography. Perioperative clip implantation was achieved in 98% of patients. TEE and/or computed tomography conducted during the follow-up period, comprising 1873 patient-months with a mean duration of 18 ± 11 months, revealed no clip migration, no leakage around the device and no clot formation near the remnant cul-de-sac. During the follow-up period, 4 of the cardiac patients experienced transitory ischaemic attacks, whereas no patient experienced a cerebrovascular attack. The Epicardial AtriClip Exclusion System of the LAA appears to be a feasable and safe operative method with a high success rate. Long-term follow-up confirmed clip stability, complete occlussion of the LAA and absence of any atrial fibrilation-related thromboembolic events. These results need to be confirmed by a larger, multicentre study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential impact of white matter hyperintensities on long-term outcomes in ischemic stroke patients with large artery atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyoul Baik

    Full Text Available The presence of white matter hyperintensity (WMH is related to poor long-term outcomes in stroke patients. However, the long-term outcome is unknown in patients with both large artery atherosclerosis (LAA and WMH.We investigated the impact of WMH on long-term outcome in patients with LAA. Consecutive patients in a prospective stroke registry were included. Patients were followed for a median of 7.7 years (interquartile range, 5.6-9.7. The degree of WMH was assessed by Fazekas grade on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. Total WMH burden was calculated by summation of Fazekas scores in periventricular and deep white matter. Severe WMH was defined as total burden score ≥ 3.Among 2529 patients, 639 patients (25.3% were classified with the LAA subtype. After applying exclusion criteria, the data from 538 patients were analyzed. The mean patient age was 65.7 ± 10.3 years. Severe WMHs were found in 243 patients (45.2%. During follow-up, 200 patients (37.2% died. Cox regression analysis showed that LAA patients with severe WMH had a 1.50-fold (95% CI, 1.12-2.00, p = 0.007 higher death rate compared to those without. In the older age group (≥65 years, Cox regression revealed that patients with severe WMH had a 1.75-fold (95% CI, 1.15-2.65, p = 0.008 higher 5-year death rate, whereas the younger age group did not have this association.The degree of WMH might be a surrogate marker for long-term outcome in patients with LAA. Atherosclerotic burdens in both small and large arteries might impact long-term prognosis in ischemic stroke patients.

  5. Left atrial appendage: morphology and function in patients with paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hwan-Cheol; Shin, Jinho; Ban, Ji-Eun; Choi, Jong-Il; Park, Sang-Weon; Kim, Young-Hoon

    2013-04-01

    The anatomical and functional characteristics of the left atrial appendage (LAA) and its relationships with anatomical remodeling and ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have not been clearly established. The purpose of this study was to determine whether functional and morphological features of the LAA independently predict clinical outcome and stroke in patients with AF who underwent catheter ablation (CA). Two hundred sixty-four patients with AF, including 176 with paroxysmal AF (PAF, 54.0 ± 11.4 years old, M:F = 138:38) and 88 with persistent AF (PeAF, 56.4 ± 9.6 years old, M:F = 74:14) were studied. Of these patients, 31 (11.7 %) had a history of stroke/TIA (transient ischemic attack). The LA and LAA volumes were 124.0 ± 42.4 and 24.9 ± 4.3 ml in PeAF, these values were greater than those in PAF (81.2 ± 24.8 ml and 21.2 ± 5.1 ml, P stroke, stroke patients had larger LA volume (106.9 ± 23.0 vs. 94.0 ± 38.9 ml, P = 0.004) and had lower LAA EF (50.0 ± 11.0 vs. 65.7 ± 13.4 %, P stroke were age (P = 0.002) and LAA EF (P stroke/TIA and recurrence of AF after CA in paroxysmal AF patients. Further large scaled prospective study is required for validation.

  6. Thermal stability of L-ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid oxidase in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaka, Ann Wambui; Makule, Edna Edward; Oey, Indrawati; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc

    2010-05-01

    The thermal stability of vitamin C (including l-ascorbic acid [l-AA] and dehydroascorbic acid [DHAA]) in crushed broccoli was evaluated in the temperature range of 30 to 90 degrees C whereas that of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) was evaluated in the temperature range of 20 to 95 degrees C. Thermal treatments (for 15 min) of crushed broccoli at 30 to 60 degrees C resulted in conversion of l-AA to DHAA whereas treatments at 70 to 90 degrees C retained vitamin C as l-AA. These observations indicated that enzymes (for example, AAO) could play a major role in the initial phase (that is, oxidation of l-AA to DHAA) of vitamin C degradation in broccoli. Consequently, a study to evaluate the temperature-time conditions that could result in AAO inactivation in broccoli was carried out. In this study, higher AAO activity was observed in broccoli florets than stalks. During thermal treatments for 10 min, AAO in broccoli florets and stalks was stable until around 50 degrees C. A 10-min thermal treatment at 80 degrees C almost completely inactivated AAO in broccoli. AAO inactivation followed 1st order kinetics in the temperature range of 55 to 65 degrees C. Based on this study, a thermal treatment above 70 degrees C is recommended for crushed vegetable products to prevent oxidation of l-AA to DHAA, the onset of vitamin C degradation. The results reported in this study are applicable for both domestic and industrial processing of vegetables into products such as juices, soups, and purees. In this report, we have demonstrated that processing crushed broccoli in a temperature range of 30 to 60 degrees C could result in the conversion of l-ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic (DHAA), a very important reaction in regard to vitamin C degradation because DHAA could be easily converted to other compounds that do not have the biological activity of vitamin C.

  7. Accessory left atrial diverticulae: contractile properties depicted with 64-slice cine-cardiac CT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    To assess the contractility of accessory left atrial appendages (LAAs) using multiphasic cardiac CT. We retrospectively analyzed the presence, location, size and contractile properties of accessory LAAs using multiphasic cardiac 64-slice CT in 102 consecutive patients (63 males, 39 females, mean age 57). Multiplanar reformats were used to create image planes in axial oblique, sagittal oblique and coronal oblique planes. For all appendages with an orifice diameter >or= 10 mm, axial and sagittal diameters and appendage volumes were recorded in atrial diastole and systole. Regression analysis was performed to assess which imaging appearances best predicted accessory appendage contractility. Twenty-three (23%) patients demonstrated an accessory LAA, all identified along the anterior LA wall. Dimensions for axial oblique (AOD) and sagittal oblique (SOD) diameters and sagittal oblique length (SOL) were 6.3-19, 3.4-20 and 5-21 mm, respectively. All appendages (>or=10 mm) demonstrated significant contraction during atrial systole (greatest diameter reduction was AOD [3.8 mm, 27%]). Significant correlations were noted between AOD-contraction and AOD (R = 0.57, P < 0.05) and SOD-contraction and AOD, SOD and SOL (R = 0.6, P < 0.05). Mean diverticulum volume in atrial diastole was 468.4 +\\/- 493 mm(3) and in systole was 171.2 +\\/- 122 mm(3), indicating a mean change in volume of 297.2 +\\/- 390 mm(3), P < 0.0001. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed SOL to be the strongest independent predictor of appendage contractility (R(2) = 0.86, P < 0.0001) followed by SOD (R(2) = 0.91, P < 0.0001). Accessory LAAs show significant contractile properties on cardiac CT. Those accessory LAAs with a large sagittal height or depth should be evaluated for contractile properties, and if present should be examined for ectopic activity during electrophysiological studies.

  8. Eesti Teadusfondi preemia Astrid Haljasele ja Tõnu Laasile

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Eesti Teadusfondi täppisteaduste ekspertkomisjoni poolt korraldatud magistrantide ja doktorantide teadustööde konkursil määrati preemia 4000 krooni loodusteaduste osakonna teadurile Astrid Haljasele artikli Mankin, R., Ainsaar, A., Haljas, A. Trichotomous-noise-induced phase transitions for the stochastic Hongler model. Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. Phys. Math., 2000, 49, 1, 28-39 eest. Loodusteaduste osakonna assistendile, TPÜ doktorandile Tõnu Laasile määrati preemia 7000 krooni artiklite sarja Lainete levik kõveras aeg-ruumis eest : [täistekst

  9. Land application of mine water causes minimal uranium loss offsite in the wet-dry tropics: Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten, Claire; Parry, David L; McGuinness, Keith A; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S

    2015-11-01

    Ranger Uranium Mine (RUM) is situated in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia. Land application (irrigation) of stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water to natural woodland on the mine lease is a key part of water management at the mine. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium (U) and other metals concentrations. Knowledge of seasonal and temporal changes in soil U and physicochemical parameters at RUM LAAs is important to develop suitable management and rehabilitation strategies. Therefore, soil samples were collected from low, medium, high and very high U sites at RUM LAAs for two consecutive years and the effect of time and season on soil physicochemical parameters particularly U and other major solutes applied in irrigation water was measured. Concentrations of some of the solutes applied in the irrigation water such as sulphur (S), iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) showed significant seasonal and temporal changes. Soil S, Fe and Ca concentration decreased from year 1 to year 2 and from dry to wet seasons during both years. Soil U followed the same pattern except that we recorded an increase in soil U concentrations at most of the RUM LAAs after year 2 wet season compared to year 2 dry season. Thus, these sites did not show a considerable decrease in soil U concentration from year 1 to year 2. Sites which contained elevated U after wet season 2 also had higher moisture content which suggests that pooling of U containing rainwater at these sites may be responsible for elevated U. Thus, U may be redistributed within RUM LAAs due to surface water movement. The study also suggested that a decrease in U concentrations in LAA soils at very high U (>900 mg kg(-1)) sites is most likely due to transport of particulate matter bound U by surface runoff and U may not be lost from the surface soil due to vertical movement through the soil profile. Uranium attached to particulate matter may reduce its potential for environmental

  10. Land application of mine water causes minimal uranium loss offsite in the wet-dry tropics: Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten, Claire; Parry, David L.; McGuinness, Keith A.; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S.

    2015-01-01

    Ranger Uranium Mine (RUM) is situated in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia. Land application (irrigation) of stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water to natural woodland on the mine lease is a key part of water management at the mine. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium (U) and other metals concentrations. Knowledge of seasonal and temporal changes in soil U and physicochemical parameters at RUM LAAs is important to develop suitable management and rehabilitation strategies. Therefore, soil samples were collected from low, medium, high and very high U sites at RUM LAAs for two consecutive years and the effect of time and season on soil physicochemical parameters particularly U and other major solutes applied in irrigation water was measured. Concentrations of some of the solutes applied in the irrigation water such as sulphur (S), iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) showed significant seasonal and temporal changes. Soil S, Fe and Ca concentration decreased from year 1 to year 2 and from dry to wet seasons during both years. Soil U followed the same pattern except that we recorded an increase in soil U concentrations at most of the RUM LAAs after year 2 wet season compared to year 2 dry season. Thus, these sites did not show a considerable decrease in soil U concentration from year 1 to year 2. Sites which contained elevated U after wet season 2 also had higher moisture content which suggests that pooling of U containing rainwater at these sites may be responsible for elevated U. Thus, U may be redistributed within RUM LAAs due to surface water movement. The study also suggested that a decrease in U concentrations in LAA soils at very high U (>900 mg kg"−"1) sites is most likely due to transport of particulate matter bound U by surface runoff and U may not be lost from the surface soil due to vertical movement through the soil profile. Uranium attached to particulate matter may reduce its potential for

  11. Chicken collagen type II reduces articular cartilage destruction in a model of osteoarthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D; Shen, W

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of domestic chicken collagen type II (CCII) on rat osteoarthritis (OA) and analyze concomitant changes in the level of Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, MMP-9, Cathepsin K and their mRNA as well as the tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 mRNA in articular cartilage of osteoarthritic rats. Osteoarthritis models were surgically induced. Morphology of articular cartilage was done by haematoxylin and eosin staining and Mankin score was calculated, immunohistochemistry of MMP-13, MMP-9 and Cathepsin K was done by ABC method while the mRNA level for MMP-13, MMP-9, cathepsin K as well as TIMP-1 was evaluated by RT-PCR method. Oral administration of CCII reduced the morphological changes of osteoarthritic cartilage (shown by Mankin score), decreased levels of MMP-13, MMP-9, cathepsin K as well as their mRNA in articular cartilage from osteoarthritic rats while it exhibited no effect on TIMP-1 mRNA. Oral CCII reduced articular cartilage degradation of osteoarthritic rats and may probably be a potent drug candidate for OA treatment.

  12. Morus alba L. Stem Extract Attenuates Pain and Articular Cartilage Damage in the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection-Induced Rat Model of Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunakornvichaya, Arada; Lekmeechai, Sujinna; Pham, Phi Phuong; Himakoun, Wanwisa; Pitaksuteepong, Tasana; Morales, Noppawan Phumala; Hemstapat, Warinkarn

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the anti-nociceptive effect of Morus alba stem extract as well as its cartilage protective effect in the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT)-induced rat model of osteoarthritis (OA). The anti-nociceptive effect of this plant extract was determined by measuring hind limb weight bearing, while the severity of cartilage damage to the knee joints was evaluated using the modified Mankin grading system. Oral administration of M. alba stem extract (56 and 560 mg/kg) significantly attenuated joint pain as indicated by a significant (p alba stem extract at 56 and 560 mg/kg when compared to those of the vehicle-treated OA-induced group. In addition, a significant improvement in the Mankin score was also observed in rats treated with 560 mg/kg M. alba stem extract, which was in agreement with its pain-relieving effect. The results showed that M. alba stem extract exhibited an anti-nociceptive effect as well as cartilage protection in the ACLT-induced rat model of OA, supporting its potential use as a therapeutic treatment for OA. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Quantitative CT: Associations between Emphysema, Airway Wall Thickness and Body Composition in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutten, Erica P A; Grydeland, Thomas B; Pillai, Sreekumar G

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the association between CT phenotypes-emphysema by low attenuation area and bronchitis by airway wall thickness-and body composition parameters in a large cohort of subjects with and without COPD. In 452 COPD subjects and 459 subjects without COPD......, CT scans were performed to determine emphysema (%LAA), airway wall thickness (AWT-Pi10), and lung mass. Muscle wasting based on FFMI was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. In both the men and women with COPD, FFMI was negatively associated with %LAA. FMI was positively associated with AWT-Pi10...... in both subjects with and without COPD. Among the subjects with muscle wasting, the percentage emphysema was high, but the predictive value was moderate. In conclusion, the present study strengthens the hypothesis that the subgroup of COPD cases with muscle wasting have emphysema. Airway wall thickness...

  14. Tomosynthesis for the early detection of pulmonary emphysema: diagnostic performance compared with chest radiography, using multidetector computed tomography as reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yoshitake; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Shiomi, Eisuke; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Abe, Takayuki; Ogawa, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis with that of chest radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema, using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as reference. Forty-eight patients with and 63 without pulmonary emphysema underwent chest MDCT, tomosynthesis and radiography on the same day. Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the tomosynthesis images and radiographs for the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Axial and coronal MDCT images served as the reference standard and the percentage lung volume with attenuation values of -950 HU or lower (LAA -950 ) was evaluated to determine the extent of emphysema. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and generalised estimating equations model were used. ROC analysis revealed significantly better performance (P -950 . The diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis was significantly superior to that of radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema. In both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity was affected by the LAA -950 . (orig.)

  15. Adherence issues in inherited metabolic disorders treated by low natural protein diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MaCdonald, A; van Rijn, M; Feillet, F

    2012-01-01

    Common inborn errors of metabolism treated by low natural protein diets [amino acid (AA) disorders, organic acidemias and urea cycle disorders] are responsible for a collection of diverse clinical symptoms, each condition presenting at different ages with variable severity. Precursor......-free or essential L-AAs are important in all these conditions. Optimal long-term outcome depends on early diagnosis and good metabolic control, but because of the rarity and severity of conditions, randomized controlled trials are scarce. In all of these disorders, it is commonly described that dietary adherence...... on their neuropsychological profile. There are little data about their ability to self-manage their own diet or the success of any formal educational programs that may have been implemented. Trials conducted in non-phenylketonuria (PKU) patients are rare, and the development of specialist L-AAs for non-PKU AA disorders has...

  16. Quantitative CT: Associations between Emphysema, Airway Wall Thickness and Body Composition in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutten, Erica P A; Grydeland, Thomas B; Pillai, Sreekumar G

    2011-01-01

    , CT scans were performed to determine emphysema (%LAA), airway wall thickness (AWT-Pi10), and lung mass. Muscle wasting based on FFMI was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. In both the men and women with COPD, FFMI was negatively associated with %LAA. FMI was positively associated with AWT-Pi10......The objective of the present study was to determine the association between CT phenotypes-emphysema by low attenuation area and bronchitis by airway wall thickness-and body composition parameters in a large cohort of subjects with and without COPD. In 452 COPD subjects and 459 subjects without COPD...... in both subjects with and without COPD. Among the subjects with muscle wasting, the percentage emphysema was high, but the predictive value was moderate. In conclusion, the present study strengthens the hypothesis that the subgroup of COPD cases with muscle wasting have emphysema. Airway wall thickness...

  17. Extent of emphysema estimated by the three dimensional CT (3D-CT) predicts pulmonary dysfunction in patients with COPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Etsuo; Inoue, Yoshikazu; Tanaka Isao

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the extent of emphysematous area by the 3D-CT in 35 chronic stable patients (age 66.5±8.9 yrs). And we evaluated the data from the total lung volume estimated by the 3D-CT, % low attenuation area below -950 HU (%LAA) and pulmonary function tests (PFT). Total lung volume estimated by 3D-CT was correlated with total lung capacity (TLC) by PFT (r=0.736, p<0.0005). The % LAA correlated with forced expiratory volume (FEV) 1% (r=-0.716, p<0.001). We concluded that the 3D-CT is the excellent method of evaluating the extent of emphysema without effort. (author)

  18. On optimal improvements of classical iterative schemes for Z-matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutsos, D.; Tzoumas, M.

    2006-04-01

    Many researchers have considered preconditioners, applied to linear systems, whose matrix coefficient is a Z- or an M-matrix, that make the associated Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel methods converge asymptotically faster than the unpreconditioned ones. Such preconditioners are chosen so that they eliminate the off-diagonal elements of the same column or the elements of the first upper diagonal [Milaszewicz, LAA 93 (1987) 161-170], Gunawardena et al. [LAA 154-156 (1991) 123-143]. In this work we generalize the previous preconditioners to obtain optimal methods. "Good" Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel algorithms are given and preconditioners, that eliminate more than one entry per row, are also proposed and analyzed. Moreover, the behavior of the above preconditioners to the Krylov subspace methods is studied.

  19. Etiologic significance of enlargement of the left atrial appendage in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.E.; Kelley, M.J.; Higgins, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    Fifty-one patients were divided into two groups: 20 patients with proven rheumatic mitral valve disease (RMVD) and 31 patients with left atrial enlargement (LAE) of a nonrheumatic etiology. The latter group included patients with ischemic papillary muscle dysfunction, mitral valve prolapse, and congestive cardiomyopathy. Radiographic studies showed that enlargement of the left atrial appendage (LAAE) was present in 18 of 20 rheumatics but in only one of 31 nonrheumatics. There was no direct relationship between enlargement of the LAA and radiographic or echocardiographic left atrial size, degree of pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH), or presence of atrial fibrillation. It is postulated that rheumatic influammation of the LAA allows it to dilate out of proportion to the body of the left atrium. In the adult patient with radiographic findings of PVH, LAAE is a valuable and specific radiographic sign of rheumatic mitral valve disease

  20. Left atrial appendage thrombus with resulting stroke post-RF ablation for atrial fibrillation in a patient on dabigatran.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lobo, R

    2015-11-01

    Dabigatran etexilate is licensed for use in prevention of deep venous thromboembolism and in prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). It has also been used in patients for other indications as a substitute for warfarin therapy because it requires no monitoring; one group being patients undergoing radiofrequency (RF), ablation for AF, although there have been no consensus guidelines with regards to dosage and timing of dose. We report the case of a patient with documentary evidence of left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombus formation and neurological sequelae post-RF ablation despite being on dabigatran. This case highlights the concern that periprocedural dabigatran may not provide adequate protection from development of LAA thrombus and that a standardised protocol will need to be developed and undergo large multicentre trials before dabigatran can be safely used for patients undergoing RF-ablation.

  1. Quantitative assessment of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels in patients with COPD using inspiratory and expiratory MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Yukiko; Kawata, Naoko; Yanagawa, Noriyuki; Sugiura, Toshihiko; Sakurai, Yoriko; Sato, Misuzu; Iesato, Ken; Terada, Jiro; Sakao, Seiichiro; Tada, Yuji; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Suzuki, Yoichi; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Structural and functional changes in pulmonary vessels are prevalent at the initial stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These vascular alterations can be assessed using cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessels. However, neither in non-COPD smokers nor in COPD patients it has been defined whether the structural changes of pulmonary vessels detected by paired inspiratory and expiratory CT scans are associated with emphysematous changes. We quantified the CSA and low attenuation area (LAA) and evaluated the changes in these parameters in the inspiratory and expiratory phases. Materials and methods: Fifty consecutive non-COPD smokers and COPD patients were subjected to multi detector-row CT and the percentage of vessels with a CSA less than 5 mm 2 as well as the percentage LAA for total lung area (%CSA < 5, %LAA, respectively) were calculated. Results: The %CSA < 5 correlated negatively with %LAA. The %CSA < 5 was lower in COPD patients with emphysema as compared with non-COPD smokers and COPD patients with or without mild emphysema. In addition, the %CSA < 5 was lower in the no/mild emphysema subgroup as compared with non-COPD smokers. The respiratory phase change of %CSA < 5 in COPD patients was greater than that in non-COPD smokers. Conclusion: The percentage of small pulmonary vessels decreased as emphysematous changes increase, and this decrease was observed even in patients with no/mild emphysema. Furthermore, respiratory phase changes in CSA were higher in COPD patients than in non-COPD smokers

  2. Assessment of anatomic relation between pulmonary perfusion and morphology in pulmonary emphysema with breath-hold SPECT-CT fusion images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Noriko; Seto, Akiko; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2008-01-01

    Anatomic relation between pulmonary perfusion and morphology in pulmonary emphysema was assessed on deep-inspiratory breath-hold (DIBrH) perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-CT fusion images. Subjects were 38 patients with pulmonary emphysema and 11 non-smoker controls, who successfully underwent DIBrH and non-BrH perfusion SPECT using a dual-headed SPECT system during the period between January 2004 and June 2006. DIBrH SPECT was three-dimensionally co-registered with DIBrH CT to comprehend the relationship between lung perfusion defects and CT low attenuation areas (LAA). By comparing the appearance of lung perfusion on DIBrH with non-BrH SPECT, the correlation with the rate constant for the alveolar-capillary transfer of carbon monoxide (DLCO/VA) was compared between perfusion abnormalities on these SPECTs and LAA on CT. DIBrH SPECT provided fairly uniform perfusion in controls, but significantly enhanced perfusion heterogeneity when compared with non-BrH SPECT in pulmonary emphysema patients (P<0.001). The reliable DIBrH SPECT-CT fusion images confirmed more extended perfusion defects than LAA on CT in majority (73%) of patients. Perfusion abnormalities on DIBrH SPECT were more closely correlated with DLCO/VA than LAA on CT (P<0.05). DIBrH SPECT identifies affected lungs with perfusion abnormality better than does non-BrH SPECT in pulmonary emphysema. DIBrH SPECT-CT fusion images are useful for more accurately localizing affected lungs than morphologic CT alone in this disease. (author)

  3. Tomosynthesis for the early detection of pulmonary emphysema: diagnostic performance compared with chest radiography, using multidetector computed tomography as reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoshitake; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Shiomi, Eisuke; Abe, Takayuki; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Ogawa, Kenji

    2013-08-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis with that of chest radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema, using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as reference. Forty-eight patients with and 63 without pulmonary emphysema underwent chest MDCT, tomosynthesis and radiography on the same day. Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the tomosynthesis images and radiographs for the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Axial and coronal MDCT images served as the reference standard and the percentage lung volume with attenuation values of -950 HU or lower (LAA-950) was evaluated to determine the extent of emphysema. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and generalised estimating equations model were used. ROC analysis revealed significantly better performance (P pulmonary emphysema. The average sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of tomosynthesis were 0.875, 0.968, 0.955 and 0.910, respectively, whereas the values for radiography were 0.479, 0.913, 0.815 and 0.697, respectively. For both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity increased with increasing LAA-950. The diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis was significantly superior to that of radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema. In both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity was affected by the LAA-950. • Tomosynthesis showed significantly better diagnostic performance for pulmonary emphysema than radiography. • Interobserver agreement for tomosynthesis was significantly higher than that for radiography. • Sensitivity increased with increasing LAA -950 in both tomosynthesis and radiography. • Tomosynthesis imparts a similar radiation dose to two projection chest radiography. • Radiation dose and cost of tomosynthesis are lower than those of MDCT.

  4. Mediterranean Diet in patients with acute ischemic stroke: Relationships between Mediterranean Diet score, diagnostic subtype, and stroke severity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Casuccio, Alessandra; Buttà, Carmelo; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Della Corte, Vittoriano; Arnao, Valentina; Clemente, Giuseppe; Maida, Carlo; Simonetta, Irene; Miceli, Giuseppe; Lucifora, Benedetto; Cirrincione, Anna; Di Bona, Danilo; Corpora, Francesca; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet appears to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, as well as the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease. No study has addressed the association between diagnostic subtype of stroke and its severity and adherence to a Mediterranean Diet in subjects with acute ischemic stroke. To evaluate the association between Mediterranean Diet adherence, TOAST subtype, and stroke severity by means of a retrospective study. The type of acute ischemic stroke was classified according to the TOAST criteria. All patients admitted to our ward with acute ischemic stroke completed a 137-item validated food-frequency questionnaire adapted to the Sicilian population. A scale indicating the degree of adherence to the traditional Mediterranean Diet was used (Me-Di score: range 0-9). 198 subjects with acute ischemic stroke and 100 control subjects without stroke. Stroke subjects had a lower mean Mediterranean Diet score compared to 100 controls without stroke. We observed a significant positive correlation between Me-Di score and SSS score, whereas we observed a negative relationship between Me-Di score and NIHSS and Rankin scores. Subjects with atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke subtype had a lower mean Me-Di score compared to subjects with other subtypes. Multinomial logistic regression analysis in a simple model showed a negative relationship between MeDi score and LAAS subtype vs. lacunar subtype (and LAAS vs. cardio-embolic subtype). Patients with lower adherence to a Mediterranean Diet are more likely to have an atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke, a worse clinical presentation of ischemic stroke at admission and a higher Rankin score at discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Traffic Offloading in Unlicensed Spectrum for 5G Cellular Network: A Two-Layer Game Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Licensed Assisted Access (LAA is considered one of the latest groundbreaking innovations to provide high performance in future 5G. Coexistence schemes such as Listen Before Talk (LBT and Carrier Sensing and Adaptive Transmission (CSAT have been proven to be good methods to share spectrums, and they are WiFi friendly. In this paper, a modified LBT-based CSAT scheme is proposed which can effectively reduce the collision at the moment when Long Term Evolution (LTE starts to transmit data in CSAT mode. To make full use of the valuable spectrum resources, the throughput of both LAA and WiFi systems should be improved. Thus, a two-layer Coalition-Auction Game-based Transaction (CAGT mechanism is proposed in this paper to optimize the performance of the two systems. In the first layer, a coalition among Access Points (APs is built to balance the WiFi stations and maximize the WiFi throughput. The main idea of the devised coalition forming is to merge the light-loaded APs with heavy-loaded APs into a coalition; consequently, the data of the overloaded APs can be offloaded to the light-loaded APs. Next, an auction game between the LAA and WiFi systems is used to gain a win–win strategy, in which, LAA Base Station (BS is the auctioneer and AP coalitions are bidders. Thus, the throughput of both systems are improved. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme in this paper can improve the performance of both two systems effectively.

  6. Definition and specification of "CANlike" protocols in the context of wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Juanole , Guy; Mouney , Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Rapport LAAS n° 15276; The implementation of distributed real-time applications on wireless networks constitutes today a new important challenge and, in this context, the MAC protocols, which implement the frame exchange scheduling, have an essential role. This paper is precisely concerned by the specification of such MAC protocols. We specify MAC protocols called CANlike protocols because they are inspired by the MAC protocol of the network CAN which is a wired network. The presentation made...

  7. Continuing Studies on Lead/Scintillating Fibres Calorimetry (LFC)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Starting from the results obtained in the framework of the LAA Project~2B, we propose a continuation of the R&D on lead/scintillating fibres calorimetry (``spaghetti calorimetry''), including further tests on the old calorimeter prototypes and the construction and testing of new prototypes. The main results we pursue concern the performances of a projective calorimeter built with new, cheaper, techniques and the radiation hardness of the scintillating fibres, the optimization of a preshower detector system is also studied.

  8. Clinical neurological characteristics of ischemic stroke subtypes in acute phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Shkrobot

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the present study was to clarify clinical neurological characteristics and different ischemic stroke subtypes unfavorable course predictors in acute phase. Material and Methods. 482 patients with different ischemic stroke subtypes were observed. Among them there were 125 (25.9 % with cardioembolic infarct (CEI, 119 (24.7 % with large artery atherosclerosis (LAAS infarct, 122 (25.3 % with lacunar stroke (LAC, 116 (24.1 % with stroke of undetermined etiology (UDE. The comparative analysis of clinical picture was performed. The predictors of unfavorable course of acute phase were established. Results. We have found out that severe neurological deficit, high mortality and the worst functional outcome during the first 14 days were observed in patients with CEI and LAAS. The highest frequency of early neurological deterioration (END was detected at LAC (in 22.7 % of patients. There was a relationship between END and presence of transient ischemic attack (TIA in past medical history, the level of systolic blood pressure (SBP at the beginning of the disease and the degree of carotid arteries stenosis on the side of lesion. The patients with LAC had mild neurological deficit and better prognosis compared with other ischemic stroke subtypes. Among the clinical factors that have impact on the CEI, LAAS and UDE acute phase course were: the size of lesion, the level of consciousness on the 1st day, the baseline SBP, patient’s age. At LAAS, the presence of transient ischemic attack (TIA in past medical history and low SBP in the onset of the disease (less than140 mm Hg has an additional prognostic value for an unfavorable functional outcome. The severity of LAC in acute period depended on its localization and size. Localization of LAC in the internal capsule, thalamus and pons were characterized by the highest severity. Conclusions. Clinical neurological features of ischemic stroke depend on its subtype and have some prognostic value

  9. Prospective randomized evaluation of the watchman left atrial appendage closure device in patients with atrial fibrillation versus long-term warfarin therapy: The PREVAIL trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgaid, Djouhar Roufeida; Khan, Zara; Zaidi, Mariam; Hobbs, Adrian

    2016-09-15

    Assessing the safety and effectiveness of left atrial appendage (LAA) (pouch found in the upper chambers of the heart) occlusion, using the Watchman device compared to long term warfarin therapy (drug that reduces clot formation), in preventing the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (most common type of irregular heart beat). 90% of strokes in atrial fibrillation arise from clots forming in this pouch. By mechanically blocking it using the device less clots are suggested to be formed. This is an alternative to taking warfarin especially in patients who cannot take it. 50 sites in the United States enrolled 407 participants. After being randomly allocated, the device group had 269 participants and warfarin group (comparator)had 138 participants. Patients with atrial fibrillation and at high risk of stroke were randomly allocated a group after they were deemed eligible. Patients in the device group had to take warfarin and aspirin for 45days till the complete closure of the LAA. The oral anticoagulant was followed by dual antiplatelet therapy until 6months and then ASA. Patients in the warfarin group have to take it for life and were continually monitored. The study ran for 26months. The trial assessed the rate of adverse events using three endpoints: The PREVAIL trial was not designed to show superiority, but non-inferiority. It met the safety endpoint and one efficacy endpoint for the watchman device compared to long term warfarin for overall efficacy of the device. The results established that LAA occlusion is not worse than warfarin intake for the prevention of stroke more than 1week after randomization. Compared to previous trials, the safety of the device has also improved. LAA occlusion is a reasonable alternative to chronic warfarin therapy in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage for prevention of thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation for patients with contraindication to or failure of oral anticoagulation: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustino, Ana; Paiva, Luís; Providência, Rui; Trigo, Joana; Botelho, Ana; Costa, Marco; Leitão-Marques, António

    2013-06-01

    In non-valvular atrial fibrillation 90% of thrombi originate in the left atrial appendage (LAA). Percutaneous LAA closure has been shown to be non-inferior to warfarin for prevention of thromboembolism. To evaluate the initial experience of a single center in percutaneous LAA closure in patients with high thromboembolic risk and in whom oral anticoagulation was impractical or contraindicated or had failed. Patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and CHADS2 score ≥2 in whom oral anticoagulation was impractical or contraindicated or had failed underwent percutaneous LAA closure according to the standard technique. After the procedure, dual antiplatelet therapy was maintained for one month, followed by single antiplatelet therapy indefinitely. Patients were followed by clinical assessment and transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography. The procedure was performed in 22 of the 23 selected patients (95.7%), mean age 70±9 years, CHADS2 score 3.2±0.9 and CHA2DS2-VASC score 4.7±1.4. Intraprocedural device replacement was necessary only in the first patient, due to oversizing. The following periprocedural complications were observed: one femoral pseudoaneurysm, three femoral hematomas and two minor oropharyngeal bleeds, resolved by local hemostatic measures. During a 12±8 month follow-up a mild peri-device flow and a thrombus adhering to the device, resolved under with enoxaparin therapy, were identified. The rate of transient ischemic attack (TIA)/stroke was lower than expected according to the CHADS2 score (0 vs. 6.7±2.2%). In our initial experience, this procedure proved to be a feasible, safe and effective alternative for atrial fibrillation patients in whom oral anticoagulation is not an option. Only relatively minor complications were observed, with a lower than expected TIA/stroke rate. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Kodumaine multifilm õilmitseb / Mart Rummo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rummo, Mart

    2001-01-01

    Tähistamaks eesti animafilmi 70. aastapäeva näidatakse täna Kinomajas kuut uut multifilmi : 13-osaline lamenukkfilm "Tulelaeva kulid" (režissöör Mait Laas), Ülo Pikkovi kaks joonisfilmi "Superlove" ja "Peata ratsanik", Priit Tenderi joonisfilm "Mont Blanc", Kaspar Jancise joonisfilm "Romanss" ja Janno Põldma - Heiki Ernitsa laste joonisfilmiseriaali "Lepatriinude jõulud" 5-min. trailer

  12. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND CRYSTAL STRUCTURES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    Cambridge CB2 1EZ, UK (e-mail for deposition: deposit@ccdc.cam.ac.uk). REFERENCES. 1. Guilherme, L.R.; Massabni, A.C.; Cuin, A.; Oliveira, L.A.A.; Castellano, E.E.; Heinrich,. T.A.; Costa-Neto, C.M. J. Coord. Chem. 2009, 62, 1561. 2. Ashiq, U.; Ara, R.; Mahroof-Tahir, M.; Maqsood, Z.T.; Khan, K.M.; Khan, S.N.; Siddiqui,.

  13. Quantitative CT analysis of small pulmonary vessels in lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Katsutoshi, E-mail: kando@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Tobino, Kazunori [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Iizuka Hospital, 3-83 Yoshio-Machi, Iizuka-City, Fukuoka 820-8505 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Kurihara, Masatoshi; Kataoka, Hideyuki [Pneumothorax Center, Nissan Tamagawa Hospital, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Doi, Tokuhide [Fukuoka Clinic, 7-18-11 Umeda, Adachi-Ku, Tokyo 123-0851 (Japan); Hoshika, Yoshito [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan); Takahashi, Kazuhisa [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Seyama, Kuniaki [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); The Study Group of Pneumothorax and Cystic Lung Diseases, 4-8-1 Seta, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 158-0095 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Backgrounds: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive lung disease that share clinical, physiologic, and radiologic features with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aims to identify those features that are unique to LAM by using quantitative CT analysis. Methods: We measured total cross-sectional areas of small pulmonary vessels (CSA) less than 5 mm{sup 2} and 5–10 mm{sup 2} and calculated percentages of those lung areas (%CSA), respectively, in 50 LAM and 42 COPD patients. The extent of cystic destruction (LAA%) and mean parenchymal CT value were also calculated and correlated with pulmonary function. Results: The diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume (DL{sub CO}/VA %predicted) was similar for both groups (LAM, 44.4 ± 19.8% vs. COPD, 45.7 ± 16.0%, p = 0.763), but less tissue damage occurred in LAM than COPD (LAA% 21.7 ± 16.3% vs. 29.3 ± 17.0; p < 0.05). Pulmonary function correlated negatively with LAA% (p < 0.001) in both groups, yet the correlation with %CSA was significant only in COPD (p < 0.001). When the same analysis was conducted in two groups with equal levels of LAA% and DL{sub CO}/VA %predicted, %CSA and mean parenchymal CT value were still greater for LAM than COPD (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Quantitative CT analysis revealing a correlation between cystic destruction and CSA in COPD but not LAM indicates that this approach successfully reflects different mechanisms governing the two pathologic courses. Such determinations of small pulmonary vessel density may serve to differentiate LAM from COPD even in patients with severe lung destruction.

  14. Quantitative assessment of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels in patients with COPD using inspiratory and expiratory MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Yukiko, E-mail: matsuyuki_future@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Kawata, Naoko, E-mail: chumito_03@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Yanagawa, Noriyuki, E-mail: yanagawa@ho.chiba-u.ac.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sugiura, Toshihiko, E-mail: sugiura@js3.so-net.ne.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sakurai, Yoriko, E-mail: yoliri@nifty.com [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sato, Misuzu, E-mail: mis_misuzu@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Iesato, Ken, E-mail: iesato_k@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Terada, Jiro, E-mail: jirotera@chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Sakao, Seiichiro, E-mail: sakao@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tada, Yuji, E-mail: ytada@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tanabe, Nobuhiro, E-mail: ntanabe@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Suzuki, Yoichi, E-mail: ysuzuki@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan); Tatsumi, Koichiro, E-mail: tatsumi@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 Japan (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    Objectives: Structural and functional changes in pulmonary vessels are prevalent at the initial stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These vascular alterations can be assessed using cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessels. However, neither in non-COPD smokers nor in COPD patients it has been defined whether the structural changes of pulmonary vessels detected by paired inspiratory and expiratory CT scans are associated with emphysematous changes. We quantified the CSA and low attenuation area (LAA) and evaluated the changes in these parameters in the inspiratory and expiratory phases. Materials and methods: Fifty consecutive non-COPD smokers and COPD patients were subjected to multi detector-row CT and the percentage of vessels with a CSA less than 5 mm{sup 2} as well as the percentage LAA for total lung area (%CSA < 5, %LAA, respectively) were calculated. Results: The %CSA < 5 correlated negatively with %LAA. The %CSA < 5 was lower in COPD patients with emphysema as compared with non-COPD smokers and COPD patients with or without mild emphysema. In addition, the %CSA < 5 was lower in the no/mild emphysema subgroup as compared with non-COPD smokers. The respiratory phase change of %CSA < 5 in COPD patients was greater than that in non-COPD smokers. Conclusion: The percentage of small pulmonary vessels decreased as emphysematous changes increase, and this decrease was observed even in patients with no/mild emphysema. Furthermore, respiratory phase changes in CSA were higher in COPD patients than in non-COPD smokers.

  15. Left atrial appendage closure: a new technique for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Camm, A; Colombo, Antonio; Corbucci, Giorgio; Padeletti, Luigi

    2014-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. It is associated with increased risk for stroke mainly due to cardiac embolism from the left atrial appendage (LAA). Occlusion of the LAA by means of a device represents a valid alternative to oral anticoagulation, mainly in patients who cannot tolerate this therapy because of a high bleeding risk. Recent data on the endocardial device WATCHMAN show encouraging results for this patient population in terms of stroke risk reduction compared to the expected rate as well as in terms of implant success. This article reviews all relevant publications related to the main surgical and transcatheter devices used for LAA closure (LAAC). PROTECT-AF, the first prospective randomized trial conducted on this technique, showed that LAA occlusion using the WATCHMAN was noninferior to warfarin for a combined end-point in patients with nonvalvular AF. There is a lack of large-scale randomized trials on long-term stroke risk in patients submitted to LAAC. Most studies are relatively small and focus on the comparison of different surgical techniques with regard to complete/incomplete closure success. More recently, PROTECT-AF long-term results (4-year follow-up) demonstrated that LAAC was statistically superior to warfarin in terms of efficacy. This review concludes that it is now appropriate to consider these techniques for patients with AF who are at high risk for stroke for whom effective conventional or novel anticoagulant therapy is not available or who present problems in managing drug treatment. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Graafikatriennaali peapreemia läks Lätti / Kadri Karro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karro, Kadri

    2011-01-01

    Kumu Kunstimuuseumis avatud 15. Tallinna Graafikatriennaali "Armastuse, mitte raha pärast" Grand Prix saanud Edmunds Jansonsi (Läti) animeeritud dokumentaalfilmist "Väikese linnukese päevik" (2007). Kolm võrdset preemiat pälvinud Antonio Claudio Carvalho (Brasiilia), õde Mary Corita (Corita Kent, 1918-1986, USA) ja Alina Rudnitskaja (Venemaa) töödest. Eripreemiate saajad. Oliver Laas sai ERKF Olev Soansi mälestusfondi stipendiumi

  17. Evaluation, Analysis, and Documentation Support for the 10kW Signature Suppressed Lightweight Electric Energy Plant (SLEEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-14

    8603171, 1586. Muroki, Kono, Nagao, A., " Mazda Rotary Engine Technology Combustion Characteristics," Mazda Motor Corporation, IECEC 󈨚 869086, 1986...Muroki, T., Miyata J., "Material Technology Development Applied to Rotary Engine at Mazda ," SAE 8605601, 1986. 84 Laa .fn tr) l a l ~ l lf n S l l ff...system for starting and control power as described in the PD. The cranking system consists of a cranking motor ; start solenoid; batteries; battery

  18. Suur esilinastamine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    21.5. esilinastuvad kinos "Sõprus" 6 animafilmi : "Vares ja hiired", autorid Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; "Just märried", autor Peep Pedmanson; "Päevavalgus", autor Mait Laas; "Tom ja Fluffy", režissöörid Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits; "Bermuda", autor Ülo Pikkov; "Primavera", režissöörid Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer. Aut. : M.R

  19. Animatsiooni vastu ei saa ükski / Mikk Rand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rand, Mikk, 1970-

    1998-01-01

    21.5. esilinastuvad kinos "Sõprus" 6 animafilmi : "Vares ja hiired", autorid Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; "Just märried", autor Peep Pedmanson; "Päevavalgus", autor Mait Laas; "Tom ja Fluffy", režissöörid Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits; "Bermuda", autor Ülo Pikkov; "Primavera", režissöörid Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer

  20. Esilinastuvad eesti animafilmid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    21.5. esilinastuvad kinos "Sõprus" 6 animafilmi : "Vares ja hiired", autorid Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; "Just märried", autor Peep Pedmanson; "Päevavalgus", autor Mait Laas; "Tom ja Fluffy", režissöörid Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits; "Bermuda", autor Ülo Pikkov; "Primavera", režissöörid Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer

  1. Kuus uut Eesti filmi korraga ekraanil / Tarmo Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Tarmo, 1958-

    1998-01-01

    21.5. esilinastuvad kinos "Sõprus" 6 animafilmi : "Vares ja hiired", autorid Priit Tender ja Mikk Rand; "Just märried", autor Peep Pedmanson; "Päevavalgus", autor Mait Laas; "Tom ja Fluffy", režissöörid Janno Põldma ja Heiki Ernits; "Bermuda", autor Ülo Pikkov; "Primavera", režissöörid Riho Unt ja Hardi Volmer

  2. Functional Image-Guided Radiotherapy Planning in Respiratory-Gated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Tomoki, E-mail: tkkimura@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima City (Japan); Nishibuchi, Ikuno; Murakami, Yuji; Kenjo, Masahiro; Kaneyasu, Yuko; Nagata, Yasushi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima City (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incorporation of functional lung image-derived low attenuation area (LAA) based on four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) into respiratory-gated intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in treatment planning for lung cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods and Materials: Eight lung cancer patients with COPD were the subjects of this study. LAA was generated from 4D-CT data sets according to CT values of less than than -860 Hounsfield units (HU) as a threshold. The functional lung image was defined as the area where LAA was excluded from the image of the total lung. Two respiratory-gated radiotherapy plans (70 Gy/35 fractions) were designed and compared in each patient as follows: Plan A was an anatomical IMRT or VMAT plan based on the total lung; Plan F was a functional IMRT or VMAT plan based on the functional lung. Dosimetric parameters (percentage of total lung volume irradiated with {>=}20 Gy [V20], and mean dose of total lung [MLD]) of the two plans were compared. Results: V20 was lower in Plan F than in Plan A (mean 1.5%, p = 0.025 in IMRT, mean 1.6%, p = 0.044 in VMAT) achieved by a reduction in MLD (mean 0.23 Gy, p = 0.083 in IMRT, mean 0.5 Gy, p = 0.042 in VMAT). No differences were noted in target volume coverage and organ-at-risk doses. Conclusions: Functional IGRT planning based on LAA in respiratory-guided IMRT or VMAT appears to be effective in preserving a functional lung in lung cancer patients with COPD.

  3. Quantificação dos isômeros ácido L-ascórbico e ácido D-iso-ascórbico em geleias de frutas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Raquel Grando de; Godoy,Helena Teixeira; Prado,Marcelo Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Ascorbic acid has important nutritional characteristics such as high antioxidant potential, preventing diverse damage and diseases in the tissues and the process of aging. Different isomeric forms of the ascorbic acid can be found in nature and each one have different potential antioxidant and different activity pro-vitamin C. This work examined a method to detect and quantify the isomers L-ascorbic acid (LAA) and D-iso-ascorbic acid (DIAA) in jelly fruit. The method showed acceptable selecti...

  4. Barbarid, plastiliinijänes, Miriam ja Frank Muller / Annika Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Annika

    2003-01-01

    Nukufilm näitab 4 uut filmi : "Barbarid" (stsenaristid Andrus Kivirähk ja Hardi Volmer, režissöör H. Volmer), "Porgand" (stsenarist Peep Pedmanson, režissöör Pärtel Tall), "Miriami jõulupäkapikk" (stsenaristid Leelo Tungal ja Peep Pedmanson, režissöör Mait Laas), "Kuuvaatleja" (reklaamitreiler Frank Mulleri kellafirmale ; stsenarist, režissöör, kunstnik Mati Kütt)

  5. Tomosynthesis for the early detection of pulmonary emphysema: diagnostic performance compared with chest radiography, using multidetector computed tomography as reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yoshitake [Keio University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nippon Koukan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa (Japan); Jinzaki, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Shiomi, Eisuke; Kuribayashi, Sachio [Keio University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Abe, Takayuki [Keio University School of Medicine, Center for Clinical Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ogawa, Kenji [Nippon Koukan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    To compare the diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis with that of chest radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema, using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as reference. Forty-eight patients with and 63 without pulmonary emphysema underwent chest MDCT, tomosynthesis and radiography on the same day. Two blinded radiologists independently evaluated the tomosynthesis images and radiographs for the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Axial and coronal MDCT images served as the reference standard and the percentage lung volume with attenuation values of -950 HU or lower (LAA{sub -950}) was evaluated to determine the extent of emphysema. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and generalised estimating equations model were used. ROC analysis revealed significantly better performance (P < 0.0001) of tomosynthesis than radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema. The average sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of tomosynthesis were 0.875, 0.968, 0.955 and 0.910, respectively, whereas the values for radiography were 0.479, 0.913, 0.815 and 0.697, respectively. For both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity increased with increasing LAA{sub -950}. The diagnostic performance of tomosynthesis was significantly superior to that of radiography for the detection of pulmonary emphysema. In both tomosynthesis and radiography, the sensitivity was affected by the LAA{sub -950}. (orig.)

  6. Nutritive values of brassica campestris L. oil as affected by growth regulator treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, A.; Khan, N.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of plant growth regulators, viz. Indole acetic acid (IAA), Gibberellic acid (GA) and Abscisic acid (ABA) were studied on fatty acid compositions, glucosinolate content and protein content of Brassica campestris L subsp. Oleifera (common name yellow sarson). Growth regulators were applied in seed soaking solution as well as foliar spray during vegetative phase and at flowering stage. There were reductions in the amount of long chain fatty acids viz erucic acid, eicosenoic acid and increase in the amount of unsaturated fatty acid viz. linoleic acid by lAA applications. The stimulating effect of lAA which reduced amount of unsaturated fatty acid was more pronounced when applied as foliar spray at vegetative stage. But, foliar spray of ABA during flowering increased the concentration of linoleic acid and reduced the eicosenoic acid and erucic acid. The glucosinolate content was greater in seeds soaked in 10/sup -5/ M lAA than that of control but less in 10/sup -5/ M GA treated seeds than that of control. The ABA treatment (10/sup -5/M) increased the concentration of glucosinolates in the seeds IAA treatments (10/sup -5/M) increased the protein percentage in the seeds. Foliar application of GA (10/sup -5/M) during vegetative growth and ABA (10/sup -5/M) as seed soaking prior to sowing as well as foliar spry during flowering decreased the protein content of seeds. (author)

  7. Progress of dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines for patients with hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ming; Hoffmann, Jean-Marc; Schmitt, Michael; Schmitt, Anita

    2016-09-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most professional antigen-presenting cells eliciting cellular and humoral immune responses against cancer cells by expressing these antigens on MHC class I/II complexes to T cells. Therefore, they have been employed in many clinical trials as cancer vaccines for patients with cancer. This review focuses on the use of DCs in leukemia patients expressing leukemia-associated antigens (LAAs). The contribution of both stimulating vs. tolerogenic DCs as well as of other factors to the milieu of anti-leukemia immune responses are discussed. Several DC vaccination strategies like leukemia lysate, proteins and peptides have been developed. Next generation DC vaccines comprise transduction of DCs with retroviral vectors encoding for LAAs, cytokines and costimulatory molecules as well as transfection of DCs with naked RNA encoding for LAAs. Published as well as ongoing clinical trials are reported and critically reviewed. Future results will demonstrate whether next-generation DCs are really superior to conventional pulsing with peptide, protein or tumor lysate. However, currently available methods based on nucleic acid transfection/transduction are tempting in terms of material production costs and time for clinical application according to good manufacturing practice (GMP).

  8. Computer simulation on spatial resolution of X-ray bright-field imaging by dynamical diffraction theory for a Laue-case crystal analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshifumi; Chikaura, Yoshinori; Ando, Masami

    2011-01-01

    Recently, dark-field imaging (DFI) and bright-field imaging (BFI) have been proposed and applied to visualize X-ray refraction effects yielded in biomedical objects. In order to clarify the spatial resolution due to a crystal analyzer in Laue geometry, a program based on the Takagi-Taupin equation was modified to be used for carrying out simulations to evaluate the spatial resolution of images coming into a Laue angular analyzer (LAA). The calculation was done with a perfect plane wave for diffraction wave-fields, which corresponded to BFI, under the conditions of 35 keV and a diffraction index 440 for a 2100 μm thick LAA. As a result, the spatial resolution along the g-vector direction showed approximately 37.5 μm. 126 μm-thick LAA showed a spatial resolution better than 3.1 μm under the conditions of 13.7 keV and a diffraction index 220.

  9. CT angiography after carotid artery stenting: assessment of the utility of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and model-based iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuya, Keita; Shinohara, Yuki; Fujii, Shinya; Ogawa, Toshihide [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Sakamoto, Makoto; Watanabe, Takashi [Tottori University, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Brain and Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Iwata, Naoki; Kishimoto, Junichi [Tottori University, Division of Clinical Radiology Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan); Kaminou, Toshio [Osaka Minami Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    Follow-up CT angiography (CTA) is routinely performed for post-procedure management after carotid artery stenting (CAS). However, the stent lumen tends to be underestimated because of stent artifacts on CTA reconstructed with the filtered back projection (FBP) technique. We assessed the utility of new iterative reconstruction techniques, such as adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), for CTA after CAS in comparison with FBP. In a phantom study, we evaluated the differences among the three reconstruction techniques with regard to the relationship between the stent luminal diameter and the degree of underestimation of stent luminal diameter. In a clinical study, 34 patients who underwent follow-up CTA after CAS were included. We compared the stent luminal diameters among FBP, ASIR, and MBIR, and performed visual assessment of low attenuation area (LAA) in the stent lumen using a three-point scale. In the phantom study, stent luminal diameter was increasingly underestimated as luminal diameter became smaller in all CTA images. Stent luminal diameter was larger with MBIR than with the other reconstruction techniques. Similarly, in the clinical study, stent luminal diameter was larger with MBIR than with the other reconstruction techniques. LAA detectability scores of MBIR were greater than or equal to those of FBP and ASIR in all cases. MBIR improved the accuracy of assessment of stent luminal diameter and LAA detectability in the stent lumen when compared with FBP and ASIR. We conclude that MBIR is a useful reconstruction technique for CTA after CAS. (orig.)

  10. Preparation and Microbiological Evaluation of Amphiphilic Kanamycin-Lipoamino Acid Ion-Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Pignatello

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphilic ion-pairs of kanamycin (KAN were prepared by evaporation of a water-ethanol co-solution of KAN base and a lipoamino acid bearing a 12-carbon atoms alkyl side chain (LAA12, at different molar ratios. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the structure of ion-pairs, while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD studies supported the formation of new saline species with a different crystalline structure than the starting components. The solubility pattern shown in a range of both aqueous and organic solvents confirmed that the ion-pairs possess an amphiphilic character. The LAA12 counter-ion showed not to improve the antibacterial activity of KAN, suggesting that such chemical strategy is not able to favor the penetration of this drug inside the bacteria cells. Nevertheless, a slight improving, i.e., a one-fold dilution, was observed in E. coli. The present study can also serve as the basis for a further evaluation of LAA ion-pairing of antibiotics, as a means to improve the loading of hydrophilic drugs into lipid-based nanocarriers.

  11. Split-bolus single-phase cardiac multidetector computed tomography for reliable detection of left atrial thrombus. Comparison to transesophageal echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staab, W.; Zwaka, P.A.; Sohns, J.M.; Schwarz, A.; Lotz, J. [University Medical Center Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Sohns, C.; Vollmann, D.; Zabel, M.; Hasenfuss, G. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology and Pneumology; Schneider, S. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Medical Statistics

    2014-11-15

    Evaluation of a new cardiac MDCT protocol using a split-bolus contrast injection protocol and single MDCT scan for reliable diagnosis of LA/LAA thrombi in comparison to TEE, optimizing radiation exposure and use of contrast agent. A total of 182 consecutive patients with drug refractory AF scheduled for PVI (62.6% male, mean age: 64.1 ± 10.2 years) underwent routine diagnostic work including TEE and cardiac MDCT for the evaluation of LA/LAA anatomy and thrombus formation between November 2010 and March 2012. Contrast media injection was split into a pre-bolus of 30 ml and main bolus of 70 ml iodinated contrast agent separated by a short time delay. In this study, split-bolus cardiac MDCT identified 14 of 182 patients with filling defects of the LA/LAA. In all of these 14 patients, abnormalities were found in TEE. All 5 of the 14 patients with thrombus formation in cardiac MDCT were confirmed by TEE. MDCT was 100% accurate for thrombus, with strong but not perfect overall results for SEC equivalent on MDCT.

  12. Whole-brain functional connectivity during acquisition of novel grammar: Distinct functional networks depend on language learning abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepinska, Olga; de Rover, Mischa; Caspers, Johanneke; Schiller, Niels O

    2017-03-01

    In an effort to advance the understanding of brain function and organisation accompanying second language learning, we investigate the neural substrates of novel grammar learning in a group of healthy adults, consisting of participants with high and average language analytical abilities (LAA). By means of an Independent Components Analysis, a data-driven approach to functional connectivity of the brain, the fMRI data collected during a grammar-learning task were decomposed into maps representing separate cognitive processes. These included the default mode, task-positive, working memory, visual, cerebellar and emotional networks. We further tested for differences within the components, representing individual differences between the High and Average LAA learners. We found high analytical abilities to be coupled with stronger contributions to the task-positive network from areas adjacent to bilateral Broca's region, stronger connectivity within the working memory network and within the emotional network. Average LAA participants displayed stronger engagement within the task-positive network from areas adjacent to the right-hemisphere homologue of Broca's region and typical to lower level processing (visual word recognition), and increased connectivity within the default mode network. The significance of each of the identified networks for the grammar learning process is presented next to a discussion on the established markers of inter-individual learners' differences. We conclude that in terms of functional connectivity, the engagement of brain's networks during grammar acquisition is coupled with one's language learning abilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. CT angiography after carotid artery stenting: assessment of the utility of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction and model-based iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuya, Keita; Shinohara, Yuki; Fujii, Shinya; Ogawa, Toshihide; Sakamoto, Makoto; Watanabe, Takashi; Iwata, Naoki; Kishimoto, Junichi; Kaminou, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Follow-up CT angiography (CTA) is routinely performed for post-procedure management after carotid artery stenting (CAS). However, the stent lumen tends to be underestimated because of stent artifacts on CTA reconstructed with the filtered back projection (FBP) technique. We assessed the utility of new iterative reconstruction techniques, such as adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), for CTA after CAS in comparison with FBP. In a phantom study, we evaluated the differences among the three reconstruction techniques with regard to the relationship between the stent luminal diameter and the degree of underestimation of stent luminal diameter. In a clinical study, 34 patients who underwent follow-up CTA after CAS were included. We compared the stent luminal diameters among FBP, ASIR, and MBIR, and performed visual assessment of low attenuation area (LAA) in the stent lumen using a three-point scale. In the phantom study, stent luminal diameter was increasingly underestimated as luminal diameter became smaller in all CTA images. Stent luminal diameter was larger with MBIR than with the other reconstruction techniques. Similarly, in the clinical study, stent luminal diameter was larger with MBIR than with the other reconstruction techniques. LAA detectability scores of MBIR were greater than or equal to those of FBP and ASIR in all cases. MBIR improved the accuracy of assessment of stent luminal diameter and LAA detectability in the stent lumen when compared with FBP and ASIR. We conclude that MBIR is a useful reconstruction technique for CTA after CAS. (orig.)

  14. A region-specific quantitative profile of autonomic innervation of the canine left atrium and pulmonary veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chong-han; Wang, Fei; Jiang, Rong; Zhang, Jin; Mou, Huamin; Yin, Yue-hui

    2011-07-05

    The aim of the present study was to determine and quantify the cardiac autonomic innervation of the canine atria and pulmonary vein. Tissue specimens were taken from the canine pulmonary veins (PVs), posterior left atrium (PLA), left atrial roof (LAR), anterior left atrium (ALA), interatrial septum (IAS), and left atrial appendage (LAA) respectively for immunohistochemical analysis and nerve density determination. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve densities decreased in the order: PLA>PV>IAS>LAR>ALA>LAA. For sympathetic nerve, multiple comparisons between any two regions showed a significant difference (PIAS vs. LAR, and LAR vs. ALA; for parasympathetic nerve, all the differences between any pair of regions were statistically significant (PIAS vs. LAR, LAR vs. ALA, and ALA vs. LAA. For both nerve types, there was a decreasing gradient of nerve densities from the external to internal layer (P<0.001, for each comparisons). Nerve density at the ostia for either nerve type was significantly higher than at the distal segments of PVs (P<0.001). In summary, the LA and PVs are innervated by sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves in a regionally heterogeneous way, which may be important for the pathophysiological investigation and ablation therapy of atrial fibrillation (AF). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Iterative reconstruction for quantitative computed tomography analysis of emphysema: consistent results using different tube currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamashiro T

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tsuneo Yamashiro,1 Tetsuhiro Miyara,1 Osamu Honda,2 Noriyuki Tomiyama,2 Yoshiharu Ohno,3 Satoshi Noma,4 Sadayuki Murayama1 On behalf of the ACTIve Study Group 1Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa, Japan; 2Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan; 3Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan; 4Department of Radiology, Tenri Hospital, Tenri, Nara, Japan Purpose: To assess the advantages of iterative reconstruction for quantitative computed tomography (CT analysis of pulmonary emphysema. Materials and methods: Twenty-two patients with pulmonary emphysema underwent chest CT imaging using identical scanners with three different tube currents: 240, 120, and 60 mA. Scan data were converted to CT images using Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction using Three Dimensional Processing (AIDR3D and a conventional filtered-back projection mode. Thus, six scans with and without AIDR3D were generated per patient. All other scanning and reconstruction settings were fixed. The percent low attenuation area (LAA%; < -950 Hounsfield units and the lung density 15th percentile were automatically measured using a commercial workstation. Comparisons of LAA% and 15th percentile results between scans with and without using AIDR3D were made by Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Associations between body weight and measurement errors among these scans were evaluated by Spearman rank correlation analysis. Results: Overall, scan series without AIDR3D had higher LAA% and lower 15th percentile values than those with AIDR3D at each tube current (P<0.0001. For scan series without AIDR3D, lower tube currents resulted in higher LAA% values and lower 15th percentiles. The extent of emphysema was significantly different between each pair among scans when not using AIDR3D (LAA%, P<0.0001; 15th percentile, P<0.01, but was not

  16. Computed tomography measurement of the left atrial appendage for optimal sizing of the Watchman device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Betancor, Jorge; Sato, Kimi; Harb, Serge; Abdur Rehman, Karim; Patel, Kunal; Kumar, Arnav; Cremer, Paul C; Jaber, Wael; Rodriguez, L Leonardo; Schoenhagen, Paul; Wazni, Oussama

    Percutaneous left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion is an emerging treatment option for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation who cannot tolerate oral anticoagulation. The Watchman device (Boston Scientific Corporation, Natick, MA, USA) is deployed at the ostium of the LAA, and an appropriately sized device is critical for successful occlusion. However, standardized imaging protocols for device sizing have not been established. We investigated the clinical utility of a standardized imaging protocol, with pre-procedural multi-detector cardiac computed tomography (MDCT), and intra-procedural transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), for Watchman device sizing. Patients who underwent Watchman device implantation between 2010 and 2016 at our center, and who had pre-procedural MDCT and intra-procedural TEE were included. MDCT measurements (CTmax, CTmin, CTmean), and TEE measurement (TEEmax) of the LAA ostium were determined for each case, and correlated with the final size of the Watchman device implanted. Demographic data and clinical outcomes were collected. The study included 80 patients (mean age: 75 ± 9.6 years; male: 68%; mean CHA2DS2-VASc score: 4.5 ± 1.4). CTmax of the LAA ostium correlated strongly with the final deployed Watchman device size (Spearman's rho: 0.81, p < 0.001), while TEEmax of the LAA ostium showed only moderate correlation with the final deployed Watchman device size (Spearman's rho: 0.61, p < 0.001). Implantation success rate was 100%. At a mean duration of follow-up of 197 days, there were no device-related complications (device embolization, cardiac perforation and pericardial tamponade). At follow-up, the vast majority of patients (76 patients; 95%) had either no or trivial (≤3 mm) residual peri-device leak on TEE. A standardized imaging protocol for assessment of Watchman device implantation incorporating pre-procedural MDCT and intra-procedural TEE, was associated with excellent procedural outcomes at a mean duration

  17. Histopathologic composition of cerebral thrombi of acute stroke patients is correlated with stroke subtype and thrombus attenuation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris M Niesten

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We related composition of cerebral thrombi to stroke subtype and attenuation on non-contrast CT (NCCT to gain more insight in etiopathogenesis and to validate thrombus attenuation as a new imaging biomarker for acute stroke. METHODS: We histopathologically investigated 22 thrombi retrieved after mechanical thrombectomy in acute stroke patients. First, thrombi were classified as fresh, lytic or organized. Second, percentages of red blood cells (RBCs, platelets and fibrin and number of red, white (respectively RBCs or platelets outnumbering other components with ≥ 15% or mixed thrombi were compared between large artery atherosclerosis (LAA, cardioembolism, dissection and unknown subtype. Third, correlation between attenuation and RBCs, platelets and fibrin was calculated using Pearson's correlation coefficients (r. RESULTS: Thrombi were fresh in 73% (n = 16, lytic in 18% (n = 4 and organized in 9% (n = 2. The stroke cause was LAA in eight (36%, cardioembolism in six (27%, dissection in three (14%, and unknown in five (23% patients. LAA thrombi showed the highest percentage RBCs (median 50 (range 35-90, followed by dissection (35 (20-40, p = 0.05, cardioembolism (35 (5-45, p = 0.013 and unknown subtype (25 (2-40, p = 0.006. No differences in platelets (p = 0.16 and fibrin (p = 0.52 between subtypes were found. LAA thrombi were classified as red or mixed (both n = 4, cardioembolisms as mixed (n = 5 or white (n = 1 and dissection as mixed (n = 3. There was a moderate positive correlation between attenuation and RBCs (r = 0.401, p = 0.049, and weak negative correlations with platelets (r = -0.368, p = 0.09 and fibrin (r = -0.073, p = 0.75. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of cerebral thrombi is fresh. There are no differences in age of thrombi between subtypes. LAA thrombi have highest percentages RBCs, cardioembolism and unknown subtype lowest. No relationship exists between subtype and platelets or fibrin percentages. We found a

  18. Relative preservation of peripheral lung function in smoking-related pulmonary emphysema: assessment with {sup 99m}Tc-MAA perfusion and dynamic {sup 133}Xe SPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Kume, Norihiko; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Ogasawara, Nobuhiko; Motoyama, Kazumi; Hara, Akiko; Matsumoto, Tsuneo [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    In this study the cross-sectional functional differences between the central and peripheral lung in smokers with pulmonary emphysema were evaluated by lung perfusion and dynamic xenon-133 single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The subjects were 81 patients with a long-term smoking history and relatively advanced emphysema, 17 non-smoker patients with non-obstructive lung diseases and six healthy non-smokers. Regional lung functional difference between the peripheral and central lung was assessed in the upper, middle and lower lung zones by technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin SPET and dynamic {sup 133}Xe SPET. The distribution of emphysematous changes was assessed by density-mask computed tomography (CT) images which depicted abnormally low attenuation areas (LAAs) of less than -960 Hounsfield units. Two hundred and eighty-eight (59.2%) lung zones of 63 (77.7%) patients with pulmonary emphysema showed relative preservation of lung function in the peripheral lung, with a curvilinear band of normal perfusion (a stripe sign) and a significantly faster {sup 133}Xe half-clearance time (T{sub 1/2}) than in central lung (P<0.0001). Of these lung zones, 256 (88.8%) showed central-dominant LAA distributions on density-mask CT images, but the remaining 32 zones did not show any regional preference in LAA distribution. Conversely, 117 (24.0%) lung zones of 19 (23.4%) patients showed periphery-dominant perfusion defects and LAA distributions, with significantly prolonged T{sub 1/2} in the peripheral lung area (P<0.0001). The remaining 81 lung zones of the patients with pulmonary emphysema and all the lung zones of the healthy subjects and patients with non-obstructive lung diseases did not show a stripe sign, and no differences were observed in T{sub 1/2} values and LAA distributions between the central and peripheral lung. Relative preservation of peripheral lung function seems to be a characteristic feature in smoking-related pulmonary emphysema, and may indicate a

  19. One-Year Outcomes of Total Meniscus Reconstruction Using a Novel Fiber-Reinforced Scaffold in an Ovine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jay M; Merriam, Aaron R; Culp, Brian M; Gatt, Charles J; Dunn, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    Meniscus injuries and resulting meniscectomies lead to joint deterioration, causing pain, discomfort, and instability. Tissue-engineered devices to replace the meniscus have not shown consistent success with regard to function, mechanical integrity, or protection of cartilage. To evaluate a novel resorbable polymer fiber-reinforced meniscus reconstruction scaffold in an ovine model for 52 weeks and assess its integrity, tensile and compressive mechanics, cell phenotypes, matrix organization and content, and protection of the articular cartilage surfaces. Controlled laboratory study. Eight skeletally mature ewes were implanted with the fiber-reinforced scaffold after total meniscectomy, and 2 additional animals had untreated total meniscectomies. Animals were sacrificed at 52 weeks, and the explants and articular surfaces were analyzed macroscopically. Explants were characterized by ultimate tensile testing, confined compression creep testing, and biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses. Cartilage damage was characterized using the Mankin score on histologic slides from both the femur and tibia. One sheep was removed from the study because of a torn extensor tendon; the remaining 7 explants remained fully intact and incorporated into the bone tunnels. All explants exhibited functional tensile loads, tensile stiffnesses, and compressive moduli. Fibrocartilagenous repair with both types 1 and 2 collagen were observed, with areas of matrix organization and biochemical content similar to native tissue. Narrowing in the body region was observed in 5 of 7 explants. Mankin scores showed less cartilage damage in the explant group (femoral condyle: 3.43 ± 0.79, tibial plateau: 3.50 ± 1.63) than in the meniscectomy group (femoral condyle: 8.50 ± 3.54, tibial plateau: 6.75 ± 2.47) and were comparable with Mankin scores at the previously reported 16- and 32-week time points. A resorbable fiber-reinforced meniscus scaffold supports formation of functional

  20. The distribution pattern of critically short telomeres in human osteoarthritic knees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Maria; Bendix, Laila; Bay-Jensen, Anne Christine

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Telomere shortening is associated with a number of common age-related diseases. A role of telomere shortening in osteoarthritis (OA) has been suggested, mainly based on the assessment of mean telomere length in ex vivo expanded chondrocytes. We addressed this role directly...... in vivo by using a newly developed assay, which measures specifically the load of ultra-short single telomeres (below 1,500 base pairs), that is, the telomere subpopulation believed to promote cellular senescence. METHODS: Samples were obtained from human OA knees at two distances from the central lesion...... site. Each sample was split into three: one was used for quantification of ultra-short single telomeres through the Universal single telomere length assay (STELA), one for histological Mankin grading of OA, and one for mean telomere length measurement through quantitative fluorescence in situ...

  1. Activation of Indian Hedgehog Promotes Chondrocyte Hypertrophy and Upregulation of MMP-13 in Human Osteoarthritic Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fangyuan; Zhou, Jingming; Wei, Xiaochun; Zhang, Juntao; Fleming, Braden C.; Terek, Richard; Pei, Ming; Chen, Qian; Liu, Tao; Wei, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Objective The objectives of this study were to 1) determine the correlation between osteoarthritis (OA) and Ihh expression, and 2) establish the effects of Ihh on expression of markers of chondrocyte hypertrophy and MMP-13 in human OA cartilage. Design OA cartilage and synovial fluid samples were obtained during total knee arthroplasty. Normal cartilage samples were obtained from intra-articular tumor resections, and normal synovial fluid samples were obtained from healthy volunteers and the contralateral uninjured knee of patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. OA was graded using the Mankin score. Expression of Ihh in synovial fluid was determined by western blot. Ihh, type X collagen and MMP-13 mRNA were determined by real time PCR. Protein expression of type X collagen and MMP-13 in cartilage samples were analyzed with immunohistochemistry. Chondrocyte size was measured using image analysis. Results Ihh expression was increased 2.6 fold in OA cartilage and 37% in OA synovial fluid when compared to normal control samples. Increased expression of Ihh was associated with the severity of OA and expression of markers of chondrocyte hypertrophy: type X collagen and MMP-13, and chondocyte size. Chondrocytes were more spherical with increasing severity of OA. There was a significant correlation between Mankin score and cell size (r2= 0.80) and Ihh intensity (r2 = 0.89). Exogenous Ihh induced a 6.8 fold increase of type X collagen and 2.8 fold increase of MMP-13 mRNA expression in cultured chondrocytes. Conversely, knockdown of Ihh by siRNA and Hh inhibitor Cyclopamine had the opposite effect. Conclusions Ihh expression correlates with OA progression and changes in chondrocyte morphology and gene expression consistent with chondrocyte hypertrophy and cartilage degradation seen in OA cartilage. Thus, Ihh may be a potential therapeutic target to prevent OA progression. PMID:22469853

  2. Inhibition of cathepsin K reduces cartilage degeneration in the anterior cruciate ligament transection rabbit and murine models of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, Tadashi; Zhuo, Ya; Wesolowski, Gregg A; Pickarski, Maureen; Duong, Le T

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the disease modifying effects of cathepsin K (CatK) inhibitor L-006235 compared to alendronate (ALN) in two preclinical models of osteoarthritis (OA). Skeletally mature rabbits underwent sham or anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT)-surgery and were treated with L-006235 (L-235, 10 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg, p.o., daily) or ALN (0.6 mg/kg, s.c., weekly) for 8-weeks. ACLT joint instability was also induced in CatK(-/-) versus wild type (wt) mice and treated for 16-weeks. Changes in cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone volume and osteophyte area were determined by histology and μ-CT. Collagen type I helical peptide (HP-I), a bone resorption marker and collagen type II C-telopeptide (CTX-II), a cartilage degradation marker were measured. L-235 (50 mg/kg) and ALN treatment resulted in significant chondroprotective effects, reducing CTX-II by 60% and the histological Mankin score for cartilage damage by 46% in the ACLT-rabbits. Both doses of L-235 were more potent than ALN in protecting against focal subchondral bone loss, and reducing HP-I by 70% compared to vehicle. L-235 (50 mg/kg) and ALN significantly reduced osteophyte formation in histomorphometric analysis by 55%. The Mankin score in ACLT-CatK(-/-) mice was ~2.5-fold lower than the ACLT-wt mice and was not different from sham-CatK(-/-). Osteophyte development was not different among the groups. Inhibition of CatK provides significant benefits in ACLT-model of OA, including: 1) protection of subchondral bone integrity, 2) protection against cartilage degradation and 3) reduced osteophytosis. Preclinical evidence supports the role of CatK as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of OA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tenascin-C Prevents Articular Cartilage Degeneration in Murine Osteoarthritis Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yuriyo; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Iino, Takahiro; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Sudo, Akihiro

    2018-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether intra-articular injections of tenascin-C (TNC) could prevent cartilage damage in murine models of osteoarthritis (OA). Design Fluorescently labeled TNC was injected into knee joints and its distribution was examined at 1 day, 4 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks postinjection. To investigate the effects of TNC on cartilage degeneration after surgery to knee joints, articular spaces were filled with 100 μg/mL (group I), 10 μg/mL (group II) of TNC solution, or control (group III). TNC solution of 10 μg/mL was additionally injected twice after 3 weeks (group IV) or weekly after 1 week, 2 weeks, and 3 weeks (group V). Joint tissues were histologically assessed using the Mankin score and the modified Chambers system at 2 to 8 weeks after surgery. Results Exogenous TNC was maintained in the cartilage and synovium for 1 week after administration. Histological scores in groups I and II were better than scores in group III at 4 and 6 weeks, but progressive cartilage damage was seen in all groups 8 weeks postoperatively. Sequential TNC injections (groups IV and V) showed significantly better Mankin score than single injection (group II) at 8 weeks. Conclusion TNC administered exogenously remained in the cartilage of knee joints for 1 week, and could decelerate articular cartilage degeneration in murine models of OA. We also showed that sequential administration of TNC was more effective than a single injection. TNC could be an important molecule for prevention of articular cartilage damage.

  4. Electromechanical Assessment of Human Knee Articular Cartilage with Compression-Induced Streaming Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Christoph; Ricklefs, Marcel; Willbold, Elmar; Hurschler, Christof; Abedian, Reza

    2016-01-01

    To assess the electromechanical properties of human knee articular cartilage with compression-induced streaming potentials for reliability among users and correlation with macroscopic and histological evaluation tools and sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content. Streaming potentials are induced in cartilage in response to loading when mobile positive ions in the interstitial fluid temporarily move away from negatively charged proteoglycans. Streaming potential integrals (SPIs) were measured with an indentation probe on femoral condyles of 10 human knee specimens according to a standardized location scheme. Interobserver reliability was measured using an interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The learning curves of 3 observers were evaluated by regression analysis. At each SPI measurement location the degradation level of the tissue was determined by means of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) score, Mankin score, and sGAG content. The computed ICC was 0.77 (0.70-0.83) indicating good to excellent linear agreement of SPI values among the 3 users. A significant positive linear correlation of the learning index values was observed for 2 of the 3 users. Statistically significant negative correlations between SPI and both ICRS and Mankin scores were observed (r = 0.502, P < 0.001, and r = 0.255, P = 0.02, respectively). No correlation was observed between SPI and sGAG content (r = 0.004, P = 0.973). SPI values may be used as a quantitative means of cartilage evaluation with sufficient reliability among users. Due to the significant learning curve, adequate training should be absolved before routine use of the technique.

  5. [Echocardiographic factors predictive of restoration and maintenance of sinus rhythm after reduction of atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khalfallah, A; Sanaa, I

    2007-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. While the arrhythmia was initially thought to be little more than a nuisance, it is now clear that AF has a significant negative impact on quality of life and a corresponding increase in both morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify Doppler echographic patterns that allow prediction of atrial fibrillation reduction and maintenance of sinus rhythm within 12 months. One hundred and thirty patients having permanent atrial fibrillation, recent (51) or chronic (79) are included in the study, excepting those with valvular heart disease or thyroid dysfunction. The mean age was 63.5 +/- 11.3 years. Both transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography was performed using a Philips SONOS 5500 Echograph, before cardioversion. Were studied: end diastolic and systolic left ventricular diameters, left ventricular ejectionnal fraction, left atrial area (LAA), left atrial diameter, left atrial appendage area and peak emptying velocities of the left atrial appendage (PeV). Sinus rhythm was re-established in 102 patients (44 having recent and 58 chronic atrial fibrillation). Sinus rhythm was maintained for 12 months in 79 patients. Within the echographic parameters studied, the left atrial area (LAA) and peak emptying velocities of left atrial appendage (PeV) before cardioversion were the best predictors of restoration of sinus rhythm. On monovariate analysis, SOG is significantly lower and PicV is significantly higher in patients whose sinus rhythm had been restored in comparison with those with permanent atrial fibrillation. (Mean SOG: 27.7 +/- 7.62 vs. 34 +/- 7,6 cm2, ppredict on mono and multivariate analysis (p=0.05, OR=0.5, IC=0.36 à 3.56), re-establishing of sinus rhythm whereas in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation, peak emptying velocity of left atrial appendage predict better re-establishing of sinus rhythm (p=0.04, OR=1.29, IC=0.12 à 4.23). The threshold values of LAA and Pe

  6. Lipid profiles and ischemic stroke risk: variations by sex within racial/ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezmu, Tefera; Schneider, Dona; Demissie, Kitaw; Lin, Yong; Giordano, Christine; Gizzi, Martin S

    2014-01-01

    Evidence implicates lipid abnormalities as important but modifiable risk factors for stroke. This study assesses whether hypercholesterolemia can be used to predict the risk for etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke between sexes within racial/ethnic groups. Data elements related to stroke risk, diagnosis, and outcomes were abstracted from the medical records of 3,290 acute stroke admissions between 2006 and 2010 at a regional stroke center. Sex comparison within racial/ethnic groups revealed that South Asian and Hispanic men had a higher proportion of ischemic stroke than women, while the inverse was true for Whites and African Americans (P=0.0014). All women, except South Asian women, had higher mean plasma total cholesterol and higher blood circulating low-density lipoprotein levels (≥100 mg/dL) than men at the time of their admissions. The incidence of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) was more common among women than men, except among Hispanics, where men tended to have higher incidences. A regression analysis that considered patients diagnosed with either LAA or small-artery occlusion etiologic subtype as the outcomes and high-density lipoproteins and triglycerides as predictors showed inconsistent associations between lipid profiles and the incidence of these subtypes between the sexes within racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that women stroke patients may be at increased risk for stroke etiologic subtype LAA than men. Although the higher prevalence of stroke risk factors examined in this study predicts the increase in the incidence of the disease, lack of knowledge/awareness and lack of affordable treatments for stroke risk factors among women and immigrants/non-US-born subpopulations may explain the observed associations.

  7. Lung ventilation-perfusion imbalance in pulmonary emphysema: assessment with automated V/Q quotient SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Koike, Hiroaki; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Tokuda, Osamu; Okada, Munemasa; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2010-05-01

    Tc-99m-Technegas-MAA single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-derived ventilation (V)/perfusion (Q) quotient SPECT was used to assess lung V-Q imbalance in patients with pulmonary emphysema. V/Q quotient SPECT and V/Q profile were automatically built in 38 patients with pulmonary emphysema and 12 controls, and V/Q distribution and V/Q profile parameters were compared. V/Q distribution on V/Q quotient SPECT was correlated with low attenuation areas (LAA) on density-mask computed tomography (CT). Parameters of V/Q profile such as the median, standard deviation (SD), kurtosis and skewness were proposed to objectively evaluate the severity of lung V-Q imbalance. In contrast to uniform V/Q distribution on V/Q quotient SPECT and a sharp peak with symmetrical V/Q distribution on V/Q profile in controls, lung areas showing heterogeneously high or low V/Q and flattened peaks with broadened V/Q distribution were frequently seen in patients with emphysema, including lung areas with only slight LAA. V/Q distribution was also often asymmetric regardless of symmetric LAA. All the proposed parameters of V/Q profile in entire lungs of patients with emphysema showed large variations compared with controls; SD and kurtosis were significantly different from controls (P emphysema. SD and kurtosis of V/Q profile can be adequate parameters to assess the severity of lung V-Q imbalance causing gas-exchange impairment in patients with emphysema.

  8. Lung ventilation-perfusion imbalance in pulmonary emphysema. Assessment with automated V/Q quotient SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Kawakami, Yasuhiko; Koike, Hiroaki; Iwanaga, Hideyuki; Tokuda, Osamu; Okada, Munemasa; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2010-01-01

    Tc-99m-Technegas-macro-aggregated albumin (MAA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-derived ventilation (V)/perfusion (Q) quotient SPECT was used to assess lung V-Q imbalance in patients with pulmonary emphysema. V/Q quotient SPECT and V/Q profile were automatically built in 38 patients with pulmonary emphysema and 12 controls, and V/Q distribution and V/Q profile parameters were compared. V/Q distribution on V/Q quotient SPECT was correlated with low attenuation areas (LAA) on density-mask computed tomography (CT). Parameters of V/Q profile such as the median, standard deviation (SD), kurtosis and skewness were proposed to objectively evaluate the severity of lung V-Q imbalance. In contrast to uniform V/Q distribution on V/Q quotient SPECT and a sharp peak with symmetrical V/Q distribution on V/Q profile in controls, lung areas showing heterogeneously high or low V/Q and flattened peaks with broadened V/Q distribution were frequently seen in patients with emphysema, including lung areas with only slight LAA. V/Q distribution was also often asymmetric regardless of symmetric LAA. All the proposed parameters of V/Q profile in entire lungs of patients with emphysema showed large variations compared with controls; SD and kurtosis were significantly different from controls (P<0.0001 and P<0.001, respectively), and a significant correlation was found between SD and A-aDO2 (P<0.0001). V/Q quotient SPECT appears to be more sensitive to detect emphysematous lungs compared with morphologic CT in patients with emphysema. SD and kurtosis of V/Q profile can be adequate parameters to assess the severity of lung V-Q imbalance causing gas-exchange impairment in patients with emphysema. (author)

  9. Targeting Toll-like receptor 7/8 enhances uptake of apoptotic leukemic cells by monocyte-derived dendritic cells but interferes with subsequent cytokine-induced maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Willemijn; van Luijn, Marvin M; Ruben, Jurjen M; Westers, Theresia M; Bontkes, Hetty J; Ossenkoppele, Gert J; de Gruijl, Tanja D; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccination with dendritic cells (DC) is an emerging investigational therapy for eradication of minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia. Various strategies are being explored in manufacturing DC vaccines ex vivo, e.g., monocyte-derived DC (MoDC) loaded with leukemia-associated antigens (LAA). However, the optimal source of LAA and the choice of DC-activating stimuli are still not well defined. Here, loading with leukemic cell preparations (harboring both unknown and known LAA) was explored in combination with a DC maturation-inducing cytokine cocktail (CC; IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and PGE(2)) and Toll-like receptor ligands (TLR-L) to optimize uptake. Since heat shock induced apoptotic blasts were more efficiently taken up than lysates, we focused on uptake of apoptotic leukemic cells. Uptake of apoptotic blast was further enhanced by the TLR7/8-L R848 (20-30%); in contrast, CC-induced maturation inhibited uptake. CC, and to a lesser extent R848, enhanced the ability of MoDC to migrate and stimulate T cells. Furthermore, class II-associated invariant chain peptide expression was down-modulated after R848- or CC-induced maturation, indicating enhanced processing and presentation of antigenic peptides. To improve both uptake and maturation, leukemic cells and MoDC were co-incubated with R848 for 24 h followed by addition of CC. However, this approach interfered with CC-mediated MoDC maturation as indicated by diminished migratory and T cell stimulatory capacity, and the absence of IL-12 production. Taken together, our data demonstrate that even though R848 improved uptake of apoptotic leukemic cells, the sequential use of R848 and CC is counter-indicated due to its adverse effects on MoDC maturation.

  10. CT quantification of lung and airways in normal Korean subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Song Soo; Lee, Jeong Eun; Shin, Hye Soo; Jin, Gong Yong; Li, Yuan Zhe

    2017-01-01

    To measure and compare the quantitative parameters of the lungs and airways in Korean never-smokers and current or former smokers (“ever-smokers”). Never-smokers (n = 119) and ever-smokers (n = 45) who had normal spirometry and visually normal chest computed tomography (CT) results were retrospectively enrolled in this study. For quantitative CT analyses, the low attenuation area (LAA) of LAA_I_-_9_5_0, LAA_E_-_8_5_6, CT attenuation value at the 15th percentile, mean lung attenuation (MLA), bronchial wall thickness of inner perimeter of a 10 mm diameter airway (Pi10), total lung capacity (TLC_C_T), and functional residual capacity (FRC_C_T) were calculated based on inspiratory and expiratory CT images. To compare the results between groups according to age, sex, and smoking history, independent t test, one way ANOVA, correlation test, and simple and multiple regression analyses were performed. The values of attenuation parameters and volume on inspiratory and expiratory quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were significantly different between males and females (p < 0.001). The MLA and the 15th percentile value on inspiratory QCT were significantly lower in the ever-smoker group than in the never-smoker group (p < 0.05). On expiratory QCT, all lung attenuation parameters were significantly different according to the age range (p < 0.05). Pi10 in ever-smokers was significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (r = −0.455, p = 0.003). In simple and multivariate regression analyses, TLC_C_T, FRC_C_T, and age showed significant associations with lung attenuation (p < 0.05), and only TLC_C_T was significantly associated with inspiratory Pi10. In Korean subjects with normal spirometry and visually normal chest CT, there may be significant differences in QCT parameters according to sex, age, and smoking history

  11. CT quantification of lung and airways in normal Korean subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Song Soo; Lee, Jeong Eun; Shin, Hye Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Gong Yong; Li, Yuan Zhe [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    To measure and compare the quantitative parameters of the lungs and airways in Korean never-smokers and current or former smokers (“ever-smokers”). Never-smokers (n = 119) and ever-smokers (n = 45) who had normal spirometry and visually normal chest computed tomography (CT) results were retrospectively enrolled in this study. For quantitative CT analyses, the low attenuation area (LAA) of LAA{sub I-950}, LAA{sub E-856}, CT attenuation value at the 15th percentile, mean lung attenuation (MLA), bronchial wall thickness of inner perimeter of a 10 mm diameter airway (Pi10), total lung capacity (TLC{sub CT}), and functional residual capacity (FRC{sub CT}) were calculated based on inspiratory and expiratory CT images. To compare the results between groups according to age, sex, and smoking history, independent t test, one way ANOVA, correlation test, and simple and multiple regression analyses were performed. The values of attenuation parameters and volume on inspiratory and expiratory quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were significantly different between males and females (p < 0.001). The MLA and the 15th percentile value on inspiratory QCT were significantly lower in the ever-smoker group than in the never-smoker group (p < 0.05). On expiratory QCT, all lung attenuation parameters were significantly different according to the age range (p < 0.05). Pi10 in ever-smokers was significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (r = −0.455, p = 0.003). In simple and multivariate regression analyses, TLC{sub CT}, FRC{sub CT}, and age showed significant associations with lung attenuation (p < 0.05), and only TLC{sub CT} was significantly associated with inspiratory Pi10. In Korean subjects with normal spirometry and visually normal chest CT, there may be significant differences in QCT parameters according to sex, age, and smoking history.

  12. In Situ Observations of Snow Metamorphosis Acceleration Induced by Dust and Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A. M.; Flanner, M.

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies demonstrate the dependence of shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance on snow specific surface area (SSA) and others examine the direct darkening effect dust and black carbon (BC) deposition has on snow and ice-covered surfaces. The extent to which these light absorbing aerosols (LAAs) accelerate snow metamorphosis, however, is challenging to assess in situ as measurement techniques easily disturb snowpack. Here, we use two Near-Infrared Emitting Reflectance Domes (NERDs) to measure 1300 and 1550nm bidirectional reflectance factors (BRFs) of natural snow and experimental plots with added dust and BC. We obtain NERD measurements and subsequently collect and transport snow samples to the nearby U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab for micro computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. Snow 1300 (1550) nm BRFs evolve from 0.6 (0.15) in fresh snow to 0.2 (0.03) after metamorphosis. Hourly-scale time evolving snow surface BRFs and SSA estimates from micro-CT reveal more rapid SWIR darkening and snow metamorphosis in contaminated versus natural plots. Cloudiness and high wind speeds can completely obscure these results if LAAs mobilize before absorbing enough radiant energy. These findings verify experimentally that dust and BC deposition can accelerate snow metamorphosis and enhance snow albedo feedback in sunny, calm weather conditions. Although quantifying the enhancement of snow albedo feedback induced by LAAs requires further surface temperature, solar irradiance, and impurity concentration measurements, this study provides experimental verification of positive feedback occurring where dust and BC accelerate snow metamorphosis.

  13. Leukemia Associated Antigens: Their Dual Role as Biomarkers and Immunotherapeutic Targets for Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schmitt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukemia associated antigens (LAAs are being increasingly identified by methods such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL cloning, serological analysis of recombinant cDNA expression libraries (SEREX and mass spectrometry (MS. In additional, large scale screening techniques such as microarray, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE have expanded our understanding of the role that tumor antigens play in the biological processes which are perturbed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML. It has become increasingly apparent that these antigens play a dual role, not only as targets for immunotherapy, but also as biomarkers of disease state, stage, response to treatment and survival. We need biomarkers to enable the identification of the patients who are most likely to benefit from specific treatments (conventional and/or novel and to help clinicians and scientists improve clinical end points and treatment design. Here we describe the LAAs identified in AML, to date, which have already been shown to play a dual role as biomarkers of AML disease.Abbreviations: AML: acute myeloid leukemia; APL: acute promyelocytic leukemia; ATRA: all-trans-retinoic acid; B-CLL: B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia; CT: cancer-testis; CTL: cytotoxic T-lymphocyte; FAB: French-American-British; HI: hypusination inhibitors; HSP: heat shock protein; ITD: internal tandem duplication; LAA: leukemia associated antigen; MDS: myelodysplastic syndrome; MGEA6: meningioma antigen 6; MPD: myeloproliferative disease; MS: mass spectrometry; NK: natural killer; PRAME: preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma; PRTN3: proteinase 3; RAGE-1: renal antigen 1; RHAMM: receptor for hyaluronic acid-mediated motility; RQ-PCR: real-time PCR; SAGE: serial analysis of gene expression; SCT: stem cell transplant; SEREX: serological analysis of recombinant cDNA expression libraries; SNPs: single nucleotide polymorphisms; UPD

  14. Air ambulance tasking: mechanism of injury, telephone interrogation or ambulance crew assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Ian; Chalk, Graham; Davies, Gareth Edward; Weaver, Anne Elizabeth; Lockey, David John

    2015-10-01

    The identification of serious injury is critical to the tasking of air ambulances. London's Air Ambulance (LAA) is dispatched by a flight paramedic based on mechanism of injury (MOI), paramedical interrogation of caller (INT) or land ambulance crew request (REQ).This study aimed to demonstrate which of the dispatch methods was most effective (in accuracy and time) in identifying patients with serious injury. A retrospective review of 3 years of data (to December 2010) was undertaken. Appropriate dispatch was defined as the requirement for LAA to escort the patient to hospital or for resuscitation on-scene. Inaccurate dispatch was where LAA was cancelled or left the patient in the care of the land ambulance crew. The χ(2) test was used to calculate p values; with significance adjusted to account for multiple testing. There were 2203 helicopter activations analysed: MOI 18.9% (n=417), INT 62.4% (n=1375) and REQ 18.7% (n=411). Appropriate dispatch rates were MOI 58.7% (245/417), INT 69.7% (959/1375) and REQ 72.2% (297/411). INT and REQ were both significantly more accurate than MOI (pinterrogation of the caller by a flight paramedic is as accurate as ground ambulance crew requests, and both are significantly better than MOI in identifying serious injury. Overtriage remains an issue with all methods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Global DNA methylation of ischemic stroke subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Soriano-Tárraga

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke (IS, a heterogeneous multifactorial disorder, is among the leading causes of mortality and long-term disability in the western world. Epidemiological data provides evidence for a genetic component to the disease, but its epigenetic involvement is still largely unknown. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, change over time and may be associated with aging processes and with modulation of the risk of various pathologies, such as cardiovascular disease and stroke. We analyzed 2 independent cohorts of IS patients. Global DNA methylation was measured by luminometric methylation assay (LUMA of DNA blood samples. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the methylation differences between the 3 most common IS subtypes, large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA, small-artery disease (SAD, and cardio-aortic embolism (CE. A total of 485 IS patients from 2 independent hospital cohorts (n = 281 and n = 204 were included, distributed across 3 IS subtypes: LAA (78/281, 59/204, SAD (97/281, 53/204, and CE (106/281, 89/204. In univariate analyses, no statistical differences in LUMA levels were observed between the 3 etiologies in either cohort. Multivariate analysis, adjusted by age, sex, hyperlipidemia, and smoking habit, confirmed the lack of differences in methylation levels between the analyzed IS subtypes in both cohorts. Despite differences in pathogenesis, our results showed no global methylation differences between LAA, SAD, and CE subtypes of IS. Further work is required to establish whether the epigenetic mechanism of methylation might play a role in this complex disease.

  16. Climate Change and Adaptation Planning on the Los Angeles Aqueduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. B.; Bales, R. C.; Costa-Cabral, M. C.; Chen, L.; Maurer, E. P.; Miller, N. L.; Mills, W. B.

    2009-12-01

    This study provides an assessment of the potential impacts of climate change on the Eastern Sierra Nevada snowpack and snowmelt timing, using a combination of empirical (i.e., data-based) models, and computer simulation models forced by GCM-projected 21st century climatology (IPCC 2007 AR4 projections). Precipitation from the Eastern Sierra Nevada is one of the main water sources for Los Angeles' more than 4 million people - a source whose future availability is critical to the city's growing population and large economy. Precipitation in the region falls mostly in winter and is stored in the large natural reservoir that is the snowpack. Meltwater from the Eastern Sierra is delivered to the city by the 340-mile long Los Angeles Aqueducts. The analysis is focused on the nature of the impact to the LAA water supplies over the 21st century due to potential climate change, including volume of precipitation, the mix of snowfall and rainfall, shifts in the timing of runoff, interannual variability and multi-year droughts. These impacts further affect the adequacy of seasonal and annual carryover water storage, and potentially water treatment. Most of the snow in the 10,000 km^2 Mono-Owens basins that feed the LAA occurs in a relatively narrow, 10-20 km wide, high-elevation band on the steep slopes of 20 smaller basins whose streams drain into the Owens River and thence LAA. Extending over 240 km in the north-south direction, these basins present special challenges for estimating snowpack amounts and downscaling climate-model data. In addition, there are few meteorological stations and snow measurements in the snow-producing parts of the basins to drive physically based hydrologic modeling.

  17. Efficacy and safety of left atrial appendage closure with WATCHMAN in patients with or without contraindication to oral anticoagulation: 1-Year follow-up outcome data of the EWOLUTION trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Lucas V; Ince, Hueseyin; Kische, Stephan; Pokushalov, Evgeny; Schmitz, Thomas; Schmidt, Boris; Gori, Tommaso; Meincke, Felix; Protopopov, Alexey Vladimir; Betts, Timothy; Foley, David; Sievert, Horst; Mazzone, Patrizio; De Potter, Tom; Vireca, Elisa; Stein, Kenneth; Bergmann, Martin W

    2017-09-01

    Left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion with WATCHMAN has emerged as viable alternative to vitamin K antagonists in randomized controlled trials. EWOLUTION was designed to provide data in routine practice from a prospective multicenter registry. A total of 1025 patients scheduled for a WATCHMAN implant were prospectively and sequentially enrolled at 47 centers. Indication for LAA closure was based on European Society of Cardiology guidelines. Follow-up and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) were performed per local practice. The baseline CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score was 4.5 ± 1.6; the mean age was 73.4 ± 9 years; previous transient ischemic attack/ischemic stroke was present in 312 (30.5%), 155 (15.1%) had previous hemorrhagic stroke, and 320 (31.3%) had a history of major bleeding; and 750 (73%) were deemed unsuitable for oral anticoagulation therapy. WATCHMAN implant succeeded in 1005 (98.5%) of patients, without leaks >5 mm in 1002 (99.7%) with at least 1 TEE follow-up in 875 patients (87%). Antiplatelet therapy was used in 784 (83%), while vitamin K antagonists were used in only 75 (8%). At 1 year, mortality was 98 (9.8%), reflecting the advanced age and comorbidities in this population. Device thrombus was observed in 28 patients at routine TEE (3.7%) and was not correlated with the drug regimen (P = .14). Ischemic stroke rate was 1.1% (relative risk 84% vs estimated historical data); the major bleeding rate was 2.6% and was predominantly (2.3%) nonprocedure/device related. LAA closure with the WATCHMAN device has a high implant and sealing success. This method of stroke risk reduction appears to be safe and effective with an ischemic stroke rate as low as 1.1%, even though 73% of patients had a contraindication to and were not using oral anticoagulation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ionospheric threats to the integrity of airborne GPS users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta-Barua, Seebany

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has both revolutionized and entwined the worlds of aviation and atmospheric science. As the largest and most unpredictable source of GPS positioning error, the ionospheric layer of the atmosphere, if left unchecked, can endanger the safety, or "integrity," of the single frequency airborne user. An augmentation system is a differential-GPS-based navigation system that provides integrity through independent ionospheric monitoring by reference stations. However, the monitor stations are not in general colocated with the user's GPS receiver. The augmentation system must protect users from possible ionosphere density variations occurring between its measurements and the user's. This study analyzes observations from ionospherically active periods to identify what types of ionospheric disturbances may cause threats to user safety if left unmitigated. This work identifies when such disturbances may occur using a geomagnetic measure of activity and then considers two disturbances as case studies. The first case study indicates the need for a non-trivial threat model for the Federal Aviation Administration's Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) that was not known prior to the work. The second case study uses ground- and space-based data to model an ionospheric disturbance of interest to the Federal Aviation Administration's Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). This work is a step in the justification for, and possible future refinement of, one of the WAAS integrity algorithms. For both WAAS and LAAS, integrity threats are basically caused by events that may be occurring but are unobservable. Prior to the data available in this solar cycle, events of such magnitude were not known to be possible. This work serves as evidence that the ionospheric threat models developed for WARS and LAAS are warranted and that they are sufficiently conservative to maintain user integrity even under extreme ionospheric behavior.

  19. Assessment of pulmonary emphysema on CT teleradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Katashi; Kato, Koji; Mitani, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    The present study assessed the current wave of using CT for the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema using teleradiology. Thirty patients were examined. CT images were transmitted by Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) to an image viewer and displayed in 4-image and 1-image arrays for reading. Pulmonary emphysema was found in 7 of the 30 patients. On both displays, the same diagnosis was obtained in 5 cases. In the remaining 2 cases, the low attenuation areas (LAAs) of mild centrilobular emphysema could be recognized only on the 1-image display. The diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema can be made by CT examination using teleradiology even in cases with mild lesions. (author)

  20. Algorithm of pulmonary emphysema extraction using low dose thoracic 3D CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, S.; Kubo, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Omatsu, H.; Tominaga, K.; Eguchi, K.; Moriyama, N.

    2006-03-01

    Recently, due to aging and smoking, emphysema patients are increasing. The restoration of alveolus which was destroyed by emphysema is not possible, thus early detection of emphysema is desired. We describe a quantitative algorithm for extracting emphysematous lesions and quantitatively evaluate their distribution patterns using low dose thoracic 3-D CT images. The algorithm identified lung anatomies, and extracted low attenuation area (LAA) as emphysematous lesion candidates. Applying the algorithm to 100 thoracic 3-D CT images and then by follow-up 3-D CT images, we demonstrate its potential effectiveness to assist radiologists and physicians to quantitatively evaluate the emphysematous lesions distribution and their evolution in time interval changes.

  1. Application of the homology method for quantification of low-attenuation lung region in patients with and without COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishio M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mizuho Nishio,1 Kazuaki Nakane,2 Yutaka Tanaka3 1Clinical PET Center, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Hyogo, Japan; 2Department of Molecular Pathology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine and Health Science, Osaka, Japan; 3Department of Radiology, Chibune General Hospital, Osaka, Japan Background: Homology is a mathematical concept that can be used to quantify degree of contact. Recently, image processing with the homology method has been proposed. In this study, we used the homology method and computed tomography images to quantify emphysema.Methods: This study included 112 patients who had undergone computed tomography and pulmonary function test. Low-attenuation lung regions were evaluated by the homology method, and homology-based emphysema quantification (b0, b1, nb0, nb1, and R was performed. For comparison, the percentage of low-attenuation lung area (LAA% was also obtained. Relationships between emphysema quantification and pulmonary function test results were evaluated by Pearson’s correlation coefficients. In addition to the correlation, the patients were divided into the following three groups based on guidelines of the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: Group A, nonsmokers; Group B, smokers without COPD, mild COPD, and moderate COPD; Group C, severe COPD and very severe COPD. The homology-based emphysema quantification and LAA% were compared among these groups.Results: For forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity, the correlation coefficients were as follows: LAA%, -0.603; b0, -0.460; b1, -0.500; nb0, -0.449; nb1, -0.524; and R, -0.574. For forced expiratory volume in 1 second, the coefficients were as follows: LAA%, -0.461; b0, -0.173; b1, -0.314; nb0, -0.191; nb1, -0.329; and R, -0.409. Between Groups A and B, difference in nb0 was significant (P-value = 0.00858, and those in the other types of quantification were not significant.Conclusion: Feasibility of the

  2. Algorithm of pulmonary emphysema extraction using thoracic 3D CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, Shinsuke; Kubo, Mitsuru; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Nakano, Yasutaka; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Tominaga, Keigo; Eguchi, Kenji; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2007-03-01

    Recently, due to aging and smoking, emphysema patients are increasing. The restoration of alveolus which was destroyed by emphysema is not possible, thus early detection of emphysema is desired. We describe a quantitative algorithm for extracting emphysematous lesions and quantitatively evaluate their distribution patterns using low dose thoracic 3-D CT images. The algorithm identified lung anatomies, and extracted low attenuation area (LAA) as emphysematous lesion candidates. Applying the algorithm to thoracic 3-D CT images and then by follow-up 3-D CT images, we demonstrate its potential effectiveness to assist radiologists and physicians to quantitatively evaluate the emphysematous lesions distribution and their evolution in time interval changes.

  3. Optimal Sizing of a Lithium Battery Energy Storage System for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulout, Jeremy; Jammes, Bruno; Alonso, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a system analysis focused on finding the optimal operating conditions (nominal capacity, cycle depth, current rate, state of charge level) of a lithium battery energy storage system. The purpose of this work is to minimize the cost of the storage system in a renewable DC...... microgrid. Thus, main stress factors influencing both battery lifetime (calendar and cycling) and performances are described and modelled. Power and energy requirements are also discussed through a probabilistic analysis on some years of real data from the ADREAM photovoltaic building of the LAAS...

  4. Numerical tsunami hazard assessment of the submarine volcano Kick 'em Jenny in high resolution are

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondin, Frédéric; Dorville, Jean-Francois Marc; Robertson, Richard E. A.

    2016-04-01

    Landslide-generated tsunami are infrequent phenomena that can be potentially highly hazardous for population located in the near-field domain of the source. The Lesser Antilles volcanic arc is a curved 800 km chain of volcanic islands. At least 53 flank collapse episodes have been recognized along the arc. Several of these collapses have been associated with underwater voluminous deposits (volume > 1 km3). Due to their momentum these events were likely capable of generating regional tsunami. However no clear field evidence of tsunami associated with these voluminous events have been reported but the occurrence of such an episode nowadays would certainly have catastrophic consequences. Kick 'em Jenny (KeJ) is the only active submarine volcano of the Lesser Antilles Arc (LAA), with a current edifice volume estimated to 1.5 km3. It is the southernmost edifice of the LAA with recognized associated volcanic landslide deposits. The volcano appears to have undergone three episodes of flank failure. Numerical simulations of one of these episodes associated with a collapse volume of ca. 4.4 km3 and considering a single pulse collapse revealed that this episode would have produced a regional tsunami with amplitude of 30 m. In the present study we applied a detailed hazard assessment on KeJ submarine volcano (KeJ) form its collapse to its waves impact on high resolution coastal area of selected island of the LAA in order to highlight needs to improve alert system and risk mitigation. We present the assessment process of tsunami hazard related to shoreline surface elevation (i.e. run-up) and flood dynamic (i.e. duration, height, speed...) at the coast of LAA island in the case of a potential flank collapse scenario at KeJ. After quantification of potential initial volumes of collapse material using relative slope instability analysis (RSIA, VolcanoFit 2.0 & SSAP 4.5) based on seven geomechanical models, the tsunami source have been simulate by St-Venant equations-based code

  5. LTE/Wi-Fi Coexistence in 5 GHz ISM Spectrum: Issues, Solutions and Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abinader, Fuad; A. de Sousa Jr., Vicente; Choudhurry, Sayantan

    2018-01-01

    solutions is the aggregation of ISM unlicensed spectrum to licensed bands, using wireless networks defined by IEEE and 3GPP. While Wi-Fi networks are aggregated to LTE small cells via LTE/WLAN Aggregation (LWA), in proposals like LTE-U and LAA-LTE, the LTE air interface itself is used for transmission...... on the unlicensed band. Wi-Fi technology is widespread and also operates in the 5 GHz ISM spectrum bands, which may bring performance issues due to the coexistence of both technologies in the same spectrum band. This work is dedicated to the study of coexistence between LTE and Wi-Fi access systems operating in 5...

  6. Glycomacropeptide in children with phenylketonuria: does its phenylalanine content affect blood phenylalanine control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, A; Evans, S; Chahal, S; Santra, S; MacDonald, A

    2017-08-01

    In phenylketonuria (PKU), there are no data available for children with respect to evaluating casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) as an alternative to phenylalanine-free protein substitutes [Phe-free L-amino acid (AA)]. CGMP contains a residual amount of phenylalanine, which may alter blood phenylalanine control. In a prospective 6-month pilot study, we investigated the effect on blood phenylalanine control of CGMP-amino acid (CGMP-AA) protein substitute in 22 PKU subjects (13 boys, nine girls), median age (range) 11 years (6-16 years). Twelve received CGMP-AA and nine received Phe-free L-AA, (1 CGMP-AA withdrawal). Subjects partially or wholly replaced Phe-free L-AA with CGMP-AA. If blood phenylalanine exceeded the target range, the CGMP-AA dose was reduced and replaced with Phe-free L-amino acids. The control group remained on Phe-free L-AAs. Phenylalanine, tyrosine and Phe : Tyr ratio concentrations were compared with the results for the previous year. In the CGMP-AA group, there was a significant increase in blood phenylalanine concentrations (pre-study, 275 μmol L -1 ; CGMP-AA, 317 μmol L -1 ; P = 0.02), a decrease in tyrosine concentrations (pre-study, 50 μmol L -1 ; CGMP-AA, 40 μmol L -1 ; P = 0.03) and an increase in Phe : Tyr ratios (pre-study, Phe : Tyr 4.9:1; CGMP-AA, Phe : Tyr 8:1; P = 0.02). In the control group there was a non-significant fall in phenylalanine concentrations (pre-study 325μmol/L: study 280μmol/L [p = 0.9], and no significant changes for tyrosine or phe/tyr ratios [p = 0.9]. Children taking the CGMP-AA found it more acceptable to L-AA. Blood phenylalanine control declined with CGMP-AA but, by titrating the dose of CGMP-AA, blood phenylalanine control remained within target range. The additional intake of phenylalanine may have contributed to the change in blood phenylalanine concentration. CGMP-AA use requires careful monitoring in children. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. High sensitivity MOSFET-based neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragopoulou, M.; Konstantakos, V.; Zamani, M.; Siskos, S.; Laopoulos, T.; Sarrabayrouse, G.

    2010-01-01

    A new dosemeter based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor sensitive to both neutrons and gamma radiation was manufactured at LAAS-CNRS Laboratory, Toulouse, France. In order to be used for neutron dosimetry, a thin film of lithium fluoride was deposited on the surface of the gate of the device. The characteristics of the dosemeter, such as the dependence of its response to neutron dose and dose rate, were investigated. The studied dosemeter was very sensitive to gamma rays compared to other dosemeters proposed in the literature. Its response in thermal neutrons was found to be much higher than in fast neutrons and gamma rays.

  8. Leslie Marmon Silko’s “Lullaby”: The Power of Resistance and Healing Force to Cultural and Spiritual Genocide

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios Herrero, Olga

    2000-01-01

    [ES] Este ensayo muestra como el relato “Lullaby” de Leslie M. Silko despliega varios niveles de resistencia en defensa de la historia, tradición oral y mujeres nativoamericanas. La estructura circular narrativa de la historia es utilizada por Silko para reafirmar y recuperar la tradición oral de los Lagunas nativoamericanos. Y, al alegir a Ayah como el personal principal, una esposa y madre luchadora, la autora reclama laa tradición matriarcal de la comunidad nativoamericana en contraposició...

  9. Geometric and numerical foundations of movements

    CERN Document Server

    Mansard, Nicolas; Lasserre, Jean-Bernard

    2017-01-01

    This book aims at gathering roboticists, control theorists, neuroscientists, and mathematicians, in order to promote a multidisciplinary research on movement analysis. It follows the workshop “ Geometric and Numerical Foundations of Movements ” held at LAAS-CNRS in Toulouse in November 2015[1]. Its objective is to lay the foundations for a mutual understanding that is essential for synergetic development in motion research. In particular, the book promotes applications to robotics --and control in general-- of new optimization techniques based on recent results from real algebraic geometry.

  10. Hemostasis of Left Atrial Appendage Bleed With Lariat Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amena Hussain, MD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available New devices designed for minimally invasive closure of the left atrial appendage (LAA may be a viable alternative for patients in whom anticoagulation is considered high risk. The Lariat (Sentreheart, Redwood City, CA, which is currently FDA-approved for percutaneous closure of tissue, requires both trans-septal puncture and epicardial access. However it requires no anticoagulation after the procedure. Here we describe a case of effusion and tamponade during a Lariat procedure with successful completion of the case and resolution of the effusion.

  11. Classification of the height and flexibility of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Mette Kjærgaard; Friis, Rikke; Michaelsen, Maria Skjoldahl; Jakobsen, Patrick Abildgaard; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2012-02-17

    The risk of developing injuries during standing work may vary between persons with different foot types. High arched and low arched feet, as well as rigid and flexible feet, are considered to have different injury profiles, while those with normal arches may sustain fewer injuries. However, the cut-off values for maximum values (subtalar position during weight-bearing) and range of motion (ROM) values (difference between subtalar neutral and subtalar resting position in a weight-bearing condition) for the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify cut-off values for maximum values and ROM of the MLA of the foot during static tests and to identify factors influencing foot posture. The participants consisted of 254 volunteers from Central and Northern Denmark (198 m/56 f; age 39.0 ± 11.7 years; BMI 27.3 ± 4.7 kg/m2). Navicular height (NH), longitudinal arch angle (LAA) and Feiss line (FL) were measured for either the left or the right foot in a subtalar neutral position and subtalar resting position. Maximum values and ROM were calculated for each test. The 95% and 68% prediction intervals were used as cut-off limits. Multiple regression analysis was used to detect influencing factors on foot posture. The 68% cut-off values for maximum MLA values and MLA ROM for NH were 3.6 to 5.5 cm and 0.6 to 1.8 cm, respectively, without taking into account the influence of other variables. Normal maximum LAA values were between 131 and 152° and normal LAA ROM was between -1 and 13°. Normal maximum FL values were between -2.6 and -1.2 cm and normal FL ROM was between -0.1 and 0.9 cm. Results from the multivariate linear regression revealed an association between foot size with FL, LAA, and navicular drop. The cut-off values presented in this study can be used to categorize people performing standing work into groups of different foot arch types. The results of this study are important for investigating a possible link between

  12. Classification of the height and flexibility of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Mette

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of developing injuries during standing work may vary between persons with different foot types. High arched and low arched feet, as well as rigid and flexible feet, are considered to have different injury profiles, while those with normal arches may sustain fewer injuries. However, the cut-off values for maximum values (subtalar position during weight-bearing and range of motion (ROM values (difference between subtalar neutral and subtalar resting position in a weight-bearing condition for the medial longitudinal arch (MLA are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify cut-off values for maximum values and ROM of the MLA of the foot during static tests and to identify factors influencing foot posture. Methods The participants consisted of 254 volunteers from Central and Northern Denmark (198 m/56 f; age 39.0 ± 11.7 years; BMI 27.3 ± 4.7 kg/m2. Navicular height (NH, longitudinal arch angle (LAA and Feiss line (FL were measured for either the left or the right foot in a subtalar neutral position and subtalar resting position. Maximum values and ROM were calculated for each test. The 95% and 68% prediction intervals were used as cut-off limits. Multiple regression analysis was used to detect influencing factors on foot posture. Results The 68% cut-off values for maximum MLA values and MLA ROM for NH were 3.6 to 5.5 cm and 0.6 to 1.8 cm, respectively, without taking into account the influence of other variables. Normal maximum LAA values were between 131 and 152° and normal LAA ROM was between -1 and 13°. Normal maximum FL values were between -2.6 and -1.2 cm and normal FL ROM was between -0.1 and 0.9 cm. Results from the multivariate linear regression revealed an association between foot size with FL, LAA, and navicular drop. Conclusions The cut-off values presented in this study can be used to categorize people performing standing work into groups of different foot arch types. The results of this

  13. Relationships between diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (D{sub L}CO), and quantitative computed tomography measurements and visual assessment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nambu, Atsushi, E-mail: nambu-a@gray.plala.or.jp [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO 80206 (United States); Department of Radiology, Teikyo University Mizonokuchi Hospital (Japan); Zach, Jordan, E-mail: ZachJ@NJHealth.org [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO 80206 (United States); Schroeder, Joyce, E-mail: Joyce.schroeder@stanfordalumni.org [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO 80206 (United States); Jin, Gong Yong, E-mail: gyjin@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO 80206 (United States); Department of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Song Soo, E-mail: haneul88@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO 80206 (United States); Department of Radiology, Chungnam National Hospital, Chungnam National University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yu-IL, E-mail: kyionly@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Schnell, Christina, E-mail: SchnellC@NJHealth.org [Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO (United States); Bowler, Russell, E-mail: BowlerR@NJHealth.org [Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health (United States); Lynch, David A., E-mail: LynchD@NJHealth.org [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO 80206 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Quantitative CT measurements significantly correlated with D{sub L}CO/V{sub A}. • 15{sup th} percentile HU had the strongest correlation with D{sub L}CO/V{sub A}. • Visual scoring of emphysema had independent significant correlations with D{sub L}CO/V{sub A}. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the relationships between D{sub L}CO, and Quantitative CT (QCT) measurements and visual assessment of pulmonary emphysema and to test the relative roles of visual and quantitative assessment of emphysema. Materials and methods: The subjects included 199 current and former cigarette smokers from the COPDGene cohort who underwent inspiratory and expiratory CT and also had diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide corrected for alveolar volume (D{sub L}CO/V{sub A}). Quantitative CT measurements included % low attenuation areas (%LAA−950ins = voxels ≤−950 Hounsfield unit (HU), % LAA{sub −910ins}, and % LAA{sub −856ins}), mean CT attenuation and 15th percentile HU value on inspiratory CT, and %LAA{sub −856exp} (voxels ≤−856 HU on expiratory CT). The extent of emphysema was visually assessed using a 5-point grading system. Univariate and multiple variable linear regression analyses were employed to evaluate the correlations between D{sub L}CO/V{sub A} and QCT parameters and visual extent of emphysema. Results: The D{sub L}CO/V{sub A} correlated most strongly with 15th percentile HU (R{sup 2} = 0.440, p < 0.001) closely followed by % LAA{sub −950ins} (R{sup 2} = 0.417, p < 0.001) and visual extent of emphysema (R{sup 2} = 0.411, p < 0.001). Multiple variable analysis showed that visual extent of emphysema and 15th percentile HU were independent significant predictors of D{sub L}CO/V{sub A} at an R{sup 2} of 0.599. Conclusions: 15th percentile HU seems the best parameter to represent the respiratory condition of COPD. Visual and Quantitative CT assessment of emphysema provide complementary information to QCT analysis.

  14. CT based 3D printing is superior to transesophageal echocardiography for pre-procedure planning in left atrial appendage device closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasare, Edinrin; Mainigi, Sumeet K; Morris, D Lynn; Slipczuk, Leandro; Goykhman, Igor; Friend, Evan; Ziccardi, Mary Rodriguez; Pressman, Gregg S

    2018-05-01

    Accurate assessment of the left atrial appendage (LAA) is important for pre-procedure planning when utilizing device closure for stroke reduction. Sizing is traditionally done with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) but this is not always precise. Three-dimensional (3D) printing of the LAA may be more accurate. 24 patients underwent Watchman device (WD) implantation (71 ± 11 years, 42% female). All had complete 2-dimensional TEE. Fourteen also had cardiac computed tomography (CCT) with 3D printing to produce a latex model of the LAA for pre-procedure planning. Device implantation was unsuccessful in 2 cases (one with and one without a 3D model). The model correlated perfectly with implanted device size (R 2  = 1; p < 0.001), while TEE-predicted size showed inferior correlation (R 2  = 0.34; 95% CI 0.23-0.98, p = 0.03). Fisher's exact test showed the model better predicted final WD size than TEE (100 vs. 60%, p = 0.02). Use of the model was associated with reduced procedure time (70 ± 20 vs. 107 ± 53 min, p = 0.03), anesthesia time (134 ± 31 vs. 182 ± 61 min, p = 0.03), and fluoroscopy time (11 ± 4 vs. 20 ± 13 min, p = 0.02). Absence of peri-device leak was also more likely when the model was used (92 vs. 56%, p = 0.04). There were trends towards reduced trans-septal puncture to catheter removal time (50 ± 20 vs. 73 ± 36 min, p = 0.07), number of device deployments (1.3 ± 0.5 vs. 2.0 ± 1.2, p = 0.08), and number of devices used (1.3 ± 0.5 vs. 1.9 ± 0.9, p = 0.07). Patient specific models of the LAA improve precision in closure device sizing. Use of the printed model allowed rapid and intuitive location of the best landing zone for the device.

  15. Comparative exploration of learning styles and teaching techniques between Thai and Vietnamese EFL students and instructors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supalak Nakhornsri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning styles have been a particular focus of a number of researchers over the past decades. Findings from various studies researching into how students learn highlight significant relationships between learners’ styles of learning and their language learning processes and achievement. This research focuses on a comparative analysis of the preferences of English learning styles and teaching techniques perceived by students from Thailand and Vietnam, and the teaching styles and techniques practiced by their instructors. The purposes were 1 to investigate the learning styles and teaching techniques students from both countries preferred, 2 to investigate the compatibility of the teaching styles and techniques practiced by instructors and those preferred by the students, 3 to specify the learning styles and teaching techniques students with high level of English proficiency preferred, and 4 to investigate the similarities of Thai and Vietnamese students’ preferences for learning styles and teaching techniques. The sample consisted of two main groups: 1 undergraduate students from King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok (KMUTNB, Thailand and Thai Nguyen University (TNU, Vietnam and 2 English instructors from both institutions. The instruments employed comprised the Students’ Preferred English Learning Style and Teaching Technique Questionnaire and the Teachers’ Practiced English Teaching Style and Technique Questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using arithmetic means and standard deviation. The findings can contribute to the curriculum development and assist teachers to teach outside their comfort level to match the students’ preferred learning styles. In addition, the findings could better promote the courses provided for students. By understanding the learning style make-up of the students enrolled in the courses, faculty can adjust their modes of content delivery to match student preferences and maximize

  16. Crystal analyser-based X-ray phase contrast imaging in the dark field: implementation and evaluation using excised tissue specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masami; Sunaguchi, Naoki; Wu, Yanlin; Do, Synho; Sung, Yongjin; Gupta, Rajiv; Louissaint, Abner; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Ichihara, Shu

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the soft tissue discrimination capability of X-ray dark-field imaging (XDFI) using a variety of human tissue specimens. The experimental setup for XDFI comprises an X-ray source, an asymmetrically cut Bragg-type monochromator-collimator (MC), a Laue-case angle analyser (LAA) and a CCD camera. The specimen is placed between the MC and the LAA. For the light source, we used the beamline BL14C on a 2.5-GeV storage ring in the KEK Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan. In the eye specimen, phase contrast images from XDFI were able to discriminate soft-tissue structures, such as the iris, separated by aqueous humour on both sides, which have nearly equal absorption. Superiority of XDFI in imaging soft tissue was further demonstrated with a diseased iliac artery containing atherosclerotic plaque and breast samples with benign and malignant tumours. XDFI on breast tumours discriminated between the normal and diseased terminal duct lobular unit and between invasive and in-situ cancer. X-ray phase, as detected by XDFI, has superior contrast over absorption for soft tissue processes such as atherosclerotic plaque and breast cancer. (orig.)

  17. Relative preservation of peripheral lung function in smoking-related pulmonary emphysema: assessment with 99mTc-MAA perfusion and dynamic 133Xe SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Kume, Norihiko; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Ogasawara, Nobuhiko; Motoyama, Kazumi; Hara, Akiko; Matsumoto, Tsuneo

    2000-01-01

    In this study the cross-sectional functional differences between the central and peripheral lung in smokers with pulmonary emphysema were evaluated by lung perfusion and dynamic xenon-133 single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The subjects were 81 patients with a long-term smoking history and relatively advanced emphysema, 17 non-smoker patients with non-obstructive lung diseases and six healthy non-smokers. Regional lung functional difference between the peripheral and central lung was assessed in the upper, middle and lower lung zones by technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin SPET and dynamic 133 Xe SPET. The distribution of emphysematous changes was assessed by density-mask computed tomography (CT) images which depicted abnormally low attenuation areas (LAAs) of less than -960 Hounsfield units. Two hundred and eighty-eight (59.2%) lung zones of 63 (77.7%) patients with pulmonary emphysema showed relative preservation of lung function in the peripheral lung, with a curvilinear band of normal perfusion (a stripe sign) and a significantly faster 133 Xe half-clearance time (T 1/2 ) than in central lung (P 1/2 in the peripheral lung area (P 1/2 values and LAA distributions between the central and peripheral lung. Relative preservation of peripheral lung function seems to be a characteristic feature in smoking-related pulmonary emphysema, and may indicate a lower susceptibility of peripheral parenchyma to the development of this disease. (orig.)

  18. Static and dynamic micro deformable mirror characterization by phase-shifting and time-averaged interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotard, Arnaud; Zamkotsian, Frédéric

    2017-11-01

    The micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS), based on mature technologies of micro-electronics, are essential in the design of future astronomical instruments. One of these key-components is the microdeformable mirror for wave-front correction. Very challenging topics like search of exo-planets could greatly benefit from this technology. Design, realization and characterization of micro-Deformable Mirrors are under way at Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) in collaboration with Laboratoire d'Analyse et d'Architecture des Systèmes (LAAS). In order to measure the surface shape and the deformation parameters during operation of these devices, a high-resolution Twyman-Green interferometer has been developed. Measurements have been done on a tiltable micro-mirror (170*100μm2) designed by LAM-LAAS and realized by an American foundry, and also on an OKO deformable mirror (15mm diameter). Static characterization is made by phase shifting interferometry and dynamic measurements have been made by quantitative time-averaged interferometry. The OKO mirror has an actuator stroke of 370+/-10nm for 150V applied and its resonant frequency is 1170+/-50 Hz, and the tiltable mirror has a rotation cut-off frequency of 31+/-3 kHz.

  19. Effects of blanching, acidification, or addition of EDTA on vitamin C and β-carotene stability during mango purée preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiamba, Isabel R F; Svanberg, Ulf

    2016-09-01

    The impact of acidification with citric acid, addition of EDTA or water blanching at high temperature, and short time (HTST) conducted at 90°C for 4 min, on the retention of vitamin C (L-AA and DHAA) and β-carotene was studied in mango purée 30 min after crushing. HTST blanching prior to matrix disruption into purée resulted in complete inactivation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and minor residual activity (8%) of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO). The retention of total vitamin C was 100% in blanched purées and in purée with EDTA and about 90% in purées at pH 3.9 and 5.0. Acidification, blanching, and addition of EDTA preserved vitamin C mainly as L-AA, while complete conversion into DHAA was observed in purée at pH 5.0. The retention of all-trans-β-carotene was between 65 and 72%, with the highest value in purée with EDTA and the lowest value in purée of blanched mango. The ratio of 13-cis-β-carotene in fresh mango was 8.2 ± 0.5% that increased significantly after blanching and in purée at pH 5.0.

  20. Food matrix and processing influence on carotenoid bioaccessibility and lipophilic antioxidant activity of fruit juice-based beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Roque, María Janeth; de Ancos, Begoña; Sánchez-Vega, Rogelio; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cano, M Pilar; Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The biological activity of carotenoids depends on their bioaccessibility and solubilization in the gastrointestinal tract. These compounds are poorly dispersed in the aqueous media of the digestive tract due to their lipophilic nature. Thus, it is important to analyze the extent to which some factors, such as the food matrix and food processing, may improve their bioaccessibility. Beverages formulated with a blend of fruit juices and water (WB), milk (MB) or soymilk (SB) were treated by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) (35 kV cm(-1) with 4 μs bipolar pulses at 200 Hz for 1800 μs), high-pressure processing (HPP) (400 MPa at 40 °C for 5 min) or thermal treatment (TT) (90 °C for 1 min) in order to evaluate the influence of food matrix and processing on the bioaccessibility of carotenoids and on the lipophilic antioxidant activity (LAA). The bioaccessibility of these compounds diminished after applying any treatment (HIPEF, HPP and TT), with the exception of cis-violaxanthin + neoxanthin, which increased by 79% in HIPEF and HPP beverages. The lowest carotenoid bioaccessibility was always obtained in TT beverages (losses up to 63%). MB was the best food matrix for improving the bioaccessibility of carotenoids, as well as the LAA. The results demonstrate that treatment and food matrix modulated the bioaccessibility of carotenoids as well as the lipophilic antioxidant potential of beverages. Additionally, HIPEF and HPP could be considered as promising technologies to obtain highly nutritional and functional beverages.

  1. Semantic Legal Policies for Data Exchange and Protection across Super-Peer Domains in the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kua-Ping Cheng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In semantic policy infrastructure, a Trusted Legal Domain (TLD, designated as a Super-Peer Domain (SPD, is a legal cage model used to circumscribe the legal virtual boundary of data disclosure and usage in the cloud. Semantic legal policies in compliance with the law are enforced at the super-peer within an SPD to enable Law-as-a-Service (LaaS for cloud service providers. In addition, cloud users could query fragmented but protected outsourcing cloud data from a law-aware super-peer, where each query is also compliant with the law. Semantic legal policies are logic-based formal policies, which are shown to be a combination of OWL-DL ontologies and stratified Datalog rules with negation, i.e., so-called non-monotonic cq-programs, for policy representation and enforcement. An agent at the super-peer is a unique law-aware guardian that provides protected data integration services for its peers within an SPD. Furthermore, agents at the super-peers specify how law-compliant legal policies are unified with each other to provide protected data exchange services across SPDs in the semantic data cloud.

  2. Serum magnesium but not calcium was associated with hemorrhagic transformation in stroke overall and stroke subtypes: a case-control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ge; Yuan, Ruozhen; Wei, ChenChen; Xu, Mangmang; Liu, Ming

    2018-05-26

    Association between serum calcium and magnesium versus hemorrhagic transformation (HT) remains to be identified. A total of 1212 non-thrombolysis patients with serum calcium and magnesium collected within 24 h from stroke onset were enrolled. Backward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate association between calcium and magnesium versus HT. Calcium and magnesium were entered into logistic regression analysis in two models, separately: model 1, as continuous variable (per 1-mmol/L increase), and model 2, as four-categorized variable (being collapsed into quartiles). HT occurred in 140 patients (11.6%). Serum calcium was slightly lower in patients with HT than in patient without HT (P = 0.273). But serum magnesium was significantly lower in patients with HT than in patients without HT (P = 0.007). In logistic regression analysis, calcium displayed no association with HT. Magnesium, as either continuous or four-categorized variable, was independently and inversely associated with HT in stroke overall and stroke of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA). The results demonstrated that serum calcium had no association with HT in patients without thrombolysis after acute ischemic stroke. Serum magnesium in low level was independently associated with increasing HT in stroke overall and particularly in stroke of LAA.

  3. Enabling LTE and WiFi Coexisting in 5 GHz for Efficient Spectrum Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing mobile traffic demands in cellular network, researchers have proposed the coexistence of LTE and WiFi technologies in 5 GHz unlicensed bands. Therefore, how to efficiently utilize the spectrum in 5 GHz becomes extremely important. To avoid the channel access conflicts, current LTE Unlicensed (LTE-U technology introduces the duty cycle of LTE, while License-Assisted Access (LAA technology introduces Listen-Before-Talk (LBT mechanism. While these two technologies improve the spectrum utilization by using time division access schema, we believe that more efficient spectrum utilization can be achieved by enabling simultaneous transmissions from LTE and WiFi. In this paper, we propose a novel method (i.e., Low Amplitude Stream Injection (LASI method to enable the simultaneous transmissions of WiFi and LTE frames in the same channel and recover the data from the conflicts. To further utilize the LASI method, we introduce the Conflict-Tolerant Channel Allocation (CTCA algorithm to optimize the channel allocation and achieve more efficient spectrum utilization in 5 GHz. Extensive simulation results show that our approach achieves lower latency and higher throughput. Compared with the state-of-the-art LTE-U and LAA technologies, our approach can improve the spectrum efficiency 2.9 times.

  4. Inhibition of influenza virus replication by targeting broad host cell pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Marois

    Full Text Available Antivirals that are currently used to treat influenza virus infections target components of the virus which can mutate rapidly. Consequently, there has been an increase in the number of resistant strains to one or many antivirals in recent years. Here we compared the antiviral effects of lysosomotropic alkalinizing agents (LAAs and calcium modulators (CMs, which interfere with crucial events in the influenza virus replication cycle, against avian, swine, and human viruses of different subtypes in MDCK cells. We observed that treatment with LAAs, CMs, or a combination of both, significantly inhibited viral replication. Moreover, the drugs were effective even when they were administered 8 h after infection. Finally, analysis of the expression of viral acidic polymerase (PA revealed that both drugs classes interfered with early events in the viral replication cycle. This study demonstrates that targeting broad host cellular pathways can be an efficient strategy to inhibit influenza replication. Furthermore, it provides an interesting avenue for drug development where resistance by the virus might be reduced since the virus is not targeted directly.

  5. The role of amino acids on the development of radiation-induced damage of central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamatodani, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Moriyasu, Saeko

    2006-01-01

    We have found that heavy-ion (carbon) irradiation significantly increased the extracellular glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, in the hypothalamus of rats. We also found that the increase of glutamate is dependent on the Ca 2+ ion, suggesting that the increased glutamate is derived from the release from neurons or glial cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of the increase of glutamate release are still unclear. In this study, we investigated that the effects of the glial selective metabolic inhibitor (L-aminoadipatic acid (L-AA), glutamine synthetase inhibitor (methionine sulfoximide (MSO)) and inhibitor of glutamate release from glial cell (carboxyphenylglycine (CPG)) on the increased glutamate measured by in vivo brain microdialysis. L-AA and MSO completely inhibited the radiation-induced increase of glutamate, but CPG did not inhibit the increase. Administration of glutamine recovered the increased extracellular glutamate level in the MSO-treated rats. These results suggested that neurons, but not glial cells, play an important role in the radiation-induced increase of extracellular glutamate. (author)

  6. Microbubble signal and trial of org in acute stroke treatment (TOAST) classification in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan-Hyuk; Kang, Hyun Goo; Lee, Ji Sung; Ryu, Han Uk; Jeong, Seul-Ki

    2018-07-15

    Right-to-left shunt (RLS) through a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is likely associated with ischemic stroke. Many studies have attempted to demonstrate the association between RLS and ischemic stroke. However, information on the association between the degree of RLS and the subtypes of ischemic stroke categorized by the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification is lacking. This was a retrospective study involving 508 patients with ischemic stroke who underwent a transcranial Doppler (TCD) microbubble test between 2013 and 2015. The degree of RLS was divided into 4 grades according to the microbubble signal (MBS) as follows: no MBS, grade 1; MBS  20, grade 3; curtain sign, grade 4. The degree of RLS and the type of ischemic stroke as classified by TOAST were analyzed and compared with other clinical information and laboratory findings. The higher RLS grade was associated with the cardioembolism (CE) and stroke of undetermined etiology (SUE), and the microbubble signals were inversely related with small vessel disease (SVD). An MBS higher than grade 3 showed a 2.95-fold higher association with SUE than large artery atherosclerosis (LAA), while grade 4 MBS revealed an approximately 8-fold higher association with SUE than LAA. RLS identified by the TCD microbubble test was significantly and independently associated with cryptogenic ischemic stroke (negative evaluation). Subsequent studies are needed to determine the biologic relationship between RLS and ischemic stroke, particularly the cryptogenic subtype of ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk Factors and Etiology of Young Ischemic Stroke Patients in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siim Schneider

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Reports on young patients with ischemic stroke from Eastern Europe have been scarce. This study aimed to assess risk factors and etiology of first-ever and recurrent stroke among young Estonian patients. Methods. We performed a retrospective study of consecutive ischemic stroke patients aged 18–54 years who were treated in our two hospitals from 2003 to 2012. Results. We identified 741 patients with first-ever stroke and 96 patients with recurrent stroke. Among first-time patients, men predominated in all age groups. The prevalence of well-documented risk factors in first-time stroke patients was 83% and in the recurrent group 91%. The most frequent risk factors were hypertension (53%, dyslipidemia (46%, and smoking (35%. Recurrent stroke patients had fewer less well-documented risk factors compared to first-time stroke patients (19.8 versus 30.0%, P=0.036. Atrial fibrillation was the most common cause of cardioembolic strokes (48% and large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA was the cause in 8% among those aged <35 years. Compared to first-time strokes, recurrent ones were more frequently caused by LAA (14.3 versus 24.0%, P=0.01 and less often by other definite etiology (8.5 versus 1.0%, P=0.01. Conclusions. The prevalence of vascular risk factors among Estonian young stroke patients is high. Premature atherosclerosis is a cause in a substantial part of very young stroke patients.

  8. Application of bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells for testing the biocompatibility of metal-based biomaterials functionalized with ascorbic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Grzesiak, Jakub; Donesz-Sikorska, Anna; Krzak-Roś, Justyna

    2013-01-01

    In this study, metal-based biomaterials were functionalized with ascorbic acid (LAA). Two types of substrates were used: austenitic steel 316L and titanium Ti6Al4V. Coatings were prepared with the sol–gel method and applied on metal surfaces using the dip-coating technique. Ascorbic acid was delivered with SiO 2 -coating at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.4 M. The morphology of the surfaces and coatings was determined using scanning electron microscope (SEM), whereas their elemental composition by SEM-EDX. Immobilization of ascorbic acid in the coatings was confirmed with Raman spectroscopy. The biocompatibility of the materials obtained was tested in vitro using both bone marrow- and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC and ADMSC, respectively). Proliferation rate and morphology of cells cultured in the presence of designed biomaterials were monitored after 24, 48, 120 and 168 h of propagation. The results obtained indicated that silica coatings doped with 0.4 M LAA had a positive effect on the proliferation rate of investigated cells, and in some cases on the growth pattern of culture. (paper)

  9. Physiological and foliar injury responses of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana, and Acer rubrum seedlings to varying soil moisture and ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaub, M.; Skelly, J.M.; Steiner, K.C.; Davis, D.D.; Pennypacker, S.P.; Zhang, J.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Savage, J.E.; Stevenson, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    High soil water availability favors ozone uptake, increases foliar injury, and exacerbates the negative ozone effect on gas exchange of seedlings of deciduous tree species. - Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings were exposed to three different ozone scenarios (ambient air: 100% O 3 ; non-filtered air: 98% ambient O 3 ; charcoal-filtered air: 50% ambient O 3 ) within each of two different water regimes (nine plots irrigated, nine plots non-irrigated) during three growing seasons. During the 1998 and 1999 growing season, leaf gas exchange, plant water relations, and foliar injury were measured. Climatic data, ambient- and chamber-ozone-concentrations were monitored. We found that seedlings grown under irrigated conditions had similar (in 1998) but significantly higher gas exchange rates (in 1999) than seedlings grown within non-irrigated plots among similar ozone exposures. Cherry and ash had similar ozone uptake but cherry developed more ozone-induced injury (<34% affected leaf area, LAA) than ash (<5% LAA), while maple rarely showed foliar injury, indicating the species differed in ozone sensitivity. Significantly more severe injury on seedlings grown under irrigated conditions than seedlings grown under non-irrigated conditions demonstrated that soil moisture altered seedling responses to ambient ozone exposures

  10. Relationship between flow volume curve and CT findings in non-smoking patients with long histories of bronchial asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamoto, Hitoshi; Kambe, Masayuki; Yamagata, Mitsunori; Nakajima, Hidekatsu [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Yamane, Kousuke; Kuraoka, Toshihiko; Miyamura, Isao

    2001-08-01

    This study was conducted to verify whether bronchial asthma (BA) alone causes pulmonary emphysema (PE), and to examine the computed tomography (CT) findings in non-smokers with BA demonstrating the flow volume curve (FV curve) characteristic of PE. Non-smoking patients with a history of BA for more than 20 years were divided into 2 groups: the dogleg pattern group (n=5), with an FV curve characteristic of PE, and the concave pattern group (n=16) with an FV curve characteristic of BA. CT scans was performed using CT values (level, 900 H.U.; width, 400 H.U.) that facilitate detection of a low attenuation area (LAA), and using conventional CT values (level, 700 H.U.; width, 1,300 H.U.). LAA (including air trapping), thickness of the bronchial wall, and partial atelectasis were compared between the 2 groups. PE was not detected, although air trapping was found in all subjects. The thickness of the airway was greater in the dogleg pattern than in the concave pattern. The incidences of air trapping and partial atelectasis were higher in the former than in the latter. BA alone may not cause PE. Some BA patients without PE show the FV curve characteristic of PE, reflecting an increase in the thickness of the airway wall and a decrease in the pulmonary ventilation probably due to the air trapping and the partial atelectasis. (author)

  11. Crystal analyser-based X-ray phase contrast imaging in the dark field: implementation and evaluation using excised tissue specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Masami [RIST, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Sunaguchi, Naoki [Gunma University, Graduate School of Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Wu, Yanlin [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Department of Materials Structure Science, School of High Energy Accelerator Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Do, Synho; Sung, Yongjin; Gupta, Rajiv [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Louissaint, Abner [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Yuasa, Tetsuya [Yamagata University, Faculty of Engineering, Yonezawa, Yamagata (Japan); Ichihara, Shu [Nagoya Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    We demonstrate the soft tissue discrimination capability of X-ray dark-field imaging (XDFI) using a variety of human tissue specimens. The experimental setup for XDFI comprises an X-ray source, an asymmetrically cut Bragg-type monochromator-collimator (MC), a Laue-case angle analyser (LAA) and a CCD camera. The specimen is placed between the MC and the LAA. For the light source, we used the beamline BL14C on a 2.5-GeV storage ring in the KEK Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan. In the eye specimen, phase contrast images from XDFI were able to discriminate soft-tissue structures, such as the iris, separated by aqueous humour on both sides, which have nearly equal absorption. Superiority of XDFI in imaging soft tissue was further demonstrated with a diseased iliac artery containing atherosclerotic plaque and breast samples with benign and malignant tumours. XDFI on breast tumours discriminated between the normal and diseased terminal duct lobular unit and between invasive and in-situ cancer. X-ray phase, as detected by XDFI, has superior contrast over absorption for soft tissue processes such as atherosclerotic plaque and breast cancer. (orig.)

  12. Quantitative CT analysis of small pulmonary vessels in lymphangioleiomyomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Katsutoshi; Tobino, Kazunori; Kurihara, Masatoshi; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Doi, Tokuhide; Hoshika, Yoshito; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Seyama, Kuniaki

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive lung disease that share clinical, physiologic, and radiologic features with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aims to identify those features that are unique to LAM by using quantitative CT analysis. Methods: We measured total cross-sectional areas of small pulmonary vessels (CSA) less than 5 mm 2 and 5–10 mm 2 and calculated percentages of those lung areas (%CSA), respectively, in 50 LAM and 42 COPD patients. The extent of cystic destruction (LAA%) and mean parenchymal CT value were also calculated and correlated with pulmonary function. Results: The diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume (DL CO /VA %predicted) was similar for both groups (LAM, 44.4 ± 19.8% vs. COPD, 45.7 ± 16.0%, p = 0.763), but less tissue damage occurred in LAM than COPD (LAA% 21.7 ± 16.3% vs. 29.3 ± 17.0; p CO /VA %predicted, %CSA and mean parenchymal CT value were still greater for LAM than COPD (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Quantitative CT analysis revealing a correlation between cystic destruction and CSA in COPD but not LAM indicates that this approach successfully reflects different mechanisms governing the two pathologic courses. Such determinations of small pulmonary vessel density may serve to differentiate LAM from COPD even in patients with severe lung destruction.

  13. Sex-specific features of emphysema among current and former smokers with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Megan; Foreman, Marilyn; Dransfield, Mark T; Hansel, Nadia; Han, MeiLan K; Cho, Michael H; Bhatt, Surya P; Ramsdell, Joe; Lynch, David; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Silverman, Edwin K; Washko, George; DeMeo, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that males with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have more emphysema than females. It is not known if these differences persist across degrees of COPD severity. Our aim was to identify sex-specific differences in quantitative emphysema within COPD subgroups based on COPD severity.We included non-Hispanic white and African-American subjects from the COPDGene study with at least 10 pack-years of smoking and COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) spirometry grade II or greater. We examined sex-specific differences in log-transformed emphysema (log per cent low-attenuation area (%LAA)) by GOLD spirometry grade among subjects with early-onset COPD (25% emphysema).Compared with females, males had higher log %LAA: overall (1.97±1.4 versus 1.69±1.6, β=0.32 (0.04), p=1.34×10(-14)), and among non-Hispanic white (p=8.37×10(-14)) and African-American subjects (p=0.002). Females with early-onset COPD, severe emphysema and GOLD grade IV COPD had similar emphysema as males, but markedly fewer pack-years smoking (early-onset, p=0.01; severe emphysema and GOLD grade IV, psmokers with COPD who are particularly susceptible to parenchymal destruction. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  14. Lipoamino acid-based micelles as promising delivery vehicles for monomeric amphotericin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafim, Cláudia; Ferreira, Inês; Rijo, Patrícia; Pinheiro, Lídia; Faustino, Célia; Calado, António; Garcia-Rio, Luis

    2016-01-30

    Lipoamino acid-based micelles have been developed as delivery vehicles for the hydrophobic drug amphotericin B (AmB). The micellar solubilisation of AmB by a gemini lipoamino acid (LAA) derived from cysteine and its equimolar mixtures with the bile salts sodium cholate (NaC) and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC), as well as the aggregation sate of the drug in the micellar systems, was studied under biomimetic conditions (phosphate buffered-saline, pH 7.4) using UV-vis spectroscopy. Pure surfactant systems and equimolar mixtures were characterized by tensiometry and important parameters were determined, such as critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface tension at the CMC (γCMC), maximum surface excess concentration (Γmax), and minimum area occupied per molecule at the water/air interface (Amin). Rheological behaviour from viscosity measurements at different shear rates was also addressed. Solubilisation capacity was quantified in terms of molar solubilisation ratio (χ), micelle-water partition coefficient (KM) and Gibbs energy of solubilisation (ΔGs°). Formulations of AmB in micellar media were compared in terms of drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, aggregation state of AmB and in vitro antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The LAA-containing micellar systems solubilise AmB in its monomeric and less toxic form and exhibit in vitro antifungal activity comparable to that of the commercial formulation Fungizone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. CT analysis of peripheral airway and lung lesions of patients with asthma and COPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Takayuki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Sahara, Shin; Ohnishi, Tetsuro; Abe, Shosaku; Ueno, Kan

    2002-01-01

    We compared peripheral airway and lung parenchyma images among patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy controls using high-resolution CT images taken by a multidetector-row CT scanner (Aquillion, Toshiba, Japan). CT images were saved as digital image and communication (DICOM) files and %low attenuation area (LAA) (<-960 Hounsfield Unit) was calculated with the imaging software. %LAA was significantly increased in patients with COPD (p<0.0001) and smokers with stable asthma (p<0.01) as compared with healthy controls. In stable asthma, mucous plugging in the airway sometime appeared, while during asthma exacerbation small nodules and mosaic pattern of peripheral lung field appeared. Since smoker's patients with asthma have hyper-secretion of sputum due to smoking, mucous plugging and airway inflammation may easily occur and consequently air trapping may increase. In the future, image diagnosis of peripheral airway should develop for early detection of airway diseases as a non-invasive examination. On the other hand, micro focus X-ray computed tomography system (Hitachi Medico Technology Co., Japan) can display CT images closely similar to the pictures of microscopic findings and it will be a useful tool to analyze radiologic-pathologic correlations of peripheral airways and lung parenchyma. (author)

  16. Assessment of airway lesion in obstructive lung diseases by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, Akio; Matsumoto, Hisako; Ueda, Tetsuya; Mishima, Michiaki

    2002-01-01

    Airway lesion in obstructive pulmonary diseases, such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), has recently been assessed quantitatively. Especially in asthma, wall thickening of central airways, and its relation to the severity of disease or airflow obstruction has been clarified. Pathophysiologic importance of peripheral airway lesion has also been highlighted by pathologic or physiologic studies. However, direct evaluation of peripheral airway lesion is beyond resolutional limitation of CT. To assess airway trapping, an indirect CT finding of peripheral airway disease, by quantitative and semiquantitative measures and compare them with clinical indices such as pulmonary function, airway responsiveness, or airway inflammation. Patients with stable asthma (n=20) were studied. HRCT at 3 levels of both lungs were scanned. Low attenuation area (LAA)% and mean lung density were quantitatively assessed by an automatic method. Distribution of mosaic pattern was visually scored semiquantitatively. LAA% and mean lung density at full expiratory phase correlated with the degree of airflow obstruction. Mosaic score at full inspiratory phase correlated with the severity of disease and airflow obstruction. Expiratory/inspiratory ratio of mean lung density was also associated with airway responsiveness or residual volume/total lung capacity (RV/TLC). These CT findings may be useful as markers of asthma pathophysiology. (author)

  17. Functional, textural and sensory properties of dry pasta supplemented with lyophilized tomato matrix or with durum wheat bran extracts produced by supercritical carbon dioxide or ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualone, Antonella; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Summo, Carmine; Caponio, Francesco; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Flagella, Zina; Marrese, Pier Paolo; Piro, Gabriella; Perrotta, Carla; De Bellis, Luigi; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore

    2016-12-15

    A study was carried out to produce functional pasta by adding bran aqueous extract (BW) and bran oleoresin (BO) obtained using ultrasound and supercritical CO2, respectively, or a powdery lyophilized tomato matrix (LT). The bioactive compounds, hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activity (HAA and LAA) in vitro, were evaluated. BW supplementation did not improve antioxidant activity, whilst LT pasta showed unconventional taste and odor. BO pasta had good levels of tocochromanols (2551μg/100g pasta f.w.) and carotenoids (40.2μg/100g pasta f.w.), and the highest HAA and LAA. The oleoresin altered starch swelling and gluten network, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy, therefore BO pasta had structural characteristics poor compared with the control (4.8% vs. 3.2% cooking loss), although this difference did not affect significantly overall sensory judgment (74 vs. 79 for BO and control, respectively). BO supplementation was most effective for increasing antioxidant activity without jeopardizing pasta quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuclear installations and childhood cancer in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Data on cancer incidence and mortality near nuclear installations in England and Wales have been published, covering the period 1959-1980. Several age classes and a number of cancer sites have been included. Systematic analysis has so far been limited to cancer mortality. This suggests that childhood leukemia is unusually frequent near some types of installations and the excess is greater for years 0-9 than for later ages. In the earlier decade, 1959-1969, there was questionable consistency of incidence reporting. This report uses the incidence and mortality data only for the period 1971-1980; leukemia and non-leukemia cancer data for those 0-9 years are analyzed, and consistency of incidence reporting is evaluated by comparing incidence and mortality. For comparison with reported data for grouped local authority areas (LAAs) near to 21 different installations, 2 sources of expected incidence are used. The first is based on regional data, and the second is based on a group of LAAs similar in location, urban/rural character and population size. The results of this study confirm Cook-Mozaffari et al.'s findings by mortality analysis for the group of installations involved in non-power producing nuclear technology. This study sheds no light on the possible basis for the association, which remains to be clarified. Initial steps have been taken by Gardner et al. using case-referent methods. (author). 15 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Experimental model to evaluate in vivo and in vitro cartilage MR imaging by means of histological analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittersohl, B.; Mamisch, T.C.; Welsch, G.H.; Stratmann, J.; Forst, R.; Swoboda, B.; Bautz, W.; Rechenberg, B. von; Cavallaro, A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Implementation of an experimental model to compare cartilage MR imaging by means of histological analyses. Material and methods: MRI was obtained from 4 patients expecting total knee replacement at 1.5 and/or 3 T prior surgery. The timeframe between pre-op MRI and knee replacement was within two days. Resected cartilage-bone samples were tagged with Ethi-pins to reproduce the histological cutting course. Pre-operative scanning at 1.5 T included following parameters for fast low angle shot (FLASH: TR/TE/FA = 33 ms/6 ms/30 deg., BW = 110 kHz, 120 mm x 120 mm FOV, 256 x 256 matrix, 0.65 mm slice-thickness) and double echo steady state (DESS: TR/TE/FA = 23.7 ms/6.9 ms/40 deg., BW = 130 kHz, 120 x 120 mm FOV, 256 x 256 matrix, 0.65 mm slice-thickness). At 3 T, scan parameters were: FLASH (TR/TE/FA = 12.2 ms/5.1 ms/10 deg., BW = 130 kHz, 170 x 170 mm FOV, 320 x 320, 0.5 mm slice-thickness) and DESS (TR/TE/FA = 15.6 ms/4.5 ms/25 deg., BW = 200 kHz, 135 mm x 150 mm FOV, 288 x 320 matrix, 0.5 mm slice-thickness). Imaging of the specimens was done the same day at 1.5 T. MRI (Noyes) and histological (Mankin) score scales were correlated using the paired t-test. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of different grades of cartilage degeneration were assessed. Inter-reader and intra-reader reliability was determined using Kappa analysis. Results: Low correlation (sensitivity, specificity) was found for both sequences in normal to mild Mankin grades. Only moderate to severe changes were diagnosed with higher significance and specificity. The use of higher field-strengths was advantageous for both protocols with sensitivity values ranging from 13.6% to 93.3% (FLASH) and 20.5% to 96.2% (DESS). Kappa values ranged from 0.488 to 0.944. Conclusions: Correlating MR images with continuous histological slices was feasible by using three-dimensional imaging, multi-planar-reformat and marker pins. The capability of diagnosing early cartilage changes with high accuracy

  20. Cartilage collagen damage in hip osteoarthritis similar to that seen in knee osteoarthritis; a case-control study of relationship between collagen, glycosaminoglycan and cartilage swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseininia, Shahrzad; Lindberg, Lisbeth R; Dahlberg, Leif E

    2013-01-09

    It remains to be shown whether OA shares molecular similarities between different joints in humans. This study provides evidence for similarities in cartilage molecular damage in osteoarthritic (OA) joints. Articular cartilage from osteoarthritic hip joints were analysed and compared to non-OA controls regarding collagen, glycosaminoglycan and water content. Femoral heads from 16 osteoarthritic (OA) and 20 reference patients were obtained from hip replacement surgery due to OA and femoral neck fracture, respectively. Cartilage histological changes were assessed by Mankin grading and denatured collagen type II immunostaining and cartilage was extracted by α-chymotrypsin. Hydroxyproline and Alcian blue binding assays were used to measure collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, respectively. Mankin and immunohistology scores were significantly higher in hip OA samples than in reference samples. Cartilage water content was 6% higher in OA samples than in references. 2.5 times more collagen was extracted from OA than from reference samples. There was a positive association between water content and percentage of extractable collagen pool (ECP) in both groups. The amounts of collagen per wet and dry weights did not differ statistically between OA and reference cartilage. % Extractable collagen was not related to collagen per dry weight in either group. However when collagen was expressed by wet weight there was a negative correlation between % extractable and collagen in OA cartilage. The amount of GAG per wet weight was similar in both groups but the amount of GAG per dry weight was higher in OA samples compared to reference samples, which suggests a capacity for GAG biosynthesis in hip OA cartilage. Neither of the studied parameters was related to age in either group. Increased collagen extractability and water content in human hip cartilage is associated with OA pathology and can be observed at early stages of the degenerative hip OA process. Our results

  1. Early detection of osteoarthritis in rabbits using MRI with a double-contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Okihiro; Ikoma, Kazuya; Kido, Masamitsu; Kabuto, Yukichi; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Tanaka, Masaki; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2018-03-13

    Articular cartilage degeneration has been evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, this method has several problems, including its time-consuming nature and the requirement of a high magnetic field or specialized hardware. The purpose of this study was to sequentially assess early degenerative changes in rabbit knee articular cartilage using MRI with a new double-contrast agent. We induced osteoarthritis (OA) in the right knee of rabbits by anterior cruciate ligament transection and partial medial meniscectomy. Proton density-weighted images and T 2 -calculated images were obtained before and after contrast agent injection into the knee. The signal intensity ratio (SIR) values on the proton density-weighted images were calculated by dividing the signal intensity of the articular cartilage by that of joint fluid. Six rabbits were examined using MRI at 2 (designated 2-w OA) and 4 weeks (4-w OA) after the operation. Histological examination was performed 4 weeks after the operation. One rabbit was histologically examined 2 weeks after the operation. The control consisted of six rabbits that were not subjected to the operation. The SIR values, T 2 values and the thicknesses of the cartilage of the 2-w OA, 4-w OA and the control before and after contrast agent injection were analyzed. The Mankin score and OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International) score were used for the histological evaluation. Significant differences in the SIR and T 2 values of the medial and lateral condyles of the femur were found between the control and the 4-w OA only after contrast agent injection. No significant differences were found in the SIR and T 2 values before contrast agent injection between the control, the 2-w OA and 4-w OA. The thickness of the articular cartilage revealed no significant differences. In the histological assessment, the Mankin score and OARSI score sequentially increased from the control to the 4-w OA. We evaluated the SIR and T 2 values

  2. Therapeutic effect of an injectable sustained-release sinomenine hydrochloride and sodium hyaluronate compound in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Guang; Ling, Pei-Xue; Lin, Xiu-Kun; Chen, Jian-Ying; Wang, Shao-Jin; Li, Peng; Wu, Xiao-Juan; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Liu, Sheng-Hou

    2012-07-01

    While intra-articular injection of sinomenine hydrochloride has a therapeutic effect on osteoarthritis, it has a short half-life, and is thermolabile and photolabile. The aim of this research was to evaluate the sustained-release of sinomenine hydrochloride from an injectable sinomenine hydrochloride and sodium hyaluronate compound (CSSSI) and its therapeutic effect in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis following intra-articular injection. An injectable compound consisting of 1% sodium hyaluronate and 2.5% sinomenine hydrochloride was prepared and kept as the experiment group, and 2.5% sinomenine hydrochloride was prepared and kept as the control group. The cumulative mass release was measured at different time points in each group in vitro. Sixty-five male Zelanian rabbits were randomly divided into five groups: 15 (30 knees) each for the control, sodium hyaluronate, sinomenine hydrochloride, and CSSSI groups respectively, and five (10 knees) for the modeling group. Papain was injected into both knees of each rabbit for model establishment. Subsequently, 0.2 ml of the corresponding drugs was injected into the articular cavities of the remaining experiment groups, while the control group was treated with 0.2 ml normal saline. All groups were treated once a week for 4 weeks. Seven days after the last treatment, knees were anatomized to perform pathological observations and Mankin's evaluation of the synovium. Four groups were compared using the SPSS 13.0 software package. In the in vitro sustained-release experiments, 90% of the drug was released in the experiment group 360 minutes following the injection. Comparison of the Mankin's evaluations of the four groups illustrated statistical discrepancies (P sodium hyaluronate/sinomenine hydrochloride groups, statistical significance was uniformly obtained. Moreover, sodium hyaluronate and sinomenine hydrochloride treatments showed significant improvement over the modeling control (P sodium hyaluronate vs. sinomenine

  3. Establishment of novel meniscal scaffold structures using polyglycolic and poly-l-lactic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tomohiko; Otsuki, Shuhei; Nakagawa, Kosuke; Okamoto, Yoshinori; Inoue, Tae; Sakamoto, Yuki; Sato, Hideki; Neo, Masashi

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate various types of meniscus scaffolds that mimic the meniscus structure, and to establish a novel cell-free meniscus scaffold with polyglycolic acid or poly-l-lactic acid. Four types of scaffolds were implanted into Japanese white rabbits: poly-l-lactic acid sponge poly-l-lactic acid, PGA-coated PLLA sponge, PGA lamination, and film-coated PGA lamination. Samples were harvested at 8 and 12 weeks after implantation, and a compression stress test was performed. The meniscus size and Ishida scores were evaluated for regenerated tissue. Immunohistochemistry was analyzed by anti-type I, II and X collagen antibodies to investigate the structure of the regenerated tissue, and by anti-iNOS antibody to investigate the inflammatory tissue of the meniscus. The cell nuclei of lymphocytes and foreign body multinucleated giant cells were counted in hematoxylin and eosin staining. Modified Mankin scores for cartilage degeneration were used for assessment after Safranin-O/Fast Green staining. The biomechanical test showed that l- and film-coated PGA lamination exhibited greater strength than s- and PGA-coated PLLA sponge. At 12 weeks, the size of meniscus and the Ishida score in implanted film-coated PGA lamination were improved significantly compared with the defect groups. The type II collagen staining intensity in the PGA lamination lamination is significantly higher than the defect at eight weeks. The staining intensity of iNOS and number of lymphocytes significantly increased in sponge poly-l-lactic acid at eight weeks, and increased in p-PLLA at 12 weeks. Foreign body multinucleated giant cells in implantation groups appeared, especially at eight weeks. The Mankin score for film-coated PGA lamination was significantly lower than for the defect at 12 weeks. Novel meniscal scaffolds especially PGA should possess not only biological but also biomechanical functions. In conclusions, film-coated PGA lamination was the beneficial property

  4. Site-specific analysis of gene expression in early osteoarthritis using the Pond-Nuki model in dogs

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    Kuroki Keiichi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA is a progressive and debilitating disease that often develops from a focal lesion and may take years to clinically manifest to a complete loss of joint structure and function. Currently, there is not a cure for OA, but early diagnosis and initiation of treatment may dramatically improve the prognosis and quality of life for affected individuals. This study was designed to determine the feasibility of analyzing changes in gene expression of articular cartilage using the Pond-Nuki model two weeks after ACL-transection in dogs, and to characterize the changes observed at this time point. Methods The ACL of four dogs was completely transected arthroscopically, and the contralateral limb was used as the non-operated control. After two weeks the dogs were euthanatized and tissues harvested from the tibial plateau and femoral condyles of both limbs. Two dogs were used for histologic analysis and Mankin scoring. From the other two dogs the surface of the femoral condyle and tibial plateau were divided into four regions each, and tissues were harvested from each region for biochemical (GAG and HP and gene expression analysis. Significant changes in gene expression were determined using REST-XL, and Mann-Whitney rank sum test was used to analyze biochemical data. Significance was set at (p Results Significant differences were not observed between ACL-X and control limbs for Mankin scores or GAG and HP tissue content. Further, damage to the tissue was not observed grossly by India ink staining. However, significant changes in gene expression were observed between ACL-X and control tissues from each region analyzed, and indicate that a unique regional gene expression profile for impending ACL-X induced joint pathology may be identified in future studies. Conclusion The data obtained from this study lend credence to the research approach and model for the characterization of OA, and the identification and validation of

  5. Successful Total Meniscus Reconstruction Using a Novel Fiber-Reinforced Scaffold: A 16- and 32-Week Study in an Ovine Model.

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    Merriam, Aaron R; Patel, Jay M; Culp, Brian M; Gatt, Charles J; Dunn, Michael G

    2015-10-01

    Meniscus injuries in the United States result in an estimated 850,000 surgical procedures each year. Although meniscectomies are the most commonly performed orthopaedic surgery, little advancement has been made in meniscus replacement and regeneration, and there is currently no total meniscus replacement device approved by the Food and Drug Administration. A novel fiber-reinforced meniscus scaffold can be used as a functional total meniscus replacement. Controlled laboratory study. A tyrosine-derived, polymer fiber-reinforced collagen sponge meniscus scaffold was evaluated mechanically (tensile and compressive testing) and histologically after 16 and 32 weeks of implantation in an ovine total meniscectomy model (N = 20; 16 implants plus 4 meniscectomies, divided equally over the 2 time periods). The extent of cartilage damage was also measured on tibial plateaus by use of toluidine blue surface staining and on femoral condyles by use of Mankin scores on histological slides. Scaffolds induced formation of neomeniscus tissue that remained intact and functional, with breaking loads approximating 250 N at both 16 and 32 weeks compared with 552 N for native menisci. Tensile stiffness values (99 and 74 N/mm at 16 and 32 weeks, respectively) were also comparable with those of the native meniscus (147 N/mm). The compressive modulus of the neomeniscus tissue (0.33 MPa at both 16 and 32 weeks) was significantly increased compared with unimplanted (time 0) scaffolds (0.15 MPa). There was histological evidence of extensive tissue ingrowth and extracellular matrix deposition, with immunohistochemical evidence of types I and II collagen. Based on significantly decreased surface damage scores as well as Mankin scores, the scaffold implants provided greater protection of articular cartilage compared with the untreated total meniscectomy. This novel fiber-reinforced meniscus scaffold can act as a functional meniscus replacement, with mechanical properties similar to those of the

  6. Attenuated synovial fluid ghrelin levels are linked with cartilage damage, meniscus injury, and clinical symptoms in patients with knee anterior cruciate ligament deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu-Cong; Chen, Liang-Hua; Ye, Yong-Liang; Yang, Guang-Gang; Mao, Zheng; Liu, Dan-Dan; Chen, Jun-Qi; Chen, Jing-Jie; Liu, Gang

    2016-12-01

    The meniscus injury and post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis (PTOA) following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) lesions often cause great burdens to patients. Ghrelin, a recently identified 28-amino-acid peptide, has been shown to inhibit inflammation and perform as a growth factor for chondrocyte. This study was aimed at investigating ghrelin concentration in synovial fluid and its association with the degree of meniscus injury, articular degeneration, and clinical severity in patients suffering from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency. 61 ACL deficiency patients admitted to our hospital were drafted in the current study. The Noyes scale and Mankin scores were used to assess articular cartilage damage arthroscopically and histopathologically, respectively. The Lysholm scores and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective scores were utilized to evaluate the clinical severity. The radiological severity of meniscus injury was assessed by MR imaging. Serum and synovial fluid ghrelin levels were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cartilage degradation markers collagen type II C-telopeptide (CTX-II) and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) in addition to inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were also examined. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed and the area under curve (AUC) was calculated to assess the diagnostic value of ghrelin levels for the prediction of the MRI grading for meniscus injury by comparing with other biomarkers. SF ghrelin levels were positively related to Lysholm and IKDC scores. PTOA patients with grade 3 showed significantly decreased levels of ghrelin in SF compared with those with grade 2. The ghrelin levels in SF were negatively related to MRI signal grades for meniscus injury. SF ghrelin levels were also inversely associated with Noyes scale and Mankin scores, and levels of inflammation markers IL-6, TNF-α, and

  7. Cartilage collagen damage in hip osteoarthritis similar to that seen in knee osteoarthritis; a case–control study of relationship between collagen, glycosaminoglycan and cartilage swelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseininia Shahrzad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains to be shown whether OA shares molecular similarities between different joints in humans. This study provides evidence for similarities in cartilage molecular damage in osteoarthritic (OA joints. Methods Articular cartilage from osteoarthritic hip joints were analysed and compared to non-OA controls regarding collagen, glycosaminoglycan and water content. Femoral heads from 16 osteoarthritic (OA and 20 reference patients were obtained from hip replacement surgery due to OA and femoral neck fracture, respectively. Cartilage histological changes were assessed by Mankin grading and denatured collagen type II immunostaining and cartilage was extracted by α-chymotrypsin. Hydroxyproline and Alcian blue binding assays were used to measure collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG content, respectively. Results Mankin and immunohistology scores were significantly higher in hip OA samples than in reference samples. Cartilage water content was 6% higher in OA samples than in references. 2.5 times more collagen was extracted from OA than from reference samples. There was a positive association between water content and percentage of extractable collagen pool (ECP in both groups. The amounts of collagen per wet and dry weights did not differ statistically between OA and reference cartilage. % Extractable collagen was not related to collagen per dry weight in either group. However when collagen was expressed by wet weight there was a negative correlation between % extractable and collagen in OA cartilage. The amount of GAG per wet weight was similar in both groups but the amount of GAG per dry weight was higher in OA samples compared to reference samples, which suggests a capacity for GAG biosynthesis in hip OA cartilage. Neither of the studied parameters was related to age in either group. Conclusions Increased collagen extractability and water content in human hip cartilage is associated with OA pathology and can be observed at

  8. ANÁLISIS DE UMBRALES EMPÍRICOS DE LLUVIA PARA EL PRONÓSTICO DE MOVIMIENTOS EN MASA EN EL VALLE DE ABURRÁ, COLOMBIA ANÁLISE DE LIMIARES EMPÍRICOS DE PRECIPITAÇÃO PARA O PROGNÓSTICO DE MOVIMENTOS EM MASSA NO VALE DE ABURRÁ, COLÔMBIA ANALYSIS OF EMPIRICAL RAINFALL THRESHOLDS FOR THE PROGNOSIS OF LANDSLIDES IN THE ABURRÁ VALLEY, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edier Aristizábal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los movimientos en masa son el producto de la reducción progresiva de la resistencia de los geomateriales de las vertientes por las intervenciones antrópicas o por procesos naturales, como la meteorización, y desencadenados por factores externos, como la precipitación o un sismo. Estos eventos han demostrado ampliamente a través de la historia su capacidad destructora, ocasionando cuantiosas pérdidas humanas y económicas, ante todo en zonas tropicales y de terrenos montañosos, como el valle de Aburrá. Por esta razón los estudios referentes al pronóstico de lluvias, el seguimiento en tiempo real y la definición de umbrales críticos de lluvia se han convertido en herramientas fundamentales para la implementación de sistemas de alerta temprana. El presente análisis de umbrales críticos de lluvia para el pronóstico de movimientos en masa en el valle de Aburrá se realizó mediante un procedimiento empírico, en el cual se construyó una base de datos de movimientos en masa y se utilizó una base de datos de precipitación con registros de resolución temporal cada 15 minutos; y se estimó la lluvia acumulada o lluvia de corto plazo -LA- (1, 3, 5 y 7 días y la lluvia acumulada antecedente o lluvia de largo plazo -LAA- (5, 10, 15, 30, 60 y 90 días para cada movimiento en masa. Los resultados obtenidos reflejan que el mayor condicionante para la ocurrencia de movimientos en masa en el valle de Aburrá es la LAA. Los datos indican que los movimientos en masa utilizados para el análisis ocurrieron para LAA superiores a 60 mm para 30 días, a 160 mm para 60 días y a 200 mm para 90 días. Sin embargo, se considera necesario evaluar con detalle este tipo de análisis y umbrales ampliamente realizados en el mundo, sin duda sesgados, ya que por lo general no consideran los días de lluvia en que no se presentaron movimientos en masa, por lo cual nuevos estudios deberán emprenderse basados en el análisis de las series de lluvia y

  9. Lipid profiles and ischemic stroke risk: variations by sex within racial/ethnic groups

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    Gezmu T

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tefera Gezmu,1 Dona Schneider,1 Kitaw Demissie,2 Yong Lin,2 Christine Giordano,3 Martin S Gizzi4 1Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, 2Rutgers School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Piscataway, NJ, 3Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, 4New Jersey Neuroscience Institute at JFK Medical Center and Seton Hall University, Edison, NJ, USA Abstract: Evidence implicates lipid abnormalities as important but modifiable risk factors for stroke. This study assesses whether hypercholesterolemia can be used to predict the risk for etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke between sexes within racial/ethnic groups. Data elements related to stroke risk, diagnosis, and outcomes were abstracted from the medical records of 3,290 acute stroke admissions between 2006 and 2010 at a regional stroke center. Sex comparison within racial/ethnic groups revealed that South Asian and Hispanic men had a higher proportion of ischemic stroke than women, while the inverse was true for Whites and African Americans (P=0.0014. All women, except South Asian women, had higher mean plasma total cholesterol and higher blood circulating low-density lipoprotein levels (≥100 mg/dL than men at the time of their admissions. The incidence of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA was more common among women than men, except among Hispanics, where men tended to have higher incidences. A regression analysis that considered patients diagnosed with either LAA or small-artery occlusion etiologic subtype as the outcomes and high-density lipoproteins and triglycerides as predictors showed inconsistent associations between lipid profiles and the incidence of these subtypes between the sexes within racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that women stroke patients may be at increased risk for stroke etiologic subtype LAA than men. Although the higher prevalence of stroke

  10. Quantitative computed tomography measurements to evaluate airway disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Relationship to physiological measurements, clinical index and visual assessment of airway disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Atsushi; Zach, Jordan; Schroeder, Joyce; Jin, Gongyoung; Kim, Song Soo; Kim, Yu-IL; Schnell, Christina; Bowler, Russell; Lynch, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate currently available quantitative CT measurements for airway disease with physiological indices and the body-mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity (BODE) index in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Materials and methods: This study was approved by our institutional review board (IRB number 2778). Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The subjects included 188 current and former cigarette smokers from the COPDGene cohort who underwent inspiratory and expiratory CT and also had physiological measurements for the evaluation of airflow limitation, including FEF25-75%, airway resistance (Raw), and specific airway conductance (sGaw). The BODE index was used as the index of clinical symptoms. Quantitative CT measures included % low attenuation areas [% voxels ≤ 950 Hounsfield unit (HU) on inspiratory CT, %LAA −950ins ], percent gas trapping (% voxels ≤ −856 HU on expiratory CT, %LAA −856exp ), relative inspiratory to expiratory volume change of voxels with attenuation values from −856 to −950 HU [Relative Volume Change (RVC) −856 to −950 ], expiratory to inspiratory ratio of mean lung density (E/I-ratio MLD ), Pi10, and airway wall thickness (WT), luminal diameter (LD) and airway wall area percent (WA%) in the segmental, subsegmental and subsubsegmental bronchi on inspiratory CT. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the QCT measurements and physiological measurements in all subjects and in the subjects with mild emphysema (%LAA −950ins <10%). Univariate and multiple variable analysis for the BODE index were also performed. Adjustments were made for age, gender, smoking pack years, FEF25-75%, Raw, and sGaw. Results: Quantitative CT measurements had significant correlations with physiological indices. Among them, E/I-ratio MLD had the strongest correlations with FEF25-75% (r = −0.648, <0.001) and sGaw (r = −0.624, <0.001) while in the subjects with

  11. Decline in frequency of the 2La chromosomal inversion in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.) in Western Kenya: correlation with increase in ownership of insecticide-treated bed nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoke-Muhia, Damaris; Gimnig, John E; Kamau, Luna; Shililu, Josephat; Bayoh, M Nabie; Walker, Edward D

    2016-06-10

    The 2La chromosomal inversion, a genetic polymorphism in An. gambiae (sensu stricto) (s.s.), is associated with adaptation to microclimatic differences in humidity and desiccation resistance and mosquito behaviors. Ownership of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) for malaria control has increased markedly in western Kenya in the last 20 years. An increase in the frequency of ITNs indoors could select against house entering or indoor resting of Anopheles mosquitoes. Thus, the frequency of the 2La inversion is postulated to change in An. gambiae (s.s.) with the increase of ITN ownership over time. Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes were sampled between 1994 and 2011 using pyrethrum knockdown, bednet traps and human landing catches (HLC) from Asembo and Seme, western Kenya. The 2La inversion was detected by a PCR assay with primers designed for proximal breakpoints of the 2La/a and 2L+(a)/+(a) chromosomal conformation. Mosquitoes were tested for malaria parasite infection by sporozoite ELISA. The frequency of the 2La chromosomal inversion declined from 100 % of all chromosomes in 1994 to 17 % in 2005 and remained low through 2011 (21 %). ITN ownership increased from 0 to > 90 % of houses in the study area during this interval. The decline in the frequency of the 2La chromosomal inversion was significantly, negatively correlated with year (r = -0.93) and with increase in ITN ownership (r = -0.96). The frequency of the homo- and heterokaryotypes departed significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, suggesting that 2La/a karyotype was under selection, earlier in its favor and later, against it. Precipitation and maximum monthly temperature did not vary over time, therefore there was no trend in climate that could account for the decline. There was no significant difference in frequency of the 2La inversion in An. gambiae (s.s.) females sampled indoors or outdoors in HCL in 2011, nor was there an association between the 2La inversion and infection with Plasmodium

  12. Emphysema quantification and lung volumetry in chest X-ray equivalent ultralow dose CT - Intra-individual comparison with standard dose CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerli, Michael; Ottilinger, Thorsten; Warschkow, René; Leschka, Sebastian; Alkadhi, Hatem; Wildermuth, Simon; Bauer, Ralf W

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether ultralow dose chest CT with tin filtration can be used for emphysema quantification and lung volumetry and to assess differences in emphysema measurements and lung volume between standard dose and ultralow dose CT scans using advanced modeled iterative reconstruction (ADMIRE). 84 consecutive patients from a prospective, IRB-approved single-center study were included and underwent clinically indicated standard dose chest CT (1.7±0.6mSv) and additional single-energy ultralow dose CT (0.14±0.01mSv) at 100kV and fixed tube current at 70mAs with tin filtration in the same session. Forty of the 84 patients (48%) had no emphysema, 44 (52%) had emphysema. One radiologist performed fully automated software-based pulmonary emphysema quantification and lung volumetry of standard and ultralow dose CT with different levels of ADMIRE. Friedman test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used for multiple comparison of emphysema and lung volume. Lung volumes were compared using the concordance correlation coefficient. The median low-attenuation areas (LAA) using filtered back projection (FBP) in standard dose was 4.4% and decreased to 2.6%, 2.1% and 1.8% using ADMIRE 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The median values of LAA in ultralow dose CT were 5.7%, 4.1% and 2.4% for ADMIRE 3, 4, and 5, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between LAA in standard dose CT using FBP and ultralow dose using ADMIRE 4 (p=0.358) as well as in standard dose CT using ADMIRE 3 and ultralow dose using ADMIRE 5 (p=0.966). In comparison with standard dose FBP the concordance correlation coefficients of lung volumetry were 1.000, 0.999, and 0.999 for ADMIRE 3, 4, and 5 in standard dose, and 0.972 for ADMIRE 3, 4 and 5 in ultralow dose CT. Ultralow dose CT at chest X-ray equivalent dose levels allows for lung volumetry as well as detection and quantification of emphysema. However, longitudinal emphysema analyses should be performed with the same scan protocol and

  13. Water quality and pollution status of Chambal river in National Chambal Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksena, D N; Garg, R K; Rao, R J

    2008-09-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics of Chambal river water in National Chambal sanctuary (Madhya Pradesh) have been studied. The stretch of Chambal river contained in the National Chambal sanctuary (located at 25 degrees 23'-26 degrees 52'N, 76 degrees 28'-79 degrees 15'E) is extending up to 600 km downstream from Kota (Rajasthan) to the confluence of the Chambal with Yamuna river (Etawah). The river flow in Madhya Pradesh spans up to approximately 400 km. Three sampling stations viz., Station A--near Palighat, district Sheopurkalan, Station B--near Rajghat, district Morena and Station C--near Baraighat, district Bhind were established for the collection of water samples during April, 2003 to March, 2004. The water quality parameters namely transparency (12.12-110 cm), colour (transparent-very turbid), turbidity (1-178 TNU), electrical conductivity (145.60-884 microS cm(-1)), total dissolved solids (260-500 mgl(-1)), pH (7.60-9.33), dissolved oxygen (4.86-14.59 mgl(-1)), free carbon dioxide (0-16.5 mgl(-1)), total alkalinity (70-290 mgl(-1)), total hardness (42-140 mgl(-1)), chloride (15.62-80.94 mgl(-1)), nitrate (0.008-0.025 mgl(-1)), nitrite (0.002-0.022 mgl(-1)), sulphate (3.50-45 mgl(-1)), phosphate (0.004-0.050 mgl(-1)), silicate (2.80-13.80 mgl(-1)), biochemical oxygen demand (0.60-5.67 mgl(-1)), chemical oxygen demand (2.40-26.80 mgl(-1)), ammonia (nil-0.56 mgl(-1)), sodium (14.30-54.40 mgl(-1)) and potassium (2.10 mgl(-1)-6.30 mgl(-1)) reflects on the pristine nature of the river in National Chambal sanctuary. On the basis of various parameters studied, Chambal river in this stretch can be placed under the category of oligosaprobic. The water quality analysis, indicated that the riverwater in the sanctuary area is pollution free and can serve as a good habitat for many aquatic animals including endangered species.

  14. Indian Hedgehog in Synovial Fluid Is a Novel Marker for Early Cartilage Lesions in Human Knee Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congming; Wei, Xiaochun; Chen, Chongwei; Cao, Kun; Li, Yongping; Jiao, Qiang; Ding, Juan; Zhou, Jingming; Fleming, Braden C.; Chen, Qian; Shang, Xianwen; Wei, Lei

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether there is a correlation between the concentration of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) in synovial fluid (SF) and the severity of cartilage damage in the human knee joints, the knee cartilages from patients were classified using the Outer-bridge scoring system and graded using the Modified Mankin score. Expression of Ihh in cartilage and SF samples were analyzed with immunohistochemistry (IHC), western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, we detected and compared Ihh protein levels in rat and mice cartilages between normal control and surgery-induced osteoarthritis (OA) group by IHC and fluorescence molecular tomography in vivo respectively. Ihh expression was increased 5.2-fold in OA cartilage, 3.1-fold in relative normal OA cartilage, and 1.71-fold in OA SF compared to normal control samples. The concentrations of Ihh in cartilage and SF samples was significantly increased in early-stage OA samples when compared to normal samples (r = 0.556; p Ihh protein was also an early event in the surgery-induced OA models. Increased Ihh is associated with the severity of OA cartilage damage. Elevated Ihh content in human knee joint synovial fluid correlates with early cartilage lesions. PMID:24786088

  15. Indian Hedgehog in Synovial Fluid Is a Novel Marker for Early Cartilage Lesions in Human Knee Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congming Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether there is a correlation between the concentration of Indian hedgehog (Ihh in synovial fluid (SF and the severity of cartilage damage in the human knee joints, the knee cartilages from patients were classified using the Outer-bridge scoring system and graded using the Modified Mankin score. Expression of Ihh in cartilage and SF samples were analyzed with immunohistochemistry (IHC, western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Furthermore, we detected and compared Ihh protein levels in rat and mice cartilages between normal control and surgery-induced osteoarthritis (OA group by IHC and fluorescence molecular tomography in vivo respectively. Ihh expression was increased 5.2-fold in OA cartilage, 3.1-fold in relative normal OA cartilage, and 1.71-fold in OA SF compared to normal control samples. The concentrations of Ihh in cartilage and SF samples was significantly increased in early-stage OA samples when compared to normal samples (r = 0.556; p < 0.001; however, there were no significant differences between normal samples and late-stage OA samples. Up-regulation of Ihh protein was also an early event in the surgery-induced OA models. Increased Ihh is associated with the severity of OA cartilage damage. Elevated Ihh content in human knee joint synovial fluid correlates with early cartilage lesions.

  16. Experimentally induced cam impingement in the sheep hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenrock, Klaus A; Fiechter, Ruth; Tannast, Moritz; Mamisch, Tallal C; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2013-04-01

    Sheep hips have a natural non-spherical femoral head similar to a cam-type deformity in human beings. By performing an intertrochanteric varus osteotomy, cam-type femoro-acetabular impingement (FAI) during flexion can be created. We tested the hypotheses that macroscopic lesions of the articular cartilage and an increased Mankin score (MS) can be reproduced by an experimentally induced cam-type FAI in this ovine in vivo model. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the MS increases with longer ambulatory periods. Sixteen sheep underwent unilateral intertrochanteric varus osteotomy of the hip with the non-operated hip as a control. Four sheep were sacrificed after 14, 22, 30, and 38-weeks postoperatively. We evaluated macroscopic chondrolabral alterations, and recorded the MS, based on histochemical staining, for each ambulatory period. A significantly higher prevalence of macroscopic chondrolabral lesions was found in the impingement zone of the operated hips. The MS was significantly higher in the acetabular/femoral cartilage of the operated hips. Furthermore, these scores increased as the length of the ambulatory period increased. Cam-type FAI can be induced in an ovine in vivo model. Localized chondrolabral degeneration of the hip, similar to that seen in humans (Tannast et al., Clin Orthop Relat Res 2008; 466: 273-280; Beck et al., J Bone Joint Surg Br 2005; 87: 1012-1018), can be reproduced. This experimental sheep model can be used to study cam-type FAI. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  17. Effects of phototherapy on cartilage structure and inflammatory markers in an experimental model of osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Poliani; Santos, Anderson Amaro; Rodrigues, Tamara; Tim, Carla Roberta; Pinto, Karina Zambone; Magri, Angela Maria Paiva; Fernandes, Kelly Rossetti; Mattiello, Stela M.; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Anibal, Fernanda Freitas; Rennó, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of laser phototherapy on the degenerative modifications on the articular cartilage after the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) in the knee of rats. Eighty male rats (Wistar) were distributed into four groups: intact control group (IG), injured control group (CG), injured laser treated group at 10 J/cm2 (L10), and injured laser treated group at 50 J/cm2 (L50). Animals were distributed into two subgroups, sacrificed in 5 and 8 weeks postsurgery. The ACLT was used to induce knee osteoarthritis in rats. After 2 weeks postsurgery, laser phototherapy initiated and it was performed for 15 and 30 sessions. The histological findings revealed that laser irradiation, especially at 10 J/cm2, modulated the progression of the degenerative process, showing a better cartilage structure and lower number of condrocytes compared to the other groups. Laser phototherapy was not able to decrease the degenerative process measured by Mankin score and prevent the increase of cartilage thickness related to the degenerative process. Moreover, it did not have any effect in the biomodulation of the expression of markers IL1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and metalloprotein-13. Furthermore, laser irradiated animals, at 50 J/cm2 showed a lower amount of collagen type 1.

  18. Functional outcome measures in a surgical model of hip osteoarthritis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Dianne; Johnson, Stephen; Hash, Jonathan; Olson, Steven A; Estes, Bradley T; Moutos, Franklin T; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Guilak, Farshid

    2016-12-01

    The hip is one of the most common sites of osteoarthritis in the body, second only to the knee in prevalence. However, current animal models of hip osteoarthritis have not been assessed using many of the functional outcome measures used in orthopaedics, a characteristic that could increase their utility in the evaluation of therapeutic interventions. The canine hip shares similarities with the human hip, and functional outcome measures are well documented in veterinary medicine, providing a baseline for pre-clinical evaluation of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of hip osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a surgical model of hip osteoarthritis in a large laboratory animal model and to evaluate functional and end-point outcome measures. Seven dogs were subjected to partial surgical debridement of cartilage from one femoral head. Pre- and postoperative pain and functional scores, gait analysis, radiographs, accelerometry, goniometry and limb circumference were evaluated through a 20-week recovery period, followed by histological evaluation of cartilage and synovium. Animals developed histological and radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis, which was correlated with measurable functional impairment. For example, Mankin scores in operated limbs were positively correlated to radiographic scores but negatively correlated to range of motion, limb circumference and 20-week peak vertical force. This study demonstrates that multiple relevant functional outcome measures can be used successfully in a large laboratory animal model of hip osteoarthritis. These measures could be used to evaluate relative efficacy of therapeutic interventions relevant to human clinical care.

  19. The Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Toonaciliatin K against Adjuvant Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HaiXing Gou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toonaciliatin K is a natural limonoid purified from the Toona ciliata Roem. var. ciliata (Meliaceae. This study is to reveal the inflammatory suppression effect of toonaciliatin K and further the intrinsic mechanism. Firstly, anti-inflammatory effect of toonaciliatin K was evaluated in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced RAW264.7 cells. RT-PCR results indicated that the mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β were downregulated by toonaciliatin K. The toonaciliatin K inhibited TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β levels stimulated by LPS. Furthermore, LPS elicited the excess iNOS and COX-2 mRNA and protein production and toonaciliatin K attenuated the excess production. Western blot assay demonstrated that MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways play critical roles in the toonaciliatin K’s anti-inflammatory activity. Secondly, toonaciliatin K inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Thirdly, toonaciliatin K alleviated the paw swelling and improved arthritis clinical scores in the adjuvant arthritis rats. Toonaciliatin K decreased the proinflammatory cytokines levels and Mankin scores in adjuvant arthritis rats. The HE staining, safranin O-fast green, and toluidine blue staining results demonstrated that toonaciliatin K alleviated the histological changes of paw, for example, pannus formation, focal loss of cartilage, bone erosion, and presence of extra-articular inflammation. Hence, toonaciliatin K is a promising agent for treatment of arthritis.

  20. Colored-noise-induced discontinuous transitions in symbiotic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankin, Romi; Sauga, Ako; Ainsaar, Ain; Haljas, Astrid; Paunel, Kristiina

    2004-06-01

    A symbiotic ecosystem is studied by means of the Lotka-Volterra stochastic model, using the generalized Verhulst self-regulation. The effect of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity of a population is taken into account as dichotomous noise. The study is a follow-up of our investigation of symbiotic ecosystems subjected to three-level (trichotomous) noise [R. Mankin, A. Ainsaar, A. Haljas, and E. Reiter, Phys. Rev. E 65, 051108 (2002)]. Relying on the mean-field theory, an exact self-consistency equation for stationary states is derived. In some cases the mean field exhibits hysteresis as a function of noise parameters. It is established that random interactions with the environment can cause discontinuous transitions. The dependence of the critical coupling strengths on the noise parameters is found and illustrated by phase diagrams. Predictions from the mean-field theory are compared with the results of numerical simulations. Our results provide a possible scenario for catastrophic shifts of population sizes observed in nature.

  1. Cartilage Protection and Analgesic Activity of a Botanical Composition Comprised of Morus alba, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Acacia catechu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been augmented advances in drug discovery, current OA management is inadequate due to the lack of successful therapies proven to be effective in modifying disease progression. For some, the risk outweighs the benefit. As a result, there is a desperate need for safe and efficacious natural alternatives. Here we evaluated a composition from Morus alba, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Acacia catechu in maintaining joint structural integrity and alleviating OA associated symptoms in monoiodoacetate- (MIA- induced rat OA disease model. Study lasted for 6 weeks. 59.6%, 64.6%, 70.7%, 69.9%, and 70.3% reductions in pain sensitivity were observed for rats treated with the composition from week 1 to week 5, respectively. Statistically significant improvements in articular cartilage matrix integrity (maintained at 57.1% versus MIA + vehicle treated rats were shown from the modified total Mankin score for animals treated with the composition. The composition showed a statistically significant reduction in uCTX-II level (54.1% reductions. The merit of combining these botanicals was also demonstrated in their synergistic analgesic activity. Therefore, the standardized blend of Morus alba, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Acacia catechu could potentially be considered as an alternative remedy from natural sources for the management of OA and/or its associated symptoms.

  2. Co-Expression and Co-Localization of Cartilage Glycoproteins CHI3L1 and Lubricin in Osteoarthritic Cartilage: Morphological, Immunohistochemical and Gene Expression Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Anna Szychlinska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is the most common human arthritis characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage. Several studies reported that levels of human cartilage glycoprotein chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 are known as a potential marker for the activation of chondrocytes and the progression of Osteoarthritis (OA, whereas lubricin appears to be chondroprotective. The aim of this study was to investigate the co-expression and co-localization of CHI3L1 and lubricin in normal and osteoarthritic rat articular cartilage to correlate their modified expression to a specific grade of OA. Samples of normal and osteoarthritic rat articular cartilage were analyzed by the Kellgren–Lawrence OA severity scores, the Kraus’ modified Mankin score and the Histopathology Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI system for histomorphometric evaluations, and through CHI3L1 and lubricin gene expression, immunohistochemistry and double immuno-staining analysis. The immunoexpression and the mRNA levels of lubricin increased in normal cartilage and decreased in OA cartilage (normal vs. OA, p < 0.01. By contrast, the immunoexpression and the mRNA levels of CHI3L1 increased in OA cartilage and decreased in normal cartilage (normal vs. OA, p < 0.01. Our findings are consistent with reports suggesting that these two glycoproteins are functionally associated with the development of OA and in particular with grade 2/3 of OA, suggesting that in the future they could be helpful to stage the severity and progression of the disease.

  3. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases osteoarthritis susceptibility in female rat offspring by programming a low-functioning IGF-1 signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qubo; Tan, Yang; Zhang, Xianrong; Luo, Hanwen; Deng, Yu; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that osteoarthritis (OA) and prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) are both associated with low birth weight but possible causal interrelationships have not been investigated. To investigate the effects of PEE on the susceptibility to OA in adult rats that experienced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and to explore potential intrauterine mechanisms, we established the rat model of IUGR by PEE and dexamethasone, and the female fetus and 24-week-old adult offspring subjected to strenuous running for 6 weeks were sacrificed. Knee joints were collected from fetuses and adult offspring for histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and qPCR assays. Histological analyses and the Mankin score revealed increased cartilage destruction and accelerated OA progression in adult offspring from the PEE group compared to the control group. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway components. Furthermore, fetuses in the PEE group experienced IUGR but exhibited a higher postnatal growth rate. The expression of many IGF-1 signaling components was downregulated, which coincided with reduced amounts of type II collagen in the epiphyseal cartilage of fetuses in the PEE group. These results suggest that PEE enhances the susceptibility to OA in female adult rat offspring by down-regulating IGF-1 signaling and retarding articular cartilage development.

  4. Decrease in the expression of the type 1 PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTH1R on chondrocytes in animals with osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skwara Adrian

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the expression of the type 1 PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTH1R on chondrocytes from hyaline cartilage over the course of osteoarthritis (OA. Methods In 12 NZW rabbits, the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL was resected to create anterior instability of the knee. In 12 control rabbits, only a sham operation, without resection of the ACL, was performed. Four animals from each group were killed at 3, 6, and 12 weeks. After opening the knee joint, OA was macroscopically graded and hyaline cartilage of the load-bearing area was evaluated histologically according to the Mankin scale and by immunostaining for PTH1R. Results There was a positive linear correlation between the time after surgery and the macroscopic and histologic OA scores. The scores in the control group were constant over the time course. Immunostaining showed significantly less expression of PTH1R in the experimental compared to the control group after 6 (P Conclusions The results show an in vivo decrease in the expression of PTH1R on chondrocytes over the time course of OA. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether new treatment approaches could evolve from this knowledge.

  5. Effect of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound on Joint Injury and Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis: an Animal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Talal; Mitchell, Reed; Bhasin, Priya; Guo, Yi; Paudel, Sharada; Schon, Lew; Zhang, Zijun

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the therapeutic potential of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) in post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Intra-articular fracture of the medial tibial plateau was surgically created in 30 rats. LIPUS was applied to the operated joints either for the first 2 wk (LIPUS 1-2 group) or in weeks 4 and 5 after intra-articular fracture (LIPUS 4-5 group). In controls, the operated knees were not treated with LIPUS (LIPUS 0 group). The rats were monitored with weekly gait analysis and euthanized at week 8. Among the altered gait parameters, the maximal and average paw print areas in the LIPUS 1-2 and LIPUS 4-5 groups, but not the LIPUS 0 group, had either reached baseline or significantly recovered (70%, p <0.05) by week 8. PTOA pathology in both the LIPUS 1-2 and LIPUS 4-5 groups was less severe than that in the LIPUS 0 group (Mankin score: 5.4 and 4.5 vs. 8.8, p <0.05). In conclusion, LIPUS treatment partially improved the gait of the affected limbs and reduced cartilage degeneration in PTOA. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The colour of the solar corona and dust grains in it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajmanov, A.K.; Nikolsky, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    The photometry of coronal negatives is carried out. The films were obtained at the March 7, 1970 and July 10, 1972 eclipses. A distribution of the coronal brightness in the red (635 mm), green (545 nm), and blue (455 nm) wavelength intervals up to distances of (6-7)Rsub(sun) is deduced (Figure 1). Colour indexes of the corona (the emission ratio red/blue-Csub(rb) and green/blue-Csub(gb)) have been obtained. We assume Csub(rb) = Csub(gb) = 1 in the inner corona ( = 1 μm. RED brightness is evaluated to be 4 x 10 -10 anti Bsub(sun). There is 1 grain of dust in the elementary volume with cross section of 1 cm 2 along the line of sight. The intensity of dust emission in wavelength interval 10 μm deduced by the authors is approximately 1 μ W cm -2 sm -1 . That is in agreement with Mankin et al. (1974) and Lena et al. (1974) observations. The whole dust mass of RED is -11 cm -3 . Determination of the colour of the solar corona have been made by a number of scientists (Tikhov, 1940, 1957; Allen, 1946; Blackwell, 1952; Michard, 1956; Sharonov, 1958; Nay et al. 1961). The corona colour was found to be somewhat redder than the Sun's. However this question is not finally settled to date. (orig.)

  7. Negative Outcomes of Poly(l-Lactic Acid) Fiber-Reinforced Scaffolds in an Ovine Total Meniscus Replacement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jay M; Merriam, Aaron R; Kohn, Joachim; Gatt, Charles J; Dunn, Michael G

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to test the efficacy of collagen-hyaluronan scaffolds reinforced with poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) fibers in an ovine total meniscus replacement model. Scaffolds were implanted into 9 sheep (n = 1 at 8 weeks, n = 2 at 16 weeks, n = 3 at both 24, 32 weeks) following total medial meniscectomy. From 16 weeks on, explants were characterized by confined compression creep, histological, and biochemical analyses. Articular surfaces were observed macroscopically and damage was ranked histologically using the Mankin score. At sacrifice, three of the nine PLLA scaffolds had completely ruptured, and the intact scaffolds experienced progressive shape changes and severe narrowing in the body region at 16, 24, and 32 weeks. Aggregate compressive modulus and permeability did not improve with time. Histological and biochemical analyses showed significantly less extracellular matrix and less matrix organization compared to native tissue. Osteophytes, bone erosion, and cartilage damage were observed, increasing with time postimplantation. A buildup of lactic acid and/or the rapid loss of scaffold mechanical integrity due to PLLA degradation are probable causes for the joint abnormalities observed in this study. These results are in sharp contrast to those of our previous successful total meniscus replacement studies using polyarylate [p(DTD DD)] fiber-reinforced scaffolds. This suggests that PLLA fiber as produced in this study cannot be used as reinforcement for a meniscus replacement scaffold.

  8. Recycling of extracorporeally irradiated autograft for malignant bone tumors: long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotb, Samir Z; Mostafa, Mohamed F

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term oncological and functional outcomes. Forty-two patients (29 men and 13 women) with primary malignant bone tumors were included in this study. The procedure consisted of wide en bloc resection, clearing the extraosseous soft tissue and medullary content, extracorporeal irradiation with a single dose of 50 Gy using linear accelerator, and reimplantation using suitable fixation devices. The mean survivor follow-up was 54 months (24-174 months). There were 32 (76.2%) patients continuously disease free, 7 (16.7%) died of disease, and 3 (7.1%) alive with disease. Local recurrence was encountered in 4 (9.5%) patients. Nonunion occurred at 3 (6.4%) osteotomy sites. Deep infection developed in 4 (9.5%) cases. There were 13 patients rated excellent, 17 good, 10 fair, and 2 failures according to the Mankin scoring system. The mean ratings of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score and the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score were 77 and 81, respectively. The long-term oncological and functional results are encouraging and suggest that extracorporeal irradiation and reimplantation can be a long-lasting biological reconstructive technique in properly selected patients.

  9. Cartilage damage involving extrusion of mineralisable matrix from the articular calcified cartilage and subchondral bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Boyde

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthropathy of the distal articular surfaces of the third metacarpal (Mc3 and metatarsal (Mt3 bones in the Thoroughbred racehorse (Tb is a natural model of repetitive overload arthrosis. We describe a novel pathology that affects the articular calcified cartilage (ACC and subchondral bone (SCB and which is associated with hyaline articular cartilage degeneration. Parasagittal slices cut from the palmar quadrant of the distal condyles of the left Mc3/Mt3 of 39 trained Tbs euthanased for welfare reasons were imaged by point projection microradiography, and backscattered electron (BSE scanning electron microscopy (SEM, light microscopy, and confocal scanning light microscopy. Mechanical properties were studied by nanoindentation. Data on the horses' training and racing career were also collected. Highly mineralised projections were observed extending from cracks in the ACC mineralising front into the hyaline articular cartilage (HAC up to two-thirds the thickness of the HAC, and were associated with focal HAC surface fibrillation directly overlying their site. Nanoindentation identified this extruded matrix to be stiffer than any other mineralised phase in the specimen by a factor of two. The presence of projections was associated with a higher cartilage Mankin histology score (P < 0.02 and increased amounts of gross cartilage loss pathologically on the condyle (P < 0.02. Presence of projections was not significantly associated with: total number of racing seasons, age of horse, amount of earnings, number of days in training, total distance galloped in career, or presence of wear lines.

  10. Hyaline cartilage degenerates after autologous osteochondral transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibesku, C O; Szuwart, T; Kleffner, T O; Schlegel, P M; Jahn, U R; Van Aken, H; Fuchs, S

    2004-11-01

    Autologous osteochondral grafting is a well-established clinical procedure to treat focal cartilage defects in patients, although basic research on this topic remains sparse. The aim of the current study was to evaluate (1) histological changes of transplanted hyaline cartilage of osteochondral grafts and (2) the tissue that connects the transplanted cartilage with the adjacent cartilage in a sheep model. Both knee joints of four sheep were opened surgically and osteochondral grafts were harvested and simultaneously transplanted to the contralateral femoral condyle. The animals were sacrificed after three months and the received knee joints were evaluated histologically. Histological evaluation showed a complete ingrowth of the osseous part of the osteochondral grafts. A healing or ingrowth at the level of the cartilage could not be observed. Histological evaluation of the transplanted grafts according to Mankin revealed significantly more and more severe signs of degeneration than the adjacent cartilage, such as cloning of chondrocytes and irregularities of the articular surface. We found no connecting tissue between the transplanted and the adjacent cartilage and histological signs of degeneration of the transplanted hyaline cartilage. In the light of these findings, long-term results of autologous osteochondral grafts in human beings have to be followed critically.

  11. Proceedings of the workshop on triggering and data acquisition for experiments at the Supercollider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, R. [ed.

    1989-04-01

    This meeting covered the following subjects: triggering requirements for SSC physics; CDF level 3 trigger; D0 trigger design; AMY trigger systems; Zeus calorimeter first level trigger; data acquisition for the Zeus Central Tracking Detector; trigger and data acquisition aspects for SSC tracking; data acquisition systems for the SSC; validating triggers in CDF level 3; optical data transmission at SSC; time measurement system at SSC; SSC/BCD data acquisition system; microprocessors and other processors for triggering and filtering at the SSC; data acquisition, event building, and on-line processing; LAA real-time benchmarks; object-oriented system building at SSC; and software and project management. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Prime Contractors with Awards Over $25,000 by Name, Location, and Contract Number, Fiscal Year 87. Part 6. HI Desert Eagle Corporation-Kingsley Machine Company, Incorporated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    a a . c - 4 ) ) x’ m~ a4 a. a a J~C 0. ~a.L a. a m ac zz acca > a0 0 a0 a 0o~ a a 7- .CLa - cF 4 0 - HH u H auH. z~ -a a A wa a a~~~ a w .Laa.4 w...FF cc>C ~ ~ ~ ~ F o F ,.FF X1 F F -C F) F F -IC 0~~ 3 F F F3 Lo3F< 4 FF 4 0 F F . F 0 F 4 F * 0 0 OFUF 0 C 0 1 F CZFCi F7 Zl F C ,O D O C F - F F F...8217. ZU)to -At-4 - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ k OD.-.-- - - - - - -.. -. . .~- - - r ~rwr y vva v- - - .3l f3 . ~ r.- (SOc Cr J m- OD( N t--C m m

  13. Dance notations and robot motion

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    How and why to write a movement? Who is the writer? Who is the reader? They may be choreographers working with dancers. They may be roboticists programming robots. They may be artists designing cartoons in computer animation. In all such fields the purpose is to express an intention about a dance, a specific motion or an action to perform, in terms of intelligible sequences of elementary movements, as a music score that would be devoted to motion representation. Unfortunately there is no universal language to write a motion. Motion languages live together in a Babel tower populated by biomechanists, dance notators, neuroscientists, computer scientists, choreographers, roboticists. Each community handles its own concepts and speaks its own language. The book accounts for this diversity. Its origin is a unique workshop held at LAAS-CNRS in Toulouse in 2014. Worldwide representatives of various communities met there. Their challenge was to reach a mutual understanding allowing a choreographer to access robotics ...

  14. Steni muinasjutuvõistluse võitjad selgunud / Ants Roos, Ann Roos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roos, Ants

    2008-01-01

    Steni XVI muinasjutuvõistluse žüriisse kuulusid: Ann Roos, Ants Roos, Leelo Tungal, Krista Kumberg, Leida Olszak, Ülle Väljataga. Tulemused: I koht Siim Niinelaid, II koht Julius Air Kull, III koht Mihkel Rammu. Žürii eriauhinnad: Anna Kristin Peterson, Elis Ruus, Rain Hallikas, Mariliis Peterson, Marjaliisa Palu, Karl Kirsimäe, Margaret Pulk. Ergutusauhinnad: Karmel Klaus, Martti Kaljuste, Kristina Korell, Mirjam Võsaste, Mihkel Põder, Iirys Kalde, Miriam Jamul, Mari-Ann Mägi, Ketlin Saar, Liisbeth Kirss. Muud eriauhinnad said: Allan Läll, Berle Mees, Anett Kuuse, Karl Erik Kübarsepp, Grete Tamm, Siim Niinelaid, Kaisa Marie Sipelgas, Ellen Anett Põldmaa, Evelin Laul, Karl Laas, Karl Stamm, Kerli Retter

  15. Microstructure and composition of a SNS Josephson junction using CaRuO3 as the metallic barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozeveld, S.; Merkle, K.L.; Char, K.

    1994-10-01

    Superconductor - normal - superconductor (SNS) edge junctions consisting of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x /CaRuO 3 /YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x were fabricated on (001) LaA1O 3 substrates. These devices display an excess interface resistance which is not well understood but is related to the SN interface and interlayer structure. High-resolution and conventional transmission electron microscopy were employed to investigate the SN interface to determine the structure and possible interface defects. Energy-loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis were performed on the CaRuO 3 film and near interface regions to quantify the extent of interdiffusion between the CiRuO 3 and YBCO films. Changes in either the interface structure or the normal layer chemistry are expected to greatly influence the junction properties

  16. Review of the hybrid photo diode tube (HPD) an advanced light detector for physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzivino, G.; Baillon, P.; Benetti, P.; Boskma, L.; Burger, P.; Contin, A.; DeSalvo, R.; Gorodetzky, P.; Grassi, D.; Hao, W.; He, H.; Liu, L.; Lundin, M.; Mondardini, M.R.; Paolucci, S.; Rossella, M.; Santiard, J.C.; Schomaker, R.; You, K.; Wang, K.; Wang, Y.; Xia, X.; Xu, C.; Yang, C.; Zhao, M.

    1995-01-01

    The HPD is a nonmultiplicative light detector with typical gain of 1000 to 5000. Its development project, mainly supported by the CERN LAA project and by the INFN group V, was originally intended to find a replacement for the photo multiplier (PM) tubes for scintillating fibre calorimeter readout. After five years of development the HPD has become a versatile light detector, commercially available for everyday use, that can outperform PM tubes in photon counting efficiency and resolution, multi tesla magnetic field operation, uniformity of response, fast pulse dynamic range, and gain stability. The HPD has also a wide edge on PMs on pixelization potential and it is getting more and more competitive on timing properties. A review of the HPD performances and its latest advances are reported. (orig.)

  17. Review of the hybrid photo diode tube (HPD) an advanced light detector for physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzivino, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati; Arnaudon, H. [Universite` L. Pasteur, 4, rue B. Pascal, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Baillon, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Benetti, P. [INFN Sezione di Pavia and Universita` di Pavia, via A. Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Boskma, L. [DEP, P.O. box 60, NL-9300 AB Roden (Netherlands); Burger, P. [Canberra, Lammerdries 25, B-2250 Olen (Belgium); Contin, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]|[INFN Sezione di Bologna and Universita` di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); DeSalvo, R. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gorodetzky, P. [CNRS, Strasbourg (France); Grassi, D. [INFN Sezione di Pavia and Universita` di Pavia, via A. Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Hao, W. [IHEP, Beijing (China); He, H. [IHEP, Beijing (China); Liu, L. [IHEP, Beijing (China); Lundin, M. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Mondardini, M.R. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Paolucci, S. [INFN Sezione di Pavia and Universita` di Pavia, via A. Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Rossella, M. [INFN Sezione di Pavia and Universita` di Pavia, via A. Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Santiard, J.C. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Schomaker, R. [DEP, P.O. box 60, NL-9300 AB Roden (Netherlands); You, K. [IHEP, Beijing (China); Wang, K. [IHEP, Beijing (China); Wang, Y. [IHEP, Beijing (China); Xia, X. [IHEP, Beijing (China); Xu, C. [IHEP, Beijing (China); Yang, C. [IHEP, Beijing (China); Zhao, M. [IHEP, Beijing (China)

    1995-11-01

    The HPD is a nonmultiplicative light detector with typical gain of 1000 to 5000. Its development project, mainly supported by the CERN LAA project and by the INFN group V, was originally intended to find a replacement for the photo multiplier (PM) tubes for scintillating fibre calorimeter readout. After five years of development the HPD has become a versatile light detector, commercially available for everyday use, that can outperform PM tubes in photon counting efficiency and resolution, multi tesla magnetic field operation, uniformity of response, fast pulse dynamic range, and gain stability. The HPD has also a wide edge on PMs on pixelization potential and it is getting more and more competitive on timing properties. A review of the HPD performances and its latest advances are reported. (orig.).

  18. Higher levels of serum fibrin-monomer reflect hypercoagulable state and thrombus formation in the left atrial appendage in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Hidenobu; Hirono, Osamu; Liu, Ling; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Kayama, Takamasa; Kubota, Isao

    2006-08-01

    It is sometimes difficult to make a diagnosis of cardioembolic stroke in the stroke care unit, because of the splashing and vanishing of the intracardiac source of the emboli on transesophageal echocardiography. Serum fibrin-monomer (FM) is a new marker for coagulation activity that is useful for identifying older individuals at increased risk of ischemic stroke. Two hundred and four patients with acute ischemic stroke were examined for serum coagulation and fibrinolytic activity on admission, and underwent transesophageal echocardiography within 7 days of onset. Serum levels of FM was significantly higher in patients with left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombus formation (n=24) than in those with no thrombus (88+/-52 vs 14+/-9 microg/ml, pvs 8+/-5 microg/ml, pstroke.

  19. Classification of the height and flexibility of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Mettte Kjaergaard; Friis, Rikke; Michaelsen, Maria Skjoldahl

    2012-01-01

    -off values presented in this study can be used to categorize people performing standing work into groups of different foot arch types. The results of this study are important for investigating a possible link between arch height and arch movement and the development of injuries....... was to identify cut-off values for maximum values and ROM of the MLA of the foot during static tests and to identify factors influencing foot posture. METHODS: The participants consisted of 254 volunteers from Central and Northern Denmark (198 m/56 f; age 39.0 +/- 11.7 years; BMI 27.3 +/- 4.7 kg/m2). Navicular...... height (NH), longitudinal arch angle (LAA) and Feiss line (FL) were measured for either the left or the right foot in a subtalar neutral position and subtalar resting position. Maximum values and ROM were calculated for each test. The 95% and 68% prediction intervals were used as cut-off limits. Multiple...

  20. How can we get intelligent systems close to experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, R.K.; Ermolin, Y.; Krischer, W.; Ljuslin, C.; Lone, S.; Marchioro, A.; Zografos, K.

    1989-01-01

    For the high data rates expected at future multi-TeV hadronic colliders like the SSC, it is of utmost importance to take decisions in real time on partial data and as fast as possible. At a first level and shortest timescale, some customized electronics will reduce the rates. In a second phase, decisions have to use concepts closer to physics and hence imply the presence of some intelligence in the trigger. This paper considers various parallel computer or computer-like systems for their possibilities to be embedded as critical active elements in future detectors. The authors discuss the present activities and the pilot systems being built up as part of the LAA project at CERN. These activities aim at a better understanding of existing commercial systems, their design, and their limits of performance

  1. A new gaseous detector for tracking: The blade chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, G.; Battiston, R.; Levi, G.; Barillari, T.; Susinno, G.; Bergsma, F.; Contin, A.; Labbe, J.C.; Laurenti, G.; Mattern, D.; Simonet, G.; Williams, M.C.S.; Zichichi, A.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, G.; De Pasquale, S.; Giusti, P.; Maccarrone, G.; Nania, R.; O'Shea, V.; Castro, H.; Galvez, J.; Rivera, F.; Schioppa, M.; Sharma, A.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the LAA project at CERN a prototype of a streamer-chamber in which a blade, instead of a wire, is used as the amplification electrode has been built. A big advantage is that the blade can be bent to follow a curve so that a chamber can be built with cells ideally matched to the geometry of the experiment. Moreover, a blade is very rugged, it can withstand severe mechanical shocks and it is also resistant to damage by sparks. The drift time has been measured and a spatial resolution of 250μm has been achieved. Left-right ambiguity can be solved by measuring the charge asymmetry on the walls. The coordinate along the blade is read by external pickup strips. (orig.)

  2. Oxidation states of Fe in LaNi1-xFexO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeta, A.E.; Falcon, H.; Carbonio, R.

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of oxidation states in perovskites of the type LaA 1-x B x O 3 (A and B transition metal ions) can be ''tailored'' by x variation. In particular, in LaNiO 3 it has been shown that Fe substitution for Ni foces some Ni 3+ into Ni 2+ , while some Fe 3+ changes into the unusual Fe 4+ state. In addition, the existence of mixed oxidation states of Fe and/or Ni in LaNi 1-x Fe x O 3 has been related to its catalytic activity in hydrogen peroxide decomposition. The Fe 4+ population, obtained using Moessbauer spectroscopy, was found to be constant for all the analyzed annealing temperatures for x = 0.25 concentration, where the isomer shift difference for both states is the highest and the catalytic activity is maximum. (orig.)

  3. The multigap RPC detector and the ALICE time-of-flight

    CERN Document Server

    Zichichi, A

    2003-01-01

    One of the new detectors invented within the LAA project is the Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC). The MRPC has been selected as the Time-of-Flight detector of choice for the ALICE experiment. The R and D program to optimise the MRPC for this application has now been completed, resulting in a device with 10 gas gaps of 250 mu m in width; a summary is given in this paper. Concerning the front-end electronics, there is an on-going development of an ASIC using 0.25 micron CMOS; the excellent performance of the ASIC is evident from the initial tests; some results will be shown here. Finally the timing properties of this detector open up other applications such as for Positron Electron Tomography. (author)

  4. A 10 MHz micropower CMOS front end for direct readout of pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.; Heijne, E.H.M.; Jarron, P.; Krummenacher, F.; Enz, C.C.; Declercq, M.; Vittoz, E.; Viertel, G.

    1990-01-01

    In the framework of the CERN-LAA project for detector R and D, a micropower circuit of 200 μmx200 μm with a current amplifier, a latched comparator and a digital memory element has been tested electrically and operated in connection with linear silicon detector arrays. The experimental direct-readout (DRO) chip comprises a matrix of 9x12 circuit cells and has been manufactured in a 3 μm CMOS technology. Particles and X-ray photons below 22 keV were detected, and thresholds can be set between 2000 and 20000 e - . The noise is less than 4 keV FWHM or 500 e - rms and the power dissipation per pixel element is 30 μW. The chip can be coupled to a detector matrix using bump bonding. (orig.)

  5. Forearc structure in the Lesser Antilles inferred from depth to the Curie temperature and thermo-mechanical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailler, Lydie; Arcay, Diane; Münch, Philippe; Martelet, Guillaume; Thinon, Isabelle; Lebrun, Jean-Frédéric

    2017-06-01

    Imaging deep active volcanic areas remains a challenge in our understanding of their activity and evolution, especially in subduction zones. Study of magnetic anomalies is appropriate to access such dynamics in depth. The magnetic anomaly pattern of the Lesser Antilles Arc (LAA) subduction is studied through Curie Point Depth (CPD), interpreted as the depth of the 580 °C isotherm, and developed to better assess the deep thermal structure of the arc. The depth of the estimated CPD exhibits a complex topography. Keeping in mind the overall uncertainty associated with this method, a main doming is evidenced below the Guadeloupe archipelago. Its apex is shifted towards the ancient arc, suggesting a very hot state of the fore-arc/arc domain. To better understand the LAA thermal state, we perform 2D thermo-mechanical simulations of the subduction zone. Recalling that magnetite is a serpentinization by-product, we simulate water transfer triggered by slab dehydration to test the assumption of fore-arc serpentinization suggested by the positive magnetic anomaly in the vicinity of the Guadeloupe archipelago. In this area, the subduction-induced arc lithosphere hydration and related weakening trigger a fast heating of the upper plate by basal convective removal. This process of fast arc lithosphere thinning may apply where simultaneously the volcanic arc is split in two and normal convergence is high enough. As serpentinization strongly decreases P-wave velocity, we propose a new interpretation of a published seismic profile below Guadeloupe. The seismic layer previously interpreted as the arc lower crust may rather be a layer of serpentinized mantle, as supported by spatial correlations between gravimetric and magnetic anomalies. Consequently, at the scale of Guadeloupe Island, the fore-arc Moho would be shallower than initially assumed, with a dome shape more consistent with both the extensive deformation active since the Oligocene in the inner fore-arc and the CPD doming.

  6. Progressive deficit in isolated pontine infarction: the association with etiological subtype, lesion topography and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçal, Elif; Niftaliyev, Elvin; Baran, Gözde; Deniz, Çiğdem; Asil, Talip

    2017-09-01

    It is important to predict progressive deficit (PD) in isolated pontine infarction, a relatively common problem of clinical stroke practice. Traditionally, lacunar infarctions are known with their progressive course. However, few studies have analyzed the branch atheromatous disease subtype as a subtype of lacunar infarction, separately. There are also conflicting results regarding the relationship with the topography of lesion and PD. In this study, we classified etiological subtypes and lesion topography in isolated pontine infarction and aimed to investigate the association of etiological subtypes, lesion topography and clinical outcome with PD. We analyzed demographics, laboratory parameters, and risk factors of 120 patients having isolated pontine infarction and admitted within 24 h retrospectively. PD was defined as an increase in the National Institutes of Health Stroke scale ≥2 units in 5 days after onset. Patients were classified as following: large artery disease (LAA), basilar artery branch disease (BABD) and small vessel disease (SVD). Upper, middle and lower pontine infarcts were identified longitudinally. Functional outcome at 3 months was determined according to modified Rankin scores. Of 120 patients, 41.7% of the patients were classified as BABD, 30.8% as SVD and 27.5% as LAA. 23 patients (19.2%) exhibited PD. PD was significantly more frequent in patient with BABD (p 0.006). PD was numerically higher in patients with lower pontine infarction. PD was associated with BABD and poor functional outcome. It is important to discriminate the BABD neuroradiologically from other stroke subtypes to predict PD which is associated with poor functional outcome in patients with isolated pontine infarctions.

  7. Association between Interleukin-1 Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Ischemic Stroke Classified by TOAST Criteria in the Han Population of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that IL-1β (C-511T and IL-1α (C-889T genes polymorphisms are associated with the susceptibility to cardiocerebral vascular disease. In this paper, we investigated the relationships between these polymorphisms and the risk of ischemic stroke (IS classified by TOAST criteria in the north Chinese Han population. 440 cases of IS and 486 age- and gender-matched controls of Chinese Han population were enrolled. Association study showed that the TT genotype and T allele of IL-1α-889 C/T were significantly associated with IS of a large artery atherosclerosis (LAA (TT: OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.34–3.0, and P<0.001; T: OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.18–1.78, and P=0.001. However, there was no significant difference in the distribution of IL-1α-889 C/T genotypes and allele frequencies between the two subgroups (small-artery occlusion (SVD and cardioembolism (CE of IS and control groups. No significant association was also found between the IL-1β-511 TT genotype and T allele (TT: OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.56–1.11, and P=0.175; T: OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.68–1.01, and P=0.066 and IS as well as subgroups of CE and SVD. Our results implicated that IL-1α-889 C/T gene polymorphism might be associated with the susceptibility to IS, especially to IS with LAA, in a north Chinese Han population.

  8. Initial amino acid intake influences phosphorus and calcium homeostasis in preterm infants--it is time to change the composition of the early parenteral nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bonsante

    Full Text Available Early aggressive parenteral nutrition (PN, consisting of caloric and nitrogen intake soon after birth, is currently proposed for the premature baby. Some electrolyte disturbances, such as hypophosphatemia and hypercalcemia, considered unusual in early life, were recently described while using this PN approach. We hypothesize that, due to its impact on cell metabolism, the initial amino acid (AA amount may specifically influence the metabolism of phosphorus, and consequently of calcium. We aim to evaluate the influence of AA intake on calcium-phosphorus metabolism, and to create a calculation tool to estimate phosphorus needs.Prospective observational study. Phosphate and calcium plasma concentrations and calcium balance were evaluated daily during the first week of life in very preterm infants, and their relationship with nutrition was studied. For this purpose, infants were divided into three groups: high, medium and low AA intake (HAA, MAA, LAA. A calculation formula to assess phosphorus needs was elaborated, with a theoretical model based on AA and calcium intake, and the cumulative deficit of phosphate intake was estimated.154 infants were included. Hypophosphatemia (12.5% and hypercalcemia (9.8% were more frequent in the HAA than in the MAA (4.6% and 4.8% and in the LAA group (0% and 1.9%; both p<0.001.Calcium-phosphorus homeostasis was influenced by the early AA intake. We propose to consider phosphorus and calcium imbalances as being part of a syndrome, related to incomplete provision of nutrients after the abrupt discontinuation of the placental nutrition at birth (PI-ReFeeding syndrome. We provide a simple tool to calculate the optimal phosphate intake. The early introduction of AA in the PN soon after birth might be completed by an early intake of phosphorus, since AA and phosphorus are (along with potassium the main determinants of cellular growth.

  9. Recurrent transient ischaemic attack and early risk of stroke: data from the PROMAPA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purroy, Francisco; Jiménez Caballero, Pedro Enrique; Gorospe, Arantza; Torres, María José; Alvarez-Sabin, José; Santamarina, Estevo; Martínez-Sánchez, Patricia; Cánovas, David; Freijo, María José; Egido, Jose Antonio; Ramírez-Moreno, Jose M; Alonso-Arias, Arantza; Rodríguez-Campello, Ana; Casado, Ignacio; Delgado-Mederos, Raquel; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Fuentes, Blanca; Silva, Yolanda; Quesada, Helena; Cardona, Pere; Morales, Ana; de la Ossa, Natalia Pérez; García-Pastor, Antonio; Arenillas, Juan F; Segura, Tomas; Jiménez, Carmen; Masjuán, Jaime

    2013-06-01

    Many guidelines recommend urgent intervention for patients with two or more transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) within 7 days (multiple TIAs) to reduce the early risk of stroke. To determine whether all patients with multiple TIAs have the same high early risk of stroke. Between April 2008 and December 2009, we included 1255 consecutive patients with a TIA from 30 Spanish stroke centres (PROMAPA study). We prospectively recorded clinical characteristics. We also determined the short-term risk of stroke (at 7 and 90 days). Aetiology was categorised using the TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) classification. Clinical variables and extracranial vascular imaging were available and assessed in 1137/1255 (90.6%) patients. 7-Day and 90-day stroke risk were 2.6% and 3.8%, respectively. Large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) was confirmed in 190 (16.7%) patients. Multiple TIAs were seen in 274 (24.1%) patients. Duration <1 h (OR=2.97, 95% CI 2.20 to 4.01, p<0.001), LAA (OR=1.92, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.72, p<0.001) and motor weakness (OR=1.37, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.81, p=0.031) were independent predictors of multiple TIAs. The subsequent risk of stroke in these patients at 7 and 90 days was significantly higher than the risk after a single TIA (5.9% vs 1.5%, p<0.001 and 6.8% vs 3.0%, respectively). In the logistic regression model, among patients with multiple TIAs, no variables remained as independent predictors of stroke recurrence. According to our results, multiple TIAs within 7 days are associated with a greater subsequent risk of stroke than after a single TIA. Nevertheless, we found no independent predictor of stroke recurrence among these patients.

  10. Immunological evaluation of lipopeptide group A streptococcus (GAS vaccine: structure-activity relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehfuz Zaman

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus, GAS is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen responsible for a wide variety of diseases. To date, GAS vaccine development has focused primarily on the M-protein. The M-protein is highly variable at the amino (N-terminus (determining serotype but is conserved at the carboxyl (C-terminus. Previously a 29 amino acid peptide (named J14 from the conserved region of the M-protein was identified as a potential vaccine candidate. J14 was capable of eliciting protective antibodies that recognized many GAS serotypes when co-administered with immuno-stimulants. This minimal epitope however showed no immunogenicity when administered alone. In an attempt overcome this immunological non-responsiveness, we developed a self-adjuvanting vaccine candidate composed of three components: the B-cell epitope (J14, a universal helper T-cell epitope (P25 and a lipid moiety consisting of lipoamino acids (Laas which target Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2. Immunological evaluation in B10.BR (H-2k mice demonstrated that the epitope attachment to the point of lipid moiety, and the length of the Laa alkyl chain have a profound effect on vaccine immunogenicity after intranasal administration. It was demonstrated that a vaccine featuring C-terminal lipid moiety containing alkyl chains of 16 carbons, with P25 located at the N-terminus, and J14 attached to the side chain of a central lysine residue was capable of inducing optimal antibody response. These findings have considerable relevance to the development of a broad spectrum J14-based GAS vaccine and in particular provided a rational basis for peptide vaccine design based on this self-adjuvanting lipopeptide technology.

  11. Humidity sorption on natural building stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, C.; Mirwald, P.

    2003-04-01

    processes, physical, chemical or biological, depend on the presence of water. Like most porous materials building stone respond on humidity by water uptake. The sorption isotherm represents the equilibrium moisture, specific for each material. The determination of the isotherm for stone of low and small porosity like marble is difficult. With the help of a newly developed water sorption analysis chamber [2], which allows the simultaneous measurement of 11 samples, good results on stone/rock samples have been obtained. Even at marble species with pore volumes lower than 0.4 % isotherms are measured. This analytical method offers new insights in the pore behaviour of low porosity materials. The advantages of this technique which supplements other techniques (e.g. BET, Hg-porosimetry) are: i) the testing agent is identical to the weathering agent, water; ii) the atmospheric parameters at the measurement reflect the natural conditions - thus no changes to the material properties have to be considered; iii) due to the small diameter of the water molecule (~0.28 nm), smaller pores are reached than e.g. with N2 (~0.31 nm). Sorption isotherms of sandstone (Baumberg, Obernkirchen, Groeden), granite (Brixen), and marble (Sterzing, Laas) are presented. Particular as to marbles the resolution is considerably higher. A previously observed negative hysteresis [3] seems an effect due to limited data resolution. [1] Snethlage, R. (1984) Steinkonservierung, Bayer. LA Denkmalpflege, Ah. 22, 203 S. [2] Griesser, U.J., Dillenz, J. (2002) Neuartiges, vollautomatisches Feuchtesorptionsprüfgerät mit hohem Probendurchsatz, Feuchtetag 2002, Weimar, 85-93. [3] Fimmel, R. (1996) Verwitterungsverhalten der alpinen Marmore von Laas und Sterzing, Diss. Univ. Ibk, 116 S.

  12. Arterial stiffness and functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong-Bae; Park, Joo-Hwan; Kim, Eunja; Kang, Chang-Ki; Park, Hyeon-Mi

    2014-03-01

    Arterial stiffness is a common change associated with aging and can be evaluated by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV) between sites in the arterial tree, with the stiffer artery having the higher PWV. Arterial stiffness is associated with the risk of stroke in the general population and of fatal stroke in hypertensive patients. This study is to clarify whether PWV value predicts functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke. ONE HUNDRED PATIENTS WERE ENROLLED WITH A DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE AND CATEGORIZED INTO TWO GROUPS: large-artery atherosclerosis (LAAS) or small vessel disease (SVD) subtype of Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. Each group was divided into two sub-groups based on the functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke, indicated by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge. Poor functional outcome group was defined as a mRS ≥ 3 at discharge. Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test were used to compare maximal brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) values. Twenty-four patients whose state was inadequate to assess baPWV or mRS were excluded. There were 38 patients with good functional outcome (mRS vs. 1,789.80 ± 421.91, p = 0.022), while there was no significant difference of baPWV among patients with LAAS subtype (2,071.76 ± 618.42 vs. 1,878.00 ± 365.35, p = 0.579). Arterial stiffness indicated by baPWV is associated with the functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke. This finding suggests that measurement of baPWV predicts functional outcome in patients with stroke especially those whose TOAST classification was confirmed as SVD subtype.

  13. Physiological and foliar symptom response in the crowns of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ambient ozone under forest conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaub, M.; Skelly, J.M.; Zhang, J.W.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Savage, J.E.; Stevenson, R.E.; Davis, D.D.; Steiner, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania. Ambient ozone concentrations, meteorological parameters, leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential were measured at the sites during the growing seasons of 1998 and 1999. Visible ozone-induced foliar injury was assessed on leaves within the upper and lower crown branches of each tree. Ambient ozone exposures were sufficient to induce typical symptoms on cherry (0-5% total affected leaf area, LAA), whereas foliar injury was not observed on ash or maple. There was a positive correlation between increasing cumulative ozone uptake (U) and increasing percent of LAA for cherry grown under drier site conditions. The lower crown leaves of cherry showed more severe foliar injury than the upper crown leaves. No significant differences in predawn leaf water potential (ψ L ) were detected for all three species indicating no differing soil moisture conditions across the sites. Significant variation in stomatal conductance for water vapor (g wv ) was found among species, soil moisture, time of day and sample date. When comparing cumulative ozone uptake and decreased photosynthetic activity (P n ), red maple was the only species to show higher gas exchange under mesic vs. drier soil conditions (P wv and P n demonstrate the strong influence of heterogeneous environmental conditions within forest canopies. - Within the heterogeneous environment of a mature forest, many factors in addition to soil moisture play a significant role in determining exposure/response relationships to ozone

  14. A pilot trial on pulmonary emphysema quantification and perfusion mapping in a single-step using contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong Wook; Seo, Joon Beom; Lee, Youngjoo; Chae, Eun Jin; Kim, Namkug; Lee, Hyun Joo; Hwang, Hye Jeon; Lim, Chae-Hun

    2012-01-01

    To know whether contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography angiography (DECTA) can be used for simultaneous assessment of emphysema quantification and regional perfusion evaluation. We assessed 27 patients who had pulmonary emphysema and no pulmonary embolism on visual assessment of CT images, among 584 consecutive patients who underwent DECTA for the evaluation of pulmonary embolism. Virtual noncontrast (VNC) images were generated by modifying the "Liver VNC" application in a dedicated workstation. Using in-house software, the low-attenuation area below 950HU (LAA950), the 15th percentile attenuation (15pctlVNC) and the mean lung attenuation (MeanVNC) were calculated. The "Lung PBV" application was used to assess perfusion, and the low-iodine area below 5HU (LIA5), the 15th percentile iodine (15pctlIodine), and the mean iodine value (MeanIodine) were calculated from iodine map images. The correlation between VNC parameters and pulmonary function test data (available in 22 patients) and the correlation between VNC and iodine map parameters (all included 27 patients) were assessed. Color-coded map of VNC image were compared with iodine map images for the evaluation of regional heterogeneity. We observed moderate correlations between LAA950 and predicted %FEV1 (rs = -0.47, P VNC images. We observed moderate correlations between quantitative parameters on VNC images and pulmonary function test data, and also observed moderate correlations between the severity of parenchymal destruction, as determined from VNC images, and perfusion status, as determined from iodine maps. Therefore, the contrast-enhanced DECTA can be used for the emphysema quantification and regional perfusion evaluation by using the VNC images and iodine map, simultaneously.

  15. Microwave properties of HTS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, D.W.; Arendt, P.M.; Grey, E.R.; Muenchausen, R.E.; Bennett, B.L.; Foltyn, S.R.; Estler, R.C.; Wu, X.D.; Reeves, G.A.; Elliott, N.E.; Brown, D.R.; Portis, A.M.; Taber, R.C.; Mogrocampero, A.

    1990-01-01

    High-frequency applications of high- temperature superconductors generally fall into two categories: 1) devices that require low values (relative to Cu) of surface resistance R S in ambient surface magnetic fields H rf ; and 2) devices that require low R S in modest fields (H rf ∼ 250 Oe). Moreover, many applications can be realized with small- surface-area films (∼ 1 cm 2 ) whereas others require larger areas - radiofrequency (rf) cavities, for example. Regardless of the application, the potential of HTS films is predicted on satisfying one or both of the above-stated requirements. The authors have measured the surface resistance of small-area (1 cm 2 ) and large-area (6.5 cm 2 ) YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) films that have been laser ablated onto LaA ell O 3 substrates, large-area (5.1 cm 2 YBCO films that have been e-beam deposited onto LaA ell O 3 , and large-area (11.4 cm 2 ) T ell-based films that have been magnetron sputtered onto metallic substrates. The best R S values are obtained from the 1-cm 2 laser-ablated films; they are 40 μΩ and 340 μΩ at 4 K And 77 K, respectively (ω/2π = 10 GHz). Comparable values for Cu are 6 and 13 mΩ, respectively. Large-area T ell-based films yield typical R S values of 4 mΩ and 14 mΩ at 4 K and 77 K, respectively (ω/2π = 18 GHz). The dependence of R S on H rf for these films indicates that surface fields as large as 55 Oe can be achieved with R S increasing only by a factor of 10. This field dependence is associated with c-axis texturing

  16. The association of systemic microvascular changes with lung function and lung density: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Harris

    Full Text Available Smoking causes endothelial dysfunction and systemic microvascular disease with resultant end-organ damage in the kidneys, eyes and heart. Little is known about microvascular changes in smoking-related lung disease. We tested if microvascular changes in the retina, kidneys and heart were associated with obstructive spirometry and low lung density on computed tomography. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis recruited participants age 45-84 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. Measures of microvascular function included retinal arteriolar and venular caliber, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and, in a subset, myocardial blood flow on magnetic resonance imaging. Spirometry was measured following ATS/ERS guidelines. Low attenuation areas (LAA were measured on lung fields of cardiac computed tomograms. Regression models adjusted for pulmonary and cardiac risk factors, medications and body size. Among 3,397 participants, retinal venular caliber was inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1 (P<0.001 and FEV(1/forced vital capacity (FVC ratio (P = 0.04. Albumin-to-creatinine ratio was inversely associated with FEV(1 (P = 0.002 but not FEV(1/FVC. Myocardial blood flow (n = 126 was associated with lower FEV(1 (P = 0.02, lower FEV(1/FVC (P = 0.001 and greater percentage LAA (P = 0.04. Associations were of greater magnitude among smokers. Low lung function was associated with microvascular changes in the retina, kidneys and heart, and low lung density was associated with impaired myocardial microvascular perfusion. These cross-sectional results suggest that microvascular damage with end-organ dysfunction in all circulations may pertain to the lung, that lung dysfunction may contribute to systemic microvascular disease, or that there may be a shared predisposition.

  17. An in vitro study on the effect of free amino acids alone or in combination with nisin on biofilms as well as on planktonic bacteria of Streptococcus mutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchun Tong

    Full Text Available Free D-amino acids (D-AAs are one of the most striking features of the peptidoglycan composition in bacteria and play a key role in regulating and disassembling bacterial biofilms. Previous studies have indicated that the antimicrobial peptide nisin can inhibit the growth of the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans. The present study investigated the effect of free amino acids either alone or in combination with nisin on biofilm and on planktonic S. mutans bacteria. The results of the MIC and MBC analyses showed that D-cysteine (Cys, D- or L-aspartic acid (Asp, and D- or L-glutamic acid (Glu significantly improve the antibacterial activity of nisin against S. mutans and that the mixture of D-Cys, D-Asp, and D-Glu (3D-AAs and the mixture of L-Cys, L-Asp, and L-Glu (3L-AAs at a concentration of 40 mM can prevent S. mutans growth. Crystal violet staining showed that the D- or L-enantiomers of Cys, Asp, and Glu at a concentration of 40 mM can inhibit the formation of S. mutans biofilms, and their mixture generated a stronger inhibition than the components alone. Furthermore, the mixture of the three D-AAs or L-AAs may improve the antibacterial activity of nisin against S. mutans biofilms. This study underscores the potential of free amino acids for the enhancement of the antibacterial activity of nisin and the inhibition of the cariogenic bacteria S. mutans and biofilms.

  18. Glycosaminoglycan loss from cartilage after anterior cruciate ligament rupture: influence of time since rupture and chondral injury Perda de glicosaminoglicanas da cartilagem após ruptura do ligamento cruzado anterior: influência do tempo de ruptura e da lesão condral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMG Mattiello-Rosa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the concentration of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs concentration in the synovial fluid (SF of knees with chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL rupture and to identify possible associations between GAG concentration in SF and the time elapsed since rupture and degree of chondral injury. METHOD: Fourteen adult male subjects with total unilateral ACL rupture, which had occurred between 5 and 144 months earlier, were assessed. All subjects underwent joint aspiration; it was possible to collect SF from ten individuals. The samples were quantified to determine the GAG concentration using dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB staining. The degree of chondral injury was macroscopically evaluated using the modified Mankin histological scale. Spearman correlation test (OBJETIVO: Quantificar a concentração de glicosaminoglicanas sulfatadas (GAGs no líquido sinovial (LS de joelhos com ruptura crônica do ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA e identificar uma possível correlação entre a concentração de GAGs no LS e o tempo pós-ruptura e grau de lesão condral. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 14 indivíduos adultos do sexo masculino com ruptura total unilateral do LCA, ocorrida entre cinco a 144 meses. Todos os sujeitos foram puncionados, sendo possível a coleta de LS em dez indivíduos. As amostras foram quantificadas para determinar a concentração de GAGs usando a coloração azul de dimetilmetileno, método descrito por Farndale21. O grau de lesão condral foi macroscopicamente avaliado pela escala histológica de Mankin modificada por Messner14. As correlações entre concentração de GAGs e lesão condral foram feitas pelo teste de correlação de Sperman (p< 0,05 e a concentração de GAGs e tempo pós-ruptura pelo teste de correlação de Pearson (p< 0,05. RESULTADOS: Concentração de GAGs no LS apresentou variação média de 73,84 ± 40,75µg/mL, sendo o tempo médio pós-ruptura de 40,4 + 40,3 meses. Não houve correla

  19. Meniscectomia parcial como modelo experimental de osteoartrite em coelhos e efeito protetor do difosfato de cloroquina Partial meniscectomy as an experimental model of osteoarthritis in rabbits and protector effect of chloroquine diphosphate

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    Ana Paula P. Velosa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer as alterações morfológicas e o remodelamento do tecido cartilaginoso na progressão da osteoartrite (OA experimental para estudar o efeito do difosfato de cloroquina na cartilagem osteoartrítica. MÉTODOS: A osteoartrite experimental foi induzida em coelhos por meio de meniscectomia parcial. Para analisar a evolução da doença experimental foram estudados três grupos de dez animais, sacrificados a 3, 14 e 22 semanas de indução da doença. Para avaliar o efeito do difosfato de cloroquina um grupo de animais (n = 6 foi tratado preventivamente com 3 mg/kg ao dia, iniciados um mês antes da indução da osteoartrite, e mantidos até o sacrifício (22 semanas. Realizou-se análise histológica das articulações (H&E, tricrômico de Masson e imunofluorescência para colágeno dos tipos I, II e XI. A intensidade da agressão articular foi quantificada pelo escore de Mankin. RESULTADOS: O modelo experimental reproduziu todas as alterações morfológicas observadas na osteoartrite humana. Animais que receberam difosfato de cloroquina não desenvolveram lesões histológicas observadas na OA. Neste grupo houve significante preservação da estrutura da cartilagem articular (p OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop an experimental model of osteoarthritis (OA that could reproduce morphologic alterations viewed in this disease and to study the effect of chloroquine diphosphate on cartilage remodeling. METHODS: osteoarthritis was induced in rabbits by performing partial meniscectomy. To establish the experimental disease evolution, three groups of ten animals were sacrificed at 3, 14, 22 weeks after disease induction. To evaluate the effect of chloroquine diphosfate in OA progression, a group of six animals was treated preventively with 3 mg/kg/day, started one month prior to osteoarthritis induction and kept until the day of sacrifice (22 weeks. Histopathological (Masson trychrome, H&E, biochemical and

  20. Downregulation of miR-221-3p contributes to IL-1β-induced cartilage degradation by directly targeting the SDF1/CXCR4 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Zhao, Feng-Chao; Pang, Yong; Li, Dong-Ya; Yao, Sheng-Cheng; Sun, Shao-Song; Guo, Kai-Jin

    2017-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by degradation of chondrocyte extracellular matrix (ECM). Accumulating evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with OA, but little is known of their function in chondrocyte ECM degradation. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and function of miRNAs in OA. miRNA expression profile was determined in OA cartilage tissues and controls, employing Solexa sequencing and reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). According to a modified Mankin scale, cartilage degradation was evaluated. Functional analysis of the miRNAs on chondrocyte ECM degradation was performed after miRNA transfection and IL-1β treatment. Luciferase reporter assays and western blotting were employed to determine miRNA targets. Expression of miR-221-3p was downregulated in OA cartilage tissues, which was significantly correlated with a modified Mankin scale. Through gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, miR-221-3p was shown to significantly affect matrix synthesis gene expression and chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis. Using SW1353 and C28I2 cells, SDF1 was identified as a target of miR-221-3p. SDF1 overexpression resulted in increased expression of catabolic genes such as MMP-13 and ADAMTS-5 in response to IL-1β, but these effects were moderated by miR-221-3p. SDF1 treatment antagonized this effect, while knockdown of SDF1 by shSDF1 induced inhibitory effects on the expression of CXCR4 and its main target genes, similar to miR-221-3p. The results indicate that upregulation of miR-221-3p could prevent IL-1β-induced ECM degradation in chondrocytes. Targeting the SDF1/CXCR4 signaling pathway may be used as a therapeutic approach for OA. miR-221-3p is downregulated in human cartilage tissues. miR-221-3p levels are associated with cartilage degeneration grade. miR-221-3p upregulation prevents IL-1β-induced ECM degradation in chondrocytes. Protection of ECM degradation by miR-223-3p occurs via SDF1/CXCR4

  1. Relação entre a lesão condral e o pico de torque após reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior do joelho: estudo de casos Relationship between chondral lesion and peak torque following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction of the knee: case study

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    RF Traete

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A associação entre lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA e desenvolvimento de osteoartrite (OA secundária tem sido objeto de vários estudos. A lesão ligamentar predispõe a lesões da cartilagem articular, influenciando, assim, o controle motor e o pico de torque. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do grau de lesão condral no pico de torque da musculatura anterior e posterior da coxa após lesão e reconstrução do LCA. MÉTODO: Seis sujeitos do sexo masculino com lesão total e unilateral do LCA foram avaliados pré-cirurgia (24 horas antes da cirurgia e pós-cirurgia em dois momentos distintos, 4,66 ± 1,03 e 15,83 ± 2,63 meses, respectivamente. As avaliações isocinéticas foram realizadas no modo concêntrico de flexão e extensão do joelho, nas velocidades de 60º/s e 180º/s, em que foram a analisadas as variáveis PT dos isquiotibiais (PTI, PT do quadríceps (PTQ e a relação entre eles (I/Q. A escala histológica de Mankin modificada foi utilizada para avaliar o grau macroscópico de lesão condral. O teste estatístico ANOVA (pCONTEXT: The association between anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury and the development of secondary osteoarthritis has been the subject of several studies. Ligament injury predisposes joint cartilage lesions, thus influencing motor control and peak torque. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of the degree of chondral lesion on peak torque of the anterior and posterior musculature of the thigh following ACL injury and reconstruction. METHOD: Six male subjects with total unilateral ACL injury were evaluated 24 hours before surgery and at two times after surgery (4.66 ± 1.03 and 15.83 ± 2.63 months, respectively. Isokinetic evaluations of knee flexion and extension were made in concentric mode, at velocities of 60º/s and 180º/s, and the variables of hamstring peak torque (HPT and quadriceps peak torque (QPT and hamstring/quadriceps ratio (H/Q were analyzed. The modified

  2. Articulation of Native Cartilage Against Different Femoral Component Materials. Oxidized Zirconium Damages Cartilage Less Than Cobalt-Chrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlommel, Jan; De Corte, Ronny; Luyckx, Jean Philippe; Anderson, Melissa; Labey, Luc; Bellemans, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Oxidized zirconium (OxZr) is produced by thermally driven oxidization creating an oxidized surface with the properties of a ceramic at the top of the Zr metal substrate. OxZr is much harder and has a lower coefficient of friction than cobalt-chrome (CoCr), both leading to better wear characteristics. We evaluated and compared damage to the cartilage of porcine patella plugs, articulating against OxZr vs CoCr. Our hypothesis was that, owing to its better wear properties, OxZr would damage cartilage less than CoCr. If this is true, OxZr might be a better material for the femoral component during total knee arthroplasty if the patella is not resurfaced. Twenty-one plugs from porcine patellae were prepared and tested in a reciprocating pin-on-disk machine while lubricated with bovine serum and under a constant load. Three different configurations were tested: cartilage-cartilage as the control group, cartilage-OxZr, and cartilage-CoCr. Macroscopic appearance, cartilage thickness, and the modified Mankin score were evaluated after 400,000 wear cycles. The control group showed statistically significant less damage than plugs articulating against both other materials. Cartilage plugs articulating against OxZr were statistically significantly less damaged than those articulating against CoCr. Although replacing cartilage by an implant always leads to deterioration of the cartilage counterface, OxZr results in less damage than CoCr. The use of OxZr might thus be preferable to CoCr in case of total knee arthroplasty without patella resurfacing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Making star teams out of star players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, Michael; Bird, Alan; Root, James

    2013-01-01

    Top talent is an invaluable asset: In highly specialized or creative work, for instance, "A" players are likely to be six times as productive as "B" players. So when your company has a crucial strategic project, why not multiply all that firepower and have a team of your best performers tackle it? Yet many companies hesitate to do this, believing that all-star teams don't work: Big egos will get in the way. The stars won't be able to work with one another. They'll drive the team Leader crazy. Mankins, Bird, and Root of Bain & Company believe it's time to set aside that thinking. They have seen all-star teams do extraordinary work. But there is a right way and a wrong way to organize them. Before you can even begin to assemble such a team, you need to have the right talent management practices, so you hire and develop the best people and know what they're capable of. You have to give the team appropriate incentives and leaders and support staffers who are stars in their own right. And projects that are ill-defined or small scale are not for all-star teams. Use them only for critical missions, and make sure their objectives are clear. Even with the right setup, things can still go wrong. The wise executive will take steps to manage egos, prune non-team-players, and prevent average coworkers from feeling completely undervalued. She will also invest a lot of time in choosing the right team Leader and will ask members for lots of feedback to monitor how that leader is doing.

  4. Preliminary histopathological study of intra-articular injection of a novel highly cross-linked hyaluronic acid in a rabbit model of knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannitti, Tommaso; Elhensheri, Mohamed; Bingöl, Ali O; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2013-04-01

    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease mostly occurring in the knee and commonly seen in middle-aged and elderly adults. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid has been widely used for treatment of knee osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intra-articular injection of a novel highly cross-linked hyaluronic acid, alone or in combination with ropivacaine hydrochloride and triamcinolone acetonide, on knee articular cartilage in a rabbit model of collagenase-induced knee osteoarthritis. After induction of experimental osteoarthritis by intra-articular injection of collagenase, adult New Zealand white rabbits (n = 12) were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 (control group) received 0.3 ml phosphate buffered saline into the right knee joint. Group 2 received 0.3 ml cross-linked hyaluronic acid (33 mg/ml) into the right knee joint. Group 3 received a mixture of 0.15 ml cross-linked hyaluronic acid (33 mg/ml), 0.05 ml ropivacaine hydrochloride 1 % and 0.1 ml triamcinolone acetonide (10 mg/ml) into the right knee joint. Intra-articular injections were given 4 weeks after first collagenase injection and were administered once a week for 3 weeks. Gross pathology and histological evaluation of rabbits' knee joints were performed after 16 weeks following initial collagenase injection. Histological analysis of sections of right knee joints at lesion sites showed a significant decrease in Mankin's score in groups treated with hyaluronic acid alone or in combination with ropivacaine hydrochloride and triamcinolone acetonide versus control group (p hyaluronic acid, alone or in combination with ropivacaine hydrochloride and triamcinolone acetonide, produces a significant improvement in knee articular cartilage degeneration in a rabbit model of collagenase-induced osteoarthritis.

  5. A comparison between platelet-rich plasma (PRP and hyaluronate acid on the healing of cartilage defects.

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    Ji Liu

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP has offered great promise for the treatment of cartilage degradation, and has been proved to have positive effects on the restoration of cartilage lesions. But no comparative work has been done between PRP and hyaluronate acid (HA concerning their restoring effect on cartilage defect, especially by means of animal experiments and histologic assessments. The purpose of the study was to compare the therapeutic effects of P-PRP and HA on osteoarthritis in rabbit knees. Thirty rabbits were used to establish the animal models by creating a cartilage defect of 5 mm in diameter on the condyles of the femurs, and were randomly divided into three groups: the P-PRP group, HA group and the control group. Then each group was treated with P-PRP, HA or saline solution, respectively. Six and twelve weeks later the rabbits were sacrificed and the samples were collected. The platelet number, the concentrations of growth factors of P-PRP and whole blood, and the IL-1β concentration in the joint fluid were investigated, and the histological assessment of the cartilage were performed according to Mankin's scoring system. Micro-CT was also used to evaluate the restoration of subchondral bone. The platelet concentration in P-PRP is 6.8 fold of that in the whole blood. The IL-1β level in the P-PRP group was lower than in the HA group (p<0.01 and in the control group (p<0.01. The restoration of the defected cartilage as well as the subchondral bone was better in the P-PRP group than in the HA group or the control group (P<0.05. Our data showed that P-PRP is better than HA in promoting the restoration of the cartilage and alleviating the arthritis caused by cartilage damage.

  6. Knocking out or pharmaceutical inhibition of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) alleviates osteoarthritis induced by high-fat diet in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Chiu, K Y; Chan, B P M; Li, T; Wen, C; Xu, A; Yan, C H

    2018-06-01

    Adipokines play roles in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is a novel adipokine that is closely associated with obesity and metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to discover the potential role of FABP4 in OA. Seventy-two FABP4 knockout mice (KO) in C57BL/6N background and wild-type littermates (WT) (male, 6-week-old) were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD, 60% calorie) or standard diet (STD, 11.6% calorie) for 3 months, 6 months and 9 months (n = 6 each). In the parallel study, forty-eight 6-week-old male WT mice were fed with HFD or STD, and simultaneously treated with daily oral gavage of selective FABP4 inhibitor BMS309403 (15 mg/kg/d) or vehicle for 4 months and 6 months (n = 6 each). Serum FABP4 and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) concentration was quantified. Histological assessment of knee OA and micro-CT analysis of subchondral bone were performed. HFD induced obesity in mice. After 3 months and 6 months of HFD, KO mice showed alleviated cartilage degradation and synovitis, with significantly lower COMP, modified Mankin OA score, and MMP-13/ADAMTS4 expression. After 6 months and 9 months of HFD, KO mice showed less osteophyte formation and subchondral bone sclerosis. Chronic treatment of BMS309403 for 4 months and 6 months significantly alleviated cartilage degradation, but had no effects on the subchondral bone. Knocking out or pharmaceutical inhibition of FABP4 did not have significant effects on lean mice fed with STD. Knocking out or pharmaceutical inhibition of FABP4 alleviates OA induced by HFD in mice. Copyright © 2018 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of Notch1 promotes hedgehog signalling in a HES1-dependent manner in chondrocytes and exacerbates experimental osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Neng-Yu; Distler, Alfiya; Beyer, Christian; Philipi-Schöbinger, Ariella; Breda, Silvia; Dees, Clara; Stock, Michael; Tomcik, Michal; Niemeier, Andreas; Dell'Accio, Francesco; Gelse, Kolja; Mattson, Mark P; Schett, Georg; Distler, Jörg Hw

    2016-11-01

    Notch ligands and receptors have recently been shown to be differentially expressed in osteoarthritis (OA). We aim to further elucidate the functional role of Notch signalling in OA using Notch1 antisense transgenic (Notch1 AS) mice. Notch and hedgehog signalling were analysed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Notch-1 AS mice were employed as a model of impaired Notch signalling in vivo. Experimental OA was induced by destabilisation of the medial meniscus (DMM). The extent of cartilage destruction and osteophyte formation was analysed by safranin-O staining with subsequent assessment of the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) and Mankin scores and µCT scanning. Collagen X staining was used as a marker of chondrocyte hypertrophy. The role of hairy/enhancer of split 1 (Hes-1) was investigated with knockdown and overexpression experiments. Notch signalling was activated in human and murine OA with increased expression of Jagged1, Notch-1, accumulation of the Notch intracellular domain 1 and increased transcription of Hes-1. Notch1 AS mice showed exacerbated OA with increases in OARSI scores, osteophyte formation, increased subchondral bone plate density, collagen X and osteocalcin expression and elevated levels of Epas1 and ADAM-TS5 mRNA. Inhibition of the Notch pathway induced activation of hedgehog signalling with induction of Gli-1 and Gli-2 and increased transcription of hedgehog target genes. The regulatory effects of Notch signalling on Gli-expression were mimicked by Hes-1. Inhibition of Notch signalling activates hedgehog signalling, enhances chondrocyte hypertrophy and exacerbates experimental OA including osteophyte formation. These data suggest that the activation of the Notch pathway may limit aberrant hedgehog signalling in OA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Comparison of gait and pathology outcomes of three meniscal procedures for induction of knee osteoarthritis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cake, M A; Read, R A; Corfield, G; Daniel, A; Burkhardt, D; Smith, M M; Little, C B

    2013-01-01

    Meniscectomy (MX) of sheep induces a well-established animal model of human osteoarthritis (OA). This study compared the clinical (lameness) and pathological outcomes of unilateral, complete medial MX vs two less traumatic and more easily performed meniscal destabilisation procedures. Four-year old wethers (n = 6/group) underwent sham operation, cranial pole release (CPR), mid-body transection (MBT) or total MX of the medial meniscus. Joints were assessed for gross pathology (cartilage erosion and osteophytes), histomorphometry, two histopathology scoring methods (modified Mankin-type and Pritzker score), and immunohistology for ADAMTS- and MMP-cleaved neoepitopes, at 12 weeks post-op. Ground reaction forces (GRFs) were determined by force plate in a subset (n = 4/group) at baseline, 2.5, 8, and 12 weeks post-op. Gross pathology scores of operated groups differed significantly from sham animals (P osteophyte formation. Similarly, histopathology scores were significantly elevated vs sham but did not differ between operated groups at P subchondral sclerosis, suggesting some residual biomechanical effect from the destabilised but intact meniscus. Few significant differences were noted between operated groups in force plate analyses, though gait abnormalities appeared to be least in CPR sheep, and most persistent (>12 weeks) in MBT animals. The well-validated ovine MX model and the simpler meniscal destabilisation procedures resulted in broadly similar joint pathology and lameness. Meniscal CPR or MBT, as easier and more clinically relevant procedures, may represent preferred models for the induction of OA and evaluation of potential disease-modifying therapies. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of articular cartilage and subchondral bone changes in the rat anterior cruciate ligament transection and meniscectomized models of osteoarthritis.

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    Hayami, Tadashi; Pickarski, Maureen; Zhuo, Ya; Wesolowski, Gregg A; Rodan, Gideon A; Duong, Le T

    2006-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease characterized by cartilage destruction, subchondral bone sclerosis, and osteophyte formation. Subchondral bone stiffness has been proposed to initiate and/or contribute to cartilage deterioration in OA. The purpose of this study was to characterize subchondral bone remodeling, cartilage damage, and osteophytosis during the disease progression in two models of surgically induced OA. Rat knee joints were subjected either to anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) alone or in combination with resection of medial menisci (ACLT + MMx). Histopathological changes in the surgical joints were compared with sham at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 weeks post-surgery. Using a modified Mankin scoring system, we demonstrate that articular cartilage damage occurs within 2 weeks post-surgery in both surgical models. Detectable cartilage surface damage and proteoglycan loss were observed as early as 1 week post-surgery. These were followed by the increases in vascular invasion into cartilage, in loss of chondrocyte number and in cell clustering. Histomorphometric analysis revealed subchondral bone loss in both models within 2 weeks post-surgery followed by significant increases in subchondral bone volume relative to sham up to 10 weeks post-surgery. Incidence of osteophyte formation was optimally observed in ACLT joints at 10 weeks and in ACLT + MMx joints at 6 weeks post-surgery. In summary, the two surgically induced rat OA models share many characteristics seen in human and other animal models of OA, including progressive articular cartilage degradation, subchondral bone sclerosis, and osteophyte formation. Moreover, increased subchondral bone resorption is associated with early development of cartilage lesions, which precedes significant cartilage thinning and subchondral bone sclerosis. Together, these findings support a role for bone remodeling in OA pathogenesis and suggest that these rat models are suitable for evaluating bone

  10. Histopathological subgroups in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, L A; Moreton, B J; Mapp, P I; Wilson, D; Hill, R; Ferguson, E; Scammell, B E; Walsh, D A

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a heterogeneous, multi-tissue disease. We hypothesised that different histopathological features characterise different stages during knee OA progression, and that discrete subgroups can be defined based on validated measures of OA histopathological features. Medial tibial plateaux and synovium were from 343 post-mortem (PM) and 143 OA arthroplasty donations. A 'chondropathy/osteophyte' group (n = 217) was classified as PM cases with osteophytes or macroscopic medial tibiofemoral chondropathy lesions ≥grade 3 to represent pre-surgical (early) OA. 'Non-arthritic' controls (n = 48) were identified from the remaining PM cases. Mankin histopathological scores were subjected to Rasch analysis and supplemented with histopathological scores for subchondral bone marrow replacement and synovitis. Item weightings were derived by principle components analysis (PCA). Histopathological subgroups were sought using latent class analysis (LCA). Chondropathy, synovitis and osteochondral pathology were each associated with OA at arthroplasty, but each was also identified in some 'non-arthritic' controls. Tidemark breaching in the chondropathy/osteophyte group was greater than in non-arthritic controls. Three histopathological subgroups were identified, characterised as 'mild OA', or 'severe OA' with mild or moderate/severe synovitis. Presence and severity of synovitis helps define distinct histopathological OA subgroups. The absence of a discrete 'normal' subgroup indicates a pathological continuum between normality and OA status. Identifying specific pathological processes and their clinical correlates in OA subgroups has potential to accelerate the development of more effective therapies. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Whole meniscus regeneration using polymer scaffolds loaded with fibrochondrocytes

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    LU Hua-ding

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To study the feasibility of regenerating a whole menisci using poly- (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV scaffolds loaded with meniscal cells in rabbits undergoing total meniscectomy, and to explore its protective effect on cartilage degeneration. Methods: A solvent casting and particulate leaching technique was employed to fabricate biodegradable PHBV scaffolds into a meniscal shape. The proliferated meniscal cells were seeded onto the polymer scaffolds, transplanted into rabbit knee joints whose lateral menisci had been removed. Eight to 18 weeks after transplantation, the regenerated neomenisci were evaluated by gross and histological observations. Cartilage degeneration was assessed by Mankin score. Results: Eighteen weeks after transplantation, the implants formed neomenisci. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE staining of the neomenisci sections revealed regeneration of fibrocartilage. Type I collagen in the neomenisci was also proved similar to normal meniscal tissue by immunohistochemical analysis and Sirius scarlet trinitrophenol staining. Articular cartilage degeneration was observed 8 weeks after implantation. It was less severe as compared with that in total meniscectomy controls and no further degeneration was observed at 18 weeks. At that time, the regenerated neomenisci strongly resembled normal meniscal fibrocartilage in gross and histological appearance, and its mechani- cal property was also close to that of normal meniscus. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates the feasibility of tissue-engineering a whole meniscal structure in total meniscectomy rabbit models using biodegradable PHBV scaffolds together with cultured allogeneic meniscal cells. Cartilage degeneration is decreased. But long-term in vivo investigations on the histological structure and cartilage degeneration of the neomenisci regenerated by this method are still necessary to determine the clinical potential of this tissue

  12. Effects of phosphorylatable short peptide-conjugated chitosan-mediated IL-1Ra and igf-1 gene transfer on articular cartilage defects in rabbits.

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    Ronglan Zhao

    Full Text Available Previously, we reported an improvement in the transfection efficiency of the plasmid DNA-chitosan (pDNA/CS complex by the utilization of phosphorylatable short peptide-conjugated chitosan (pSP-CS. In this study, we investigated the effects of pSP-CS-mediated gene transfection of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein (IL-1Ra combined with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 in rabbit chondrocytes and in a rabbit model of cartilage defects. pBudCE4.1-IL-1Ra+igf-1, pBudCE4.1-IL-1Ra and pBudCE4.1-igf-1 were constructed and combined with pSP-CS to form pDNA/pSP-CS complexes. These complexes were transfected into rabbit primary chondrocytes or injected into the joint cavity. Seven weeks after treatment, all rabbits were sacrificed and analyzed. High levels of IL-1Ra and igf-1 expression were detected both in the cell culture supernatant and in the synovial fluid. In vitro, the transgenic complexes caused significant proliferation of chondrocytes, promotion of glycosaminoglycan (GAG and collagen II synthesis, and inhibition of chondrocyte apoptosis and nitric oxide (NO synthesis. In vivo, the exogenous genes resulted in increased collagen II synthesis and reduced NO and GAG concentrations in the synovial fluid; histological studies revealed that pDNA/pSP-CS treatment resulted in varying degrees of hyaline-like cartilage repair and Mankin score decrease. The co-expression of both genes produced greater effects than each single gene alone both in vitro and in vivo. The results suggest that pSP-CS is a good candidate for use in gene therapy for the treatment of cartilage defects and that igf-1 and IL-1Ra co-expression produces promising biologic effects on cartilage defects.

  13. Turning great strategy into great performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, Michael C; Steele, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Despite the enormous time and energy that goes into strategy development, many companies have little to show for their efforts. Indeed, research by the consultancy Marakon Associates suggests that companies on average deliver only 63% of the financial performance their strategies promise. In this article, Michael Mankins and Richard Steele of Marakon present the findings of this research. They draw on their experience with high-performing companies like Barclays, Cisco, Dow Chemical, 3M, and Roche to establish some basic rules for setting and delivering strategy: Keep it simple, make it concrete. Avoid long, drawn-out descriptions of lofty goals and instead stick to clear language describing what your company will and won't do. Debate assumptions, not forecasts. Create cross-functional teams drawn from strategy, marketing, and finance to ensure the assumptions underlying your long-term plans reflect both the real economics of your company's markets and its actual performance relative to competitors. Use a rigorous analytic framework. Ensure that the dialogue between the corporate center and the business units about market trends and assumptions is conducted within a rigorous framework, such as that of "profit pools". Discuss resource deployments early. Create more realistic forecasts and more executable plans by discussing up front the level and timing of critical deployments. Clearly identify priorities. Prioritize tactics so that employees have a clear sense of where to direct their efforts. Continuously monitor performance. Track resource deployment and results against plan, using continuous feedback to reset assumptions and reallocate resources. Reward and develop execution capabilities. Motivate and develop staff. Following these rules strictly can help narrow the strategy-to-performance gap.

  14. Modification of osteoarthritis in the guinea pig with pulsed low-intensity ultrasound treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkan, I; Ranganathan, A; Yang, X; Horton, W E; Todman, M; Huckle, J; Pleshko, N; Spencer, R G

    2010-05-01

    The Hartley guinea pig develops articular cartilage degeneration similar to that seen in idiopathic human osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated whether the application of pulsed low-intensity ultrasound (PLIUS) to the Hartley guinea pig joint would prevent or attenuate the progression of this degenerative process. Treatment of male Hartley guinea pigs was initiated at the onset of degeneration (8 weeks of age) to assess the ability of PLIUS to prevent OA, or at a later age (12 months) to assess the degree to which PLIUS acted to attenuate the progression of established disease. PLIUS (30 mW/cm(2)) was applied to stifle joints for 20 min/day over periods ranging from 3 to 10 months, with contralateral limbs serving as controls. Joint cartilage histology was graded according to a modified Mankin scale to evaluate treatment effect. Immunohistochemical staining for interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, MMP-13, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 was performed on the cartilage to evaluate patterns of expression of these proteins. PLIUS did not fully prevent cartilage degeneration in the prevention groups, but diminished the severity of the disease, with the treated joints showing markedly decreased surface irregularities and a much smaller degree of loss of matrix staining as compared to controls. PLIUS also attenuated disease progression in the groups with established disease, although to a somewhat lesser extent as compared to the prevention groups. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated a markedly decreased degree of TGF-beta1 production in the PLIUS-treated joints. This indicates less active endogenous repair, consistent with the marked reduction in cartilage degradation. PLIUS exhibits the ability to attenuate the progression of cartilage degeneration in an animal model of idiopathic human OA. The effect was greater in the treatment of early, rather than established, degeneration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Spontaneous osteoarthritis in Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs: histologic, radiologic, and biochemical changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, P.A.; Glasson, S.S.; Trubetskoy, O.V.; Haimes, H.B.

    1997-01-01

    Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs develop spontaneous, age-related osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and other joints. Histologic changes are observed beginning at 3 months of age. Disease severity increases with age, and at 18 months moderate to severe OA is observed. A study was undertaken to assess the morphologic and biochemical changes of 22-month-old animals, and to compare them with values in 2-month-old guinea pigs. Biochemical indices characteristic of OA, from tibial cartilage, indicated an increase in proteoglycan content from 283 +/- 2 micrograms/mg (mean +/- SEM) at 2 months of age to 365 +/- 6 micrograms/mg at 22 months. Collagen concentration in cartilage decreased from 364 +/- 2 micrograms/ at 2 months to 223 +/- 3 micrograms/mg at 22 months. Proteoglycan fragments found in synovial fluid measured 4.6 +/- 1 micrograms/ml at 2 months and increased to 37 +/- 2 micrograms/ml at 22 months. Radiographic changes observed at 22 months included marginal osteophytes of the tibia and femur, sclerosis of the subchondral bone of the tibial plateau, femoral condyle cysts, and calcification of the collateral ligaments. Histologic evaluation revealed severe OA, with a Mankin score of 10.7 +/- 0.5 in 22-month-old animals. In contrast, 2-month-old animals had no histologic or radiographically detectable lesions. The results of the study reported here indicate that the lesions observed in this model are similar to those of human OA. Spontaneous development of OA in guinea pig is amenable to the study of the pathogenesis of OA and to the evaluation of potential disease-modifying agents

  16. Transplantation of autologous synovial mesenchymal stem cells promotes meniscus regeneration in aged primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shimpei; Muneta, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Koga, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Sotome, Shinichi; Okawa, Atsushi; Kiuchi, Shinji; Ono, Hideo; Mizuno, Mitsuru; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2017-06-01

    Transplantation of aggregates of synovial mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) enhanced meniscus regeneration in rats. Anatomy and biological properties of the meniscus depend on animal species. To apply this technique clinically, it is valuable to investigate the use of animals genetically close to humans. We investigated whether transplantation of aggregates of autologous synovial MSCs promoted meniscal regeneration in aged primates. Chynomolgus primates between 12 and 13 years old were used. After the anterior halves of the medial menisci in both knees were removed, an average of 14 aggregates consisting of 250,000 synovial MSCs were transplanted onto the meniscus defect. No aggregates were transplanted to the opposite knee for the control. Meniscus and articular cartilage were analyzed macroscopically, histologically, and by MRI T1rho mapping at 8 (n = 3) and 16 weeks (n = 4). The medial meniscus was larger and the modified Pauli's histological score for the regenerated meniscus was better in the MSC group than in the control group in each primate at 8 and 16 weeks. Mankin's score for the medial femoral condyle cartilage was better in the MSC group than in the control group in all primates at 16 weeks. T1rho value for both the regenerated meniscus and adjacent articular cartilage in the MSC group was closer to the normal meniscus than in the control group in all primates at 16 weeks. Transplantation of aggregates of autologous synovial MSCs promoted meniscus regeneration and delayed progression of degeneration of articular cartilage in aged primates. This is the first report dealing with meniscus regeneration in primates. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1274-1282, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The effect of high-energy extracorporeal shock waves on hyaline cartilage of adult rats in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Wagner, Susanne; Ernst, Judith; Maier, Markus; Chiquet, Matthias; Joos, Helga; Müller, Peter E; Jansson, Volkmar; Sievers, Birte; Hausdorf, Jörg

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in vivo affects the structural integrity of articular cartilage. A single bout of ESWT (1500 shock waves of 0.5 mJ/mm(2)) was applied to femoral heads of 18 adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Two sham-treated animals served as controls. Cartilage of each femoral head was harvested at 1, 4, or 10 weeks after ESWT (n = 6 per treatment group) and scored on safranin-O-stained sections. Expression of tenascin-C and chitinase 3-like protein 1 (Chi3L1) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine collagen (II)alpha(1) (COL2A1) expression and chondrocyte morphology was investigated by transmission electron microscopy no changes in Mankin scores were observed after ESWT. Positive immunostaining for tenascin-C and Chi3L1 was found up to 10 weeks after ESWT in experimental but not in control cartilage. COL2A1 mRNA was increased in samples 1 and 4 weeks after ESWT. Alterations found on the ultrastructural level showed expansion of the rough-surfaced endoplasmatic reticulum, detachment of the cell membrane and necrotic chondrocytes. Extracorporeal shock waves caused alterations of hyaline cartilage on a molecular and ultrastructural level that were distinctly different from control. Similar changes were described before in the very early phase of osteoarthritis (OA). High-energy ESWT might therefore cause degenerative changes in hyaline cartilage as they are found in initial OA. Copyright 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Quantitative computed tomography measurements to evaluate airway disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Relationship to physiological measurements, clinical index and visual assessment of airway disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nambu, Atsushi, E-mail: nambu-a@gray.plala.or.jp [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO, 80206 (United States); Zach, Jordan, E-mail: ZachJ@NJHealth.org [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO, 80206 (United States); Schroeder, Joyce, E-mail: Joyce.schroeder@stanfordalumni.org [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO, 80206 (United States); Jin, Gongyoung, E-mail: gyjin@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO, 80206 (United States); Kim, Song Soo, E-mail: haneul88@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO, 80206 (United States); Kim, Yu-IL, E-mail: kyionly@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO (United States); Schnell, Christina, E-mail: SchnellC@NJHealth.org [Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO (United States); Bowler, Russell, E-mail: BowlerR@NJHealth.org [Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health (United States); Lynch, David A., E-mail: LynchD@NJHealth.org [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO, 80206 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To correlate currently available quantitative CT measurements for airway disease with physiological indices and the body-mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity (BODE) index in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Materials and methods: This study was approved by our institutional review board (IRB number 2778). Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. The subjects included 188 current and former cigarette smokers from the COPDGene cohort who underwent inspiratory and expiratory CT and also had physiological measurements for the evaluation of airflow limitation, including FEF25-75%, airway resistance (Raw), and specific airway conductance (sGaw). The BODE index was used as the index of clinical symptoms. Quantitative CT measures included % low attenuation areas [% voxels ≤ 950 Hounsfield unit (HU) on inspiratory CT, %LAA{sub −950ins}], percent gas trapping (% voxels ≤ −856 HU on expiratory CT, %LAA {sub −856exp}), relative inspiratory to expiratory volume change of voxels with attenuation values from −856 to −950 HU [Relative Volume Change (RVC){sub −856} {sub to} {sub −950}], expiratory to inspiratory ratio of mean lung density (E/I-ratio {sub MLD}), Pi10, and airway wall thickness (WT), luminal diameter (LD) and airway wall area percent (WA%) in the segmental, subsegmental and subsubsegmental bronchi on inspiratory CT. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the QCT measurements and physiological measurements in all subjects and in the subjects with mild emphysema (%LAA{sub −950ins} <10%). Univariate and multiple variable analysis for the BODE index were also performed. Adjustments were made for age, gender, smoking pack years, FEF25-75%, Raw, and sGaw. Results: Quantitative CT measurements had significant correlations with physiological indices. Among them, E/I-ratio {sub MLD} had the strongest correlations with FEF25-75% (r = −0.648, <0.001) and sGaw (r = −0

  19. Od melancholii do rozpaczy. O prozie Andrzeja Stasiuka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Snochowska-Gonzalez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available From melancholy to despair. About Andrzej Stasiuk’s prose works In Moja Europa, Jadąc do Babadag and Fado Andrzej Stasiuk describes his travelling to the countries of the East-Central Europe: its diminished, forgotten part, lying on the margins of History and Progress. It is a land of melancholy, of the eternal emptiness and lack. To praise it means to give an ironic response to the enthusiasm of a “return to the West”, to the attempts to meet East-European stigma and to the West’s fear of East-European ferocity. What is the source of this melancholy? Stasiuk refers to Cioran, his philosophy of history, his resignation and his belief in the bankruptcy of the European civilization. We know, however, that in the case of Cioran melancholy covers the memory of philosopher’s commitment to Romanian fascism; his subsequent melancholy replaces responsibility. What are the wounds and silenced victims hiding in Stasiuk’s melancholic landscape? What kind of responsibility does he not want to accept? In his next book, Dziennik pisany później, Stasiuk comes back to the same countries, this time not trying to escape the hell of questions about the East-European ethnic carnage. The author of the article analyses his turning point, using the terminology developed in Peter Hallward’s Absolutely Post-colonial to describe the dynamics between two tendencies: singular and specific.   Od melancholii do rozpaczy. O prozie Andrzeja Stasiuka W Mojej Europie, Jadąc do Babadag i Fado Andrzej Stasiuk podróżuje po krajach Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej. To Europa pomniejsza, zapomniana, na marginesie Historii i Postępu. Jest to kraina melancholii, pustki i wiecznego braku. Opiewanie jej staje się ironiczną odpowiedzią na entuzjazm „powrotu do Zachodu”, na próby sprostania wschodnioeuropejskiemu piętnu i na zachodnie przerażenie wschodnioeuropejską dzikością. Skąd się jednak bierze spowijająca ją melancholia? Stasiuk powołuje się na

  20. A composite material based on nanoparticles of yttrium (III) oxide for the selective and sensitive electrochemical determination of acetaminophen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban; Aslanoglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor was prepared by modifying a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with a composite of yttrium (III) oxide nanoparticles (Y_2O_3NPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the determination of acetaminophen (ACT). Compared with a bare GCE and CNTs/GCE, the Y_2O_3NPs/CNTs/GCE exhibited a well-defined redox couple for ACT and highly enhanced the current response. The separations in the anodic and cathodic peak potentials (ΔE_p) for ACT were 552 mV, 24 mV and 10 mV at ba4re GCE, CNTs/GCE and Y_2O_3NPs/CNTs/GCE, respectively. The observation of only 10 mV of ΔE_p for ACT at Y_2O_3NPs/CNTs/GCE was a clear indication of a great acceleration of the electrode process compared to bare GCE and GCE modified with CNTs. Also, L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) and L-tyrosine (L-TRY) did not interfere with the selective determination of ACT. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was performed for the quantification of ACT. A linear plot was obtained for current responses versus the concentrations of ACT over the range from 1.0 × 10"−"1"0 to 1.8 × 10"−"8 M with a detection limit of 3.0 × 10"−"1"1 M (based on 3S_b/m). The proposed composite material provided high electrocatalytic activity, improved voltammetric behavior, good selectivity and good reproducibility. The accurate quantification of ACT makes the proposed electrode of great interest for the public health. - Highlights: • A voltammetric sensor based on yttrium oxide was prepared for the detection of ACT. • The proposed electrode has greatly accelerated the voltammetric process of ACT. • A detection limit of 0.03 nM was obtained for ACT. • The proposed electrode exhibited great selectivity for ACT in the presence of L-AA and L-TRY. • The composite material exhibited high sensitivity, good stability and excellent reproducibility.

  1. An inactivated gE-deleted pseudorabies vaccine provides complete clinical protection and reduces virus shedding against challenge by a Chinese pseudorabies variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jichun; Guo, Rongli; Qiao, Yongfeng; Xu, Mengwei; Wang, Zhisheng; Liu, Yamei; Gu, Yiqi; Liu, Chang; Hou, Jibo

    2016-12-07

    Since the end of 2011 an outbreak of pseudorabies affected Chinese pig herds that had been vaccinated with the commercial vaccine made of Bartha K61 strain. It is now clear that the outbreak was caused by an emergent PRV variant. Even though vaccines made of PRV Bartha K61 strain can confer certain cross protection against PRV variants based on experimental data, less than optimal clinical protection and virus shedding reduction were observed, making the control or eradication of this disease difficult. An infectious clone of PRV AH02LA strain was constructed to generate a gE deletion mutant PRV(LA-A B ) strain. PRV(LA-A B ) strain can reach a titer of 10 8.43 TCID 50 /mL (50% tissue culture infectious dose) on BHK-21 cells. To evaluate the efficiency of the inactivated vaccine made of PRV(LA-A B ) strain, thirty 3-week-old PRV-negative piglets were divided randomly into six groups for vaccination and challenge test. All five piglets in the challenge control showed typical clinical symptoms of pseudorabies post challenge. Sneezing and nasal discharge were observed in four and three piglets in groups C(vaccinated with inactivated PRV Bartha K61 strain vaccine) and D(vaccinated with live PRV Bartha K61 strain vaccine) respectively. In contrast, piglets in both groups A(vaccinated with inactivated PRV LA-AB strain vaccine) and B(vaccinated with inactivated PRV LA-A B strain vaccine with adjuvant) presented mild or no clinical symptoms. Moreover, viral titers detected via nasal swabs were approximately 100 times lower in group B than in the challenge control, and the duration of virus shedding (3-4 days) was shorter than in either the challenge control (5-10 days) or groups C and D (5-6 days). The infectious clone constructed in this study harbors the whole genome of the PRV variant AH02LA strain. The gE deletion mutant PRV(LA-A B )strain generated from PRV AH02LA strain can reach a high titer on BHK-21 cells. An inactivated vaccine of PRV LA-A B provides clinical

  2. A composite material based on nanoparticles of yttrium (III) oxide for the selective and sensitive electrochemical determination of acetaminophen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay [Department of Medical Laboratory, Vocational School of Health Services, Harran University, Şanlıurfa 63510 (Turkey); Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban [Department of Chemistry, Harran University, Şanlıurfa 63510 (Turkey); Aslanoglu, Mehmet, E-mail: maslanoglu@harran.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Harran University, Şanlıurfa 63510 (Turkey)

    2016-09-01

    An electrochemical sensor was prepared by modifying a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with a composite of yttrium (III) oxide nanoparticles (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}NPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the determination of acetaminophen (ACT). Compared with a bare GCE and CNTs/GCE, the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}NPs/CNTs/GCE exhibited a well-defined redox couple for ACT and highly enhanced the current response. The separations in the anodic and cathodic peak potentials (ΔE{sub p}) for ACT were 552 mV, 24 mV and 10 mV at ba4re GCE, CNTs/GCE and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}NPs/CNTs/GCE, respectively. The observation of only 10 mV of ΔE{sub p} for ACT at Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}NPs/CNTs/GCE was a clear indication of a great acceleration of the electrode process compared to bare GCE and GCE modified with CNTs. Also, L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) and L-tyrosine (L-TRY) did not interfere with the selective determination of ACT. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was performed for the quantification of ACT. A linear plot was obtained for current responses versus the concentrations of ACT over the range from 1.0 × 10{sup −10} to 1.8 × 10{sup −8} M with a detection limit of 3.0 × 10{sup −11} M (based on 3S{sub b}/m). The proposed composite material provided high electrocatalytic activity, improved voltammetric behavior, good selectivity and good reproducibility. The accurate quantification of ACT makes the proposed electrode of great interest for the public health. - Highlights: • A voltammetric sensor based on yttrium oxide was prepared for the detection of ACT. • The proposed electrode has greatly accelerated the voltammetric process of ACT. • A detection limit of 0.03 nM was obtained for ACT. • The proposed electrode exhibited great selectivity for ACT in the presence of L-AA and L-TRY. • The composite material exhibited high sensitivity, good stability and excellent reproducibility.

  3. Incidence of non-pulmonary cancer and lung cancer by amount of emphysema and airway wall thickness: a community-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamli Gagnat, Ane; Gjerdevik, Miriam; Gallefoss, Frode; Coxson, Harvey O; Gulsvik, Amund; Bakke, Per

    2017-05-01

    There is limited knowledge about the prognostic value of quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness in cancer.The aim of this study was to investigate if using CT to quantitatively assess the amount of emphysema and airway wall thickness independently predicts the subsequent incidence of non-pulmonary cancer and lung cancer.In the GenKOLS study of 2003-2005, 947 ever-smokers performed spirometry and underwent CT examination. The main predictors were the amount of emphysema measured by the percentage of low attenuation areas (%LAA) on CT and standardised measures of airway wall thickness (AWT-PI10). Cancer data from 2003-2013 were obtained from the Norwegian Cancer Register. The hazard ratio associated with emphysema and airway wall thickness was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression for cancer diagnoses.During 10 years of follow-up, non-pulmonary cancer was diagnosed in 11% of the subjects with LAA emphysema remained a significant predictor of the incidence of non-pulmonary cancer and lung cancer. Airway wall thickness did not predict cancer independently.This study offers a strong argument that emphysema is an independent risk factor for both non-pulmonary cancer and lung cancer. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  4. Acupuncture Antiarrhythmic Effects on Drug Refractory Persistent Atrial Fibrillation: Study Protocol for a Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimin Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common form of arrhythmia. Several trials have suggested that acupuncture may prevent AF. However, the efficacy of acupuncture for AF prevention has not been well investigated. Therefore, we designed a prospective, two-parallel-armed, participant and assessor blinded, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial to investigate acupuncture in persistent AF (ACU-AF. Methods. A total of 80 participants will be randomly assigned to active acupuncture or sham acupuncture groups in a 1 : 1 ratio. Both groups will take the same antiarrhythmic medication during the study period. Patients will receive 10 sessions of acupuncture treatment once a week for 10 weeks. The primary endpoint is AF recurrence rate. Secondary endpoints are left atrium (LA and left atrial appendage (LAA changes in function and volume, and inflammatory biomarker changes. Ethics. This study protocol was approved by the institutional review boards (IRBs of Kyung Hee University Hospital (number 1335-04. This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT02110537.

  5. A test case of computer aided motion planning for nuclear maintenance operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitzberger, E.; Bouchet, J.L. [Electricite de France (EDF), Dept. Surveillance Diagnostic Maintenance, 78 - Chatou (France); Schmitzberger, E. [Institut National Polytechnique, CRAN, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2001-07-01

    Needs for improved tools for nuclear power plant maintenance preparation are expressed by EDF engineering. These are an easier and better management of logistics constraints such as free spaces for motions or handling tasks. The lack of generic or well suited tools and the specificity of nuclear maintenance operation have led EDF R and D to develop its own motion planning tools in collaboration with LAAS-CNRS, Utrecht University and the software publisher CADCENTRE within the framework of the three years Esprit LTR project MOLOG. EDF users needs will be summed up in the first part of the paper under the title ''Motion feasibility studies for maintenance operation'' and then compared to the current industrial offer in the ''Software's background'''s part. The definition and objectives ''Towards motion planning tools'' follows. It explains why maintenance preparation pertains to automatic motion planning and how it makes studies much simpler. The ''MOLOG's Benchmark and first result'''s part describes the test-case used to evaluate the MOLOG project and gives an outlook at the results obtained so far. (author)

  6. Geographic List of Prime Contract Awards. Oct 91 - Sep 92. FY92. (Norwich Vermont - Melrose Virginia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    4 11 0.:000000000 wo~ 0.000u Woo0 1,000 0 - 0 -j ifw IWcO-I4 1 -4 -4 co 00 co00 NNNN " ( NIB -I."-< ൴ 44< < <(o0(D0(to(D0(o(D0(0 សNC"" is C3 -4 (7...a 0 0 C), CD, a a a 0 0 0 0 a a C. C> (n) C, 10 C> a C> a .0 U) III m I mclco< 11 C.)MMM C,) M C1) M I mc>co<:: Cacao co C43 Coa c Q 0 0 0 10 C. Q Q 0...i LA1)0)0 (-mir-- (c)4c LAA) o a ( De 400 M t-.) --.?-- 1 --4 of a < CON ma 00 o(0 0100 ()a )01C)0m)0000oo0 ;4100 40 <D 004 44 14 0V)CI0000 -4I mm. 1

  7. Experimentation of RT-LOTOS for a critical function of a power plant instrumentation and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriantsiiferana, L.; Courtiat, J.P.; De Oliveira, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    This document is the final report of the contract between LAAS-CNRS and the EdF Direction of Researches and Studies about the experimentation of RT-LOTOS formal description technique on a critical function of a nuclear power plant instrumentation and control system. This report comprises 4 parts: part 1 describes the RT-LOTOS (Real Time-Language of Temporal Ordering Specifications) tutorial and its RTL tool environment, the different RT-LOTOS operators and semantics, and the RTL tool main functionalities; part 2 deals with the methodology and the global architecture for the specification and validation of the CCT (Central Calculator for Treatment); part 3 gives more details about the different processes identified in the specification architecture and presents the main results obtained for the validation of the nominal functioning; part 4 describes some exceptional situations and shows how some failures and their associated recovery mechanisms can be modelled. (J.S.). 6 refs., 53 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appends

  8. Experimentation of RT-LOTOS for a critical function of a power plant instrumentation and control system; Experimentation de RT-LOTOS pour une fonction critique d`un systeme de controle-commande en centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriantsiiferana, L.; Courtiat, J.P.; De Oliveira, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    This document is the final report of the contract between LAAS-CNRS and the EdF Direction of Researches and Studies about the experimentation of RT-LOTOS formal description technique on a critical function of a nuclear power plant instrumentation and control system. This report comprises 4 parts: part 1 describes the RT-LOTOS (Real Time-Language of Temporal Ordering Specifications) tutorial and its RTL tool environment, the different RT-LOTOS operators and semantics, and the RTL tool main functionalities; part 2 deals with the methodology and the global architecture for the specification and validation of the CCT (Central Calculator for Treatment); part 3 gives more details about the different processes identified in the specification architecture and presents the main results obtained for the validation of the nominal functioning; part 4 describes some exceptional situations and shows how some failures and their associated recovery mechanisms can be modelled. (J.S.). 6 refs., 53 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appends.

  9. Electrical characterization of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on organic thin film transistor (OTFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Nurhazwani; Halim, Nurul Farhanah Ab.; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Zakaria, Zulkhairi; Hashim, Uda

    2017-03-01

    A green method and eco-friendly solution were used to chemically reduce graphene oxide (GO) to graphene using green reductant. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) were prepared by using Tours method. Then, reduced graphene oxides (rGO) were prepared by using three typical reduction agents: L-ascorbic acid (L-AA), formamidinesulfinic acid (FAS) and sodium sulfite (Na2SO3). The reduced materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Graphene based organic thin film transistor (G-OTFT) was prepared by a spin coating and thermal evaporation technique. The electrical characterization of G-OTFT was analyzed by using semiconductor parameter analyzer (SPA). The G-OTFT devices show p-type semiconducting behaviour. This article focuses on the synthesis and reduction of graphene oxide using three different reductants in order to maximise its electrical conductivity. The rGO product demonstrated a good electrical conductivity performance with highly sensitivity sensor.

  10. Current Developments on Optical Feedback Interferometry as an All-Optical Sensor for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchoux, Julien; Quotb, Adam; Atashkhooei, Reza; Azcona, Francisco J.; Ramírez-Miquet, Evelio E.; Bernal, Olivier; Jha, Ajit; Luna-Arriaga, Antonio; Yanez, Carlos; Caum, Jesus; Bosch, Thierry; Royo, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Optical feedback interferometry (OFI) sensors are experiencing a consistent increase in their applications to biosensing due to their contactless nature, low cost and compactness, features that fit very well with current biophotonics research and market trends. The present paper is a review of the work in progress at UPC-CD6 and LAAS-CNRS related to the application of OFI to different aspects of biosensing, both in vivo and ex vivo. This work is intended to present the variety of opportunities and potential applications related to OFI that are available in the field. The activities presented are divided into two main sensing strategies: The measurement of optical path changes and the monitoring of flows, which correspond to sensing strategies linked to the reconstruction of changes of amplitude from the interferometric signal, and to classical Doppler frequency measurements, respectively. For optical path change measurements, measurements of transient pulses, usual in biosensing, together with the measurement of large displacements applied to designing palliative care instrumentation for Parkinson disease are discussed. Regarding the Doppler-based approach, progress in flow-related signal processing and applications in real-time monitoring of non-steady flows, human blood flow monitoring and OFI pressure myograph sensing will be presented. In all cases, experimental setups are discussed and results presented, showing the versatility of the technique. The described applications show the wide capabilities in biosensing of the OFI sensor, showing it as an enabler of low-cost, all-optical, high accuracy biomedical applications. PMID:27187406

  11. Size variation and collapse of emphysema holes at inspiration and expiration CT scan: evaluation with modified length scale method and image co-registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sang Young; Lee, Minho; Seo, Joon Beom; Kim, Namkug; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Jae Seung; Oh, Yeon Mok

    2017-01-01

    A novel approach of size-based emphysema clustering has been developed, and the size variation and collapse of holes in emphysema clusters are evaluated at inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography (CT). Thirty patients were visually evaluated for the size-based emphysema clustering technique and a total of 72 patients were evaluated for analyzing collapse of the emphysema hole in this study. A new approach for the size differentiation of emphysema holes was developed using the length scale, Gaussian low-pass filtering, and iteration approach. Then, the volumetric CT results of the emphysema patients were analyzed using the new method, and deformable registration was carried out between inspiratory and expiratory CT. Blind visual evaluations of EI by two readers had significant correlations with the classification using the size-based emphysema clustering method ( r -values of reader 1: 0.186, 0.890, 0.915, and 0.941; reader 2: 0.540, 0.667, 0.919, and 0.942). The results of collapse of emphysema holes using deformable registration were compared with the pulmonary function test (PFT) parameters using the Pearson's correlation test. The mean extents of low-attenuation area (LAA), E1 (holes may be useful for understanding the dynamic collapse of emphysema and its functional relation.

  12. Ab initio and DFT study of hydrogen bond interactions between ascorbic acid and dimethylsulfoxide based on FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazazari, Naser; Zatikyan, Ashkhen L.; Markarian, Shiraz A.

    2013-06-01

    The hydrogen bonding of 1:1 complexes formed between L-ascorbic acid (LAA) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) has been studied by means of ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Solutions of L-ascorbic acid (AA) in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) have been studied by means of both FT-IR (4000-220 cm-1) and FT-Raman spectroscopy. Ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and DFT methods have been used to determine the structure and energies of stable conformers of various types of L-AA/DMSO complexes in gas phase and solution. The basis sets 6-31++G∗∗ and 6-311+G∗ were used to describe the structure, energy, charges and vibrational frequencies of interacting complexes in the gas phase. The optimized geometric parameters and interaction energies for various complexes at different theories have been estimated. Binding energies have been corrected for basis set superposition error (BSSE) and harmonic vibrational frequencies of the structures have been calculated to obtain the stable forms of the complexes. The self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) has been used to calculate the effect of DMSO as the solvent on the geometry, energy and charges of complexes. The solvent effect has been studied using the Onsager models. It is shown that the polarity of the solvent plays an important role on the structures and relative stabilities of different complexes. The results obtained show that there is a satisfactory correlation between experimental and theoretical predictions.

  13. COMPOSITIONAL EVALUATION OF RAW AND PROCESSED HARMS (Brachystegia eurycoma SEED FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O Aremu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Brachystegia eurycoma is predominantly grown in the eastern region of Nigeria. Its seed is used in food majorly as a soup condiment, flavouring agent and soup thickener. The proximate, mineral and amino acid compositions were determined on raw and processed seeds (boiled, fermented and roasted using standard analytical techniques. The processing methods showed deviations in nutrients from the raw seeds. The crude protein was reduced by the processing methods with exception of roasting method. Crude fat was reduced in all the processing methods in this order: Raw > fermented > roasted > boiled samples. All the processing methods enhanced calcium content in this order: Raw < boiled < fermented < roasted samples. Boiling and fermenting reduced the content of magnesium by 72.6 and 30.2%, respectively while boiling, fermenting and roasting increased potassium content by 124.5, 12.2 and 120.4%, respectively. Generally, all the samples were found to be a good source of essential minerals and harmful heavy metals such as lead, chromium, arsenic and cadmium were not at detectable range of atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The amino acid profile revealed that amino acids in fermented sample were better concentrated than that of raw and other processed samples. The total essential amino acids (TEAA ranged from 28.63 g/100g crude protein in roasted sample to 34.79 g/100g crude protein in fermented sample. The limiting amino acid (LAA for all the samples was Met + Cys (TSAA.

  14. Solvent extraction of lanthanum (III), europium (III), and lutetium (III) with 5,7-dichloro-8-quinolinol into chloroform in the absence and presence of tetrabutylammonium ions or trioctylphosphine oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noro, Junji; Sekine, Tatsuya.

    1993-01-01

    The solvent extractions of lanthanum(III), europium(III), and lutetium(III) (M 3+ ) in 0.1 moldm -3 sodium nitrate solutions with 5,7-dichloro-8-quinolinol (HA) into chloroform were studied in both the absence and presence of tetrabutylammonium ions (tba + ) or trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). In the absence of tba + or TOPO, the extracted species were the MA 3 and MA H A (self-adduct), though MA 4 - tba + was found when tba + was added; MA 3 TOPO and MA 3 (TOPO) 2 were found when TOPO was added in addition to the above mentioned two species. The anionic complex or TOPO adducts greatly enhanced the extraction. The data were statistically analyzed and the equilibrium constants for the extraction of these species, as well as the constants for the association of the HA, the A - tba + , or the TOPO on the MA 3 in the organic phase, were determined. The extraction of the MA 3 is better in the order LaA 3 3 3 . Although the values of the association constant of the HA or the TOPO on the MA 3 are rather similar for the three metal chelates, the constants for A - tba + are larger in the same order as mentioned above. Thus, the separation of these three metal ions by solvent extraction with this chelating extractant is not much affected by the addition of TOPO, but is greatly improved by the addition of tba + . (author)

  15. IgE binding to peanut allergens is inhibited by combined D-aspartic and D-glutamic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Si-Yin; Reed, Shawndrika

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if D-amino acids (D-aas) bind and inhibit immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to peanut allergens. D-aas such as D-Asp (aspartic acid), D-Glu (glutamic acid), combined D-[Asp/Glu] and others were each prepared in a cocktail of 9 other D-aas, along with L-amino acids (L-aas) and controls. Each sample was mixed with a pooled plasma from peanut-allergic donors, and tested by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and Western blots for IgE binding to peanut allergens. Results showed that D-[Asp/Glu] (4 mg/ml) inhibited IgE binding (75%) while D-Glu, D-Asp and other D-aas had no inhibitory effect. A higher inhibition was seen with D-[Asp/Glu] than with L-[Asp/Glu]. We concluded that IgE was specific for D-[Asp/Glu], not D-Asp or D-Glu, and that D-[Asp/Glu] was more reactive than was L-[Asp/Glu] in IgE inhibition. The finding indicates that D-[Asp/Glu] may have the potential for removing IgE or reducing IgE binding to peanut allergens in vitro. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Comparison of the Chinese ischemic stroke subclassification and Trial of Org 10172 in acute stroke treatment systems in minor stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sha; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yanqiang; Lin, Yinyao; Cai, Wei; Shan, Yilong; Qiu, Wei; Hu, Xueqiang; Lu, Zhengqi

    2016-09-06

    The underlying causes of minor stroke are difficult to assess. Here, we evaluate the reliability of the Chinese Ischemic Stroke Subclassification (CISS) system in patients with minor stroke, and compare it to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) system. A total of 320 patients with minor stroke were retrospectively registered and categorized into different subgroups of the CISS and TOAST by two neurologists. Inter- and intra-rater agreement with the two systems were assessed with kappa statistics. The percentage of undetermined etiology (UE) cases in the CISS system was 77.3 % less than that in the TOAST system, which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The percentage of large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) in the CISS system was 79.7 % more than that in the TOAST system, which was also statistically significant (P < 0.001). The kappa values for inter-examiner agreement were 0.898 (P = 0.031) and 0.732 (P = 0.022) for the CISS and TOAST systems, respectively. The intra-observer reliability indexes were moderate (0.569 for neurologist A, and 0.487 for neurologist B). The CISS and TOAST systems are both reliable in classifying patients with minor stroke. CISS classified more patients into known etiologic categories without sacrificing reliability.

  17. ABO blood groups: A risk factor for left atrial and left atrial appendage thrombogenic milieu in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuan; Li, Kuibao; Yang, Xinchun

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have identified ABO blood groups as predictors of thromboembolic diseases. In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), however, potential association between ABO blood groups and the risk of left atrial (LA) and/or left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombogenic milieu (TM) has not been established. This is a retrospective case-control study that included 125 consecutive patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) plus TM, as evidenced by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) during a period from1 January 2010 to 31 December 2016. The controls were selected randomly from 1072 NVAF without TM at a 1:2 ratio. Potential association between ABO blood groups and TM was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The risk of TM was higher in patients with blood group A (33.6% vs. 20.2% in non-A blood groups, P=0.005). After adjusting for age, sex, oral anticoagulant use, AF type and duration, and relevant functional measures (e.g., NT-pro BNP level, left atrium diameter, and left ventricular ejection fraction), blood group A remained associated with an increased risk of TM (OR=2.99, 95% CI 1.4-6.388, P=0.005). Blood group A is an independent risk factor for TM in NVAF patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. VHDL-AMS modelling and simulation of a planar electrostatic micromotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endemaño, A.; Fourniols, J. Y.; Camon, H.; Marchese, A.; Muratet, S.; Bony, F.; Dunnigan, M.; Desmulliez, M. P. Y.; Overton, G.

    2003-09-01

    System level simulation results of a planar electrostatic micromotor, based on analytical models of the static and dynamic torque behaviours, are presented. A planar variable capacitance (VC) electrostatic micromotor designed, fabricated and tested at LAAS (Toulouse) in 1995 is simulated using the high level language VHDL-AMS (VHSIC (very high speed integrated circuits) hardware description language-analog mixed signal). The analytical torque model is obtained by first calculating the overlaps and capacitances between different electrodes based on a conformal mapping transformation. Capacitance values in the order of 10-16 F and torque values in the order of 10-11 N m have been calculated in agreement with previous measurements and simulations from this type of motor. A dynamic model has been developed for the motor by calculating the inertia coefficient and estimating the friction-coefficient-based values calculated previously for other similar devices. Starting voltage results obtained from experimental measurement are in good agreement with our proposed simulation model. Simulation results of starting voltage values, step response, switching response and continuous operation of the micromotor, based on the dynamic model of the torque, are also presented. Four VHDL-AMS blocks were created, validated and simulated for power supply, excitation control, micromotor torque creation and micromotor dynamics. These blocks can be considered as the initial phase towards the creation of intellectual property (IP) blocks for microsystems in general and electrostatic micromotors in particular.

  19. Selective and quantitative method for gas mixtures measurement with one single nano particular metal oxide gas sensor; Methode d'analyse selective et quantitative d'un melange gazeux a partir d'un microcapteur a oxyde metallique nanoparticulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parret, F.

    2006-01-15

    This work has been developed in the frame of Nanosensoflex European project, in the LAAS-CNRS laboratory at Toulouse. The aim of this project was to improve gas sensor technology and to optimize SnO{sub 2} sensing layer selectivity thanks to a new operating mode associated to a new technique of response treatment. In this context, this doctoral dissertation is focused on the last point: we have experimentally demonstrated that the shape of transient response curves of these sensors, using short temperature variations is affected by the surrounding atmosphere with a good reproducibility. Also, we have defined a temperature profile dedicated to CO detection in a mixture of NO{sub 2} and propane. This profile, with a total duration of 12 s, includes 6 temperature steps and do not exceed a maximum temperature of 500 C. By consideration of shapes and time constants of the normalized response curves, associated to a Linear Discriminant Analysis, we managed to discriminate each gas mixture and then to quantify CO-concentration from 1 to 200 ppm, independently of relative humidity rate. (author)

  20. A test case of computer aided motion planning for nuclear maintenance operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzberger, E.; Bouchet, J.L.; Schmitzberger, E.

    2001-01-01

    Needs for improved tools for nuclear power plant maintenance preparation are expressed by EDF engineering. These are an easier and better management of logistics constraints such as free spaces for motions or handling tasks. The lack of generic or well suited tools and the specificity of nuclear maintenance operation have led EDF R and D to develop its own motion planning tools in collaboration with LAAS-CNRS, Utrecht University and the software publisher CADCENTRE within the framework of the three years Esprit LTR project MOLOG. EDF users needs will be summed up in the first part of the paper under the title ''Motion feasibility studies for maintenance operation'' and then compared to the current industrial offer in the ''Software's background'''s part. The definition and objectives ''Towards motion planning tools'' follows. It explains why maintenance preparation pertains to automatic motion planning and how it makes studies much simpler. The ''MOLOG's Benchmark and first result'''s part describes the test-case used to evaluate the MOLOG project and gives an outlook at the results obtained so far. (author)

  1. Study of an integrated electronic monitor for neutron fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barelaud, B.; Nexon-Mokhtari, F.; Barrau, C.; Decossas, J.L.; Vareille, J.C. [Limoges Univ., 87 (France); Sarrabayrouse, G.J. [CNRS, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1995-12-31

    The majority of the individual neutron monitors measure incorrectly in a certain energy range (10 keV-500 keV). For electronic devices, this problem is due to their high {gamma} sensitivity. To solve this problem a microelectronic detector design for neutron spectrometry is now being studied at LEPOFI. It is based on the measurement of the total energy which is deposited by {sup 6}Li (n, {alpha}) {sup 3}H or {sup 10}B (n {alpha}) {sup 7}Li reactions in silicon detectors. A new electronic sensor - for example a boron or lithium sandwich device -has been developed in collaboration with LAAS. Specific techniques for silicon sensor coating with boron have been developed and are briefly presented. The response of the detector has been computed using a model and a code developed at LEPOFI. Several parameters have been taken into account in the calculations: the type of layer, its thickness, the characteristics of the detector. The results of these simulations are discussed and calculated pulse height distributions for various designs are presented. The present status of the investigation only concerns thermal neutrons. (author).

  2. Detector tests in a high magnetic field and muon spectrometer triggering studies on a small prototype for an LHC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosi, G; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bergsma, F; Castro, H; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; De Pasquale, S; Gálvez, J; Gentile, S; Giusti, P; Laurent, G; Levi, G; Lin, Q; Maccarrone, G D; Mattern, D; Nania, R; Rivera, F; Schioppa, M; Sharma, A; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1990-01-01

    The "Large Area Devices" group of the LAA project is working on R&D for muon detection at a future super-collider. New detectors are under development and the design of a muon spectrometer for an LHC experiment is under study. Our present choice is for a compact, high field, air-core toroidal muon spectrometer. Good momentum resolution is achievable in this compact solution, with at least one plane of detection elements inside the high field region. A new detector, the Blade Chamber, making use of blades instead of wires, has been developed for the forward and backward regions of the spectrometer, where polar coordinate readings are desirable.The assembling of a CERN high energy beam line, equipped with high resolution drift chambers and a strong field magnet could give us the opportunity to test our chambers in a high magnetic field and to study the muon trigger capabilities of a spectrometer, like the one proposed, on a small prototype.

  3. Going to the school of muons

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Italian secondary school pupils will be given the opportunity to take part in a large-scale experiment looking at cosmic muons thanks to the EEE Project. Two Italian pupils building an MRPC muon chamber in CERN's Building 29. For several months, Italian secondary school pupils have been coming to CERN each week and heading for Building 29. They are not just visiting. They are participating in the EEE (Extreme Energy Events) Project, the aim of which is to carry out a real-life experiment in search of large atmospheric showers using muon detectors located in their schools. In this hall at CERN they are helping to build and test muon chambers - MRPCs (Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers). These chambers, which were invented several years ago by Crispin Williams as part of the LAA Project led by Professor Antonino Zichichi, are similar to those that will be used for ALICE's TOF (Time of Flight) detector at the LHC. In this way, the pupils are receiving a direct, practical and effective initiation to particle phy...

  4. Proosa 1977. Kirjanduse argipäev / Mall Jõgi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jõgi, Mall, 1947-

    2008-01-01

    Sisaldab joonealuseid märkusi ja bibliograafiat. - Varem ilmunud Looming 1978, nr. 2. - Ülevaade 1977. aastal ilmunud eesti proosast. Käsitletakse järgmisi autoreid ja nende teoseid: Ustav Mikelsaar "Ohver", Lembit Kivisaar "Vana diivan", Albert Uustulnd "Avali väraval", Asta Põldmäe "Me", Lilli Promet "Tüdrukud taevast", Nikolai Baturin "Leiud kajast", Aadu Hint "Oma saar", Paul Kuusberg "Linnukesega", Aimée Beekman "Sugupuu", Mari Saat "Mida teha emaga?", Veera Saar "Isa niinepuu", Villem Gross "Vaikimise motiivid", Jüri Tuulik "Meretagune asi", Aira Kaal "Teedla Riia aknas põleb tuli", Tõnis Lehtmets "Tume laas", Väino Ilus "Kinsli peremehed", Einar Maasik "Hispaania tants", Aino Müür "Linnuvere lugu", Jaan Kross "Kolme katku vahel" 3. osa, Endel Nirk "Kaanekukk", Paul Kuusberg "Võõras või õige mees", Toomas Vint "Perekondlikud mängud", Ine Viiding "Kümme käsku kaaskodanikele", Mats Traat "Irdinimene. Türgi oad", Teet Kallas "Õhtuvalgus", Teet Kallas "Insener Paberiti juhtum", Einar Maasik "Üksinda detsembris", Enn Vetemaa "Hõbedaketrajad", Herta Laipaik "Kummitus muusikatoas. Doktor Vallaku mõistatus", Raimond Kaugver "Külalisteraamat"

  5. Solution of fractional kinetic equation by a class of integral transform of pathway type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dilip

    2013-04-01

    Solutions of fractional kinetic equations are obtained through an integral transform named Pα-transform introduced in this paper. The Pα-transform is a binomial type transform containing many class of transforms including the well known Laplace transform. The paper is motivated by the idea of pathway model introduced by Mathai [Linear Algebra Appl. 396, 317-328 (2005), 10.1016/j.laa.2004.09.022]. The composition of the transform with differential and integral operators are proved along with convolution theorem. As an illustration of applications to the general theory of differential equations, a simple differential equation is solved by the new transform. Being a new transform, the Pα-transform of some elementary functions as well as some generalized special functions such as H-function, G-function, Wright generalized hypergeometric function, generalized hypergeometric function, and Mittag-Leffler function are also obtained. The results for the classical Laplace transform is retrieved by letting α → 1.

  6. Current Developments on Optical Feedback Interferometry as an All-Optical Sensor for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Perchoux

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical feedback interferometry (OFI sensors are experiencing a consistent increase in their applications to biosensing due to their contactless nature, low cost and compactness, features that fit very well with current biophotonics research and market trends. The present paper is a review of the work in progress at UPC-CD6 and LAAS-CNRS related to the application of OFI to different aspects of biosensing, both in vivo and ex vivo. This work is intended to present the variety of opportunities and potential applications related to OFI that are available in the field. The activities presented are divided into two main sensing strategies: The measurement of optical path changes and the monitoring of flows, which correspond to sensing strategies linked to the reconstruction of changes of amplitude from the interferometric signal, and to classical Doppler frequency measurements, respectively. For optical path change measurements, measurements of transient pulses, usual in biosensing, together with the measurement of large displacements applied to designing palliative care instrumentation for Parkinson disease are discussed. Regarding the Doppler-based approach, progress in flow-related signal processing and applications in real-time monitoring of non-steady flows, human blood flow monitoring and OFI pressure myograph sensing will be presented. In all cases, experimental setups are discussed and results presented, showing the versatility of the technique. The described applications show the wide capabilities in biosensing of the OFI sensor, showing it as an enabler of low-cost, all-optical, high accuracy biomedical applications.

  7. Studies on diagnosis of lung emphysema by CT image using experimental models and clinical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, Seiki

    1998-01-01

    Since the detailed report between the degree of functional disorder in lung emphysema and the analysis of CT image is quite unknown, the present study was attempted to produce the experimental model of lung emphysema with various stages by the administration of papain to the focal lobe in canine lung. Using this model or clinical lung emphysema, the relationship between the degree of destruction of alveolar walls, clinical pulmonary functions and CT images was investigated. CT scan was performed at the level of 50% vital capacity in both experimental models and clinical subjects by using spirometric gating CT. CT density histogram was obtained from CT image which was produced by using the developed software for this purpose. Densitometric parameters, such as mean CT value, %LAA, the peak in the histogram and 5% tile were selected from CT image. Papain solution of 5 mg/kg body weight was cumulatively administered to the left lower lobe in canine lung, resulting in the destruction of lung alveolar walls in parallel to the increasing dosage of papain. There was a significant correlation between not only the increasing dosage of papain, but also %FEV 1.0 and CT densitometric parameters, indicating that the histological changes of alveolar walls and the lung function in lung emphysema could be estimated by analysis of CT image. These experimental and clinical studies suggest that the analysis of CT image can reflect the pathophysiological changes in the lung and be useful for precise clinical diagnosis of lung emphysema. (author)

  8. Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) Technical Interchange Meeting 2 (SERT TIM 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe; Sanders, Clark W.

    2000-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville's (UAH) Propulsion Research Center hosted the Space Solar Power Exploratory Research & Technology (SERT) Technical Interchange Meeting TIM) 2 in Huntsville, Alabama December 7-10. 1999 with 126 people in attendance. The SERT program includes both competitively procured activities. which are being implemented through a portfolio of focused R&D investments--with the maximum leveraging of existing resources inside and outside NASA. and guided by these system studies. Axel Roth. Director of the Flight Projects Directorate NASA MSFC, welcomed the SERT TIM 2 participants and challenged them to develop the necessary technologies and demonstrations that will lead to Space Solar Power (SSP) International implementation. Joe Howell, NASA MSFC, reiterated the SERT TIM 2 objectives: 1) Refining and modeling systems approaches for the utilization of SSP concepts and technologies, ranging, from the near-term e.g. for space science, exploration and commercial space applications to the far-term (e. g. SSP for terrestrial markets), including systems concepts, technology, infrastructure (i.g., transportation), and economics. 2) Conducting technology research, development and demonstration activities to produce "proof- of-concept" validation of critical SSP elements for both the nearer and farther-term applications. 3) Initiating partnerships Nationality and Internationally that could be expanded, as appropriate, to pursue later SSP technology and applications (e.g., space science. colonization, etc.). Day one began with the NASA Centers presenting their SERT activities summary since SERT TIM 1 and wound up with a presentation by Masahiro Mori, NASDA titled "NASDA In-house Study for SSP". Demonstration for the Near-Term. Day two began with the SERT Systems Studies and Analysis reports resulting from NRA 8-23 followed by presentations of SERT Technology Demonstrations reports resulting from NRA 8-23. Day two closed with John Mankins presentation

  9. The selective cathepsin K inhibitor MIV-711 attenuates joint pathology in experimental animal models of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Erik; Rizoska, Biljana; Tunblad, Karin; Edenius, Charlotte; Bendele, Alison M; Maul, Don; Larson, Michael; Shah, Neha; Yoder Otto, Valerie; Jerome, Chris; Grabowska, Urszula

    2018-03-09

    MIV-711 is a highly potent and selective cathepsin K inhibitor. The current article summarizes the therapeutic effects of MIV-711 on joint pathology in rabbits subjected to anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT), and the prophylactic effects on joint pathology in dogs subjected to partial medial meniscectomy, two surgical models of osteoarthritis (OA). Starting 1 week after surgery, rabbits were dosed daily via oral gavage with either MIV-711 or vehicle (n = 7/group) for 7 weeks. The four treatment groups were: (1) sham + vehicle; (2) ACLT + vehicle; (3) ACLT + MIV-711, 30 µmol/kg and (4) ACLT + MIV-711, 100 µmol/kg. Subchondral bone and articular cartilage structures were assessed by µCT, histomorphometry, and scoring. Dogs subjected to partial medial meniscectomy received either MIV-711 (30 µmol/kg) or vehicle (n = 15/group) via oral gavage once daily, starting 1 day before meniscectomy, for 28 days. Cartilage degradation was assessed at the macroscopic and microscopic levels. The exposures of MIV-711 were assessed in both studies and biomarkers reflecting bone resorption (HP-1 in rabbits, CTX-I in dogs) and cartilage degradation (CTX-II) were measured. In ACLT rabbits, MIV-711 decreased HP-1 levels by up to 72% (p subchondral bone plate and reduced trabecular bone volume in the femur and tibia. These effects were reversed by MIV-711. ACLT resulted in cartilage thickening, which was attenuated by MIV-711. MIV-711 did not affect osteophyte formation or Mankin scores. In dogs, MIV-711 reduced CTX-I and CTX-II levels by 86% (p subchondral bone loss and partially attenuates cartilage pathology in two animal models of OA. These beneficial effects of MIV-711 on joint pathology are observed in conjunction with decreases in bone and cartilage biomarkers that have been shown to be clinically attainable in human. The data support the further development of MIV-711 for the treatment of OA.

  10. The effects of orally administered diacerein on cartilage and subchondral bone in an ovine model of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, S Y; Burkhardt, D; Little, C; Ghosh, P

    2001-04-01

    An ovine model of osteoarthritis (OA) induced by bilateral lateral meniscectomy (BLM) was used to evaluate in vivo effects of the slow acting antiarthritic drug diacerein (DIA) on degenerative changes in cartilage and subchondral bone of the operated joints. Twenty of 30 adult age matched Merino wethers were subjected to BLM in the knee joints and the remainder served as non-operated controls (NOC). Half of the BLM group (n = 10) were given DIA (25 mg/kg orally) daily for 3 mo, then 50 mg/kg daily for a further 6 mo. The remainder of the meniscectomized (MEN) group served as OA controls. Five DIA, 5 MEN, and 5 NOC animals were sacrificed at 3 mo and the remainder at 9 mo postsurgery. One knee joint of each animal was used for bone mineral density (BMD) studies. Osteochondral slabs from the lateral femoral condyle and lateral tibial plateau were cut from the contralateral joint and were processed for histological and histomorphometric examination to assess the cartilage and subchondral bone changes. No significant difference was observed in the modified Mankin scores for cartilage from the DIA and MEN groups at 3 or 9 mo. However, in animals treated with DIA, the thickness of cartilage (p = 0.05) and subchondral bone (p = 0.05) in the lesion (middle) zone of the lateral tibial plateau were decreased relative to the corresponding zone of the MEN group at 3 mo (p = 0.05). At 9 mo subchondral bone thickness in this zone remained the same as NOC but BMD, which included both subchondral and trabecular bone, was significantly increased relative to the NOC group (p = 0.01). In contrast, the subchondral bone thickness of the outer zone of lateral tibial plateau and lateral femoral condyle of both MEN and DIA groups increased after 9 mo, while BMD remained the same as in the NOC. DIA treatment of meniscectomized animals mediated selective responses of cartilage and subchondral bone to the altered mechanical stresses induced across the joints by this procedure. While

  11. Interphalangeal Osteoarthritis Radiographic Simplified (iOARS) score: a radiographic method to detect osteoarthritis of the interphalangeal finger joints based on its histopathological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunk, Ilse-Gerlinde; Amoyo-Minar, Love; Stamm, Tanja; Haider, Stefanie; Niederreiter, Birgit; Supp, Gabriela; Soleiman, Afschin; Kainberger, Franz; Smolen, Josef S; Bobacz, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    To develop a radiographic score for assessment of hand osteoarthritis (OA) that is based on histopathological alterations of the distal (DIP) and proximal (PIP) interphalangeal joints. DIP and PIP joints were obtained from corpses (n=40). Plain radiographies of these joints were taken. Joint samples were prepared for histological analysis; cartilage damage was graded according to the Mankin scoring system. A 2×2 Fisher's exact test was applied to define those radiographic features most likely to be associated with histological alterations. Receiver operating characteristic curves were analysed to determine radiographic thresholds. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) estimated intra- and inter-reader variability. Spearman's correlation was applied to examine the relationship between our score and histopathological changes. Differences between groups were determined by a Student's t test. The Interphalangeal Osteoarthritis Radiographic Simplified (iOARS) score is presented. The score is based on histopathological changes of DIP and PIP joints and follows a simple dichotomy whether OA is present or not. The iOARS score relies on three equally ranked radiographic features (osteophytes, joint space narrowing and subchondral sclerosis). For both DIP and PIP joints, the presence of one x-ray features reflects interphalangeal OA. Sensitivity and specificity for DIP joints were 92.3% and 90.9%, respectively, and 75% and 100% for PIP joints. All readers were able to reproduce their own readings in DIP and PIP joints after 4 weeks. The overall agreement between the three readers was good; ICCs ranged from 0.945 to 0.586. Additionally, outcomes of the iOARS score in a hand OA cohort revealed a higher prevalence of interphalangeal joint OA compared with the Kellgren and Lawrence score. The iOARS score is uniquely based on histopathological alterations of the interphalangeal joints in order to reliably determine OA of the DIP and PIP joints radiographically. Its high

  12. Polymeric nanoparticle-based delivery of microRNA-199a-3p inhibits proliferation and growth of osteosarcoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Linlin Zhang,1,2,* Arun K lyer,3,4,* Xiaoqian Yang,1 Eisuke Kobayashi,1 Yuqi Guo,1,2 Henry Mankin,1 Francis J Hornicek,1 Mansoor M Amiji,3 Zhenfeng Duan1 1Sarcoma Biology Laboratory, Center for Sarcoma and Connective Tissue Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 2Department of Pathology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Our prior screening of microRNAs (miRs identified that miR-199a-3p expression is reduced in osteosarcoma cells, one of the most common types of bone tumor. miR-199a-3p exhibited functions of tumor cell growth inhibition, suggesting the potential application of miR-199a-3p as an anticancer agent. In the study reported here, we designed and developed a lipid-modified dextran-based polymeric nanoparticle platform for encapsulation of miRs, and determined the efficiency and efficacy of delivering miR-199a-3p into osteosarcoma cells. In addition, another potent miR, let-7a, which also displayed tumor suppressive ability, was selected as a candidate miR for evaluation. Fluorescence microscopy studies and real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that dextran nanoparticles could deliver both miR-199a-3p and let-7a into osteosarcoma cell lines (KHOS and U-2OS successfully. Western blotting analysis and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assays demonstrated that dextran nanoparticles loaded with miRs could efficiently downregulate the expression of target proteins and effectively inhibit the growth and proliferation of osteosarcoma cells. These results demonstrate that a lipid-modified dextran

  13. Size variation and collapse of emphysema holes at inspiration and expiration CT scan: evaluation with modified length scale method and image co-registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh SY

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sang Young Oh,1,* Minho Lee,1,* Joon Beom Seo,1,* Namkug Kim,1,2,* Sang Min Lee,1 Jae Seung Lee,3 Yeon Mok Oh3 1Department of Radiology, 2Department of Convergence Medicine, 3Department of Pulmonology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A novel approach of size-based emphysema clustering has been developed, and the size variation and collapse of holes in emphysema clusters are evaluated at inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography (CT. Thirty patients were visually evaluated for the size-based emphysema clustering technique and a total of 72 patients were evaluated for analyzing collapse of the emphysema hole in this study. A new approach for the size differentiation of emphysema holes was developed using the length scale, Gaussian low-pass filtering, and iteration approach. Then, the volumetric CT results of the emphysema patients were analyzed using the new method, and deformable registration was carried out between inspiratory and expiratory CT. Blind visual evaluations of EI by two readers had significant correlations with the classification using the size-based emphysema clustering method (r-values of reader 1: 0.186, 0.890, 0.915, and 0.941; reader 2: 0.540, 0.667, 0.919, and 0.942. The results of collapse of emphysema holes using deformable registration were compared with the pulmonary function test (PFT parameters using the Pearson’s correlation test. The mean extents of low-attenuation area (LAA, E1 (<1.5 mm, E2 (<7 mm, E3 (<15 mm, and E4 (≥15 mm were 25.9%, 3.0%, 11.4%, 7.6%, and 3.9%, respectively, at the inspiratory CT, and 15.3%, 1.4%, 6.9%, 4.3%, and 2.6%, respectively at the expiratory CT. The extents of LAA, E2, E3, and E4 were found to be significantly correlated with the PFT ­parameters (r=−0.53, −0.43, −0.48, and −0.25, with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; −0.81, −0.62, −0.75, and

  14. 5-Year Outcomes After Left Atrial Appendage Closure: From the PREVAIL and PROTECT AF Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vivek Y; Doshi, Shephal K; Kar, Saibal; Gibson, Douglas N; Price, Matthew J; Huber, Kenneth; Horton, Rodney P; Buchbinder, Maurice; Neuzil, Petr; Gordon, Nicole T; Holmes, David R

    2017-12-19

    The PROTECT AF (WATCHMAN Left Atrial Appendage System for Embolic Protection in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation) trial demonstrated that left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) with the Watchman device (Boston Scientific, St. Paul, Minnesota) was equivalent to warfarin for preventing stroke in atrial fibrillation, but had a high rate of complications. In a second randomized trial, PREVAIL (Evaluation of the WATCHMAN LAA Closure Device in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Versus Long Term Warfarin Therapy), the complication rate was low. The warfarin cohort experienced an unexpectedly low ischemic stroke rate, rendering the efficacy endpoints inconclusive. However, these outcomes were based on relatively few patients followed for a relatively short time. The final results of the PREVAIL trial, both alone and as part of a patient-level meta-analysis with the PROTECT AF trial, are reported with patients in both trials followed for 5 years. PREVAIL and PROTECT AF are prospective randomized clinical trials with patients randomized 2:1 to LAAC or warfarin; together, they enrolled 1,114 patients for 4,343 patient-years. Analyses are by intention-to-treat, and rates are events per 100 patient-years. For the PREVAIL trial, the first composite coprimary endpoint of stroke, systemic embolism (SE), or cardiovascular/unexplained death did not achieve noninferiority (posterior probability for noninferiority = 88.4%), whereas the second coprimary endpoint of post-procedure ischemic stroke/SE did achieve noninferiority (posterior probability for noninferiority = 97.5%); the warfarin arm maintained an unusually low ischemic stroke rate (0.73%). In the meta-analysis, the composite endpoint was similar between groups (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.820; p = 0.27), as were all-stroke/SE (HR: 0.961; p = 0.87). The ischemic stroke/SE rate was numerically higher with LAAC, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (HR: 1.71; p = 0.080). However, differences in

  15. Contribution to energy optimization, management and processing; Contribution a l'optimisation, la gestion et le traitement de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, C.

    2003-12-15

    Nowadays, renewable energies become an alternative solution to the classical energies obtained from fossil resources. Renewable energies have reached a high level of development, mainly in terms of cost and production facilities. However, the electrical conversion systems are often not optimized in terms of reliability, electrical efficiency and cost production. For that, there is a lot of reticence to install these systems in home sites or in big centrals for mass energy production. Since 1997 LAAS-CNRS has focused his research in the optimization of the power conversion chains from a system point of view. Indeed, due to the inexistence of optimal solutions for these electrical systems and the absence of research groups in France interested in this problem, the research goals were finally centered on the electrical conversion and thermal management of photovoltaic energy systems. First works were focused in the optimization of conversion efficiency. For that, LAAS-CNRS has developed and installed a complete outdoor photovoltaic system. The PV demonstration site has 1 kW of peak power and an automatic measurement system capable of characterize the electrical efficiency of different power conversion structures with high level of precision. Novel power conversion structures devoted for photovoltaic systems have been developed in collaboration of foreign research groups like the GAEI from University Rovira i Virgili (Tarragona) and the EPIC from the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (Barcelona). Meteorological dependence of the renewable energy sources produces a low level of predictability of the energy production. In order to produce energy without strong variations we have coupled different energy sources like PV generators and small wind generators by means of batteries. Additional studies have been made regarding to the optimal battery management. Maturity in the studies of the photovoltaic systems shows news trends and new possible applications of this systems

  16. Increasing the Resolution of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Definition. Lessons from a Cohort with Remote but Extensive Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjomandi, Mehrdad; Zeng, Siyang; Blanc, Paul D; Gold, Warren M

    2018-04-01

    tomographic imaging of the lungs [%LAA exp-860to-950 ]) (n = 23). The RV/TLC of the cohort was (median [interquartile range] {total range}) 91.6% [84.9-98.8%] {58.0-130.6%} of the predicted normal value, and had wide variability over quintiles of FEV 1 /FVC and FEV 1 (coefficients of variation, 13.6-27.8% and 11.1-32.9%, respectively). In age-, sex-, and height-adjusted models, respiratory symptoms were associated only with RV/TLC (P = 0.011). Maximum oxygen consumption was inversely associated with RV/TLC (r 2  = 0.47; P = 0.017), rate of increase in %EFL (r 2  = 0.44; P = 0.008), and LAA exp-860to-950 (r 2  = 0.27; P = 0.037) even after adjustment for FEV 1 /FVC or FEV 1 . Receiver operating characteristic analysis for median of maximum oxygen consumption yielded an area under the curve of 0.63 for RV/TLC, compared with 0.53 for both FEV 1 /FVC and FEV 1 . Air trapping in those with exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke but without overt obstruction identifies a subgroup with increased risk for respiratory morbidity, and may provide an additional dimension for definition of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease not captured by spirometry.

  17. Study of the cathode region of mercury-free He-Xe low-pressure gas-discharge lamps with planar mesh electrode; Untersuchung der Kathodenregion von quecksilberfreien He-Xe Niederdruckgasentladungslampen mit planarer Geflechtelektrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Joern

    2009-12-04

    In the present work the cathode region of a mercury-free helium-xenon low pressure discharge in spot mode was experimentally investigated. Due to the emission of electrons, the production of ions and metastable atoms as well as lifetime limiting processes the cathode region is of particular interest. To implement a discharge in spot mode a novel planar mesh electrode was developed and used as cathode. Applying the space resolved laser-atom-absorption-spectroscopy method (LAAS) the absolute particle densities of the two lowest excited xenon atoms and the gas temperature in the cathode region were determined, whereas the strong spot plasma inhomogeneity was considered. Both the excited xenon particle density and the gas temperature strongly decrease in radial and axial direction. Particularly the gas temperature has a value of about 650 K in a 1mm cathode distance and does clearly exceed room temperature. Furthermore the spectrum of the hot spot on the cathode surface was detected by means of optical emission spectroscopy. From this spectrum the temperature distribution of the cathode spot was obtained by fitting Planck's law. The temperature distribution shows a distinct maximum, which in dependence of the discharge current reaches values of 1414 K at 40 mA and 1524 K at 80 mA. From that maximum a steep direction-independent temperature decrease was obtained. A technological important aspect concerning the lifetime of a xenon based mercury-free discharge lamp is the problematic effect of the xenon gas consumption. In this work it is shown that in contrary to an industrial made standard cup electrode, which is broadly used in light advertising lamps, the gas consumption is negligible when applying the novel planar mesh electrode. This reduction of gas consumption is due to the generation of a hot spot along with high cathode temperature and low cathode fall voltage. (orig.)

  18. Modelization, fabrication and evaluation avalanche photodiodes polarized in Geiger mode for the single photon in astrophysics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellion, D.

    2008-12-01

    The genesis of the work presented in this this is in the field of very high energy astrophysics. One century ago, scientists identified a new type of messenger coming from space: cosmic rays. This radiation consists of particles (photons or other) of very high energy which bombard the Earth permanently. The passage of cosmic radiations in the Earth's atmosphere results in the creation of briefs luminous flashes (5 ns) of very low intensity (1 pW), a Cherenkov flash, and then becomes visible on the ground. In the current state of the art the best detector of light today is the Photomultiplier tube (PMT), thanks to its characteristics of sensitivity and speed. But there are some drawbacks: low quantum efficiency, cost, weight etc. We present in this thesis a new alternative technology: silicon photon counters, made of photodiodes polarized in Geiger mode. This operating mode makes it possible to obtain an effect of multiplication comparable to that of the PMT. A physical and electrical model was developed to reproduce the behaviour of this detector. We then present in this thesis work an original technological process allowing the realization of these devices in the Center of Technology of LAAS-CNRS, with the simulation of each operation of the process. We developed a scheme for the electric characterization of the device, from the static mode to the dynamic mode, in order to check conformity with SILVACO simulations and to the initial model. Results are already excellent, given this is only a first prototype step, and comparable with the results published in the literature. These silicon devices can intervene in all the applications where there is a photomultiplier and replace it. The applications are thus very numerous and the growth of the market of these detectors is very fast. We present a first astrophysical experiment installed at the 'Pic du Midi' site which has detected Cherenkov flashes from cosmic rays with this new semiconductor technology. (author)

  19. Modelization, fabrication and evaluation avalanche photodiodes polarized in Geiger mode for the single photon in astrophysics applications; Modelisation, fabrication et evaluation des photodiodes a avalanche polarisees en mode Geiger pour la detection du photon unique dans les applications Astrophysiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellion, D

    2008-12-15

    The genesis of the work presented in this this is in the field of very high energy astrophysics. One century ago, scientists identified a new type of messenger coming from space: cosmic rays. This radiation consists of particles (photons or other) of very high energy which bombard the Earth permanently. The passage of cosmic radiations in the Earth's atmosphere results in the creation of briefs luminous flashes (5 ns) of very low intensity (1 pW), a Cherenkov flash, and then becomes visible on the ground. In the current state of the art the best detector of light today is the Photomultiplier tube (PMT), thanks to its characteristics of sensitivity and speed. But there are some drawbacks: low quantum efficiency, cost, weight etc. We present in this thesis a new alternative technology: silicon photon counters, made of photodiodes polarized in Geiger mode. This operating mode makes it possible to obtain an effect of multiplication comparable to that of the PMT. A physical and electrical model was developed to reproduce the behaviour of this detector. We then present in this thesis work an original technological process allowing the realization of these devices in the Center of Technology of LAAS-CNRS, with the simulation of each operation of the process. We developed a scheme for the electric characterization of the device, from the static mode to the dynamic mode, in order to check conformity with SILVACO simulations and to the initial model. Results are already excellent, given this is only a first prototype step, and comparable with the results published in the literature. These silicon devices can intervene in all the applications where there is a photomultiplier and replace it. The applications are thus very numerous and the growth of the market of these detectors is very fast. We present a first astrophysical experiment installed at the 'Pic du Midi' site which has detected Cherenkov flashes from cosmic rays with this new semiconductor technology

  20. Characteristics of Left Atrial Deformation Parameters and Their Prognostic Impact in Patients with Pathological Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: Analysis by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iio, Chiharuko; Inoue, Katsuji; Nishimura, Kazuhisa; Fujii, Akira; Nagai, Takayuki; Suzuki, Jun; Okura, Takafumi; Higaki, Jitsuo; Ogimoto, Akiyoshi

    2015-12-01

    The pathological process of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is associated with left atrial (LA) remodeling. This study was aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of LA strain parameters in patients with pathological LV hypertrophy. This study included 95 patients with hypertensive heart disease (HHD: n = 24), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM: n = 56), cardiac amyloidosis (CA: n = 15), and control subjects (n = 20). We used two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) to analyze LA global strain. LA electromechanical conduction time (EMT) at the septal (EMT-septal) and lateral wall (EMT-lateral), and their time difference (EMT-diff) were calculated. The incidence of cardiac death and heart failure hospitalization was defined as major cardiac events and that of atrial fibrillation as secondary outcome. Left atrial volume index was increased and LA booster strain was decreased in the HCM and CA groups compared with the HHD group. EMT-lateral was increased in the diseased groups compared with the control. EMT-diff was prolonged in the CA group compared with the HCM group. During the follow-up period (mean 3.4 years), major cardiac events and atrial fibrillation occurred in 17 and 13 patients, respectively. The occurrence of atrial fibrillation was associated with CA etiology, E/e', LA volume index, LAa, and EMT-lateral. The incidence of major cardiac events was independently correlated with LA volume index and EMT-diff in multivariate analysis. This study suggested that the EMT-diff could discriminate patients with a high risk of cardiac events among patients with pathological LV hypertrophy. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effect of Pre-Hospital Red Blood Cell Transfusion on Mortality and Time of Death in Civilian Trauma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Marius; Weaver, Anne; Brohi, Karim; Eshelby, Sarah; Green, Laura; Røislien, Jo; Lockey, David J

    2018-04-16

    Current management principles of haemorrhagic shock after trauma emphasize earlier transfusion therapy to prevent dilution of clotting factors and correct coagulopathy. London's air ambulance (LAA) was the first UK civilian pre-hospital service to routinely offer pre-hospital red blood cell (RBC) transfusion (phRTx). We investigated the effect of phRTx on mortality. Retrospective trauma database study comparing mortality before-implementation with after-implementation of phRTx in exsanguinating trauma patients. Univariate logistic regression was performed for the unadjusted association between phRTx and mortality was performed, and multiple logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. We identified 623 subjects with suspected major haemorrhage. We excluded 84 (13.5%) patients due to missing data on survival status. Overall 187 (62.3%) patients died in the before phRTx period and 143 (59.8%) died in the after phRTx group. There was no significant improvement in overall survival after the introduction of phRTx (p = 0.554). Examination of pre-hospital mortality demonstrated 126 deaths in the pre-phRTx group (42.2%) and 66 deaths in the RBC administered group (27.6%) There was a significant reduction in pre-hospital mortality in the group who received RBC (p < 0.001). phRTx was associated with increased survival to hospital, but not overall survival. The "delay death" effect of phRTx carries an impetus to further develop in-hospital strategies to improve survival in severely bleeding patients.

  2. Study of the cathode region of mercury-free He-Xe low-pressure gas-discharge lamps with planar mesh electrode; Untersuchung der Kathodenregion von quecksilberfreien He-Xe Niederdruckgasentladungslampen mit planarer Geflechtelektrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Joern

    2009-12-04

    In the present work the cathode region of a mercury-free helium-xenon low pressure discharge in spot mode was experimentally investigated. Due to the emission of electrons, the production of ions and metastable atoms as well as lifetime limiting processes the cathode region is of particular interest. To implement a discharge in spot mode a novel planar mesh electrode was developed and used as cathode. Applying the space resolved laser-atom-absorption-spectroscopy method (LAAS) the absolute particle densities of the two lowest excited xenon atoms and the gas temperature in the cathode region were determined, whereas the strong spot plasma inhomogeneity was considered. Both the excited xenon particle density and the gas temperature strongly decrease in radial and axial direction. Particularly the gas temperature has a value of about 650 K in a 1mm cathode distance and does clearly exceed room temperature. Furthermore the spectrum of the hot spot on the cathode surface was detected by means of optical emission spectroscopy. From this spectrum the temperature distribution of the cathode spot was obtained by fitting Planck's law. The temperature distribution shows a distinct maximum, which in dependence of the discharge current reaches values of 1414 K at 40 mA and 1524 K at 80 mA. From that maximum a steep direction-independent temperature decrease was obtained. A technological important aspect concerning the lifetime of a xenon based mercury-free discharge lamp is the problematic effect of the xenon gas consumption. In this work it is shown that in contrary to an industrial made standard cup electrode, which is broadly used in light advertising lamps, the gas consumption is negligible when applying the novel planar mesh electrode. This reduction of gas consumption is due to the generation of a hot spot along with high cathode temperature and low cathode fall voltage. (orig.)

  3. Takbir Mursal Procession at Brambang Village : A Review of Intra and Extra Aesthetic of Lantern Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Rokhmat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available People at Brambang village, Karangawen subdistrict, Demak regency in Central Java province, have a procession tradition called takbiran.  It is a procession which has been conducted for years at the end of Ramadan, the eve of Eid. This Takbiran procession in which the villagers of Brambang carrying lanterns called "Takbeer Mursal". In the procession, it is echoed with the name of Allah "Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, laa-ilaha-illallaahu wallaahu Akbar.-walillaahil-hamd Allahu Akbar". Artwork lanterns carried in this procession is interesting to study especially its intra and extra aesthetic value. The study employed a qualitative approach. The shapes and themes of the lanterns are very diverse, and they express something creative, aesthetic, and symbolic. Diversity of forms and themes of the lantern in takbir mursal classified as follows; theme associated with the idea of responding to the technology; the shape of the building, and modern equipment of transportation. They are forms relating to the animals; birds, land animals, reptiles, insects, and animals living in the water. Some mythological animal forms are namely Burok (winged horse, dragons, winged lizards, Nyi Blorong. While themes related to imaginary creatures or monsters are namely Satan, Jin, Gandarwa, and giants. In addition, there are also the art of doll-shaped lanterns displayed such as Doraemon, mascot ball, and teletabis. Lantern’s shape, is generally structurally integrated elements such as a harmonious, balanced and proportionate and rhythmic having aesthetic value. Symbolic meaning contained in the works of art lanterns generally convey a message of religious values, education, and social criticism.

  4. Characterization of Na+ and Ca2+ channels in zebrafish dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jin Won

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dorsal root ganglia (DRG somata from rodents have provided an excellent model system to study ion channel properties and modulation using electrophysiological investigation. As in other vertebrates, zebrafish (Danio rerio DRG are organized segmentally and possess peripheral axons that bifurcate into each body segment. However, the electrical properties of zebrafish DRG sensory neurons, as compared with their mammalian counterparts, are relatively unexplored because a preparation suitable for electrophysiological studies has not been available. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show enzymatically dissociated DRG neurons from juvenile zebrafish expressing Isl2b-promoter driven EGFP were easily identified with fluorescence microscopy and amenable to conventional whole-cell patch-clamp studies. Two kinetically distinct TTX-sensitive Na(+ currents (rapidly- and slowly-inactivating were discovered. Rapidly-inactivating I(Na were preferentially expressed in relatively large neurons, while slowly-inactivating I(Na was more prevalent in smaller DRG neurons. RT-PCR analysis suggests zscn1aa/ab, zscn8aa/ab, zscn4ab and zscn5Laa are possible candidates for these I(Na components. Voltage-gated Ca(2+ currents (I(Ca were primarily (87% comprised of a high-voltage activated component arising from ω-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive Ca(V2.2 (N-type Ca(2+ channels. A few DRG neurons (8% displayed a miniscule low-voltage-activated component. I(Ca in zebrafish DRG neurons were modulated by neurotransmitters via either voltage-dependent or -independent G-protein signaling pathway with large cell-to-cell response variability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our present results indicate that, as in higher vertebrates, zebrafish DRG neurons are heterogeneous being composed of functionally distinct subpopulations that may correlate with different sensory modalities. These findings provide the first comparison of zebrafish and rodent DRG neuron electrical properties and

  5. Comparative effects of amlodipine and benazepril on left atrial pressure in dogs with experimentally-induced mitral valve regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shuji; Fukushima, Ryuji; Ishikawa, Taisuke; Yamamoto, Yuta; Hamabe, Lina; Kim, Soomin; Yoshiyuki, Rieko; Machida, Noboru; Tanaka, Ryou

    2012-09-18

    One of the purposes of treatment for dogs with mitral regurgitation (MR) is lowering left atrial pressure (LAP). There has been few study of the amlodipine in dogs with MR and amlodipine's effect on LAP has not been fully evaluated in a quantitative manner because of difficulties in directly measuring LAP. The objective of our study was to compare the short-term effects of amlodipine (0.2 mg/kg PO q12h) vs benazepril (0.5 mg/kg PO q12h), on LAP and echocardiographic parameters in five beagle dogs with experimentally-induced MR. LAP of eight dogs that has own control were measured using radiotelemetry system at baseline and again on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 of the drug administration. Mean LAP decreased significantly after amlodipine (11.20 ± 4.19 mmHg vs 14.61 ± 3.81 mmHg at baseline, p benazepril treatment (13.19 ± 3.47 mmHg, p > .05). LAP was lower after 7 days of amlodipine treatment than after 7 days of benazepril treatment. Significant reduction was seen for the first time 4 days after the administration amlodipine. The rate of the maximal area of the regurgitant jet signals to the left atrium area (ARJ/LAA) of the amlodipine treatment was significantly lower (p benazepril treatment. Although this study did not focus on adverse effects, amlodipine may be an effective drug for helping the patients with acute onset of severe MR, such as rupture of chordae tendinae or end stage patients were the LAP is likely to be elevated. Additional studies in clinical patients with degenerative mitral valve disease and acute chordal rupture are warranted because the blood-pressure lowering effects of amlodipine can decrease renal perfusion and this can further activate the RAAS.

  6. Production of volatiles in fresh-cut apple: effect of applying alginate coatings containing linoleic acid or isoleucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Meraz, Irma O; Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Molina-Corral, Francisco J; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Jacobo-Cuellar, Juan L; Sepulveda, David R; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2014-11-01

    One of the main quality parameters in apples is aroma, its main precursors are fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). In this study, alginate edible coatings were used as carriers of linoleic acid or isoleucine to serve as precursors for the production of aroma in cut apples. Apple wedges were immersed in a CaCl2 solution and coated with one of the following formulations: alginate solution (Alg-Ca), Alg-Ca-low-level linoleic acid (0.61 g/Lt), (LFA), Alg-Ca-high-level linoleic acid (2.44 g/L; HFA), Alg-Ca-low-level isoleucine (0.61 g/L; LAA), and Alg-Ca-high-level isoleucine (2.44 g/L; HAA). Apple wedges were stored at 3 °C and 85% relative humidity for 21 d and key volatiles were studied during storage. Addition of precursors, mainly isoleucine, showed to increase the production of some key volatiles on coated fresh-cut apples during storage. The concentration of 2-methyl-1-butanol was 4 times higher from day 12 to day 21 in HAA, while 2-methyl butyl acetate increased from day 12 to day 21 in HAA. After 21 d, HAA-apples presented a 40-fold value of 2-methyl-butyl acetate, compared to Alg-Ca cut apples. Values of hexanal increased during cut apple storage when the coating carried linoleic acid, mainly on HFA, from 3 to 12 d. The ability of apples to metabolize AA and FA depends on the concentration of precursors, but also depends on key enzymes, previous apple storage, among others. Further studies should be done to better clarify the behavior of fresh-cut apples as living tissue to metabolize precursors contained in edible coatings for the production of volatiles. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. The Evaluation of Interstitial Abnormalities in Group B of the 2011 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Classification of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgiya, Masahiro; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Tamura, Atsuhisa; Kato, Takafumi; Akagawa, Shinobu; Ohta, Ken

    2017-10-15

    Objective In 2011, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification categorized chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients into 4 groups. A report demonstrated that the mortality in Group B was higher than that in Group C. Ischemic heart disease and cancer were suggested to be the cause. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that interstitial lung abnormalities (ILAs) are more prevalent in Group B than Group C and that they may be responsible for the higher mortality in Group B. Methods Patients were selected based on their pulmonary function test results. The inclusion criterion was a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 )/forced vital capacity (FVC) of COPD patients, ILAs were detected in 10.3% of the patients in Group A, 22.5% of the patients in Group B, 5.6% of the patients in Group C, and 23.1% of the patients in Group D. In Group B, the frequency of ILAs was significantly higher and the area affected by the ILAs was significantly greater in comparison to Group C. Among the patterns of interstitial abnormalities, the area of honeycombing in Group B was significantly greater than that in Group C. Furthermore, among the patients in Group B, the LAA in the ILA-positive patients was significantly greater than that in the ILA-negative patients. Conclusion In Group B, the area occupied by ILAs-especially honeycombing-was greater than that in Group C. This contributed to the preserved %FEV 1 and possibly to the poorer prognosis of the patients in Group B.

  8. Stereoconversion of amino acids and peptides in uryl-pendant binol schiff bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjung; Nandhakumar, Raju; Hong, Jooyeon; Ham, Sihyun; Chin, Jik; Kim, Kwan Mook

    2008-01-01

    (S)-2-Hydroxy-2'-(3-phenyluryl-benzyl)-1,1'-binaphthyl-3-carboxaldehyde (1) forms Schiff bases with a wide range of nonderivatized amino acids, including unnatural ones. Multiple hydrogen bonds, including resonance-assisted ones, fix the whole orientation of the imine and provoke structural rigidity around the imine C==N bond. Due to the structural difference and the increase in acidity of the alpha proton of the amino acid, the imine formed with an L-amino acid (1-l-aa) is converted into the imine of the D-amino acid (1-D-aa), with a D/L ratio of more than 10 for most amino acids at equilibrium. N-terminal amino acids in dipeptides are also predominantly epimerized to the D form upon imine formation with 1. Density functional theory calculations show that 1-D-Ala is more stable than 1-L-Ala by 1.64 kcal mol(-1), a value that is in qualitative agreement with the experimental result. Deuterium exchange of the alpha proton of alanine in the imine form was studied by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and the results support a stepwise mechanism in the L-into-D conversion rather than a concerted one; that is, deprotonation and protonation take place in a sequential manner. The deprotonation rate of L-Ala is approximately 16 times faster than that of D-Ala. The protonation step, however, appears to favor L-amino acid production, which prevents a much higher predominance of the D form in the imine. Receptor 1 and the predominantly D-form amino acid can be recovered from the imine by simple extraction under acidic conditions. Hence, 1 is a useful auxiliary to produce D-amino acids of industrial interest by the conversion of naturally occurring L-amino acids or relatively easily obtainable racemic amino acids.

  9. Fabrication of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode and its application for simultaneous electrochemical determination colorants of sunset yellow and tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoliang; Du, Yongling; Lu, Daban; Wang, Chunming

    2013-05-24

    We proposed a green and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film (β-CD-PDDA-Gr) by using L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) as the reducing agent at room temperature. The β-CD-PDDA-Gr composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode (GC-RDE) was then developed for the sensitive simultaneous determination of two synthetic food colorants: sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TT). By cyclic voltammetry (CV), the peak currents of SY and TT increased obviously on the developed electrochemical sensor. The kinetic parameters, such as diffusion coefficient D and standard heterogeneous rate constant kb, were estimated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Under the optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signals of SY and TT on the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE were significantly enhanced. The enhanced anodic peak currents represented the excellent analytical performance of simultaneous detection of SY and TT in the range of 5.0×10(-8) to 2.0×10(-5) mol L(-1), with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25×10(-8) mol L(-1) for SY and 1.43×10(-8) mol L(-1) for TT (SN(-1)=3). This proposed method displayed outstanding selectivity, good stability and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility, and also has been used to simultaneously determine SY and TT in some commercial soft drinks with satisfactory results. The obtained results were compared to HPLC of analysis for those two colorants and no significant differences were found. By the treatment of the experimental data, the electrochemical reaction mechanisms of SY and TT both involved a one-electron-one-proton-transfer process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of self-assembled peptide–mesenchymal stem cell complex on the progression of osteoarthritis in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JE

    2014-05-01

    metalloproteinases 1, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 were diffusely stained in controls, whereas localized or minimal staining was observed in other groups. Modified Mankin scores were significantly lower in the SAP and SAP-MSC groups than in controls (P=0.001 and 0.013. Although not statistically significant, synovial inflammation scores were lower in the SAP (1.3±0.3 and SAP-MSC (1.3±0.2 groups than in controls (2.6±0.2. However, neither the cytokine level nor the behavioral score was significantly different between groups.Conclusion: Injection of SAP-MSC hydrogels showed evidence of chondroprotection, as measured by the histologic grading and decreased expression of biochemical markers of inflammation and apoptosis. It also lowered subchondral bone mineral density, which can be increased by OA. This suggests that the SAP-MSC complex may have clinical potential to inhibit OA progression.Keywords: self-assembled peptide, mesenchymal stem cell, osteoarthritis, apoptosis, chondrogenesis

  11. İntraartiküler propolis ekstraktının erişkin sıçanlarda deneysel osteoartrit tedavisinde etkinliği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçen Kerimoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Amaç: Eklem kıkırdağının kendini tamir edebilme yeteneği oldukça sınırlıdır. Dejeneratif osteoartrit (OA, eklemde özellikle eklem kıkırdağı ve subkondral kemikte ilerleyici dejenerasyonla karakterizedir. Bazı sitokinler, matriks metalloproteinazlarının (MMP ve kondrosit kaynaklı katabolik maddelerin salınımını artırarak kıkırdak harabiyetini hızlandırırlar. Bal arıları tarafından üretilen propolis sitokinler ve MMP üzerinde etkiye sahiptir . Bu çalışma; intraartiküler propolis uygulanmasının deneysel osteoartrit üzerine etkilerini araştırmayı amaçlamaktadır. Yöntemler: Çalışmada kullanılan 21 adet Spraque Dawley cinsi dişi sıçan sadece artrotomi yapılan (A, artrotomi ve intraartiküler propolis uygulanan (P ve artrotomi ve intraartiküler serum fizyolojik uygulanan (SF olmak üzere üç gruba ayrıldı. P grubuna artrotomi sonrası 3. haftadan itibaren toplam üç hafta, haftada bir kez olacak şekilde 0.5 mg/ml konsantrasyondaki propolisten 0.1 ml intraartiküler verildi. SF grubuna ise P grubuyla aynı zamanlarda serum fizyolojik verildi. 6. hafta sonunda bütün sıçanlar servikal dislokasyon yoluyla sakrifiye edildi ve alınan diz eklemleri Safranin O-Fast Green ile boyanarak Mankin Skorlamasına göre histolojik olarak değerlendirildi. Bulgular: Yapılan histolojik skorlamada gruplardaki ortalama skorlar;A grubunda 0.57; SF grubunda 10.1 ve P grubunda ise 5.57 puan olarak hesaplanmıştır. A grubunda; eklem yüzeyi kıkırdak yapısının, boyanmasının ve hücrelerinin genel olarak normal olduğu görüldü. SF grubunda, kıkırdak yüzeyinde yarıklar; hücrelerinde ve matriks boyanmasında ciddi bozukluk mevcut olduğu gözlendi. P grubunda ise boyanmada azalma ve hücrelerde gruplaşmalar görülse de eklem yüzeyi SF grubuna göre daha düzgündü. Sonuç: İntraartikülerpropolisekstraktı uygulamasının deneysel OA oluşumunu azaltıcı etkisi olabilir.

  12. Determination of characteristics of degenerative joint disease using optical coherence tomography and polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tuqiang; Guo, Shuguang; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhongping; Peavy, George M

    2006-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that optical coherence tomography (OCT) could be used to delineate alterations in the microstructure of cartilage, and have suggested that changes in the polarization state of light as detected by OCT could provide information on the birefringence properties of articular cartilage as influenced by disease. In this study we have used both OCT and polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) technologies to evaluate normal and abnormal bovine articular cartilage according to established structural, organizational, and birefringent characteristics of degenerative joint disease (DJD) in order to determine if this technology can be used to differentiate various stages of DJD as a minimally invasive imaging tool. Fresh bovine femoral-tibial joints were obtained from an abattoir, and 45 cartilage specimens were harvested from 8 tibial plateaus. Whole ex vivo specimens of normal and degenerative articular cartilage were imaged by both OCT and PS-OCT, then fixed and processed for histological evaluation. OCT/PS-OCT images and corresponding histology sections of each specimen were scored according to a modified Mankin structural grading scale and compared. OCT and PS-OCT imaging allowed structural evaluation of intact articular cartilage along a 6 mm surface length to a depth of 2 mm with a transverse resolution of 12 microm and an axial resolution of 10 microm. The OCT and PS-OCT images demonstrated characteristic alterations in the structure of articular cartilage with a high correlation to histological evaluation (kappa = 0.776). The OCT images were able to demonstrate early to advanced structural changes of articular cartilage while the optical phase retardation images obtained by PS-OCT imaging were able to discriminate areas where disorganization of the cartilage matrix was present, however, these characteristics are much different than those reported where OCT images alone were used to characterize tissue

  13. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and extended-spectrum cephalosporins in California: surveillance and molecular detection of mosaic penA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, Severin; Nguyen, Duylinh; Lowenberg, Daniella; Samuel, Michael; Bauer, Heidi; Pandori, Mark

    2013-12-04

    The spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with mosaic penA alleles and reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is a major public health problem. While much work has been performed internationally, little is known about the genetics or molecular epidemiology of N. gonorrhoeae isolates with reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in the United States. The majority of N. gonorrhoeae infections are diagnosed without a live culture. Molecular tools capable of detecting markers of extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance are needed. Urethral N. gonorrhoeae isolates were collected from 684 men at public health clinics in California in 2011. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to ceftriaxone, cefixime, cefpodoxime and azithromycin were determined by Etest and categorized according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control 2010 alert value breakpoints. 684 isolates were screened for mosaic penA alleles using real-time PCR (RTPCR) and 59 reactive isolates were subjected to DNA sequencing of their penA alleles and Neisseria gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). To increase the specificity of the screening RTPCR in detecting isolates with alert value extended-spectrum cephalosporin MICs, the primers were modified to selectively amplify the mosaic XXXIV penA allele. Three mosaic penA alleles were detected including two previously described alleles (XXXIV, XXXVIII) and one novel allele (LA-A). Of the 29 isolates with an alert value extended-spectrum cephalosporin MIC, all possessed the mosaic XXXIV penA allele and 18 were sequence type 1407, an internationally successful strain associated with multi-drug resistance. The modified RTPCR detected the mosaic XXXIV penA allele in urethral isolates and urine specimens and displayed no amplification of the other penA alleles detected in this study. N. gonorrhoeae isolates with mosaic penA alleles and reduced susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins are currently

  14. Superconducting thin films of YBa2Cu3O7-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudner, J.

    1993-01-01

    Thin films of the high temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) are of significance in fundamental studies of oxide superconductors and for prospected electronic applications based on superconductors operating at liquid nitrogen temperatures (T= 77 K). Synthesis of YBCO thin films is complex and a large part of this thesis has been devoted to the elaboration of various techniques in forming YBCO thin films. A general observation was that synthesis of YBCO films exhibiting high zero-resistivity temperatures temperatures (T c ) ≥ 88 K and elevated critical current densities (J c ) ≥ 10 6 A/cm 2 at 77 K was possible under widely different conditions of film growth. For the BaF 2 -based method, various substrate materials were investigated. Among perovskite related substrates with low losses in the high frequency regime, LaA10 3 was found to yield YBCO films exhibiting the highest quality electrical properties. A study of YBCO film interaction with sapphire substrates was performed. It was suggested that the YBCO film on sapphire consists of weakly coupled superconducting grains. Compositional effects of Y, BA and Cu for MOCVD-YBCO films were examined with respect to morphology, structure, resistivity, as susceptibility and J c (T). High T c :s and J c :s were observed for an anomalous large compositional range of Cu in off-compositional YBCO films. This was shown to be related to the formation of Cu-rich precipitates embedded within a c-Axis oriented stoichiometric YBCO film matrix. Thermal critical current behavior at zero field in thin films of YBCO fabricated by various methods has been studied by three techniques: transport measurements on patterned microbridges, dc magnetization hysteresis loops using the Bean model and non-linear ac susceptibility analysis. Absolute critical current values obtained form the two former techniques when measured on the same YBCO film were observed to differ about a factor of two. The feasibility of non-linear ac

  15. A promoter polymorphism (rs17222919, -1316T/G of ALOX5AP gene is associated with decreased risk of ischemic stroke in two independent Chinese populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujia Fan

    Full Text Available No coding sequence variants of the gene encoding 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (ALOX5AP leading to amino acid substitutions have been identified. Therefore, variants in the ALOX5AP promoter region have received attention recently. The purpose of this study was to explore whether the promoter polymorphism rs17222919 is involved in the etiology of ischemic stroke (IS in the Chinese Han population. We investigated the rs17222919 polymorphism by TaqMan genotyping in two independent Chinese Han samples: the first comprised 910 IS patients and 925 healthy inhabitants from the northern Henan Province, while the second included 1003 IS patients and 889 healthy controls from the southern Henan Province. Functional characterization of rs17222919 was performed by an in vitro luciferase assay. After adjusting for conventional risk factors, the G allele frequencies in the IS groups were significantly lower than that in the control groups of the two independent Chinese cohorts (19.0% vs. 22.9%, P = 0.004, odds ratio (OR = 0.792, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.675-0.929; 18.8% vs. 22.9%, P = 0.002, OR = 0.782, 95% CI = 0.668-0.915, respectively. This was also observed in the large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA and stroke of other undetermined etiology (SUE subtypes (P = 0.019, OR = 0.815, 95% CI = 0.687-0.967; P = 0.021, OR = 0.815, 95% CI = 0.685-0.970, respectively. Additionally, the TG genotype and G allele frequencies were significantly lower in the IS compared with the control group in two female cohorts (P<0.05. Finally, the in vitro luciferase assay demonstrated that the G allele has a significantly lower transcription activity than the T allele (P = 0.031. Our study provides evidence that the promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs17222919 is a potential genetic protective factor for IS in the Chinese Han population.

  16. Responses of hybrid poplar clones and red maple seedlings to ambient O3 under differing light within a mixed hardwood forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, C.; Skelly, J.M.; Pennypacker, S.P.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Savage, J.E.; Stevenson, R.E.; Davis, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    The responses of ramets of hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) (HP) clones NE388 and NE359, and seedlings of red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) to ambient ozone (O 3 ) were studied during May-September of 2000 and 2001 under natural forest conditions and differing natural sunlight exposures (sun, partial shade and full shade). Ambient O 3 concentrations at the study site reached hourly peaks of 109 and 98 ppb in 2000 and 2001, respectively. Monthly 12-h average O 3 concentrations ranged from 32.3 to 52.9 ppb. Weekly 12-h average photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) within the sun, partial shade and full shade plots ranged from 200 to 750, 50 to 180, and 25 to 75 μmol m -2 s -1 , respectively. Ambient O 3 exposure induced visible foliar symptoms on HP NE388 and NE359 in both growing seasons, with more severe injury observed on NE388 than on NE359. Slight foliar symptoms were observed on red maple seedlings during the 2001growing season. Percentage of total leaf area affected (%LAA) was positively correlated with cumulative O 3 exposures. More severe foliar injury was observed on plants grown within the full shade and partial shade plots than those observed on plants grown within the sun plot. Lower light availability within the partial shade and full shade plots significantly decreased net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (g wv ). The reductions in Pn were greater than reductions in g wv , which resulted in greater O 3 uptake per unit Pn in plants grown within the partial shade and full shade plots. Greater O 3 uptake per unit Pn was consistently associated with more severe visible foliar injury in all species and/or clones regardless of differences in shade tolerance. These studies suggest that plant physiological responses to O 3 exposure are likely complicated due to multiple factors under natural forest conditions. - Under natural forest conditions and ambient O 3 exposures, available light plays a significant role in determining O 3 uptake and

  17. Comparative effects of amlodipine and benazepril on Left Atrial Pressure in Dogs with experimentally-induced Mitral Valve Regurgitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Shuji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the purposes of treatment for dogs with mitral regurgitation (MR is lowering left atrial pressure (LAP. There has been few study of the amlodipine in dogs with MR and amlodipine’s effect on LAP has not been fully evaluated in a quantitative manner because of difficulties in directly measuring LAP. The objective of our study was to compare the short-term effects of amlodipine (0.2 mg/kg PO q12h vs benazepril (0.5 mg/kg PO q12h, on LAP and echocardiographic parameters in five beagle dogs with experimentally-induced MR. LAP of eight dogs that has own control were measured using radiotelemetry system at baseline and again on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 of the drug administration. Results Mean LAP decreased significantly after amlodipine (11.20 ± 4.19 mmHg vs 14.61 ± 3.81 mmHg at baseline, p  .05. LAP was lower after 7 days of amlodipine treatment than after 7 days of benazepril treatment. Significant reduction was seen for the first time 4 days after the administration amlodipine. The rate of the maximal area of the regurgitant jet signals to the left atrium area (ARJ/LAA of the amlodipine treatment was significantly lower (p  Conclusions LAP was significantly decreased after amlodipine treatment in dogs with surgically-induced MR but not after benazepril treatment. Although this study did not focus on adverse effects, amlodipine may be an effective drug for helping the patients with acute onset of severe MR, such as rupture of chordae tendinae or end stage patients were the LAP is likely to be elevated. Additional studies in clinical patients with degenerative mitral valve disease and acute chordal rupture are warranted because the blood-pressure lowering effects of amlodipine can decrease renal perfusion and this can further activate the RAAS.

  18. Fabrication of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode and its application for simultaneous electrochemical determination colorants of sunset yellow and tartrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Xiaoliang; Du, Yongling; Lu, Daban; Wang, Chunming

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A green and facile approach for synthesis of β-CD-PDDA-Gr at room temperature. •We present the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE for simultaneous detection of SY and TT. •SY and TT's electrooxidations are both the one-electron-one-proton-transfer process. •Diffusion coefficients and standard rate constants of SY and TT were discussed. -- Abstract: We proposed a green and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film (β-CD-PDDA-Gr) by using L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) as the reducing agent at room temperature. The β-CD-PDDA-Gr composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode (GC-RDE) was then developed for the sensitive simultaneous determination of two synthetic food colorants: sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TT). By cyclic voltammetry (CV), the peak currents of SY and TT increased obviously on the developed electrochemical sensor. The kinetic parameters, such as diffusion coefficient D and standard heterogeneous rate constant k b , were estimated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Under the optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signals of SY and TT on the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE were significantly enhanced. The enhanced anodic peak currents represented the excellent analytical performance of simultaneous detection of SY and TT in the range of 5.0 × 10 −8 to 2.0 × 10 −5 mol L −1 , with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25 × 10 −8 mol L −1 for SY and 1.43 × 10 −8 mol L −1 for TT (S N −1 = 3). This proposed method displayed outstanding selectivity, good stability and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility, and also has been used to simultaneously determine SY and TT in some commercial soft drinks with satisfactory results. The obtained results were compared to HPLC of analysis for those two colorants and no significant differences were found. By the treatment of the

  19. APROXIMACIONES AL DEBATE POSITIVISMO-HISTORICISMO: CONSIDERACIONES ACERCA DE LA GEOGRAFÍA FÍSICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Bertani

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available En “Las Palabras y Las Cosas” Michel Foucault ha argumentado acerca de la existencia de dos grandes discontinuidades en la episteme occidental: la que inaugura la época clásica hacia mediados del siglo XVII y la que, a principios del siglo XIX señala el umbral de la modernidad 1. Es a partir de esta última ruptura que se desarrolla la Geografía como ciencia moderna, pudiéndose reconocer, desde ese entonces, la primacía del sustento filosófico del positivismo y del historicismo, alternativamente, en sus formulaciones teóricas y en la producción científica misma. Si bien la noción khuniana de “paradigma” 2 para explicar la Historia de la Ciencia ha sido objeto de grandes controversias y finalmente de críticas respecto a su capacidad explicativa acerca del desarrollo real de las teorías científicas, creemos válido apropiarnos, en sentido amplio, de dicho concepto para presentar la oposición que en los planos ontológico, metodológico y gnoseológico diferencian a las corrientes de pensamiento Positivista e Historicista, para luego adentrarnos en el análisis de ellas en el pensamiento geográfico y en la geografìa fìsica en particular. El ‘enfrentamiento’ entre estas dos posiciones fue propuesto durante el siglo anterior por el filósofo alemán Ernest Laas en su obra Idealismus und Positivismus (1879-1884, en la que presentó a la Historia de la Filosoría como un enfrentamiento entre dos doctrinas fundamentales: el platonismo (o idealismo y el positivismo. El primero se caracteriza por el apriorismo o innatismo, el racionalismo, el espiritualismo y la teleología, mientras que el segundo, reconoce como único fundamento los hechos positivos y exige que todo conocimiento se sustente en hechos o experiencias.

  20. Fabrication of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode and its application for simultaneous electrochemical determination colorants of sunset yellow and tartrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Xiaoliang; Du, Yongling; Lu, Daban; Wang, Chunming, E-mail: wangcm@lzu.edu.cn

    2013-05-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A green and facile approach for synthesis of β-CD-PDDA-Gr at room temperature. •We present the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE for simultaneous detection of SY and TT. •SY and TT's electrooxidations are both the one-electron-one-proton-transfer process. •Diffusion coefficients and standard rate constants of SY and TT were discussed. -- Abstract: We proposed a green and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film (β-CD-PDDA-Gr) by using L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) as the reducing agent at room temperature. The β-CD-PDDA-Gr composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode (GC-RDE) was then developed for the sensitive simultaneous determination of two synthetic food colorants: sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TT). By cyclic voltammetry (CV), the peak currents of SY and TT increased obviously on the developed electrochemical sensor. The kinetic parameters, such as diffusion coefficient D and standard heterogeneous rate constant k{sub b}, were estimated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Under the optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signals of SY and TT on the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE were significantly enhanced. The enhanced anodic peak currents represented the excellent analytical performance of simultaneous detection of SY and TT in the range of 5.0 × 10{sup −8} to 2.0 × 10{sup −5} mol L{sup −1}, with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} for SY and 1.43 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} for TT (S N{sup −1} = 3). This proposed method displayed outstanding selectivity, good stability and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility, and also has been used to simultaneously determine SY and TT in some commercial soft drinks with satisfactory results. The obtained results were compared to HPLC of analysis for those two colorants and no significant

  1. Motor abilities, movement skills and their relationship before and after eight weeks of martial arts training in people with intellectual disability [Motorické schopnosti, pohybové dovednosti a vztah mezi nimi u osob s mentálním postižením před osmitýdenním kurzem bojových umění a po jeho ukončení

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Karpljuk

    2012-06-01

    judokas had been noted. The effects of the training program should be verified in future studies. It is worth reiterating that by improving motor abilities and expanding the boundaries of skills, people with intellectual disability enhance their quality of life. Attention in the future and thus contributes to a higher quality of intellectually disabled people’s engagement in sport as well as in life.[VÝCHODISKA: Je známo, že část populace osob s mentálním postižením má sklon k obezitě a horšímu zdravotnímu stavu. Proto by v jejich životech měl hrát významnou roli sport. Navrhnout vědecky a profesionálně účinné tréninkové programy pro sportovní vyžití osob s mentálním postižením, sestávající z nezbytné metodiky a didaktických pokynů, je sice těžký úkol, ale stává se nezbytností pro blízkou budoucnost. CÍLE: Cílem studie je stanovit vzájemný vztah mezi vy branými motorickými schopnostmi a pohybovými dovednostmi v rámci bojových umění, jakož i to, jak a do jaké míry osoby s mentálním postižením (MP, které pravidelně trénují judo, mohou po osmitýdenním tréninkovém kurzu ve svých dovednostech v oblasti bojových umění (judo, karate, box a šerm dosáhnout zlepšení. Zajímalo nás také, zda došlo k jakýmkoli změnám ve vybraných motorických dovednostech. METODIKA: Měření motorických schopností a dovedností v oblasti vybraných bojových umění bylo provedeno dvakrát – v březnu 2008, týden před začátkem kurzu, a v květnu 2008, týden po jeho ukončení. Tréninkový kurz trval dva měsíce v rozsahu dvou lekcí týdně. Zkoumaný vzorek sestával z 5 žen a 18 mužů ve věku mezi 16 a 36 lety s mírným až středně těžkým mentálním postižením. Studie byla provedena pomocí 8 testů pro hodnocení motorických schopností a 9 testů pro hodnocení dovedností v oblasti bojových umění. VÝSLEDKY: Výsledky t-testu pro závislé vzorky prokázaly statisticky v

  2. CdSe/beta-Pb0.33V2O5 heterostructures: Nanoscale semiconductor interfaces with tunable energetic configurations for solar energy conversion and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milleville, Christopher C.

    This dissertation focuses on the formation and characterization of semiconductor heterostructures, consisting of light-harvesting cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) and single crystalline lead vanadium oxide nanowires (β-Pb0.33V2O5 NWs), for the purpose of excited-state charge transfer and photocatalytic production of solar fuels. We reported two distinct routes for assembling CdSe/β-Pb0.33V2O5 heterostructures: linker-assisted assembly (LAA) mediated by a bifunctional ligand and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). In the former case, the thiol end of a molecular linker, cysteine (Cys) is found to bind to the QD surface, whereas a protonated amine moiety interacts electrostatically with the negatively charged NW surface. In the alternative SILAR route, the surface coverage of CdSe on the β-Pb0.33V2O5 NWs is tuned by varying the number of successive precipitation cycles. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) measurements revealed that the mid-gap states of β-Pb0.33V2O5 NWs are closely overlapped in energy with the valence band edges of CdSe QDs, suggesting that hole transfer from the valence band of CdSe into the mid-gap states is possible. Preliminary evidence of hole transfer was obtained through photoluminescence quenching experiments. Steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements on Cys-CdSe dispersions, mixed dispersions of Cys-CdSe QDs and β-Pb0.33V¬2O5 NWs, and mixed dispersions of Cys-CdS QDs and V2O5 revealed a greater extent of quenching of the emission of Cys-CdSe QDs by β Pb0.33V¬2O5 relative to V2O5. V2O5, devoid of mid-gap states, is unable to accept holes from CdSe and therefore should not quench emission to the same extent as β-Pb0.33V¬2O5. The additional quenching was dynamic, consistent with a mechanism involving the transfer of photogenerated holes from CdSe QDs to the mid-gap states of β Pb0.33V2O5. Transient absorption spectroscopy (TA) was used to probe the dynamics of interfacial

  3. Relevansi Sistem Khilafah Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI Dengan Sistem Negara Islam Modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammadin Muhammadin

    2016-12-01

    negara Islam modern sehingga sangat rasional untuk diperjuangkan dan didukung oleh seluruh umat Islam.  Dalam melakukan aktivitasnya Hizbut Tahrir hanya membatasi aktivitasnya dalam dua aspek yaitu dakwah intelektual (fikriyah dan dakwah politis (siyasiyah serta tidak menggunakan kekuatan fisik (laa madiyah. Semua pemikiran dan aktivitasnya senantiasa muncul dan berlandaskan pada aqidah Islamiyah. Hizb ut-Tahrir is an independent Islamic political organization. His organization has its peculiarities such as; berasaskan Shari'ah, ideas and political action is not practical politics but political-ideological, conceptual, rationalists and non-violence. Hizb ut-Tahrir political conceived as al-ri'ayah al-syuuni al-umma; responsibility for the control of the interest and benefit of the people. Therefore, thinking and activity strengthened at political level in terms of carrying the affairs of the people. In the context of the establishment of Khilafat movement Hizb ut-Tahrir Indonesia by two. First, the ideas of the Islamic system of government must take the form of caliphate means not a republic, dictator, empire, monarchy, federal and democratic system; the pillars of the Islamic government must be established on the basis of sovereignty in the hands of Personality ', power belongs to the people, lifting the caliph is obligatory and only Khalifah has the right to adopt the laws Personality'; structure of the Khilafah state institutions there should be Caliph, Muawin at Tafwidh, Mu'awin at tanfidh, Wali, Amir al Jihad, al-Qadi, Mashalih Daulah, and the Assembly of the People; the draft constitution and Islamic system has advantages in the fields of politics, economics, education, and criminal association. Second, the strategy of the Hizb in efforts to uphold the Caliphate in the form of intensive training through halqah-halqah; general guidance through common study groups in mosques, buildings and public places, through the mass media, books and leaflets and publishing a

  4. Wireless and chip-less passive radiation sensors for high dose monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debourg, E.; Aubert, H.; Pons, P.; Augustyniak, I.; Knapkiewicz, P.; Dziuban, J.; Matusiak, M.; Olszacki, M.

    2015-01-01

    The safety of nuclear infrastructures may involve the monitoring of many parameters in harsh environments (high radiation level, high temperature, high pressure,..). If technological solutions exist for transducers part in such environments, the electronic part used in reader is not appropriate and still a challenging task. Well-known solutions to remove the electronic part from the harsh environment consist of connecting the transducer and the reader by long electrical wires or performing ex situ remote sensing. However wires may practically be difficult to implement while ex situ measurements are not compatible with on line monitoring. Wireless and passive sensors working in harsh environments could be an appropriate solution for the remote sensing of critical parameters. Passive sensors without electronics in the sensing unit are available (e.g., SAW sensors) but they suffer from short reading range (typically lower than 10 meters). In order to overcome this range limitation a new class of electromagnetic transducers was developed in the mid-2000's. The operating principle is based on the modification of the properties of high-frequency (>> 1 GHz) passive electromagnetic devices by the quantity to be measured. Based on this principle a wide range of sensing properties can be addressed and a large number of materials can be chosen. Moreover the use of high frequency allows reducing the size of the sensor elements (antenna, transducer) and enhancing the immunity to multi-path. Several principles of RF transducers have been already validated by LAAS-CNRS (e;g; pressure, temperature, stress) as well as radar-based solution for the wireless long-range sensors interrogation. The sensor dosimeter exploit here the known property of Hydrogen-Pressure Dosimeters (HPD) for which the polymer material dehydrogenates under nuclear irradiation. The transducer principle is described. The irradiation will generate the out-gazing (hydrogen) of the polymer inside a micro

  5. Wireless and chip-less passive radiation sensors for high dose monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debourg, E.; Aubert, H.; Pons, P. [CNRS, LAAS, 7 Av. Roche, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Univ de Toulouse, LAAS, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Augustyniak, I.; Knapkiewicz, P.; Dziuban, J. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland); Matusiak, M.; Olszacki, M. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Otwock (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    The safety of nuclear infrastructures may involve the monitoring of many parameters in harsh environments (high radiation level, high temperature, high pressure,..). If technological solutions exist for transducers part in such environments, the electronic part used in reader is not appropriate and still a challenging task. Well-known solutions to remove the electronic part from the harsh environment consist of connecting the transducer and the reader by long electrical wires or performing ex situ remote sensing. However wires may practically be difficult to implement while ex situ measurements are not compatible with on line monitoring. Wireless and passive sensors working in harsh environments could be an appropriate solution for the remote sensing of critical parameters. Passive sensors without electronics in the sensing unit are available (e.g., SAW sensors) but they suffer from short reading range (typically lower than 10 meters). In order to overcome this range limitation a new class of electromagnetic transducers was developed in the mid-2000's. The operating principle is based on the modification of the properties of high-frequency (>> 1 GHz) passive electromagnetic devices by the quantity to be measured. Based on this principle a wide range of sensing properties can be addressed and a large number of materials can be chosen. Moreover the use of high frequency allows reducing the size of the sensor elements (antenna, transducer) and enhancing the immunity to multi-path. Several principles of RF transducers have been already validated by LAAS-CNRS (e;g; pressure, temperature, stress) as well as radar-based solution for the wireless long-range sensors interrogation. The sensor dosimeter exploit here the known property of Hydrogen-Pressure Dosimeters (HPD) for which the polymer material dehydrogenates under nuclear irradiation. The transducer principle is described. The irradiation will generate the out-gazing (hydrogen) of the polymer inside a micro

  6. Väike teatmik (Tartu paranoiakriitilise risoomi kohta / A Small Guide to the (Tartu Paranoiac-Critical Rhizome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aare Pilv

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of a network of authors who have been active since the end of the 20th century, mainly (but not only in Tartu. They can be characterized as having an experimental attitude and maintaining distance from the literary mainstream, but at the same time they do not try to be consciously polemical or novatory, because partly they repeat the techniques of the 20th century avant-garde and, what is maybe more important, they sidestep the dialectics of innovating or altering the literary canon. The network is not strictly organized; it is rather a rhizome that has some denser nodes (literary journals and mailing lists. There have been different attempts to name the phenomenon: Tartu avant-garde, microcosmic literature, cognitive realism, Y-literature, "eksp" and so on. I have chosen "paranoiac-critique" as the term that best captures the common characteristics of these authors and their artistic practices (some of the authors are active not only as text writers, but also as conceptual artists.The paper then gives a list, with commentary, of the most important groups and individuals of that movement. In the role of "predecessors" are the group 14NÜ (Paavo Matsin, Mait Laas, Marianne Ravi et al., which also experimented with the format of the book, and a company in Tartu that developed a specific actionist stylistics called "mugiv" (Marko Kompus, Mehis Heinsaar, Martiini, Kaspar et al.. The sovereign figure in the experimental network is Valdur Mikita, who has also academically researched the problems of creativity; he is also a theoretician and metapoet. An important institution for the network has been the literary journal Vihik (initiator Berk Vaher; the later editor of the journal Jaak Tomberg has also participated in activities of the Tartu Theatre Laboratory (managed by Andreas W, which has experimented with "technological theatre". In the middle of the first decade of the 21st century the network has gathered around the

  7. Preface: SciDAC 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Horst

    2009-07-01

    and posters goes to the teams of researchers, the success of this year's conference is due to the strong efforts and support from members of the 2009 SciDAC Program Committee and Organizing Committee, and I would like to extend my heartfelt thanks to them for helping to make the 2009 meeting the largest and most successful to date. Program Committee members were: David Bader, LLNL; Pete Beckman, ANL; John Bell, LBNL; John Boisseau, University of Texas; Paul Bonoli, MIT; Hank Childs, LBNL; Bill Collins, LBNL; Jim Davenport, BNL; David Dean, ORNL; Thom Dunning, NCSA; Peg Folta, LLNL; Glenn Hammond, PNNL; Maciej Haranczyk, LBNL; Robert Harrison, ORNL; Paul Hovland, ANL; Paul Kent, ORNL; Aram Kevorkian, SPAWAR; David Keyes, Columbia University; Kwok Ko, SLAC; Felice Lightstone, LLNL; Bob Lucas, ISI/USC; Paul Mackenzie, Fermilab; Tony Mezzacappa, ORNL; John Negele, MIT; Jeff Nichols, ORNL; Mike Norman, UCSD; Joe Oefelein, SNL; Jeanie Osburn, NRL; Peter Ostroumov, ANL; Valerio Pascucci, University of Utah; Ruth Pordes, Fermilab; Rob Ross, ANL; Nagiza Samatova, ORNL; Martin Savage, University of Washington; Tim Scheibe, PNNL; Ed Seidel, NSF; Arie Shoshani, LBNL; Rick Stevens, ANL; Bob Sugar, UCSB; Bill Tang, PPPL; Bob Wilhelmson, NCSA; Kathy Yelick, NERSC/LBNL; Dave Zachmann, Vista Computational Technology LLC. Organizing Committee members were: Communications: Jon Bashor, LBNL. Contracts/Logistics: Mary Spada and Cheryl Zidel, ANL. Posters: David Bailey, LBNL. Proceedings: John Hules, LBNL. Proceedings Database Developer: Beth Cerny Patino, ANL. Program Committee Liaison/Conference Web Site: Yeen Mankin, LBNL. Tutorials: David Skinner, NERSC/LBNL. Visualization Night: Hank Childs, LBNL; Valerio Pascucci, Chems Touati, Nathan Galli, and Erik Jorgensen, University of Utah. Again, my thanks to all. Horst Simon San Diego, California June 18, 2009

  8. Oclusão do apêndice atrial esquerdo com o Amplatzer Cardiac Plug em pacientes com fibrilação atrial Left atrial appendage closure with the Amplatzer Cardiac Plug in patients with atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ênio Eduardo Guérios

    2012-06-01

    immediate results and short- to medium-term clinical follow-up (FU of patients that underwent LAAC with Amplatzer Cardiac Plug (ACP implantation in a single reference center. METHODS: Eighty-six consecutive patients with NVAF, contraindication to OA, and CHADS2 score=2.6±1.2 underwent LAAC with ACP implantation. Clinical and echocardiographic FU was performed at least four months after the procedure. RESULTS: All implants were guided by angiography alone. Procedural success was 99% (one patient suffered a cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis, and the procedure was waived. There were four major complications (the already mentioned cardiac tamponade, two transient ischemic attacks and one device embolization with percutaneous retrieval and two minor complications (one pericardial effusion without clinical significance and one non-significant ASD evidenced at FU. There was one in-hospital death after six days, unrelated to the procedure. All other patients were discharged without OA. After 25.9 patient-years of FU (69 patients, there were no strokes and no late device embolization. The LAA was completely closed in 97% of the cases. Six patients showed evidence of thrombus formation on the device, which resolved after three months of OA. CONCLUSION: LAAC is associated with high success, acceptable complication rates, and promising FU results, and may be considered a valuable alternative or complement to OA for stroke prevention in patients with NVAF.

  9. Preface: SciDAC 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Rick

    2008-07-01

    scenes an enormous amount of work is required to make a large conference go smoothly. First I thank Cheryl Zidel for her tireless efforts as organizing committee liaison and posters chair and, in general, handling all of my end of the program and keeping me calm. I also thank Gail Pieper for her work in editing the proceedings, Beth Cerny Patino for her work on the Organizing Committee website and electronic theater, and Ken Raffenetti for his work in keeping that website working. Jon Bashor and John Hules did an excellent job in handling conference communications. I thank Caitlin Youngquist for the striking graphic design; Dan Fay for tutorials arrangements; and Lynn Dory, Suzanne Stevenson, Sarah Pebelske and Sarah Zidel for on-site registration and conference support. We all owe Yeen Mankin an extra-special thanks for choosing the hotel, handling contracts, arranging menus, securing venues, and reassuring the chair that everything was under control. We are pleased to have obtained corporate sponsorship from Cray, IBM, Intel, HP, and SiCortex. I thank all the speakers and panel presenters. I also thank the former conference chairs Tony Metzzacappa, Bill Tang, and David Keyes, who were never far away for advice and encouragement. Finally, I offer my thanks to Michael Strayer, without whose leadership, vision, and persistence the SciDAC program would not have come into being and flourished. I am honored to be part of his program and his friend. Rick Stevens Seattle, Washington July 18, 2008

  10. Préface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspect, Alain

    2004-11-01

    ouverture sur les recherches de base d'aujourd'hui qui seront peut-être les outils quotidiens de l'optique de demain. Quant aux 169 communications par affiches elles ont, suivant la règle, couvert sans restriction tous les sujets de l'optique actuelle. Ce volume spécial du Journal de Physique IV regroupe la majorité des conférences invitées et des communications par affiches. Profitant de la participation des mondes académique et industriel, un forum sur “innovation et nouveaux débouchés pour l'optique” a permis de dégager des raisons d'espoir pour l'emploi des chercheurs en optique. Enfin, renouvelant l'expérience d'éditions précédentes, la dernière demi journée a été consacrée à deux conférences qui étaient ouvertes à un public élargi, notamment les étudiants de l'université et des classes préparatoires ainsi que leurs enseignants. Si Antoine Labeyrie nous a laissés sans voix avec ses projets “hyperfuturistes” d'hypertélescopes à l'échelle du million de kilomètres, Pierre Lena nous a donné un moment de vrai bonheur en célébrant le mariage sans cesse renouvelé du toujours jeune couple que sont l'optique et l'astronomie : qu'il soit remercié aussi pour le magnifique teste publié dans ce volume. COLOQ se devait d'honorer la mémoire de deux personnalités hors du commun de l'optique, Jean Brossel et Gilbert Grynberg. Tous ceux qui avaient connu l'un ou l'autre ont pu apprécier la justesse des évocations, par d'anciens collaborateurs, de l'oeuvre scientifique mais aussi des personnalités de ces deux grands physiciens. On trouvera les textes de ces interventions émouvantes dans ce recueil. La réussite de COLOQ 8 est évidemment due; avant tout, à la qualité scientifique des présentations, mais elle repose aussi sur l'action conjuguée des comités d'organisation national et local. Au niveau local, Françoise Lozes et Jacques Vigué ont mobilisé les membres du LCAR-IRSAMC et du LAAS pour l'organisation conjointe - particuli