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Sample records for manipulates vitellogenin expression

  1. A tapeworm molecule manipulates vitellogenin expression in the beetle Tenebrio molitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warr, E.; Meredith, J. M.; Nimmo, D. D.; Basu, S.; Hurd, H.; Eggleston, P.

    2006-01-01

    Metacestodes of Hymenolepis diminuta secrete a molecule that decreases vitellogenin (Vg) synthesis in the beetle host, Tenebrio molitor. The 5608 bp T. molitor Vg cDNA represents a single-copy gene encoding a single open reading frame of 1821 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 206 kDa. Northern blot analysis revealed detectable levels of transcripts only in adult females. In vivo, Vg mRNA abundance was significantly higher in fat bodies from infected females compared with control females at all but the earliest time point. In vitro, Vg mRNA abundance was significantly increased in fat bodies incubated with live stage I–II parasites. The apparent conflict between increased Vg mRNA abundance and decreased Vg protein in fat bodies from infected females is discussed. PMID:16907836

  2. DNA sequence and prokaryotic expression analysis of vitellogenin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the DNA sequence of vitellogenin from Antheraea pernyi (Ap-Vg) was identified and its functional domain (30-740 aa, Ap-Vg-1) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. The recombinant Ap-Vg-1 proteins were purified and used for antibody preparation. The results showed that the intact DNA ...

  3. Vitellogenin and vitellogenin receptor gene expression profiles in Spodoptera exigua are related to host plant suitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Sun, Yang; Xiao, Liubin; Tan, Yongan; Jiang, Yiping; Bai, Lixin

    2018-04-01

    The beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, a worldwide phytophagous pest, causes considerable economic agricultural losses. Understanding the relationship between its fecundity and the host plant is a basic and important component of early forecasting of beet armyworm outbreaks. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism by which distinct hosts affect S. exigua fecundity. In this study, key life-history parameters of S. exigua reared on distinct hosts were investigated; the host plants could be ranked as lettuce > shallot > tomato > celery in their order of suitability. Full-length S. exigua vitellogenin receptor (SeVgR) cDNA was cloned, and sex-, stage- and tissue-specific expression characteristics were assessed. Spodoptera exigua vitellogenin (SeVg) and SeVgR expression levels were markedly modulated by host nutrients (P lettuce, the most preferred and most nutritive host, than in those reared on tomato and celery. Interestingly, significant linear regression correlations were found between SeVg and SeVgR expression levels and key S. exigua life-history parameters, especially life span, pupa weight, and female fecundity (P < 0.01). Host plant type and suitability could affect the expression pattern of SeVg and SeVgR, which influenced S. exigua fecundity. Vg and VgR have the potential to be used as molecular markers of S. exigua fecundity and for forecasting outbreaks of S. exigua on different hosts. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Vitellogenin and vitellogenin receptor gene expression and 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration in Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to chlordecone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Anne; Hanikenne, Marc; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Forget-Leray, Joëlle; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Gismondi, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide widely used in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) to control the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Although it was previously highlighted that chlordecone may affect the reproduction and growth of vertebrate species, little information is available on the chlordecone effects in invertebrates. The present study investigated the effects of chlordecone on a hormone and a protein having key roles in reproduction and growth of the decapod crustacean Macrobrachium rosenbergii, by measuring the 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration, vitellogenin, and vitellogenin receptor gene expression, as well as the bioconcentration of chlordecone in exposed prawns. First, the results revealed that chlordecone was accumulated in M. rosenbergii. Then, it was found that Vg and VgR gene expression were increased in male and female M. rosenbergii exposed to chlordecone for 90 and 240 days, while the 20-hydroxyecdysone concentrations were decreased. This work suggests that chlordecone accumulates in prawn tissues and could affect key molecules involved in the reproduction and the growth of the invertebrate M. rosenbergii. However, many questions remain unresolved regarding the impacts of chlordecone on growth and reproduction and the signaling pathways responsible for these effects, as well as the potential role of confounding factors present in in situ studies.

  5. Brain gene expression changes elicited by peripheral vitellogenin knockdown in the honey bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, M M; Ament, S A; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Robinson, G E

    2013-10-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is best known as a yolk protein precursor. Vg also functions to regulate behavioural maturation in adult honey bee workers, but the underlying molecular mechanisms by which it exerts this novel effect are largely unknown. We used abdominal vitellogenin (vg) knockdown with RNA interference (RNAi) and brain transcriptomic profiling to gain insights into how Vg influences honey bee behavioural maturation. We found that vg knockdown caused extensive gene expression changes in the bee brain, with much of this transcriptional response involving changes in central biological functions such as energy metabolism. vg knockdown targeted many of the same genes that show natural, maturation-related differences, but the direction of change for the genes in these two contrasts was not correlated. By contrast, vg knockdown targeted many of the same genes that are regulated by juvenile hormone (JH) and there was a significant correlation for the direction of change for the genes in these two contrasts. These results indicate that the tight coregulatory relationship that exists between JH and Vg in the regulation of honey bee behavioural maturation is manifest at the genomic level and suggest that these two physiological factors act through common pathways to regulate brain gene expression and behaviour. © 2013 Royal Entomological Society.

  6. Expression analysis of vitellogenins in the workers of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Hawkings

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitellogenin has been proposed to regulate division of labor and social organization in social insects. The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta harbors four distinct, adjacent vitellogenin genes (Vg1, Vg2, Vg3, and Vg4. Contrary to honey bees that have a single Vg ortholog as well as potentially fertile nurses, and to other ant species that lay trophic eggs, S. invicta workers completely lack ovaries or the ability to lay eggs. This provides a unique model to investigate whether Vg duplication in S. invicta was followed by subfunctionalization to acquire non-reproductive functions and whether Vg was co-opted to regulate behavior within the worker caste. To investigate these questions, we compared the expression patterns of S. invicta Vg genes among workers from different morphological subcastes or performing different tasks. RT-qPCRs revealed higher relative expression of Vg1 in major workers compared to both medium and minor workers, and of Vg2 in major workers when compared to minor workers. Relative expression of Vg1 was also higher in carbohydrate foragers when compared to nurses and protein foragers. By contrast, the level of expression of Vg2, Vg3, and Vg4 were not significantly different among the workers performing the specific tasks. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship between the expression of the Vg genes and S-hydroprene, a juvenile hormone analog. No changes in Vg expression were recorded in workers 12 h after application of the analog. Our results suggest that in S. invicta the Vg gene underwent subfunctionalization after duplication to new functions based on the expression bias observed in these data. This may suggest an alternative and still unknown function for Vg in the workers that needs to be investigated further.

  7. Effects of adrenergic agents on the expression of zebrafish (Danio rerio) vitellogenin Ao1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Naida; Jin Xia; He Jiangyan; Yin Zhan

    2009-01-01

    Teleost vitellogenins (VTGs) are large multidomain apolipoproteins, traditionally considered to be estrogen-responsive precursors of the major egg yolk proteins, expressed and synthesized mainly in hepatic tissue. The inducibility of VTGs has made them one of the most frequently used in vivo and in vitro biomarkers of exposure to estrogen-active substances. A significant level of zebrafish vtgAo1, a major estrogen responsive form, has been unexpectedly found in heart tissue in our present studies. Our studies on zebrafish cardiomyopathy, caused by adrenergic agonist treatment, suggest a similar protective function of the cardiac expressed vtgAo1. We hypothesize that its function is to unload surplus intracellular lipids in cardiomyocytes for 'reverse triglyceride transportation' similar to that found in lipid transport proteins in mammals. Our results also demonstrated that zebrafish vtgAo1 mRNA expression in heart can be suppressed by both α-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine (PE) and β-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol (ISO). Furthermore, the strong stimulation of zebrafish vtgAo1 expression in plasma induced by the β-adrenergic antagonist, MOXIsylyl, was detected by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). Such stimulation cannot be suppressed by taMOXIfen, an antagonist to estrogen receptors. Thus, our present data indicate that the production of teleost VTG in vivo can be regulated not only by estrogenic agents, but by adrenergic signals as well.

  8. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…

  9. Mechanistic insights into induction of vitellogenin gene expression by estrogens in Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Kim Anh; MacFarlane, Geoff R; Kong, Richard Yuen Chong; O'Connor, Wayne A; Yu, Richard Man Kit

    2016-05-01

    Marine molluscs, such as oysters, respond to estrogenic compounds with the induction of the egg yolk protein precursor, vitellogenin (Vtg), availing a biomarker for estrogenic pollution. Despite this application, the precise molecular mechanism through which estrogens exert their action to induce molluscan vitellogenesis is unknown. As a first step to address this question, we cloned a gene encoding Vtg from the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata (sgVtg). Using primers designed from a partial sgVtg cDNA sequence available in Genbank, a full-length sgVtg cDNA of 8498bp was obtained by 5'- and 3'-RACE. The open reading frame (ORF) of sgVtg was determined to be 7980bp, which is substantially longer than the orthologs of other oyster species. Its deduced protein sequence shares the highest homology at the N- and C-terminal regions with other molluscan Vtgs. The full-length genomic DNA sequence of sgVtg was obtained by genomic PCR and genome walking targeting the gene body and flanking regions, respectively. The genomic sequence spans 20kb and consists of 30 exons and 29 introns. Computer analysis identified three closely spaced half-estrogen responsive elements (EREs) in the promoter region and a 210-bp CpG island 62bp downstream of the transcription start site. Upregulation of sgVtg mRNA expression was observed in the ovaries following in vitro (explants) and in vivo (tank) exposure to 17β-estradiol (E2). Notably, treatment with an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist in vitro abolished the upregulation, suggesting a requirement for an estrogen-dependent receptor for transcriptional activation. DNA methylation of the 5' CpG island was analysed using bisulfite genomic sequencing of the in vivo exposed ovaries. The CpG island was found to be hypomethylated (with 0-3% methylcytosines) in both control and E2-exposed oysters. However, no significant differential methylation or any correlation between methylation and sgVtg expression levels was observed. Overall, the

  10. Characterization of vitellogenin gene expression in round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowley, Lucas A; Alam, Farhana; Marentette, Julie R; Balshine, Sigal; Wilson, Joanna Y

    2010-12-01

    A growing concern over endocrine disruption in aquatic species has prompted the development of molecular assays to monitor environmental impacts. This study describes the development of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to characterize the expression of two vitellogenin (Vtg) genes in the invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus). Fragments from the 18SrRNA (housekeeping gene), Vtg II, and Vtg III genes were cloned and sequenced. The qPCR assays were developed to detect hepatic Vtg expression in goby. The assays detected induction of both Vtg genes in nonreproductive males following a two-week laboratory exposure to 17β-estradiol (≥1 mg/kg i.p. injection). The assays were applied to goby from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario (Canada), including those from sites where feminization and intersex of goby has been documented. Both Vtg genes had significantly higher expression in females compared to males. Male reproductive goby adopt either parental or sneaker tactics; Vtg II expression was higher in sneaker than in parental males but parental and nonreproductive males did not differ from each other. The Vtg III expression was significantly higher in sneaker males followed by parental males and nonreproductive males, respectively. The Vtg II and III expression in nonreproductive males was elevated in the contaminated site with documented intersex. This assay provides an important tool for the use of an invasive species in monitoring endocrine disruption in the Great Lakes region. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  11. Assessment of potential biomarkers, metallothionein and vitellogenin mRNA expressions in various chemically exposed benthic Chironomus riparius larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Inn-Sil

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was conducted to identify the possibility of using Chironomus metallothionein (MT) and vitellogenin (VTG) as biomarkers of stress caused by endocrinedisrupting chemicals (EDCs), heavy metals, herbicides and veterinary antibiotics. We characterized the MT and VTG cDNA in Chironomus riparius and evaluated their mRNA expression profiles following exposure to different environmental pollutants. The gene expression analysis showed that the MT mRNA levels increased significantly after long-term exposure to cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Moreover, the VTG mRNA expression increased significantly in C. riparius larvae exposed to BPA, NP, DEHP, Cd, 2,4-D and fenbendazole. Evaluation of the long-term effects of environmental pollutants revealed up regulation of Chironomus MT mRNA in response to DEHP exposure among EDCs, and the level of the VTG mRNA was increased significantly following treatment with Cd and herbicide 2,4-D at all concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that VTG could be used as a potential biomarker of herbicide and Cd as well as EDCs, while MT was a potential biomarker of heavy metals such as Cd, Cu, and Pb in aquatic environments.

  12. Endocrine disruption screening by protein and gene expression of vitellogenin in freshly isolated and cryopreserved rainbow trout hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markell, Lauren K; Mingoia, Robert T; Peterson, Heather M; Yao, Jianhong; Waters, Stephanie M; Finn, James P; Nabb, Diane L; Han, Xing

    2014-08-18

    Xenobiotics may activate the estrogen receptor, resulting in alteration of normal endocrine functions in animals and humans. Consequently, this necessitates development of assay end points capable of identifying estrogenic xenobiotics. In the present study, we screened the potential estrogenicity of chemicals via their ability to induce vitellogenin (VTG) expression in cultured primary hepatocytes from male trout. A routine method for VTG detection measures the secretion of the protein by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in freshly isolated trout hepatocytes. However, this lengthy (6 days) culturing procedure requires that hepatocyte isolation is performed each time the assay is run. We optimized this methodology by investigating the utility of cryopreserved hepatocytes, shortening the incubation time, performing a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method for VTG quantification, and verifying the model system with reference chemicals 17β-estradiol, estrone, diethylstilbestrol, hexestrol, genistein, and a negative control, corticosterone. To test the performance of both freshly isolated and cryopreserved hepatocytes, mRNA was collected from hepatocytes following 24 h treatment for VTG gene expression analysis, whereas cell culture media was collected for a VTG ELISA 96 h post-treatment. EC50 values were obtained for each reference chemical except for corticosterone, which exhibited no induction of VTG gene or protein level. Our results show linear concordance between ELISA and qPCR detection methods. Although there was approximately 50% reduction in VTG inducibility following cryopreservation, linear concordance of EC50 values was found between freshly isolated and cryopreserved hepatocytes, indicating that cryopreservation does not alter the functional assessment of estrogen receptor activation and therefore VTG expression. These studies demonstrate that qPCR is a sensitive and specific method for detecting VTG gene expression that can be used together

  13. Effects of eutrophication on vitellogenin gene expression in male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to 17α-ethynylestradiol in field mesocosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, Denise A.; Toth, Gregory P.; Graham, David W.; Lazorchak, James M.; Reddy, Tirumuru V.; Knapp, Charles W.; Noyelles, Frank de; Campbell, Scott; Lattier, David L.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of aquatic secondary nutrient supply levels (nitrogen and phosphorus) on the subcellular response of adult male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to a single nominal concentration of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a potent synthetic estrogen, under quasi-natural field conditions. Outdoor mesocosms were maintained under low, medium, and high nutrient supply conditions as categorized by total phosphorus (TP) level (nominal 0.012, 0.025, and 0.045 mg TP/L, respectively), and treated with EE2 with and without a carrier solvent. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methods, vitellogenin gene (Vg) expression was determined in the fish collected at 0 h, 8 h, 24 h, 4 d, 7 d, and 14 d post-exposure. Induction of Vg was detected as early as 8 h post-exposure, with and without the carrier solvent, and persisted through Day 14. Results showed Vg to be significantly greater at low nutrient levels (p < 0.05), suggesting that EE2 bioavailability to the fish was likely greater under less-turbid water conditions. - Nutrient condition in surface waters strongly influences vitellogenin gene expression in male fathead minnows

  14. DNA methylation affects the lifespan of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) workers - Evidence for a regulatory module that involves vitellogenin expression but is independent of juvenile hormone function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Júnior, Carlos A M; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina R; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The canonic regulatory module for lifespan of honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers involves a mutual repressor relationship between juvenile hormone (JH) and vitellogenin (Vg). Compared to vertebrates, however, little is known about a possible role of epigenetic factors. The full genomic repertoire of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) makes the honey bee an attractive emergent model for studying the role of epigenetics in the aging process of invertebrates, and especially so in social insects. We first quantified the transcript levels of the four DNMTs encoding genes in the head thorax and abdomens of workers of different age, showing that dnmt1a and dnmt3 expression is up-regulated in abdomens of old workers, whereas dnmt1b and dnmt2 are down-regulated in heads of old workers. Pharmacological genome demethylation by RG108 treatment caused an increase in worker lifespan. Next, we showed that the genomic DNA methylation status indirectly affects vitellogenin gene expression both in vitro and in vivo in young workers, and that this occurs independent of caloric restriction or JH levels, suggesting that a non-canonical circuitry may be acting in parallel with the JH/Vg module to regulate the adult life cycle of honey bee workers. Our data provide evidence that epigenetic factors play a role in regulatory networks associated with complex life history traits of a social insect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) is predominantly expressed in the brain and negatively regulates hepatopancreatic vitellogenin (VTG) gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Zhang, Lv-Ping; Wong, Nai-Kei; Zhong, Ming; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun

    2014-03-01

    Ovarian maturation in crustaceans is temporally orchestrated by two processes: oogenesis and vitellogenesis. The peptide hormone vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH), by far the most potent negative regulator of crustacean reproduction known, critically modulates crustacean ovarian maturation by suppressing vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis. In this study, cDNA encoding VIH was cloned from the eyestalk of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, a highly significant commercial culture species. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that L. vannamei VIH (lvVIH) can be classified as a member of the type II crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family. Northern blot and RT-PCR results reveal that both the brain and eyestalk were the major sources for lvVIH mRNA expression. In in vitro experiments on primary culture of shrimp hepatopancreatic cells, it was confirmed that some endogenous inhibitory factors existed in L. vannamei hemolymph, brain, and eyestalk that suppressed hepatopancreatic VTG gene expression. Purified recombinant lvVIH protein was effective in inhibiting VTG mRNA expression in both in vitro primary hepatopancreatic cell culture and in vivo injection experiments. Injection of recombinant VIH could also reverse ovarian growth induced by eyestalk ablation. Furthermore, unilateral eyestalk ablation reduced the mRNA level of lvVIH in the brain but not in the remaining contralateral eyestalk. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights on VIH regulation of shrimp reproduction: 1) the brain and eyestalk are both important sites of VIH expression and therefore possible coregulators of hepatopancreatic VTG mRNA expression and 2) eyestalk ablation could increase hepatopancreatic VTG expression by transcriptionally abolishing eyestalk-derived VIH and diminishing brain-derived VIH.

  16. The Expression of Leptin, Estrogen Receptors, and Vitellogenin mRNAs in Migrating Female Chum Salmon, : The Effects of Hypo-osmotic Environmental Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Jae Choi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Leptin plays an important role in energy homeostasis and reproductive function in fish, especially in reproduction. Migrating fish, such as salmonoids, are affected by external environmental factors, and salinity changes are a particularly important influence on spawning migrations. The aim of this study was to test whether changes in salinity affect the expression of leptin, estrogen receptors (ERs, and vitellogenin (VTG in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta. The expression and activity of leptin, the expression of ERs and VTG, and the levels of estradiol-17β and cortisol increased after the fish were transferred to FW, demonstrating that changes in salinity stimulate the HPG axis in migrating female chum salmon. These findings reveal details about the role of elevated leptin levels and sex steroid hormones in stimulating sexual maturation and reproduction in response to salinity changes in chum salmon.

  17. Fecundity, 17ß-estradiol concentrations and expression of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor genes throughout the ovarian cycle in female Eastern mosquitofish from three lakes in Florida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, T.; Edwards, T. M.; Kohno, S.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies of Eastern mosquitofish in contaminated Lake Apopka, Florida, have documented reduced sperm count and sexual behaviour in males but increased fecundity and liver weight in females, compared to nearby reference lakes. Liver weight can be an indicator of vitellogenin (Vtg) synthesis...... in fish, such as the mosquitofish. It was therefore hypothesized that estrogenic organochlorine pesticides, present at elevated concentrations in animals from Lake Apopka, could cause the reproductive disorders in males, as well as increase female fecundity. We initiated a test of this hypothesis...... by examining the relationship between 17β-estradiol (E2) tissue concentrations, hepatic estrogen receptor α (ERα) and Vtg A, B and C gene expression and fecundity in sexually mature female Eastern mosquitofish from Lake Apopka and two reference lakes, Lake Woodruff and Lake Orange. We observed that female...

  18. Effect of TBT and PAHs on CYP1A, AhR and Vitellogenin Gene Expression in the Japanese Eel, Anguilla japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min Seop; Kwon, Se Ryun; Choi, Seong Hee; Kwon, Hyuk Chu

    2012-12-01

    Gene expressions of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and vitellogenin (Vg) by endocrine disruptors, benzo[α]pyrene (B[a]P) and tributyltin (TBT) were examined in cultured eel hepatocytes which were isolated from eels treated previously with B[a]P (10 mg/kg) or estradiol-17β (20 mg/kg) in vivo, and the relationship between CYP1A, AhR and Vg genes were studied. When the cultured eel hepatocytes were treated with B[a]P (10(-6)-10(-5) M) the gene expressions of CYP1A and AhR were enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner. However, when treated with TBT (10(-9)-10(-5) M) the gene expressions of CYP1A and AhR were suppressed at high concentrations (10(-6)-10(-5) M), while having no effects at low concentrations (10(-9)-10(-7) M). Gene expression of Vg was also suppressed by TBT in a concentration-dependent manner in cultured eel hepatocytes which was previously treated in vivo with estradiol-17β.

  19. Vitellogenin messenger rna in rooster liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Ebo Sijbren

    1975-01-01

    The investigations described in this thesis were carried out as a part of the studies in our laboratory on the control of gene expression in animal cells. They represent an example of the hormonal regulation of protein synthesis, viz. the induction of vitellogenin synthesis in rooster liver by the

  20. Expression analysis of Drosophila doublesex, transformer-2, intersex, fruitless-like, and vitellogenin homologs in the parahaploid predator Metaseiulus occidentalis (Chelicerata: Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Aaron F; Hoy, Marjorie A

    2015-01-01

    Characterization and expression analyses are essential to gain insight into sex-determination pathways in members of the Acari. Little is known about sex determination at the molecular level in the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Arthropoda: Chelicerata: Arachnida: Acari: Phytoseiidae), a parahaploid species. In this study, eight genes previously identified as putative homologs to genes involved in the sex-determination pathway in Drosophila melanogaster were evaluated for sex-specific alternative splicing and sex-biased expression using reverse-transcriptase PCR and quantitative real-time PCR techniques, respectively. The homologs evaluated in M. occidentalis included two doublesex-like genes (Moccdsx1 and Moccdsx2), transformer-2 (Mocctra-2), intersex (Moccix), two fruitless-like genes (MoccBTB1 and MoccBTB2), as well as two vitellogenin-like genes (Moccvg1 and Moccvg2). Single transcripts of equal size were detected in males and females for Moccdsx1, Moccdsx2, Mocctra-2, Moccix, and MoccBTB2, suggesting that their pre-mRNAs do not undergo alternative splicing in a sex-specific manner. Three genes, Moccdsx1, Moccdsx2 and MoccBTB2, displayed male-biased expression relative to females. One gene, Moccix, displayed female-biased expression relative to males. Two genes, Mocctra-2 and MoccBTB1, did not display detectable differences in transcript abundance in males and females. Expression of Moccvg1 and Moccvg2 were detected in females only, and transcript levels were up-regulated in mated females relative to unmated females. To our knowledge, this represents the first attempt to elucidate expression patterns of putative sex-determination genes in an acarine. This study is an initial step towards understanding the sex-determination pathway in the parahaploid M. occidentalis.

  1. Vitellogenin family gene expression does not increase Drosophila lifespan or fecundity [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3ac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxue Ren

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most striking patterns in comparative biology is the negative correlation between lifespan and fecundity observed in comparisons among species. This pattern is consistent with the idea that organisms need to allocate a fixed energy budget among competing demands of growth, development, reproduction and somatic maintenance. However, exceptions to this pattern have been observed in many social insects, including ants, bees, and termites.  In honey bees (Apis mellifera, Vitellogenin (Vg, a yolk protein precursor, has been implicated in mediating the long lifespan and high fecundity of queen bees. To determine if Vg-like proteins can regulate lifespan in insects generally, we examined the effects of expression of Apis Vg and Drosophila CG31150 (a Vg-like gene recently identified as cv-d on Drosophila melanogaster lifespan and fecundity using the RU486-inducible GeneSwitch system. For all genotypes tested, overexpression of Vg and CG31150 decreased Drosophila lifespan and did not affect total or age-specific fecundity. We also detected an apparent effect of the GeneSwitch system itself, wherein RU486 exposure (or the GAL4 expression it induces led to a significant increase in longevity and decrease in fecundity in our fly strains. This result is consistent with the pattern reported in a recent meta-analysis of Drosophila aging studies, where transgenic constructs of the UAS/GAL4 expression system that should have no effect (e.g. an uninduced GeneSwitch significantly extended lifespan in some genetic backgrounds. Our results suggest that Vg-family genes are not major regulators of Drosophila life history traits, and highlight the importance of using appropriate controls in aging studies.

  2. Manipulating heat shock protein expression in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, J Keith; Roberts, Stephen M

    2005-02-01

    Upregulation of heat shock proteins (Hsps) has been observed to impart resistance to a wide variety of physical and chemical insults. Elucidation of the role of Hsps in cellular defense processes depends, in part, on the ability to manipulate Hsp expression in laboratory animals. Simple methods of inducing whole body hyperthermia, such as warm water immersion or heating pad application, are effective in producing generalized expression of Hsps. Hsps can be upregulated locally with focused direct or indirect heating, such as with ultrasound or with laser or microwave radiation. Increased Hsp expression in response to toxic doses of xenobiotics has been commonly observed. Some pharmacologic agents are capable of altering Hsps more specifically by affecting processes involved in Hsp regulation. Gene manipulation offers the ability to selectively increase or decrease individual Hsps. Knockout mouse strains and Hsp-overexpressing transgenics have been used successfully to examine the role of specific Hsps in protection against hyperthermia, chemical insults, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Gene therapy approaches also offer the possibility of selective alteration of Hsp expression. Some methods of increasing Hsp expression have application in specialized areas of research, such cold response, myocardial protection from exercise, and responses to stressful or traumatic stimuli. Each method of manipulating Hsp expression in laboratory animals has advantages and disadvantages, and selection of the best method depends upon the experimental objectives (e.g., the alteration in Hsp expression needed, its timing, and its location) and resources available.

  3. Induction of vitellogenin synthesis by estrogen in avian liver: relationship between level of vitellogenin mRNA and vitellogenin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullinix, K P; Wetekam, W; Deeley, R G; Gordon, J I; Meyers, M; Kent, K A; Goldberger, R F

    1976-01-01

    We have investigated the estrogen-mediated induction of vitellogenin synthesis in rooster liver. We compared the concentrations of vitellogenin messenger RNA (mRNA) in the liver with the concentrations of vitellogenin in the sera of roosters that had recieved various treatments with estrogen. We found no vitellogenin mRNA in the livers of the unstimulated roosters. An initial injection of estrogen was attended by de novo synthesis of vitellogenin mRNA in the liver and accumulation of vitellogenin in the serum. When vitellogenin was no longer present in the serum or liver (the "post-estrogen-serum-negative" state), the liver was found to contain appreciable amounts of vitellogenin mRNA. This mRNA was of the same size as that found in the liver of the rooster actively synthesizing vitellogenin in response to estrogen. Whereas vitellogenin mRNA was in large polysomes in the livers of the roosters actively synthesizing vitellogenin, the vitellogenin mRNA in the liver of the post-estrogen-serum-negative rooster was not associated with polysomes. The possible relevance of these findings to the fact that the rooster responds differently to a primary stimulation with estrogen than to subsequent stimulations is discussed. PMID:1064017

  4. Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcock, P.D.

    1984-01-01

    The patent concerns a manipulator, which enables operations to be carried out remotely from the operator. The device is suitable for use in handling of radioactive materials and other hazardous liquids or gases. The specifications are given, and the movements of the manipulator arm described. (U.K.)

  5. Expressions of manipulator kinematic equations via symbolic computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shinobu

    1993-09-01

    While it is simple in principle to determine the position and orientation of the manipulator hand, its computational process has been regarded as extremely laborious since trigonometric functions must be calculated many times in operations of revolute or rotation. Due to development of a general class of kinematic algorithm based on iterative methods, however, we have come to a satisfactory settlement of this problem. In the present article, we consider to construct symbolic kinematic equations in an automatic fashion making use of the algorithm. To this end, recursive expressions are applied to a symbolic computation system REDUCE. As a concrete result, a complete kinematic model for a six-jointed arm having all kinematic attributes is provided. Together with work space analysis, the computer-aided generation of kinematic equations in symbolic form will serve to liberate us from their cumbersome derivations. (author)

  6. Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, Y.; Routelous, F.; Spina, G.; Perpina, J.; Suquet, J.; Rossi, M.; Zanca, M.; Billiet, A.; Madec, L.; Lemoine, T.; Gaboriaud, G.; Aubert, B.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Neuenschwander, S.; Brisse, H.; Rehel, J.L.; Rebibo, G.; Bensimon, J.L.; Kulski, A.; Serhal, M.; Nguyen, K.V.; Lescure, R.; Cymbalista, M.

    2005-01-01

    Three articles have for purpose the radiation doses optimization in medical imaging. The first one concerns the radiation protection of manipulators working at a PET scan post, the second one concerns more particularly the optimization of doses delivered in pediatric computerized tomography, the third one is devoted to a comparison between radiation dose and image quality through scanners of adult temporal bone. (N.C.)

  7. Effects of the UV-filter 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) on expression of genes involved in hormonal pathways in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and link to vitellogenin induction and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, Verena; Zucchi, Sara; Fent, Karl

    2011-01-01

    UV-filters are increasingly used in cosmetics and in the protection of materials against UV-irradiation, and ultimately they reach aquatic systems. The lipophilic UV-filter 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) belongs to one of the most frequently used UV-filters and accumulates in aquatic animals. Despite its ubiquitous presence in water and biota, very little is known about its potential hormonal effects on aquatic organisms. In our study, we evaluated the effects of measured water concentration of 5.4, 37.5, 244.5 and 394 μg/L EHMC on the expression of genes involved in hormonal pathways in the liver, testis and brain of male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). We compare the transcription profile with the plasma vitellogenin (VTG) content, secondary sex characteristics, and gonad histology. Transcripts of the androgen receptor (ar) were significantly down-regulated in the liver of females at 37.5, 244.5 μg/L and 394 μg/L EHMC. Additionally, the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) transcript was significantly decreased in the liver of males at 37.5, 244.5 and 394 μg/L EHMC, and at 244.5 and 394 μg/L EHMC in females. The expressional changes were tissue-specific in most cases, being most significant in the liver. Vitellogenin plasma concentration was significantly increased at 244.5 μg/L EHMC in males. EHMC induced significant histological changes in testes and ovaries at 394 μg/L. Testes displayed a decrease in spermatocytes, and ovaries a decrease in previtellogenic oocytes. The induction of VTG plasma concentration and the histological changes in gonads suggest an estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activity of EHMC. On the other hand, the gene expression profile shows an antiestrogenic (e.g.: down-regulation of esr1) activity of EHMC. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that EHMC displays low but multiple hormonal activities in fish.

  8. Effects of the UV-filter 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) on expression of genes involved in hormonal pathways in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and link to vitellogenin induction and histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, Verena; Zucchi, Sara [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zuerich (ETH Zuerich), Department of Environmental Sciences, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-04-15

    UV-filters are increasingly used in cosmetics and in the protection of materials against UV-irradiation, and ultimately they reach aquatic systems. The lipophilic UV-filter 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) belongs to one of the most frequently used UV-filters and accumulates in aquatic animals. Despite its ubiquitous presence in water and biota, very little is known about its potential hormonal effects on aquatic organisms. In our study, we evaluated the effects of measured water concentration of 5.4, 37.5, 244.5 and 394 {mu}g/L EHMC on the expression of genes involved in hormonal pathways in the liver, testis and brain of male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). We compare the transcription profile with the plasma vitellogenin (VTG) content, secondary sex characteristics, and gonad histology. Transcripts of the androgen receptor (ar) were significantly down-regulated in the liver of females at 37.5, 244.5 {mu}g/L and 394 {mu}g/L EHMC. Additionally, the 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) transcript was significantly decreased in the liver of males at 37.5, 244.5 and 394 {mu}g/L EHMC, and at 244.5 and 394 {mu}g/L EHMC in females. The expressional changes were tissue-specific in most cases, being most significant in the liver. Vitellogenin plasma concentration was significantly increased at 244.5 {mu}g/L EHMC in males. EHMC induced significant histological changes in testes and ovaries at 394 {mu}g/L. Testes displayed a decrease in spermatocytes, and ovaries a decrease in previtellogenic oocytes. The induction of VTG plasma concentration and the histological changes in gonads suggest an estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activity of EHMC. On the other hand, the gene expression profile shows an antiestrogenic (e.g.: down-regulation of esr1) activity of EHMC. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that EHMC displays low but multiple hormonal activities in fish.

  9. Effects of the UV-filter 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) on expression of genes involved in hormonal pathways in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and link to vitellogenin induction and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Verena; Zucchi, Sara; Fent, Karl

    2011-04-01

    UV-filters are increasingly used in cosmetics and in the protection of materials against UV-irradiation, and ultimately they reach aquatic systems. The lipophilic UV-filter 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) belongs to one of the most frequently used UV-filters and accumulates in aquatic animals. Despite its ubiquitous presence in water and biota, very little is known about its potential hormonal effects on aquatic organisms. In our study, we evaluated the effects of measured water concentration of 5.4, 37.5, 244.5 and 394 μg/L EHMC on the expression of genes involved in hormonal pathways in the liver, testis and brain of male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). We compare the transcription profile with the plasma vitellogenin (VTG) content, secondary sex characteristics, and gonad histology. Transcripts of the androgen receptor (ar) were significantly down-regulated in the liver of females at 37.5, 244.5 μg/L and 394 μg/L EHMC. Additionally, the 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) transcript was significantly decreased in the liver of males at 37.5, 244.5 and 394 μg/L EHMC, and at 244.5 and 394 μg/L EHMC in females. The expressional changes were tissue-specific in most cases, being most significant in the liver. Vitellogenin plasma concentration was significantly increased at 244.5 μg/L EHMC in males. EHMC induced significant histological changes in testes and ovaries at 394 μg/L. Testes displayed a decrease in spermatocytes, and ovaries a decrease in previtellogenic oocytes. The induction of VTG plasma concentration and the histological changes in gonads suggest an estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activity of EHMC. On the other hand, the gene expression profile shows an antiestrogenic (e.g.: down-regulation of esr1) activity of EHMC. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that EHMC displays low but multiple hormonal activities in fish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genomic sequencing and in vivo footprinting of an expression-specific DNase I-hypersensitive site of avian vitellogenin II promoter reveal a demethylation of a mCpG and a change in specific interactions of proteins with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluz, H P; Feavers, I M; Jiricny, J; Jost, J P

    1988-01-01

    Genomic sequencing was used to study the in vivo methylation pattern of two CpG sites in the promoter region of the avian vitellogenin gene. The CpG at position +10 was fully methylated in DNA isolated from tissues that do not express the gene but was unmethylated in the liver of mature hens and estradiol-treated roosters. In the latter tissue, this site became demethylated and DNase I hypersensitive after estradiol treatment. A second CpG (position -52) was unmethylated in all tissues examined. In vivo genomic footprinting with dimethyl sulfate revealed different patterns of DNA protection in silent and expressed genes. In rooster liver cells, at least 10 base pairs of DNA, including the methylated CpG, were protected by protein(s). Gel-shift assays indicated that a protein factor, present in rooster liver nuclear extract, bound at this site only when it was methylated. In hen liver cells, the same unmethylated CpG lies within a protected region of approximately equal to 20 base pairs. In vitro DNase I protection and gel-shift assays indicate that this sequence is bound by a protein, which binds both double- and single-stranded DNA. For the latter substrate, this factor was shown to bind solely the noncoding (i.e., mRNA-like) strand. Images PMID:3413118

  11. Regulation and dysregulation of vitellogenin mRNA accumulation in daphnids (Daphnia magna)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannas, Bethany R.; Wang, Ying H.; Thomson, Susanne; Kwon, Gwijun; Hong, Li [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7633 (United States); LeBlanc, Gerald A., E-mail: Gerald_LeBlanc@ncsu.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7633 (United States)

    2011-01-25

    The induction of vitellogenin in oviparous vertebrates has become the gold standard biomarker of exposure to estrogenic chemicals in the environment. This biomarker of estrogen exposure also has been used in arthropods, however, little is known of the factors that regulate the expression of vitellogenin in these organisms. We investigated changes in accumulation of mRNA products of the vitellogenin gene Vtg2 in daphnids (Daphnia magna) exposed to a diverse array of chemicals. We further evaluated the involvement of hormonal factors in the regulation of vitellogenin expression that may be targets of xenobiotic chemicals. Expression of the Vtg2 gene was highly responsive to exposure to various chemicals with an expression range spanning approximately four orders of magnitude. Chemicals causing the greatest induction were piperonyl butoxide, chlordane, 4-nonylphenol, cadmium, and chloroform. Among these, only 4-nonylphenol is recognized to be estrogenic. Exposure to several chemicals also suppressed Vtg2 mRNA levels, as much as 100-fold. Suppressive chemicals included cyproterone acetate, acetone, triclosan, and atrazine. Exposure to the estrogens diethylstilbestrol and bisphenol A had little effect on vitellogenin mRNA levels further substantiating that these genes are not induced by estrogen exposure. Exposure to the potent ecdysteroids 20-hydroxyecdysone and ponasterone A revealed that Vtg2 was subject to strong suppressive control by these hormones. Vtg2 mRNA levels were not significantly affected from exposure to several juvenoid hormones. Results indicate that ecdysteroids are suppressors of vitellogenin gene expression and that vitellogenin mRNA levels can be elevated or suppressed in daphnids by xenobiotics that elicit antiecdysteroidal or ecdysteroidal activity, respectively. Importantly, daphnid Vtg2 is not elevated in response to estrogenic activity.

  12. Regulation and dysregulation of vitellogenin mRNA accumulation in daphnids (Daphnia magna)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannas, Bethany R.; Wang, Ying H.; Thomson, Susanne; Kwon, Gwijun; Li Hong; LeBlanc, Gerald A.

    2011-01-01

    The induction of vitellogenin in oviparous vertebrates has become the gold standard biomarker of exposure to estrogenic chemicals in the environment. This biomarker of estrogen exposure also has been used in arthropods, however, little is known of the factors that regulate the expression of vitellogenin in these organisms. We investigated changes in accumulation of mRNA products of the vitellogenin gene Vtg2 in daphnids (Daphnia magna) exposed to a diverse array of chemicals. We further evaluated the involvement of hormonal factors in the regulation of vitellogenin expression that may be targets of xenobiotic chemicals. Expression of the Vtg2 gene was highly responsive to exposure to various chemicals with an expression range spanning approximately four orders of magnitude. Chemicals causing the greatest induction were piperonyl butoxide, chlordane, 4-nonylphenol, cadmium, and chloroform. Among these, only 4-nonylphenol is recognized to be estrogenic. Exposure to several chemicals also suppressed Vtg2 mRNA levels, as much as 100-fold. Suppressive chemicals included cyproterone acetate, acetone, triclosan, and atrazine. Exposure to the estrogens diethylstilbestrol and bisphenol A had little effect on vitellogenin mRNA levels further substantiating that these genes are not induced by estrogen exposure. Exposure to the potent ecdysteroids 20-hydroxyecdysone and ponasterone A revealed that Vtg2 was subject to strong suppressive control by these hormones. Vtg2 mRNA levels were not significantly affected from exposure to several juvenoid hormones. Results indicate that ecdysteroids are suppressors of vitellogenin gene expression and that vitellogenin mRNA levels can be elevated or suppressed in daphnids by xenobiotics that elicit antiecdysteroidal or ecdysteroidal activity, respectively. Importantly, daphnid Vtg2 is not elevated in response to estrogenic activity.

  13. Application of Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Vitellogenin, a Unique Biomarker for Xenobiotic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alejandro M.; Banoub, Joseph H.

    Vitellogenin is a complex phosphoglycolipoprotein that is secreted into the bloodstream of sexually mature, female, oviparous animals in response to circulating estrogens. It is then incorporated into the ovaries by receptor mediated endocytosis, where it is further cleaved to form the major constituents of the egg yolk proteins. It is generally accepted that these protein and peptide products serve as the main nutritional reserve for the developing embryo. Quantification of vitellogenin in blood is useful for different purposes. The reproductive status and degree of sexual maturation of oviparous animals can be assessed according to the levels of vitellogenin in plasma. The expression of this protein can also be induced in males under the effect of estrogenic compounds. Relying on this observation, vitellogenin has been used as a unique biomarker of environmental endocrine disruption in many species. In this respect, vitellogenin levels could potentially be used to assess the use of chemical warefare compounds with estrogenic activity. In this paper we review a technique developed for measuring vitellogenin plasma levels of different fish species using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

  14. The POU homeodomain transcription factor POUM2 and broad complex isoform 2 transcription factor induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone collaboratively regulate vitellogenin gene expression and egg formation in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y; Liu, H; Yang, C; Gu, J; Shen, G; Zhang, H; Chen, E; Han, C; Zhang, Y; Xu, Y; Wu, J; Xia, Q

    2017-10-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) is a source of nutrition for embryo development. Our previous study showed that the silkworm (Bombyx mori) transcription factor broad complex isoform 2 (BmBrC-Z2) regulates gene expression of the Vg gene (BmVg) by induction with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). However, the mechanism by which 20E regulates BmVg expression was not clarified. In this study, cell transfection experiments showed that the BmVg promoter containing the POU homeodomain transcription factor POUM2 (POUM2) and BrC-Z2 cis-response elements (CREs) showed a more significant response to 20E than that harbouring only the BrC-Z2 or POUM2 CRE. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that BmPOUM2 could bind to the POUM2 CRE of the BmVg promoter. Over-expression of BmPOUM2 and BmBrC-Z2 in B. mori embryo-derived cell line (BmE) could enhance the activity of the BmVg promoter carrying both the POUM2 and BrC-Z2 CREs following 20E induction. Quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence histochemistry showed that the expression pattern and tissue localization of BmPOUM2 correspond to those of BmVg. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that BmPOUM2 interacts only with BmBrC-Z2 to regulate BmVg expression. Down-regulation of BmPOUM2 in female silkworm by RNA interference significantly reduced BmVg expression, leading to abnormal egg formation. In summary, these results indicate that BmPOUM2 binds only to BmBrC-Z2 to collaboratively regulate BmVg expression by 20E induction to control vitellogenesis and egg formation in the silkworm. Moreover, these findings suggest that homeodomain protein POUM2 plays a novel role in regulating insect vitellogenesis. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  15. Functional characterization of the vitellogenin promoter in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Wang, Y Q; Li, Z Q; Ling, L; Zeng, B S; You, L; Chen, Y Z; Aslam, A F M; Huang, Y P; Tan, A J

    2014-10-01

    Genetic transformation and genome editing technologies have been successfully established in the lepidopteran insect model, the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, providing great potential for functional genomics and practical applications. However, the current lack of cis-regulatory elements in B. mori gene manipulation research limits further exploitation in functional gene analysis. In the present study, we characterized a B. mori endogenous promoter, Bmvgp, which is a 798-bp DNA sequence adjacent to the 5'-end of the vitellogenin gene (Bmvg). PiggyBac-based transgenic analysis shows that Bmvgp precisely directs expression of a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), in a sex-, tissue- and stage-specific manner. In transgenic animals, EGFP expression can be detected in the female fat body from larval-pupal ecdysis to the following pupal and adult stage. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that EGFP expression can be activated by 20-hydroxyecdysone, which is consistent with endogenous Bmvg expression. These data indicate that Bmvgp is an effective endogenous cis-regulatory element in B. mori. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  16. Neural and behavioral associations of manipulated determination facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Tom F; Hortensius, Ruud; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2013-09-01

    Past research associated relative left frontal cortical activity with positive affect and approach motivation, or the urge to move toward a stimulus. Less work has examined relative left frontal activity and positive emotions ranging from low to high approach motivation, to test whether positive affects that differ in approach motivational intensity influence relative left frontal cortical activity. Participants in the present experiment adopted determination (high approach positive), satisfaction (low approach positive), or neutral facial expressions while electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded. Next, participants completed a task measuring motivational persistence behavior and then they completed self-report emotion questionnaires. Determination compared to satisfaction and neutral facial expressions caused greater relative left frontal activity relative to baseline EEG recordings. Facial expressions did not directly influence task persistence. However, relative left frontal activity correlated positively with persistence on insolvable tasks in the determination condition. These results extend embodiment theories and motivational interpretations of relative left frontal activity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The induction of vitellogenin mRNA in avian liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaart, Paul van den

    1980-01-01

    Vitellogenine is het precursor eiwit van de belangrijkste dooiereiwitten lipovitelline en fosvitine; vitellogenine wordt gemaakt in de lever van leggende hennen onder invloed van oestrogenen. In hanen kan de synthese van vitellogenine worden geïnduceerd door inspuiting van 17B-oestradiol. Na

  18. Manipulation of hemoglobin expression affects Arabidopsis shoot organogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaping; Elhiti, Mohamed; Hebelstrup, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years non-symbiotic plant hemoglobins have been described in a variety of plant species where they fulfill several functions ranging from detoxification processes to basic aspects of plant growth and post-embryonic development. To date no information is available on the role...... of hemoglobins during invitro morphogenesis. Shoot organogenesis was induced in Arabidopsis lines constitutively expressing class 1, 2 and 3 hemoglobins (GLB1, 2 and 3) and lines in which the respective genes were either downregulated by RNAi (GLB1) or knocked out (GLB2 and GLB3). The process was executed......, 15, and 16), feed-back repressors of the cytokinin pathway, was repressed in both hemoglobin over-expressors whereas that of several Type-B ARRs (ARR2, 12, and 13), transcription activators of cytokinin-responsive genes, was induced. Such changes enhanced the sensitivity of the root explants...

  19. Experimental evaluation of vitellogenin as a predictive biomarker for reproductive disruption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheek, A.O.; Brouwer, T.H.; Carroll, S.; Manning, S.; McLachlan, J.A.; Brouwer, M.H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis in male oviparous vertebrates is used as an indicator of environmental estrogen exposure, but the relationship between elevated VTG levels and the effects of environmental estrogens on reproductive success are poorly understood. To examine whether altered VTG expression

  20. Young Adolescents' Usage of Narrative Functions of Media Music by Manipulation of Musical Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingstedt, Johnny; Brandstrom, Sture; Berg, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates usage and knowledge of musical narrative functions in contemporary multimedia. A group of young adolescents were given the task of adapting musical expression, using the non-verbal research tool REMUPP, to fit different visual scenes shown on a computer screen. This was accomplished by manipulating seven musical parameters:…

  1. Functional characterization of estrogen receptor subtypes, ERα and ERβ, mediating vitellogenin production in the liver of rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leanos-Castaneda, Olga; Kraak, Glen van der

    2007-01-01

    The estrogen-dependent process of vitellogenesis is a key function on oviparous fish reproduction and it has been widely used as an indicator of xenoestrogen exposure. The two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERα and ERβ, are often co-expressed in the liver of fish. The relative contribution of each ER subtype to modulate vitellogenin production by hepatocytes was studied using selected compounds known to preferentially interact with specific ER subtypes: propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT) an ERα selective agonist, methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (MPP) an ERα selective antagonist, and diarylpropionitrile (DPN) an ERβ selective agonist. First, the relative binding affinity of the test compounds to estradiol for rainbow trout hepatic nuclear ER was determined using a competitive ligand binding assay. All the test ligands achieved complete displacement of specific [ 3 H]-estradiol binding from the nuclear ER extract. This indicates that the test ligands have the potential to modify the ER function in the rainbow trout liver. Secondly, the ability of the test compounds to induce or inhibit vitellogenin production by primary cultures of rainbow trout hepatocytes was studied. Estradiol and DPN were the only compounds that induced a dose-dependent increase on vitellogenin synthesis. The lack of vitellogenin induction by PPT indicates that ERα could not have a role on this reproductive process whereas the ability of DPN to induce vitellogenin production supports the participation of ERβ. In addition, this hypothesis is reinforced by the results obtained from MPP plus estradiol. On one hand, the absence of suppressive activity of MPP in the estradiol-induced vitellogenin production does not support the participation of ERα. On the other hand, once blocked ERα with MPP, the only manifestation of agonist activity of estradiol would be achieved via ERβ. In conclusion, the present results indicate that vitellogenin production is mainly mediated through ERβ, implying, furthermore

  2. Bidirectional manipulation of gene expression in adipocytes using CRISPRa and siRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, Morten; Pluciñska, Kaja; Isidor, Marie S

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Functional investigation of novel gene/protein targets associated with adipocyte differentiation or function heavily relies on efficient and accessible tools to manipulate gene expression in adipocytes in vitro. Recent advances in gene-editing technologies such as CRISPR-Cas9 have...... not only eased gene editing but also greatly facilitated modulation of gene expression without altering the genome. Here, we aimed to develop and validate a competent in vitro adipocyte model of controllable functionality as well as multiplexed gene manipulation in adipocytes, using the CRISPRa "SAM......" system and siRNAs to simultaneously overexpress and silence selected genes in the same cell populations. METHODS: We introduced a stable expression of dCas9-VP64 and MS2-P65, the core components of the CRIPSRa SAM system, in mesenchymal C3H/10T1/2 cells through viral delivery and used guide RNAs...

  3. Protein incorporation by isolated amphibian oocytes. VI. Comparison of autologous and xenogeneic vitellogenins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, R A; Deufel, R A; Misulovin, Z

    1980-01-01

    1. Labeled vitellogenins were isolated from the sera of several amphibians, a turtle, and a pigeon, and were incubated in vitro with oocytes from Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens. 2. Oocytes from X. laevis sequestered vitellogenin from salamanders, turtle, and pigeon at rates comparable to that for autologous vitellogenin, while anuran vitellogenins were sequestered at somewhat lower rates. 3. Oocytes from R. pipiens sequestered X. laevis vitellogenin at a rate comparable to autologous vitellogenin, while salamander, turtle, and pigeon vitellogenins were sequestered at faster rates. 4. All vitellogenins examined appear to be recognized and incorporated specifically by X. laevis and R. pipiens oocytes.

  4. Neural networks engaged in tactile object manipulation: patterns of expression among healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seitz Rüdiger J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatosensory object discrimination has been shown to involve widespread cortical and subcortical structures in both cerebral hemispheres. In this study we aimed to identify the networks involved in tactile object manipulation by principal component analysis (PCA of individual subjects. We expected to find more than one network. Methods Seven healthy right-handed male volunteers (aged 22 to 44 yrs manipulated with their right hand aluminium spheres during 5 s with a repetition frequency of 0.5-0.7 Hz. The correlation coefficients between the principal component temporal expression coefficients and the hemodynamic response modelled by SPM (ecc determined the task-related components. To establish reproducibility within subjects and similarity of functional connectivity patterns among subjects, regional correlation coefficients (rcc were computed between task-related component image volumes. By hierarchically categorizing, selecting and averaging the task-related component image volumes across subjects according to the rccs, mean component images (MCIs were derived describing neural networks associated with tactile object manipulation. Results Two independent mean component images emerged. Each included the primary sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the manipulating hand. The region extended to the premotor cortex in MCI 1, whereas it was restricted to the hand area of the primary sensorimotor cortex in MCI 2. MCI 1 showed bilateral involvement of the paralimbic anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, whereas MCI 2 implicated the midline thalamic nuclei and two areas of the rostral dorsal pons. Conclusions Two distinct networks participate in tactile object manipulation as revealed by the intra- and interindividual comparison of individual scans. Both were employed by most subjects, suggesting that both are involved in normal somatosensory object discrimination.

  5. Grin and bear it: the influence of manipulated facial expression on the stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Tara L; Pressman, Sarah D

    2012-01-01

    In the study reported here, we investigated whether covertly manipulating positive facial expressions would influence cardiovascular and affective responses to stress. Participants (N = 170) naive to the purpose of the study completed two different stressful tasks while holding chopsticks in their mouths in a manner that produced a Duchenne smile, a standard smile, or a neutral expression. Awareness was manipulated by explicitly asking half of all participants in the smiling groups to smile (and giving the other half no instructions related to smiling). Findings revealed that all smiling participants, regardless of whether they were aware of smiling, had lower heart rates during stress recovery than the neutral group did, with a slight advantage for those with Duchenne smiles. Participants in the smiling groups who were not explicitly asked to smile reported less of a decrease in positive affect during a stressful task than did the neutral group. These findings show that there are both physiological and psychological benefits from maintaining positive facial expressions during stress.

  6. ESTRADIOL-INDUCED SYNTHESIS OF VITELLOGENIN .3. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF VITELLOGENIN MESSENGER-RNA FROM AVIAN LIVER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AB, G.; Roskam, W. G.; Dijkstra, J.; Mulder, J.; Willems, M.; van der Ende, A.; Gruber, M.

    1976-01-01

    The messenger RNA of the hormone-induced protein vitellogenin was isolated from the liver of estrogen-treated roosters. Starting from total polysomal RNA, the vitellogenin messenger was purified 67-fold by oligo (dT)-cellulose chromatography and sizing on a sucrose gradient. The messenger was

  7. High-level expression of nattokinase in Bacillus licheniformis by manipulating signal peptide and signal peptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, D; Wei, X; Qiu, Y; Chen, Y; Chen, J; Wen, Z; Chen, S

    2016-09-01

    Nattokinase is an enzyme produced by Bacillus licheniformis and has potential to be used as a drug for treating cardiovascular disease due to its beneficial effects of preventing fibrin clots etc. However, the low activity and titre of this protein produced by B. licheniformis often hinders its application of commercial production. The aim of this work is to improve the nattokinase production by manipulating signal peptides and signal peptidases in B. licheniformis. The P43 promoter, amyL terminator and AprN target gene were used to form the nattokinase expression vector, pHY-SP-NK, which was transformed into B. licheniformis and nattokinase was expressed successfully. A library containing 81 predicted signal peptides was constructed for nattokinase expression in B. licheniformis, with the maximum activity being obtained under the signal peptide of AprE. Among four type I signal peptidases genes (sipS, sipT, sipV, sipW) in B. licheniformis, the deletion of sipV resulted in a highest decrease in nattokinase activity. Overexpression of sipV in B. licheniformis led to a nattokinase activity of 35·60 FU ml(-1) , a 4·68-fold improvement over activity produced by the initial strain. This work demonstrates the potential of B. licheniformis for industrial production of nattokinase through manipulation of signal peptides and signal peptidases expression. This study has screened the signal peptides of extracellular proteins of B. licheniformis for nattokinase production. Four kinds of Type I signal peptidases genes have been detected respectively in B. licheniformis to identify which one played the vital role for nattokinase production. This study provided a promising strain for industry production of nattokinase. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES AGAINST FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) VITELLOGENIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have obtained a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against fathead minnow vitellogenin (Vtg) for use in sensitive ELISAs to quantify the response of exposure in vivo to estrogen or estrogen mimics.

  9. Effect of Bisphenol A on the Levels of Vitellogenin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Bisphenol A on the Levels of Vitellogenin and Metallothionein in Adult ... Purpose: To investigate the potential role of bisphenol A (BPA) in inducing endocrine disruption in fish. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  10. cis- and trans-acting elements of the estrogen-regulated vitellogenin gene B1 of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahli, W; Martinez, E; Corthésy, B; Cardinaux, J R

    1989-01-01

    Vitellogenin genes are expressed under strict estrogen control in the liver of female oviparous vertebrates. Gene transfer experiments using estrogen-responsive cells have shown that the 13 bp perfect palindromic element GGTCACTGTGACC found upstream of the Xenopus laevis vitellogenin gene A2 promoter mediates hormonal stimulation and thus, was called the estrogen-responsive element (ERE). In the Xenopus vitellogenin genes B1 and B2 there are two closely adjacent EREs with one or more base substitutions when compared to the consensus ERE GGTCANNNTGACC. On their own, these degenerated elements have only a low or no regulatory capacity at all but act together synergistically to form an estrogen-responsive unit (ERU) with the same strength as the perfect palindromic 13 bp element. Analysis of estrogen receptor binding to the gene B1 ERU revealed a cooperative interaction of receptor dimers to the two adjacent imperfect EREs which most likely explains the synergistic stimulation observed in vivo. Furthermore, a promoter activator element located between positions --113 and --42 of the gene B1 and functional in the human MCF-7 and the Xenopus B3.2 cells has been identified and shown to be involved in the high level of induced transcription activity when the ERE is placed at a distance from the promoter. Finally, a hormone-controlled in vitro transcription system derived from Xenopus liver nuclear extracts was exploited to characterize two additional novel cis-acting elements within the vitellogenin gene B1 promoter. One of them, a negative regulatory element (NRE), is responsible for repression of promoter activity in the absence of hormone. The second is related to the NF-I binding site and is required, together with the ERE, to mediate hormonal induction. Moreover, we detected three trans-acting activities in Xenopus liver nuclear extracts that interact with these regions and demonstrated that they participate in the regulation of the expression of the vitellogenin

  11. Manipulation of MKS1 gene expression affects Kalanchoë blossfeldiana and Petunia hybrida phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargul, Joanna Maria; Mibus, Heiko; Serek, Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of alternative methods to chemical treatments for growth retardation and pathogen protection in ornamental plant production has become a major goal in recent breeding programmes. This study evaluates the effect of manipulating MAP kinase 4 nuclear substrate 1 (MKS1) expression in Kalanchoë blossfeldiana and Petunia hybrida. The Arabidopsis thaliana MKS1 gene was overexpressed in both species via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, resulting in dwarfed phenotypes and delayed flowering in both species and increased tolerance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in transgenic Petunia plants. The lengths of the stems and internodes were decreased, while the number of nodes in the transgenic plants was similar to that of the control plants in both species. The transgenic Kalanchoë flowers had an increased anthocyanin concentration, and the length of the inflorescence stem was decreased. The morphology of transgenic Petunia flowers was not altered. The results of the Pseudomonas syringae tolerance test showed that Petunia plants with one copy of the transgene reacted similarly to the nontransgenic control plants; however, plants with four copies of the transgene exhibited considerably higher tolerance to bacterial attack. Transgene integration and expression was determined by Southern blot hybridization and RT-PCR analyses. MKS1 in wild-type Petunia plants was down-regulated through a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) method using tobacco rattle virus vectors. There were no significant phenotypic differences between the plants with silenced MKS1 genes and the controls. The relative concentration of the MKS1 transcript in VIGS-treated plants was estimated by quantitative RT-PCR. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. TensorPack: a Maple-based software package for the manipulation of algebraic expressions of tensors in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huf, P A; Carminati, J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we: (1) introduce TensorPack, a software package for the algebraic manipulation of tensors in covariant index format in Maple; (2) briefly demonstrate the use of the package with an orthonormal tensor proof of the shearfree conjecture for dust. TensorPack is based on the Riemann and Canon tensor software packages and uses their functions to express tensors in an indexed covariant format. TensorPack uses a string representation as input and provides functions for output in index form. It extends the functionality to basic algebra of tensors, substitution, covariant differentiation, contraction, raising/lowering indices, symmetry functions and other accessory functions. The output can be merged with text in the Maple environment to create a full working document with embedded dynamic functionality. The package offers potential for manipulation of indexed algebraic tensor expressions in a flexible software environment. (paper)

  13. Vitellogenin RNAi halts ovarian growth and diverts reproductive proteins and lipids in young grasshoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, Derek R; Veleta, Katherine A; Canzano, Joseph; Hahn, Daniel A; Hatle, John D

    2014-11-01

    Reduced reproduction extends lifespan of females in many animals. To test the effects of reproduction on storage of macronutrients, we block reproductive output in the lubber grasshopper by injecting RNAi against the precursor to egg-yolk protein, vitellogenin, in early adulthood. Controls were injected with either buffer or RNAi against the major storage protein in the hemolymph, hexamerin-90. Vitellogenin RNAi greatly reduced both levels of mRNA for vitellogenin and ovarian growth, in comparison to both controls. Fat body mass was increased upon vitellogenin RNAi, but concentrations of the three hexameric storage proteins from the hemolymph were not. Surprisingly, hemolymph vitellogenin levels were increased upon vitellogenin RNAi. Total reproductive protein (hemolymph vitellogenin plus ovarian vitellin) was unchanged by vitellogenin RNAi, as reproductive protein was diverted to the hemolymph. Similarly, the increased lipid storage upon vitellogenin RNAi was largely attributable to the reduction in lipid in the ovary, due to decreased ovarian growth. A BLAST search revealed that the 515 bp sequence of vitellogenin used for RNAi had three 11 bp regions identical to the vitellogenin receptor of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae. This suggests that our treatment, in addition to reducing levels of vitellogenin transcript, may have also blocked transport of vitellogenin from the hemolymph to the ovary. This would be consistent with halted ovarian growth simultaneous with high levels of vitellogenin in the hemolymph. Nonetheless, the accumulation of vitellogenin, instead of hexameric storage proteins, is inconsistent with a simple model of the trade-off between reproduction and storage. This was observed in young females; future studies will address whether investment of proteins may shift to the soma as individuals age. Overall, our results suggest that blockage of reproduction in young grasshoppers redirects lipids to storage and reproductive proteins to the hemolymph

  14. Vitellogenin in the honey bee brain: Atypical localization of a reproductive protein that promotes longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, Daniel; Ihle, Kate E; Salmela, Heli; Amdam, Gro V

    2015-11-01

    In comparative gerontology, highly social insects such as honey bees (Apis mellifera) receive much attention due to very different and flexible aging patterns among closely related siblings. While experimental strategies that manipulate socio-environmental factors suggest a causative link between aging and social signals and behaviors, the molecular underpinnings of this linkage are less well understood. Here we study the atypical localization of the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin (Vg) in the brain of the honey bee. Vg is known to influence honey bee social regulation and aging rate. Our findings suggest that Vg immunoreactivity in the brain is specifically localized within the class of non-neuronal glial cells. We discuss how these results can help explain the socially-dependent aging rate of honey bees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Primary induction of vitellogenin mRNA in the rooster by 17beta-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, A T; Deeley, R G; Gordon, J I; Udell, D S; Mullinix, K P; Goldberger, R F

    1978-01-01

    We have studied the kinetics of vitellogenin mRNA accumulation in rooster liver after a primary injection of 17beta-estradiol. The levels of vitellogenin mRNA have been determined both by hybridization of total cellular RNA to vitellogenin cDNA and by translation of vitellogenin mRNA in a wheat germ cell-free system. The results obtained by both methods of analysis are in good agreement and indicate that vitellogenin mRNA is present in the liver of normal roosters at a level of 0-5 molecules per liver cell and increases in amount during the 3 days following injection of estrogen, reaching a level of almost 6000 molecules per cell at the peak of the response. The level of vitellogenin mRNA declined exponentially during the next 14 days with a half-life of 29 hr, reaching a level of less than 10 molecules per cell at 17 days after injection of the hormone. The levels of vitellogenin mRNA after stimulation with estrogen have been correlated with the in vivo rate of synthesis of the vitellogenin polypeptide. The results indicate that the rate of vitellogenin synthesis is closely correlated with the level of vitellogenin mRNA. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that vitellogenin mRNA does not exist in the liver in an untranslated form after withdrawal from estrogen. PMID:273910

  16. Gene expression during zombie ant biting behavior reflects the complexity underlying fungal parasitic behavioral manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bekker, Charissa; Ohm, Robin A; Loreto, Raquel G; Sebastian, Aswathy; Albert, Istvan; Merrow, Martha; Brachmann, Andreas; Hughes, David P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adaptive manipulation of animal behavior by parasites functions to increase parasite transmission through changes in host behavior. These changes can range from slight alterations in existing behaviors of the host to the establishment of wholly novel behaviors. The biting behavior

  17. High-level production of α-amylase by manipulating the expression of alanine racamase in Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Penghui; Zhang, Zeying; Cai, Dongbo; Chen, Yaozhong; Wang, Hao; Wei, Xuetuan; Li, Shunyi; Chen, Shouwen

    2017-09-01

    To improve target protein production by manipulating expression levels of alanine racemase in Bacillus licheniformis. The gene of dal was identified to be responsible for alanine racemase function. Based on the selection marker of dal, a food-grade expression system was constructed in B. licheniformis, and effects of different dal expression levels mediated by promoters on α-amylase production were investigated. The highest α-amylase activity (155 U/ml) was obtained in BL10D/pP43SAT-PtetDal, increased by 27% compared with that of the control strain BL10/pP43SAT in tetracycline-based system (123 U/ml). Moreover, the dal transcriptional level was not correlated positively with that of amyL. A food-grade system for high-level production of α-amylase was constructed in B. licheniformis, revealing that expression levels of selection marker significantly affected target protein production.

  18. The temporal pattern of vitellogenin synthesis in Drosophila grimshawi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambysellis, M.P.; Hatzopoulos, P.; Craddock, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    The temporal pattern of protein production and, in particular, vitellogenin protein synthesis during the sexual maturation of Drosophila grimshawi females has been studied in vivo by briefly feeding the flies with 35S-methionine and 3H-amino acids. The overall level of incorporation was very low in young flies; it then progressively increased to reach a maximum with the onset of sexual maturity at 13-15 days. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analyses revealed three classes of proteins: those synthesized throughout the age spectrum, which constitute the majority of protein species; proteins synthesized primarily or only in young flies; and proteins synthesized only by the older flies. In this Drosophila species, the three vitellogenins (V1, V2, and V3) appeared to be synthesized in a two-phase pattern. In the first phase, small quantities of V1 and V2 were detected immunologically in the fat body and hemolymph of newly emerged and 1 day-old flies. These proteins did not accumulate in the hemolymph or the ovaries, apparently being unstable proteins. The second phase commenced in early vitellogenesis (7-9 days of age) with synthesis in the fat body of small quantities of V1 and V2, followed by V3 proteins. These proteins were secreted and accumulated in the hemolymph and 24 h later were found in the ovaries. Their quantities increased rapidly and a steady state of synthesis, release into the hemolymph, and uptake by the ovaries was reached by days 13-15. We have estimated that during the steady state of vitellogenin synthesis, a fly can synthesize in 24 h at least 152 micrograms of vitellogenins, which is more than 2% of its body weight, at an average rate of about 6.3 micrograms vitellogenins/h. About 2 micrograms of this are synthesized in the fat body, and about 4 micrograms in the ovaries

  19. Regulation of gene expression by manipulating transcriptional repressor activity using a novel CoSRI technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Li, Song Feng; Parish, Roger W

    2017-07-01

    Targeted gene manipulation is a central strategy for studying gene function and identifying related biological processes. However, a methodology for manipulating the regulatory motifs of transcription factors is lacking as these factors commonly possess multiple motifs (e.g. repression and activation motifs) which collaborate with each other to regulate multiple biological processes. We describe a novel approach designated conserved sequence-guided repressor inhibition (CoSRI) that can specifically reduce or abolish the repressive activities of transcription factors in vivo. The technology was evaluated using the chimeric MYB80-EAR transcription factor and subsequently the endogenous WUS transcription factor. The technology was employed to develop a reversible male sterility system applicable to hybrid seed production. In order to determine the capacity of the technology to regulate the activity of endogenous transcription factors, the WUS repressor was chosen. The WUS repression motif could be inhibited in vivo and the transformed plants exhibited the wus-1 phenotype. Consequently, the technology can be used to manipulate the activities of transcriptional repressor motifs regulating beneficial traits in crop plants and other eukaryotic organisms. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Inverse kinematics algorithm for a six-link manipulator using a polynomial expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shinobu

    1987-01-01

    This report is concerned with the forward and inverse kinematics problem relevant to a six-link robot manipulator. In order to derive the kinematic relationships between links, the vector rotation operator was applied instead of the conventional homogeneous transformation. The exact algorithm for solving the inverse problem was obtained by transforming kinematics equations into a polynomial. As shown in test calculations, the accuracies of numerical solutions obtained by means of the present approach are found to be quite high. The algorithm proposed permits to find out all feasible solutions for the given inverse problem. (author)

  1. Manipulation of colony environment modulates honey bee aggression and brain gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittschof, C C; Robinson, G E

    2013-11-01

    The social environment plays an essential role in shaping behavior for most animals. Social effects on behavior are often linked to changes in brain gene expression. In the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.), social modulation of individual aggression allows colonies to adjust the intensity with which they defend their hive in response to predation threat. Previous research has showed social effects on both aggression and aggression-related brain gene expression in honey bees, caused by alarm pheromone and unknown factors related to colony genotype. For example, some bees from less aggressive genetic stock reared in colonies with genetic predispositions toward increased aggression show both increased aggression and more aggressive-like brain gene expression profiles. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to a colony environment influenced by high levels of predation threat results in increased aggression and aggressive-like gene expression patterns in individual bees. We assessed gene expression using four marker genes. Experimentally induced predation threats modified behavior, but the effect was opposite of our predictions: disturbed colonies showed decreased aggression. Disturbed colonies also decreased foraging activity, suggesting that they did not habituate to threats; other explanations for this finding are discussed. Bees in disturbed colonies also showed changes in brain gene expression, some of which paralleled behavioral findings. These results show that bee aggression and associated molecular processes are subject to complex social influences. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  2. DNA sequence and prokaryotic expression analysis of vitellogenin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... 2Laboratory of Silkworm Genetics and Pathology, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, ... tera insects Bombyx mori (Yano et al., 1994a; Yano et al., ... To investigate the evolutionary ..... reveals ancient common ancestry.

  3. Identification and expression analysis of vitellogenin from silk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... Laboratory of Sericulture Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University,130 ... identified from Bombyx mori (Yano et al.,1994a; Yano et ... as follows: 5 min at 94°C; followed by 34 cycles of 94°C for 30 s,.

  4. Plasma Vitellogenin in Free-Ranging Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Smelker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitellogenin is the egg yolk precursor protein produced by oviparous vertebrates. As endogenous estrogen increases during early reproductive activity, hepatic production of vitellogenin is induced and is assumed to be complete in female sea turtles before the first nesting event. Until the present study, innate production of vitellogenin has not been described in free-ranging sea turtles. Our study describes circulating concentrations of vitellogenin in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta from the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. We collected blood samples from juveniles and adults via in-water captures off the coast of the Southeast USA from May to August, and from nesting females in June and July at Hutchinson Island, Florida. All samples were analyzed using an in-house ELISA developed specifically to measure Caretta caretta vitellogenin concentration. As expected, plasma vitellogenin declined in nesting turtles as the nesting season progressed, although it still remained relatively elevated at the end of the season. In addition, mean vitellogenin concentration in nesting turtles was 1,000 times greater than that measured in samples from in-water captures. Our results suggest that vitellogenesis may continue throughout the nesting season, albeit at a decreasing rate. Further, vitellogenin detected in turtles captured in-water may have resulted from exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals.

  5. Plasma levels of vitellogenin in Chrysemys picta during the annual gonadal cycle: Measurement by specific radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gapp, D.A.; Ho, S.M.; Callard, I.P.

    1979-01-01

    A RIA for turtle (Chrysemys picta) vitellogenin is described. After dimethylformamide precipitation of vitellogenin from the plasma of estrogen-treated female turtles, antibodies were developed in rabbits. The dimethylformamide precipitate was further purified by o-triethylaminoethyl cellulose column chromatography; the vitellogenin component eluted as a single peak. This material was used for iodination by a mild chloramine method. Antibodies to turtle vitellogenin did not cross-react with plasma from male turtles or vitellogenic females of other vertebrate groups, including lizards and snakes. Limited cross-reactivity exists among the chelonians, however. Using a 1:5000 dilution of antiserum, the limit of detection was 15 ng, and the midrange was 320 +- 45 ng. For an antiserum dilution of 1:1000, these figures were 30 and 600 +- 37 ng, respectively. Using this assay, the seasonal pattern of plasma vitellogenin in the turtle has been described, and preliminary studies on in vitro hepatic vitellogenesis have been performed

  6. Methylation of the chicken vitellogenin gene: influence of estradiol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijlink, F C; Philipsen, J N; Gruber, M; Ab, G

    1983-01-01

    The degree of methylation of the chicken vitellogenin gene has been investigated. Upon induction by administration of estradiol to a rooster, methyl groups at specific sites near the 5'-end of the gene are eliminated. The process of demethylation is slower than the activation of the gene. Demethylation is therefore probably not a prerequisite to gene transcription. At least two other sites in the coding region of the gene are methylated in the liver of estrogenized roosters, but not in the liver of a laying hen, where the gene is naturally active. Images PMID:6298743

  7. Effect of Cell Sheet Manipulation Techniques on the Expression of Collagen Type II and Stress Fiber Formation in Human Chondrocyte Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongin, Sopita; Waikakul, Saranatra; Chotiyarnwong, Pojchong; Siriwatwechakul, Wanwipa; Viravaidya-Pasuwat, Kwanchanok

    2018-03-01

    Cell sheet technology is applied to human articular chondrocytes to construct a tissue-like structure as an alternative treatment for cartilage defect. The effect of a gelatin manipulator, as a cell sheet transfer system, on the quality of the chondrocyte sheets was investigated. The changes of important chondrogenic markers and stress fibers, resulting from the cell sheet manipulation, were also studied. The chondrocyte cell sheets were constructed with patient-derived chondrocytes using a temperature-responsive polymer and a gelatin manipulator as a transfer carrier. The properties of the cell sheets, including sizes, expression levels of collagen type II and I, and the localization of the stress fibers, were assessed and compared with those of the cell sheets harvested without the gelatin manipulator. Using the gelatin manipulator, the original size of the chondrocyte cell sheets was retained with abundant stress fibers, but with a decrease in the expression of collagen type II. Without the gelatin manipulator, although the cell shrinkage occurred, the cell sheet with suppressed stress fiber formation showed significantly higher levels of collagen type II. These results support our observations that stress fiber formation in chondrocyte cell sheets affected the production of chondrogenic markers. These densely packed tissue-like structures possessed a good chondrogenic activity, indicating their potential for use in autologous chondrocyte implantation to treat cartilage defects.

  8. Quantitative transient GUS expression in J-104 rice calli through manipulation of in vitro culture conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylin Pérez Bernal

    2009-10-01

    This paper purposes suitable conditions for callus induction and co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens of J-104 rice cultivar. It was evaluated the effect of different concentrations of 2.4-D and agar, and the inclusion of L-proline and L-glutamine in callus culture medium. The use of 2.5 mg/L 2.4-D and 0.8% agar allowed the highest percentage of embryogenic calli. Callus formation was improved considerably with 500 mg/L of L-proline and L-glutamine in the culture medium. Different factors were studied throughout co-cultivation of calli with A. tumefaciens: inoculation time, co-cultivation temperature, concentration of acetosyringone and co-cultivation period. Transient GUS expression was quantified by fluorometry in all co-cultivated calli. The best results were obtained with the following conditions: 10 min as inoculation time, 100µM acetosyringone in co-cultivation medium, temperature of 20ºC, and 3 days as co-cultivation period. Key words: Agar; callus; co-cultivation; fluorometric GUS activity. Resumen Se describen las condiciones óptimas para la callogénesis y cocultivo de callos con Agrobacterium tume-faciens de la variedad de arroz J-104. Se determinó el efecto de diferentes concentraciones de 2.4-D, agar y de L-prolina y L-glutamina en el medio de cultivo de callos. El uso de 2,5 mg/L de 2.4-D y 0,8% de agar permitió lograr el porcentaje más alto de callos embriogénicos. La formación de callos fue mejorada considerablemente con la adición de 500 mg/L de L-prolina e igual concentración de L-glutamina en el medio de cultivo. Se estudiaron diferentes factores en el cocultivo de los callos con A. tumefaciens: tiempo de inoculación, concentración de acetosiringona, temperatura y tiempo de cocultivo. Para comparar el efecto de cada factor sobre la expresión GUS se cuantificó la actividad transitoria mediante fluorimetría. Los valores más altos de actividad fluorimétrica fueron obtenidos con las siguientes condiciones: 10 min de

  9. Plasma vitellogenin in Morelet's crocodiles from contaminated habitats in northern Belize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainwater, Thomas R. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)], E-mail: thomas.rainwater@gmail.com; Selcer, Kyle W. [Department of Biological Sciences, Bayer School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States)], E-mail: selcer@duq.edu; Nespoli, Lisa M. [Department of Biological Sciences, Bayer School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States)], E-mail: nespoli345@duq.edu; Finger, Adam G. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)], E-mail: agfinger@tiehh.ttu.edu; Ray, David A. [Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)], E-mail: david.ray@mail.wvu.edu; Platt, Steven G. [Department of Biology, P.O. Box C-64, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, TX 79832 (United States)], E-mail: splatt@sulross.edu; Smith, Philip N. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)], E-mail: philip.smith@tiehh.ttu.edu; Densmore, Llewellyn D. [Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)], E-mail: lou.densmore@ttu.edu; Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)], E-mail: todd.anderson@tiehh.ttu.edu; McMurry, Scott T. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)], E-mail: scott.mcmurry@tiehh.ttu.edu

    2008-05-15

    Vitellogenin induction has been widely used as a biomarker of endocrine disruption in wildlife, but few studies have investigated its use in wild reptiles living in contaminated habitats. This study examined vitellogenin induction in Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from wetlands in northern Belize contaminated with organochlorine (OC) pesticides. Vitellogenin was measured in 381 crocodile plasma samples using a vitellogenin ELISA previously developed for this species. Vitellogenin was detected in nine samples, all from adult females sampled during the breeding season. Males and juvenile females did not contain detectable levels of vitellogenin; however, many of these animals contained OC pesticides in their caudal scutes, confirming contaminant exposure. The lack of a vitellogenic response in these animals may be attributable to several factors related to the timing and magnitude of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and should not be interpreted as an absence of other contaminant-induced biological responses. - Wild crocodiles living in habitats polluted with organochlorine pesticides did not exhibit contaminant-induced vitellogenin induction in blood plasma.

  10. Plasma vitellogenin in Morelet's crocodiles from contaminated habitats in northern Belize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainwater, Thomas R.; Selcer, Kyle W.; Nespoli, Lisa M.; Finger, Adam G.; Ray, David A.; Platt, Steven G.; Smith, Philip N.; Densmore, Llewellyn D.; Anderson, Todd A.; McMurry, Scott T.

    2008-01-01

    Vitellogenin induction has been widely used as a biomarker of endocrine disruption in wildlife, but few studies have investigated its use in wild reptiles living in contaminated habitats. This study examined vitellogenin induction in Morelet's crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from wetlands in northern Belize contaminated with organochlorine (OC) pesticides. Vitellogenin was measured in 381 crocodile plasma samples using a vitellogenin ELISA previously developed for this species. Vitellogenin was detected in nine samples, all from adult females sampled during the breeding season. Males and juvenile females did not contain detectable levels of vitellogenin; however, many of these animals contained OC pesticides in their caudal scutes, confirming contaminant exposure. The lack of a vitellogenic response in these animals may be attributable to several factors related to the timing and magnitude of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and should not be interpreted as an absence of other contaminant-induced biological responses. - Wild crocodiles living in habitats polluted with organochlorine pesticides did not exhibit contaminant-induced vitellogenin induction in blood plasma

  11. What is the main driver of ageing in long-lived winter honeybees: antioxidant enzymes, innate immunity, or vitellogenin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurori, Cristian M; Buttstedt, Anja; Dezmirean, Daniel S; Mărghitaş, Liviu A; Moritz, Robin F A; Erler, Silvio

    2014-06-01

    To date five different theories compete in explaining the biological mechanisms of senescence or ageing in invertebrates. Physiological, genetical, and environmental mechanisms form the image of ageing in individuals and groups. Social insects, especially the honeybee Apis mellifera, present exceptional model systems to study developmentally related ageing. The extremely high phenotypic plasticity for life expectancy resulting from the female caste system provides a most useful system to study open questions with respect to ageing. Here, we used long-lived winter worker honeybees and measured transcriptional changes of 14 antioxidative enzyme, immunity, and ageing-related (insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway) genes at two time points during hibernation. Additionally, worker bees were challenged with a bacterial infection to test ageing- and infection-associated immunity changes. Gene expression levels for each group of target genes revealed that ageing had a much higher impact than the bacterial challenge, notably for immunity-related genes. Antimicrobial peptide and antioxidative enzyme genes were significantly upregulated in aged worker honeybees independent of bacterial infections. The known ageing markers vitellogenin and IlP-1 were opposed regulated with decreasing vitellogenin levels during ageing. The increased antioxidative enzyme and antimicrobial peptide gene expression may contribute to a retardation of senescence in long-lived hibernating worker honeybees. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Detection of vitellogenin incorporation into zebrafish oocytes by FITC fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoi Hayato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large volumes of lymph can be collected from the eye-sacs of bubble-eye goldfish. We attempted to induce vitellogenin (Vtg in the eye-sac lymph of bubble-eye goldfish and develop a method for visualizing Vtg incorporation by zebrafish oocytes using FITC-labeling. Methods Estrogen efficiently induced Vtg in the eye-sac lymph of goldfish. After FITC-labeled Vtg was prepared, it was injected into mature female zebrafish. Results Incorporation of FITC-labeled Vtg by zebrafish oocytes was detected in in vivo and in vitro experiments. The embryos obtained from zebrafish females injected with FITC-labeled Vtg emitted FITC fluorescence from the yolk sac and developed normally. Conclusion This method for achieving Vtg incorporation by zebrafish oocytes could be useful in experiments related to the development and endocrinology of zebrafish oocytes.

  13. Female qualities in males: vitellogenin synthesis induced by ovary transplants into the male silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Congwen; Lin, Ying; Shen, Guanwang; Chen, Enxiang; Wang, Yanxia; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Haiyan; Xing, Runmiao; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-10-10

    Female qualities in males are common in vertebrates but have not been extensively reported in insects. Vitellogenin (Vg) is highly expressed in the female fat body and is generally required for the formation of yolk proteins in the insect egg. Vg upregulation is generally regarded as a female quality in female oviparous animals. In this study, we found that Bombyx mori Vg (BmVg) is especially highly expressed in the female pupa. Downregulation of the BmVg gene in the female pupa by RNA interference (RNAi) interfered with egg formation and embryonic development, showing the importance of BmVg in these processes. So, we used BmVg as a biomarker for female qualities in the silkworm. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunofluorescence histochemistry showed that ovary transplants induced BmVg synthesis in the male pupa fat body. Ovaries transplanted into male silkworms produced only a few eggs with deformed yolk granules. These results suggested that the amount of BmVg in the male silkworm was insufficient for eggs to undergo complete embryonic development. After 17-beta-estradiol was used to treat male pupae and male pupal fat bodies, BmVg was upregulated in vivo and in vitro. These findings indicated that the male silkworm has innate female qualities that were induced by a transplanted ovary and 17β-estradiol. However, in silkworms, female qualities in males are not as complete as in females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Transfer of Immunity from Mother to Offspring Is Mediated via Egg-Yolk Protein Vitellogenin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Salmela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Insect immune systems can recognize specific pathogens and prime offspring immunity. High specificity of immune priming can be achieved when insect females transfer immune elicitors into developing oocytes. The molecular mechanism behind this transfer has been a mystery. Here, we establish that the egg-yolk protein vitellogenin is the carrier of immune elicitors. Using the honey bee, Apis mellifera, model system, we demonstrate with microscopy and western blotting that vitellogenin binds to bacteria, both Paenibacillus larvae--the gram-positive bacterium causing American foulbrood disease--and to Escherichia coli that represents gram-negative bacteria. Next, we verify that vitellogenin binds to pathogen-associated molecular patterns; lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan and zymosan, using surface plasmon resonance. We document that vitellogenin is required for transport of cell-wall pieces of E. coli into eggs by imaging tissue sections. These experiments identify vitellogenin, which is distributed widely in oviparous species, as the carrier of immune-priming signals. This work reveals a molecular explanation for trans-generational immunity in insects and a previously undescribed role for vitellogenin.

  15. Identification and transcriptional modulation of the largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, vitellogenin receptor during oocyte development by insulin and sex steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Gustavo A; Quattro, Joseph M; Denslow, Nancy D; Kroll, Kevin J; Prucha, Melinda S; Porak, Wesley F; Grier, Harry J; Sabo-Attwood, Tara L

    2012-09-01

    Fish vitellogenin synthesized and released from the liver of oviparous animals is taken up into oocytes by the vitellogenin receptor. This is an essential process in providing nutrient yolk to developing embryos to ensure successful reproduction. Here we disclose the full length vtgr cDNA sequence for largemouth bass (LMB) that reveals greater than 90% sequence homology with other fish vtgr sequences. We classify LMB Vtgr as a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor superfamily based on conserved domains and categorize as the short variant that is devoid of the O-glycan segment. Phylogenetic analysis places LMB Vtgr sequence into a well-supported monophyletic group of fish Vtgr. Real-time PCR showed that the greatest levels of LMB vtgr mRNA expression occurred in previtellogenic ovarian tissues. In addition, we reveal the effects of insulin, 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) in modulation of vtgr, esr, and ar mRNAs in previtellogenic oocytes. Insulin increased vtgr expression levels in follicles ex vivo while exposure to E(2) or 11-KT did not result in modulation of expression. However, both steroids were able to repress insulin-induced vtgr transcript levels. Coexposure with insulin and E(2) or of insulin and 11-KT increased ovarian esr2b and ar mRNA levels, respectively, which suggest a role for these nuclear receptors in insulin-mediated signaling pathways. These data provide the first evidence for the ordered stage-specific expression of LMB vtgr during the normal reproductive process and the hormonal influence of insulin and sex steroids on controlling vtgr transcript levels in ovarian tissues.

  16. Tissue distribution and functional analysis of vitellogenin-6 of Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Hong; Ma, Guang-Xu; Luo, Yong-Fang; Luo, Yong-Li; Yin, Sha-Sha; Xiong, Yi; Zhou, Rong-Qiong

    2017-06-01

    Toxocara canis is an common intestinal nematode of canids and the principal causative agent of human toxocariasis. Vitellogenin (Vg), a source of amino acids and lipids in the eggs, are considered to play an important role in embryo development of a wide range of organisms. In the present study, the transcriptional levels of Tc-vit-6 gene in male and female adult T. canis were determined by quantitative real-time PCR, which indicated high transcription of Tc-vit-6 in the intestine, reproductive tract and body wall of male and female adult T. canis. The fragment of Tc-vit-6 encoding a vWD domain, was cloned and expressed to produce a rabbit anti-TcvWD polyclonal antibody. Tissue distribution of TcVg6 was detected by immunohistochemical assays, which showed predominant distribution of TcVg6 in the tissues of intestine, as well as reproductive tract (including some of the germ cells) and musculature of male and female adult worms. Collectively, these results indicated multiple biological roles of TcVg6 apart from that in the reproduction of T. canis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex-specific vitellogenin production in immature rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, D.B.; Williams, D.E.

    1999-10-01

    Many xenobiotics interact with hormone systems of animals, potentially leading to a phenomenon commonly called endocrine disruption. Much attention has focused on steroid hormone systems and corresponding receptor proteins, particularly estrogens. Vitellogenin (Vg) was measured in sexually immature rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) in the diet. Mixed-sex populations of trout aged 3, 6, 12, or 18 months were maintained separately and fed E{sub 2} at 0.05 or 2.5 mg/kg for 7d. Females fed E{sub 2} at 0.05 mg/kg consistently produced three- to fourfold greater amounts of Vg than similarly aged males. Age- and sex-matched fish fed E{sub 2} at 2.5 mg/kg produced equivalent amounts of Vg. Sex differences in Vg production were apparent only at a dose of E{sub 2} (0.05 mg/kg) that results in submaximal Vg induction. Their results document the importance of considering the sex of juvenile fish when using Vg production as a marker of xenoestrogen exposure.

  18. Neonatal manipulation of oxytocin prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced decrease in gene expression of growth factors in two developmental stages of the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Jan; Lestanova, Zuzana; Strbak, Vladimir; Havranek, Tomas; Bacova, Zuzana

    2014-10-01

    Oxytocin production and secretion is important for early development of the brain. Long-term consequences of manipulation of oxytocin system might include changes in markers of brain plasticity - cytoskeletal proteins and neurotrophins. The aim of the present study was (1) to determine whether neonatal oxytocin administration affects gene expression of nestin, microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the brain of two developmental stages of rat and (2) to evaluate whether neonatal oxytocin administration protects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation. Neonatal oxytocin did not prevent a decrease of body weight in the LPS treated animals. Oxytocin significantly increased gene expression of BDNF in the right hippocampus in 21-day and 2-month old rats of both sexes. Gene expression of NGF and MAP-2 significantly increased in males treated with oxytocin. Both, growth factors and intermediate filament-nestin mRNA levels, were reduced in females exposed to LPS. Oxytocin treatment prevented a decrease in the gene expression of only growth factors. In conclusion, neonatal manipulation of oxytocin has developmental and sex-dependent effect on markers of brain plasticity. These results also indicate, that oxytocin may be protective against inflammation particularly in females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The fraction haemolymph vitellogenin of a honey bee colony, derived from a pooled haemolymph sample, a colony vitality parameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.; Martel, Anne Claire; Hendrickx, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The number of bees, amount of brood and haemolymph vitellogenin titre are parameters to establish the vitality of a honey bee colony. Increasing numbers of bees during summer until autumn; increasing amounts of brood in spring towards summer followed by a decrease; and low haemolymph vitellogenin

  20. High-resolution labeling and functional manipulation of specific neuron types in mouse brain by Cre-activated viral gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J Kuhlman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a method that combines Cre-recombinase knockin mice and viral-mediated gene transfer to genetically label and functionally manipulate specific neuron types in the mouse brain. We engineered adeno-associated viruses (AAVs that express GFP, dsRedExpress, or channelrhodopsin (ChR2 upon Cre/loxP recombination-mediated removal of a transcription-translation STOP cassette. Fluorescent labeling was sufficient to visualize neuronal structures with synaptic resolution in vivo, and ChR2 expression allowed light activation of neuronal spiking. The structural dynamics of a specific class of neocortical neuron, the parvalbumin-containing (Pv fast-spiking GABAergic interneuron, was monitored over the course of a week. We found that although the majority of Pv axonal boutons were stable in young adults, bouton additions and subtractions on axonal shafts were readily observed at a rate of 10.10% and 9.47%, respectively, over 7 days. Our results indicate that Pv inhibitory circuits maintain the potential for structural re-wiring in post-adolescent cortex. With the generation of an increasing number of Cre knockin mice and because viral transfection can be delivered to defined brain regions at defined developmental stages, this strategy represents a general method to systematically visualize the structure and manipulate the function of different cell types in the mouse brain.

  1. A manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, G.V.; Hofmann, D.A.; Ashby, R.

    1984-01-01

    A manipulator is described, for remote handling of objects within an enclosure, by an operator outside the enclosure. The manipulator consists of a telescopically extensible arm member, the action of which is controlled by a motor-driven lead screw. (U.K.)

  2. Quantification of vitellogenin in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) plasma by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idler, D.R.; Hwang, S.J.; Crim, L.W.

    1979-01-01

    An antibody prepared against salmon egg yolk proteins has been used to quantify Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) plasma vitellogenin using radioimmunoassay. A low molecular weight fraction isolated from salmon egg yolk was used for radioiodination and as standard solution because plasma vitellogenin could not be iodinated successfully. Parallelism of the egg yolk standard to displacement given by a fraction isolated from vitellogenic salmon plasma and dilutions of plasma samples allowed the assay to be used to evaluate the state of gonadal development of migrating females several months in advance of spawning and for sexing relatively immature salmon. (author)

  3. Control of transcriptional repression of the vitellogenin receptor gene in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) by select estrogen receptors isotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Gustavo A; Bisesi, Joseph H; Kroll, Kevin J; Denslow, Nancy D; Sabo-Attwood, Tara

    2014-10-01

    The vitellogenin receptor (Vtgr) plays an important role in fish reproduction. This receptor functions to incorporate vitellogenin (Vtg), a macromolecule synthesized and released from the liver in the bloodstream, into oocytes where it is processed into yolk. Although studies have focused on the functional role of Vtgr in fish, the mechanistic control of this gene is still unexplored. Here we report the identification and analysis of the first piscine 5' regulatory region of the vtgr gene which was cloned from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Using this putative promoter sequence, we investigated a role for hormones, including insulin and 17β-estradiol (E2), in transcriptional regulation through cell-based reporter assays. No effect of insulin was observed, however, E2 was able to repress transcriptional activity of the vtgr promoter through select estrogen receptor subtypes, Esr1 and Esr2a but not Esr2b. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that Esr1 likely interacts with the vtgr promoter region through half ERE and/or SP1 sites, in part. Finally we also show that ethinylestradiol (EE2), but not bisphenol-A (BPA), represses promoter activity similarly to E2. These results reveal for the first time that the Esr1 isoform may play an inhibitory role in the expression of LMB vtgr mRNA under the influence of E2, and potent estrogens such as EE2. In addition, this new evidence suggests that vtgr may be a target of select endocrine disrupting compounds through environmental exposures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Hypothesis testing with computational modeling: linking aromatase inhibition with plasma vitellogenin dynamics in fathead minnows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadrozole inhibits aromatase (CYP19A), a key enzyme that converts testosterone to estradiol (E2). In fish, E2 concentrations control hepatic synthesis ofthe glycolipoprotein vitellogenin (VTG), an egg yolk precursor protein essential to oocyte development and larval survival. Whe...

  5. Use of vitellogenin as a biomarker for estrogenic effect: What is the baseline?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Poul; Holbech, Henrik; Pedersen, Knud Ladegaard

    investigated in 2004 were revisited in the 2010 study and vitellogenin concentrations had decreased. Between 2004 and 2010 some discharges (via septic tanks) from scattered houses in the open land known to discharge estrogenic activity had been removed and this may have reduced the addition of estrogenicity...

  6. Vitellogenin Production by Fishmeal-Containing Diets in Male Tilapia (Oreochromis Mossambicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a number of fish species, male plasma has been shown to contain substantial levels of l7~estradiol (E z) and in certain cases, vitellogenin (Vg), an Ez-induced precursor of egg yolk protein that is specific to females. The presence ofEz and Vg in males raises questions about ...

  7. Mutational studies reveal a complex set of positive and negative control elements within the chicken vitellogenin II promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, S N; Davis, D L; Burch, J B

    1991-05-01

    The endogenous chicken vitellogenin II (VTGII) gene is transcribed exclusively in hepatocytes in response to estrogen. We previously identified two estrogen response elements (EREs) upstream of this gene. We now present an analysis of the VTGII promoter activated by these EREs in response to estrogen. Chimeric VTGII-CAT genes were cotransfected into LMH chicken hepatoma cells along with an estrogen receptor expression vector, and transient CAT expression was assayed after culturing the cells in the absence or presence of estrogen. An analysis of constructs bearing deletions downstream of the more proximal ERE indicated that promoter elements relevant to transcription in LMH cells extend to between -113 and -96. The relative importance of sequences within the VTGII promoter was examined by using 10 contiguous linker scanner mutations spanning the region from -117 to -24. Although most of these mutations compromised VTGII promoter function, one dramatically increased expression in LMH cells and also rendered the VTGII promoter capable of being activated by cis-linked EREs in fibroblasts cotransfected with an estrogen receptor expression vector. Gel retardation and DNase I footprinting assays revealed four factor-binding sites within this promoter. We demonstrate that three of these sites bind C/EBP, SP1, and USF (or related factors), respectively; the fourth site binds a factor that we denote TF-V beta. The biological relevance of these findings is suggested by the fact that three of these binding sites map to sites previously shown to be occupied in vivo in response to estrogen.

  8. Manipulation of gene expression by infrared laser heat shock and its application to the study of tracheal development in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Guangxia; Hayashi, Shigeo

    2015-03-01

    Induction of gene expression in a specific cell and a defined time window is desirable to investigate gene function at the cellular level during morphogenesis. To achieve this, we attempted to introduce the infrared laser-evoked gene operator system (IR-LEGO, Kamei et al., 2009) in the Drosophila embryo. In this technique, infrared laser light illumination induces genes to be expressed under the control of heat shock promoters at the single cell level. We applied IR-LEGO to a transgenic fly stock, HS-eGFP, in which the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene is placed under the control of heat shock protein 70 promoter, and showed that eGFP expression can be induced in single cells within 1-2 hr after IR illumination. Furthermore, induction of HS-Branchless transgene encoding the Drosophila fibroblast growth factor (FGF) effectively altered the migration and branching patterns of the tracheal system. Our results indicated that IR-LEGO is a promising choice for the timely control of gene expression in a small group of cells in the Drosophila embryo. By using IR-LEGO, we further demonstrated that the tracheal terminal branching program is sensitive to localized expression of exogenous FGF. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Manipulatives Work!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moch, Peggy L.

    2001-01-01

    Fifth graders (n=16) engaged in manipulative activities to improve their grasp of math concepts; one-third were identified as exceptional children. Posttest results after 12 lessons showed the overall class average increased from 49% to 59% and all areas improved compared to pretest scores. Attitude changes were also apparent. (Contains 24…

  10. Tuning of Recombinant Protein Expression in Escherichia coli by Manipulating Transcription, Translation Initiation Rates, and Incorporation of Noncanonical Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Orr; Chemla, Yonatan; Heltberg, Mathias; Ozer, Eden; Marshall, Ryan; Noireaux, Vincent; Jensen, Mogens Høgh; Alfonta, Lital

    2017-06-16

    Protein synthesis in cells has been thoroughly investigated and characterized over the past 60 years. However, some fundamental issues remain unresolved, including the reasons for genetic code redundancy and codon bias. In this study, we changed the kinetics of the Eschrichia coli transcription and translation processes by mutating the promoter and ribosome binding domains and by using genetic code expansion. The results expose a counterintuitive phenomenon, whereby an increase in the initiation rates of transcription and translation lead to a decrease in protein expression. This effect can be rescued by introducing slow translating codons into the beginning of the gene, by shortening gene length or by reducing initiation rates. On the basis of the results, we developed a biophysical model, which suggests that the density of co-transcriptional-translation plays a role in bacterial protein synthesis. These findings indicate how cells use codon bias to tune translation speed and protein synthesis.

  11. Manipulation of saponin biosynthesis by RNA interference-mediated silencing of β-amyrin synthase gene expression in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Kyoko; Nishizawa, Keito; Hirose, Aya; Kita, Akiko; Ishimoto, Masao

    2011-10-01

    Soybean seeds contain substantial amount of diverse triterpenoid saponins that influence the seed quality, although little is known about the physiologic functions of saponins in plants. We now describe the modification of saponin biosynthesis by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing targeted to β-amyrin synthase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of a common aglycon of soybean saponins. We identified two putative β-amyrin synthase genes in soybean that manifested distinct expression patterns with regard to developmental stage and tissue specificity. Given that one of these genes, GmBAS1, was expressed at a much higher level than the other (GmBAS2) in various tissues including the developing seeds, we constructed two RNAi vectors that encode self-complementary hairpin RNAs corresponding to the distinct regions of GmBAS1 under the control of a seed-specific promoter derived from the soybean gene for the α' subunit of the seed storage protein β-conglycinin. These vectors were introduced independently into soybean. Six independent transgenic lines exhibited a stable reduction in seed saponin content, with the extent of saponin deficiency correlating with the β-amyrin synthase mRNA depletion. Although some transgenic lines produced seeds almost devoid of saponins, no abnormality in their growth was apparent and the antioxidant activity of their seeds was similar to that of control seeds. These results suggest that saponins are not required for seed development and survival, and that soybean seeds may therefore be amenable to the modification of triterpenoid saponin content and composition through molecular biologic approaches.

  12. Control of Transcriptional Repression of the Vitellogenin Receptor Gene in Largemouth Bass (Micropterus Salmoides) by Select Estrogen Receptors Isotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez, Gustavo A.; Bisesi, Joseph H.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Sabo-Attwood, Tara

    2014-01-01

    The vitellogenin receptor (Vtgr) plays an important role in fish reproduction. This receptor functions to incorporate vitellogenin (Vtg), a macromolecule synthesized and released from the liver in the bloodstream, into oocytes where it is processed into yolk. Although studies have focused on the functional role of Vtgr in fish, the mechanistic control of this gene is still unexplored. Here we report the identification and analysis of the first piscine 5′ regulatory region of the vtgr gene whi...

  13. Genetic manipulation of RPS5 gene expression modulates the initiation of commitment of MEL cells to erythroid maturation: Implications in understanding ribosomopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizirianakis, Ioannis S; Papachristou, Eleni T; Andreadis, Panagiotis; Zopounidou, Elena; Matragkou, Christina N; Tsiftsoglou, Asterios S

    2015-07-01

    Impairment of ribosome biogenesis contributes to the molecular pathophysiology of ribosomopathies by deregulating cell-lineage specific proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis decisions of haematopoietic progenitor cells. Here, using pro-erythroblast-like murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells, a model system of erythroid maturation, we aimed to investigate whether genetic manipulation of RPS5 expression affects the capacity of cells to grow and differentiate in culture. Parental MEL cells stably transfected with full length RPS5 cDNA in sense (MEL-C14 culture) or antisense (MEL-antisenseRPS5 culture) orientation, as well as MEL cells transiently transfected with siRNAs specific for RPS5 gene silencing (MEL-RPS5siRNA culture) were assessed for their ability to fully execute their erythroid maturation program in culture. The data obtained thus far indicate that: a) MEL-antisenseRPS5 exhibit a pronounced delay in the initiation of differentiation, as well as an impairment of commitment, since the continuous presence of the inducer in culture is required for the cells to fully execute their erythroid maturation program. b) RNAi-mediating silencing of RPS5 gene expression resulted in the inability of MEL cells to differentiate; however, when these cells were allowed to recapitulate normal RPS5 gene expression levels they regained their differentiation capacity by accumulating high proportion of erythroid mature cells. c) Interestingly the latter, is accompanied by morphological changes of cells and an impairment of their proliferation and apoptosis potential. Such data for the first time correlate the RPS5 gene expression levels with the differentiation capacity of MEL cells in vitro, a fact that might also have implications in understanding ribosomopathies.

  14. The Manipulative Discourse of Gandalf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mohammadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to investigate discursive, cognitive and social aspects of manipulation in regard to the dialogues of the literary fictional character of Gandalf in the trilogy of The Lord of the Rings. Accordingly, the researcher has taken a multidisciplinary approach to an account of discursive manipulation, and focuses on the cognitive dimensions of manipulation. As a result, the researcher demonstrates meticulously how manipulation involves intensifying the power, moral superiority and the credibility of the speaker(s, while abusing the others (recipients, along with an emotional and attractive way of expression, and supplemented by reasonable facts and documents in regard to a specific issue.

  15. Honey bee drones maintain humoral immune competence throughout all life stages in the absence of vitellogenin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gätschenberger, Heike; Gimple, Olaf; Tautz, Jürgen; Beier, Hildburg

    2012-04-15

    Drones are haploid male individuals whose major social function in honey bee colonies is to produce sperm and mate with a queen. In spite of their limited tasks, the vitality of drones is of utmost importance for the next generation. The immune competence of drones - as compared to worker bees - is largely unexplored. Hence, we studied humoral and cellular immune reactions of in vitro reared drone larvae and adult drones of different age upon artificial bacterial infection. Haemolymph samples were collected after aseptic and septic injury and subsequently employed for (1) the identification of immune-responsive peptides and/or proteins by qualitative proteomic analyses in combination with mass spectrometry and (2) the detection of antimicrobial activity by inhibition-zone assays. Drone larvae and adult drones responded with a strong humoral immune reaction upon bacterial challenge, as validated by the expression of small antimicrobial peptides. Young adult drones exhibited a broader spectrum of defence reactions than drone larvae. Distinct polypeptides including peptidoglycan recognition protein-S2 and lysozyme 2 were upregulated in immunized adult drones. Moreover, a pronounced nodulation reaction was observed in young drones upon bacterial challenge. Prophenoloxidase zymogen is present at an almost constant level in non-infected adult drones throughout the entire lifespan. All observed immune reactions in drones were expressed in the absence of significant amounts of vitellogenin. We conclude that drones - like worker bees - have the potential to activate multiple elements of the innate immune response.

  16. Currency Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Weithing Zhang; Thomas Mertens; Tarek Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Many central banks manage the stochastic behavior of their currencies' exchange rates by imposing pegs relative to a target currency. We study the effects of such currency manipulation in a multi-country model of exchange rate determination with endogenous capital accumulation. We find that the imposition of an exchange rate peg relative to a given target currency increases the volatility of consumption in the target country and decreases the volatility of the target currency's exchange rate ...

  17. Hydraulic manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, A.K.; Srikrishnamurty, G.

    1990-01-01

    Successful operation of nuclear plant is largely dependent on safe handling of radio-active material. In order to reduce this handling problem and minimise the exposure of radiation, various handling equipment and manipulators have been developed according to the requirements. Manufacture of nuclear fuel, which is the most important part of the nuclear industry, involves handling of uranium ingots weighing approximately 250 kg. This paper describes a specially designed hydraulic manipulator for handling of the ingots in a limited space. It was designed to grab and handle the ingots in any position. This has following drive motions: (1)gripping and releasing, (2)lifting and lowering (z-motion), (3)rotation about the horizontal axis (azimuth drive), (4)rotation about the job axis, and (5)rotation about the vertical axis. For horizontal motion (X and Y axis motion) this equipment is mounted on a motorised trolley, so that it can move inside the workshop. For all drives except the rotation about the job axis, hydraulic cylinders have been used with a battery operated power pack. Trolley drive is also given power from same battery. This paper describes the design aspects of this manipulator. (author). 4 figs

  18. Three cDNAs encoding vitellogenin homologs from Antarctic copepod, Tigriopus kingsejongensis: Cloning and transcriptional analysis in different maturation stages, temperatures, and putative reproductive hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Rin; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Ah Ran; Kim, Sanghee; Park, Hyun; Baek, Hea Ja; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Three full-length cDNAs encoding lipoprotein homologs were identified in Tigriopus kingsejongensis, a newly identified copepod from Antarctica. Structural and transcriptional analyses revealed homology with two vitellogenin-like proteins, Tik-Vg1 and Tik-Vg2, which were 1855 and 1795 amino acids in length, respectively, along with a third protein, Tik-MEP, which produced a 1517-residue protein with similarity to a melanin engaging protein (MEP) in insects Phylogenetic analysis showed that Vgs in Maxillopods including two Tik-Vgs belong to the arthropod vitellogenin-like clade, which includes clottable proteins (CPs) in decapod crustaceans and vitellogenins in insects. Tik-MEP clustered together with insect MEPs, which appear to have evolved before the apoB-like and arthropod Vg-like clades. Interestingly, no genes orthologous to those found in the apoB clade were identified in Maxillopoda, suggesting that functions of large lipid transfer proteins (LLTPs) in reproduction and lipid metabolism may be different from those in insect and decapod crustaceans. As suggested by phylogenetic analyses, the two Tik-Vgs belonging to the arthropod Vg-like clade appear to play major roles in oocyte maturation, while Vgs belonging to the apoB clade function primarily in the reproduction of decapod crustaceans. Transcriptional analysis of Tik-Vg expression revealed a 24-fold increase in mature and ovigerous females compared with immature female, whereas expression of Tik-MEP remained low through all reproductive stages. Acute temperature changes did not affect the transcription of Tik-Vg genes, whereas Tik-MEP appeared to be affected by temperature change. Among the three hormones thought to be involved in molting and reproduction in arthropods, only farnesoic acid (FA) induced transcription of the two Tik-Vg genes. Regardless of developmental stage and hormone treatment, Tik-Vg1 and Tik-Vg2 exhibited a strong positive correlation in expression, suggesting that expression of these

  19. Identification and Transcriptional Modulation of the Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides, Vitellogenin Receptor During Oocyte Development by Insulin and Sex Steroids1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Gustavo A.; Quattro, Joseph M.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Prucha, Melinda S.; Porak, Wesley F.; Grier, Harry J.; Sabo-Attwood, Tara L.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fish vitellogenin synthesized and released from the liver of oviparous animals is taken up into oocytes by the vitellogenin receptor. This is an essential process in providing nutrient yolk to developing embryos to ensure successful reproduction. Here we disclose the full length vtgr cDNA sequence for largemouth bass (LMB) that reveals greater than 90% sequence homology with other fish vtgr sequences. We classify LMB Vtgr as a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor superfamily based on conserved domains and categorize as the short variant that is devoid of the O-glycan segment. Phylogenetic analysis places LMB Vtgr sequence into a well-supported monophyletic group of fish Vtgr. Real-time PCR showed that the greatest levels of LMB vtgr mRNA expression occurred in previtellogenic ovarian tissues. In addition, we reveal the effects of insulin, 17beta-estradiol (E2), and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) in modulation of vtgr, esr, and ar mRNAs in previtellogenic oocytes. Insulin increased vtgr expression levels in follicles ex vivo while exposure to E2 or 11-KT did not result in modulation of expression. However, both steroids were able to repress insulin-induced vtgr transcript levels. Coexposure with insulin and E2 or of insulin and 11-KT increased ovarian esr2b and ar mRNA levels, respectively, which suggest a role for these nuclear receptors in insulin-mediated signaling pathways. These data provide the first evidence for the ordered stage-specific expression of LMB vtgr during the normal reproductive process and the hormonal influence of insulin and sex steroids on controlling vtgr transcript levels in ovarian tissues. PMID:22786822

  20. Kinematic sensitivity of robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuskovic, Marko I.

    1989-01-01

    Kinematic sensitivity vectors and matrices for open-loop, n degrees-of-freedom manipulators are derived. First-order sensitivity vectors are defined as partial derivatives of the manipulator's position and orientation with respect to its geometrical parameters. The four-parameter kinematic model is considered, as well as the five-parameter model in case of nominally parallel joint axes. Sensitivity vectors are expressed in terms of coordinate axes of manipulator frames. Second-order sensitivity vectors, the partial derivatives of first-order sensitivity vectors, are also considered. It is shown that second-order sensitivity vectors can be expressed as vector products of the first-order sensitivity vectors.

  1. RNAi-mediated silencing of vitellogenin gene function turns honeybee ( Apis mellifera) workers into extremely precocious foragers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Antonio, David Santos; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Do Nascimento, Adriana Mendes; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2008-10-01

    The switch from within-hive activities to foraging behavior is a major transition in the life cycle of a honeybee ( Apis mellifera) worker. A prominent regulatory role in this switch has long been attributed to juvenile hormone (JH), but recent evidence also points to the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin as a major player in behavioral development. In the present study, we injected vitellogenin double-stranded RNA (dsVg) into newly emerged worker bees of Africanized genetic origin and introduced them together with controls into observation hives to record flight behavior. RNA interference-mediated silencing of vitellogenin gene function shifted the onset of long-duration flights (>10 min) to earlier in life (by 3 4 days) when compared with sham and untreated control bees. In fact, dsVg bees were observed conducting such flights extremely precociously, when only 3 days old. Short-duration flights (<10 min), which bees usually perform for orientation and cleaning, were not affected. Additionally, we found that the JH titer in dsVg bees collected after 7 days was not significantly different from the controls. The finding that depletion of the vitellogenin titer can drive young bees to become extremely precocious foragers could imply that vitellogenin is the primary switch signal. At this young age, downregulation of vitellogenin gene activity apparently had little effect on the JH titer. As this unexpected finding stands in contrast with previous results on the vitellogenin/JH interaction at a later age, when bees normally become foragers, we propose a three-step sequence in the constellation of physiological parameters underlying behavioral development.

  2. Interactions of trans-acting factor(s) with the estradiol response element and nuclear factor 1 of the vitellogenin II gene of Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Upadhayay, R; Kanungo, M S

    1996-08-01

    This study was directed at achieving an understanding of the mechanisms by which steroid hormones control the synthesis of vitellogenin (VTG) protein in the liver of the Japanese quail. Northern hybridization shows that administration of estradiol alone or with progesterone stimulates the synthesis of VTG mRNA. Gel mobility shift assay of DNA fragments containing the ERE and NF 1 shows that estradiol alone or with progesterone increases the levels of nuclear proteins that bind to these cis-acting elements of the promoter of the VTG gene. The cooperative effect of the two hormones seen at the level of expression of the VTG gene may be due to protein-protein interactions of trans-acting factors that bind to ERE and NF 1.

  3. Assessing the potential for trace organic contaminants commonly found in Australian rivers to induce vitellogenin in the native rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) and the introduced mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Philip D. [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222 (Australia); Coleman, Heather M. [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science, Ulster University, Coleraine, BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Colville, Anne; Lim, Richard [School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, New South Wales, 2007 (Australia); Matthews, Benjamin [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222 (Australia); McDonald, James A. [School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, New South Wales, 2052 (Australia); Miranda, Ana [School of Applied Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria, 3083 (Australia); Neale, Peta A. [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222 (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [School of Applied Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria, 3083 (Australia); Tremblay, Louis A. [Cawthron Institute, 98 Halifax St. East, Nelson 7042 (New Zealand); School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, PO Box 92019, Auckland, 1142 (New Zealand); Leusch, Frederic D.L., E-mail: f.leusch@griffith.edu.au [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222 (Australia)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Mosquitofish and rainbowfish exposed in the lab to trace organic compounds. • Vitellogenin protein and mRNA monitored as biomarker of estrogenicity. • Minimal response in both species to environmentally relevant concentrations. • Native rainbowfish was slightly more sensitive than the invasive mosquitofish. • Results suggest that risk of estrogenic disruption in Australian rivers is low. - Abstract: In Australia, trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) and endocrine active compounds (EACs) have been detected in rivers impacted by sewage effluent, urban stormwater, agricultural and industrial inputs. It is unclear whether these chemicals are at concentrations that can elicit endocrine disruption in Australian fish species. In this study, native rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) and introduced invasive (but prevalent) mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were exposed to the individual compounds atrazine, estrone, bisphenol A, propylparaben and pyrimethanil, and mixtures of compounds including hormones and personal care products, industrial compounds, and pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations. Vitellogenin (Vtg) protein and liver Vtg mRNA induction were used to assess the estrogenic potential of these compounds. Vtg expression was significantly affected in both species exposed to estrone at concentrations that leave little margin for safety (p < 0.001). Propylparaben caused a small but statistically significant 3× increase in Vtg protein levels (p = 0.035) in rainbowfish but at a concentration 40× higher than that measured in the environment, therefore propylparaben poses a low risk of inducing endocrine disruption in fish. Mixtures of pesticides and a mixture of hormones, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds and pesticides induced a small but statistically significant increase in plasma Vtg in rainbowfish, but did not affect mosquitofish Vtg protein or mRNA expression. These results suggest that estrogenic activity represents a

  4. DNA methylation induced changes in chromatin conformation of the promoter of the vitellogenin II gene of Japanese quail during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay; Pathak, Rashmi U; Kanungo, Madhu S

    2006-08-01

    One approach to the understanding of the molecular basis of aging in higher organisms may be to use genes whose timing and rate of expression during the life span run parallel with specific functions that can be monitored. The genes for egg proteins, such as vitellogenin (VTG), which is expressed in the liver, and ovalbumin, lysozyme etc. that are expressed in the oviduct of birds, meet these requirements. Egg laying function is dependent on the production of these proteins, which, in turn, depends on the expression of their genes. In this communication we present the age-related studies on the VTG II gene of the bird, Japanese quail. The gene is expressed only in the liver and its expression is considerably lower in old birds that do not lay eggs. Comparison of the promoter region of the gene carrying the two important cis-acting elements, estrogen responsive element (ERE) and progesterone responsive element (PRE), shows it to be 100% homologous to the corresponding region of the chicken VTG II gene. Methylation of DNA and conformation of chromatin of this region were studied, as they are known to be important for regulation of expression of genes. Our studies show that in the liver of adult female quails which lay eggs, a -CCGG- sequence located in this region is hypomethylated, and the chromatin encompassing this region of the gene is relaxed. In the old, the -CCGG- sequence is hypermethylated and the chromatin is compact. This is correlated with a decrease in the expression of the gene and decrease in egg production. Further, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) shows that the levels/affinity of specific trans-acting factors that bind to ERE and PRE present in the region, are not different in adult and old birds. Hence the methylation status of the -CCGG- sequence that is located in-between the ERE and the PRE may be crucial for the conformation of chromatin and availability of these two important cis-acting elements for the binding of the trans

  5. Modulation of vitellogenin synthesis through estrogen receptor beta-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus) juveniles exposed to 17-β estradiol and nonylphenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soverchia, L.; Ruggeri, B.; Palermo, F.; Mosconi, G.; Cardinaletti, G.; Scortichini, G.; Gatti, G.; Polzonetti-Magni, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Many synthetic chemicals, termed xenoestrogens, have been shown to interact as agonists with the estrogen receptor (ER) to elicit biological responses similar to those of natural hormones. To date, the regulation of vitellogenesis in oviparous vertebrates has been widely used for evaluation of estrogenic effects. Therefore, Carassius auratus juveniles were chosen as a fish model for studying the effects of estradiol-17β and different concentrations (10 -6 and 10 -7 M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on the expression of liver ERβ-1 subtype; plasma vitellogenin and sex steroids (androgens and estradiol-17β) were also evaluated together with the bioaccumulation process, through mass-spectrometry. C. auratus is a species widespread in the aquatic environment and, on the toxicological point of view, can be considered a good 'sentinel' species. Juveniles of goldfish were maintained in tanks with only tap water or water with different concentrations (10 -6 and 10 -7 M) of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), or 10 -7 M of estradiol-17β. After 3 weeks of treatment, animals were anesthetized within 5 min after capture, and blood was immediately collected into heparinized syringes by cardiac puncture and stored at -70 deg. C; the gonads were fixed, then frozen and stored at -70 deg. C; the whole fish, liver, and muscle tissues were harvested and immediately stored at -70 deg. C for molecular biology experiments and bioaccumulation measurements. The estrogenic effects of 4-NP were evidenced by the presence of plasma vitellogenin in juveniles exposed both to estradiol-17β and the two doses of 4-NP; moreover, exposure to 4-NP also increased aromatization of androgens, as suggested by decreasing androgens and increasing estradiol-17β plasma levels. The changes of these parameters were in agreement with the increasing transcriptional rate of ERβ-1 mRNA in the liver, demonstrating that both estradiol-17β and 4-NP modulate the vitellogenin rate through interaction with the ERβ-1 subtype. The

  6. Increasing Avermectin Production in Streptomyces avermitilis by Manipulating the Expression of a Novel TetR-Family Regulator and Its Target Gene Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenshuai; Zhang, Qinling; Guo, Jia; Chen, Zhi; Li, Jilun; Wen, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Avermectins produced by Streptomyces avermitilis are commercially important anthelmintic agents. The detailed regulatory mechanisms of avermectin biosynthesis remain unclear. Here, we identified SAV3619, a TetR-family transcriptional regulator designated AveT, to be an activator for both avermectin production and morphological differentiation in S. avermitilis. AveT was shown to indirectly stimulate avermectin production by affecting transcription of the cluster-situated activator gene aveR. AveT directly repressed transcription of its own gene (aveT), adjacent gene pepD2 (sav_3620), sav_7490 (designated aveM), and sav_7491 by binding to an 18-bp perfect palindromic sequence (CGAAACGKTKYCGTTTCG, where K is T or G and Y is T or C and where the underlining indicates inverted repeats) within their promoter regions. aveM (which encodes a putative transmembrane efflux protein belonging to the major facilitator superfamily [MFS]), the important target gene of AveT, had a striking negative effect on avermectin production and morphological differentiation. Overexpression of aveT and deletion of aveM in wild-type and industrial strains of S. avermitilis led to clear increases in the levels of avermectin production. In vitro gel-shift assays suggested that C-5-O-B1, the late pathway precursor of avermectin B1, acts as an AveT ligand. Taken together, our findings indicate positive-feedback regulation of aveT expression and avermectin production by a late pathway intermediate and provide the basis for an efficient strategy to increase avermectin production in S. avermitilis by manipulation of AveT and its target gene product, AveM. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. MicroRNA-275 and its target Vitellogenin-2 are crucial in ovary development and blood digestion of Haemaphysalis longicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jiawei; Luo, Jin; Chen, Ze; Ren, Qiaoyun; Guo, Jinxia; Liu, Xiaocui; Chen, Qiuyu; Wu, Feng; Wang, Zhen; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong; Wang, Hui; Liu, Guangyuan

    2017-05-22

    The hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis is widely distributed in eastern Asia, New Zealand and Australia and is considered the major vector of Theileria and Babesia, harmful parasites to humans and animals. Female ticks need successful blood meals to complete the life-cycle. Therefore, elucidation of the underlying molecular mechanisms of H. longicornis development and reproduction is considered important for developing control strategies against the tick and tick-borne pathogens. Luciferase assays were used to identify the targets of micro RNA miR-275 in vitro. RNAi of Vitellogenin (Vg) was used in phenotype rescue experiments of ticks with miR-275 inhibition, and these analyses were used to identify the authentic target of miR-275 in vivo. The expression of miR-275 in different tissues and developmental stages of ticks was assessed by real-time PCR. To elucidate the functions of miR-275 in female ticks, we injected a miR-275 antagomir into female ticks and observed the phenotypic changes. Statistical analyses were performed with GraphPad5 using Student's t-test. In this study, we identified Vg-2 as an authentic target of miR-275 both in vitro and in vivo by luciferase assays and phenotype rescue experiments. miR-275 plays the regulatory role in a tissue-specific manner and differentially in developmental stages. Silencing of miR-275 resulted in blood digestion problems, substantially impaired ovary development and significantly reduced egg mass (P development. These findings improve the molecular understanding of tick development and reproduction.

  8. Gustatory perception and fat body energy metabolism are jointly affected by vitellogenin and juvenile hormone in honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees (Apis mellifera provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and endocrine physiology including the endocrine factors vitellogenin (Vg and juvenile hormone (JH. However, the understanding of connections among social behavior, energy metabolism, and endocrine factors is incomplete. We used RNA interference (RNAi to perturb the gene network of Vg and JH to learn more about these connections through effects on gustation, gene transcripts, and physiology. The RNAi perturbation was achieved by single and double knockdown of the genes ultraspiracle (usp and vg, which encode a putative JH receptor and Vg, respectively. The double knockdown enhanced gustatory perception and elevated hemolymph glucose, trehalose, and JH. We also observed transcriptional responses in insulin like peptide 1 (ilp1, the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR, and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, or "foraging gene" Amfor. Our study demonstrates that the Vg-JH regulatory module controls changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but not lipid metabolism, when worker bees shift from nursing to foraging. The module is also placed upstream of ilp1, AKHR, and PKG for the first time. As insulin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH, and PKG pathways influence metabolism and gustation in many animals, we propose that honey bees have conserved pathways in carbohydrate metabolism and conserved connections between energy metabolism and gustatory perception. Thus, perhaps the bee can make general contributions to the understanding of food-related behavior and metabolic disorders.

  9. Gustatory perception and fat body energy metabolism are jointly affected by vitellogenin and juvenile hormone in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Brent, Colin S; Fennern, Erin; Amdam, Gro V

    2012-06-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses) usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers) forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and endocrine physiology including the endocrine factors vitellogenin (Vg) and juvenile hormone (JH). However, the understanding of connections among social behavior, energy metabolism, and endocrine factors is incomplete. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to perturb the gene network of Vg and JH to learn more about these connections through effects on gustation, gene transcripts, and physiology. The RNAi perturbation was achieved by single and double knockdown of the genes ultraspiracle (usp) and vg, which encode a putative JH receptor and Vg, respectively. The double knockdown enhanced gustatory perception and elevated hemolymph glucose, trehalose, and JH. We also observed transcriptional responses in insulin like peptide 1 (ilp1), the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR), and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, or "foraging gene" Amfor). Our study demonstrates that the Vg-JH regulatory module controls changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but not lipid metabolism, when worker bees shift from nursing to foraging. The module is also placed upstream of ilp1, AKHR, and PKG for the first time. As insulin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), and PKG pathways influence metabolism and gustation in many animals, we propose that honey bees have conserved pathways in carbohydrate metabolism and conserved connections between energy metabolism and gustatory perception. Thus, perhaps the bee can make general contributions to the understanding of food-related behavior and metabolic disorders.

  10. Reversible reprotoxic effects of manganese through DAF-16 transcription factor activation and vitellogenin downregulation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubert, Priscila; Puntel, Bruna; Lehmen, Tassia; Bornhorst, Julia; Avila, Daiana S; Aschner, Michael; Soares, Felix A A

    2016-04-15

    Vitellogenesis is the yolk production process which provides the essential nutrients for the developing embryos. Yolk is a lipoprotein particle that presents lipids and lipid-binding proteins, referred to as vitellogenins (VIT). The Caenorhabditis elegans nematode has six genes encoding VIT lipoproteins. Several pathways are known to regulate vitellogenesis, including the DAF-16 transcription factor. Some reports have shown that heavy metals, such as manganese (Mn), impair brood size in C. elegans; however the mechanisms associated with this effect have yet to be identified. Our aim was to evaluate Mn's effects on C. elegans reproduction and better understand the pathways related to these effects. Young adult larval stage worms were treated for 4h with Mn in 85mM NaCl and Escherichia coli OP50 medium. Mn reduced egg-production and egg-laying during the first 24h after the treatment, although the total number of progenies were indistinguishable from the control group levels. This delay may have occurred due to DAF-16 activation, which was noted only after the treatment and was not apparent 24h later. Moreover, the expression, protein levels and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence associated with VIT were decreased soon after Mn treatment and recovered after 24h. Combined, these data suggest that the delay in egg-production is likely regulated by DAF-16 and followed by the inhibition of VIT transport activity. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms associated with Mn-induced DAF-16 activation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. FATHEAD MINNOW VITELLOGENIN: CDNA SEQUENCE AND MRNA AND PROTEIN EXPRESSION AFTER 17 BETA-ESTRADIOL TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present study, a sensitive ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) for VTG mRNA was developed for the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), a species proposed for routine endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) screening.

  12. Tools to Minimize Inter-Laboratory Variability in Vitellogenin Gene Expression Monitoring Programs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — All data files are in excel format. Files with names CSU are different mesocosms qPCR data results for vitellogen gene and 18s a house keeping gene. Data files...

  13. Activation of vitellogenin II gene expression by steroid hormones in the old Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Upadhyay, R; Kanungo, M S

    1998-11-01

    Alterations in the basal transcription rates of eukaryotic genes are believed to involve the binding of trans-acting factor(s) with specific DNA sequences in the promoter. We show here two interrelated events for the VTGII gene of the old, non-egg laying Japanese quail: alterations in the structure of the chromatin encompassing the gene, and binding of trans-acting factors to the promoter of the gene. Estradiol/progesterone alone or together cause alterations in the conformation of the chromatin of the promoter region of the gene. This may allow free access of nuclear protein(s) to the cis-acting elements, ERE, PRE and NF1, in the promoter of the gene and cause activation of transcription.

  14. VITELLOGENIN GENE EXPRESSION IN FATHEAD MINNOWS EXPOSED TO EE2 IN A WHOLE LAKE DOSING EXPERIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A whole-lake endocrine disruption experiment was conducted by Fisheries and Oceans Canada at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), northwestern Ontario in 2001 and 2002. This experiment examined population, organism, biochemical and cellular-level effects in lake trout, white sucke...

  15. An evolutionary resolution of manipulation conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Forero, Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    Individuals can manipulate the behavior of social partners. However, manipulation may conflict with the fitness interests of the manipulated individuals. Manipulated individuals can then be favored to resist manipulation, possibly reducing or eliminating the manipulated behavior in the long run. I use a mathematical model to show that conflicts where manipulation and resistance coevolve can disappear as a result of the coevolutionary process. I find that while manipulated individuals are selected to resist, they can simultaneously be favored to express the manipulated behavior at higher efficiency (i.e., providing increasing fitness effects to recipients of the manipulated behavior). Efficiency can increase to a point at which selection for resistance disappears. This process yields an efficient social behavior that is induced by social partners, and over which the inducing and induced individuals are no longer in conflict. A necessary factor is costly inefficiency. I develop the model to address the evolution of advanced eusociality via maternal manipulation (AEMM). The model predicts AEMM to be particularly likely in taxa with ancestrally imperfect resistance to maternal manipulation. Costly inefficiency occurs if the cost of delayed dispersal is larger than the benefit of exploiting the maternal patch. I discuss broader implications of the process. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Vitellogenin from the silkworm, Bombyx mori: an effective anti-bacterial agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nitin Kumar; Pakkianathan, Britto Cathrin; Kumar, Manish; Prasad, Tulika; Kannan, Mani; König, Simone; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2013-01-01

    Silkworm, Bombyx mori, vitellogenin (Vg) was isolated from perivisceral fat body of day 3 of pupa. Both Vg subunits were co-purified as verified by mass spectrometry and immunoblot. Purified Vg responded to specific tests for major posttranslational modifications on native gels indicating its nature as lipo-glyco-phosphoprotein. The Vg fraction had strong antibacterial activity against Gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli and Gram positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Microscopic images showed binding of Vg to bacterial cells and their destruction. When infected silkworm larvae were treated with purified Vg they survived the full life cycle in contrast to untreated animals. This result showed that Vg has the ability to inhibit the proliferation of bacteria in the silkworm fluid system without disturbing the regular metabolism of the host.

  17. Vitellogenin from the silkworm, Bombyx mori: an effective anti-bacterial agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available Silkworm, Bombyx mori, vitellogenin (Vg was isolated from perivisceral fat body of day 3 of pupa. Both Vg subunits were co-purified as verified by mass spectrometry and immunoblot. Purified Vg responded to specific tests for major posttranslational modifications on native gels indicating its nature as lipo-glyco-phosphoprotein. The Vg fraction had strong antibacterial activity against Gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli and Gram positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Microscopic images showed binding of Vg to bacterial cells and their destruction. When infected silkworm larvae were treated with purified Vg they survived the full life cycle in contrast to untreated animals. This result showed that Vg has the ability to inhibit the proliferation of bacteria in the silkworm fluid system without disturbing the regular metabolism of the host.

  18. Developmental changes in concentrations of vitellin, vitellogenin, and lipids in hemolymph, hepatopancreas, and ovaries from different ovarian stages of Indian white prawn Fenneropenaeus indicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boucard, C.G.V.; Levy, P.; Ceccaldi, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the relationship between vitellogenin (Vtg) and vitellin (Vt) concentration profiles during the reproductive cycle of the penaeid prawn Fenneropenaeus indicus. Vt was purified from ovaries of vitellogenic females by gradient ultracentrifugati...

  19. Identification and Transcriptional Modulation of the Largemouth Bass, Micropterus salmoides, Vitellogenin Receptor During Oocyte Development by Insulin and Sex Steroids1

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez, Gustavo A.; Quattro, Joseph M.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Prucha, Melinda S.; Porak, Wesley F.; Grier, Harry J.; Sabo-Attwood, Tara L.

    2012-01-01

    Fish vitellogenin synthesized and released from the liver of oviparous animals is taken up into oocytes by the vitellogenin receptor. This is an essential process in providing nutrient yolk to developing embryos to ensure successful reproduction. Here we disclose the full length vtgr cDNA sequence for largemouth bass (LMB) that reveals greater than 90% sequence homology with other fish vtgr sequences. We classify LMB Vtgr as a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor superfamily based o...

  20. Cross-reactivity of a polyclonal antibody against Chinemys reevesii vitellogenin with the vitellogenins of other turtle species: Chelydra serpentina , Macrochelys temminckii , and Pelodiscus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Masahiro; Tada, Noriko; Kamata, Yoichi

    2008-09-01

    Vitellogenin (VTG), a yolk-precursor protein in oviparous vertebrates, is a useful biomarker for reproductive physiology and environmental estrogenic pollution. To examine interspecific applicability of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantifying Chinemys reevesii VTG, we observed cross-reactivity between a polyclonal antibody against Chinemys reevesii VTG and the VTGs from other turtle species: Chelydra serpentina (Chelydridae), Macrochelys temminckii (Chelydridae), and Pelodiscus sinensis (Trionychidae), which are phylogenetically distant from Chinemys reevesii (Geoemydidae). The VTGs of the three species were induced by injecting estradiol 17beta into the turtles and purified by using the EDTA-MgCl(2) precipitation method. The purified VTG appeared as a 200-kDa protein in sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that the molecular mass of the VTGs of the three species was similar to that of Chinemys reevesii VTG. The purified VTGs were serially diluted (0.004-2 mug/ml) and applied to the ELISA. Although the VTGs of the two chelydrid turtles showed cross-reactivity in a concentration-dependent manner, the degree of cross-reactivity was only 22.8-41.2% (mean=30.0%) and 19.7-53.0% (mean=33.2%) for Chelydra serpentina VTG and Macrochelys temminckii VTG, respectively. The ELISA may therefore be theoretically applicable to measure relative levels of the VTGs of these two species, but the absolute concentration values may be inaccurate. Pelodiscus sinensis VTG showed almost no cross-reactivity (8.0-9.7%, mean=8.9%) at any concentration tested, thus indicating the inapplicability of the ELISA to quantify Pelodiscus sinensis VTG. There are thus limitations in extending the applicability of the ELISA across species, even within the order Testudines.

  1. Disrupting reconsolidation: pharmacological and behavioral manipulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soeter, M.; Kindt, M.

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that disrupting reconsolidation by pharmacological manipulations "deleted" the emotional expression of a fear memory in humans. If we are to target reconsolidation in patients with anxiety disorders, the disruption of reconsolidation should produce content-limited

  2. Study the impact of gamma irradiation on the vitellogenin gene in Galleria mellonella females by using the comparative CT method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.S. Zaghloul

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The eggs deposited by oviparous organisms contain large amounts of vitellus, or yolk, which are utilized by the growing embryo. Vitellogenesis is the process of vitellus accumulation involves massive heterosynthetic synthesis of the protein vitellogenin (Vg and its deposition in the oocyte. Vg levels are indicative for the efficiency of the oogenesis process. This work summarizes data on Vg levels in Galleria mellonella females exposed to various doses of gamma radiation. The results stated that vitellogenin was affected by irradiation. The decreased levels of Vg was dose dependent reaching an undetermined level at 160Gy which is the sterileing dose for G. mellonella female that suppress the egg production by them.

  3. Vitellogenin, a Marker of Estrogen Mimicking Contaminants in Fishes: Characterization, Quantification and Interference by Anti-Estrogens

    OpenAIRE

    Palumbo, Amanda J.

    2008-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg), the estrogen inducible protein precursor to egg yolk, serves as an indicator of exposure to estrogen mimicking environmental contaminants. Vg was isolated by size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography from plasma of California halibut (Paralichthys californicus) treated with estrogen. MALDI TOF mass spectrometry (MS) analysis resulted in a molecular mass of 188 kDa. MS/MS de novo sequencing provided evidence that California halibut has more than one form of Vg. Similar ...

  4. Currency Manipulation versus Current Account Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Junning Cai

    2005-01-01

    It is said that a country’s currency peg can become currency manipulation representing protracted government intervention in the foreign exchange market that gives it unfair competitive advantage in international trade yet prevents effective balance of payments in its trade partners. Regarding this widespread fallacy, this paper explains why currency peg is not currency manipulation even when it keeps a country’s currency undervalued. We clarify that 1) government is inherently a major player...

  5. Dynamics of vitellogenin and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone levels in adult and subadult whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei: relation to molting and eyestalk ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Jung; Okutsu, Tomoyuki; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Shinji, Junpei; Bae, Sun-Hye; Wilder, Marcy N

    2014-01-01

    Levels of vitellogenin (VG) and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) in the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay in relation to the molting cycle and ovarian maturation induced by eyestalk ablation. During the molt cycle, VG mRNA expression levels and VG concentrations showed similar patterns of fluctuation. VG levels increased significantly at early intermolt (stage C0) in adults, but not in subadults. Unilateral and bilateral eyestalk ablation increased VG levels in adults, whereas only bilateral eyestalk ablation affected subadults. VIH levels showed contrasting patterns between adults and subadults. In adults, levels were high in late postmolt adults (stage B) and then low thereafter, whereas they increased from postmolt (stage A) to intermolt (stage C0) in subadults and remained high. Unilateral eyestalk ablation increased VIH levels 10 days following ablation in adults, after which levels decreased at 20 days. VIH levels decreased from 10 to 20 days after bilateral ablation. Both unilateral and bilateral ablation led to increased VIH levels in subadults. Eyestalk ablation induced ovarian maturation, but did not reduce VIH concentrations in the hemolymph. This phenomenon was perhaps due to other crustacean hyperglycemic hormone peptides having cross-reactivity with VIH antibodies. This is the first report to quantify concentrations of VG and VIH together in L. vannamei hemolymph, and to examine their relative dynamics.

  6. Vitellogenins Are New High Molecular Weight Components and Allergens (Api m 12 and Ves v 6) of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; McIntyre, Mareike; Ollert, Markus; Wolf, Sara; Bantleon, Frank I.; Spillner, Edzard

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives Anaphylaxis due to hymenoptera stings is one of the most severe clinical outcomes of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Although allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings are often considered as a general model for the underlying principles of allergic disease, venom immunotherapy is still hampered by severe systemic side effects and incomplete protection. The identification and detailed characterization of all allergens of hymenoptera venoms might result in an improvement in this field and promote the detailed understanding of the allergological mechanism. Our aim was the identification and detailed immunochemical and allergological characterization of the low abundant IgE-reactive 200 kDa proteins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom. Methods/Principal Findings Tandem mass spectrometry-based sequencing of a 200 kDa venom protein yielded peptides that could be assigned to honeybee vitellogenin. The coding regions of the honeybee protein as well as of the homologue from yellow jacket venom were cloned from venom gland cDNA. The newly identified 200 kDa proteins share a sequence identity on protein level of 40% and belong to the family of vitellogenins, present in all oviparous animals, and are the first vitellogenins identified as components of venom. Both vitellogenins could be recombinantly produced as soluble proteins in insect cells and assessed for their specific IgE reactivity. The particular vitellogenins were recognized by approximately 40% of sera of venom-allergic patients even in the absence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. Conclusion With the vitellogenins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom a new homologous pair of venom allergens was identified and becomes available for future applications. Due to their allergenic properties the honeybee and the yellow jacket venom vitellogenin were designated as allergens Api m 12 and Ves v 6, respectively. PMID:23626765

  7. Vitellogenin detection in Caiman latirostris (Crocodylia: Alligatoridae): a tool to assess environmental estrogen exposure in wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Florencia; Ramos, Jorge G; Stoker, Cora; Bussmann, Leonardo E; Luque, Enrique H; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica

    2006-03-01

    Environmental pollution with endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) has adverse effects on the ecosystem's health. Caiman latirostris are widely distributed in South American aquatic ecosystems. Caimans have physiological and ecological characteristics that make them particularly vulnerable to EDCs exposure and suitable candidate as a sentinel species. Vitellogenin (Vtg) is a yolk pre-cursor protein synthesized by the liver of non-mammalian vertebrates and induced in response to estrogen. Purified plasma Vtg from caimans injected with estradiol-17beta (E2) was used to generate a polyclonal anti-body. Anti-body specificity was assessed using Western blot. The antiserum was also effective in detecting turtle Vtg, exhibiting high cross-reactivity with Vtg from Phrynops hilarii and Trachemys scripta dorbigni. We developed a specific and highly sensitive ELISA for caiman Vtg. This method has a detection limit of 0.1 ng/ml of plasma. The ELISA did not detect Vtg in plasma of non-induced male caimans. Induction of Vtg in male caimans was evaluated in response to one or two (7 days apart) doses of E2. Due to its high sensitivity, ELISA allows to measure the small increases in plasma Vtg after exposure to exogenous estrogen. A priming effect was observed following the second E2 dose, with a tenfold increase in circulating Vtg. Hepatic synthesis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The results presented herein suggest that detection of plasma Vtg in male caimans might become a valuable tool in biomonitoring xenoestrogen exposure in a polluted environment.

  8. Getting Manipulative about Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Janet K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Math manipulatives that are made from inexpensive, common items help students understand basic mathematics concepts. Learning activities using Cheerios, jellybeans, and clay as teaching materials are suggested. (DF)

  9. Manipulators in teleoperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Teleoperated manipulators represent a mature technology which has evolved over nearly 40 years of applications experience. The wide range of manipulator concepts developed thus far reflect differing applications, priorities, and philosophies. The technology of teleoperated manipulators is in a rapid state of change (just as are industrial robotics) fueled by microelectronics and materials advances. Large strides in performance and dexterity are now practical and advantageous. Even though improved controls and sensory feedback will increase functionality, overall costs should be reduced as manipulator fabrication and assembly labor costs are reduced through improved manufacturing technology. As these advances begin to materialize, broader applications in nonnuclear areas should occur

  10. Master-slave manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaker, L.W.; Jelatis, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A remote control master-slave manipulator for performing work on the opposite side of a barrier wall, is described. The manipulator consists of a rotatable horizontal support adapted to extend through the wall and two longitudinally extensible arms, a master and a slave, pivotally connected one to each end of the support. (U.K.)

  11. In Praise of Manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dowding, Keith; Van Hees, Martin

    Many theorists believe that the manipulation of voting procedures is a serious problem. Accordingly, much of social choice theory examines the conditions under which strategy-proofness can be ensured, and what kind of procedures do a better job of preventing manipulation. This article argues that

  12. Cell manipulation in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hoyoung; Kim, Kisoo; Lee, Won Gu

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the lab-on-a-chip field in association with nano/microfluidics have been made for new applications and functionalities to the fields of molecular biology, genetic analysis and proteomics, enabling the expansion of the cell biology field. Specifically, microfluidics has provided promising tools for enhancing cell biological research, since it has the ability to precisely control the cellular environment, to easily mimic heterogeneous cellular environment by multiplexing, and to analyze sub-cellular information by high-contents screening assays at the single-cell level. Various cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics have been developed in accordance with specific objectives and applications. In this review, we examine the latest achievements of cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics by categorizing externally applied forces for manipulation: (i) optical, (ii) magnetic, (iii) electrical, (iv) mechanical and (v) other manipulations. We furthermore focus on history where the manipulation techniques originate and also discuss future perspectives with key examples where available. (topical review)

  13. Manipulator comparative testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Sundstrom, E.; Herndon, J.N.; Fujita, Y.; Maeda, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Manipulator Comparative Testing Program examined differences among manipulator systems from the United States and Japan. The manipulator systems included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, the Model M-2 of Central Research Laboratories Division of Sargent Industries (CRL), and the GCA Corporation PaR Systems Model 6000. The site of testing was the Remote Operations Maintenance Demonstration (ROMD) facility, operated by the Fuel Recycle Division in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In all stages of testing, operators using the CRL Model M-2 manipulator had consistently lower times to completion and error rates than they did using other machines. Performance was second best with the Meidensha BILARM 83A in master-slave mode. Performance with the BILARM in switchbox mode and the PaR 6000 manipulator was approximately equivalent in terms of criteria recorded in testing. These data show no impact of force reflection on task performance

  14. Proteolytic processing of the vitellogenin precursor in the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, L J; Trewitt, P M; Kumaran, A K

    1993-01-01

    The soluble proteins of the eggs of the coleopteran insect Anthonomus grandis Boheman, the cotton boll weevil, consist almost entirely of two vitellin types with M(r)s of 160,000 and 47,000. We sequenced their N-terminal ends and one internal cyanogen bromide fragment of the large vitellin and compared these sequences with the deduced amino acid sequence from the vitellogenin gene. The results suggest that both the boll weevil vitellin proteins are products of the proteolytic cleavage of a single precursor protein. The smaller 47,000 M(r) vitellin protein is derived from the N-terminal portion of the precursor adjacent to an 18 amino acid signal peptide. The cleavage site between the large and small vitellins at amino acid 362 is adjacent to a pentapeptide sequence containing two pairs of arginine residues. Comparison of the boll weevil sequences with limited known sequences from the single 180,000 M(r) honey bee protein show that the honey bee vitellin N-terminal exhibits sequence homology to the N-terminal of the 47,000 M(r) boll weevil vitellin. Treatment of the vitellins with an N-glycosidase results in a decrease in molecular weight of both proteins, from 47,000 to 39,000 and from 160,000 to 145,000, indicating that about 10-15% of the molecular weight of each vitellin consists of N-linked carbohydrate. The molecular weight of the deglycosylated large vitellin is smaller than that predicted from the gene sequence, indicating possible further proteolytic processing at the C-terminal of that protein.

  15. Extensive co-operation between the Epstein-Barr virus EBNA3 proteins in the manipulation of host gene expression and epigenetic chromatin modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E White

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is able to drive the transformation of B-cells, resulting in the generation of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs in vitro. EBV nuclear proteins EBNA3A and EBNA3C are necessary for efficient transformation, while EBNA3B is dispensable. We describe a transcriptome analysis of BL31 cells infected with a series of EBNA3-knockout EBVs, including one deleted for all three EBNA3 genes. Using Affymetrix Exon 1.0 ST microarrays analysed with the MMBGX algorithm, we have identified over 1000 genes whose regulation by EBV requires one of the EBNA3s. Remarkably, a third of the genes identified require more than one EBNA3 for their regulation, predominantly EBNA3C co-operating with either EBNA3B, EBNA3A or both. The microarray was validated by real-time PCR, while ChIP analysis of a selection of co-operatively repressed promoters indicates a role for polycomb group complexes. Targets include genes involved in apoptosis, cell migration and B-cell differentiation, and show a highly significant but subtle alteration in genes involved in mitosis. In order to assess the relevance of the BL31 system to LCLs, we analysed the transcriptome of a set of EBNA3B knockout (3BKO LCLs. Around a third of the genes whose expression level in LCLs was altered in the absence of EBNA3B were also altered in 3BKO-BL31 cell lines.Among these are TERT and TCL1A, implying that EBV-induced changes in the expression of these genes are not required for B-cell transformation. We also identify 26 genes that require both EBNA3A and EBNA3B for their regulation in LCLs. Together, this shows the complexity of the interaction between EBV and its host, whereby multiple EBNA3 proteins co-operate to modulate the behaviour of the host cell.

  16. Vitellogenin concentrations in feral Danish brown trout have decreased: An effect of improved sewage treatment in rural areas?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Jane Ebsen; Mathiesen, Karsten Korsholm; Holbech, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    biomarkers for estrogenic exposure, and feminized fish have been observed downstream WWTP outlets in many countries. Danish central WWTPs reduce effluent estrogenicity effectively by advanced sewage treatment, and feminizations have not been observed downstream central WWTP outlets. However, between 2000......Feminization of male and juvenile fish caused by exposure to estrogens or estrogenic chemicals in effluents from central wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is a worldwide issue of concern. Intersex and induction of the female yolk protein, vitellogenin, in male and juvenile fish are robust...

  17. Alterations of tissue metallothionein and vitellogenin concentrations in tropical cup oysters (Saccostrea sp.) following short-term (96 h) exposure to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncaleano-Niño, Angela M.; Barrios-Latorre, Sergio A.; Poloche-Hernández, Javier F.; Becquet, Vanessa; Huet, Valérie; Villamil, Luisa; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Ahrens, Michael J.; Luna-Acosta, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The cup oyster Saccostrea sp. is present in Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean. • 96 h exposure of oysters to Cd increased metallothionein concentrations in digestive glands up to 2-fold. • 96 h exposure of oysters to Cd decreased vitellogenin concentrations in gonads up to 6-fold. • Metallothionein and vitellogenin tissue concentrations correlated with whole tissue Cd concentrations. • Significant changes in metallothionein and vitellogenin levels were only evident at Cd concentrations above 100 μg/L. - Abstract: Metallothioneins and vitellogenins are low molecular weight proteins that have been used widely in environmental monitoring as biomarkers of exposure and damage to metals and estrogenic compounds, respectively. In the present study, the responses of metallothionein and vitellogenin tissue concentrations were measured following acute (96 h) aqueous exposures to cadmium in Saccostrea sp., a tropical cup oyster native to the Western Pacific Ocean that has recently established itself in the Caribbean Sea. Adult oysters (1.5–5.0 cm shell length) collected from the municipal marina of Santa Marta, Colombia (Caribbean Sea) and acclimated for 5 days in the laboratory, were exposed to Cd at five concentrations (0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 μg/L) and their tissues (gills, digestive gland and adductor muscle) were analyzed in pools of 5 individuals (3 replicates per concentration). Metallothioneins in digestive glands of oysters exposed to Cd concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L showed a significant increase, from 8.0 to 14.8 μg MT/mg total protein, whereas metallothionein concentrations in gills increased to lesser extent, and no differences were observed in adductor muscle. Metallothionein concentrations in digestive gland and gills correlated directly with whole soft tissue Cd concentrations (ranging from 2 to 297 μg/g dw Cd). Vitellogenin in homogenates of oyster gonad tissue, after 96 h of exposure to 1000 μg/L Cd, were significantly lower (0

  18. Alterations of tissue metallothionein and vitellogenin concentrations in tropical cup oysters (Saccostrea sp.) following short-term (96 h) exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moncaleano-Niño, Angela M.; Barrios-Latorre, Sergio A.; Poloche-Hernández, Javier F. [Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Carrera 4 No. 22-61, Bogota (Colombia); Becquet, Vanessa; Huet, Valérie [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs) – UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de La Rochelle, Bâtiment ILE 2, rue Olympe de Gouges, 17 000 La Rochelle (France); Villamil, Luisa [Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Carrera 4 No. 22-61, Bogota (Colombia); Thomas-Guyon, Hélène [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs) – UMR 7266, CNRS-Université de La Rochelle, Bâtiment ILE 2, rue Olympe de Gouges, 17 000 La Rochelle (France); Ahrens, Michael J., E-mail: michael.ahrens@utadeo.edu.co [Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Carrera 4 No. 22-61, Bogota (Colombia); Luna-Acosta, Andrea [Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de Bogota Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Carrera 4 No. 22-61, Bogota (Colombia)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The cup oyster Saccostrea sp. is present in Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean. • 96 h exposure of oysters to Cd increased metallothionein concentrations in digestive glands up to 2-fold. • 96 h exposure of oysters to Cd decreased vitellogenin concentrations in gonads up to 6-fold. • Metallothionein and vitellogenin tissue concentrations correlated with whole tissue Cd concentrations. • Significant changes in metallothionein and vitellogenin levels were only evident at Cd concentrations above 100 μg/L. - Abstract: Metallothioneins and vitellogenins are low molecular weight proteins that have been used widely in environmental monitoring as biomarkers of exposure and damage to metals and estrogenic compounds, respectively. In the present study, the responses of metallothionein and vitellogenin tissue concentrations were measured following acute (96 h) aqueous exposures to cadmium in Saccostrea sp., a tropical cup oyster native to the Western Pacific Ocean that has recently established itself in the Caribbean Sea. Adult oysters (1.5–5.0 cm shell length) collected from the municipal marina of Santa Marta, Colombia (Caribbean Sea) and acclimated for 5 days in the laboratory, were exposed to Cd at five concentrations (0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 μg/L) and their tissues (gills, digestive gland and adductor muscle) were analyzed in pools of 5 individuals (3 replicates per concentration). Metallothioneins in digestive glands of oysters exposed to Cd concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L showed a significant increase, from 8.0 to 14.8 μg MT/mg total protein, whereas metallothionein concentrations in gills increased to lesser extent, and no differences were observed in adductor muscle. Metallothionein concentrations in digestive gland and gills correlated directly with whole soft tissue Cd concentrations (ranging from 2 to 297 μg/g dw Cd). Vitellogenin in homogenates of oyster gonad tissue, after 96 h of exposure to 1000 μg/L Cd, were significantly lower (0

  19. Manipulation, salience, and nudges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noggle, Robert

    2018-03-01

    Cass Sunstein and Richard Thaler recommend helping people make better decisions by employing 'nudges', which they define as noncoercive methods of influencing choice for the better. Not surprisingly, healthcare practitioners and public policy professionals have become interested in whether nudges might be a promising method of improving health-related behaviors without resorting to heavy-handed methods such as coercion, deception, or government regulation. Many nudges seem unobjectionable as they merely improve the quality and quantity available for the decision-maker. However, other nudges influence decision-making in ways that do not involve providing more and better information. Nudges of this sort raise concerns about manipulation. This paper will focus on noninformational nudges that operate by changing the salience of various options. It will survey two approaches to understanding manipulation, one which sees manipulation as a kind of pressure, and one that sees it as a kind of trickery. On the pressure view, salience nudges do not appear to be manipulative. However, on the trickery view (which the author favors), salience nudges will be manipulative if they increase the salience so that it is disproportionate to that fact's true relevance and importance for the decision at hand. By contrast, salience nudges will not be manipulative if they merely highlight some fact that is true and important for the decision at hand. The paper concludes by providing examples of both manipulative and nonmanipulative salience nudges. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Manipulators for production and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Ian

    1987-01-01

    The development of caves or cells and master-slave manipulators to handle radioactive materials is discussed. Some of the most recent advances are described. A manipulator arm, a master-slave manipulator and a servomanipulator mounted on a manipulator are illustrated. Future developments are discussed - these include resolved tip control for the manipulator. (UK)

  1. Powered manipulator control arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Mouee, Theodore; Vertut, Jean; Marchal, Paul; Germon, J.C.; Petit, Michel

    1975-01-01

    A remote operated control arm for powered manipulators is described. It includes an assembly allowing several movements with position sensors for each movement. The number of possible arm movements equals the number of possible manipulator movements. The control systems may be interrupted as required. One part of the arm is fitted with a system to lock it with respect to another part of the arm without affecting the other movements, so long as the positions of the manipulator and the arm have not been brought into complete coincidence. With this system the locking can be ended when complete concordance is achieved [fr

  2. Simulation of robot manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M.; Bills, K.C.; Kwon, D.S.; Schoenwald, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes Oak Ridge National Laboratory's development of an environment for the simulation of robotic manipulators. Simulation includes the modeling of kinematics, dynamics, sensors, actuators, control systems, operators, and environments. Models will be used for manipulator design, proposal evaluation, control system design and analysis, graphical preview of proposed motions, safety system development, and training. Of particular interest is the development of models for robotic manipulators having at least one flexible link. As a first application, models have been developed for the Pacific Northwest Laboratories' Flexible Beam Testbed which is a one-Degree-Of-Freedom, flexible arm with a hydraulic base actuator. Initial results show good agreement between model and experiment

  3. The direct manipulation shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.E.; Christiansen, M.

    1992-01-01

    Accelerator controls systems provide parameter display pages which allow the operator to monitor and manipulate selected control points in the system. Display pages are generally implemented as either hand-crafted, purpose-built programs; or by using a specialized display page layout tool. These two methods of display page development exhibit the classic trade-off between functionality vs. ease of implementation. In the Direct Manipulation Shell we approach the process of developing a display page in a manifestly object-oriented manner. This is done by providing a general framework for interactively instantiating and manipulating display objects. (author)

  4. Mechanisms for type-II vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone suppression of vitellogenin transcription in shrimp hepatopancreas: Crosstalk of GC/cGMP pathway with different MAPK-dependent cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Ren, Chunhua; Jiang, Xiao; Zhang, Lvping; Li, Hongmei; Huang, Wen; Hu, Chaoqun

    2018-01-01

    Vitellogenesis is the process of yolk formation via accumulating vitellin (Vn) with nutrients in the oocytes. Expression of vitellogenin (Vg), the precursor of Vn, is one of the indicators for the start of vitellogenesis. In Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the type-II vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH-2) effectively suppresses hepatopancreatic Vg mRNA expression. In this study, we demonstrate the increasing transcript levels of hepatopancreatic Vg during L. vannamei ovarian development, suggesting that the hepatopancreas-derived Vg/Vn may also contribute to vitellogenesis in this species. Using a combination of in vivo injections and in vitro primary cell cultures, we provide evidences that the inhibition of VIH-2 on hepatopancreatic Vg gene expression is mediated through a functional coupling of the GC/cGMP pathway with different MAPK-dependent cascades in female shrimp. In VIH-2 signaling, the NO-independent GC/cGMP/PKG cascades were upstream of the MAPKs. Activations of the MAPK signal by VIH-2 include the phosphorylation of JNK and the mRNA/protein expression of P38MAPK. Additionally, the cAMP/PKA pathway is another positive intracellular signal for hepatopancreatic Vg mRNA expression but is independent of its VIH-2 regulation. Our findings establish a model for the signal transduction mechanism of Vg regulation by VIH and shed light on the biological functions and signaling of the CHH family in crustaceans.

  5. Geometric control of manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiruarooran, C.

    1996-01-01

    Resolved motion control enables the end effector to be moved as a rigid body in space without having to work out manually the joint combinations needed. Since a rigid body in space has three independent translational and three independent rotational movements, a manipulator with at least six joints can be controlled in this way. Normally the manipulator has more than six joints providing an infinite number of ways of moving the tip in the desired direction and this redundancy can be exploited in a variety of ways. Resolved motion tests performed on a hydraulically operated heavy duty manipulator at the Dungeness nuclear power plant are described. The results have shown that manipulators with as many as ten joints can be controlled under resolved tip motion and the areas which are critical to the performance of this type of control have been identified. (UK)

  6. MATHEMATICAL MODEL MANIPULATOR ROBOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Krakhmalev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model to describe the dynamics of manipulator robots. Mathematical model are the implementation of the method based on the Lagrange equation and using the transformation matrices of elastic coordinates. Mathematical model make it possible to determine the elastic deviations of manipulator robots from programmed motion trajectories caused by elastic deformations in hinges, which are taken into account in directions of change of the corresponding generalized coordinates. Mathematical model is approximated and makes it possible to determine small elastic quasi-static deviations and elastic vibrations. The results of modeling the dynamics by model are compared to the example of a two-link manipulator system. The considered model can be used when performing investigations of the mathematical accuracy of the manipulator robots.

  7. Compliant Aerial Manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelds, T.; Capra, A.; Hamaza, S.

    2016-01-01

    joints. The approach aims at limiting the influence of impacts on the controlled attitude dynamics in order to allow the aerial manipulator to remain stable during and after impact. The developed concept is intended to convert kinetic energy into potential energy, which is permanently stored into elastic...... elements by means of directional locking mechanisms. The proposed approach has been tested on a 2 d.o.f. manipulator mounted on a quadrotor UAV. The manipulation system has one active rotational d.o.f. compensating for pitch movements of the UAV and one passive linear joint which is in charge of absorbing...... the impact energy. The device has been used to validate the method through experiments, in comparison with a rigid manipulator. The results show that the proposed approach and the developed mechanical system achieve stable impact absorption without bouncing away from the interacting environment. Our work has...

  8. Manipulating Strings in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This lesson is a brief introduction to string manipulation techniques in Python. Knowing how to manipulate strings plays a crucial role in most text processing tasks. If you’d like to experiment with the following lessons, you can write and execute short programs as we’ve been doing, or you can open up a Python shell / Terminal to try them out on the command line.

  9. Vitellogenin knockdown strongly affects cotton boll weevil egg viability but not the number of eggs laid by females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Roberta R; de Souza Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Firmino, Alexandre A P; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Fonseca, Fernando C A; Terra, Walter R; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida Engler, Janice; da Silva, Maria Cristina M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2016-09-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg), a yolk protein precursor, is the primary egg nutrient source involved in insect reproduction and embryo development. The Cotton Boll weevil (CBW) Anthonomus grandis Boheman, the most important cotton pest in Americas, accumulates large amounts of Vg during reproduction. However, the precise role of this protein during embryo development in this insect remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of vitellogenin (AgraVg) knockdown on the egg-laying and egg viability in A. grandis females, and also characterized morphologically the unviable eggs. AgraVg transcripts were found during all developmental stages of A. grandis, with highest abundance in females. Silencing of AgraVg culminated in a significant reduction in transcript amount, around 90%. Despite this transcriptional reduction, egg-laying was not affected in dsRNA-treated females but almost 100% of the eggs lost their viability. Eggs from dsRNA-treated females showed aberrant embryos phenotype suggesting interference at different stages of embryonic development. Unlike for other insects, the AgraVg knockdown did not affect the egg-laying ability of A. grandis, but hampered A. grandis reproduction by perturbing embryo development. We concluded that the Vg protein is essential for A. grandis reproduction and a good candidate to bio-engineer the resistance against this devastating cotton pest.

  10. Sex assignment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fluvescens) based on plasma sex hormone and vitellogenin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.M.; Papoulias, D.M.; Thomas, M.V.; Annis, M.L.; Boase, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on identifying the sex of lake sturgeon by measuring the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and the phosphoprotein vitellogenin (Vtg) in blood plasma by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and evaluating these techniques as tools in lake sturgeon population management. Surveys of the St Clair River (SCR) lake sturgeon population have characterized it as rebounding by having steady or increasing recruitment since 1997. However, researchers have not been able to effectively determine the sex for most of the sturgeon they capture because few fish caught during surveys are releasing gametes. A total of 115 fish were sampled from May through June in 2004 and 2005 from the SCR, Michigan, USA. Of these, only four females and eight males were verified (i.e. they were releasing gametes at time of capture), resulting in very few fish with which to validate blood hormone and Vtg biomarkers of sex. Fifty-six percent of the fish were assigned a sex designation based on biomarker criteria. Correspondence between actual gonadal sex and biomarker-directed classification was good for the small subset of fish for which gonadal sex was definitively determined. Moreover, application of the steroid values in a predictive sex assignment model developed for white sturgeon misclassified only the same two fish that were misclassified with the steroid and Vtg biomarkers. The experimental results suggest a sex ratio of 1 : 2.7 (F:M), however more conclusive methods are needed to confirm this ratio because so few fish were available for sex validation. Of the 43 males, 14 were within the legal slot limit, 11 were smaller than 1067 mm total length (TL), and 18 were larger than 1270 mm TL. All 15 females were larger than 1270 mm TL, and thus protected by the slot limit criteria. Considering that lake sturgeon are threatened in Michigan, an advantage to using blood plasma assays was that fish were not harmed, and sample collection was

  11. Potential use of Vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in Peregrine falcon exposed to organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B. [CSIC, Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Madrid (Spain); Mori, G.; Concejero, M.A.; Casini, S.; Fossi, M.C. [Siena Univ. (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Many different classes of environmental contaminants such as industrial chemicals (e.g. alkylphenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, PAHs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans), ''can cause adverse effects in the reproductive functions of intact organisms or their progenies, consequent to changes in endocrine functions'' showing a so-called Endocrine disruptor activity. Avian raptor species, such as peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) for their peculiar position in the food web are potentially at risk in relation to the accumulation of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and toxic metals. Recent studies carried out with Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Spain reveal a contamination with organochlorine compounds (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs) which could be responsible of the decrease of successful pairs observed during the last ten years. Thus there is a need to develop sensitive diagnostic monitoring tools for the evaluation of toxicological risk and potential effects on the reproductive function and population dynamic of avian top predator species. Two markers for the detection of EDs effects in oviparous vertebrates are induction of Vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona Radiata Proteins (ZR). Vtg, a complex phospholipoglycoprotein, is the major egg-yolk protein precursor and is normally synthesized by females in response to estradiol. ZR together with Zona Pellucida (ZP) constitutes in birds part of the eggshell. These proteins (Vtg, ZR and ZP) are normally synthesised in the liver as a response to an estrogen signal given by Estradiol. Males and sexually undifferentiated specimens also have the Vtg and ZR genes but do not express them unless exposed to estrogenic compounds. The main aim of this preliminary study was to develop methods for the detection of Vtg and ZR in plasma obtained from peregrine falcon as a specific biomarker for the evaluation of the effects of EDCs.

  12. Manipulating early pig embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Reichelt, B

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of established surgical procedures for embryo recovery and transfer, the early pig embryo can be subjected to various manipulations aimed at a long-term preservation of genetic material, the generation of identical multiplets, the early determination of sex or the alteration of the genetic make-up. Most of these procedures are still at an experimental stage and despite recent considerable progress are far from practical application. Normal piglets have been obtained after cryopreservation of pig blastocysts hatched in vitro, whereas all attempts to freeze embryos with intact zona pellucida have been unsuccessful. Pig embryos at the morula and blastocyst stage can be bisected microsurgically and the resulting demi-embryos possess a high developmental potential in vitro, whereas their development in vivo is impaired. Pregnancy rates are similar (80%) but litter size is reduced compared with intact embryos and twinning rate is approximately 2%. Pig blastomeres isolated from embryos up to the 16-cell stage can be grown in culture and result in normal blastocysts. Normal piglets have been born upon transfer of blastocysts derived from isolated eight-cell blastomeres, clearly underlining the totipotency of this developmental stage. Upon nuclear transfer the developmental capacity of reconstituted pig embryos is low and culture. Sex determination can be achieved either by separation of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa by flow cytometry or by analysing the expression of the HY antigen in pig embryos from the eight-cell to morula stage. Microinjection of foreign DNA has been successfully used to alter growth and development of transgenic pigs, and to produce foreign proteins in the mammary gland or in the bloodstream, indicating that pigs can be used as donors for valuable human pharmaceutical proteins. Another promising area of gene transfer is the increase of disease resistance in transgenic lines of pigs. Approximately 30% of pig spermatozoa bind

  13. Atomic and molecular manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mayne, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Work with individual atoms and molecules aims to demonstrate that miniaturized electronic, optical, magnetic, and mechanical devices can operate ultimately even at the level of a single atom or molecule. As such, atomic and molecular manipulation has played an emblematic role in the development of the field of nanoscience. New methods based on the use of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) have been developed to characterize and manipulate all the degrees of freedom of individual atoms and molecules with an unprecedented precision. In the meantime, new concepts have emerged to design molecules and substrates having specific optical, mechanical and electronic functions, thus opening the way to the fabrication of real nano-machines. Manipulation of individual atoms and molecules has also opened up completely new areas of research and knowledge, raising fundamental questions of "Optics at the atomic scale", "Mechanics at the atomic scale", Electronics at the atomic scale", "Quantum physics at the atomic sca...

  14. Balanced articulated manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Daniel; Germond, J.-C.; Marchal, Paul; Vertut, Jean.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of a manipulator of the type comprising a master arm and a slave arm, capable of working in a containment restricted by a wall fitted with an aperture to introduce the slave arm into the containment. According to the invention this manipulator is permanently balanced irrespective of its distortions when it is secured to the wall of the containment in which it is desired to work. The entire manipulator is also balanced when being set up and when moved outside the containment, in relation to a supporting axle. This result is achieved in a simplified manner by giving homothetic shapes to the various component parts of the slave and master arms, the master arm having at least one balancing weight [fr

  15. Stainless steel decontamination manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Three, large-volume coverage manipulator systems were designed and built for the Defense Water Processing Facility at the Savannah River Laboratory. These stainless steel systems will be used for high-pressure spray decontamination of waste containers and large process equipment modules. Each system has a manipulator arm, folding boom, and vertical drive and guide structure. Handling capacity is 45 kg, horizontal reach is 4.6 m with a 180-deg swing motion, and the vertical travel is 6 m. The system is remotely removable and replaceable in modules using an overhead crane and an impact wrench. The manipulator arm has seven motions: Shoulder rotation and pivot, elbow pivot, wrist pivot and rotation, and grip open-close. All motions are variable speed and are slip-clutch protected to prevent overloading from external forces (collisions)

  16. Manipulating galectin expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Feng, C.; Nita-Lazar, M.; Gonzalez-Montalban, N.; Wang, J.; Mancini, J.; Ravindran, C.; Ahmed, H.; Vasta, G.R.

    are translational blockers of the Drgal1-L1 and Drgal1-L2, respectively. MO oligos were custom synthesized by Gene Tools ( www.gene-tools.com ). 8. The ZiFiT Targeter Web site ( http://zifi t.partners.org/ ) offers an online option to identify potential target... and disposable tips. 3. PBS (Bio-Rad). 4. Incubator at 28 °C. 5. 15 and 50 ml Conical tube (BD Biosciences). 6. Eppendorf tube (Thermo Scientifi c). 7. ECL Plus detection kit (Amersham Biosciences). 8. Polyclonal antibodies to Drgal1, 3 and 9 were custom...

  17. Data manipulation with R

    CERN Document Server

    Abedin, Jaynal

    2014-01-01

    This book is a step-by step, example-oriented tutorial that will show both intermediate and advanced users how data manipulation is facilitated smoothly using R.This book is aimed at intermediate to advanced level users of R who want to perform data manipulation with R, and those who want to clean and aggregate data effectively. Readers are expected to have at least an introductory knowledge of R and some basic administration work in R, such as installing packages and calling them when required.

  18. MANIPULATING CONSUMERS THROUGH ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta -Andreea Neacşu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communication has evolved steadily in the direction of increasing complexity and increasing volume of funds needed to run their own actions. More than ever, consumers are exposed to an overwhelming variety of sources and communication tehniques, the information received being numerous, diverse and polyvalent. The desire to make more efficient the marketing communication activity urges the broadcasters to encode messages, to use effective means of propagation in order to obtain a high degree of control on receptors and to influence the consumption attitudes. Between the means used for this purpose, manipulation tehniques are well known. This paper highlights the main conclusions drawn as a result of a quantitative marketing research on the adult population from Braşov in order to identify the attitudes and opinions of consumers from Braşov regarding the manipulation techniques used by commercial practices and advertising.The results of the research have shown that 82% of the respondents buy products in promotional offers, and 18% choose not to buy these products and 61% of the respondents consider that they have not been manipulated not even once, while only 39% believe that they have been manipulated at least once through advertising or commercial practices. Advertisements on TV have a strong influence on consumers, 81% of the respondents considering that at least once they have bought a product because of a TV commercial.

  19. Manipulating the Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaze, Eric C.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a cooperative learning, group lab for a Calculus III course to facilitate comprehension of the gradient vector and directional derivative concepts. The lab is a hands-on experience allowing students to manipulate a tangent plane and empirically measure the effect of partial derivatives on the direction of optimal ascent. (Contains 7…

  20. Microrobots to Manipulate Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    At DTU Fotonik we developed and harnessed the new and emerging research area of so-called Light Robotics including the 3D-printed micro-tools coined Wave-guided Optical Waveguides that can be real-time laser-manipulated in a 3D-volume with six-degrees-of-freedom. To be exploring the full potentia...

  1. Automated visual attention manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Lambalgen, R. van; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a system for visual attention manipulation is introduced and formally described. This system is part of the design of a software agent that supports naval crew in her task to compile a tactical picture of the situation in the field. A case study is described in hich the system is used

  2. Data manipulation with R

    CERN Document Server

    Abedin, Jaynal

    2015-01-01

    This book is for all those who wish to learn about data manipulation from scratch and excel at aggregating data effectively. It is expected that you have basic knowledge of R and have previously done some basic administration work with R.

  3. The TFTR maintenance manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kungl, D.; Loesser, D.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Cerdan, G.

    1989-01-01

    TFTR plans to begin D-T experiments in mid 1990. The D-T experimental program will produce approximately one hundred shots, with a neutron generation rate of 10 19 neutrons per shot. This will result in high levels of activation in TFTR, especially in the vacuum vessel. The primary purpose of the Maintenance Manipulator is to provide a means of remotely performing certain defined maintenance and inspection tasks inside the vacuum torus so as to minimize personnel exposure to radiation. The manipulator consists of a six-link folding boom connected to a fixed boom on a movable carriage. The entire manipulator is housed in a vacuum antechamber connected to the vacuum torus, through a port formerly used for a vacuum pumping duct. The configuration extends 180 0 in either direction to provide complete coverage of the torus. The four 3500 l/s turbopumps which were formerly used in the pumping duct will be mounted on the antechamber. The manipulator will utilize two end effectors. The first, called a General Inspection Arm (GIA) provides a movable platform to an inspection camera and an in-vacuum leak detector. The second is a bilateral, force-reflecting pair of slave arms which utilize specially developed tools to perform several maintenance functions. All components except the slave arms are capable of operating in TFTR's vacuum environment and during 150 0 C bakeout of the torus. (orig.)

  4. Manipulating Combinatorial Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, Gilbert

    This set of transparencies shows how the manipulation of combinatorial structures in the context of modern combinatorics can easily lead to interesting teaching and learning activities at every level of education from elementary school to university. The transparencies describe: (1) the importance and relations of combinatorics to science and…

  5. Vitellogenin-RNAi and ovariectomy each increase lifespan, increase protein storage, and decrease feeding, but are not additive in grasshoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetlak, Alicia G; Burnett, Jacob B; Hahn, Daniel A; Hatle, John D

    2015-12-01

    Reduced reproduction has been shown to increase lifespan in many animals, yet the mechanisms behind this trade-off are unclear. We addressed this question by combining two distinct, direct means of life-extension via reduced reproduction, to test whether they were additive. In the lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera, ovariectomized (OVX) individuals had a ~20% increase in lifespan and a doubling of storage relative to controls (Sham operated). Similarly, young female grasshoppers treated with RNAi against vitellogenin (the precursor to egg yolk protein) had increased fat body mass and halted ovarian growth. In this study, we compared VgRNAi to two control groups that do not reduce reproduction, namely buffer injection (Buffer) and injection with RNAi against a hexameric storage protein (Hex90RNAi). Each injection treatment was tested with and without ovariectomy. Hence, we tested feeding, storage, and lifespans in six groups: OVX and Buffer, OVX and Hex90RNAi, OVX and VgRNAi, Sham and Buffer, Sham and Hex90RNAi, and Sham and VgRNAi. Ovariectomized grasshoppers and VgRNAi grasshoppers each had similar reductions in feeding (~40%), increases in protein storage in the hemolymph (150-300%), and extensions in lifespan (13-21%). Ovariectomized grasshoppers had higher vitellogenin protein levels than did VgRNAi grasshoppers. Last but not least, when ovariectomy and VgRNAi were applied together, there was no greater effect on feeding, protein storage, or longevity. Hence, feeding regulation, and protein storage in insects, may be conserved components of life-extension via reduced reproduction.

  6. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  7. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  8. A universal microscope manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S. Boyadzhiev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A modified and improved model of a mechanical manipulator for observation of pinned and mounted insects is described. This device allows movement of the observed object around three perpendicular axes in the field of vision at all magnifications of stereomicroscopes. The main improvement of this new model is positioning of the guiding knobs for rotating around two of the axes next to each other, allowing faster and easier manipulation of the studied object. Thus, one of the main advantages of this device is the possibility to rotate the specimen without the need to refocus. The device enables easily reaching a precession deviation in the intersection point of axes up to 0.5 mm in the process of assembling.

  9. Microradiographic microsphere manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated to relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres

  10. Manipulation of quantum evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabera, David Jose Fernandez; Mielnik, Bogdan

    1994-01-01

    The free evolution of a non-relativistic charged particle is manipulated using time-dependent magnetic fields. It is shown that the application of a programmed sequence of magnetic pulses can invert the free evolution process, forcing an arbitrary wave packet to 'go back in time' to recover its past shape. The possibility of more general operations upon the Schrodinger wave packet is discussed.

  11. Manipulating atoms with photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, C.N.

    1998-01-01

    The article is a translation of the lecture delivered on the occasion of the 1997 Nobel Prize awarding ceremony. The physical mechanisms which allow manipulating of neutral atoms with laser photons are described. A remark is also made concerning several possible applications of ultra-cool atoms and streams of future research. The article is completed by Prof. Cohen-Tannoudji's autobiography. (Z.J.)

  12. Protozoa manipulation by ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancy Milena Porras Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganism manipulation, considered as controlled motion and positioning, is one of the most important activities in microbiology and medicine. To achieve this goal there are some techniques such as those which and optical forces, among others. These techniques are usually sophisticated, and some of them can induce irreversible alterations on the microorganisms which prevents their use in another tests. Thus, there is justified the study of technological alternatives to manipulate microorganisms in an easy and cost-effective way. This work shows the interaction between protozoa and air microbubbles when they are under the influence of an ultrasonic field of 5.8 mW. At the microbubbles resonant frequencies, microorganisms were attracted toward the bubbles' frontier remaining there while the ultrasonic field was applied. Once the ultrasound disappears, protozoa recover their freedom of movement. The observed effects could be used as the actuation principle of devices capable to trap, hold and release microorganisms of high mobility without any apparent damage. Microbubbles are generated by electrolysis which take place on the surface of an electrode array, while the ultrasound is originated by means of a piezoelectric transducer. As microorganisms there were employed those present in stagnated water, and were observed through an stereomicroscope. Key words: manipulator; protozoa; ultrasonic; transducer; piezoelectric.

  13. Pose Space Surface Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Yoshiyasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Example-based mesh deformation techniques produce natural and realistic shapes by learning the space of deformations from examples. However, skeleton-based methods cannot manipulate a global mesh structure naturally, whereas the mesh-based approaches based on a translational control do not allow the user to edit a local mesh structure intuitively. This paper presents an example-driven mesh editing framework that achieves both global and local pose manipulations. The proposed system is built with a surface deformation method based on a two-step linear optimization technique and achieves direct manipulations of a model surface using translational and rotational controls. With the translational control, the user can create a model in natural poses easily. The rotational control can adjust the local pose intuitively by bending and twisting. We encode example deformations with a rotation-invariant mesh representation which handles large rotations in examples. To incorporate example deformations, we infer a pose from the handle translations/rotations and perform pose space interpolation, thereby avoiding involved nonlinear optimization. With the two-step linear approach combined with the proposed multiresolution deformation method, we can edit models at interactive rates without losing important deformation effects such as muscle bulging.

  14. Using Manipulatives in Math Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzola, Eileen S.

    1987-01-01

    Guidelines for teachers to better use manipulatives in the teaching of mathematics to learning disabled learners are offered including a rationale for manipulatives, selection crteria, principles underlying productive use of manipulatives, and making the transition from the concrete to the symbolic. Suggested materials and distributors are listed.…

  15. A nuclear factor I-like activity and a liver-specific repressor govern estrogen-regulated in vitro transcription from the Xenopus laevis vitellogenin B1 promoter.

    OpenAIRE

    Corthésy, B; Cardinaux, J R; Claret, F X; Wahli, W

    1989-01-01

    A hormone-controlled in vitro transcription system derived from Xenopus liver nuclear extracts was exploited to identify novel cis-acting elements within the vitellogenin gene B1 promoter region. In addition to the already well-documented estrogen-responsive element (ERE), two elements were found within the 140 base pairs upstream of the transcription initiation site. One of them, a negative regulatory element, is responsible for the lack of promoter activity in the absence of the hormone and...

  16. Burkholderia thailandensis: Genetic Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Erin C

    2017-05-16

    Burkholderia thailandensis is a Gram-negative bacterium endemic to Southeast Asian and northern Australian soils. It is non-pathogenic; therefore, it is commonly used as a model organism for the related human pathogens Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei. B. thailandensis is relatively easily genetically manipulated and a variety of robust genetic tools can be used in this organism. This unit describes protocols for conjugation, natural transformation, mini-Tn7 insertion, and allelic exchange in B. thailandensis. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Spatial manipulation with microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eLin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical gradients convey information through space, time, and concentration, and are ultimately capable of spatially resolving distinct cellular phenotypes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. How these gradients develop, evolve, and function during development, homeostasis, and various disease states is a subject of intense interest across a variety of disciplines. Microfluidic technologies have become essential tools for investigating gradient sensing in vitro due to their ability to precisely manipulate fluids on demand in well controlled environments at cellular length scales. This minireview will highlight their utility for studying gradient sensing along with relevant applications to biology.

  18. Remote control manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, T

    1970-02-28

    A prior-art remote control manipulator comprises a horizontal suspension section, a master arm and a slave arm which are coupled to ends of the suspension section in a manner to pivotally move relative to the suspension section, and a connecting device which includes a tape and which joins both the arms. When the connecting device malfunctions, the slave arm can neither be extended nor contracted. Means to keep the tension of the tape is required which restricts the extension length of the slave arm. Further, the slave arm can be moved only in the axial direction. The invention described provides an improved remote control manipulator of the specified type. A moving device which moves the slave arm relative to the master arm without the intervention of the connecting device is mounted on a movable part of the slave arm, while pulleys which maintain the joining relationship of the connecting device are mounted on the movable part and fixed part of the slave arm. Owing to this construction, movement of the slave arm is assured despite troubles which may arise in the connecting device. In addition, no slack arises in the tape. By applying a similar construction to the horizontal suspension section, the suspension section can be stretched, and hence, the slave arm can be moved in a direction orthogonal to its axis.

  19. EXPRESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, C.; Le, P.; DeSaint-Quentin, S.; Villatte, N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents EXPRESS, an expert system developed for the automation of reliability studies. The first part consists in the description of the method for static thermohydraulic systems. In this step, the authors define the knowledge representation based on the two inference engines - ALOUETTE and LCR developed by EDF. They explain all the process to construct a fault tree from a topological and functional description of the system. Numerous examples are exhibited in illustration of the method. This is followed by the lessons derived from the studies performed on some safety systems of the PALUEL nuclear plant. The development of the same approach for electric power systems is described, insisting on the difference resulting from the sequential nature of these systems. Finally, they show the main advantages identified during the studies

  20. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL's flexible/prismatic test stand

  1. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  2. [Language Manipulation, Surrogacy, Altruism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano Ruiz-Calderón, José Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The Newspeak propitiates a change of the sense of the words and next to the double thinking forms the picture of totalitarianism described by Orwell in 1984. The purpose of the Newspeak is to make all other forms of thought impossible. In bioethics the Newspeak is applied, not because Bioethics is a new science but by the manipulative intention. The twentieth-century political language has, according to Orwell, the intention to remove the ″mental image ″ of what really happens. This is clear in the terms ″surrogacy ″. On the one hand, the mother is deprived of her child. On the other, there is no legal subrogation. As has been said the technique reduces a woman to the condition of a vessel. The excuse of gratuity does not change the exploitative relationship, since gratuitousness in the provision of women is not the altruism of all those involved in surrogacy.

  3. Media and manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Braco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of the media are huge, both in everyday life and in cultural, spiritual and political life of modern man. Their power in the sense of political shaping of people and shaping of public opinion is very distinctive. In the process of propaganda to influence public opinion, they use various manipulative procedures in order to accomplish certain interests and objectives. Through the media, politics realizes its economic, ideological, political and even military activities. The war in the former Yugoslavia and former Bosnia and Herzegovina was also waged through the media. This media war still is spreading the hate speech, thus still causing conflicts and disintegration processes in the Balkans.

  4. Interactive protein manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SNCrivelli@lbl.gov

    2003-07-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.

  5. Interactive protein manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures

  6. A latex agglutination test for the field determination of abnormal vitellogenin production in male fishes contaminated by estrogen mimics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Ilizabete; Pihan, Jean-Claude; Falla, Jairo

    2004-01-01

    Estrogen mimics are pollutants present in the aquatic environment. These compounds induce abnormalities in the reproductive system of male fishes, which lead to a total or partial male feminization, or to their demasculinization. Ultimately, these alterations could lead to a disappearance of the total contaminated fish population. Moreover, these toxic substances possess the capacity to mimic endogenous estrogens and to induce the abnormal production of vitellogenin (VTG) in male and immature fishes. The purpose of this research was to develop an easy, specific, cheap and fast method for diagnosing the contamination of male fishes by estrogen mimics, using VTG as biomarker. The selected method is based on a reverse latex agglutination test (rLAT), developed with monoclonal antibodies specific of this biomarker. The development of this VTG-rLAT has involved, firstly, the purification of carp VTG to produce monoclonal antibodies, specifics of this protein. One of these antibodies was selected to recover latex particles (diameter: 1 μm). Finally, the immunoreactivity of the VTG-rLAT was verified with different fish plasma samples from males treated with 17β-estradiol and non-treated males or females in vitellogenesis

  7. Characteristics of manipulative in mathematics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiandaru, A.; Istihapsari, V.; Prahmana, R. C. I.; Setyawan, F.; Hendroanto, A.

    2017-12-01

    A manipulative is a teaching aid designed such that students could understand mathematical concepts by manipulating it. This article aims to provide an insight to the characteristics of manipulatives produced in the mathematics laboratory of Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Indonesia. A case study was conducted to observe the existing manipulatives produced during the latest three years and classified the manipulatives based on the characteristics found. There are four kinds of manipulatives: constructivism manipulative, virtual manipulative, informative manipulative, and game-based manipulative. Each kinds of manipulative has different characteristics and impact towards the mathematics learning.

  8. Adaptive control of robotic manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    The author presents a novel approach to adaptive control of manipulators to achieve trajectory tracking by the joint angles. The central concept in this approach is the utilization of the manipulator inverse as a feedforward controller. The desired trajectory is applied as an input to the feedforward controller which behaves as the inverse of the manipulator at any operating point; the controller output is used as the driving torque for the manipulator. The controller gains are then updated by an adaptation algorithm derived from MRAC (model reference adaptive control) theory to cope with variations in the manipulator inverse due to changes of the operating point. An adaptive feedback controller and an auxiliary signal are also used to enhance closed-loop stability and to achieve faster adaptation. The proposed control scheme is computationally fast and does not require a priori knowledge of the complex dynamic model or the parameter values of the manipulator or the payload.

  9. Image manipulation as research misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Debra; Noonan, Bridget

    2009-06-01

    A growing number of research misconduct cases handled by the Office of Research Integrity involve image manipulations. Manipulations may include simple image enhancements, misrepresenting an image as something different from what it is, and altering specific features of an image. Through a study of specific cases, the misconduct findings associated with image manipulation, detection methods and those likely to identify such manipulations, are discussed. This article explores sanctions imposed against guilty researchers and the factors that resulted in no misconduct finding although relevant images clearly were flawed. Although new detection tools are available for universities and journals to detect questionable images, this article explores why these tools have not been embraced.

  10. Testosterone-induced modulation of peroxisomal morphology and peroxisome-related gene expression in brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) primary hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Célia; Malhão, Fernanda; Guimarães, Cláudia; Pinheiro, Ivone; Gonçalves, José F; Castro, L Filipe C; Rocha, Eduardo; Madureira, Tânia V

    2017-12-01

    Disruption of androgenic signaling has been linked to possible cross-modulation with other hormone-mediated pathways. Therefore, our objective was to explore effects caused by testosterone - T (1, 10 and 50μM) in peroxisomal signaling of brown trout hepatocytes. To study the underlying paths involved, several co-exposure conditions were tested, with flutamide - F (anti-androgen) and ICI 182,780 - ICI (anti-estrogen). Molecular and morphological approaches were both evaluated. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), catalase and urate oxidase were the selected targets for gene expression analysis. The vitellogenin A gene was also included as a biomarker of estrogenicity. Peroxisome relative volumes were estimated by immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy was used for qualitative morphological control. The single exposures of T caused a significant down-regulation of urate oxidase (10 and 50μM) and a general up-regulation of vitellogenin. A significant reduction of peroxisome relative volumes and smaller peroxisome profiles were observed at 50μM. Co-administration of T and ICI reversed the morphological modifications and vitellogenin levels. The simultaneous exposure of T and F caused a significant and concentration-dependent diminishing in vitellogenin expression. Together, the findings suggest that in the tested model, T acted via both androgen and estrogen receptors to shape the peroxisomal related targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Tree manipulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishina, K.; Takenaka, C.; Ishizuka, S.; Hashimoto, S.; Yagai, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Some forest operations such as thinning and harvesting management could cause changes in N cycling and N2O emission from soils, since thinning and harvesting managements are accompanied with changes in aboveground environments such as an increase of slash falling and solar radiation on the forest floor. However, a considerable uncertainty exists in effects of thinning and harvesting on N2O fluxes regarding changes in belowground environments by cutting trees. To focus on the effect of changes in belowground environments on the N2O emissions from soils, we conducted a tree manipulation experiment in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) stand without soil compaction and slash falling near the chambers and measured N2O flux at 50 cm and 150 cm distances from the tree trunk (stump) before and after cutting. We targeted 5 trees for the manipulation and established the measurement chambers to the 4 directions around each targeted tree relative to upper slope (upper, left, right, lower positions). We evaluated the effect of logging on the emission by using hierarchical Bayesian model. HB model can evaluate the variability in observed data and their uncertainties in the estimation with various probability distributions. Moreover, the HB model can easily accommodate the non-linear relationship among the N2O emissions and the environmental factors, and explicitly take non-independent data (nested structure of data) for the estimation into account by using random effects in the model. Our results showed tree cutting stimulated N2O emission from soils, and also that the increase of N2O flux depended on the distance from the trunk (stump): the increase of N2O flux at 50 cm from the trunk (stump) was greater than that of 150 cm from the trunk. The posterior simulation of the HB model indicated that the stimulation of N2O emission by tree cut- ting could reach up to 200 cm in our experimental plot. By tree cutting, the estimated N2O emission at 0-40 cm from the trunk doubled

  12. Remote inspection manipulators for AGR II: Babcock Power's interstitial manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyley, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    The interstitial manipulator has been designed and built by Babcock Power for the remote visual inspection of AGR II reactors at Heysham and Torness. Its five drives are operated from a console local to the manipulator on the pile cap, or from a similar console located remotely. The need to operate from an interstitial ISI standpipe has restricted the size of the components entering the reactor, and this has consequently provided the major design constraint. A detailed structural assessment of the manipulator was carried out to demonstrate the ability to operate with payloads in excess of the largest camera weight of 13.6 kg. The manipulator finite element model was also used to determine static deflections, and, as a consequence, has provided data from which the control system is able to predict accurately the camera's position. Other computer aided design techniques have enabled the step by step sequences of manipulator deployment, in the restricted space available, to be successfully demonstrated. (author)

  13. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, S; Pauwels, K; Rizzolatti, G; Orban, G A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors "stimulus type" (action, static control, and dynamic control), "stereopsis" (present, absent) and "viewpoint" (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. ADVERTISING AND LANGUAGE MANIPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Maria PRELIPCEANU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Research has revealed that much of what happens in our minds as a result of language use is still hidden from our conscious awareness. Advertisers know this phenomenon better. They use the manipulation of language to suggest something about their products without directly claiming it to be true. Although the advertisers use colours, symbols, and imagery in advertisements, “the most direct way to study ads is through an analysis of the language employed” as all the other aspects are meant to reinforce the language message. Ads are designed to have an effect on consumers while being laughed at, belittle and all but ignored. Some modern advertisements appear to be almost dissuading consumers from the product – but this is just a modern technique. This paper is going to analyze a series of language techniques used by advertisers to arrest our attention, to arouse our interest, to stimulate desire for a product and ultimately to motivate us to buy it. Once we become familiar with the language strategies used in advertising messages we will be more able to make our own buying decisions.

  15. Stud manipulating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyan, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    A device for inserting and removing studs from bores in a workpiece, for example a nuclear reactor vessel, comprises manipulating devices for operating on individual studs, each capable of tensioning a stud slackening a working nut on the stud, and subsequently removing the stud from the bore. A ring has dogs which can engage working nut recesses to interlock with the nut against relative rotation. Motors coupled to the ring rotate the working nut. A top nut is coupled to the motors to rotate the nut and screw it onto the stud. The top nut with other device parts can be raised and lowered on a tube by a hydraulic actuator. A hydraulic load cell between the top nut and a stool on the workpiece is pressurised to tension the stud by means of the top nut and thus facilitate rotation of the working nut when tightening or slackening. A dog clutch mechanism engages a stud end fitting against relative axial and rotational movement. The mechanism is raised and lowered on a guide member by an actuator. The mechanism has a tubular member and the drive coupling for the motors to the top nut includes a tubular member. Tubular members carry teeth which are engaged when the top nut is raised and the clutch mechanism is lowered, to provide a coupling between the motors and the mechanism for rotating the stud. (U.K.)

  16. HUMAN NATURE: BETWEEN PERSUASION AND MANIPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA LUCIA ȘUTIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Each word is an attempt to influence other persons, as Alex Mucchielli said. Communication, by using words, is a characteristic of human beings, and it plays an important role in everyday life. Communication can be seen as an attempt to share information through a process of symbolic interaction between human beings. It is an essential life process through which humans create, transmit and utilize information by words. Putting words in act, we can express feelings, we can share opinions and we can obtain whatever we want, finally. It is essential to take into account certain ethical rules whenever we start a communication process. As the main purpose of communication is to convince people, this goal can be achieved only by using persuasion and/or manipulation. The last century is a sort of witness as regards the use of words in order to persuade people to adhere to certain ideological precepts and to determine them to act in a certain desirable way by the initiators of the communication process. Practically, there is a fine line between persuasion and manipulation; and in this situation, it is hard for ordinary people to distinguish between them. Manipulation appears like a persuasive process and it hides its true aims. This is the only way by which it can operate and for that it is considered immoral and invasive in the mind and soul of people. Human beings are now in the position to look for a way to protect themselves against such an invasive act and to find a way to distinguish between correct and false information. What can we do? In this study we analyze persuasion and manipulation from an ethical point of view and we search for paths to protect ourselves from the manipulative techniques.

  17. Manipulation Robustness of Collaborative Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Van Roy; Xiang Yan

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative filtering system recommends to users products that similar users like. Collaborative filtering systems influence purchase decisions and hence have become targets of manipulation by unscrupulous vendors. We demonstrate that nearest neighbors algorithms, which are widely used in commercial systems, are highly susceptible to manipulation and introduce new collaborative filtering algorithms that are relatively robust.

  18. CLIMAN - a mobile manipulator concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noltingk, B.E.; Owen, C.K.V.

    With increasing age the integrity of more remote parts of reactors, such as the core restraints, is questioned so there is a need for a means of access to these places to carry out inspection, minor repairs and alterations. Conventional standpipe manipulators are about 20 m long so that extending them further presents difficulties of load capacity, rigidity, dexterity and control which must increase steeply with range. The proposal outlined here is for a mobile manipulator which can climb at the end of a cable (CLImbing MANipulator - CLIMAN) into a reactor and reach well beyond the range of a fixed base machine. In addition to virtually unlimited range such a mobile manipulator has twice as many degrees of freedom as a fixed base machine. Its body or base can be manoeuvred with six degrees of freedom so as to obtain the maximum coverage and obstacle avoidance for its manipulator. It is proposed that it should be manually controlled. (author)

  19. Standardization of plasma vitellogenin level for surveying environmental estrogen pollution using the Japanese common goby Acanthogobius flavimanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jing; Nagae, Masaki; Soyano, Kiyoshi

    2018-07-01

    Field surveys of the impact of environmental estrogen (EE) pollution in aquatic wildlife have been conducted using vitellogenin (VTG) as a biomarker to evaluate the influence of EE. However, a standard baseline of VTG level that can be used to evaluate EE pollution has not been fully determined. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to determine the standard baseline VTG level for evaluating the biological effects of EE pollution using the Japanese common goby (Acanthogobius flavimanus) as the target model fish. Plasma VTG and estradiol-17β (E 2 ) levels associated with the reproductive cycle of wild goby inhabiting an unpolluted environment were measured. Mean plasma VTG and E 2 levels exhibited similar changes, increasing in the yolk vesicle stage and peaking in the tertiary yolk stage in females. However, plasma VTG and E 2 levels showed no significant changes in males, remaining at low levels throughout the reproductive cycle. The highest VTG levels in females and males were 1.6 mg ml -1 and 124.87 ng ml -1 , respectively. These results indicate that the baseline level (normal level) in males was approximately 130 ng ml -1 at most. We concluded that the threshold between normal and abnormal levels with a 10% risk rate was 150 ng ml -1 in the wild male goby. Plasma VTG levels in males captured from Nagasaki Harbor were higher than the threshold in each reproductive developmental stage, indicating the possibility of EE pollution at this site. The biological standard baseline for VTG established in this study is useful for assessing EE pollution in natural waters. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Characterization of plasma vitellogenin and sex hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle of the endangered razorback sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Papoulias, Diana M.; Annis, Mandy L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Marr, Carrie; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Nachtmann, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Population declines of the endangered razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus in the Colorado River basin have been attributed to predation by and competition with nonnative fishes, habitat alteration, and dam construction. The reproductive health and seasonal variation of the reproductive end points of razorback sucker populations are currently unknown. Using nonlethal methods, we characterized the plasma hormonal fluctuations of reproductively mature female and male razorback suckers over a 12-month period in a hatchery by measuring their vitellogenin (VTG) and three sex hormones: 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (KT). Fish were identified as reproductive or nonreproductive based on their body weight, VTG, and sex hormone profiles. In reproductive females, the E2 concentration increased in the fall and winter, and increases in T and VTG concentrations were generally associated with the spawning period. Mean T concentrations were consistently greater in reproductive females than in nonreproductive females, but this pattern was even more pronounced during the spawning period (spring). Consistently low T concentrations (the spawning period may indicate reproductive impairment. In reproductive males, spring increases in KT and T concentrations were associated with spawning; concentrations of E2 (the study. In addition, the E2 : KT ratio and T were the best metrics by which to distinguish female from male adult razorback suckers throughout the year. These metrics of reproductive health and condition may be particularly important to recovery efforts of razorback suckers given that the few remaining wild populations are located in a river where water quality and quantity issues are well documented. In addition to the size, age, and recruitment information currently considered in the recovery goals of this endangered species, reproductive end points could be included as recovery metrics with which to monitor seasonal trends and determine whether

  1. Gender determination in the Paiche or Pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) using plasma vitellogenin, 17beta-estradiol, and 11-ketotestosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu-Koo, F; Dugué, R; Alván Aguilar, M; Casanova Daza, A; Alcántara Bocanegra, F; Chávez Veintemilla, C; Duponchelle, F; Renno, J-F; Tello, Salvador; Nuñez, J

    2009-03-01

    Arapaima gigas is an air-breathing giant fish of Amazonian rivers. Given its great economic and cultural importance, the aquaculture development of this species represents an evident solution to face the decline of wild populations. In captivity, reproduction occurs generally in large earthen ponds where stocks of a few tens of brooders are maintained together at the beginning of the rainy season (December-March in the Peruvian Amazon). Fry production relies on the spontaneous formation of male and female pairs, which build a nest, delimit a territory and guard the offspring for at least 20 days from other congeners and predators. However, as sex determination of A. gigas is not possible by morphological criteria, it is very difficult to optimize reproduction conditions and fry production in each pond, which seriously hampers the culture of this species. This situation prompted us to develop sexing methodologies based on (1) the detection of female specific plasma Vitellogenin (Vtg) using an enzyme immuno assay (EIA), and (2) the determination of plasma 17beta-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone levels for immature specimens. The Vtg purification was performed by electro-elution after polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) from plasma of 17beta-estradiol treated A. gigas juveniles. Two different Vtg molecules were isolated, (Vtg(1) and Vtg(2)) with 184 and 112 kDa apparent molecular masses, respectively, and two antibodies were raised in rabbits for each Vtg molecule. Adult fish were 100% accurately sexed by Vtg EIA, while 100% of immature fish and 95% of adults were accurately sexed by 17beta-Estradiol and 11-Ketestosterone ratios. We also observed different color pattern development in male and female adult fish (6-year-olds) around the reproductive period.

  2. Dexterous Manipulation: Making Remote Manipulators Easy to Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HARRIGAN, RAYMOND W.; BENNETT, PHIL C.

    2001-01-01

    Perhaps the most basic barrier to the widespread deployment of remote manipulators is that they are very difficult to use. Remote manual operations are fatiguing and tedious, while fully autonomous systems are seldom able to function in changing and unstructured environments. An alternative approach to these extremes is to exploit computer control while leaving the operator in the loop to take advantage of the operator's perceptual and decision-making capabilities. This report describes research that is enabling gradual introduction of computer control and decision making into operator-supervised robotic manipulation systems, and its integration on a commercially available, manually controlled mobile manipulator

  3. Manipulating the cell differentiation through lentiviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Valeria; Galli, Cesare; Musumeci, Maria; Bonci, Désirée

    2010-01-01

    The manipulation of cell differentiation is important to create new sources for the treatment of degenerative diseases or solve cell depletion after aggressive therapy against cancer. In this chapter, the use of a tissue-specific promoter lentiviral vector to obtain a myocardial pure lineage from murine embryonic stem cells (mES) is described in detail. Since the cardiac isoform of troponin I gene product is not expressed in skeletal or other muscle types, short mouse cardiac troponin proximal promoter is used to drive reporter genes. Cells are infected simultaneously with two lentiviral vectors, the first expressing EGFP to monitor the transduction efficiency, and the other expressing a puromycin resistance gene to select the specific cells of interest. This technical approach describes a method to obtain a pure cardiomyocyte population and can be applied to other lineages of interest.

  4. Direct Manipulation in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Virtual Reality interfaces offer several advantages for scientific visualization such as the ability to perceive three-dimensional data structures in a natural way. The focus of this chapter is direct manipulation, the ability for a user in virtual reality to control objects in the virtual environment in a direct and natural way, much as objects are manipulated in the real world. Direct manipulation provides many advantages for the exploration of complex, multi-dimensional data sets, by allowing the investigator the ability to intuitively explore the data environment. Because direct manipulation is essentially a control interface, it is better suited for the exploration and analysis of a data set than for the publishing or communication of features found in that data set. Thus direct manipulation is most relevant to the analysis of complex data that fills a volume of three-dimensional space, such as a fluid flow data set. Direct manipulation allows the intuitive exploration of that data, which facilitates the discovery of data features that would be difficult to find using more conventional visualization methods. Using a direct manipulation interface in virtual reality, an investigator can, for example, move a data probe about in space, watching the results and getting a sense of how the data varies within its spatial volume.

  5. Modeling manipulation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Jason I

    2010-05-01

    As residents and medical students progress through their medical training, they are presented with multiple instances in which they feel they must manipulate the healthcare system and deceive others in order to efficiently treat their patients. This, however, creates a culture of manipulation resulting in untoward effects on trainees' ethical and professional development. Yet manipulation need not be a skill necessary to practice medicine, and steps should be taken by both individuals and institutions to combat the view that the way medicine must be practiced "in the real world" is somehow different from what one's affective moral sense implores.

  6. Computational simulator of robotic manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, Alexandre S.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    1995-01-01

    Robotic application for industrial plants is discussed and a computational model for a mechanical manipulator of three links is presented. A neural network feed-forward type has been used to model the dynamic control of the manipulator. A graphic interface was developed in C programming language as a virtual world in order to visualize and simulate the arm movements handling radioactive waste environment. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs

  7. Can earnings manipulation create value?

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Miglo

    2008-01-01

    Existing literature usually considers earnings manipulation to be a negative social phenomenon. We argue that earnings manipulation can be a part of the equilibrium relationships between firm's insiders and outsiders. We consider an optimal contract between an entrepreneur and an investor where the entrepreneur is subject to a double moral hazard problem (one being the choice of production effort and the other being intertemporal substitution, which consists of transferring cash flows between...

  8. Natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) suppress ovarian follicle development, liver vitellogenin immunostaining and hepatocyte proliferation in female zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraugerud, Marianne, E-mail: Marianne.Kraugerud@nvh.no [Dept. of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., 0033 Oslo (Norway); Doughty, Richard William, E-mail: vetrwdoughty@yahoo.co.uk [Sundveien 22, 2015 Leirsund (Norway); Lyche, Jan L., E-mail: Jan.Lyche@nvh.no [Dept. of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., 0033 Oslo (Norway); Berg, Vidar, E-mail: Vidar.Berg@nvh.no [Dept. of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., 0033 Oslo (Norway); Tremoen, Nina H., E-mail: Nina.Hardnes@nvh.no [Dept. of Production Animal Clinical Sciences, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., 0033 Oslo (Norway); Alestrom, Peter, E-mail: Peter.Alestrom@nvh.no [Dept. of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., 0033 Oslo (Norway); Aleksandersen, Mona, E-mail: Mona.Aleksandersen@nvh.no [Dept. of Basic Sciences and Aquatic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., 0033 Oslo (Norway); Ropstad, Erik, E-mail: Erik.Ropstad@nvh.no [Dept. of Production Animal Clinical Sciences, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., 0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2012-07-15

    Persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are present in high concentrations in livers of burbot (Lota lota) in Lake Mjosa, Norway. In order to assess effects of such pollutants on fish gonadal morphology, female zebrafish were exposed in two generations by food to mixtures of pollutants extracted from livers of burbot from Lake Mjosa (high and low dose) and Lake Losna, which represents background pollution, and compared to a control group. Ovarian follicle counts detected a significant decrease in late vitellogenic follicle stages in fish exposed to the Losna and the high concentrations of Mjosa mixtures in fish from the first generation. In addition, proliferation of granulosa cells, visualized by immunohistochemistry against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), was decreased in all exposure groups in either early or late vitellogenic follicle stages compared to control. This was accompanied by increased apoptosis of granulosa cells. There was a decrease in proliferation of liver hepatocytes with exposure to both Mjosa mixtures. In addition, immunopositivity for vitellogenin in the liver was significantly lower in the Mjosa high group than in the control group. When analysing effects of parental exposure, fish with parents exposed to Mjosa high mixture had significantly higher numbers of perinucleolar follicles than fish with control parents. We conclude that long-term exposure of a real-life mixture of pollutants containing high- and background levels of chemicals supress ovarian follicle development, liver vitellogenin immunostaining intensity and hepatocyte proliferation in the zebrafish model.

  9. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.K.D.

    1998-01-01

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space is disclosed. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degrees of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns. 3 figs

  10. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper investiga......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper......; sustainability, configuration, adaptation, autonomy, positioning, manipulation and grasping, robot-robot interaction, human-robot interaction, process quality, dependability, and physical properties. Findings - The concise yet comprehensive review provides both researchers (academia) and practitioners (industry......) with a quick and gentle overview of AIMM. Furthermore, the paper identifies key open issues and promising research directions to realize real-world integration and maturation of the AIMM technology. Originality/value - This paper reviews the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile...

  11. Understanding pharmaceutical research manipulation in the context of accounting manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    The problem of the manipulation of data that arises when there is both opportunity and incentive to mislead is better accepted and studied - though by no means solved - in financial accounting than in medicine. This article analyzes pharmaceutical company manipulation of medical research as part of a broader problem of corporate manipulation of data in the creation of accounting profits. The article explores how our understanding of accounting fraud and misinformation helps us understand the risk of similar information manipulation in the medical sciences. This understanding provides a framework for considering how best to improve the quality of medical research and analysis in light of the current system of medical information production. I offer three possible responses: (1) use of the Dodd-Frank whistleblower provisions to encourage reporting of medical research fraud; (2) a two-step academic journal review process for clinical trials; and (3) publicly subsidized trial-failure insurance. These would improve the release of negative information about drugs, thereby increasing the reliability of positive information. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  12. Learning Area and Perimeter with Virtual Manipulatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily; Flanagan, Sara; Bouck, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Manipulatives are considered a best practice for educating students with disabilities, but little research exists which examines virtual manipulatives as tool for supporting students in mathematics. This project investigated the use of a virtual manipulative through the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives--polynominoes (i.e., tiles)--as a…

  13. A six degrees of freedom mems manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports about a six degrees of freedom (DOF) precision manipulator in MEMS, concerning concept generation for the manipulator followed by design and fabrication (of parts) of the proposed manipulation concept in MEMS. Researching the abilities of 6 DOF precision manipulation in MEMS is

  14. Manipulator vehicles and loading shovels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudermueller, G.; Krueger, W.

    1992-01-01

    Kerntechnische Hilfsdienst GmbH (KHG) is an institution jointly founded by electricity utilities, fuel cycle industries, and national research centers to provide specialist equipment for removing the consequences of accidents inside plants and recognizing damage in the immediate vicinity of such plants, maintain such equipment in an operational condition, and provide personnel instructed in work of this kind. The specialized technical equipment developed includes carriages, carrier vehicles for manipulators, grabs, TV cameras or measuring gear. In addition to manipulator vehicles, especially loading shovels are used. Radio-controlled vehicles are used where cable operation is either not reliable enough or has failed. (orig.) [de

  15. Leadership Manipulation and Ethics in Storytelling

    OpenAIRE

    Auvinen, Tommi; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Sintonen, Teppo; Takala, Tuomo

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on exerting influence in leadership, namely manipulation in storytelling. Manipulation is usually considered an unethical approach to leadership. We will argue that manipulation is a more complex phenomenon than just an unethical way of acting in leadership. We will demonstrate through an empirical qualitative study that there are various types of manipulation through storytelling. This article makes a contribution to the literature on manipulation through leadership stor...

  16. Dynamic Control of Kinematically Redundant Robotic Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Lunde

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Several methods for task space control of kinematically redundant manipulators have been proposed in the literature. Most of these methods are based on a kinematic analysis of the manipulator. In this paper we propose a control algorithm in which we are especially concerned with the manipulator dynamics. The algorithm is particularly well suited for the class of redundant manipulators consisting of a relatively small manipulator mounted on a larger positioning part.

  17. Manipulations to regenerate aspen ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne D. Shepperd

    2001-01-01

    Vegetative regeneration of aspen can be initiated through manipulations that provide hormonal stimulation, proper growth environment, and sucker protection - the three elements of the aspen regeneration triangle. The correct course of action depends upon a careful evaluation of the size, vigor, age, and successional status of the existing clone. Soils and site...

  18. Adaptive Control Of Remote Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1989-01-01

    Robotic control system causes remote manipulator to follow closely reference trajectory in Cartesian reference frame in work space, without resort to computationally intensive mathematical model of robot dynamics and without knowledge of robot and load parameters. System, derived from linear multivariable theory, uses relatively simple feedforward and feedback controllers with model-reference adaptive control.

  19. Indicial tensor manipulation on MACSYMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, R.A.; Pavelle, R.

    1977-01-01

    A new computational tool for physical calculations is described. It is the first computer system capable of performing indicial tensor calculus (as opposed to component tensor calculus). It is now operational on the symbolic manipulation system MACSYMA. The authors outline the capabilities of the system and describe some of the physical problems considered as well as others being examined at this time. (Auth.)

  20. Manipulations of Totalitarian Nazi Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszczyszyn, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The paper takes under considerations controversies surrounding German architecture designed during Nazi period between 1933-45. This architecture is commonly criticized for being out of innovation, taste & elementary sense of beauty. Moreover, it has been consequently wiped out from architectural manuals, probably for its undoubted associations with the totalitarian system considered as the most maleficent in the whole history. But in the meantime the architecture of another totalitarian system which appeared to be not less sinister than Nazi one is not stigmatized with such verve. It is Socrealism architecture, developed especially in East Europe & reportedly containing lots of similarities with Nazi architecture. Socrealism totalitarian architecture was never condemned like Nazi one, probably due to politically manipulated propaganda that influenced postwar public opinion. This observation leads to reflection that maybe in the same propaganda way some values of Nazi architecture are still consciously dissembled in order to hide the fact that some rules used by Nazi German architects have been also consciously used after the war. Those are especially manipulations that allegedly Nazi architecture consisted of. The paper provides some definitions around totalitarian manipulations as well as ideological assumptions for their implementation. Finally, the register of confirmed manipulations is provided with use of photo case study.

  1. A nuclear factor I-like activity and a liver-specific repressor govern estrogen-regulated in vitro transcription from the Xenopus laevis vitellogenin B1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corthésy, B; Cardinaux, J R; Claret, F X; Wahli, W

    1989-12-01

    A hormone-controlled in vitro transcription system derived from Xenopus liver nuclear extracts was exploited to identify novel cis-acting elements within the vitellogenin gene B1 promoter region. In addition to the already well-documented estrogen-responsive element (ERE), two elements were found within the 140 base pairs upstream of the transcription initiation site. One of them, a negative regulatory element, is responsible for the lack of promoter activity in the absence of the hormone and, as demonstrated by DNA-binding assays, interacts with a liver-specific transcription factor. The second is required in association with the estrogen-responsive element to mediate hormonal induction and is recognized by the Xenopus liver homolog of nuclear factor I.

  2. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

    2001-07-31

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

  3. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geisinger, Joseph W. Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a FR-amework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator FR-om these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC(trademark)s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost

  4. Natural mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) suppress ovarian follicle development, liver vitellogenin immunostaining and hepatocyte proliferation in female zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraugerud, Marianne; Doughty, Richard William; Lyche, Jan L.; Berg, Vidar; Tremoen, Nina H.; Alestrøm, Peter; Aleksandersen, Mona; Ropstad, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are present in high concentrations in livers of burbot (Lota lota) in Lake Mjøsa, Norway. In order to assess effects of such pollutants on fish gonadal morphology, female zebrafish were exposed in two generations by food to mixtures of pollutants extracted from livers of burbot from Lake Mjøsa (high and low dose) and Lake Losna, which represents background pollution, and compared to a control group. Ovarian follicle counts detected a significant decrease in late vitellogenic follicle stages in fish exposed to the Losna and the high concentrations of Mjøsa mixtures in fish from the first generation. In addition, proliferation of granulosa cells, visualized by immunohistochemistry against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), was decreased in all exposure groups in either early or late vitellogenic follicle stages compared to control. This was accompanied by increased apoptosis of granulosa cells. There was a decrease in proliferation of liver hepatocytes with exposure to both Mjøsa mixtures. In addition, immunopositivity for vitellogenin in the liver was significantly lower in the Mjøsa high group than in the control group. When analysing effects of parental exposure, fish with parents exposed to Mjøsa high mixture had significantly higher numbers of perinucleolar follicles than fish with control parents. We conclude that long-term exposure of a real-life mixture of pollutants containing high- and background levels of chemicals supress ovarian follicle development, liver vitellogenin immunostaining intensity and hepatocyte proliferation in the zebrafish model.

  5. Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papet, I.; Lune, P.; Pellerin, O.; Sapoval, M.; Brisse, H.; Clement, J.P.; Ribeiro, A.; Gomes, H.; Marcus, C.; Rehel, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    These two articles bring notions relative to the safety of procedures, specially in term of irradiation, they give information on different methods in order to reduce the radiation doses delivered to the patients, especially when the examinations concern children or young patients. (N.C.)

  6. Modeling the manipulator and flipper pose effects on tip over stability of a tracked mobile manipulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile manipulators are used in a number of different applications such as bomb disposal, mining robotics, and search and rescue operations. These mobile manipulators are highly susceptible to tip over due to the motion of the manipulator...

  7. Manipulation Impact through Metaphors in Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Руслан Ирикович Зарипов

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the metaphorical modeling in a political discourse as one of linguistic manipulation impact means. Political speech exercising a motivation function use symbols in order to link concepts which are not often even adjoined. And it’s a metaphor that plays one of leading roles in this process. Communication needs stable metaphors. It’s very important to use this linguistic means in a political discourse as it’s able to form a positive stock phrase and a negative figure. The summation of metaphors in a definitive conceptual domaine of a political discourse form part of a metaphorical model that is an universal epistemological category expressing a general discourse semantics and organizing special mentality stereotypes for a message recipient. The article is designed for students and post-graduate students specialized in philology, lecturers and professors of linguistics and foreign languages, scientists and amateurs.

  8. A control method for manipulators with redundancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusho, Junji; Usui, Hiroyuki

    1989-01-01

    Redundant manipulators have more ability than nonredundant ones in many aspects such as avoiding obstacles, avoiding singular states, etc. In this paper, a control algorithm for redundant manipulators working under the circumstance in the presence of obstacles is presented. First, the measure of manipulability for robot manipulators under obstacle circumstances is defined. Then, the control algorithm for the obstacle avoidance is derived by using this measure of manipulability. The obstacle avoidance and the maintenance of good posture are simultaneously achieved by this algorithm. Lastly, an experiment and simulation results using an eight degree of freedom manipulator are shown. (author)

  9. Adaptive hybrid control of manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    Simple methods for the design of adaptive force and position controllers for robot manipulators within the hybrid control architecuture is presented. The force controller is composed of an adaptive PID feedback controller, an auxiliary signal and a force feedforward term, and it achieves tracking of desired force setpoints in the constraint directions. The position controller consists of adaptive feedback and feedforward controllers and an auxiliary signal, and it accomplishes tracking of desired position trajectories in the free directions. The controllers are capable of compensating for dynamic cross-couplings that exist between the position and force control loops in the hybrid control architecture. The adaptive controllers do not require knowledge of the complex dynamic model or parameter values of the manipulator or the environment. The proposed control schemes are computationally fast and suitable for implementation in on-line control with high sampling rates.

  10. Master-slave type manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaker, L.W.; Jelatis, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    Remote control manipulator of the master-slave type for carrying out work on the other side of a shield wall. This appliance allows a Y movement relative displacement, the function of which is to extend the range of the manipulator towards the front and also to facilitate its installation, the lateral rotation or inclination of the slave arm in relation to the master arm, and the Z movement extension through which the length of the slave arm is increased in comparison with that of the master arm. Devices have been developed which transform the linear movements into rotational movements to enable these movements to be transmitted through rotational seal fittings capable of ensuring the safety of the separation between the operator's environment and that in the work area. Particular improvements have been made to the handles, handle seals, pincer mechanisms, etc [fr

  11. Genetic manipulation of Francisella tularensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhavit eZogaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the disease tularemia. F. tularensis subsp. tularensis causes the most severe disease in humans and has been classified as a select A agent and potential bioweapon. There is currently no vaccine approved for human use, making genetic manipulation of this organism critical to unraveling the genetic basis of pathogenesis and developing countermeasures against tularemia. The development of genetic techniques applicable to F. tularensis have lagged behind those routinely used for other bacteria, primarily due to lack of research and the restricted nature of the biocontainment required for studying this pathogen. However, in recent years, genetic techniques, such as transposon mutagenesis and targeted gene disruption, have been developed, that have had a dramatic impact on our understanding of the genetic basis of F. tularensis virulence. In this review, we describe some of the methods developed for genetic manipulation of F. tularensis.

  12. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world.

  13. Manipulating a stated choice experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Borjesson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the design of a stated choice experiment intended to measure the marginal rate of substitution (MRS) between cost and an attribute such as time using a conventional logit model. Focusing the experimental design on some target MRS will bias estimates towards that value....... The paper shows why this happens. The resulting estimated MRS can then be manipulated by adapting the target MRS in the experimental design. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. List manipulation in Turbo Prolog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Cotelea

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with list processing in Turbo Prolog language. It doesn't claim to be an exhaustive description of operations which can be performed upon lists. Nevertheless adduced programs are most representative, more or less known to specialists in logic programming domain. By means of examples are explained the list manipulation techniques, use of recursion, declarative comparison of predicates, analysis and fixation of acceptable prototypes and some problems of predicates' inconsistency. Index terms. Prolog, list, recursion.

  15. Manipulation of Biofilm Microbial Ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.C.; Palmer, R.J., Jr.; Zinn, M.; Smith, C.A.; Burkhalter, R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Whitaker, K.W.; Kirkegaard, R.D.

    1998-08-15

    The biofilm mode of growth provides such significant advantages to the members of the consortium that most organisms in important habitats are found in biofilms. The study of factors that allow manipulation of biofilm microbes in the biofilm growth state requires that reproducible biofilms be generated. The most effective monitoring of biofilm formation, succession and desaturation is with on-line monitoring of microbial biofilms with flowcell for direct observation. The biofilm growth state incorporates a second important factor, the heterogeneity in distribution in time and space of the component members of the biofilm consortium. This heterogeneity is reflected not only in the cellular distribution but in the metabolic activity within a population of cells. Activity and cellular distribution can be mapped in four dimensions with confocal microscopy, and function can be ascertained by genetically manipulated reporter functions for specific genes or by vital stains. The methodology for understanding the microbial ecology of biofilms is now much more readily available and the capacity to manipulate biofilms is becoming an important feature of biotechnology.

  16. Particle Manipulation Methods in Droplet Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenje, Maria; Fornell, Anna; Ohlin, Mathias; Nilsson, Johan

    2018-02-06

    This Feature describes the different particle manipulation techniques available in the droplet microfluidics toolbox to handle particles encapsulated inside droplets and to manipulate whole droplets. We address the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques to guide new users.

  17. Physics Based Vision Systems for Robotic Manipulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the increase of robotic manipulation tasks (TA4.3), specifically dexterous manipulation tasks (TA4.3.2), more advanced computer vision algorithms will be...

  18. Equations of Motion of Free-Floating Spacecraft-Manipulator Systems: An Engineer's Tutorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Wilde

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a step-by-step tutorial on the Generalized Jacobian Matrix (GJM approach for modeling and simulation of spacecraft-manipulator systems. The General Jacobian Matrix approach describes the motion of the end-effector of an underactuated manipulator system solely by the manipulator joint rotations, with the attitude and position of the base-spacecraft resulting from the manipulator motion. The coupling of the manipulator motion with the base-spacecraft are thus expressed in a generalized inertia matrix and a GJM. The focus of the paper lies on the complete analytic derivation of the generalized equations of motion of a free-floating spacecraft-manipulator system. This includes symbolic analytic expressions for all inertia property matrices of the system, including their time derivatives and joint-angle derivatives, as well as an expression for the generalized Jacobian of a generic point on any link of the spacecraft-manipulator system. The kinematics structure of the spacecraft-manipulator system is described both in terms of direction-cosine matrices and unit quaternions. An additional important contribution of this paper is to propose a new and more detailed definition for the modes of maneuvering of a spacecraft-manipulator. In particular, the two commonly used categories free-flying and free-floating are expanded by the introduction of five categories, namely floating, rotation-floating, rotation-flying, translation-flying, and flying. A fully-symbolic and a partially-symbolic option for the implementation of a numerical simulation model based on the proposed analytic approach are introduced and exemplary simulation results for a planar four-link spacecraft-manipulator system and a spatial six-link spacecraft manipulator system are presented.

  19. Using Manipulatives to Teach Elementary Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggan, Matthew; Harper, Sallie; Whitmire, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the importance and benefits of math manipulatives. For decades, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics has encouraged school districts nationwide to use manipulatives in mathematical instruction. The value of manipulatives has been recognized for many years, but some teachers are reluctant to use…

  20. Efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment technologies for the reduction of hormonal activity in effluents and connected surface water bodies by means of vitellogenin analyses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Anja; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine effects in the aquatic environment are in the focus of scientists and media along with debates on the necessity of further steps in wastewater treatment. In the present study VTG responses were compared to evaluate upgrades at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). We investigated several advanced sewage treatment technologies at two WWTPs connected to the Schussen, a tributary of Lake Constance, for the reduction of hormonal activity: (1) a powdered activated charcoal filter at the WWTP Langwiese; and (2) a combination of ozonation, sand filter, and granulated activated carbon filter at the WWTP Eriskirch. Rainbow trout and brown trout were either directly exposed to the effluents in aquaria or cages, or in a bypass system flown through by surface water of the Schussen. As a reference, trout were kept in bypass aquaria at the Argen River, which is less influenced by micropollutants. As a biomarker for estrogenicity, we analyzed the yolk precursor protein vitellogenin in immature rainbow trout and brown trout and in trout larvae (100 days post-fertilization) prior to and after the upgrade with the new technologies. Trout of different ages and species were used to detect differences in their sensitivity. At both bypass stations, larvae of brown trout showed significantly higher vitellogenin levels prior to the upgrade compared to negative control levels. Female brown trout exposed at the bypass station downstream of the WWTP showed decreased vitellogenin levels after the upgrade. In 1-year-old immature trout directly exposed to the respective effluents, no significant effects of the upgrades on vitellogenin levels were found. In general, larger effects were observed in brown trout than in rainbow trout, indicating that they are more sensitive test organisms.

  1. Dietary exposure of largemouth bass to OCPs changes expression of genes important for reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Barber, David S; Gross, Timothy S; Johnson, Kevin G; Sepúlveda, María S; Szabo, Nancy J; Denslow, Nancy D

    2006-07-20

    Dieldrin and p,p'-DDE are ubiquitous contaminants known to act as endocrine disruptors, causing impaired development and reproduction in fish and wildlife. In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which dieldrin and p,p'-DDE cause endocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), fish were exposed subchronically through the diet to both contaminants. Following 120 days of exposure, p,p'-DDE decreased estradiol in females, but increased 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Dieldrin on the other hand, decreased estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Both pesticides also altered steady state mRNA expression levels of a set of genes chosen to represent three possible mechanisms of endocrine disruption: (1) direct interaction with soluble sex steroid receptors, (2) biosynthesis of endogenous sex hormones, and (3) metabolism of endogenous hormones. p,p'-DDE acted as a weak estrogen, increasing the expression of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor alpha in the liver. p,p'-DDE also altered the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of endogenous hormones as well as their metabolism. Dieldrin, on the other hand, only altered expression of vitellogenin and not estrogen receptor alpha. Dieldrin also altered the expression of genes involved in hormone synthesis and metabolism, and it dramatically lowered plasma hormone levels. Both pesticides targeted expression of genes involved in all three modes of action, suggesting that they each have multiple modes of action.

  2. Dietary exposure of largemouth bass to OCPs changes expression of genes important for reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Barber, D.S.; Gross, T.S.; Johnson, K.G.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Szabo, N.J.; Denslow, N.D.

    2006-01-01

    Dieldrin and p,p???-DDE are ubiquitous contaminants known to act as endocrine disruptors, causing impaired development and reproduction in fish and wildlife. In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which dieldrin and p,p???-DDE cause endocrine disruption in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), fish were exposed subchronically through the diet to both contaminants. Following 120 days of exposure, p,p???-DDE decreased estradiol in females, but increased 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Dieldrin on the other hand, decreased estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone in both sexes. Both pesticides also altered steady state mRNA expression levels of a set of genes chosen to represent three possible mechanisms of endocrine disruption: (1) direct interaction with soluble sex steroid receptors, (2) biosynthesis of endogenous sex hormones, and (3) metabolism of endogenous hormones. p,p???-DDE acted as a weak estrogen, increasing the expression of vitellogenin and estrogen receptor ?? in the liver. p,p???-DDE also altered the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of endogenous hormones as well as their metabolism. Dieldrin, on the other hand, only altered expression of vitellogenin and not estrogen receptor ??. Dieldrin also altered the expression of genes involved in hormone synthesis and metabolism, and it dramatically lowered plasma hormone levels. Both pesticides targeted expression of genes involved in all three modes of action, suggesting that they each have multiple modes of action. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular genetic techniques for gene manipulation in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiu-Rong; Yan, Lan; Lv, Quan-Zhen; Zhou, Mi; Sui, Xue; Cao, Yong-Bing; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

    2014-05-15

    Candida albicans is one of the most common fungal pathogen in humans due to its high frequency as an opportunistic and pathogenic fungus causing superficial as well as invasive infections in immunocompromised patients. An understanding of gene function in C. albicans is necessary to study the molecular basis of its pathogenesis, virulence and drug resistance. Several manipulation techniques have been used for investigation of gene function in C. albicans, including gene disruption, controlled gene expression, protein tagging, gene reintegration, and overexpression. In this review, the main cassettes containing selectable markers used for gene manipulation in C. albicans are summarized; the advantages and limitations of these cassettes are discussed concerning the influences on the target gene expression and the virulence of the mutant strains.

  4. Interpersonal relationship manipulation at a personal level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Hribernik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation is not unknown or strange to any of us. We have all experienced it, or perhaps even practiced it. It is wrong not to recognize it, to find excuses for it, and, above all, it is wrong not to decide to change one’s behaviour. Long-lasting use of manipulation leaves consequences on all the parties involved: the victim, the observer and the perpetrator. Manipulation is a relation between persons which does not consider the needs of everybody involved. It means exploitation and misleading, inhumane and unethical behaviour on the part of the manipulator, which he uses in order gain success, self-confirmation and to achieve his goals. In the act of manipulation personal boundaries of the other person are violated since the manipulator enforces his dominance and subjectedness of the victim. The manipulator invades the victim’s personal integrity, limiting their potential. He isolates, controls and intimidates them; by devises a system to catch the victims, to entangle them in his net and suck them up like a spider. If the manipulation is very successful, the other person does not recognize it as such; they consider themselves happy to be cooperating with the manipulator, as they identify his goals as their own. Therefore, the manipulator can be said to have stolen the manipulated person’s soul.

  5. A 44 bp intestine-specific hermaphrodite-specific enhancer from the C. elegans vit-2 vitellogenin gene is directly regulated by ELT-2, MAB-3, FKH-9 and DAF-16 and indirectly regulated by the germline, by daf-2/insulin signaling and by the TGF-β/Sma/Mab pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goszczynski, Barbara; Captan, Vasile V; Danielson, Alicia M; Lancaster, Brett R; McGhee, James D

    2016-05-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans vitellogenin genes are transcribed in the intestine of adult hermaphrodites but not of males. A 44-bp region from the vit-2 gene promoter is able largely to reconstitute this tissue-, stage- and sex-specific-expression. This "enhancer" contains a binding site for the DM-domain factor MAB-3, the male-specific repressor of vitellogenesis, as well as an activator site that we show is the direct target of the intestinal GATA factor ELT-2. We further show that the enhancer is directly activated by the winged-helix/forkhead-factor FKH-9, (whose gene has been shown by others to be a direct target of DAF-16), by an unknown activator binding to the MAB-3 site, and by the full C. elegans TGF-β/Sma/Mab pathway acting within the intestine. The vit-2 gene has been shown by others to be repressed by the daf-2/daf-16 insulin signaling pathway, which so strongly influences aging and longevity in C. elegans. We show that the activity of the 44 bp vit-2 enhancer is abolished by loss of daf-2 but is restored by simultaneous loss of daf-16. DAF-2 acts from outside of the intestine but DAF-16 acts both from outside of the intestine and from within the intestine where it binds directly to the same non-canonical target site that interacts with FKH-9. Activity of the 44 bp vit-2 enhancer is also inhibited by loss of the germline, in a manner that is only weakly influenced by DAF-16 but that is strongly influenced by KRI-1, a key downstream effector in the pathway by which germline loss increases C. elegans lifespan. The complex behavior of this enhancer presumably allows vitellogenin gene transcription to adjust to demands of body size, germline proliferation and nutritional state but we suggest that the apparent involvement of this enhancer in aging and longevity "pathways" could be incidental. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Covariance Manipulation for Conjunction Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejduk, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    The manipulation of space object covariances to try to provide additional or improved information to conjunction risk assessment is not an uncommon practice. Types of manipulation include fabricating a covariance when it is missing or unreliable to force the probability of collision (Pc) to a maximum value ('PcMax'), scaling a covariance to try to improve its realism or see the effect of covariance volatility on the calculated Pc, and constructing the equivalent of an epoch covariance at a convenient future point in the event ('covariance forecasting'). In bringing these methods to bear for Conjunction Assessment (CA) operations, however, some do not remain fully consistent with best practices for conducting risk management, some seem to be of relatively low utility, and some require additional information before they can contribute fully to risk analysis. This study describes some basic principles of modern risk management (following the Kaplan construct) and then examines the PcMax and covariance forecasting paradigms for alignment with these principles; it then further examines the expected utility of these methods in the modern CA framework. Both paradigms are found to be not without utility, but only in situations that are somewhat carefully circumscribed.

  7. Stability, Optimality and Manipulation in Matching Problems with Weighted Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silvia Pini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The stable matching problem (also known as the stable marriage problem is a well-known problem of matching men to women, so that no man and woman, who are not married to each other, both prefer each other. Such a problem has a wide variety of practical applications, ranging from matching resident doctors to hospitals, to matching students to schools or, more generally, to any two-sided market. In the classical stable marriage problem, both men and women express a strict preference order over the members of the other sex, in a qualitative way. Here, we consider stable marriage problems with weighted preferences: each man (resp., woman provides a score for each woman (resp., man. Such problems are more expressive than the classical stable marriage problems. Moreover, in some real-life situations, it is more natural to express scores (to model, for example, profits or costs rather than a qualitative preference ordering. In this context, we define new notions of stability and optimality, and we provide algorithms to find marriages that are stable and/or optimal according to these notions. While expressivity greatly increases by adopting weighted preferences, we show that, in most cases, the desired solutions can be found by adapting existing algorithms for the classical stable marriage problem. We also consider the manipulability properties of the procedures that return such stable marriages. While we know that all procedures are manipulable by modifying the preference lists or by truncating them, here, we consider if manipulation can occur also by just modifying the weights while preserving the ordering and avoiding truncation. It turns out that, by adding weights, in some cases, we may increase the possibility of manipulating, and this cannot be avoided by any reasonable restriction on the weights.

  8. Kinematics of a Hybrid Manipulator by Means of Screw Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo-Alvarado, J

    2005-01-01

    In this work the kinematics of a hybrid manipulator, namely a fully parallel-serial manipulator, with a particular topology is approached by means of the theory of screws. Given the length of the six independent limbs, the forward position analysis of the mechanism under study, indeed the computation of the resulting pose, position and orientation, of the end-platform with respect to the fixed platform, is carried out in closed-form solution. Therefore conveniently this initial analysis avoids the use of a numerical technique such as the Newton-Raphson method. Writing in screw form the reduced acceleration state of the translational platform, with respect to the fixed platform, a simple expression for the computation of the acceleration of the translational platform is derived by taking advantage of the properties of reciprocal screws, via the Klein form, a bilinear symmetric form of the Lie algebra e(3). Following a similar procedure, a simple expression for the computation of the angular acceleration of the end-platform, with respect to the translational platform, is easily derived. Naturally, as an intermediate step, this contribution also provides the forward and inverse velocity analyses of the chosen parallel-serial manipulator. Finally, in order to prove the versatility of the expressions obtained via screw theory for solving the kinematics, up to the acceleration analysis, of the proposed spatial mechanism, a numerical example is solved with the help of commercial computer codes

  9. Gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, C.E.; Crawford, B.D.; Walters, R.A.; Enger, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    We prepared probes for isolating functional pieces of the metallothionein locus. The probes enabled a variety of experiments, eventually revealing two mechanisms for metallothionein gene expression, the order of the DNA coding units at the locus, and the location of the gene site in its chromosome. Once the switch regulating metallothionein synthesis was located, it could be joined by recombinant DNA methods to other, unrelated genes, then reintroduced into cells by gene-transfer techniques. The expression of these recombinant genes could then be induced by exposing the cells to Zn 2+ or Cd 2+ . We would thus take advantage of the clearly defined switching properties of the metallothionein gene to manipulate the expression of other, perhaps normally constitutive, genes. Already, despite an incomplete understanding of how the regulatory switch of the metallothionein locus operates, such experiments have been performed successfully

  10. Wave Manipulation by Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders

    topology optimization can be used to design structures for manipulation of the electromagnetic and acoustic waves. The wave problems considered here fall within three classes. The first class concerns the design of cloaks, which when wrapped around an object will render the object undetectable...... for the cloak is to delay the waves in regions of higher permittivity than the background and subsequently phase match them to the waves outside. Directional acoustic cloaks can also be designed using the topology optimization method. Aluminum cylinders constitutes the design and their placement and size...... concerns the design of planar Fresnel zone plate lenses for focusing electromagnetic waves. The topology optimized zone plates improve the focusing performance compared to results known from the literature....

  11. Ion manipulation method and device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Gordon A.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.

    2017-11-07

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area.

  12. Multidiscipline simulation of elastic manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rølvåg

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to multidiscipline simulation of elastic robot manipulators in FEDEM. All developments presented in this paper are based on the formulations in FEDEM, a simulation system developed by the authors which combines finite element, mechanism and control analysis. In order to establish this general simulation system as an efficient multidiscipline robot design tool a robot control system including a high level robot programming language, interpolation algorithms, path generation algorithms, forward and inverse kinematics, control systems, gear and transmission models are implemented. These new features provide a high level of integration between traditionally separate design disciplines from the very beginning of the design and optimization process. Several simulations have shown that high fidelity mathematical models can be derived and used as a basis for dynamic analysis and controller design in FEDEM.

  13. A links manipulator simulation program interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.A.

    1987-04-01

    A computer program to simulate the performance of the Heysham II rail-following manipulator has been developed. The program is being used to develop and test the rail-following control algorithms which will be used to control movements of the manipulator when it is operating below the gas baffle dome. The simulation includes the dynamic responses of the manipulator joint drives, excluding friction, backlash and compliance. It also includes full details of the manipulator's geometry. A method is given whereby the actual manipulator dynamics can be written into the program once these have been established by measurement. The program is written in FORTRAN and runs on a Perkin-Elmer 3220 mini-computer. The simulation program responds to velocity demands on the individual joints. These will normally come from the control program, in which they will be manually controlled by a joystick. A sigma 5664 colour graphics generator is programmed to display the current position of the manipulator. (UK)

  14. Probabilistic approach to manipulator kinematics and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.S.; Bhatti, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    A high performance, high speed robotic arm must be able to manipulate objects with a high degree of accuracy and repeatability. As with any other physical system, there are a number of factors causing uncertainties in the behavior of a robotic manipulator. These factors include manufacturing and assembling tolerances, and errors in the joint actuators and controllers. In order to study the effect of these uncertainties on the robotic end-effector and to obtain a better insight into the manipulator behavior, the manipulator kinematics and dynamics are modeled using a probabilistic approach. Based on the probabilistic model, kinematic and dynamic performance criteria are defined to provide measures of the behavior of the robotic end-effector. Techniques are presented to compute the kinematic and dynamic reliabilities of the manipulator. The effects of tolerances associated with the various manipulator parameters on the reliabilities are studied. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the procedures

  15. Collision Detection for Underwater ROV Manipulator Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satja Sivčev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Work-class ROVs equipped with robotic manipulators are extensively used for subsea intervention operations. Manipulators are teleoperated by human pilots relying on visual feedback from the worksite. Operating in a remote environment, with limited pilot perception and poor visibility, manipulator collisions which may cause significant damage are likely to happen. This paper presents a real-time collision detection algorithm for marine robotic manipulation. The proposed collision detection mechanism is developed, integrated into a commercial ROV manipulator control system, and successfully evaluated in simulations and experimental setup using a real industry standard underwater manipulator. The presented collision sensing solution has a potential to be a useful pilot assisting tool that can reduce the task load, operational time, and costs of subsea inspection, repair, and maintenance operations.

  16. Neural and behavioral associations of manipulated determination facial expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, Tom F.; Hortensius, R.; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    Past research associated relative left frontal cortical activity with positive affect and approach motivation, or the urge to move toward a stimulus. Less work has examined relative left frontal activity and positive emotions ranging from low to high approach motivation, to test whether positive

  17. Master-slave-manipulator 'EMSM I'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, G.W.; Salaske, M.

    1976-01-01

    A master-slave manipulator with electric force transmission and reflection was developed for the first time in the German Federal Republic. The apparatus belongs to the class of 200 N carrying capacity. It is intended mainly for nuclear purposes and especially for use in large hot cells and also for medium and heavy manipulator vehicles. The most innovations compared with previously known foreign electric master-slave manipulators are two additional possibilities of movement and the electric dead weight compensation. (orig.) [de

  18. Master-slave-manipulator EMSM I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, G.W.; Salaske, M.

    1976-01-01

    A master-slave manipulator with electric force transmission and reflection was developed for the first time in the German Federal Republic. The aparatus belongs to the class of 200 N carrying capacity. It is intended mainly for nuclear purposes and especially for use in large hot cells and also for medium and heavy manipulator vehicles. The most obvious innovations compared with previously known foreign electric master-slave manipulators are two additional possibilities of movement and the electric dead weightcompensation. (orig.) [de

  19. Positional control of space robot manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurochkin, Vladislav; Shymanchuk, Dzmitry

    2018-05-01

    In this article the mathematical model of a planar space robot manipulator is under study. The space robot manipulator represents a solid body with attached manipulators. The system of equations of motion is determined using the Lagrange's equations. The control problem concerning moving the robot to a given point and return it to a given trajectory in the phase space is solved. Changes of generalized coordinates and necessary control actions are plotted for a specific model.

  20. Managerial Incentives and Stock Price Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Lin; Röell, Ailsa A

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a rational expectations model of optimal executive compensation in a setting where managers are in a position to manipulate short-term stock prices, and managers' propensity to manipulate is uncertain. Stock-based incentives elicit not only productive effort, but also costly information manipulation. We analyze the tradeoffs involved in conditioning pay on long- versus short-term performance and characterize a second-best optimal compensation scheme. The paper shows manipu...

  1. Seismic qualification of existing safety class manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-shu; Moran, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    There are two bridge type electromechanical manipulators within a nuclear fuel handling facility which were constructed over twenty-five years ago. At that time, there were only minimal seismic considerations. These manipulators together with the facility are being reactivated. Detailed analyses have shown that the manipulators will satisfy the requirements of ANSI/AISC N690-1984 when they are subjected to loadings including the site specific design basis earthquake. 4 refs

  2. 3D Laser Scanner for Underwater Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Palomer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, research in autonomous underwater manipulation has demonstrated simple applications like picking an object from the sea floor, turning a valve or plugging and unplugging a connector. These are fairly simple tasks compared with those already demonstrated by the mobile robotics community, which include, among others, safe arm motion within areas populated with a priori unknown obstacles or the recognition and location of objects based on their 3D model to grasp them. Kinect-like 3D sensors have contributed significantly to the advance of mobile manipulation providing 3D sensing capabilities in real-time at low cost. Unfortunately, the underwater robotics community is lacking a 3D sensor with similar capabilities to provide rich 3D information of the work space. In this paper, we present a new underwater 3D laser scanner and demonstrate its capabilities for underwater manipulation. In order to use this sensor in conjunction with manipulators, a calibration method to find the relative position between the manipulator and the 3D laser scanner is presented. Then, two different advanced underwater manipulation tasks beyond the state of the art are demonstrated using two different manipulation systems. First, an eight Degrees of Freedom (DoF fixed-base manipulator system is used to demonstrate arm motion within a work space populated with a priori unknown fixed obstacles. Next, an eight DoF free floating Underwater Vehicle-Manipulator System (UVMS is used to autonomously grasp an object from the bottom of a water tank.

  3. Long-reach manipulators for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, D.A.; Challinor, S.F.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of redundant facilities at Sellafield has identified that in many cases the conventional means of deploying remote handling equipment are not appropriate and that novel means must be employed. However, decommissioning is not a value adding activity and so expensive one off designs must be avoided. The paper will describe BNFL's approach to the synthesis from proprietary parts of a manipulator which can lift 3 te at a horizontal reach of over 5 metres and yet can still perform the dextrous manipulation necessary to remove small items. It will also cover the development of the manipulator control systems and the adaption of commercial handtools to be manipulator friendly. (author)

  4. Nano-manipulation of single DNA molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jun; Shanghai Jiaotong Univ., Shanghai; Lv Junhong; Wang Guohua; Wang Ying; Li Minqian; Zhang Yi; Li Bin; Li Haikuo; An Hongjie

    2004-01-01

    Nano-manipulation of single atoms and molecules is a critical technique in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This review paper will focus on the recent development of the manipulation of single DNA molecules based on atomic force microscopy (AFM). Precise manipulation has been realized including varied manipulating modes such as 'cutting', 'pushing', 'folding', 'kneading', 'picking up', 'dipping', etc. The cutting accuracy is dominated by the size of the AFM tip, which is usually 10 nm or less. Single DNA fragments can be cut and picked up and then amplified by single molecule PCR. Thus positioning isolation and sequencing can be performed. (authors)

  5. Bioprinting Living Biofilms through Optogenetic Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yajia; Xia, Aiguo; Yang, Guang; Jin, Fan

    2018-04-18

    In this paper, we present a new strategy for microprinting dense bacterial communities with a prescribed organization on a substrate. Unlike conventional bioprinting techniques that require bioinks, through optogenetic manipulation, we directly manipulated the behaviors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to allow these living bacteria to autonomically form patterned biofilms following prescribed illumination. The results showed that through optogenetic manipulation, patterned bacterial communities with high spatial resolution (approximately 10 μm) could be constructed in 6 h. Thus, optogenetic manipulation greatly increases the range of available bioprinting techniques.

  6. 3D Laser Scanner for Underwater Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomer, Albert; Ridao, Pere; Youakim, Dina; Ribas, David; Forest, Josep; Petillot, Yvan

    2018-04-04

    Nowadays, research in autonomous underwater manipulation has demonstrated simple applications like picking an object from the sea floor, turning a valve or plugging and unplugging a connector. These are fairly simple tasks compared with those already demonstrated by the mobile robotics community, which include, among others, safe arm motion within areas populated with a priori unknown obstacles or the recognition and location of objects based on their 3D model to grasp them. Kinect-like 3D sensors have contributed significantly to the advance of mobile manipulation providing 3D sensing capabilities in real-time at low cost. Unfortunately, the underwater robotics community is lacking a 3D sensor with similar capabilities to provide rich 3D information of the work space. In this paper, we present a new underwater 3D laser scanner and demonstrate its capabilities for underwater manipulation. In order to use this sensor in conjunction with manipulators, a calibration method to find the relative position between the manipulator and the 3D laser scanner is presented. Then, two different advanced underwater manipulation tasks beyond the state of the art are demonstrated using two different manipulation systems. First, an eight Degrees of Freedom (DoF) fixed-base manipulator system is used to demonstrate arm motion within a work space populated with a priori unknown fixed obstacles. Next, an eight DoF free floating Underwater Vehicle-Manipulator System (UVMS) is used to autonomously grasp an object from the bottom of a water tank.

  7. Genetic manipulation of carotenoid biosynthesis and photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogson, B J; Rissler, H M

    2000-10-29

    There are multiple complementary and redundant mechanisms to provide protection against photo-oxidative damage, including non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). NPQ dissipates excess excitation energy as heat by using xanthophylls in combination with changes to the light-harvesting complex (LHC) antenna. The xanthophylls are oxygenated carotenoids that in addition to contributing to NPQ can quench singlet or triplet chlorophyll and are necessary for the assembly and stability of the antenna. We have genetically manipulated the expression of the epsilon-cyclase and beta-carotene hydroxylase carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes in Arabidopsis thaliana. The epsilon-cyclase overexpression confirmed that lut2 (lutein deficient) is a mutation in the epsilon-cyclase gene and demonstrated that lutein content can be altered at the level of mRNA abundance with levels ranging from 0 to 180% of wild-type. Also, it is clear that lutein affects the induction and extent of NPQ. The deleterious effects of lutein deficiency on NPQ in Arabidopsis and Chlamydomonas are additive, no matter what the genetic background, whether npq1 (zeaxanthin deficient), aba1 or antisense beta-hydroxylase (xanthophyll cycle pool decreased). Additionally, increasing lutein content causes a marginal, but significant, increase in the rate of induction of NPQ despite a reduction in the xanthophyll cycle pool size.

  8. Dielectric nanoresonators for light manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Jian; Jiang, Ruibin; Zhuo, Xiaolu; Xie, Ya-Ming; Wang, Jianfang; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2017-07-01

    Nanostructures made of dielectric materials with high or moderate refractive indexes can support strong electric and magnetic resonances in the optical region. They can therefore function as nanoresonators. In addition to plasmonic metal nanostructures that have been widely investigated, dielectric nanoresonators provide a new type of building blocks for realizing powerful and versatile nanoscale light manipulation. In contrast to plasmonic metal nanostructures, nanoresonators made of appropriate dielectric materials are low-cost, earth-abundant and have very small or even negligible light energy losses. As a result, they will find potential applications in a number of photonic devices, especially those that require low energy losses. In this review, we describe the recent progress on the experimental and theoretical studies of dielectric nanoresonators. We start from the basic theory of the electromagnetic responses of dielectric nanoresonators and their fabrication methods. The optical properties of individual dielectric nanoresonators are then elaborated, followed by the coupling behaviors between dielectric nanoresonators, between dielectric nanoresonators and substrates, and between dielectric nanoresonators and plasmonic metal nanostructures. The applications of dielectric nanoresonators are further described. Finally, the challenges and opportunities in this field are discussed.

  9. Gustatory Perception and Fat Body Energy Metabolism Are Jointly Affected by Vitellogenin and Juvenile Hormone in Honey Bees

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying; Brent, Colin S.; Fennern, Erin; Amdam, Gro V.

    2012-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses) usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers) forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and e...

  10. Insulin-like peptide genes in honey bee fat body respond differently to manipulation of social behavioral physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kari-Anne; Ihle, Kate E; Frederick, Katy; Fondrk, M Kim; Smedal, Bente; Hartfelder, Klaus; Amdam, Gro V

    2011-05-01

    Nutrient sensitive insulin-like peptides (ILPs) have profound effects on invertebrate metabolism, nutrient storage, fertility and aging. Many insects transcribe ILPs in specialized neurosecretory cells at changing levels correlated with life history. However, the major site of insect metabolism and nutrient storage is not the brain, but rather the fat body, where functions of ILP expression are rarely studied and poorly understood. Fat body is analogous to mammalian liver and adipose tissue, with nutrient stores that often correlate with behavior. We used the honey bee (Apis mellifera), an insect with complex behavior, to test whether ILP genes in fat body respond to experimentally induced changes of behavioral physiology. Honey bee fat body influences endocrine state and behavior by secreting the yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (Vg), which suppresses lipophilic juvenile hormone and social foraging behavior. In a two-factorial experiment, we used RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated vg gene knockdown and amino acid nutrient enrichment of hemolymph (blood) to perturb this regulatory module. We document factor-specific changes in fat body ilp1 and ilp2 mRNA, the bee's ILP-encoding genes, and confirm that our protocol affects social behavior. We show that ilp1 and ilp2 are regulated independently and differently and diverge in their specific expression-localization between fat body oenocyte and trophocyte cells. Insect ilp functions may be better understood by broadening research to account for expression in fat body and not only brain.

  11. Social manipulation in nonhuman primates: Cognitive and motivational determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völter, C J; Rossano, F; Call, J

    2017-11-01

    Social interactions are the result of individuals' cooperative and competitive tendencies expressed over an extended period of time. Although social manipulation, i.e., using another individual to achieve one's own goals, is a crucial aspect of social interactions, there has been no comprehensive attempt to differentiate its various types and to map its cognitive and motivational determinants. For this purpose, we survey in this article the experimental literature on social interactions in nonhuman primates. We take social manipulation, illustrated by a case study with orangutans (Pongo abelii), as our starting point and move in two directions. First, we will focus on a flexibility/sociality axis that includes technical problem solving, social tool-use and communication. Second, we will focus on a motivational/prosociality axis that includes exploitation, cooperation, and helping. Combined, the two axes offer a way to capture a broad range of social interactions performed by human and nonhuman primates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Manipulation or Mobilisation for Neck Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, Anita; Miller, Jordan; D'Sylva, Jonathan; Burnie, Stephen J.; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Graham, Nadine; Haines, Ted; Brønfort, Gert; Hoving, Jan L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Manipulation and mobilisation are often used, either alone or combined with other treatment approaches, to treat neck pain. Objectives To assess if manipulation or mobilisation improves pain, function/disability, patient satisfaction, quality of life, and global perceived effect in adults

  13. Analysis of singularity in redundant manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Koichi

    2000-03-01

    In the analysis of arm positions and configurations of redundant manipulators, the singularity avoidance problems are important themes. This report presents singularity avoidance computations of a 7 DOF manipulator by using a computer code based on human-arm models. The behavior of the arm escaping from the singular point can be identified satisfactorily through the use of 3-D plotting tools. (author)

  14. Managing collaboration in the nanoManipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Thomas C.; Helser, Aren T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2004-01-01

    We designed, developed, deployed, and evaluated the Collaborative nanoManipulator (CnM), a distributed, collaborative virtual environment system supporting remote scientific collaboration between users of the nanoManipulator interface to atomic force microscopes. This paper describes the entire...

  15. Even Middle Graders Can Learn with Manipulatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Linda

    1987-01-01

    Math manipulatives let students see the components of an abstract problem, help build a concrete language for talking about math concepts, and encourage students to gain confidence in their ability to figure things out. Many suggestions for using manipulatives in math instruction are offered. (MT)

  16. Lazy motion planning for robotic manipulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrien, A.R.P.; van de Molengraft, M.J.G.; Bruyninckx, H.P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Robotic manipulators are making a shift towards mobile bases in both industry and domestic environments, which puts high demands on efficient use of the robot’s limited energy resources. In this work, the problem of reducing energy usage of a robot manipulator during a task is investigated. We

  17. Judging Nudging : Answering the Manipulation Objection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nys, Thomas; Engelen, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Is it ever justified to ‘nudge’ people towards their own health? In this article, we argue that it is. We do so by arguing (1) that nudges are not necessarily – as is commonly thought – manipulative; (2) that even those nudges that are manipulative can be justified, for instance, when they preserve

  18. Tools for Manipulation and Characterisation of Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Bøggild, Peter

    grippers, which were then successfully used for pick-and-place manipulation of silicon nanowires. For increased gripping force and control over the manipulation process, microfabricated grippers with integrated force-feedback were also demonstrated. Environmental electron beam deposition (EEBD...... components that are some 10000 times smaller....

  19. MEMS 6 degrees of freedom parallel micro manipulator for TEM sample manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Dannis Michel; de Jong, B.R.; Soemers, Herman

    2005-01-01

    Up till now MEMS actuators acted either only in-plane or only out-of plane restricting to 3 DOF manipulation. A design for a millimeter-sized manipulator with 6 degrees of freedom to manipulate a micron-sized substrate at nanometer resolution over strokes of 10 microns with a position stability

  20. Interaction control of a redundant mobile manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, J.H.; Velinsky, S.A.; Hess, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the modeling and control of a spatial mobile manipulator that consists of a robotic manipulator mounted on a wheeled mobile platform. The Lagrange-d'Alembert formulation is used to obtain a concise description of the dynamics of the system, which is subject to nonholonomic constraints. The complexity of the model is increased by introducing kinematic redundancy, which is created when a multilinked manipulator is used. The kinematic redundancy is resolved by decomposing the mobile manipulator into two subsystems: the mobile platform and the manipulator. The redundancy resolution scheme employs a nonlinear interaction-control algorithm, which is developed and applied to coordinate the two subsystems' controllers. The subsystem controllers are independently designed, based on each subsystem's dynamic characteristics. Simulation results show the promise of the developed algorithm

  1. Maximum allowable load on wheeled mobile manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibnejad Korayem, M.; Ghariblu, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a computational technique for finding the maximum allowable load of mobile manipulator during a given trajectory. The maximum allowable loads which can be achieved by a mobile manipulator during a given trajectory are limited by the number of factors; probably the dynamic properties of mobile base and mounted manipulator, their actuator limitations and additional constraints applied to resolving the redundancy are the most important factors. To resolve extra D.O.F introduced by the base mobility, additional constraint functions are proposed directly in the task space of mobile manipulator. Finally, in two numerical examples involving a two-link planar manipulator mounted on a differentially driven mobile base, application of the method to determining maximum allowable load is verified. The simulation results demonstrates the maximum allowable load on a desired trajectory has not a unique value and directly depends on the additional constraint functions which applies to resolve the motion redundancy

  2. Laser Diode Beam Basics, Manipulations and Characterizations

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Haiyin

    2012-01-01

    Many optical design technical books are available for many years which mainly deal with image optics design based on geometric optics and using sequential raytracing technique. Some books slightly touched laser beam manipulation optics design. On the other hand many books on laser diodes have been published that extensively deal with laser diode physics with little touching on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations. There are some internet resources dealing with laser diode beams. However, these internet resources have not covered enough materials with enough details on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations. A technical book concentrated on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations can fit in to the open and provide useful information to laser diode users. Laser Diode Beam Basics, Manipulations and  Characterizations is concentrated on the very practical side of the subject, it only discusses the basic physics and mathematics that are necessary for the readers in order...

  3. Regulating gonad inhibition and vitellogenin/vitellin induction in Penaeus monodon using mature GIH fusion protein and polyclonal antisera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vrinda, S.; Jasmin, C.; Sivakumar, K.C.; Jose, S.; Jose, B.; Philip, R; BrightSingh, I

    September 2016 Available online 15 September 2016 Keywords: Gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH) Fusion/chimeric proteinaa r t i c l e i n f o b s t r a c tRegulating gonad inhibition and vitellogen Penaeus monodon using mature GIH fusion polyclonal antisera... restriction site overhangs to match with that of the expression vector; pET32a+. The forward primer (GIH-F- 5′-GAAT TCAACATCCTGGACAGCAAATGCAGGGGTGC-3′) contained EcoR I site (italics) and 29 nucleotide residues encoding the N terminal amino acid residues...

  4. Epstein-Barr virus: a master epigenetic manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rona S

    2017-10-01

    Like all herpesviruses, the ability of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) to establish life-long persistent infections is related to a biphasic viral lifecycle that involves latency and reactivation/lytic replication. Memory B cells serve as the EBV latency compartment where silencing of viral gene expression allows maintenance of the viral genome, avoidance of immune surveillance, and life-long carriage. Upon viral reactivation, viral gene expression is induced for replication, progeny virion production, and viral spread. EBV uses the host epigenetic machinery to regulate its distinct viral gene expression states. However, epigenetic manipulation by EBV affects the host epigenome by reprogramming cells in ways that leave long-lasting, oncogenic phenotypes. Such virally-induced epigenetic alterations are evident in EBV-associated cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Task based synthesis of serial manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarosh Patel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Computing the optimal geometric structure of manipulators is one of the most intricate problems in contemporary robot kinematics. Robotic manipulators are designed and built to perform certain predetermined tasks. There is a very close relationship between the structure of the manipulator and its kinematic performance. It is therefore important to incorporate such task requirements during the design and synthesis of the robotic manipulators. Such task requirements and performance constraints can be specified in terms of the required end-effector positions, orientations and velocities along the task trajectory. In this work, we present a comprehensive method to develop the optimal geometric structure (DH parameters of a non-redundant six degree of freedom serial manipulator from task descriptions. In this work we define, develop and test a methodology to design optimal manipulator configurations based on task descriptions. This methodology is devised to investigate all possible manipulator configurations that can satisfy the task performance requirements under imposed joint constraints. Out of all the possible structures, the structures that can reach all the task points with the required orientations are selected. Next, these candidate structures are tested to see whether they can attain end-effector velocities in arbitrary directions within the user defined joint constraints, so that they can deliver the best kinematic performance. Additionally least power consuming configurations are also identified.

  6. Completion of the Heysham 2 peripheral manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipp, R.; Ewen, R.O.

    1996-01-01

    The in-service inspection strategy for the AGR power station at Heysham 2 envisaged a suite of five manipulators to be used for inserting TRIUMPH television cameras into the reactor vessel. Prior to power raising, four of the five had been successfully commissioned and have been in regular use during the subsequent statutory outages. The final device, the Peripheral Manipulator (PM), was eventually completed prior to the 1994 outage and has been successfully deployed on reactor for both the 1994 and 1995 outages. The paper describes the design of the manipulator, its operation and scope of use in the Heysham 2 reactors. (Author)

  7. W-026, acceptance test report manipulator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the WRAP Manipulator System Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) is to verify that the 4 glovebox sets of WRAP manipulator components, including rail/carriage, slave arm, master controller and auxiliary equipment, meets the requirements of the functional segments of 14590 specification. The demonstration of performance elements of the ATP are performed as a part of the Assembly specifications. Manipulator integration is integrated in the performance testing of the gloveboxes. Each requirement of the Assembly specification will be carried out in conjunction with glovebox performance tests

  8. Interpersonal relationship manipulation at a personal level

    OpenAIRE

    Andreja Hribernik

    2010-01-01

    Manipulation is not unknown or strange to any of us. We have all experienced it, or perhaps even practiced it. It is wrong not to recognize it, to find excuses for it, and, above all, it is wrong not to decide to change one’s behaviour. Long-lasting use of manipulation leaves consequences on all the parties involved: the victim, the observer and the perpetrator. Manipulation is a relation between persons which does not consider the needs of everybody involved. It means exploitation and mislea...

  9. Development of the heavy manipulator vehicle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, C.; Paustian, P.; Kruger, W.

    1993-01-01

    After the severe reactor accident of Tschernobyl in 1986 MaK System started to develop a Heavy Manipulator Vehicle System under contract from German nuclear technology assistance company ''KHG'' (Kerntechnische Hilfsdienst GmbH). The system comprises a remote controlled manipulator vehicle, a mobile mission control stand as well as a transport/service unit. In order to fulfill the high demands of this complex system a couple of new developments had to be started. The paper describes some of these developments and gives an overview about the main features of the Heavy Manipulator Vehicle System (HMV). (author)

  10. A janus-faced manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Etges, Christine Bareño

    2000-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Letras/Inglês e Literatura Correspondente. Narrativas de viagem são especialmente interessantes em tradução uma vez que seus autores já 'traduziram' a realidade do país que visitaram, tanto literalmente quanto figurativamente. O tradutor tem, então, a desafiadora tarefa de traduzir o traduzido. Quando acontece de o tradutor ser um nativo do país visitado, a ta...

  11. Symbolic manipulation techniques for vibration analysis of laminated elliptic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, C. M.; Noor, A. K.

    1977-01-01

    A computational scheme is presented for the free vibration analysis of laminated composite elliptic plates. The scheme is based on Hamilton's principle, the Rayleigh-Ritz technique and symmetry considerations and is implemented with the aid of the MACSYMA symbolic manipulation system. The MACYSMA system, through differentiation, integration, and simplification of analytic expressions, produces highly-efficient FORTRAN code for the evaluation of the stiffness and mass coefficients. Multiple use is made of this code to obtain not only the frequencies and mode shapes of the plate, but also the derivatives of the frequencies with respect to various material and geometric parameters.

  12. Surgical manipulation of mammalian embryos in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, I; Keino, H; Taniguchi, M

    1997-04-01

    Whole-embryo culture systems are useful in the fields of not only embryology but also teratology, toxicology, pharmacology, and physiology. Of the many advantages of whole-embryo culture, we focus here on the surgical manipulation of mammalian embryos. Whole-embryo culture allows us to manipulate mammalian embryos, similarly to fish, amphibian and avian embryos. Many surgical experiments have been performed in mammalian embryos in vitro. Such surgical manipulation alters the destiny of morphogenesis of the embryos and can answer many questions concerning developmental issues. As an example of surgical manipulation using whole-embryo culture systems, one of our experiments is described. Microsurgical electrocauterization of the deep preaxial mesodermal programmed cell death zone (fpp) in the footplate prevented the manifestation of polydactyly in genetic polydactyly mouse embryos (Pdn/Pdn), in which fpp was abolished.

  13. Autonomous Task Primitives for Complex Manipulation Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this research effort is to enable robots to autonomously perform the complex manipulation tasks that are necessary to maintain a spacecraft. Robots, like...

  14. Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert J.; Morse, William D.; Shirey, David L.; Cdebaca, DanielL M.; Hoffman, John P. Jr.; Lucy, William E.

    2000-01-01

    The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS

  15. Spinal Manipulation for Low-Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V W X Y Z Spinal Manipulation for Low-Back Pain Share: On This Page Introduction Key Points About ... will help ensure coordinated and safe care. About Low-Back Pain Back pain is one of the most common ...

  16. Managing collaboration in the nanoManipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Thomas C.; Heiser, Aron T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2003-01-01

    We designed, developed, deployed, and evaluated the Collaborative nanoManipulator (CnM), a system supporting remote collaboration between users of the nanoManipulator interface to atomic force microscopes. To be accepted by users, the shared nanoManipulator application had to have the same high...... level of interactivity as the single user system and the application had to support a user's ability to interleave working privately and working collaboratively. This paper briefly describes the entire collaboration system, but focuses on the shared nanoManipulator application. Based on our experience...... developing the CnM, we present: a method of analyzing applications to characterize the requirements for sharing data between collaborating sites, examples of data structures that support collaboration, and guidelines for selecting appropriate synchronization and concurrency control schemes....

  17. Analysis, reconstruction and manipulation using arterial snakes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Guo; Liu, Ligang; Zheng, Hanlin; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2010-01-01

    , and manipulating such arterial surfaces. The core of the algorithm is a novel deformable model, called arterial snake, that simultaneously captures the topology and geometry of the arterial objects. The recovered snakes produce a natural decomposition of the raw

  18. ADVERTISING AS MEAN OF MANIPULATION OF PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia PAVEL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a number of issues involved in defining manipulation, because both in the current language as in the specialty literature, the manipulation notion is used with multiple significations, often contradictory ones, and that it’s not firmly delimited by other notions from the same sphere, like persuasion or propaganda. The aim of the article will be, in the end, removing ambiguity that surrounds this concept and offering a better understanding of its very real effects on human lives. We advance and sustain the hypothesis that manipulation is an illegitimate process, justified by the structure of the human conscience and by the mechanisms of the social life. In addition, the paper provides a concrete example of manipulation of public through advertising contracts offered by Roşia Montană Gold Corporation. Finally conclusions were outlined.

  19. Optoelectronic Tweezers for Microparticle and Cell Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming Chiang (Inventor); Chiou, Pei-Yu (Inventor); Ohta, Aaron T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An optical image-driven light induced dielectrophoresis (DEP) apparatus and method are described which provide for the manipulation of particles or cells with a diameter on the order of 100 micromillimeters or less. The apparatus is referred to as optoelectric tweezers (OET) and provides a number of advantages over conventional optical tweezers, in particular the ability to perform operations in parallel and over a large area without damage to living cells. The OET device generally comprises a planar liquid-filled structure having one or more portions which are photoconductive to convert incoming light to a change in the electric field pattern. The light patterns are dynamically generated to provide a number of manipulation structures that can manipulate single particles and cells or group of particles/cells. The OET preferably includes a microscopic imaging means to provide feedback for the optical manipulation, such as detecting position and characteristics wherein the light patterns are modulated accordingly.

  20. Tension Stiffened and Tendon Actuated Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, William R. (Inventor); Dorsey, John T. (Inventor); Ganoe, George G. (Inventor); King, Bruce D. (Inventor); Jones, Thomas C. (Inventor); Mercer, Charles D. (Inventor); Corbin, Cole K. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A tension stiffened and tendon actuated manipulator is provided performing robotic-like movements when acquiring a payload. The manipulator design can be adapted for use in-space, lunar or other planetary installations as it is readily configurable for acquiring and precisely manipulating a payload in both a zero-g environment and in an environment with a gravity field. The manipulator includes a plurality of link arms, a hinge connecting adjacent link arms together to allow the adjacent link arms to rotate relative to each other and a cable actuation and tensioning system provided between adjacent link arms. The cable actuation and tensioning system includes a spreader arm and a plurality of driven and non-driven elements attached to the link arms and the spreader arm. At least one cable is routed around the driven and non-driven elements for actuating the hinge.

  1. A novel six-degrees-of-freedom series-parallel manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo-Alvarado, J.; Rodriguez-Castro, R.; Aguilar-Najera, C. R.; Perez-Gonzalez, L. [Instituto Tecnologico de Celaya, Celaya (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    This paper addresses the description and kinematic analyses of a new non-redundant series-parallel manipulator. The primary feature of the robot is to have a decoupled topology consisting of a lower parallel manipulator, for controlling the orientation of the coupler platform, assembled in series connection with a upper parallel manipulator, for controlling the position of the output platform, capable to provide arbitrary poses to the output platform with respect to the fixed platform. The forward displacement analysis is carried-out in semi-closed form solutions by resorting to simple closure equations. On the other hand; the velocity, acceleration and singularity analyses of the manipulator are approached by means of the theory of screws. Simple and compact expressions are derived here for solving the infinitesimal kinematics by taking advantage of the concept of reciprocal screws. Furthermore, the analysis of the Jacobians of the robot shows that the lower parallel manipulator is practically free of singularities. In order to illustrate the performance of the manipulator, a numerical example which consists of solving the inverse/forward kinematics of the series-parallel manipulator as well as its singular configurations is provided.

  2. Manipulation of biomimetic objects in acoustic levitation

    OpenAIRE

    Castro , Angelica

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains 9 chapters making a total of 205 pages including articles. The articles are menctioned throughout the work and are listed as annexes. These articles were produced during the PhD.; Levitation is a promising tool for contactless guiding and non-toxic manipulation. Acoustic levitation by ultrasonic standing waves (USW) allows micron-scale particle manipulation in acoustic resonators. The main goal of this thesis is to explore the possibilities given by the acoustic levitatio...

  3. Manipulation Robustness of Collaborative Filtering Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Van Roy; Xiang Yan

    2009-01-01

    A collaborative filtering system recommends to users products that similar users like. Collaborative filtering systems influence purchase decisions, and hence have become targets of manipulation by unscrupulous vendors. We provide theoretical and empirical results demonstrating that while common nearest neighbor algorithms, which are widely used in commercial systems, can be highly susceptible to manipulation, two classes of collaborative filtering algorithms which we refer to as linear and a...

  4. Counterweight system for master-slave manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaker, L.W.; Jelatis, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A counterweight system is described for use in a remote control master-slave manipulator. The manipulator consists of a rotatable horizontal support adapted to extend through the wall and two longitudinally extensible arms, a master and a slave, pivotally connected one to each end of the support. Within the support there is a means of translating linear motion to rotary motion for transfer through the barrier wall and retranslating to linear motion. (U.K.)

  5. Manipulation of Cash-Settled Futures Contracts.

    OpenAIRE

    Pirrong, Craig

    2001-01-01

    Replacement of delivery settlement of futures contracts with cash settlement is frequently proposed to reduce the frequency of market manipulation. This article shows that it is always possible to design a delivery-settled futures contract that is less susceptible to cornering by a large long than any given cash-settled contract. Such a contract is more susceptible to manipulation by large shorts, however. Therefore, cash settlement does not uniformly dominate delivery settlement as a means o...

  6. Price Manipulation in an Experimental Asset Market

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga Helena; Vorsatz Marc

    2006-01-01

    We analyze in the laboratory whether an uninformed trader is able to manipulate the price of a financial asset. To do so, we compare the results of two different experimental treatments. In the Benchmark Treatment, twelve subjects trade a common value asset that takes either a high or a low value. Information is distributed asymmetrically, only three outof twelve subjects know the actual value of the asset. The Manipulation Treatment is identical to the Benchmark Treatment apart from the fact...

  7. Billing and coding for osteopathic manipulative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Karen T; Jorgensen, Douglas J

    2009-08-01

    Some osteopathic physicians are not properly reimbursed by insurance companies after providing osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) to their patients. Common problems associated with lack of reimbursements include insurers bundling OMT with the standard evaluation and management service and confusing OMT with chiropractic manipulative treatment or physical therapy services. The authors suggest methods of appeal for denied reimbursement claims that will also prevent future payment denials.

  8. Sports Tournament Predictions Using Direct Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vuillemot , Romain; Perin , Charles

    2016-01-01

    An advanced interface for sports tournament predictions uses direct manipulation to allow users to make nonlinear predictions. Unlike previous interface designs, the interface helps users focus on their prediction tasks by enabling them to first choose a winner and then fill out the rest of the bracket. In real-world tests of the proposed interface (for the 2014 FIFA World Cup tournament and 2015/2016 UEFA Champions League), the authors validated the use of direct manipulation as an alternati...

  9. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  10. Regular expressions cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Goyvaerts, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This cookbook provides more than 100 recipes to help you crunch data and manipulate text with regular expressions. Every programmer can find uses for regular expressions, but their power doesn't come worry-free. Even seasoned users often suffer from poor performance, false positives, false negatives, or perplexing bugs. Regular Expressions Cookbook offers step-by-step instructions for some of the most common tasks involving this tool, with recipes for C#, Java, JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, and VB.NET. With this book, you will: Understand the basics of regular expressions through a

  11. Advanced manipulator system for large hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertut, J.; Moreau, C.; Brossard, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Large hot cells can be approached as extrapolated from smaller ones as wide, higher or longer in size with the same concept of using mechanical master slave manipulators and high density windows. This concept leads to a large number of working places and corresponding equipments, with a number of penetrations through the biological protection. When the large cell does not need a permanent operation of number of work places, as in particular to serve PIE machines and maintain the facility, use of servo manipulators with a large supporting unit and extensive use of television appears optimal. The advance on MA 23 and supports will be described including the extra facilities related to manipulators introduction and maintenance. The possibility to combine a powered manipulator and MA 23 (single or pair) on the same boom crane system will be described. An advance control system to bring the minimal dead time to control support movement, associated to the master slave arm operation is under development. The general television system includes over view cameras, associated with the limited number of windows, and manipulators camera. A special new system will be described which brings an automatic control of manipulator cameras and saves operator load and dead time. Full scale tests with MA 23 and support will be discussed. (author)

  12. Research on Control Method Based on Real-Time Operational Reliability Evaluation for Space Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A control method based on real-time operational reliability evaluation for space manipulator is presented for improving the success rate of a manipulator during the execution of a task. In this paper, a method for quantitative analysis of operational reliability is given when manipulator is executing a specified task; then a control model which could control the quantitative operational reliability is built. First, the control process is described by using a state space equation. Second, process parameters are estimated in real time using Bayesian method. Third, the expression of the system's real-time operational reliability is deduced based on the state space equation and process parameters which are estimated using Bayesian method. Finally, a control variable regulation strategy which considers the cost of control is given based on the Theory of Statistical Process Control. It is shown via simulations that this method effectively improves the operational reliability of space manipulator control system.

  13. Control of a flexible bracing manipulator: Integration of current research work to realize the bracing manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dong-Soo

    1991-01-01

    All research results about flexible manipulator control were integrated to show a control scenario of a bracing manipulator. First, dynamic analysis of a flexible manipulator was done for modeling. Second, from the dynamic model, the inverse dynamic equation was derived, and the time domain inverse dynamic method was proposed for the calculation of the feedforward torque and the desired flexible coordinate trajectories. Third, a tracking controller was designed by combining the inverse dynamic feedforward control with the joint feedback control. The control scheme was applied to the tip position control of a single link flexible manipulator for zero and non-zero initial condition cases. Finally, the contact control scheme was added to the position tracking control. A control scenario of a bracing manipulator is provided and evaluated through simulation and experiment on a single link flexible manipulator.

  14. Sistem kontrol gerak kinematika robot gripper manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Widhiada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Sistem robot manipulator ini merupakan mekanisme lengan yang terdiri dari serangkaian segmen yang digunakan untuk menangkap dan memindahkan benda dengan beberapa derajat kebebasan. Dalam perkembangannya, robot manipulator telah digunakan dalam melaksanakan misi tertentu dan membantu operasi di ruang angkasa. Robot biasanya berinteraksi dengan sistem tangan, dan dalam kegiatan industri tangan biasanya disebut sebagai gripper. Penulis menggunakan metode simulasi teknik yang dapat menentukan sistem gerak kinematika robot. Simulasi teknik adalah metode yang digunakan untuk mendesain dan menganalisa gerakan robot dimana hasil dari respon gerakan robot yang didapat mendekati hasil dalam keadaan sebenarnya. Simulasi juga dapat menghemat waktu dan biaya yang digunakan dalam mendesain robot gripper manipulator lima jari dengan elemen prismatik. Dengan menggunakan kontrol PID diharapkan respon gerak kinematik dari setiap joint robot manipulator mencapai perfomance yang terbaik seperti overshoot yang kecil, dan kondisi tenang (steady state dalam waktu yang singkat disertai dengan keselahan penggerak yang kecil. Melalui proses Advance tuning pada PID kontrol selesai didapatkan parameter penguat pada PID kontrol yaitu Kp = 0.7194, Ki = 8.306 dan Kd = 0.0061sehingga tercapai performance gerakan kinematika robot gripper manipulator yang terbaik sesuai yang dikehendaki oleh user dengan rise time yang singkat 0.52 detik, waktu puncak yang singkat 0.52 detik, maksimum overshoot yang kecil 1,8%, kesetebailan response dicapai pada 0.76 detik dan kesalahan penggerak yang sangat kecil 0.32%. Kata kunci: Robot gripper manipulator, PID control, gerakan kinematika Abstract A robot gripper manipulator system mechanism comprising a series of segments that are used to capture and move objects with multiple degrees of freedom. In the process, the robot manipulator has been used in carrying out the specific mission and assist operations in space. Robot manipulator

  15. Dynamic whole-body robotic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yeuhi; Stephens, Benjamin; Murphy, Michael P.; Rizzi, Alfred A.

    2013-05-01

    The creation of dynamic manipulation behaviors for high degree of freedom, mobile robots will allow them to accomplish increasingly difficult tasks in the field. We are investigating how the coordinated use of the body, legs, and integrated manipulator, on a mobile robot, can improve the strength, velocity, and workspace when handling heavy objects. We envision that such a capability would aid in a search and rescue scenario when clearing obstacles from a path or searching a rubble pile quickly. Manipulating heavy objects is especially challenging because the dynamic forces are high and a legged system must coordinate all its degrees of freedom to accomplish tasks while maintaining balance. To accomplish these types of manipulation tasks, we use trajectory optimization techniques to generate feasible open-loop behaviors for our 28 dof quadruped robot (BigDog) by planning trajectories in a 13 dimensional space. We apply the Covariance Matrix Adaptation (CMA) algorithm to solve for trajectories that optimize task performance while also obeying important constraints such as torque and velocity limits, kinematic limits, and center of pressure location. These open-loop behaviors are then used to generate desired feed-forward body forces and foot step locations, which enable tracking on the robot. Some hardware results for cinderblock throwing are demonstrated on the BigDog quadruped platform augmented with a human-arm-like manipulator. The results are analogous to how a human athlete maximizes distance in the discus event by performing a precise sequence of choreographed steps.

  16. Development of a maintenance manipulator for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, C.

    1986-01-01

    The maintenance manipulator is a device permanently connected to the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) vacuum vessel and is located in close proximity to the tokamak. It is used for the inspection and maintenance of in-vessel components whilst the machine remains under vacuum. The total system comprises a vacuum vessel ante-chamber that houses the manipulator, an articulated boom and carriage that transports and positions a dexterous end-effector, and end-effector that supports maintenance tooling, and an inspection system. Because of the maintenance manipulator's operating environment, there are many challenging engineering features, i.e., temperatures up to 150 0 C, changing magnetic fields in space and time that act on the manipulator whilst it is at rest, neutron neutron fluxes of up to 10/sup 11/cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/, and, last but not least, UHV conditions. This paper describes the development of the vacuum system, the maintenance manipulator, and inspective devices. It includes the methods employed to overcome the engineering difficulties and the application of information gained from other advanced technology programs, such as space and nuclear fission

  17. Distinguishing manipulated stocks via trading network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Shen, Hua-Wei; Wang, Zhao-Yang

    2011-10-01

    Manipulation is an important issue for both developed and emerging stock markets. For the study of manipulation, it is critical to analyze investor behavior in the stock market. In this paper, an analysis of the full transaction records of over a hundred stocks in a one-year period is conducted. For each stock, a trading network is constructed to characterize the relations among its investors. In trading networks, nodes represent investors and a directed link connects a stock seller to a buyer with the total trade size as the weight of the link, and the node strength is the sum of all edge weights of a node. For all these trading networks, we find that the node degree and node strength both have tails following a power-law distribution. Compared with non-manipulated stocks, manipulated stocks have a high lower bound of the power-law tail, a high average degree of the trading network and a low correlation between the price return and the seller-buyer ratio. These findings may help us to detect manipulated stocks.

  18. Better with Byzantine: Manipulation-Optimal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Abraham; Sandholm, Tuomas

    A mechanism is manipulable if it is in some agents’ best interest to misrepresent their private information. The revelation principle establishes that, roughly, anything that can be accomplished by a manipulable mechanism can also be accomplished with a truthful mechanism. Yet agents often fail to play their optimal manipulations due to computational limitations or various flavors of incompetence and cognitive biases. Thus, manipulable mechanisms in particular should anticipate byzantine play. We study manipulation-optimal mechanisms: mechanisms that are undominated by truthful mechanisms when agents act fully rationally, and do better than any truthful mechanism if any agent fails to act rationally in any way. This enables the mechanism designer to do better than the revelation principle would suggest, and obviates the need to predict byzantine agents’ irrational behavior. We prove a host of possibility and impossibility results for the concept which have the impression of broadly limiting possibility. These results are largely in line with the revelation principle, although the considerations are more subtle and the impossibility not universal.

  19. A Molecular Analysis of Training Multiple versus Single Manipulations to Establish a Generalized Manipulative Imitation Repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Breanne K.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the necessity of training multiple versus single manipulative-imitations per object in order to establish generalized manipulative-imitation. Training took place in Croyden Avenue School's Early Childhood Developmental Delay preschool classroom in Kalamazoo, MI. Two groups of 3 children each were trained to imitate in order to…

  20. Particle manipulation techniques in AEgIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canali, C., E-mail: canali@ge.infn.it; Carraro, C.; Di Noto, L.; Krasnicky, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Testera, G.; Zavatarelli, S. [Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare Sez. Genova (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    The AEgIS experiment (http://aegis.web.cern.chhttp://aegis.web.cern.ch) will measure the gravitational acceleration g of antihydrogen. Once performed this could be the first direct test of the gravitational interaction between matter and antimatter. In the AEgIS experiment a beam of antihydrogen will travel horizontally along a path of about 1 m trough a moire deflectometer followed by a position sensitive detector. The g value will be obtained measuring the vertical displacement of the annihilation patterns. Before producing the beam, several tasks have to be performed mainly involving positron and electron plasma manipulation and particles cooling in Malmberg-Penning traps. The AEgIS experiment is currently under construction at CERN, meanwhile several tests involving particle manipulation and particle cooling are in progress. In this report some experimental results involving diocotron manipulation of plasma will be presented.

  1. Manipulation of microfluidic droplets by electrorheological fluid

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Menying

    2009-09-01

    Microfluidics, especially droplet microfluidics, attracts more and more researchers from diverse fields, because it requires fewer materials and less time, produces less waste and has the potential of highly integrated and computer-controlled reaction processes for chemistry and biology. Electrorheological fluid, especially giant electrorheological fluid (GERF), which is considered as a kind of smart material, has been applied to the microfluidic systems to achieve active and precise control of fluid by electrical signal. In this review article, we will introduce recent results of microfluidic droplet manipulation, GERF and some pertinent achievements by introducing GERF into microfluidic system: digital generation, manipulation of "smart droplets" and droplet manipulation by GERF. Once it is combined with real-time detection, integrated chip with multiple functions can be realized. © 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  2. A digital joint controller for manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, E.J.; Palmer, D.E.B.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear Electric's hydraulic heavy duty manipulators are used at a number of Magnox Power Stations for a wide variety of tasks. In recent years there has been a trend towards the use of manipulators for tasks requiring increasing precision of tip positioning. In order to meet this requirement, a digital controller has been designed to replace the analogue controller board used in almost all manipulator control systems. The new controller allows the programming of a wide range of closed loop control algorithms. Position and drive signal data may be passed to and from the controller by digital means, allowing direct connection to a graphical display system and/or a computer executing a guidance algorithm. The hardware and software design are outlined and performance in the laboratory and the field is reported. (author)

  3. Planning Robotic Manipulation Strategies for Sliding Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshkin, Michael A.

    Automated planning of grasping or manipulation requires an understanding of both the physics and the geometry of manipulation, and a representation of that knowledge which facilitates the search for successful strategies. We consider manipulation on a level conveyor belt or tabletop, on which a part may slide when touched by a robot. Manipulation plans for a given part must succeed in the face of two types of uncertainty: that of the details of surfaces in contact, and that of the initial configuration of the part. In general the points of contact between the part and the surface it slides on will be unknown, so the motion of the part in response to a push cannot be predicted exactly. Using a simple variational principle (which is derived), we find the set of possible motions of a part for a given push, for all collections of points of contact. The answer emerges as a locus of centers of rotation (CORs). Manipulation plans made using this locus will succeed despite unknown details of contact. Results of experimental tests of the COR loci are presented. Uncertainty in the initial configuration of a part is usually also present. To plan in the presence of uncertainty, configuration maps are defined, which map all configurations of a part before an elementary operation to all possible outcomes, thus encapsulating the physics and geometry of the operation. The configuration map for an operation sequence is a product of configuration maps of elementary operations. Using COR loci we compute configuration maps for elementary sliding operations. Appropriate search techniques are applied to find operation sequences which succeed in the presence of uncertainty in the initial configuration and unknown details of contact. Such operation sequences may be used as parts feeder designs or as manipulation or grasping strategies for robots. As an example we demonstrate the automated design of a class of passive parts feeders consisting of multiple sequential fences across a conveyor

  4. From computing with numbers to computing with words. From manipulation of measurements to manipulation of perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, L A

    2001-04-01

    Interest in issues relating to consciousness has grown markedly during the last several years. And yet, nobody can claim that consciousness is a well-understood concept that lends itself to precise analysis. It may be argued that, as a concept, consciousness is much too complex to fit into the conceptual structure of existing theories based on Aristotelian logic and probability theory. An approach suggested in this paper links consciousness to perceptions and perceptions to their descriptors in a natural language. In this way, those aspects of consciousness which relate to reasoning and concept formation are linked to what is referred to as the methodology of computing with words (CW). Computing, in its usual sense, is centered on manipulation of numbers and symbols. In contrast, computing with words, or CW for short, is a methodology in which the objects of computation are words and propositions drawn from a natural language (e.g., small, large, far, heavy, not very likely, the price of gas is low and declining, Berkeley is near San Francisco, it is very unlikely that there will be a significant increase in the price of oil in the near future, etc.). Computing with words is inspired by the remarkable human capability to perform a wide variety of physical and mental tasks without any measurements and any computations. Familiar examples of such tasks are parking a car, driving in heavy traffic, playing golf, riding a bicycle, understanding speech, and summarizing a story. Underlying this remarkable capability is the brain's crucial ability to manipulate perceptions--perceptions of distance, size, weight, color, speed, time, direction, force, number, truth, likelihood, and other characteristics of physical and mental objects. Manipulation of perceptions plays a key role in human recognition, decision and execution processes. As a methodology, computing with words provides a foundation for a computational theory of perceptions: a theory which may have an important

  5. On stiffening cables of a long reach manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.L.; Santiago, P.

    1996-01-01

    A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator's slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator's stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator's wrist

  6. Boiler inspection manipulator for Torness Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrey, R.T.A.; Playle, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    In-service inspection at Torness Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor is achieved, via penetrations above and below the core area and boilers and through eight circulator penetrations for inspection of the sub-diagrid area. A manipulator is described which can access the area above the reactor core via any of these eight peripheral penetrations. The design and fabrication of the manipulator has led to innovation with a number of possible solutions being tendered. In reactor deployment of the successful design is expected in early 1997. (UK)

  7. Reconfigurable metamaterials for terahertz wave manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammed R.; Cakmakyapan, Semih; Jarrahi, Mona

    2017-09-01

    Reconfigurable metamaterials have emerged as promising platforms for manipulating the spectral and spatial properties of terahertz waves without being limited by the characteristics of naturally existing materials. Here, we present a comprehensive overview of various types of reconfigurable metamaterials that are utilized to manipulate the intensity, phase, polarization, and propagation direction of terahertz waves. We discuss various reconfiguration mechanisms based on optical, electrical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli while using semiconductors, superconductors, phase-change materials, graphene, and electromechanical structures. The advantages and disadvantages of different reconfigurable metamaterial designs in terms of modulation efficiency, modulation bandwidth, modulation speed, and system complexity are discussed in detail.

  8. Radioactive source manipulator and stowage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, C.

    1980-01-01

    A description is given of a radioactive source manipulator and stowage device comprising: a cylindrical body; a transversely disposed socket formed near one end of said cylindrical body for receiving a radioactive source; a cylindrical sleeve rotatably mounted on said cylindrical body; and an aperture formed in the wall of said sleeve whereby rotation of said sleeve to axially align said aperture with said socket will permit a radioactive source to be inserted into and removed from said socket and rotation of said sleeve to move said aperture out of alignment with said socket when the socket contains a radioactive source readies the device for manipulation and stowage

  9. Complexity in Climate Change Manipulation Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreyling, Juergen; Beier, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Climate change goes beyond gradual changes in mean conditions. It involves increased variability in climatic drivers and increased frequency and intensity of extreme events. Climate manipulation experiments are one major tool to explore the ecological impacts of climate change. Until now...... variability in temperature are ecologically important. Embracing complexity in future climate change experiments in general is therefore crucial......., precipitation experiments have dealt with temporal variability or extreme events, such as drought, resulting in a multitude of approaches and scenarios with limited comparability among studies. Temperature manipulations have mainly been focused only on warming, resulting in better comparability among studies...

  10. The Ethics/ Skills Interface in Image Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Webber

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Image manipulation using computer technology has become a basic skill required in various graphics dependent industries such as advertising, and the print and electronic media, and for specialist use in institutions for in-house and on-line publishing and the creation of Web pages. The 'seamless' alteration of photographs and other visual images made possible by computer technology has allowed misrepresentation with intent to deceive, and difficulty in establishing copyright of original images. The dilemma in teaching techniques of image manipulation is to create a basis for ethical practice HCI in this paper refers to the ethics/skills interface in the education and work of multimedia practitioners.

  11. Sports Tournament Predictions Using Direct Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillemot, Romain; Perin, Charles

    2016-01-01

    An advanced interface for sports tournament predictions uses direct manipulation to allow users to make nonlinear predictions. Unlike previous interface designs, the interface helps users focus on their prediction tasks by enabling them to first choose a winner and then fill out the rest of the bracket. In real-world tests of the proposed interface (for the 2014 FIFA World Cup tournament and 2015/2016 UEFA Champions League), the authors validated the use of direct manipulation as an alternative to widgets. Using visitor interaction logs, they were able to determine the strategies people use to perform predictions and identify potential areas of improvement for further prediction interfaces.

  12. Triazophos up-regulated gene expression in the female brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yan-Yuan; Li, Bao-Ling; Liu, Zhao-Bu; Xue, Jian; Zhu, Zeng-Rong; Cheng, Jia-An; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2010-09-01

    The widespread use of insecticides has caused the resurgence of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, in Asia. In this study, we investigated an organo-phosphorous insecticide, triazophos, and its ability to induce gene expression variation in female N. lugens nymphs just before emergence. By using the suppression subtractive hybridization method, a triazophos-induced cDNA library was constructed. In total, 402 differentially expressed cDNA clones were obtained. Real-time qPCR analysis confirmed that triazophos up-regulated the expression of six candidate genes at the transcript level in nymphs on day 3 of the 5th instar. These genes encode N. lugens vitellogenin, bystin, multidrug resistance protein (MRP), purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR) and carboxylesterase. Our results imply that the up-regulation of these genes may be involved in the induction of N. lugens female reproduction or resistance to insecticides.

  13. Application of symbolic and algebraic manipulation software in solving applied mechanics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Lang; Kikuchi, Noboru

    1993-01-01

    As its name implies, symbolic and algebraic manipulation is an operational tool which not only can retain symbols throughout computations but also can express results in terms of symbols. This report starts with a history of symbolic and algebraic manipulators and a review of the literatures. With the help of selected examples, the capabilities of symbolic and algebraic manipulators are demonstrated. These applications to problems of applied mechanics are then presented. They are the application of automatic formulation to applied mechanics problems, application to a materially nonlinear problem (rigid-plastic ring compression) by finite element method (FEM) and application to plate problems by FEM. The advantages and difficulties, contributions, education, and perspectives of symbolic and algebraic manipulation are discussed. It is well known that there exist some fundamental difficulties in symbolic and algebraic manipulation, such as internal swelling and mathematical limitation. A remedy for these difficulties is proposed, and the three applications mentioned are solved successfully. For example, the closed from solution of stiffness matrix of four-node isoparametrical quadrilateral element for 2-D elasticity problem was not available before. Due to the work presented, the automatic construction of it becomes feasible. In addition, a new advantage of the application of symbolic and algebraic manipulation found is believed to be crucial in improving the efficiency of program execution in the future. This will substantially shorten the response time of a system. It is very significant for certain systems, such as missile and high speed aircraft systems, in which time plays an important role.

  14. Potential costs of bacterial infection on storage protein gene expression and reproduction in queenless Apis mellifera worker bees on distinct dietary regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Anete Pedro; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Macedo, Liliane Maria Fróes; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2012-09-01

    Insects are able to combat infection by initiating an efficient immune response that involves synthesizing antimicrobial peptides and a range of other defense molecules. These responses may be costly to the organism, resulting in it exploiting endogenous resources to maintain homeostasis or support defense to the detriment of other physiological needs. We used queenless worker bees on distinct dietary regimes that may alter hemolymph protein storage and ovary activation to investigate the physiological costs of infection with Serratia marcescens. The expression of the genes encoding the storage proteins vitellogenin and hexamerin 70a, the vitellogenin receptor, and vasa (which has a putative role in reproduction), was impaired in the infected bees. This impairment was mainly evident in the bees fed beebread, which caused significantly higher expression of these genes than did royal jelly or syrup, and this was confirmed at the vitellogenin and hexamerin 70a protein levels. Beebread was also the only diet that promoted ovary activation in the queenless bees, but this activation was significantly impaired by the infection. The expression of the genes encoding the storage proteins apolipophorins-I and -III and the lipophorin receptor was not altered by infection regardless the diet provided to the bees. Similarly, the storage of apolipophorin-I in the hemolymph was only slightly impaired by the infection, independently of the supplied diet. Taken together these results indicate that, infection demands a physiological cost from the transcription of specific protein storage-related genes and from the reproductive capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Remote Collaborative Manipulation for Scientific Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fleury , Cédric; Duval , Thierry; Gouranton , Valérie; Steed , Anthony

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In the context of scientific data analysis, we propose to compare a remote collaborative manipulation technique with a single user manipulation technique. The manipulation task consists in positioning a clipping plane in order to perform cross-sections of scientific data which show several points of interest located inside this data. For the remote collaborative manipulation, we have chosen to use the 3-hand manipulation technique proposed by Aguerreche et al. which is...

  16. An Analysis of Manipulation Strategies in Stock Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Rasim Ozcan

    2012-01-01

    Manipulative transactions, which affect both the supply and demand side of the markets, have been studied by academic circles and it was concluded that manipulation exerts negative impact on markets. A market with manipulation is considered as less trustworthy and credible compared to a market without manipulation, which in turn, affects demand. Manipulations affecting both the supply and demand should be closely monitored by stock market investors as well as legislative, executive, and regul...

  17. Kinematics and design of a class of parallel manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Roger Barry

    1998-12-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the kinematic analysis and design of a class of three degree-of-freedom, spatial parallel manipulators. The class of manipulators is characterized by two platforms, between which are three legs, each possessing a succession of revolute, spherical, and revolute joints. The class is termed the "revolute-spherical-revolute" class of parallel manipulators. Two members of this class are examined. The first mechanism is a double-octahedral variable-geometry truss, and the second is termed a double tripod. The history the mechanisms is explored---the variable-geometry truss dates back to 1984, while predecessors of the double tripod mechanism date back to 1869. This work centers on the displacement analysis of these three-degree-of-freedom mechanisms. Two types of problem are solved: the forward displacement analysis (forward kinematics) and the inverse displacement analysis (inverse kinematics). The kinematic model of the class of mechanism is general in nature. A classification scheme for the revolute-spherical-revolute class of mechanism is introduced, which uses dominant geometric features to group designs into 8 different sub-classes. The forward kinematics problem is discussed: given a set of independently controllable input variables, solve for the relative position and orientation between the two platforms. For the variable-geometry truss, the controllable input variables are assumed to be the linear (prismatic) joints. For the double tripod, the controllable input variables are the three revolute joints adjacent to the base (proximal) platform. Multiple solutions are presented to the forward kinematics problem, indicating that there are many different positions (assemblies) that the manipulator can assume with equivalent inputs. For the double tripod these solutions can be expressed as a 16th degree polynomial in one unknown, while for the variable-geometry truss there exist two 16th degree polynomials, giving rise to 256

  18. Perception and manipulation of game control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plass - Oude Bos, D.; van de Laar, B.L.A.; Reuderink, B.; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis; Choi, Insook; Bargar, Robin

    Brain-computer interfaces do not provide perfect recognition of user input, for similar reasons as natural input modalities. How well can users assess the amount of control they have, and how much control do they need? We describe an experiment where we manipulated the control users had in a

  19. Text Manipulation Techniques and Foreign Language Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ronald W.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses an approach to teaching second language composition which emphasizes (1) careful analysis of model texts from a limited, but well-defined perspective and (2) the application of text manipulation techniques developed by the word processing industry to student compositions. (EKN)

  20. Motion planning for gantry mounted manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Lau; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2007-01-01

    We present a roadmap based planner for finding robot motions for gantry mounted manipulators for a line welding application at Odense Steel Shipyard (OSS). The robot motions are planned subject to constraints on when the gantry may be moved. We show that random sampling of gantry configurations...

  1. Subpicosecond Coherent Manipulation of X-Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Bernhard W.

    2004-01-01

    The Takagi-Taupin theory is synthesized with the eikonal theory in a unified space-time approach, based upon microscopic electromagnetism. It is designed specifically to address x-ray diffraction in crystal structures being modified within down to a few femtosconds. Possible applications in the subpicosecond coherent manipulation of x-rays are given

  2. The risk associated with spinal manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sabrina Mai; Tarp, Simon; Christensen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is a widely used manual treatment, but many reviews exist with conflicting conclusions about the safety of SMT. We performed an overview of reviews to elucidate and quantify the risk of serious adverse events (SAEs) associated with SMT. METHODS: We...

  3. Microbial manipulation of host sex determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.

    A recent study in the lepidopteran Ostrinia scapulalis shows that endosymbionts can actively manipulate the sex determination mechanism of their host. Wolbachia bacteria alter the sex-specific splicing of the doublesex master switch gene. In ZZ males of this female heterogametic system, the female

  4. High degree-of-freedom dynamic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael P.; Stephens, Benjamin; Abe, Yeuhi; Rizzi, Alfred A.

    2012-06-01

    The creation of high degree of freedom dynamic mobile manipulation techniques and behaviors will allow robots to accomplish difficult tasks in the field. We are investigating the use of the body and legs of legged robots to improve the strength, velocity, and workspace of an integrated manipulator to accomplish dynamic manipulation. This is an especially challenging task, as all of the degrees of freedom are active at all times, the dynamic forces generated are high, and the legged system must maintain robust balance throughout the duration of the tasks. To accomplish this goal, we are utilizing trajectory optimization techniques to generate feasible open-loop behaviors for our 28 dof quadruped robot (BigDog) by planning the trajectories in a 13 dimensional space. Covariance Matrix Adaptation techniques are utilized to optimize for several criteria such as payload capability and task completion speed while also obeying constraints such as torque and velocity limits, kinematic limits, and center of pressure location. These open-loop behaviors are then used to generate feed-forward terms, which are subsequently used online to improve tracking and maintain low controller gains. Some initial results on one of our existing balancing quadruped robots with an additional human-arm-like manipulator are demonstrated on robot hardware, including dynamic lifting and throwing of heavy objects 16.5kg cinder blocks, using motions that resemble a human athlete more than typical robotic motions. Increased payload capacity is accomplished through coordinated body motion.

  5. WORKER, a program for histogram manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolger, J.E.; Ellinger, H.; Moore, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    A set of programs is provided which may link to any user-written program, permitting dynamic creation of histograms as well as display, manipulation and transfer of histogrammed data. With wide flexibility, constants within the user's code may be set or monitored at any time during execution. (Auth.)

  6. Identity and incentives: impact on accounting manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abernethy, M.A.; Bouwens, J.; Kroos, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how individual characteristics of managers influence the incidence of accounting manipulation. We examine one particular characteristic argued to reduce agency costs, namely the extent to which an individual identifies with the firm (OI). Drawing on a database collected from

  7. Temperature manipulation during layer chick embryogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, I.; Napel, ten J.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of temperature manipulation (TM) during late embryogenesis on temperature preference, response to high environmental temperature, behavior, and performance in young layer chicks. Control (CC) embryos (n = 96) were incubated at 37.8°C eggshell temperature

  8. Manipulating quantum states with aspheric lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiwei; Ren Xifeng; Huang Yunfeng; Zhang Yongsheng; Guo Guangcan

    2005-01-01

    We present an experimental demonstration to manipulate the width and position of the down-converted beam waist. Our results can be used to engineer the two-photon orbital angular momentum (OAM) entangled states (such as concentrating OAM entangled states) and generate Hermite-Gaussian (HG) modes entangled states

  9. Automatic camera tracking for remote manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoughton, R.S.; Martin, H.L.; Bentz, R.R.

    1984-04-01

    The problem of automatic camera tracking of mobile objects is addressed with specific reference to remote manipulators and using either fixed or mobile cameras. The technique uses a kinematic approach employing 4 x 4 coordinate transformation matrices to solve for the needed camera PAN and TILT angles. No vision feedback systems are used, as the required input data are obtained entirely from position sensors from the manipulator and the camera-positioning system. All hardware requirements are generally satisfied by currently available remote manipulator systems with a supervisory computer. The system discussed here implements linear plus on/off (bang-bang) closed-loop control with a +-2 0 deadband. The deadband area is desirable to avoid operator seasickness caused by continuous camera movement. Programming considerations for camera control, including operator interface options, are discussed. The example problem presented is based on an actual implementation using a PDP 11/34 computer, a TeleOperator Systems SM-229 manipulator, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) camera-positioning system. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  10. Ideas on Manipulative Math for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anne

    2001-01-01

    Presents a case study of one kindergarten class in which the mathematics center is the popular area in the room. Focuses on how math is best understood if activities follow the five-C formula: collaborative, concrete, comprehensive, connecting, and cavorting. Describes how children used manipulatives to construct mathematics concepts…

  11. Early Childhood Math: Make It Manipulative!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Janet I.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that early childhood teachers should provide young children with creative, stimulating, and manipulative (hands-on) experiences rather than workbook pages in early mathematics programs. Presents reasons and corresponding counterpositions for using workbooks and suggests sample activities which teachers can use to make mathematics more…

  12. Redefining trade-based market manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Matthijs

    2008-01-01

    Trade-based market manipulation, which is usually described as trading shares to initiate a price change or to cause an artificial price, has received wide attention in policy and academic discussions, although the behavior is still poorly defined in both legal and economic literature. This Article

  13. Spin tunneling and manipulation in nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, E Ya; Ban, Yue; Gulyaev, L V; Khomitsky, D V

    2012-09-01

    The results for joint effects of tunneling and spin-orbit coupling on spin dynamics in nanostructures are presented for systems with discrete and continuous spectra. We demonstrate that tunneling plays the crucial role in the spin dynamics and the abilities of spin manipulation by external electric field. This result can be important for design of nanostructures-based spintronics devices.

  14. Using magnetic nanoparticles to manipulate biological objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yi; Gao Yu; Xu Chenjie

    2013-01-01

    The use of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for the manipulation of biological objects, including proteins, genes, cellular organelles, bacteria, cells, and organs, are reviewed. MNPs are popular candidates for controlling and probing biological objects with a magnetic force. In the past decade, progress in the synthesis and surface engineering of MNPs has further enhanced this popularity. (topical review - magnetism, magnetic materials, and interdisciplinary research)

  15. Automatic camera tracking for remote manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoughton, R.S.; Martin, H.L.; Bentz, R.R.

    1984-07-01

    The problem of automatic camera tracking of mobile objects is addressed with specific reference to remote manipulators and using either fixed or mobile cameras. The technique uses a kinematic approach employing 4 x 4 coordinate transformation matrices to solve for the needed camera PAN and TILT angles. No vision feedback systems are used, as the required input data are obtained entirely from position sensors from the manipulator and the camera-positioning system. All hardware requirements are generally satisfied by currently available remote manipulator systems with a supervisory computer. The system discussed here implements linear plus on/off (bang-bang) closed-loop control with a +-2-deg deadband. The deadband area is desirable to avoid operator seasickness caused by continuous camera movement. Programming considerations for camera control, including operator interface options, are discussed. The example problem presented is based on an actual implementation using a PDP 11/34 computer, a TeleOperator Systems SM-229 manipulator, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) camera-positioning system. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  16. Atomic and Molecular Manipulation of Chemical Interactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ho, Wilson

    2007-01-01

    .... In effect, the goal is to carry out chemical changes by manipulating individual atoms and molecules to induce different bonding geometry and to create new interactions with their environment. These studies provide the scientific basis for the advancement of technology in catalysis, molecular electronics, optics, chemical and biological sensing, and magnetic storage.

  17. A plasmonic spanner for metal particle manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Shi, W.; Shen, Z.; Man, Z.; Min, C.; Shen, J.; Zhu, S.; Urbach, H.P.; Yuan, X.

    2015-01-01

    Typically, metal particles are difficult to manipulate with conventional optical vortex (OV) tweezers, because of their strong absorption and scattering. However, it has been shown that the vortex field of surface plasmonic polaritons, called plasmonic vortex (PV), is capable of stable trapping and

  18. Impedance Control of a Redundant Parallel Manipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Méndez, Juan de Dios Flores; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design of Impedance Control to a redundantly actuated Parallel Kinematic Manipulator. The proposed control is based on treating each limb as a single system and their connection through the internal interaction forces. The controller introduces a stiffness and damping...

  19. Interactive data manipulation program. FAWTEK user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, W.B.; Sauer, S.

    1980-02-01

    This report describes the interactive data acquisition and manipulation program FAWTEK.'The program allows users of the electron beam data acquisition facility to control the R7912 digitizers and to perform a variety of mathematical operations on data arrays. Commands are entered in a high level language via a Tektronix 4010 terminal console. Each command directive and associated parameters is described in detail

  20. Development of an advanced robot manipulator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomichi, Takeo; Higuchi, Masaru; Shimizu, Yujiro; Ohnishi, Ken

    1991-01-01

    A sophisticated manipulator system for an advanced robot was developed under the 'Advanced Robot Technology Development' Program promoted and supported by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology of MITI. The authors have participated in the development of a fingered manipulator with force and tactile sensors applicable to a masterslave robot system. Our slave manipulator is equipped with four fingers. Though the finger needs many degrees of freedom so as to be suitable for skilful handing of an object, our fingers are designed to have minimum degree of freedom in order to reduce weight. Each finger tip was designed to be similar to a human finger which has flexibility, softness and contact feeling. The shape of the master finger manipulator was so designed that the movement of the fingers is smoother and that the constraint feeling of the operator is smaller. We were adopted to a pneumatic pressure system for transmitting the tactile feeling of the slave fingers to the master fingers. A multiple sensory bilateral control system which gives an operator a feeling of force and tactile reduces his feeling of constraint in carrying out work with a robot system. (author)

  1. Intracellular manipulation of chromatin using magnetic nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanger, Johannes S.; Subramaniam, Vinod; van Driel, Roel

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic tweezers are widely used for manipulating small magnetic beads inside the cell cytoplasm in order to gain insight into the structural and mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton. Here we discuss the use of magnetic tweezers for the study of nuclear architecture and the mechanical

  2. Money, Manipulation and Misunderstanding on Manus Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallis, Joanne; Dalsgaard, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Island, on domestic affairs in PNG, and on the relationship between PNG and Australia. Overall, it concludes that the costs arising from the money, manipulation and misunderstanding generated by the centre seem likely to outweigh the purported benefits, particularly for Manusians and other ordinary Papua...

  3. Outcome manipulation in corporate prediction markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for applying prediction markets to corporate decision-making. The analysis is motivated by the recent surge of interest in markets as information aggregation devices and their potential use within firms. We characterize the amount of outcome manipulation that results...

  4. Parallelogram mechanisms for mine manipulator arms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoncheva, N

    1983-01-01

    Kinematic equations are written for the mechanism of a manipulator arm which is used as the operational element of a basic machine and is shaped like a parallelogram. The drive is accomplished using a hydraulic cylinder. A transfer functions method is used to acquire kinematic equations of the final shifts and equations for determining accelerations.

  5. Kinematically Optimal Robust Control of Redundant Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicki, M.

    2017-12-01

    This work deals with the problem of the robust optimal task space trajectory tracking subject to finite-time convergence. Kinematic and dynamic equations of a redundant manipulator are assumed to be uncertain. Moreover, globally unbounded disturbances are allowed to act on the manipulator when tracking the trajectory by the endeffector. Furthermore, the movement is to be accomplished in such a way as to minimize both the manipulator torques and their oscillations thus eliminating the potential robot vibrations. Based on suitably defined task space non-singular terminal sliding vector variable and the Lyapunov stability theory, we derive a class of chattering-free robust kinematically optimal controllers, based on the estimation of transpose Jacobian, which seem to be effective in counteracting both uncertain kinematics and dynamics, unbounded disturbances and (possible) kinematic and/or algorithmic singularities met on the robot trajectory. The numerical simulations carried out for a redundant manipulator of a SCARA type consisting of the three revolute kinematic pairs and operating in a two-dimensional task space, illustrate performance of the proposed controllers as well as comparisons with other well known control schemes.

  6. Constraint solving for direct manipulation of features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenco, D.; Oliveira, P.; Noort, A.; Bidarra, R.

    2006-01-01

    In current commercial feature modeling systems, support for direct manipulation of features is not commonly available. This is partly due to the strong reliance of such systems on constraints, but also to the lack of speed of current constraint solvers. In this paper, an approach to the optimization

  7. Conjugate Gradient Algorithms For Manipulator Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir; Scheid, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses applicability of conjugate-gradient algorithms to computation of forward dynamics of robotic manipulators. Rapid computation of forward dynamics essential to teleoperation and other advanced robotic applications. Part of continuing effort to find algorithms meeting requirements for increased computational efficiency and speed. Method used for iterative solution of systems of linear equations.

  8. Role Of Expectancy Manipulation In Systematic Desensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H. Alan

    1973-01-01

    Expectancy, relaxation, and hierarchy content were manipulated. Findings did not support the hypothesis that expectancy was the only factor in desensitization, but did clarify the role of expectancy vis-a-vis the counterconditioning elements typically discussed in the literature. (Author)

  9. Multimodal Electrothermal Silicon Microgrippers for Nanotube Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström Andersen, Karin; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Carlson, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Microgrippers that are able to manipulate nanoobjects reproducibly are key components in 3-D nanomanipulation systems. We present here a monolithic electrothermal microgripper prepared by silicon microfabrication, and demonstrate pick-and-place of an as-grown carbon nanotube from a 2-D array onto...

  10. Manipulation of magnetic particles in microfluidic volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Y.; Reenen, van A.; Hulsen, M.A.; Jong, de A.M.; Prins, M.W.J.; Toonder, den J.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports various ways of field-based manipulation of magnetic colloidal particles to enhance biochemical reactions in lab-on-chip systems [1]. For one (I), we show the possibility to assemble the suspended magnetic micro-particles as tunable re-formable micro-stirrers capable of performing

  11. The evolution of teleoperated manipulators at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Noakes, M.W.; Herndon, J.N.

    1996-01-01

    ORNL has made significant contributions to teleoperator and telerobotics technology for two decades and continues with an aggressive program today. Examples of past projects are: (1) the M2 servomanipulator, which was the first digitally controlled teleoperator; (2) the Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM), which was the first remotely maintainable teleoperator; (3) the CESARm/Kraft dissimilar teleoperated system; and (4) the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM), a 7-Degree-of-Freedom (7-DOF) telerobot built as a prototype for work in space. More recently, ORNL has become heavily involved with Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) robotics programs funded by the Department of Energy (DOE). The ERWM program requires high payloads and high dexterity. As a result, a hydraulically actuated, dual-arm system comprised of two 6-DOF arms mounted on a 5-DOF base has been constructed and is being used today for various research tasks and for decontamination and dismantlement activities. All of these teleoperated manipulator systems build upon the experiences gained throughout the almost two decades of development. Each system incorporates not only the latest technology in computers, sensors, and electronics, but each new . system also adds at least one new feature to the technologies already developed and demonstrated in the previous system(s). As a result of this process, a serious study of these manipulator systems is a study in the evolution of teleoperated manipulator the systems in general. This provides insight not only into the research and development paths chosen in the past, but also into the appropriate directions for future teleoperator and telerobotics research. This paper examines each of the teleoperated/telerobotic systems developed at ORNL, summarizes their features and capabilities, examines the state of the most current telerobotic system (the Dual Arm Work Module), PM provides direction for a Next Generation Telerobotic Manipulator system

  12. Manipulator Comparative Testing Program: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Sundstrom, E.; Herndon, J.N; Fujita, Y.; Maeda, M.

    1987-02-01

    The manipulator systems tested included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, the Central Research Laboratories Model M-2, and the GCA PaR Systems Model 6000. Six manipulator and control mode combinations were evaluated: (1) the BILARM in master/slave mode without force reflection, (2) the BILARM in master/slave mode with force reflection, (3) the Model M-2 in master/slave mode without force reflection, (4) the Model M-2 in master/slave mode with force reflection, (5) the BILARM with switchbox controls, and (6) the PaR 6000 with switchbox controls. The experiments examined differences between master/slave systems with and without force reflection and differences between master/slave systems and switchbox-controlled systems. A fourth experiment examined the relative contributions of the remote viewing system and the manipulator system to the performance of remote handling tasks. Results of the experiments showed that operators using the Model M-2 in master/slave mode had significantly faster times to completion than operators using the BILARM in master/slave mode, with about the same error rate per trial. Operators were slower using the BILARM with force reflection than without it, and they committed more errors. There was no statistically significant difference between force-reflection and nonforce-reflection conditions for the M-2 manipulator for any of the performance criteria. Tasks and procedures used in this testing were not sensitive to differences within any single system. No inferences about the effect of force reflection on remote task performance should be made from these data. The two manipulator systems in switchbox mode had significantly slower times to completion than any system in master/slave mode, with approximately the same error rate per trial. There were no significant differences between the BILARM in switchbox mode and the PaR arm

  13. A modelling of robot manipulator dynamics based on Newton-Euler's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shinobu

    1990-09-01

    In this paper is presented an algorithm for solving the inverse dynamics of robot manipulators. In comparison with the dynamical equations derived from the Lagrange's mechanics, the relations to be treated are of simple forms due to recursive expressions of relative link motions. A computer simulation for applying the algorithm to a six-link manipulator indicated that the present method might be most appropriate among the existing approaches from the viewpoint of computational efficiency. In particular, it is noted that the increase of the number of links has hardly great effect on the intricacy of calculation. (author)

  14. Mars is close to venus--female reproductive proteins are expressed in the fat body and reproductive tract of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonello-Frattini, Nínive Aguiar; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg) and lipophorin (Lp) are lipoproteins which play important roles in female reproductive physiology of insects. Both are actively taken up by growing oocytes and especially Vg and its receptor are considered as female-specifically expressed. The finding that the fat body of in honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones synthesizes Vg and is present in hemolymph has long been viewed as a curiosity. The recent paradigm change concerning the role played by Vg in honey bee life history, especially social division of labor, has now led us to investigate whether a physiological constellation similar to that seen in female reproduction may also be represented in the male sex. By means of Western blot analysis we could show that both Vg and Lp are present in the reproductive tract of adult drones, including the accessory (mucus) glands, but apparently are not secreted. Furthermore, we analyzed the transcript levels of the genes encoding these proteins (vg and lp), as well as their putative receptors (Amvgr and Amlpr) in fat body and accessory glands. Whereas lp, vg and Amlpr transcript levels decreased with age in both tissues, Amvgr mRNA levels increased with age in fat body. To our knowledge this is the first report that vitellogenin and its receptor are co-expressed in the reproductive system of a male insect. We interpret these findings as a cross-sexual transfer of a social physiological trait, associated with the rewiring of the juvenile hormone/vitellogenin circuitry that occurred in the female sex of honey bees. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A discrete-time adaptive control scheme for robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarokh, M.

    1990-01-01

    A discrete-time model reference adaptive control scheme is developed for trajectory tracking of robot manipulators. The scheme utilizes feedback, feedforward, and auxiliary signals, obtained from joint angle measurement through simple expressions. Hyperstability theory is utilized to derive the adaptation laws for the controller gain matrices. It is shown that trajectory tracking is achieved despite gross robot parameter variation and uncertainties. The method offers considerable design flexibility and enables the designer to improve the performance of the control system by adjusting free design parameters. The discrete-time adaptation algorithm is extremely simple and is therefore suitable for real-time implementation. Simulations and experimental results are given to demonstrate the performance of the scheme.

  16. Genetic Manipulations of PPARs: Effects on Obesity and Metabolic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaacov Barak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest in genetic manipulations of PPARs is as old as their discovery as receptors of ligands with beneficial clinical activities. Considering the effects of PPAR ligands on critical aspects of systemic physiology, including obesity, lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, and diabetes, gene knockout (KO in mice is the ideal platform for both hypothesis testing and discovery of new PPAR functions in vivo. With the fervent pursuit of the magic bullet to eradicate the obesity epidemic, special emphasis has been placed on the impacts of PPARs on obesity and its associated diseases. As detailed in this review, understanding how PPARs regulate gene expression and basic metabolic pathways is a necessary intermediate en route to deciphering their effects on obesity. Over a decade and dozens of genetic modifications of PPARs into this effort, valuable lessons have been learned, but we are left with more questions to be answered. These lessons and future prospects are the subject of this review.

  17. Manipulation of Biomolecule-Modified Liquid-Metal Blobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Miyako, Eijiro

    2017-10-23

    Soft and deformable liquid metals (LMs) are building components in various systems related to uncertain and dynamic task environments. Herein we describe the development of a biomolecule-triggered external-manipulation method involving LM conjugates for the construction of future innovative soft robotics operating in physiological environments. Functional soft hybrids composed of a liquid-metal droplet, a thiolated ligand, and proteins were synthesized for the expression of diverse macroscopic commands, such as attachment to cells, binary fusion, and self-propelled movement through molecular recognition and enzymatic reactions. Our technology could be used to create new state-of-the-art soft robots for chemical and biomedical engineering applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Computer control of a multi-link manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, J.E.; Thiruarooran, C.

    1988-01-01

    The Central Electricity Generating Board has a requirement for a manipulator which can deploy to its work location around obstacles. A multilink manipulator has been designed for this purpose. A computer control system designed to ease manipulator operation is described. Using the control program, the manipulator may be deployed using just 2 joysticks. Experience in the use of the program with an inspection manipulator at Sizewell 'A' Nuclear Power Station is discussed. When used to control a manipulator of 9 hydraulically actuated degrees of freedom, a control accuracy of about 1.5% of full extension has been achieved. (author)

  19. Modular manual control device for manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzholdasbekov, U.A.; Lukyanov, A.T.; Slutsky, L.I.; Safontsev, E.A.; Dzhamalov, N.K.

    1991-01-01

    The device described in this patent comprises a base, a series of connected modules, each with a position pickup and a handle. One module is provided for each degree of mobility of the manipulator being controlled; the modular construction enables the control of manipulators with differing degrees of mobility. One rotary movement module and three orthogonal linear movement modules are provided. Each linear module has two parallel guides between which a carriage is supported for movement by balls. The position pickup is provided on the carriage. The rotary module comprises inner and outer casings, relative movement of which is detected by pickup. Further rotary pickups may be provided for rotation about axes. A close/open switch and a speed control pickup may also be provided. (author)

  20. Acoustic Resonator Optimisation for Airborne Particle Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendran, Citsabehsan; Billson, Duncan R.; Hutchins, David A.; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian

    Advances in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology and biomedical research necessitate micro-machined manipulators to capture, handle and position delicate micron-sized particles. To this end, a parallel plate acoustic resonator system has been investigated for the purposes of manipulation and entrapment of micron sized particles in air. Numerical and finite element modelling was performed to optimise the design of the layered acoustic resonator. To obtain an optimised resonator design, careful considerations of the effect of thickness and material properties are required. Furthermore, the effect of acoustic attenuation which is dependent on frequency is also considered within this study, leading to an optimum operational frequency range. Finally, experimental results demonstrated good particle levitation and capture of various particle properties and sizes ranging to as small as 14.8 μm.

  1. Bacterial pathogen manipulation of host membrane trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrat, Seblewongel; de Jesús, Dennise A; Hempstead, Andrew D; Ramabhadran, Vinay; Isberg, Ralph R

    2014-01-01

    Pathogens use a vast number of strategies to alter host membrane dynamics. Targeting the host membrane machinery is important for the survival and pathogenesis of several extracellular, vacuolar, and cytosolic bacteria. Membrane manipulation promotes bacterial replication while suppressing host responses, allowing the bacterium to thrive in a hostile environment. This review provides a comprehensive summary of various strategies used by both extracellular and intracellular bacteria to hijack host membrane trafficking machinery. We start with mechanisms used by bacteria to alter the plasma membrane, delve into the hijacking of various vesicle trafficking pathways, and conclude by summarizing bacterial adaptation to host immune responses. Understanding bacterial manipulation of host membrane trafficking provides insights into bacterial pathogenesis and uncovers the molecular mechanisms behind various processes within a eukaryotic cell.

  2. Beam Techniques - Beam Control and Manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minty, Michiko G

    2003-01-01

    We describe commonly used strategies for the control of charged particle beams and the manipulation of their properties. Emphasis is placed on relativistic beams in linear accelerators and storage rings. After a brief review of linear optics, we discuss basic and advanced beam control techniques, such as transverse and longitudinal lattice diagnostics, matching, orbit correction and steering, beam-based alignment, and linac emittance preservation. A variety of methods for the manipulation of particle beam properties are also presented, for instance, bunch length and energy compression, bunch rotation, changes to the damping partition number, and beam collimation. The different procedures are illustrated by examples from various accelerators. Special topics include injection and extraction methods, beam cooling, spin transport and polarization

  3. How to manipulate magnetic states of antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cheng; You, Yunfeng; Chen, Xianzhe; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yuyan; Pan, Feng

    2018-03-01

    Antiferromagnetic materials, which have drawn considerable attention recently, have fascinating features: they are robust against perturbation, produce no stray fields, and exhibit ultrafast dynamics. Discerning how to efficiently manipulate the magnetic state of an antiferromagnet is key to the development of antiferromagnetic spintronics. In this review, we introduce four main methods (magnetic, strain, electrical, and optical) to mediate the magnetic states and elaborate on intrinsic origins of different antiferromagnetic materials. Magnetic control includes a strong magnetic field, exchange bias, and field cooling, which are traditional and basic. Strain control involves the magnetic anisotropy effect or metamagnetic transition. Electrical control can be divided into two parts, electric field and electric current, both of which are convenient for practical applications. Optical control includes thermal and electronic excitation, an inertia-driven mechanism, and terahertz laser control, with the potential for ultrafast antiferromagnetic manipulation. This review sheds light on effective usage of antiferromagnets and provides a new perspective on antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  4. Microtechnology for cell manipulation and sorting

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, Peter; Carlo, Dino

    2017-01-01

    This book delves into the recent developments in the microscale and microfluidic technologies that allow manipulation at the single and cell aggregate level. Expert authors review the dominant mechanisms that manipulate and sort biological structures, making this a state-of-the-art overview of conventional cell sorting techniques, the principles of microfluidics, and of microfluidic devices. All chapters highlight the benefits and drawbacks of each technique they discuss, which include magnetic, electrical, optical, acoustic, gravity/sedimentation, inertial, deformability, and aqueous two-phase systems as the dominant mechanisms utilized by microfluidic devices to handle biological samples. Each chapter explains the physics of the mechanism at work, and reviews common geometries and devices to help readers decide the type of style of device required for various applications. This book is appropriate for graduate-level biomedical engineering and analytical chemistry students, as well as engineers and scientist...

  5. Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Flatté, Michael E; The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems"

    2007-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems", in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, August 29-September 9, 2005, presented a fundamental introduction to solid-state approaches to achieving quantum computation. This proceedings volume describes the properties of quantum coherence in semiconductor spin-based systems and the behavior of quantum coherence in superconducting systems. Semiconductor spin-based approaches to quantum computation have made tremendous advances in the past several years. Coherent populations of spins can be oriented, manipulated and detected experimentally. Rapid progress has been made towards performing the same tasks on individual spins (nuclear, ionic, or electronic) with all-electrical means. Superconducting approaches to quantum computation have demonstrated single qubits based on charge eigenstates as well as flux eigenstates. These topics have been presented in a pedagogical fashion by leading researchers in the fields of semiconductor-spin-based qu...

  6. Robotic-Movement Payload Lifter and Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, William R. (Inventor); King, Bruce D. (Inventor); Collins, Timothy J. (Inventor); Dorsey, John T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A payload lifter/manipulator module includes a rotatable joint supporting spreader arms angularly spaced with respect to one another. A rigid arm is fixedly coupled to the joint and extends out therefrom to a tip. A tension arm has a first end and a second end with the first end being fixedly coupled to the tip of the rigid arm. The tension arm incorporates pivots along the length thereof. Each pivot can be engaged by or disengaged from the outboard end of a spreader arm based on a position of the spreader arm. A hoist, positioned remotely with respect to the module and coupled to the second end of the tension arm, controls the position of the spreader arms to thereby control the position of the rigid arm's tip. Payload lifter/manipulator assemblies can be constructed with one or more of the modules.

  7. Analyzing Array Manipulating Programs by Program Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, J. Robert M.; Gange, Graeme; Navas, Jorge A.; Schachte, Peter; Sondergaard, Harald; Stuckey, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    We explore a transformational approach to the problem of verifying simple array-manipulating programs. Traditionally, verification of such programs requires intricate analysis machinery to reason with universally quantified statements about symbolic array segments, such as "every data item stored in the segment A[i] to A[j] is equal to the corresponding item stored in the segment B[i] to B[j]." We define a simple abstract machine which allows for set-valued variables and we show how to translate programs with array operations to array-free code for this machine. For the purpose of program analysis, the translated program remains faithful to the semantics of array manipulation. Based on our implementation in LLVM, we evaluate the approach with respect to its ability to extract useful invariants and the cost in terms of code size.

  8. Manipulator Controlled since a Smartphone by Bluetooth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Niño, F; Pedroza, G Rodríguez; Baldivia, E G Castillo

    2015-01-01

    We present the design of transmitter interface of data between a microcontroller and Smartphone to control a robot. We used a Bluetooth module to send the commands to control the moving of the manipulator. The system is formed by three parts: the first part, the program made in Android. It is run on the Smartphone that controls the position of the robot. The second part is the reception board based in the PIC18F4550 that energizes the joints of the manipulator. The last part is the driver. It use an integrated circuit L293D that is configured in two full bridges H. This system is a good tool for learning of programing, sensors, actuators, robotic, electronic and design electronic

  9. Manipulation of vortex rings for flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Kuniaki; Hiramoto, Riho

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the dynamics of vortex rings and the control of flow by the manipulation of vortex rings. Vortex rings play key roles in many flows; hence, the understanding of the dynamics of vortex rings is crucial for scientists and engineers dealing with flow phenomena. We describe the structures and motions of vortex rings in circular and noncircular jets, which are typical examples of flows evolving into vortex rings. For circular jets the mechanism of evolving, merging and breakdown of vortex rings is described, and for noncircular jets the dynamics of three-dimensional deformation and interaction of noncircular vortex rings under the effect of self- and mutual induction is discussed. The application of vortex-ring manipulation to the control of various flows is reviewed with successful examples, based on the relationship between the vortex ring dynamics and the flow properties. (invited paper)

  10. Stock Price Manipulation: The Role of Intermediaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Siddiqi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We model a scenario in which there are three types of investors: fundamentalists, speculators, and trend-followers and an intermediary who cares about his reputation. Fundamentalists are rational investors with long horizons who are interested in the dividend stream. Speculators are rational investors who have short horizons and are interested in profiting from short-term price movements or capital gains. Trend-followers are behavioral investors who extrapolate price trends, and, consequently, are late entrants in the market. We show that an informed intermediary (broker can manipulate demand (consequently stock price without losing his reputation when there is information asymmetry. We also show that there is a trade-off between broker level competition for reputation and market liquidity. Broker level competition checks manipulation, but it adversely affects market liquidity.

  11. Single-photon manipulation in Nanophotonic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Lindskov

    Quantum dots in photonic nanostructures has long been known to be a very powerful and versatile solid-state platform for conducting quantum optics experiments. The present PhD thesis describes experimental demonstrations of single-photon generation and subsequent manipulation all realized...... on a gallium arsenide platform. This platform offers near-unity coupling between embedded single-photon emitters and a photonic mode, as well as the ability to suppress decoherence mechanisms, making it highly suited for quantum information applications. In this thesis we show how a single-photon router can...... be realized on a chip with embedded quantum dots. This allows for on-chip generation and manipulation of single photons. The router consists of an on-chip interferometer where the phase difference between the arms of the interferometer is controlled electrically. The response time of the device...

  12. Manipulating affective state influences conditioned appetitive responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaudova, Inna; Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; Effting, Marieke; Kindt, Merel; Beckers, Tom

    2017-10-06

    Affective states influence how individuals process information and behave. Some theories predict emotional congruency effects (e.g. preferential processing of negative information in negative affective states). Emotional congruency should theoretically obstruct the learning of reward associations (appetitive learning) and their ability to guide behaviour under negative mood. Two studies tested the effects of the induction of a negative affective state on appetitive Pavlovian learning, in which neutral stimuli were associated with chocolate (Experiment 1) or alcohol (Experiment 2) rewards. In both experiments, participants showed enhanced approach tendencies towards predictors of reward after a negative relative to a positive performance feedback manipulation. This increase was related to a reduction in positive affect in Experiment 1 only. No effects of the manipulation on conditioned reward expectancies, craving, or consumption were observed. Overall, our findings support the idea of counter-regulation, rather than emotional congruency effects. Negative affective states might therefore serve as a vulnerability factor for addiction, through increasing conditioned approach tendencies.

  13. Beam Techniques - Beam Control and Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, Michiko G

    2003-04-24

    We describe commonly used strategies for the control of charged particle beams and the manipulation of their properties. Emphasis is placed on relativistic beams in linear accelerators and storage rings. After a brief review of linear optics, we discuss basic and advanced beam control techniques, such as transverse and longitudinal lattice diagnostics, matching, orbit correction and steering, beam-based alignment, and linac emittance preservation. A variety of methods for the manipulation of particle beam properties are also presented, for instance, bunch length and energy compression, bunch rotation, changes to the damping partition number, and beam collimation. The different procedures are illustrated by examples from various accelerators. Special topics include injection and extraction methods, beam cooling, spin transport and polarization.

  14. Mental Models and Deliberate Manipulation of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koester, Thomas; Jakobsen, Jeanette; Brøsted, Jesper Ejdorf

    2015-01-01

    Human factors risk analysis and usability tests in telemedicine contexts primarily seek to investigate how to reduce the likelihood of slips, lapses and mistakes. However, to ensure trustworthiness in e-health data, one must also be aware of more intentional patient actions which could potentially...... compromise patient safety and/or the integrity of the system. The pilot study in this paper set out to explore mental models and deliberate manipulation of data in a Danish telemedicine setting of home monitoring among pregnant women. Results show, that patients construct mental models of the telemedicine...... system, and that the patient can utilize such mental models in attempts to manipulate their data input to get a desired output from the telemedicine system....

  15. A Structure-dependent matrix representation of manipulator kinematics and its inverse solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shinobu

    1987-03-01

    In this paper, derivation of kinematic equations for a six-link manipulator is presented using the homogeneous transformation (A i -matrix) based on Denavit-Hartenberg method, and additionally a solution procedure of its inverse problem is outlined. In order to examine the validity of a system of equations, solutions were compared with the exact ones of the inverse kinematics (for the same type of a manipulator) expressed in arbitrarily given co-ordinate systems. Through complete agreement of joint solutions between the two, the present purpose was accomplished. As shown in this paper, an explicit description between adjacent links will give a possible clue to a systematic treatment of the inverse problem for a class of manipulators. (author)

  16. Tipping the balance by manipulating posttranslational modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Christopher A.; Orth, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Summary Bacteria use a variety of mechanisms during infection to ensure their survival including the delivery of virulence factors via a type III secretion system into the infected cell. The factors exhibit diverse activities that in many cases mimic eukaryotic mechanisms used by the host to defend against infection. Herein we describe a class of effectors that use posttranslational modifications, some reversible and others irreversible, to manipulate host signaling systems to subvert the host response. PMID:20071215

  17. Interactive data manipulation program FAWTEK user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, W.B.

    1977-02-01

    The interactive data acquisitio and manipulation program FAWTEK is described. The program allows users of the electron beam data acquisition facility to control the R7912 digitizers and to perform a variety of mathematical operations on data arrays. Commands are entered in a high-level language via a Tektronix 4010 terminal console. Each command directive, aling with its associated parameters, is described in detail

  18. Resonant Laser Manipulation of an Atomic Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Technical Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Resonant Laser Manipulation of an Atomic Beam...steering and collimating flows with higher densities and energies than current common practice . One impediment to this extension is the development of...where Δεg is the ground state Stark shift, Ω is the Rabi frequency (related to intensity), Isat is the saturation intensity of the transition, and I(r

  19. Nucleotide Manipulatives to Illustrate the Central Dogma

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja B. Yung; Todd P. Primm

    2015-01-01

    The central dogma is a core concept that is critical for introductory biology and microbiology students to master. However, students often struggle to conceptualize the processes involved, and fail to move beyond simply memorizing the basic facts. To encourage critical thinking, we have designed a set of magnetic nucleotide manipulatives that allow students to model DNA structure, along with the processes of replication, transcription, and translation.

  20. Nucleotide Manipulatives to Illustrate the Central Dogma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja B. Yung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The central dogma is a core concept that is critical for introductory biology and microbiology students to master. However, students often struggle to conceptualize the processes involved, and fail to move beyond simply memorizing the basic facts. To encourage critical thinking, we have designed a set of magnetic nucleotide manipulatives that allow students to model DNA structure, along with the processes of replication, transcription, and translation.

  1. The Ethics/ Skills Interface in Image Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Webber

    2000-01-01

    Image manipulation using computer technology has become a basic skill required in various graphics dependent industries such as advertising, and the print and electronic media, and for specialist use in institutions for in-house and on-line publishing and the creation of Web pages. The 'seamless' alteration of photographs and other visual images made possible by computer technology has allowed misrepresentation with intent to deceive, and difficulty in establishing copyright of original image...

  2. Detecting price manipulation in the financial market

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Yi; Li, Yuhua; Coleman, Sonya; Belatreche, Ammar; McGinnity, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Market abuse has attracted much attention from financial regulators around the world but it is difficult to fully prevent. One of the reasons is the lack of thoroughly studies of the market abuse strategies and the corresponding effective market abuse approaches. In this paper, the strategies of reported price manipulation cases are analysed as well as the related empirical studies. A transformation is then defined to convert the time-varying financial trading data into pseudo-stationary time...

  3. Using Cognitive Dissonance to Manipulate Social Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Oxoby, Robert J.; Smith, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We explore the role of cognitive dissonance in dictator and public goods games. Specifically, we motivate cognitive dissonance between one's perception of “fair treatment” and self-interested behaviour by having participants answer a question about fairness. Utilizing two manipulations (reminding participants about their answer to the fairness question and publicly reporting aggregate answers to the question), we find that there is greater cognitive dissonance and behavioural change when ther...

  4. Magnus force effect in optical manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipparrone, Gabriella; Pagliusi, Pasquale; Hernandez, Raul Josue; Provenzano, Clementina

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the Magnus force in optical micromanipulation has been observed. An ad hoc experiment has been designed based on a one-dimensional optical trap that carries angular momentum. The observed particle dynamics reveals the occurrence of this hydrodynamic force, which is neglected in the common approach. Its measured value is larger than the one predicted by the existing theoretical models for micrometric particles and low Reynolds number, showing that the Magnus force can contribute to unconventional optohydrodynamic trapping and manipulation.

  5. IMp: The customizable LEGO® Pinned Insect Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Dupont

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a pinned insect manipulator (IMp constructed of LEGO® building bricks with two axes of movement and two axes of rotation. In addition we present three variants of the IMp to emphasise the modular design, which facilitates resizing to meet the full range of pinned insect specimens, is fully customizable, collapsible, affordable and does not require specialist tools or knowledge to assemble.

  6. IMp: The customizable LEGO® Pinned Insect Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Steen; Price, Benjamin; Blagoderov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present a pinned insect manipulator (IMp) constructed of LEGO® building bricks with two axes of movement and two axes of rotation. In addition we present three variants of the IMp to emphasise the modular design, which facilitates resizing to meet the full range of pinned insect specimens, is fully customizable, collapsible, affordable and does not require specialist tools or knowledge to assemble. PMID:25685035

  7. Manipulating cold atoms for quantum information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: I will describe how cold atoms can be manipulated to realize arrays of addressable qbits as prototype quantum registers, focussing on how atom chips can be used in combination with cavity qed techniques to form such an array. I will discuss how the array can be generated and steered using optical lattices and the Mott transition, and describe the sources of noise and how these place limits on the use of such chips in quantum information processing. (author)

  8. Acoustic manipulation: Bessel beams and active carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Majid; Mojahed, Alireza

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we address the interaction of zero-order acoustic Bessel beams as an acoustic manipulation tool, with an active spherical shell, as a carrier in drug, agent, or material delivery systems, in order to investigate the controllability of exerted acoustic radiation force as the driver. The active body is comprised of a spherical elastic shell stimulated in its monopole mode of vibrations with the same frequency as the incident wave field via an internally bonded and spatially uniformly excited piezoelectric actuator. The main aim of this work is to examine the performance of a nondiffracting and self-reconstructing zero-order Bessel beam to obtain the full manipulability condition of active carriers in comparison with the case of a plane wave field. The results unveil some unique potentials of the Bessel beams in the company of active carriers, with emphasis on the consumed power of the actuation system. This paper will widen the path toward the single-beam robust acoustic manipulation techniques and may lead to the prospect of combined tweezers and fields, with applications in delivery systems, microswimmers, and trapper designs.

  9. Soft Manipulators and Grippers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie Hughes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soft robotics is a growing area of research which utilises the compliance and adaptability of soft structures to develop highly adaptive robotics for soft interactions. One area in which soft robotics has the ability to make significant impact is in the development of soft grippers and manipulators. With an increased requirement for automation, robotics systems are required to perform task in unstructured and not well defined environments; conditions which conventional rigid robotics are not best suited. This requires a paradigm shift in the methods and materials used to develop robots such that they can adapt to and work safely in human environments. One solution to this is soft robotics, which enables soft interactions with the surroundings whilst maintaining the ability to apply significant force. This review paper assess the current materials and methods, actuation methods and sensors which are used in the development of soft manipulators. The achievements and shortcomings of recent technology in these key areas are evaluated, and this paper concludes with a discussion on the potential impacts of soft manipulators on industry and society.

  10. Modeling of Flexible Beams for Robotic Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Jorge; Ayala Botto, Miguel; Costa, Jose sa da

    2002-01-01

    This work treats the problem of modeling robotic manipulators with structural flexibility. A mathematical model of a planar manipulator with a single flexible link is developed. This model is capable of reproducing nonlinear dynamic effects, such as the beam stiffening due to the centrifugal forces induced by the rotation of the joints, giving it the capability to predict reliable dynamic behaviors for a wide range of applications. On the other hand, the model complexity is reduced, in order to keep it amenable for analysis and controller design. The models found in current literature for control design of flexible manipulator arms present dynamic limitations for the sake of real time implementation in a control scheme. These limitations are the result of premature linearization in the formulation of the dynamics equations. In this paper, this common linearization is presented and their dynamic limitations uncovered. An alternative reliable model is then presented. The model is founded on two basic assumptions: inextensibility of the neutral fiber and moderate rotations of the cross sections in order to account for the foreshortening of the beam due to bending. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed model has the closest dynamic behavior to the real beam

  11. Kinesthetic coupling between operator and remote manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Salisbury, J. K., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A universal force-reflecting hand controller has been developed which allows the establishment of a kinesthetic coupling between the operator and a remote manipulator. The six-degree-of-freedom controller was designed to generate forces and torques on its three positional and three rotational axes in order to permit the operator to accurately feel the forces encountered by the manipulator and be as transparent to operate as possible. The universal controller has been used in an application involving a six-degree-of-freedom mechanical arm equipped with a six-dimensional force-torque sensor at its base. In this application, the hand controller acts as a position control input device to the arm, while forces and torques sensed at the base of the mechanical hand back drive the hand controller. The positional control relation and the back driving of the controller according to inputs experienced by the force-torque sensor are established through complex mathematical transformations performed by a minicomputer. The hand controller is intended as a development tool for investigating force-reflecting master-slave manipulator control technology.

  12. Authorship and citation manipulation in academic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Some scholars add authors to their research papers or grant proposals even when those individuals contribute nothing to the research effort. Some journal editors coerce authors to add citations that are not pertinent to their work and some authors pad their reference lists with superfluous citations. How prevalent are these types of manipulation, why do scholars stoop to such practices, and who among us is most susceptible to such ethical lapses? This study builds a framework around how intense competition for limited journal space and research funding can encourage manipulation and then uses that framework to develop hypotheses about who manipulates and why they do so. We test those hypotheses using data from over 12,000 responses to a series of surveys sent to more than 110,000 scholars from eighteen different disciplines spread across science, engineering, social science, business, and health care. We find widespread misattribution in publications and in research proposals with significant variation by academic rank, discipline, sex, publication history, co-authors, etc. Even though the majority of scholars disapprove of such tactics, many feel pressured to make such additions while others suggest that it is just the way the game is played. The findings suggest that certain changes in the review process might help to stem this ethical decline, but progress could be slow. PMID:29211744

  13. On-chip particle trapping and manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Kaelyn Danielle

    The ability to control and manipulate the world around us is human nature. Humans and our ancestors have used tools for millions of years. Only in recent years have we been able to control objects at such small levels. In order to understand the world around us it is frequently necessary to interact with the biological world. Optical trapping and manipulation offer a non-invasive way to move, sort and interact with particles and cells to see how they react to the world around them. Optical tweezers are ideal in their abilities but they require large, non-portable, and expensive setups limiting how and where we can use them. A cheap portable platform is required in order to have optical manipulation reach its full potential. On-chip technology offers a great solution to this challenge. We focused on the Liquid-Core Anti-Resonant Reflecting Optical Waveguide (liquid-core ARROW) for our work. The ARROW is an ideal platform, which has anti-resonant layers which allow light to be guided in liquids, allowing for particles to easily be manipulated. It is manufactured using standard silicon manufacturing techniques making it easy to produce. The planner design makes it easy to integrate with other technologies. Initially I worked to improve the ARROW chip by reducing the intersection losses and by reducing the fluorescence and background on the ARROW chip. The ARROW chip has already been used to trap and push particles along its channel but here I introduce several new methods of particle trapping and manipulation on the ARROW chip. Traditional two beam traps use two counter propagating beams. A trapping scheme that uses two orthogonal beams which counter to first instinct allow for trapping at their intersection is introduced. This scheme is thoroughly predicted and analyzed using realistic conditions. Simulations of this method were done using a program which looks at both the fluidics and optical sources to model complex situations. These simulations were also used to

  14. Basic conceptions for reactor pressure vessel manipulators and their evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, P.

    1987-01-01

    The study deals with application fields and basic design conceptions of manipulators in reactor pressure vessels as well as their evaluation. It is shown that manipulators supported at the reactor flange have essential advantages

  15. Stock Market Manipulation on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionigi Gerace

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to empirically examine stock market manipulation on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. The dataset contains 40 cases of market manipulation from 1996 to 2009 that were successfully prosecuted by the Hong Kong Securities & Futures Commission. Manipulation is found to negatively impact market efficiency measures such as the bid-ask spread and volatility. Markets appear incapable of efficiently responding to the presence of manipulators and are characterised by information asymmetry. Manipulators were successfully able to raise prices and exit the market. This finding contradicts views that trade-based manipulation is entirely unprofitable and self-deterring. The victimisation of information-seeking investors and the market as a whole provides a strong rationale for all jurisdictions, including Australia, to have effective laws that prohibit manipulation and for robust enforcement of those laws to further deter market manipulation.

  16. Complications of spinal manipulation : A comprehensive review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assendelft, Willem J.J.; Bouter, Lex M.; Knipschild, Paul G.

    1996-01-01

    Background. Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is a frequently applied therapy for back and neck pain. Serious complications of SMT are presented primarily in case reports. Many patients seen by physicians also seek care from therapists applying manipulative techniques. Therefore, background

  17. Simple UHV offset manipulator with independent theta and phi rotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, K.D.; Dunning, F.B.

    1984-01-01

    A simple UHV offset manipulator is described that not only allows a target crystal to be moved to any point on a circle centered on the manipulator axis but also provides indepedent theta and phi rotations at each position

  18. System Integration for Real-time Mobile Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Oftadeh, Reza; Aref, Mohammad M.; Ghabcheloo, Reza; Mattila, Jouni

    2014-01-01

    Mobile manipulators are one of the most complicated types of mechatronics systems. The performance of these robots in performing complex manipulation tasks is highly correlated with the synchronization and integration of their low-level components. This paper discusses in detail the mechatronics design of a four wheel steered mobile manipulator. It presents the manipulator ’s mechanical structure and electrical interfaces, designs low-level software architecture based on embedded PC-based con...

  19. WORKSPACE DRAWING FROM A MANIPULATOR ARM WITH 6 DOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAIDIN Gigi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Modelling and simulation is an important aspect in robotic field. Knowing of the workspace is very important to the operation of manipulators arm. This paper investigates operational performance of space manipulator arm destined for industrial manufacturing, by defining and analyzing their workspace and manipulability measure. The authors show that manipulator arm developing requires the consideration of more efficient dynamic models and use of dedicated processing techniques such as Autodesk-Inventor 9, MATLAB, WorkSpace software.

  20. Converting nested algebra expressions into flat algebra expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paredaens, J.; Van Gucht, D.

    1992-01-01

    Nested relations generalize ordinary flat relations by allowing tuple values to be either atomic or set valued. The nested algebra is a generalization of the flat relational algebra to manipulate nested relations. In this paper we study the expressive power of the nested algebra relative to its

  1. How to Make the Most of Math Manipulatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Marilyn

    1996-01-01

    A discussion of how to use math manipulatives to teach elementary students focuses on essential program elements: what math manipulatives are and why they are used, common questions about math manipulatives, how one teacher introduced the geoboard into the classroom, and pattern block activities. (SM)

  2. Digital Manipulation in Scientific Images: Some Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of images in the publishing and presentation of scientific research. Explains the use of photographs as scientific data in research. Lists some reasons for the manipulation of images, and clarifies the acceptable and unacceptable limits of manipulation and image manipulation policy. (Author/YDS)

  3. Optical Manipulation System Using a Plurality of Optical Traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical manipulation system (10) for generation of a plurality of optical traps for manipulation of micro-objects including nano-objects using electromagnetic radiation forces in a micro-object manipulation volume (14), the system comprising a spatially modulat...

  4. MA-23-6000: underwater bilateral servo master slave manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertut, Jean

    The different types of manipulators, recent data on their dexterity and the underwater work possible with servo master slave manipulators are reviewed. The general specifications of the manipulator MA 23-6000 designed for the machine ERIC II are given [fr

  5. An overview of the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, W.D.; Hayward, D.R.; Jones, D.P.; Sanchez, A.; Shirey, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a high mobility platform integrated with high strength manipulation is under development at Sandia National Laboratories. The mobility platform used is a High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV). Manipulation is provided by two Titan 7F Schilling manipulators integrated onboard the HMMWV. The current state of development is described and future plans are discussed

  6. The Anatomy of Virtual Manipulative Apps: Using Grounded Theory to Conceptualize and Evaluate Educational Apps that Contain Virtual Manipulatives

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer-Thurgood, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study used grounded theory to investigate the anatomy of educational apps that contain virtual manipulatives. For this study 100 virtual manipulatives within educational apps designed for the iPad were observed by the researcher in order to expand the explanations of and build theory about virtual manipulatives within apps. Affordance theory was used to frame all six phases of the study in which the researcher identified virtual manipulatives situated within educa...

  7. Temperature manipulation during layer chick embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstra, I; Ten Napel, J; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2010-07-01

    The current study investigated the effects of temperature manipulation (TM) during late embryogenesis on temperature preference, response to high environmental temperature, behavior, and performance in young layer chicks. Control (CC) embryos (n = 96) were incubated at 37.8 degrees C eggshell temperature throughout incubation. Thermally manipulated embryos (n = 96) were incubated at 37.8 degrees C eggshell temperature throughout incubation and were exposed to 40 degrees C for 4 h/d from embryonic d 14 to 18 (TM chicks). After hatch, chicks from each treatment were divided into 3 subgroups (n = 32 per group) and were subjected to a temperature preference test at d 1, 7, or 33. One day after the temperature preference test, each subgroup was exposed to 1 thermal challenge for 4 h (d 2, 40 degrees C; d 8, 40 degrees C; or d 34, 35 degrees C). Effects of TM on (fearfulness) behavior of chicks were investigated in a tonic immobility test and during home pen observations. Temperature manipulation decreased incubation time with 7 h (P preferred a lower ambient temperature in the temperature preference test (P preference and response to high environmental temperatures are only found until d 8 of age. This may suggest 1 of 3 options: a) the timing or the level, or both, of TM and duration were not at the sensitive period of embryogenesis or not sufficient, or both, respectively; b) the level of the postnatal thermal challenge was not strong enough to induce a hyperthermic response; and c) the postnatal effects of TM in layers are limited in time.

  8. Manipulation of host membranes by bacterial effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Hyeilin; Sreelatha, Anju; Orth, Kim

    2011-07-18

    Bacterial pathogens interact with host membranes to trigger a wide range of cellular processes during the course of infection. These processes include alterations to the dynamics between the plasma membrane and the actin cytoskeleton, and subversion of the membrane-associated pathways involved in vesicle trafficking. Such changes facilitate the entry and replication of the pathogen, and prevent its phagocytosis and degradation. In this Review, we describe the manipulation of host membranes by numerous bacterial effectors that target phosphoinositide metabolism, GTPase signalling and autophagy.

  9. Control Automation in Undersea Search and Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltman, Gershon; Freedy, Amos

    1974-01-01

    Automatic decision making and control mechanisms of the type termed "adaptive" or "intelligent" offer unique advantages for exploration and manipulation of the undersea environment, particularly at great depths. Because they are able to carry out human-like functions autonomously, such mechanisms can aid and extend the capabilities of the human operator. This paper reviews past and present work in the areas of adaptive control and robotics with the purpose of establishing logical guidelines for the application of automatic techniques underwater. Experimental research data are used to illustrate the importance of information feedback, personnel training, and methods of control allocation in the interaction between operator and intelligent machine.

  10. Haptic rendering for simulation of fine manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhang, Yuru

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the latest progress in six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) haptic rendering with the focus on a new approach for simulating force/torque feedback in performing tasks that require dexterous manipulation skills. One of the major challenges in 6-DoF haptic rendering is to resolve the conflict between high speed and high fidelity requirements, especially in simulating a tool interacting with both rigid and deformable objects in a narrow space and with fine features. The book presents a configuration-based optimization approach to tackle this challenge. Addressing a key issue in man

  11. The offense of capital market manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MANEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The novelty and use of current technology in stock exchange trading operations are just a few reasons for which the capital market domain is a controversial one, and the number of crimes already committed in the financial market raises the issue of securing the supply-demand relationship of capital and capital investment protection. If in the Community law there is no incrimination of market abuse, Romanian legislature sanctioned the capital market manipulation as criminal acts committed intentionally in order to discourage such practices and also to increase the confidence of investors in the financial market

  12. Sound beam manipulation based on temperature gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Feng [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Physics & Electronic Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Quan, Li; Liu, Xiaozhou, E-mail: xzliu@nju.edu.cn; Gong, Xiufen [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics and School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-10-28

    Previous research with temperature gradients has shown the feasibility of controlling airborne sound propagation. Here, we present a temperature gradients based airborne sound manipulation schemes: a cylindrical acoustic omnidirectional absorber (AOA). The proposed AOA has high absorption performance which can almost completely absorb the incident wave. Geometric acoustics is used to obtain the refractive index distributions with different radii, which is then utilized to deduce the desired temperature gradients. Since resonant units are not applied in the scheme, its working bandwidth is expected to be broadband. The scheme is temperature-tuned and easy to realize, which is of potential interest to fields such as noise control or acoustic cloaking.

  13. Boiler inspection manipulator for Torness Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrey, R.T.A.; Yule, I.Y.; Sibson, S.; Playle, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors at Torness and Heysham 2 are provided with dedicated access for remote inspection equipment. These in-service inspection (ISI) accesses comprise 12 penetrations above the core for inspection of the above core area and boilers, 12 below core penetrations for inspection of the lower boiler area and access through any of the 8 gas circulator penetrations for inspection of the sub-diagrid area. This paper describes a manipulator which will access the reactor from above the core via any of the 8 peripheral penetrations. (UK)

  14. Do Hedge Funds Manipulate Stock Prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-David, Itzhak; Franzoni, Francesco; Landier, Augustin; Moussawi, Rabih

    2011-01-01

    We find evidence of significant price manipulation at the stock level by hedge funds on critical reporting dates. Stocks in the top quartile by hedge fund holdings exhibit abnormal returns of 30 basis points in the last day of the month and a reversal of 25 basis points in the following day. Using intraday data, we show that a significant part of the return is earned during the last minutes of the last day of the month, at an increasing rate towards the closing bell. This evidence is consiste...

  15. In-vessel maintenance remote manipulator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, E.

    1978-01-01

    The radiation environment within the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) vacuum vessel necessitates the development of a Remote Manipulator System (RMS) to perform required periodic inspection and maintenance tasks. The RMS must be able to perform dexterous operations and handle loads that exceed human capabilities. The limited size of the access ports on the TFTR vacuum vessel and the performance profile, defined by the various handling requirements, present unique design constraints. The design approach and formulation of a RMS configuration which satisfies TFTR requirements is presented herein

  16. Regeneration in bipinnaria larvae of the bat star Patiria miniata induces rapid and broad new gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Heyland, Andreas; Carrier, Tyler J; Zazueta-Novoa, Vanesa; Fresques, Tara; Laird, Jessica; Onorato, Thomas M; Janies, Daniel; Wessel, Gary

    2016-11-01

    Some metazoa have the capacity to regenerate lost body parts. This phenomenon in adults has been classically described in echinoderms, especially in sea stars (Asteroidea). Sea star bipinnaria larvae can also rapidly and effectively regenerate a complete larva after surgical bisection. Understanding the capacity to reverse cell fates in the larva is important from both a developmental and biomedical perspective; yet, the mechanisms underlying regeneration in echinoderms are poorly understood. Here, we describe the process of bipinnaria regeneration after bisection in the bat star Patiria miniata. We tested transcriptional, translational, and cell proliferation activity after bisection in anterior and posterior bipinnaria halves as well as expression of SRAP, reported as a sea star regeneration associated protease (Vickery et al., 2001b). Moreover, we found several genes whose transcripts increased in abundance following bisection, including: Vasa, dysferlin, vitellogenin 1 and vitellogenin 2. These results show a transformation following bisection, especially in the anterior halves, of cell fate reassignment in all three germ layers, with clear and predictable changes. These results define molecular events that accompany the cell fate changes coincident to the regenerative response in echinoderm larvae. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The application of manipulator robot for nuclear power plant maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Jun; Onishi, Ken

    2009-01-01

    In the maintenance works at nuclear power plant, robots are used because of high radiation, narrow space and underwater work. In light of manufacture period, cost and reliability, various maintenance works are requested to be done by one robot. As one of the solutions, we developed manipulator robots for the access of specialized tools. This study shows manipulator robots developed by MHI, application example to maintenance works and effectiveness of manipulator robots. When robotization of maintenance works are considered, manipulator technology is very effective solution means. The manipulator technologies in this study are able to apply to robotization needed under radiation environment. (author)

  18. The application of manipulator robot for nuclear plant maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohata, Yukifumi; Fujita, Jun; Onishi, Ken; Tsuhari, Hiroyuki; Hosoe, Fumihiro

    2010-01-01

    In the maintenance works at nuclear power plant, robots are used because of high radiation, narrow space and underwater work. Various robots are needed because there is various maintenance works. This is inefficiency. As the solutions, we developed manipulator robots for the access of specialized tools. This study shows manipulator robots developed by MHI, application example to maintenance works and effectiveness of manipulator robots. When robotization of maintenance works are considered, manipulator technology is very effective solution means. We achieved efficiency improvement and the reliability improvement by developing a high generality manipulator. (author)

  19. Towards the genetic manipulation of mosquito disease vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crampton, J.M.; Lycett, G.J.; Warren, A.

    1998-01-01

    Our research is aimed at developing the technologies necessary to undertake the genetic manipulation of insect vector genomes. In the longer term, we wish to explore the potential that this technology may have for developing novel strategies for the control of vector-borne diseases. The focus of our current research has been to: i) identify and characterise endogenous transposable elements in the genomes of mosquito vectors -research has focussed on identifying both Class I and Class 11 elements and determining their structure and distribution within mosquito genomes; ii) develop and use transfection systems for mosquito cells in culture as a test bed for transformation vectors and promoters - transfection techniques, vector constructs and different promoters driving reporter genes have been utilised to optimise the transformation of both Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae cells in culture; iii) identify putative promoter sequences which are induced in the female mosquito midgut when it takes a blood meal - the Anopheles gambiae trypsin gene locus has been cloned and sequenced and the intergenic regions assessed for their ability to induce reporter gene expression in mosquito gut cells. The progress we have made in each of these areas will be described and discussed in the context of our longer term aim which is to introduce genes coding for antiparasitic agents into mosquito genomes in such a way that they are expressed in the mosquito midgut and disrupt transmission of the malaria parasite. (author)

  20. Towards the genetic manipulation of mosquito disease vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crampton, J M; Lycett, G J; Warren, A [Division of Molecular Biology and Immunology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    1998-01-01

    Our research is aimed at developing the technologies necessary to undertake the genetic manipulation of insect vector genomes. In the longer term, we wish to explore the potential that this technology may have for developing novel strategies for the control of vector-borne diseases. The focus of our current research has been to: i) identify and characterise endogenous transposable elements in the genomes of mosquito vectors -research has focussed on identifying both Class I and Class 11 elements and determining their structure and distribution within mosquito genomes; ii) develop and use transfection systems for mosquito cells in culture as a test bed for transformation vectors and promoters - transfection techniques, vector constructs and different promoters driving reporter genes have been utilised to optimise the transformation of both Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae cells in culture; iii) identify putative promoter sequences which are induced in the female mosquito midgut when it takes a blood meal - the Anopheles gambiae trypsin gene locus has been cloned and sequenced and the intergenic regions assessed for their ability to induce reporter gene expression in mosquito gut cells. The progress we have made in each of these areas will be described and discussed in the context of our longer term aim which is to introduce genes coding for antiparasitic agents into mosquito genomes in such a way that they are expressed in the mosquito midgut and disrupt transmission of the malaria parasite. (author). 41 refs, 2 figs.

  1. Evaluation of group theoretical characteristics using the symbolic manipulation language MAPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneri, U.; Paldus, J.

    1994-01-01

    Relying on theoretical developments exploiting quasispin and the pseudo-orthogonal group in the Hubbard model of cyclic polyenes, the general expressions for generating polynomials, providing the dimensional information for relevant irreducible representations, were derived. These generating polynomials result from 1-dimensional formulas through rather tedious algebraic manipulations involving ratios of polynomials with fractional powers. It is shown that these expressions may be efficiently handled using the symbolic manipulation language MAPLE and the dimensional information for an arbitrary spin, isospin, and quasimomentum obtained. Exploitation of symbolic computation for other group theoretical problems that are relevant in quantum chemical calculations and their relationship with Guassian polynomial based combinatorial approaches is also briefly addressed and various possible applications outlined

  2. Gender differences in emotion experience perception under different facial muscle manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Dongjun; Zou, Feng; Li, Hao; Luo, Yanyan; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Yijun

    2016-04-01

    According to embodied emotion theory, facial manipulations should modulate and initiate particular emotions. However, whether there are gender differences in emotion experience perception under different facial muscle manipulations is not clear. Therefore, we conducted two behavioral experiments to examine gender differences in emotional perception in response to facial expressions (sad, neutral, and happy) under three conditions: (1) holding a pen using only the teeth (HPT), which facilitates the muscles typically associated with smiling; (2) holding a pen using only the lips (HPL), which inhibits the muscles typically associated with smiling; and (3) a control condition--hold no pen (HNP). We found that HPT made the emotional feelings more positive, and that the change degree of female's ratings of sad facial expressions between conditions (HPL to HPT) was larger than males'. These results suggested cognition can be affected by the interaction of the stimuli and the body, especially the female. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Path planning of master-slave manipulator using graphic simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Song, T. K.; Park, B. S.; Yoon, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    To handle the high level radioactive materials such as spent fuels remotely, the master-slave manipulator is generally used as a remote handling equipment in the hot cell. To analyze the motion and to implement the training system by virtual reality technology, the simulator for M-S manipulator using the computer graphics is developed. The parts are modelled in 3-D graphics, assembled, and kinematics are assigned. The inverse kinematics of the manipulator is defined, and the slave of manipulator is coupled with master by the manipulator's specification. Also, the virtual work cell is implemented in the graphical environment which is the same as the real environment and the path planning method using the function of the collision detection for a manipulator are proposed. This graphic simulator of manipulator can be effectively used in designing of the maintenance processes for the hot cell equipment and enhance the reliability of the spent fuel management

  4. Real-time multiple image manipulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenson, J.S.; Shalev, S.; Legris, J.; Goertzen, Y.

    1984-01-01

    There are many situations in which it is desired to manipulate two or more images under real-time operator control. The authors have investigated a number of such cases in order to determine their value and applicability in clinical medicine and laboratory research. Several examples are presented in detail. The DICOM-8 video image computer system was used due to its capability of storing two 512 x 512 x 8 bit images and operating on them, and/or an incoming video frame, with any of a number of real time operations including addition, subtraction, inversion, averaging, logical AND, NAND, OR, NOR, NOT, XOR and XNOR, as well as combinations of these. Some applications involve manipulations of or among the stored images. In others, a stored image is used as a mask or template for positioning or adjusting a second image to be grabbed via a video camera. The accuracy of radiotherapy treatment is verified by comparing port films with the original radiographic planning film, which is previously digitized and stored. Moving the port film on the light box while viewing the real-time subtraction image allows for adjustments of zoom, translation and rotation, together with contrast and edge enhancement

  5. Kinematics and trajectory synthesis of manipulation robots

    CERN Document Server

    Vukobratović, Miomir

    1986-01-01

    A few words about the series "Scientific Fundamentals of Robotics" should be said on the occasion of publication of the present monograph. This six-volume series has been conceived so as to allow the readers to master a contemporary approach to the construction and synthesis of con­ trol for manipulation ~obots. The authors' idea was to show how to use correct mathematical models of the dynamics of active spatial mecha­ nisms for dynamic analysis of robotic systems, optimal design of their mechanical parts based on the accepted criteria and imposed constraints, optimal choice of actuators, synthesis of dynamic control algorithms and their microcomputer implementation. In authors' oppinion this idea has been relatively successfully realized within the six-volume mono­ graphic series. Let us remind the readers of the books of this series. Volumes 1 and 2 are devoted to the dynamics and control algorithms of manipulation ro­ bots, respectively. They form the first part of the series which has a certain topic...

  6. Acoustic manipulation of bacteria cells suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    GutiéRrez-Ramos, Salomé; Hoyos, Mauricio; Aider, Jean Luc; Ruiz, Carlos; Acoustofluidics Team Team; Soft; Bio Group Collaboration

    An acoustic contacless manipulation gives advantages in the exploration of the complex dynamics enviroment that active matter exhibits. Our works reports the control confinement and dispersion of Escherichia coliRP437-pZA3R-YFP suspensions (M9Glu-Ca) via acoustic levitation.The manipulation of the bacteria bath in a parallel plate resonator is achieved using the acoustic radiation force and the secondary radiation force. The primary radiation force generates levitation of the bacteria cells at the nodal plane of the ultrasonic standing wave generated inside the resonator. On the other side, secondary forces leads to the consolidation of stable aggregates. All the experiments were performed in the acoustic trap described, where we excite the emission plate with a continuous sinusoidal signal at a frequency in the order of MHz and a quartz slide as the reflector plate. In a typical experiment we observed that, before the input of the signal, the bacteria cells exhibit their typical run and tumble behavior and after the sound is turned on all of them displace towards the nodal plane, and instantaneously the aggregation begins in this region. CNRS French National Space Studies, CONACYT Mexico.

  7. Phononic fluidics: acoustically activated droplet manipulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboud, Julien; Wilson, Rab; Bourquin, Yannyk; Zhang, Yi; Neale, Steven L.; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    2011-02-01

    Microfluidic systems have faced challenges in handling real samples and the chip interconnection to other instruments. Here we present a simple interface, where surface acoustic waves (SAWs) from a piezoelectric device are coupled into a disposable acoustically responsive microfluidic chip. By manipulating droplets, SAW technologies have already shown their potential in microfluidics, but it has been limited by the need to rely upon mixed signal generation at multiple interdigitated electrode transducers (IDTs) and the problematic resulting reflections, to allow complex fluid operations. Here, a silicon chip was patterned with phononic structures, engineering the acoustic field by using a full band-gap. It was simply coupled to a piezoelectric LiNbO3 wafer, propagating the SAW, via a thin film of water. Contrary to the use of unstructured superstrates, phononic metamaterials allowed precise spatial control of the acoustic energy and hence its interaction with the liquids placed on the surface of the chip, as demonstrated by simulations. We further show that the acoustic frequency influences the interaction between the SAW and the phononic lattice, providing a route to programme complex fluidic manipulation onto the disposable chip. The centrifugation of cells from a blood sample is presented as a more practical demonstration of the potential of phononic crystals to realize diagnostic systems.

  8. Analysis, reconstruction and manipulation using arterial snakes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Guo

    2010-01-01

    Man-made objects often consist of detailed and interleaving structures, which are created using cane, coils, metal wires, rods, etc. The delicate structures, although manufactured using simple procedures, are challenging to scan and reconstruct. We observe that such structures are inherently 1D, and hence are naturally represented using an arrangement of generating curves. We refer to the resultant surfaces as arterial surfaces. In this paper we approach for analyzing, reconstructing, and manipulating such arterial surfaces. The core of the algorithm is a novel deformable model, called arterial snake, that simultaneously captures the topology and geometry of the arterial objects. The recovered snakes produce a natural decomposition of the raw scans, with the decomposed parts often capturing meaningful object sections. We demonstrate the robustness of our algorithm on a variety of arterial objects corrupted with noise, outliers, and with large parts missing. We present a range of applications including reconstruction, topology repairing, and manipulation of arterial surfaces by directly controlling the underlying curve network and the associated sectional profiles, which are otherwise challenging to perform. © 2010 ACM.

  9. Dynamic Analysis of Tele-manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Min Sig; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Doo Ho; Choi, Sun Il [Kyungwon Univ., Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    The manipulator can move linearly along X and Y-axes and has 6-degree rotational freedom. All deriving electric motors are mounted on the base platform to reduce inertia of links and tendons are used to transmit torque from the motors to the corresponding joints. In this report, a dynamic analysis of the manipulator has been carried out. Based on the dimensions of the designed links and allowable maximum rotational constraints on all joints, the maximum torque has been analyzed and working volume has been derived graphically through a numerical analysis. The Danavit-Hartenverg coordinate has been used through out this report. An inverse kinematic model which includes 3-linear and 3-rotational motions of the end effector and its numerical simulation program have been developed. The simulation results showed its validity and usefulness. The program are written in Symbolic Math provided by MatLab. A dynamic model which consists of rigid link dynamic models , driving motors and tendons which are used to tranmit the torques between motors and the corresponding joints. A simulation model written in Simmechanics has been derived and its validity and its usefulness were verified along with some simulation results.

  10. Embodied cognition, abstract concepts, and body manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinka eDijkstra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Current approaches on cognition hold that concrete concepts are grounded in concrete experiences. There is no consensus, however, as to whether this is equally true for abstract concepts. In this review we discuss how the body might be involved in understanding abstract concepts through metaphor activation. Substantial research has been conducted on the activation of common orientational metaphors with bodily manipulations, such as ‘power is up’ and ‘more is up’ representations. We will focus on the political metaphor that has a more complex association between the concept and the concrete domain. However, the outcomes of studies on this political metaphor have not always been consistent, possibly because the experimental manipulation was not implicit enough. The inclusion of new technological devices in this area of research, such as the Wii Balance Board, seems promising in order to assess the groundedness of abstract conceptual spatial metaphors in an implicit manner. This may aid further research to effectively demonstrate the interrelatedness between the body and more abstract representations.

  11. Behavior-Based Assists for Telerobotic Manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, Mark W.; Hamel, Dr. William R.

    2008-01-01

    Teleoperated manipulation has been a critical tool in hazardous operations where the presence of humans has been precluded since the early days of nuclear material handling. Performance levels and limitations were understood and accepted. However, in the current era of decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy, there has been criticism that traditional remote systems are too expensive, too slow, and too difficult to use by cost-driven demolition companies. Previous research in telerobotics has attempted to alleviate some of these issues; however, it has been difficult to get capabilities generated in the research lab into the field. One major difficulty is the severely unstructured environments found in real D and D type environments. Behavior-based robotics (BBR) is based on concepts specifically designed to permit autonomous robots to function in unstructured environments. BBR schemes use sensor data to interact with the world directly rather than to generate models that are manipulated. Because the robot is immersed in its environment and since sensors are mounted on the robot, sensing and motion are inherently calibrated with respect to the robot. This paper presents a behavior-based approach and architecture for executing telerobotic D and D type tooling tasks

  12. Fungal Production and Manipulation of Plant Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Sandra; Radhakrishnan, Dhanya; Prasad, Kalika; Chini, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Living organisms are part of a highly interconnected web of interactions, characterised by species nurturing, competing, parasitizing and preying on one another. Plants have evolved cooperative as well as defensive strategies to interact with neighbour organisms. Among these, the plant-fungus associations are very diverse, ranging from pathogenic to mutualistic. Our current knowledge of plant-fungus interactions suggests a sophisticated coevolution to ensure dynamic plant responses to evolving fungal mutualistic/pathogenic strategies. The plant-fungus communication relies on a rich chemical language. To manipulate the plant defence mechanisms, fungi produce and secrete several classes of biomolecules, whose modeof- action is largely unknown. Upon perception of the fungi, plants produce phytohormones and a battery of secondary metabolites that serve as defence mechanism against invaders or to promote mutualistic associations. These mutualistic chemical signals can be co-opted by pathogenic fungi for their own benefit. Among the plant molecules regulating plant-fungus interaction, phytohormones play a critical role since they modulate various aspects of plant development, defences and stress responses. Intriguingly, fungi can also produce phytohormones, although the actual role of fungalproduced phytohormones in plant-fungus interactions is poorly understood. Here, we discuss the recent advances in fungal production of phytohormone, their putative role as endogenous fungal signals and how fungi manipulate plant hormone balance to their benefits. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Technology and control for hydraulic manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measson, Y.; David, O.; Louveau, F.; Friconneau, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Hydraulic manipulators are candidate for fusion reactor maintenance. Their main advantages are their large payload with respect to volume and mass, their reliability and their robustness. However, due to their force control limitations, they are disqualified for precise manipulation and are dangerous for the environment and themselves in case of unexpected collision. CEA, in collaboration with CYBERNETIX and IFREMER has developed the advanced hydraulic robot MAESTRO. Force and hybrid control has been developed in order to avoid the previous problems. Using 'pressure' control servo-valve instead of the standard 'flow' control servo-valve (standard configuration of the MAESTRO) makes a real simplification of the control loop. No more pressure sensors are needed for monitoring the hydraulic joint in force control mode and using this kind of valves makes big safety improvements. The French company IN-LHC, designed and manufactured a prototype of servo-valve that fits the performances and space constraints of the Maestro arm. A characterisation of this new product was made on a mock-up and a set of these prototypes integrated in the Maestro slave-arm. A comparison between the two actuating technologies was made and showed that the performances of the pressure servo-valves make it applicable to general application

  14. Human-Manipulator Interface Using Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglong Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper utilizes a human-robot interface system which incorporates particle filter (PF and adaptive multispace transformation (AMT to track the pose of the human hand for controlling the robot manipulator. This system employs a 3D camera (Kinect to determine the orientation and the translation of the human hand. We use Camshift algorithm to track the hand. PF is used to estimate the translation of the human hand. Although a PF is used for estimating the translation, the translation error increases in a short period of time when the sensors fail to detect the hand motion. Therefore, a methodology to correct the translation error is required. What is more, to be subject to the perceptive limitations and the motor limitations, human operator is hard to carry out the high precision operation. This paper proposes an adaptive multispace transformation (AMT method to assist the operator to improve the accuracy and reliability in determining the pose of the robot. The human-robot interface system was experimentally tested in a lab environment, and the results indicate that such a system can successfully control a robot manipulator.

  15. Dynamic Analysis of Tele-manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Min Sig; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Doo Ho; Choi, Sun Il

    2008-03-01

    The manipulator can move linearly along X and Y-axes and has 6-degree rotational freedom. All deriving electric motors are mounted on the base platform to reduce inertia of links and tendons are used to transmit torque from the motors to the corresponding joints. In this report, a dynamic analysis of the manipulator has been carried out. Based on the dimensions of the designed links and allowable maximum rotational constraints on all joints, the maximum torque has been analyzed and working volume has been derived graphically through a numerical analysis. The Danavit-Hartenverg coordinate has been used through out this report. An inverse kinematic model which includes 3-linear and 3-rotational motions of the end effector and its numerical simulation program have been developed. The simulation results showed its validity and usefulness. The program are written in Symbolic Math provided by MatLab. A dynamic model which consists of rigid link dynamic models , driving motors and tendons which are used to tranmit the torques between motors and the corresponding joints. A simulation model written in Simmechanics has been derived and its validity and its usefulness were verified along with some simulation results

  16. Design and Modelling of Distributed Industrial Manipulation System with Wireless Operated Moving Manipulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belda, Květoslav; Píša, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2015), s. 69-75 ISSN 1805-3386 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Manipulation system * wireless communication * distributed systems * production lines * physical modelling * DC motors * robotic s Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/AS/belda-0448098.pdf

  17. Electrokinetic Phenomena in Chemically Manipulated Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery Azevedo, Rodrigo

    Suspended particles are integral part of many systems and engineering technologies. They can be found in the form of colloidal suspensions, emulsions, polymer precursor solutions, and in biological materials such as blood. The miniaturization of new technologies and the advent of microfludics has made the manipulation of suspended particles in the microscale particularly important for a variety of fields. The ability to easily impart complex chemical environments to suspensions in microfluidic devices enables us to characterize these systems, modify their properties and drive their motion. Nonetheless, precise manipulation of the chemistry surrounding suspended particles has been particularly difficult up until recently. This thesis dissertation shows how microfluidic devices integrated with hydrogel membranes can be used to control the chemical environment of suspended particles for a variety of studies and practical applications. First, I demonstrate how particles move diffusiophoretically under ionic surfactant gradients. Diffusiophoresis, the motion of particles under concentration gradients, has been known for several decades but it has rarely been studied experimentally outside the context of simple electrolytes. Here, we show that diffusiophoresis in ionic surfactants below the CMC can be understood in terms of the classic theory for electrolytes. Above the CMC, however, the drive for diffsuiophoresis is significantly diminished due to a large drop in the change in chemical potential with added solute. Next, I show that gradients of dipolar molecules such a zwitterions can drive diffusiophoresis. I derive the diffusiophoretic migration of particles under gradients of dipolar molecules. This theory is backed up by experiments which reveal that, in such systems, particle velocities are directly proportional to the imposed gradient but do not scale with the inverse of the local concentration, as occurs under electrolyte gradients. Furthermore, I show that the

  18. Professional responsibility in relation to cervical spine manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refshauge, Kathryn M; Parry, Sharon; Shirley, Debra; Larsen, Dale; Rivett, Darren A; Boland, Rob

    2002-01-01

    Manipulation of the cervical spine is one of the few potentially life-threatening procedures performed by physiotherapists. Is it worth the risk? A comparison of risks versus benefits indicates that at present, the risks of cervical manipulation outweigh the benefits: manipulation has yet to be shown to be more effective for neck pain and headache than other interventions such as mobilisation, whereas the risks, although infrequent, are serious. This analysis is of particular concern because the conditions for which manipulation is indicated are benign and usually self-limiting. Because physiotherapists have legal and ethical obligations to the community to avoid foreseeable harm and provide optimum care, it may be prudent to determine who in our profession should perform cervical manipulation. That is, the profession could restrict the practice of cervical spine manipulation. Although all registered physiotherapists in Australia are entitled to perform cervical manipulation, few choose to use this intervention. Therefore, it might be feasible to encourage those practitioners who wish to use cervical manipulation to undertake formal education programs. Such a requirement could be embodied in a code of practice that discourages those without formal training from performing cervical manipulation. By taking such measures, we could ensure that our profession exercises wisdom in its monitoring and use of cervical manipulation.

  19. Acoustic levitation and manipulation for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. G.

    1979-01-01

    A wide spectrum of experiments to be performed in space in a microgravity environment require levitation and manipulation of liquid or molten samples. A novel acoustic method has been developed at JPL for controlling liquid samples without physical contacts. This method utilizes the static pressure generated by three orthogonal acoustic standing waves excited within an enclosure. Furthermore, this method will allow the sample to be rotated and/or oscillated by modifying the phase angles and/or the amplitude of the acoustic field. This technique has been proven both in our laboratory and in a microgravity environment provided by KC-135 flights. Samples placed within our chamber driven at (1,0,0), (0,1,0), and (0,0,1), modes were indeed levitated, rotated, and oscillated.

  20. Topics in Semantics-based Program Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grobauer, Bernt

    four articles in the field of semantics-based techniques for program manipulation: three articles are about partial evaluation, a method for program specialization; the fourth article treats an approach to automatic cost analysis. Partial evaluation optimizes programs by specializing them with respect...... article in this dissertation describes how the second Futamura projection can be achieved for type-directed partial evaluation (TDPE), a relatively recent approach to partial evaluation: We derive an ML implementation of the second Futamura projection for TDPE. Due to the differences between ‘traditional...... denotational semantics—allows us to relate various possible semantics to each other both conceptually and formally. We thus are able to explain goal-directed evaluation using an intuitive list-based semantics, while using a continuation semantics for semantics-based compilation through partial evaluation...

  1. Model Manipulation for End-User Modelers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acretoaie, Vlad

    , and transformations using their modeling notation and editor of choice. The VM* languages are implemented via a single execution engine, the VM* Runtime, built on top of the Henshin graph-based transformation engine. This approach combines the benefits of flexibility, maturity, and formality. To simplify model editor......End-user modelers are domain experts who create and use models as part of their work. They are typically not Software Engineers, and have little or no programming and meta-modeling experience. However, using model manipulation languages developed in the context of Model-Driven Engineering often...... requires such experience. These languages are therefore only used by a small subset of the modelers that could, in theory, benefit from them. The goals of this thesis are to substantiate this observation, introduce the concepts and tools required to overcome it, and provide empirical evidence in support...

  2. In vitro manipulation techniques of porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Li, Juan; Løvendahl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    During the last 17 years, considerable advancements have been achieved in the production of pigs, transgenic and non-transgenic, by methods of somatic cell nuclear transfer, in vitro fertilisation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, microinjection and sperm-mediated gene transfer by artificial...... insemination. Therefore, a review of the overall efficiency for the developmental competence of embryos produced by these in vitro methods would be useful in order to obtain a more thorough overview of this growing area with respect to its development and present status. In this review a meta-analysis was used...... to analyse data collected from all published articles with a focus on zygotes and embryos for transfer, pregnancy, full-term development and piglets born. It was generally concluded that an increasing level of in vitro manipulation of porcine embryos decreased the overall efficiency for production of piglets...

  3. An adaptive Cartesian control scheme for manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    A adaptive control scheme for direct control of manipulator end-effectors to achieve trajectory tracking in Cartesian space is developed. The control structure is obtained from linear multivariable theory and is composed of simple feedforward and feedback controllers and an auxiliary input. The direct adaptation laws are derived from model reference adaptive control theory and are not based on parameter estimation of the robot model. The utilization of feedforward control and the inclusion of auxiliary input are novel features of the present scheme and result in improved dynamic performance over existing adaptive control schemes. The adaptive controller does not require the complex mathematical model of the robot dynamics or any knowledge of the robot parameters or the payload, and is computationally fast for online implementation with high sampling rates.

  4. Online Learning of Industrial Manipulators' Dynamics Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polydoros, Athanasios

    2017-01-01

    , it was compared with multiple other state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms. Moreover, the thesis presents the application of the proposed learning method on robot control for achieving trajectory execution while learning the inverse dynamics models  on-the-fly . Also it is presented the application...... of the dynamics models. Those mainly derive from physics-based methods and thus they are based on physical properties which are hard to be calculated.  In this thesis, is presented, a novel online machine learning approach  which is able to model both inverse and forward dynamics models of industrial manipulators....... The proposed method belongs to the class of deep learning and exploits the concepts of self-organization, recurrent neural networks and iterative multivariate Bayesian regression. It has been evaluated on multiple datasets captured from industrial robots while they were performing various tasks. Also...

  5. Using torsion to manipulate spin currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumeron, Sébastien; Berche, Bertrand; Medina, Ernesto; Santos, Fernando A. N.; Moraes, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    We address the problem of quantum particles moving on a manifold characterised by the presence of torsion along a preferential axis. In fact, such a torsion may be taylored by the presence of a single screw dislocation, whose Burgers vector measures the torsion amplitude. The problem, first treated in the relativistic limit describing fermions that couple minimally to torsion, is then analysed in the Pauli limit. We show that torsion induces a geometric potential and also that it couples generically to the phase of the wave function, giving rise to the possibility of using torsion to manipulate spin currents in the case of spinor wave functions. These results emerge as an alternative strategy for using screw dislocations in the design of spintronic-based devices.

  6. Engineered cell manipulation for biomedical application

    CERN Document Server

    Akashi, Misturu; Matsusaki, Michiya

    2014-01-01

    This book is the first to summarize new technologies for engineered cell manipulation. The contents focus on control of cellular functions by nanomaterials and control of three-dimensional cell-cell interactions. Control of cellular functions is important for cell differentiation, maturation, and activation, which generally are controlled by the addition of soluble cytokines or growth factors into cell culture dishes. Target antigen molecules can be efficiently delivered to the cytosol of the dendritic cells using the nanoparticle technique described here, and cellular functions such as dendritic cell maturation can be controlled easily and with precision. This book describes basic preparation of the nanoparticles, activation control of dendritic cells, immune function control, and in vivo application for various vaccination systems. The second type of control,that of cell-cell interaction, is important for tissue engineering in order to develop three-dimensional cellular constructs. To achieve in vitro engin...

  7. New approaches to manipulating the epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jeremy J

    2014-09-01

    Cellular processes that control transcription of genetic information are critical for cellular function, and are often implicated in psychiatric and neurological disease states. Among the most critical of these processes are epigenetic mechanisms, which serve to link the cellular environment with genomic material. Until recently our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms has been limited by the lack of tools that can selectively manipulate the epigenome with genetic, cellular, and temporal precision, which in turn diminishes the potential impact of epigenetic processes as therapeutic targets. This review highlights an emerging suite of tools that enable robust yet selective interrogation of the epigenome. In addition to allowing site-specific epigenetic editing, these tools can be paired with optogenetic approaches to provide temporal control over epigenetic processes, allowing unparalleled insight into the function of these mechanisms. This improved control promises to revolutionize our understanding of epigenetic modifications in human health and disease states.

  8. Manipulating bubbles with secondary Bjerknes forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanoy, Maxime [Institut Langevin, ESPCI ParisTech, CNRS (UMR 7587), PSL Research University, 1 rue Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université Paris-Diderot, CNRS (UMR 7057), 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75013 Paris (France); Derec, Caroline; Leroy, Valentin [Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université Paris-Diderot, CNRS (UMR 7057), 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75013 Paris (France); Tourin, Arnaud [Institut Langevin, ESPCI ParisTech, CNRS (UMR 7587), PSL Research University, 1 rue Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

    2015-11-23

    Gas bubbles in a sound field are submitted to a radiative force, known as the secondary Bjerknes force. We propose an original experimental setup that allows us to investigate in detail this force between two bubbles, as a function of the sonication frequency, as well as the bubbles radii and distance. We report the observation of both attractive and, more interestingly, repulsive Bjerknes force, when the two bubbles are driven in antiphase. Our experiments show the importance of taking multiple scatterings into account, which leads to a strong acoustic coupling of the bubbles when their radii are similar. Our setup demonstrates the accuracy of secondary Bjerknes forces for attracting or repealing a bubble, and could lead to new acoustic tools for noncontact manipulation in microfluidic devices.

  9. Thin films for the manipulation of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piegari, Angela; Sytchkova, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The manipulation of light is typically accomplished by a series of optical surfaces on which the incident beam is reflected, or through which the beam is transmitted. Thin film coatings help to modify the behavior of such surfaces for obtaining the desired result: antireflection coatings to reduce reflection losses, high-reflectance mirrors, filters to divide or combine beams of different wavelengths, and many other types. The amount of light that is transmitted or reflected depends on the optical parameters of the materials and on interference phenomena in thin-film structures. Dedicated software is available to design the proper coating for each requirement. There are several applications of optical thin films, many of them are useful in the everyday life, many others are dedicated to scientific purposes, as will be described in this paper [it

  10. Beam Manipulation with an RF Dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, M.

    1999-01-01

    Coherent betatron motion adiabatically excited by an RF dipole has been successfully employed to overcome strong intrinsic spin depolarization resonances in the AGS, while a solenoid partial snake has been used to correct imperfection spin resonances. The experimental results showed that a full spin flip was obtained in passing through an intrinsic spin resonance when all the beam particles were forced to oscillate coherently at a large amplitude without diluting the beam emittance. With this method, they have successfully accelerated polarized beam up to 23.5 GeV/c. A new type of second order spin resonances was also discovered. As a non-destructive manipulation, this method can also be used for nonlinear beam dynamics studies and beam diagnosis such as measuring phase advance and betatron amplitude function

  11. Adaptive control of manipulators handling hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colbaugh, R.; Glass, K.

    1994-01-01

    This article focuses on developing a robot control system capable of meeting hazardous waste handling application requirements, and presents as a solution an adaptive strategy for controlling the mechanical impedance of kinematically redundant manipulators. The proposed controller is capable of accurate end-effector impedance control and effective redundancy utilization, does not require knowledge of the complex robot dynamic model or parameter values for the robot or the environment, and is implemented without calculation of the robot inverse transformation. Computer simulation results are given for a four degree of freedom redundant robot under adaptive impedance control. These results indicate that the proposed controller is capable of successfully performing important tasks in robotic waste handling applications. (author) 3 figs., 39 refs

  12. Manipulating bubbles with secondary Bjerknes forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanoy, Maxime; Derec, Caroline; Leroy, Valentin; Tourin, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Gas bubbles in a sound field are submitted to a radiative force, known as the secondary Bjerknes force. We propose an original experimental setup that allows us to investigate in detail this force between two bubbles, as a function of the sonication frequency, as well as the bubbles radii and distance. We report the observation of both attractive and, more interestingly, repulsive Bjerknes force, when the two bubbles are driven in antiphase. Our experiments show the importance of taking multiple scatterings into account, which leads to a strong acoustic coupling of the bubbles when their radii are similar. Our setup demonstrates the accuracy of secondary Bjerknes forces for attracting or repealing a bubble, and could lead to new acoustic tools for noncontact manipulation in microfluidic devices

  13. Laser manipulation of atomic and molecular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Taylor C.

    The continuing advance of laser technology enables a range of broadly applicable, laser-based flow manipulation techniques. The characteristics of these laser-based flow manipulations suggest that they may augment, or be superior to, such traditional electro-mechanical methods as ionic flow control, shock tubes, and small scale wind tunnels. In this study, methodology was developed for investigating laser flow manipulation techniques, and testing their feasibility for a number of aerospace, basic physics, and micro technology applications. Theories for laser-atom and laser-molecule interactions have been under development since the advent of laser technology. The theories have yet to be adequately integrated into kinetic flow solvers. Realizing this integration would greatly enhance the scaling of laser-species interactions beyond the realm of ultra-cold atomic physics. This goal was realized in the present study. A representative numerical investigation, of laser-based neutral atomic and molecular flow manipulations, was conducted using near-resonant and non-resonant laser fields. To simulate the laser interactions over a range of laser and flow conditions, the following tools were employed: a custom collisionless gas particle trajectory code and a specifically modified version of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo statistical kinetic solver known as SMILE. In addition to the numerical investigations, a validating experiment was conducted. The experimental results showed good agreement with the numerical simulations when experimental parameters, such as finite laser line width, were taken into account. Several areas of interest were addressed: laser induced neutral flow steering, collimation, direct flow acceleration, and neutral gas heating. Near-resonant continuous wave laser, and non-resonant pulsed laser, interactions with cesium and nitrogen were simulated. These simulations showed trends and some limitations associated with these interactions, used for flow

  14. Hierarchical control system of advanced robot manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomichi, Takeo; Okino, Akihisa; Nishihara, Masatoshi; Sakamoto, Taizou; Matsuda, Koichi; Ohnishi, Ken

    1990-01-01

    We introduce a double arm with 4-finger's manipulator system which process the large volume of information at high speed. This is under research/development many type of works in the harsh condition. Namely, hierarchization of instruction unit in which motion control system as real time processing unit, and task planning unit as non-real time processing unit, interface with operation through the task planning unit has been made. Also, high speed processing of large volume information has been realized by decentralizing the motion control unit by function, hierarchizing the high speed processing unit, and developing high speed transmission, IC which does not depend on computer OS to avoid the delay in transmission. (author)

  15. The function-manipulating-system SERVUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurnay, K.

    1985-04-01

    SERVUS is a service-utility to store functions resulting from a numerical calculation in specially fitted data sets and display them later on. SERVUS enables also the user to manipulate the stored functions, before displaying them. The functions can be presented either as number-columns, or as a family of curves or as surfaces of functions. The paper describes the steps, needed for allocating a SERVUS-data set, for storing a function in this set, for reading a function from this data set, for cataloguing the functions, stored in the set, for copying a SERVUS-data set, for deleting stored functions, for printing stored functions and for drawing two or three-dimensional pictures of them. (orig.) [de

  16. A large divertor manipulator for ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Albrecht, E-mail: albrecht.herrmann@ipp.mpg.de; Jaksic, Nikola; Leitenstern, Peter; Greuner, Henri; Krieger, Karl; Marné, Pascal de; Oberkofler, Martin; Rohde, Volker; Schall, Gerd

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A large divertor manipulator for ASDEX Upgrade is developed and tested. • It allows replacing a relevant part of the divertor by dedicated targets and probes. • Modified solid standard targets. • Electrical and mechanical probes for dedicated investigations. • Test of actively cooled component. - Abstract: In 2013 a new bulk tungsten divertor, Div-III, was installed in ASDEX Upgrade (AUG). During the concept and design phase of Div-III the option of adaptable divertor instrumentation and divertor modification as contribution for divertor investigations in preparation of ITER was given a high priority. To gain flexibility for the test of divertor modifications without affecting the operational space of AUG, the large divertor manipulator, DIM-II, was designed and installed. DIM-II allows to retract 2 out of 128 outer divertor target tiles including the water cooled support structure into a target exchange box and to replace these targets without breaking the vacuum of the AUG vessel. DIM-II is based on a carriage-rail system with a driving rod pushing a front-end with the target module into the divertor position for plasma operation. Three types of front-ends are foreseen for physics investigations: (i) modified standard targets clamped to the standard cooling structure, (ii) dedicated front-ends making use of the whole available volume of about 230 × 160 × 80 mm{sup 3} and (iii) actively cooled/heated targets for cooling water temperatures up to 230 °C. This paper presents the DIM-II design including the FEM calculations for the modified divertor support structure and the front-end options, as well as the test procedure and operation mode.

  17. Immunohistochemical localization of CYP1A, vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins in the liver of swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) taken from the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic, South Western Indian and Central North Pacific Oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desantis, S.; Corriero, A.; Cirillo, F.; Deflorio, M.; Brill, R.; Griffiths, M.; Lopata, A.L.; Serna, J.M. de la; Bridges, C.R.; Kime, D.E.; De Metrio, G.

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) monoxygenase, vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona radiata proteins (Zrp) are frequently used as biomarkers of fish exposure to organic contaminants. In this work, swordfish liver sections obtained from the Mediterranean Sea, the South African coasts (South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans) and the Central North Pacific Ocean were immunostained with antisera against CYP1A, Zrp, and Vtg. CYP1A induction was found in hepatocytes, epithelium of the biliary ductus and the endothelium of large blood vessels of fish from the Mediterranean Sea and South African waters, but not from the Pacific Ocean. Zrp and Vtg were immunolocalized in hepatocytes of male swordfish from the Mediterranean Sea and from South African waters. Plasma Dot-Blot analysis, performed in Mediterranean and Pacific specimens, revealed the presence of Zrp and Vtg in males from Mediterranean but not from Pacific. These results confirm previous findings about the potential exposure of Mediterranean swordfish to endocrine, disrupting chemicals and raise questions concerning the possible presence of xenobiotic contaminants off the Southern coasts of South Africa in both the South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans

  18. Highly controllable near-surface swimming of magnetic Janus nanorods: application to payload capture and manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, Lamar O; Carpenter, Jerome; Evans, Benjamin; Hall, Adam R; Shields, Adam; Superfine, Richard; Ford, Kris; Millard, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Directed manipulation of nanomaterials has significant implications in the field of nanorobotics, nanobiotechnology, microfluidics and directed assembly. With the goal of highly controllable nanomaterial manipulation in mind, we present a technique for the near-surface manoeuvering of magnetic nanorod swimmers and its application to controlled micromanipulation. We fabricate magnetic Janus nanorods and show that the magnetic rotation of these nanorods near a floor results in predictable translational motion. The nanorod plane of rotation is nearly parallel to the floor, the angle between rod tilt and floor being expressed by θ, where 0 0 0 . Orthogonal magnetic fields control in-plane motion arbitrarily. Our model for translation incorporates symmetry breaking through increased drag at the no-slip surface boundary. Using this method we demonstrate considerable rod steerability. Additionally, we approach, capture, and manipulate a polystyrene microbead as proof of principle. We attach Janus nanorods to the surfaces of cells and utilize these rods to manipulate individual cells, proving the ability to manoeuver payloads with a wide range of sizes.

  19. Mind Control: How Parasites Manipulate Cognitive Functions in Their Insect Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Libersat

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuro-parasitology is an emerging branch of science that deals with parasites that can control the nervous system of the host. It offers the possibility of discovering how one species (the parasite modifies a particular neural network, and thus particular behaviors, of another species (the host. Such parasite–host interactions, developed over millions of years of evolution, provide unique tools by which one can determine how neuromodulation up-or-down regulates specific behaviors. In some of the most fascinating manipulations, the parasite taps into the host brain neuronal circuities to manipulate hosts cognitive functions. To name just a few examples, some worms induce crickets and other terrestrial insects to commit suicide in water, enabling the exit of the parasite into an aquatic environment favorable to its reproduction. In another example of behavioral manipulation, ants that consumed the secretions of a caterpillar containing dopamine are less likely to move away from the caterpillar and more likely to be aggressive. This benefits the caterpillar for without its ant bodyguards, it is more likely to be predated upon or attacked by parasitic insects that would lay eggs inside its body. Another example is the parasitic wasp, which induces a guarding behavior in its ladybug host in collaboration with a viral mutualist. To exert long-term behavioral manipulation of the host, parasite must secrete compounds that act through secondary messengers and/or directly on genes often modifying gene expression to produce long-lasting effects.

  20. Design and Transmission Analysis of an Asymmetrical Spherical Parallel Manipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Guanglei; Caro, Stéphane; Wang, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    analysis and optimal design of the proposed manipulator based on its kinematic analysis. The input and output transmission indices of the manipulator are defined for its optimum design based on the virtual coefficient between the transmission wrenches and twist screws. The sets of optimal parameters......This paper presents an asymmetrical spherical parallel manipulator and its transmissibility analysis. This manipulator contains a center shaft to both generate a decoupled unlimited-torsion motion and support the mobile platform for high positioning accuracy. This work addresses the transmission...... are identified and the distribution of the transmission index is visualized. Moreover, a comparative study regarding to the performances with the symmetrical spherical parallel manipulators is conducted and the comparison shows the advantages of the proposed manipulator with respect to its spherical parallel...

  1. Manipulating stored phonological input during verbal working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Gregory B.; Iyer, Asha; Melloni, Lucia; Thesen, Thomas; Friedman, Daniel; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Pesaran, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Verbal working memory (vWM), involves storing and manipulating information in phonological sensory input. An influential theory of vWM proposes that manipulation is carried out by a central executive while storage is performed by two interacting systems: A phonological input buffer that captures sound-based information and an articulatory rehearsal system that controls speech motor output. Whether, when, and how neural activity in the brain encodes these components remains unknown. Here, we read-out the contents of vWM from neural activity in human subjects as they manipulate stored speech sounds. As predicted, we identify storage systems that contain both phonological sensory and articulatory motor representations. Surprisingly however, we find that manipulation does not involve a single central executive but rather involves two systems with distinct contributions to successful manipulation. We propose, therefore, that multiple subsystems comprise the central executive needed to manipulate stored phonological input for articulatory motor output in vWM. PMID:27941789

  2. Agent Control for Reconfigurable Open Kinematic Chain Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Sluga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for the autonomous control of differently structured open kinematic chains based on multi-agent system technology. The appropriate level of distributing local autonomy (agents to a manipulative structure is defined, which makes it possible to dynamically change the number, type and structure of manipulative components without modifying their behavioural logic. To achieve fast reconfigurable and scalable manipulative systems, a new multi-agent method is developed for controlling the manipulator kinematics. The new method enables independent manipulator structure from the control system because of its structural and system modularity. The proposed method consists of kinematic equations for use in an agent environment, agent motion-planning algorithms, evaluation functions, agent control logic and kinematic algorithms. The results of simulations and real-world experiments demonstrate the usefulness of the approach for different non-redundant and redundant manipulation structures.

  3. Vehicle-manipulator systems modeling for simulation, analysis, and control

    CERN Document Server

    From, Pal Johan; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad

    2014-01-01

    Furthering the aim of reducing human exposure to hazardous environments, this monograph presents a detailed study of the modeling and control of vehicle-manipulator systems. The text shows how complex interactions can be performed at remote locations using systems that combine the manipulability of robotic manipulators with the ability of mobile robots to locomote over large areas.  The first part studies the kinematics and dynamics of rigid bodies and standard robotic manipulators and can be used as an introduction to robotics focussing on robust mathematical modeling. The monograph then moves on to study vehicle-manipulator systems in great detail with emphasis on combining two different configuration spaces in a mathematically sound way. Robustness of these systems is extremely important and Modeling and Control of Vehicle-manipulator Systems effectively represents the dynamic equations using a mathematically robust framework. Several tools from Lie theory and differential geometry are used to obtain glob...

  4. Transcriptomic information from Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) ovary and eyestalk, and expression patterns for genes putatively involved in the reproductive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-López, Claudia; Galindo-Torres, Pavel E; Arcos, Fabiola G; Galindo-Sánchez, Clara; Racotta, Ilie S; Escobedo-Fregoso, Cristina; Llera-Herrera, Raúl; Ibarra, Ana M

    2017-05-15

    The increased use of massive sequencing technologies has enabled the identification of several genes known to be involved in different mechanisms associated with reproduction that so far have only been studied in vertebrates and other model invertebrate species. In order to further investigate the genes involved in Litopenaeus vannamei reproduction, cDNA and SSH libraries derived from female eyestalk and gonad were produced, allowing the identification of expressed sequences tags (ESTs) that potentially have a role in the regulation of gonadal maturation. In the present study, different transcripts involved in reproduction were identified and a number of them were characterized as full-length. These transcripts were evaluated in males and females in order to establish their tissue expression profiles during developmental stages (juvenile, subadult and adult), and in the case of females, their possible association with gonad maturation was assessed through expression analysis of vitellogenin. The results indicated that the expression of vitellogenin receptor (vtgr) and minichromosome maintenance (mcm) family members in the female gonad suggest an important role during previtellogenesis. Additionally, the expression profiles of genes such as famet, igfbp and gpcr in brain tissues suggest an interaction between the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway (IIS) and methyl farnesoate (MF) biosynthesis for control of reproduction. Furthermore, the specific expression pattern of farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase suggests that final synthesis of MF is carried out in different target tissues, where it is regulated by esterase enzymes under a tissue-specific hormonal control. Finally, the presence of a vertebrate type steroid receptor in hepatopancreas and intestine besides being highly expressed in female gonads, suggest a role of that receptor during sexual maturation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sporadic manipulation in money markets with central bank standing facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Ewerhart, Christian; Cassola, Nuno; Ejerskov, Steen; Valla, Natacha

    2004-01-01

    In certain market environments, a large investor may benefit from building up a futures position first and trading subsequently in the spot market (Kumar and Seppi, 1992). The present paper identifies a variation of this type of manipulation that might occur in money markets with an interest rate corridor. We show that manipulation involving the use of central bank facilities would be observable only sporadically. The probability of manipulation decreases when the central bank uses an active ...

  6. Large remote manipulator operating and maintenance experience at IEM cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.F.; McGuinness, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has two large Electro-Mechanical Manipulators (EMM's). These manipulators are used for cell operations (processing of reactor core components) as well as general cell maintenance. From our eleven years of operation and maintenance experience with these large EMM's, we have learned many lessons concerning manipulator design. This paper describes the IEM Cell EMM design features and discusses operating and maintenance experience at the IEM Cell

  7. Manipulation of the Commodity Futures Market Delivery Process.

    OpenAIRE

    Pirrong, Stephen Craig

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the futures market delivery 'end game' specifies necessary and sufficient conditions for long and short traders to manipulate futures prices at contract expiration. The empirical and welfare implications of manipulation are derived as well. Manipulation is most likely to occur in markets where economic frictions (such as transportation and transactions costs) make it inefficient to return excessive deliveries to their original owners. These consumption distortions induce price ...

  8. Manipulator for rotating and translating a sample holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Water, Jeroen [Breugel, NL; van den Oetelaar, Johannes [Eindhoven, NL; Wagner, Raymond [Gorinchem, NL; Slingerland, Hendrik Nicolaas [Venlo, NL; Bruggers, Jan Willem [Eindhoven, NL; Ottevanger, Adriaan Huibert Dirk [Malden, NL; Schmid, Andreas [Berkeley, CA; Olson, Eric A [Champaign, IL; Petrov, Ivan G [Champaign, IL; Donchev, Todor I [Urbana, IL; Duden, Thomas [Kensington, CA

    2011-02-08

    A manipulator for use in e.g. a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) is described, said manipulator capable of rotating and translating a sample holder (4). The manipulator clasps the round sample holder between two members (3A, 3B), said members mounted on actuators (2A, 2B). Moving the actuators in the same direction results in a translation of the sample holder, while moving the actuators in opposite directions results in a rotation of the sample holder.

  9. Multilink manipulator computer control: experience in development and commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, J.E.

    1988-11-01

    This report describes development which has been carried out on the multilink manipulator computer control system. The system allows the manipulator to be driven using only two joysticks. The leading link is controlled and the other links follow its path into the reactor, thus avoiding any potential obstacles. The system has been fully commissioned and used with the Sizewell ''A'' reactor 2 Multilink T.V. manipulator. Experience of the use of the system is presented, together with recommendations for future improvements. (author)

  10. Dual arm master controller for a bilateral servo-manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuban, Daniel P.; Perkins, Gerald S.

    1989-01-01

    A master controller for a mechanically dissimilar bilateral slave servo-manipulator is disclosed. The master controller includes a plurality of drive trains comprising a plurality of sheave arrangements and cables for controlling upper and lower degrees of master movement. The cables and sheaves of the master controller are arranged to effect kinematic duplication of the slave servo-manipulator, despite mechanical differences therebetween. A method for kinematically matching a master controller to a slave servo-manipulator is also disclosed.

  11. Evidence of market manipulation in the financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Vedant Misra; Marco Lagi; Yaneer Bar-Yam

    2011-01-01

    We provide direct evidence of market manipulation at the beginning of the financial crisis in November 2007. The type of manipulation, a "bear raid," would have been prevented by a regulation that was repealed by the Securities and Exchange Commission in July 2007. The regulation, the uptick rule, was designed to prevent manipulation and promote stability and was in force from 1938 as a key part of the government response to the 1929 market crash and its aftermath. On November 1, 2007, Citigr...

  12. Manipulating electromagnetic waves with metamaterials: Concept and microwave realizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qiong; Xiao Shi-Yi; Li Xin; Song Zheng-Yong; Sun Wu-Jiong; Zhou Lei; Sun Shu-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Our recent efforts in manipulating electromagnetic (EM) waves using metamaterials (MTMs) are reviewed with emphasis on 1) manipulating wave polarization and transporting properties using homogeneous MTMs, 2) manipulating surface-wave properties using plasmonic MTMs, and 3) bridging propagating and surface waves using inhomogeneous meta-surfaces. For all these topics, we first illustrate the physical concepts and then present several typical practical realizations and applications in the microwave regime. (topical review - plasmonics and metamaterials)

  13. Machine Learnig for Robotic Manipulation in cluttered environments

    OpenAIRE

    Alet Puig, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we focus on designing the planner for MIT s entry in the Amazon Picking Challenge, a robotic competition aiming at pushing the frontiers of manipulation until robots can substitute human pickers in warehouses. Given a set of manipulation primitives (such as grasping, suction, scooping, placing or pushing) we designed a system capable of learning a planner from a set of manipulation experiments. After learning, given any configuration of objects, the planner can come up with the...

  14. Manipulating Tournaments in Cup and Round Robin Competitions

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Tyrel; Walsh, Toby

    2009-01-01

    In sports competitions, teams can manipulate the result by, for instance, throwing games. We show that we can decide how to manipulate round robin and cup competitions, two of the most popular types of sporting competitions in polynomial time. In addition, we show that finding the minimal number of games that need to be thrown to manipulate the result can also be determined in polynomial time. Finally, we show that there are several different variations of standard cup competitions where mani...

  15. Singularity kinematics principle and position-singularity analyses of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough parallel manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yi; Zhou, Hui; Li, Baokun; Shen, Long

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new principle and method of kinematics to analyze the singularity of Stewart-Gough parallel manipulators and addresses the property identification of the position-singularity loci of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough manipulators for special orientations. Based on the kinematic relationship of a rigid body, a necessary and sufficient condition that three velocities of three non-collinear points in a moving rigid body can determine a screw motion is addressed and some typical singular configurations of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough parallel manipulators are also addressed in detail. With the above-mentioned condition, a symbolic analytical polynomial expression of degree three in the moving platform position parameters, representing the position-singularity locus of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough manipulators for special orientations, is derived: and the property identification of the position-singularity loci of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough manipulator for these special orientations is investigated at length. It is shown that position-singularity loci of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough parallel manipulator for these special orientations will be a plane and a hyperbolic paraboloid, even three intersecting planes

  16. Novel Techniques for Quantum State Manipulation in Mesoscopic Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lukin, Mikhail

    2005-01-01

    ...-out. We showed how realistic charge manipulation and measurement techniques, combined with the exchange interaction, allowed for the robust generation and purification of four particle spin entangled...

  17. Modeling of Continuum Manipulators Using Pythagorean Hodograph Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inderjeet; Amara, Yacine; Melingui, Achille; Mani Pathak, Pushparaj; Merzouki, Rochdi

    2018-05-10

    Research on continuum manipulators is increasingly developing in the context of bionic robotics because of their many advantages over conventional rigid manipulators. Due to their soft structure, they have inherent flexibility, which makes it a huge challenge to control them with high performances. Before elaborating a control strategy of such robots, it is essential to reconstruct first the behavior of the robot through development of an approximate behavioral model. This can be kinematic or dynamic depending on the conditions of operation of the robot itself. Kinematically, two types of modeling methods exist to describe the robot behavior; quantitative methods describe a model-based method, and qualitative methods describe a learning-based method. In kinematic modeling of continuum manipulator, the assumption of constant curvature is often considered to simplify the model formulation. In this work, a quantitative modeling method is proposed, based on the Pythagorean hodograph (PH) curves. The aim is to obtain a three-dimensional reconstruction of the shape of the continuum manipulator with variable curvature, allowing the calculation of its inverse kinematic model (IKM). It is noticed that the performances of the PH-based kinematic modeling of continuum manipulators are considerable regarding position accuracy, shape reconstruction, and time/cost of the model calculation, than other kinematic modeling methods, for two cases: free load manipulation and variable load manipulation. This modeling method is applied to the compact bionic handling assistant (CBHA) manipulator for validation. The results are compared with other IKMs developed in case of CBHA manipulator.

  18. Design and Implementation of a Modular Manipulator Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sosa, Ognjen

    2004-01-01

    .... This configuration is seen in many applications including planetary exploration, hazardous materials removal, and marine research and is frequently referred to as the vehicle-manipulator system...

  19. Manipulators in deep ocean environments, needs versus technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, L.A.; Stenovec, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    As exploration and production proceed into deeper water, remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) and their manipulators acquire many of the tasks now performed by divers in shallower water. The resulting increased complexity of work tasks requires more dexterious manipulators. Even the most sophisticated of the manipulators today cannot perform many of the work tasks now performed by divers in shallower waters. Manipulators cannot yet duplicate the functions of the human hand. How much technology must be improved to perform the desired tasks, and how much adapting of the work task or equipment must be done to achieve a workable underwater robotics environment?

  20. A portable modular architecture for robotic manipulator control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    A control architecture has been developed to provide a framework for robotic manipulator control. This architecture, called the Modular Integrated Control Architecture (MICA), has been successfully applied to two different manipulator systems. MICA is a portable system in two respects. First, it can be used for the control of different types of manipulator systems. Second, the MICA code is portable across several operating environments. This portability allows the sharing of common control code among various systems. A major portion of MICA is the precise control of multiple processors that have to be coordinated to control a manipulator system. By having NUCA control the processor synchronization, the system developer can concentrate on the specific aspects of a new manipulator system. MICA also provides standard functions for trajectory generation that can be used for most manipulators. Custom trajectory generators can be easily added to suit the needs of a particular robotic control system. Another facility that MICA provides is a simulation of the manipulator, allowing the control code to be simulated before trying it on a manipulator system. Using this technique, one can develop code for a manipulator system without risking damage to the arm during development