Sample records for males mirror-image reinforcement

  1. Mirror image agnosia.

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor


    Gnosis is a modality-specific ability to access semantic knowledge of an object or stimulus in the presence of normal perception. Failure of this is agnosia or disorder of recognition. It can be highly selective within a mode. self-images are different from others as none has seen one's own image except in reflection. Failure to recognize this image can be labeled as mirror image agnosia or Prosopagnosia for reflected self-image. Whereas mirror agnosia is a well-recognized situation where the person while looking at reflected images of other objects in the mirror he imagines that the objects are in fact inside the mirror and not outside. Five patients, four females, and one male presented with failure to recognize reflected self-image, resulting in patients conversing with the image as a friend, fighting because the person in mirror is wearing her nose stud, suspecting the reflected self-image to be an intruder; but did not have prosopagnosia for others faces, non living objects on self and also apraxias except dressing apraxia in one patient. This phenomena is new to our knowledge. Mirror image agnosia is an unique phenomena which is seen in patients with parietal lobe atrophy without specificity to a category of dementing illness and seems to disappear as disease advances. Reflected self-images probably have a specific neural substrate that gets affected very early in posterior dementias specially the ones which predominantly affect the right side. At that phase most patients are mistaken as suffering from psychiatric disorder as cognition is moderately preserved. As disease becomes more widespread this symptom becomes masked. A high degree of suspicion and proper assessment might help physicians to recognize the organic cause of the symptom so that early therapeutic interventions can be initiated. Further assessment of the symptom with FMRI and PET scan is likely to solve the mystery of how brain handles reflected self-images. A new observation involving failure

  2. Mirror-Image Equivalence and Interhemispheric Mirror-Image Reversal.

    Corballis, Michael C


    Mirror-image confusions are common, especially in children and in some cases of neurological impairment. They can be a special impediment in activities such as reading and writing directional scripts, where mirror-image patterns (such as b and d ) must be distinguished. Treating mirror images as equivalent, though, can also be adaptive in the natural world, which carries no systematic left-right bias and where the same object or event can appear in opposite viewpoints. Mirror-image equivalence and confusion are natural consequences of a bilaterally symmetrical brain. In the course of learning, mirror-image equivalence may be established through a process of symmetrization, achieved through homotopic interhemispheric exchange in the formation of memory circuits. Such circuits would not distinguish between mirror images. Learning to discriminate mirror-image discriminations may depend either on existing brain asymmetries, or on extensive learning overriding the symmetrization process. The balance between mirror-image equivalence and mirror-image discrimination may nevertheless be precarious, with spontaneous confusions or reversals, such as mirror writing, sometimes appearing naturally or as a manifestation of conditions like dyslexia.

  3. Mirror-Image Equivalence and Interhemispheric Mirror-Image Reversal

    Michael C. Corballis


    Full Text Available Mirror-image confusions are common, especially in children and in some cases of neurological impairment. They can be a special impediment in activities such as reading and writing directional scripts, where mirror-image patterns (such as b and d must be distinguished. Treating mirror images as equivalent, though, can also be adaptive in the natural world, which carries no systematic left-right bias and where the same object or event can appear in opposite viewpoints. Mirror-image equivalence and confusion are natural consequences of a bilaterally symmetrical brain. In the course of learning, mirror-image equivalence may be established through a process of symmetrization, achieved through homotopic interhemispheric exchange in the formation of memory circuits. Such circuits would not distinguish between mirror images. Learning to discriminate mirror-image discriminations may depend either on existing brain asymmetries, or on extensive learning overriding the symmetrization process. The balance between mirror-image equivalence and mirror-image discrimination may nevertheless be precarious, with spontaneous confusions or reversals, such as mirror writing, sometimes appearing naturally or as a manifestation of conditions like dyslexia.

  4. Unicameral Bone Cyst in the Calcaneus of Mirror Image Twins.

    Lenze, Ulrich; Stolberg-Stolberg, Josef; Pohlig, Florian; Lenze, Florian; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Rüdiger; Rechl, Hans; Toepfer, Andreas


    Unicameral bone cysts (UBCs) are benign tumor-like lesions that commonly occur in the diaphyseal or metaphyseal region of the long bones within the first 2 decades of life. Until today, the pathogenesis of UBC has been unclear, but mechanisms such as vascular occlusion or a response to trauma have been supposed. During the past decade, in particular, the genetic aspects of the development of this rare lesion have been discussed. We present the first case of mirror image monozygotic twins with a mirror image UBC of the calcaneus. Our findings reinforce the importance of additional studies to understand the significance of cytogenetic factors in the etiology of UBC. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neurodegeneration and Mirror Image Agnosia

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor


    Background: Normal Percept with abnormal meaning (Agnosias) has been described from nineteenth century onwards. Later literature became abundant with information on the spectrum of Prosopagnosias. However, selective difficulty in identifying reflected self images with relatively better cognitive functions leads to problems in differentiating it from non-organic psychosis. Aim: In the present study, we investigated patients with dementia who showed difficulty in identifying reflected self images while they were being tested for problems in gnosis with reference to identification of reflected objects, animals, relatives, and themselves and correlate with neuropsychological and radiological parameters. Patients and Methods: Five such patients were identified and tested with a 45 cm × 45 cm mirror kept at 30-cm distance straight ahead of them. Results: Mirror image agnosia is seen in patients with moderate stage posterior dementias who showed neuropsychological and radiological evidence of right parietal dysfunction. Conclusion: Interpretation of reflected self images perception in real time probably involves distinct data-linking circuits in the right parietal lobe, which may get disrupted early in the course of the disease. PMID:25317393

  6. Visual reinforcement in the female Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    Elcoro, Mirari; Silva, Stephanie P; Lattal, Kennon A


    Operant conditioning with Betta splendens (Bettas) has been investigated extensively using males of the species. Ethological studies of female Bettas have revealed aggressive interactions that qualitatively parallel those between male Bettas. Given these similarities, four experiments were conducted with female Bettas to examine the generality of a widely reported finding with males: mirror-image reinforcement. Swimming through a ring was reinforced by a 10-s mirror presentation. As with males, ring swimming was acquired and maintained when mirror presentations were immediate (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) and delayed (Experiment 4). The failure of conventional extinction (Experiments 1 and 2) and response-independent mirror presentations (Experiment 3) to maintain responding confirmed the reinforcing properties of mirror presentation. These results extend previous findings of mirror images as reinforcers in males of the same species and illustrate a complementarity between behavioral ecology and the experimental analysis of behavior.

  7. Screening of a virtual mirror-image library of natural products.

    Noguchi, Taro; Oishi, Shinya; Honda, Kaori; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Saito, Tamio; Ohno, Hiroaki; Osada, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Nobutaka


    We established a facile access to an unexplored mirror-image library of chiral natural product derivatives using d-protein technology. In this process, two chemical syntheses of mirror-image substances including a target protein and hit compound(s) allow the lead discovery from a virtual mirror-image library without the synthesis of numerous mirror-image compounds.

  8. Split-Plot Designs with Mirror Image Pairs as Subplots

    Tyssedal, John; Kulahci, Murat; Bisgaard, Soren


    In this article we investigate two-level split-plot designs where the sub-plots consist of only two mirror image trials. Assuming third and higher order interactions negligible, we show that these designs divide the estimated effects into two orthogonal sub-spaces, separating sub-plot main effects...... appealing with effects of major interest free from full aliasing assuming that 3rd and higher order interactions are negligible....

  9. Mirror image hydrocarbons from Tropical and Boreal forests

    J. Williams


    Full Text Available Monoterpenes, emitted in large quantities by trees to attract pollinators and repel herbivores, can exist in mirror image forms called enantiomers. In this study such enantiomeric pairs have been measured in ambient air over extensive forest ecosystems in South America and northern Europe. For the dominant monoterpene, α-pinene, the (−-form was measured in large excess over the (+-form over the Tropical rainforest, whereas the reverse was observed over the Boreal forest. Interestingly, over the Tropical forest (−-α-pinene did not correlate with its own enantiomer, but correlated well with isoprene. The results indicate a remarkable ecosystem scale enantiomeric fingerprint and a nexus between the biosphere and atmosphere.

  10. Mirror image extradural hematoma in elderly population: management strategy with surgical bilateral or unilateral evacuation or conservative treatment modality with literature review

    Satyarthee Guru Dutta; Yada Rajpur; Moscote-Salazar Luis Rafael; Agrawal Amit


    Extradural hematomas (EDH) represent one of common imaging findings in cases sustaining traumatic brain injury. Bilateral extradural haematoma is considered rare and even rarer in elder people male. Bilateral extradural hematoma is usually acute, and generally associated with severe traumatic head injury. Mirror-image extradural hematomas (MEDH) constitute a special type of bilateral extradural hamatomas, which is placed anatomically symmetrically on both the sides of the intracranial compart...

  11. To breathe or fight? Siamese fighting fish differ when facing a real opponent or mirror image.

    Arnott, Gareth; Beattie, Emma; Elwood, Robert W


    Displays are a feature of animal contest behaviour and have been interpreted as a means of gathering information on opponent fighting ability, as well as signalling aggressive motivation. In fish, contest displays often include frontal and lateral elements, which in the latter involves contestants showing their flanks to an opponent. Previous work in a range of fish species has demonstrated population-level lateralization of these displays, preferentially showing one side to their opponent. Mirrors are commonly used in place of a real opponent to study aggression in fish, yet they may disrupt the normal pattern of display behaviour. Here, using Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, we compare the aggressive behaviour of males to a mirror image and real opponent behind a transparent barrier. As this species is a facultative air-breather, we also quantify surface breathing, providing insights into underlying fight motivation. Consistent with previous work, we found evidence of population-level lateralization, with a bias to present the left side and use the left eye when facing a real opponent. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in the aggressive displays to a mirror and real opponent, with positive correlations between the behaviour in the two scenarios. However, there were important differences in surface breathing, which was more frequent and of longer duration in the mirror treatment. The reasons for these differences are discussed in relation to the repertoire of contest behaviour and motivation when facing a real opponent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlated evolution of male and female reproductive traits drive a cascading effect of reinforcement in Drosophila yakuba

    Comeault, Aaron A.; Venkat, Aarti; Matute, Daniel R.


    Selection against maladaptive hybridization can drive the evolution of reproductive isolation in a process called reinforcement. While the importance of reinforcement in evolution has been historically debated, many examples now exist. Despite these examples, we typically lack a detailed understanding of the mechanisms limiting the spread of reinforced phenotypes throughout a species' range. Here we address this issue in the fruit fly Drosophila yakuba, a species that hybridizes with its sister species D. santomea and is undergoing reinforcement in a well-defined hybrid zone on the island of São Tomé. Within this region, female D. yakuba show increased postmating-prezygotic (gametic) isolation towards D. santomea when compared with females from allopatric populations. We use a combination of natural collections, fertility assays, and experimental evolution to understand why reinforced gametic isolation in D. yakuba is confined to this hybrid zone. We show that, among other traits, D. yakuba males from sympatric populations sire fewer progeny than allopatric males when mated to allopatric D. yakuba females. Our results provide a novel example of reinforcement acting on a postmating-prezygotic trait in males, resulting in a cascade of reproductive isolation among conspecific populations. PMID:27440664

  13. Bilateral, Mirror-imaged, Postero-inferior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysms: Report of a Rare Case

    G R Sharma


    Full Text Available A 60-year-old right-handed lady presented with the features of subarachnoid haemorrhage. The CT angiogram showed a pair of very rare bilateral, mirror-imaged distal postero-inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms. Both aneurysms were clipped via the midline posterior fossa craniectomy under general anaesthesia. The literatures is reviewed on the incidence, presentation, management and outcome of bilateral distal posterior-inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms. Keywords: bilateral mirror image, distal postero-inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms, posterior fossa craniectomy, microsurgical clipping

  14. Mirror-Image Confusions: Implications for Representation and Processing of Object Orientation

    Gregory, Emma; McCloskey, Michael


    Perceiving the orientation of objects is important for interacting with the world, yet little is known about the mental representation or processing of object orientation information. The tendency of humans and other species to confuse mirror images provides a potential clue. However, the appropriate characterization of this phenomenon is not…

  15. Mirror Images

    Turner, Simon

    Since the massive violence in the 1990s, Rwanda and Burundi have moved in two very different directions in terms of peace and state building. Rwanda is following a path of social engineering, creating a radically new national identity with a new citizenry in order to break with what is perceived...... as a national culture that led to the genocide. Because the conflict ended with a clear winner in 1994, the state has the moral legitimacy to carry through with its policies, and any opposition may be dismissed as supporting divisionism and genocidal ideologies. While Rwanda is concerned with social engineering......, Burundi is concerned with what we might term 'consociational engineering'. In other words, the complex, time consuming and often frustrating path out of conflict has been characterised by constant negotiations with countless factions and complex power-sharing deals, trying to take the concerns of all...

  16. Synthesis of tumor necrosis factor α for use as a mirror-image phage display target.

    Petersen, Mark E; Jacobsen, Michael T; Kay, Michael S


    Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFα) is an inflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory disease. Here we describe the chemical synthesis of l-TNFα along with the mirror-image d-protein for use as a phage display target. The synthetic strategy utilized native chemical ligation and desulfurization to unite three peptide segments, followed by oxidative folding to assemble the 52 kDa homotrimeric protein. This synthesis represents the foundational step for discovering an inhibitory d-peptide with the potential to improve current anti-TNFα therapeutic strategies.

  17. Self-reinforcing dominance interactions between virtual males and females. Hypothesis generation for primate studies

    Hemelrijk, C.K.


    Although in group-living primates an individual's dominance position is a consequence of its social skills with both sexes, there are few data and hardly any theory on male-female dominance relationships. In order to stimulate a systematic study on this topic, I present a simple individual-oriented

  18. Oxytocin attenuates trust as a subset of more general reinforcement learning, with altered reward circuit functional connectivity in males.

    Ide, Jaime S; Nedic, Sanja; Wong, Kin F; Strey, Shmuel L; Lawson, Elizabeth A; Dickerson, Bradford C; Wald, Lawrence L; La Camera, Giancarlo; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R


    Oxytocin (OT) is an endogenous neuropeptide that, while originally thought to promote trust, has more recently been found to be context-dependent. Here we extend experimental paradigms previously restricted to de novo decision-to-trust, to a more realistic environment in which social relationships evolve in response to iterative feedback over twenty interactions. In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled within-subject/crossover experiment of human adult males, we investigated the effects of a single dose of intranasal OT (40 IU) on Bayesian expectation updating and reinforcement learning within a social context, with associated brain circuit dynamics. Subjects participated in a neuroeconomic task (Iterative Trust Game) designed to probe iterative social learning while their brains were scanned using ultra-high field (7T) fMRI. We modeled each subject's behavior using Bayesian updating of belief-states ("willingness to trust") as well as canonical measures of reinforcement learning (learning rate, inverse temperature). Behavioral trajectories were then used as regressors within fMRI activation and connectivity analyses to identify corresponding brain network functionality affected by OT. Behaviorally, OT reduced feedback learning, without bias with respect to positive versus negative reward. Neurobiologically, reduced learning under OT was associated with muted communication between three key nodes within the reward circuit: the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, and lateral (limbic) habenula. Our data suggest that OT, rather than inspiring feelings of generosity, instead attenuates the brain's encoding of prediction error and therefore its ability to modulate pre-existing beliefs. This effect may underlie OT's putative role in promoting what has typically been reported as 'unjustified trust' in the face of information that suggests likely betrayal, while also resolving apparent contradictions with regard to OT's context-dependent behavioral effects. Copyright

  19. Examining the Diet of Post-Migrant Hispanic Males Using the Precede-Proceed Model: Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Dietary Factors

    Castellanos, Diana Cuy; Downey, Laura; Graham-Kresge, Susan; Yadrick, Kathleen; Zoellner, Jamie; Connell, Carol L.


    Objective: To examine socio-environmental, behavioral, and predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling (PRE) factors contributing to post-migration dietary behavior change among a sample of traditional Hispanic males. Design: In this descriptive study, semistructured interviews, a group interview, and photovoice, followed by group interviews, were…

  20. Reverse alignment "mirror image" visualization as a laparoscopic training tool improves task performance.

    Dunnican, Ward J; Singh, T Paul; Ata, Ashar; Bendana, Emma E; Conlee, Thomas D; Dolce, Charles J; Ramakrishnan, Rakesh


    Reverse alignment (mirror image) visualization is a disconcerting situation occasionally faced during laparoscopic operations. This occurs when the camera faces back at the surgeon in the opposite direction from which the surgeon's body and instruments are facing. Most surgeons will attempt to optimize trocar and camera placement to avoid this situation. The authors' objective was to determine whether the intentional use of reverse alignment visualization during laparoscopic training would improve performance. A standard box trainer was configured for reverse alignment, and 34 medical students and junior surgical residents were randomized to train with either forward alignment (DIRECT) or reverse alignment (MIRROR) visualization. Enrollees were tested on both modalities before and after a 4-week structured training program specific to their modality. Student's t test was used to determine differences in task performance between the 2 groups. Twenty-one participants completed the study (10 DIRECT, 11 MIRROR). There were no significant differences in performance time between DIRECT or MIRROR participants during forward or reverse alignment initial testing. At final testing, DIRECT participants had improved times only in forward alignment performance; they demonstrated no significant improvement in reverse alignment performance. MIRROR participants had significant time improvement in both forward and reverse alignment performance at final testing. Reverse alignment imaging for laparoscopic training improves task performance for both reverse alignment and forward alignment tasks. This may be translated into improved performance in the operating room when faced with reverse alignment situations. Minimal lab training can account for drastic adaptation to this environment.

  1. Mirror-image duplication of the primary axis and heart in Xenopus embryos by the overexpression of Msx-1 gene.

    Chen, Y; Solursh, M


    The Msx-1 gene (formerly known as Hox-7) is a member of a discrete subclass of homeobox-containing genes. Examination of the expression pattern of Msx-1 in murine and avian embryos suggests that this gene may be involved in the regionalization of the medio-lateral axis during earlier development. We have examined the possible functions of Xenopus Msx-1 during early Xenopus embryonic development by overexpression of the Msx-1 gene. Overexpression of Msx-1 causes a left-right mirror-image duplication of primary axial structures, including notochord, neural tube, somites, suckers, and foregut. The embryonic developing heart is also mirror-image duplicated, including looping directions and polarity. These results indicate that Msx-1 may be involved in the mesoderm formation as well as left-right patterning in the early Xenopus embryonic development.

  2. Imaging findings in the right aortic arch with mirror image branching of arch vessels: An unusual cause of dysphagia

    Guneet Singh


    Full Text Available We report a case of a 72-year-old female with a right aortic arch with mirror-image branching of arch vessels presenting with dysphagia, and characteristic images on barium esophagogram, contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance aortography. Right-sided thoracic aortic arch with mirror-image branching of the brachiocephalic vessels causing dysphagia without associated congenital cardiac anomalies is extremely uncommon. Right-sided aortic arch is a rare congenital abnormality with incidence of 0.05-0.1% in the normal population. Anomalies of great vessels are usually incidental findings, because they are asymptomatic. Right aortic arch infrequently presents with a vascular ring that can cause complete or partial obstruction of the trachea and/or esophagus. The understanding of this arch anomaly is based on Edward′s hypothesis about the double arch system during embryonic developmental.

  3. How Bees Discriminate a Pattern of Two Colours from Its Mirror Image

    Horridge, Adrian


    A century ago, in his study of colour vision in the honeybee (Apis mellifera), Karl von Frisch showed that bees distinguish between a disc that is half yellow, half blue, and a mirror image of the same. Although his inference of colour vision in this example has been accepted, some discrepancies have prompted a new investigation of the detection of polarity in coloured patterns. In new experiments, bees restricted to their blue and green receptors by exclusion of ultraviolet could learn patterns of this type if they displayed a difference in green contrast between the two colours. Patterns with no green contrast required an additional vertical black line as a landmark. Tests of the trained bees revealed that they had learned two inputs; a measure and the retinotopic position of blue with large field tonic detectors, and the measure and position of a vertical edge or line with small-field phasic green detectors. The angle between these two was measured. This simple combination was detected wherever it occurred in many patterns, fitting the definition of an algorithm, which is defined as a method of processing data. As long as they excited blue receptors, colours could be any colour to human eyes, even white. The blue area cue could be separated from the green receptor modulation by as much as 50°. When some blue content was not available, the bees learned two measures of the modulation of the green receptors at widely separated vertical edges, and the angle between them. There was no evidence that the bees reconstructed the lay-out of the pattern or detected a tonic input to the green receptors. PMID:25617892

  4. Mirror image extradural hematoma in elderly population: management strategy with surgical bilateral or unilateral evacuation or conservative treatment modality with literature review

    Satyarthee Guru Dutta


    Full Text Available Extradural hematomas (EDH represent one of common imaging findings in cases sustaining traumatic brain injury. Bilateral extradural haematoma is considered rare and even rarer in elder people male. Bilateral extradural hematoma is usually acute, and generally associated with severe traumatic head injury. Mirror-image extradural hematomas (MEDH constitute a special type of bilateral extradural hamatomas, which is placed anatomically symmetrically on both the sides of the intracranial compartment, requires prompt diagnosis and emergent surgical intervention as it carry high mortality if evacuation of hematoma is not carried out expeditely. The mortality rate still remains higher in comparison to unilateral single extradural hematomas. The postoperative outcome depends on preoperative neurological status, total volume of blood, accurate diagnosis and prompt shifting to neurosurgical facility, expatiation of surgical procedure, pre- hospital care. Authors report a case of a - 65-year-old man who presented with acute simultaneous bilateral extradural haematomas following road traffic accident, underwent bilateral trephine craniotomy and simultaneous evacuation on both side led to good recovery.

  5. Spiegelzymes® mirror-image hammerhead ribozymes and mirror-image DNAzymes, an alternative to siRNAs and microRNAs to cleave mRNAs in vivo?

    Eliza Wyszko

    Full Text Available With the discovery of small non-coding RNA (ncRNA molecules as regulators for cellular processes, it became intriguing to develop technologies by which these regulators can be applied in molecular biology and molecular medicine. The application of ncRNAs has significantly increased our knowledge about the regulation and functions of a number of proteins in the cell. It is surprising that similar successes in applying these small ncRNAs in biotechnology and molecular medicine have so far been very limited. The reasons for these observations may lie in the high complexity in which these RNA regulators function in the cells and problems with their delivery, stability and specificity. Recently, we have described mirror-image hammerhead ribozymes and DNAzymes (Spiegelzymes® which can sequence-specifically hydrolyse mirror-image nucleic acids, such as our mirror-image aptamers (Spiegelmers discovered earlier. In this paper, we show for the first time that Spiegelzymes are capable of recognising complementary enantiomeric substrates (D-nucleic acids, and that they efficiently hydrolyse them at submillimolar magnesium concentrations and at physiologically relevant conditions. The Spiegelzymes are very stable in human sera, and do not require any protein factors for their function. They have the additional advantages of being non-toxic and non-immunogenic. The Spiegelzymes can be used for RNA silencing and also as therapeutic and diagnostic tools in medicine. We performed extensive three-dimensional molecular modelling experiments with mirror-image hammerhead ribozymes and DNAzymes interacting with D-RNA targets. We propose a model in which L/D-double helix structures can be formed by natural Watson-Crick base pairs, but where the nucleosides of one of the two strands will occur in an anticlinal conformation. Interestingly enough, the duplexes (L-RNA/D-RNA and L-DNA/D-RNA in these models can show either right- or left-handedness. This is a very new

  6. Improving Toilet-Use (Encopresis) in a Nine-Year-Old Male through Full-Cleanliness Training and Token Reinforcement.

    Akande, Adebowale


    Describes assessment and successful treatment of a preadolescent with erratic toileting behavior and related social skills difficulties. Treatment included monitoring of bowel movements, using a star chart, and applying rewards as positive reinforcement of acceptable behavior. (HTH)

  7. Cosmetic appreciation of lateralization of peripheral facial palsy: 'preference for left or right, true or mirror image?'.

    Pouwels, Sjaak; Ingels, Koen; van Heerbeek, Niels; Beurskens, Carien


    There have been several studies in the past depicting asymmetry in 'normal' human faces. Evidence supports the fact that the right hemisphere is superior in the recognition of emotions expressed by the human face and indicates a right hemispheric specialization for processing emotional information. The primary aim of this study is to determine whether there is a difference in cosmetic appreciation of a left peripheral facial palsy compared to a right peripheral facial palsy? Pictures of patients with a facial palsy with House-Brackmann II-VI were reversed as a mirror image and offered as a pair of pictures, together with the true image. Forty-two patients and 24 medical professionals familiar with facial palsy were asked to choose the most attractive photograph. The primary 'end' point was the most attractive side in the pictures chosen by medical professionals and patients. The secondary 'end' points consisted of the preferences for the mirror or true image, and influences of the House-Brackmann score and age. Medical professionals preferred the photographs from patients with a right and left peripheral facial palsy (PFP) in, respectively, a mean of 44 % (41-48 %) and 56 % (52-59 %) of the pictures (p = 0.02). When comparing mirror and true image, patients with a left-sided facial palsy chose their mirror and true image as most attractive in 90 and 10 %, respectively (p 0.05). Subanalysis of patients with a PFP House-Brackmann score V and VI showed that medical professionals did not have a significant preference for a left nor right-sided facial palsy. Patients with a left-sided facial palsy chose their mirror image in all cases and patients with a right-sided palsy chose their mirror and true image in resp. 33 and 67 %. The House-Brackmann score (p = 0.52) and age (p = 0.73) of the patients did not influence preferences. This study, demonstrating that medical professionals find a right-sided facial palsy cosmetically less attractive than a left-sided, has

  8. Mirror-Imaged Rapid Prototype Skull Model and Pre-Molded Synthetic Scaffold to Achieve Optimal Orbital Cavity Reconstruction.

    Park, Sung Woo; Choi, Jong Woo; Koh, Kyung S; Oh, Tae Suk


    Reconstruction of traumatic orbital wall defects has evolved to restore the original complex anatomy with the rapidly growing use of computer-aided design and prototyping. This study evaluated a mirror-imaged rapid prototype skull model and a pre-molded synthetic scaffold for traumatic orbital wall reconstruction. A single-center retrospective review was performed of patients who underwent orbital wall reconstruction after trauma from 2012 to 2014. Patients were included by admission through the emergency department after facial trauma or by a tertiary referral for post-traumatic orbital deformity. Three-dimensional (3D) computed tomogram-based mirror-imaged reconstruction images of the orbit and an individually manufactured rapid prototype skull model by a 3D printing technique were obtained for each case. Synthetic scaffolds were anatomically pre-molded using the skull model as guide and inserted at the individual orbital defect. Postoperative complications were assessed and 3D volumetric measurements of the orbital cavity were performed. Paired samples t test was used for statistical analysis. One hundred four patients with immediate orbital defect reconstructions and 23 post-traumatic orbital deformity reconstructions were included in this study. All reconstructions were successful without immediate postoperative complications, although there were 10 cases with mild enophthalmos and 2 cases with persistent diplopia. Reoperations were performed for 2 cases of persistent diplopia and secondary touchup procedures were performed to contour soft tissue in 4 cases. Postoperative volumetric measurement of the orbital cavity showed nonsignificant volume differences between the damaged orbit and the reconstructed orbit (21.35 ± 1.93 vs 20.93 ± 2.07 cm(2); P = .98). This protocol was extended to severe cases in which more than 40% of the orbital frame was lost and combined with extensive soft tissue defects. Traumatic orbital reconstruction can be optimized and

  9. Spontaneous expression of mirror self-recognition in monkeys after learning precise visual-proprioceptive association for mirror images.

    Chang, Liangtang; Zhang, Shikun; Poo, Mu-Ming; Gong, Neng


    Mirror self-recognition (MSR) is generally considered to be an intrinsic cognitive ability found only in humans and a few species of great apes. Rhesus monkeys do not spontaneously show MSR, but they have the ability to use a mirror as an instrument to find hidden objects. The mechanism underlying the transition from simple mirror use to MSR remains unclear. Here we show that rhesus monkeys could show MSR after learning precise visual-proprioceptive association for mirror images. We trained head-fixed monkeys on a chair in front of a mirror to touch with spatiotemporal precision a laser pointer light spot on an adjacent board that could only be seen in the mirror. After several weeks of training, when the same laser pointer light was projected to the monkey's face, a location not used in training, all three trained monkeys successfully touched the face area marked by the light spot in front of a mirror. All trained monkeys passed the standard face mark test for MSR both on the monkey chair and in their home cage. Importantly, distinct from untrained control monkeys, the trained monkeys showed typical mirror-induced self-directed behaviors in their home cage, such as using the mirror to explore normally unseen body parts. Thus, bodily self-consciousness may be a cognitive ability present in many more species than previously thought, and acquisition of precise visual-proprioceptive association for the images in the mirror is critical for revealing the MSR ability of the animal.

  10. Imported malaria in a cosmopolitan European city: a mirror image of the world epidemiological situation.

    Millet, Juan Pablo; Garcia de Olalla, Patricia; Carrillo-Santisteve, Paloma; Gascón, Joaquim; Treviño, Begoña; Muñoz, José; Gómez I Prat, Jordi; Cabezos, Juan; González Cordón, Anna; Caylà, Joan A


    International travel and migration have been related with an increase of imported malaria cases. There has been considerable immigration to Barcelona from low-income countries (LIC) in recent years. The objective is to describe the epidemiology and to determine the trends of the disease in Barcelona. Analysis of the cases notified among city residents between 1989 and 2005. Patients were classified as: tourists, voluntary workers, resident immigrants (visiting friends and relatives, VFR) and recently arrived immigrants. An analysis was conducted using the chi2 test and comparison of means. As a measure of association we calculated the Relative Risk (RR) and Odds Ratio (OR) with a Confidence Interval of 95% (CI) and carried out a trends analysis. Of the total of 1,579 imported cases notified, 997 (63.1%) lived in Barcelona city, and 55.1% were male. The mean age of patients was 32.7 years. The incidence increased from 2.4 cases/100,000 in 1989 to 3.5 cases/100,000 in 2005 (RR 1.46 CI:1.36-1.55). This increase was not statistically significant (trends analysis, p = 0.36). In terms of reason for travelling, 40.7% were VFR, 33.6% tourists, 12.1% voluntary workers and 13.6% were recently arrived immigrants. The most frequent species found was Plasmodium falciparum (71.3%), mainly in visitors to Africa (OR = 2.3, CI = 1.7-3.2). The vast majority (82.2%) had had some contact with Africa (35.9% with Equatorial Guinea, a Spanish ex-colony) and 96.6% had not completed chemoprophylaxis. Six deaths were observed, all tourists who had travelled to Africa and not taken chemoprophylaxis (3.9% fatality rate). Over the period studied there is an increase in malaria incidence, however the trend is not statistically significant. Lack of chemoprophylaxis compliance and the association between Africa and P. falciparum are very clear in the imported cases. Most of the patients with malaria did not take chemoprophylaxis.

  11. Imported malaria in a cosmopolitan European city: A mirror image of the world epidemiological situation

    Gómez i Prat Jordi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background International travel and migration have been related with an increase of imported malaria cases. There has been considerable immigration to Barcelona from low-income countries (LIC in recent years. The objective is to describe the epidemiology and to determine the trends of the disease in Barcelona. Methods Analysis of the cases notified among city residents between 1989 and 2005. Patients were classified as: tourists, voluntary workers, resident immigrants (visiting friends and relatives, VFR and recently arrived immigrants. An analysis was conducted using the chi2 test and comparison of means. As a measure of association we calculated the Relative Risk (RR and Odds Ratio (OR with a Confidence Interval of 95% (CI and carried out a trends analysis. Results Of the total of 1,579 imported cases notified, 997 (63.1% lived in Barcelona city, and 55.1% were male. The mean age of patients was 32.7 years. The incidence increased from 2.4 cases/100,000 in 1989 to 3.5 cases/100,000 in 2005 (RR 1.46 CI:1.36–1.55. This increase was not statistically significant (trends analysis, p = 0.36. In terms of reason for travelling, 40.7% were VFR, 33.6% tourists, 12.1% voluntary workers and 13.6% were recently arrived immigrants. The most frequent species found was Plasmodium falciparum (71.3%, mainly in visitors to Africa (OR = 2.3, CI = 1.7–3.2. The vast majority (82.2% had had some contact with Africa (35.9% with Equatorial Guinea, a Spanish ex-colony and 96.6% had not completed chemoprophylaxis. Six deaths were observed, all tourists who had travelled to Africa and not taken chemoprophylaxis (3.9% fatality rate. Conclusion Over the period studied there is an increase in malaria incidence, however the trend is not statistically significant. Lack of chemoprophylaxis compliance and the association between Africa and P. falciparum are very clear in the imported cases. Most of the patients with malaria did not take chemoprophylaxis.

  12. Reduction of progressive thoracolumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliosis by chiropractic biophysics® (CBP®) mirror image® methods following failed traditional chiropractic treatment: a case report

    Haggard, Joshua S.; Haggard, Jennifer B.; Oakley, Paul A.; Harrison, Deed E.


    [Purpose] To present a case demonstrating the reduction of progressive thoracolumbar scoliosis by incorporating Chiropractic BioPhysics® (CBP®) technique’s mirror image® exercises, traction and blocking procedures based on the ‘non-commutative properties of finite rotation angles under addition’ engineering law. [Subject and Methods] A 15-year-old female presented with a right thoracolumbar scoliosis having a Cobb angle from T5–L3 of 27° and suffering from headaches and lower back pains. Her ...

  13. Corolla chirality does not contribute to directed pollen movement in Hypericum perforatum (Hypericaceae): mirror image pinwheel flowers function as radially symmetric flowers in pollination.

    Diller, Carolina; Fenster, Charles B


    Corolla chirality, the pinwheel arrangement of petals within a flower, is found throughout the core eudicots. In 15 families, different chiral type flowers (i.e., right or left rotated corolla) exist on the same plant, and this condition is referred to as unfixed/enantiomorphic corolla chirality. There are no investigations on the significance of unfixed floral chirality on directed pollen movement even though analogous mirror image floral designs, for example, enantiostyly, has evolved in response to selection to direct pollinator and pollen movement. Here, we examine the role of corolla chirality on directing pollen transfer, pollinator behavior, and its potential influence on disassortative mating. We quantified pollen transfer and pollinator behavior and movement for both right and left rotated flowers in two populations of Hypericum perforatum. In addition, we quantified the number of right and left rotated flowers at the individual level. Pollinators were indifferent to corolla chirality resulting in no difference in pollen deposition between right and left flowers. Corolla chirality had no effect on pollinator and pollen movement between and within chiral morphs. Unlike other mirror image floral designs, corolla chirality appears to play no role in promoting disassortative mating in this species.

  14. Palisaded Neutrophilic and Granulomatous Dermatitis/Interstitial Granulomatous Dermatitis Overlap: A Striking Clinical and Histologic Presentation With "Burning Rope Sign" and Subsequent Mirror-Image Contralateral Recurrence.

    Kern, Malan; Shiver, Mallory B; Addis, Kristen M; Gardner, Jerad M


    Palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis and interstitial granulomatous dermatitis are uncommon granulomatous dermatoses that often arise in association with rheumatoid arthritis. These 2 entities have overlapping features and may exist on a spectrum. We report an intriguing case of a 53-year-old man with advanced rheumatoid arthritis who presented with a large indurated painful truncal plaque with a palpable cord in addition to a papulonodular eruption on his dorsal hands. Furthermore, our patient had a recurrence in a near-identical mirror-image pattern on the contralateral trunk. The constellation of clinical and histopathological findings in our patient further suggests that palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis and interstitial granulomatous dermatitis exist as overlapping disease entities on a continuum. In addition, we propose that recurrence of skin findings may be indicative of the severity of the underlying systemic disease process.

  15. 1',5'-Anhydro-L-ribo-hexitol Adenine Nucleic Acids (α-L-HNA-A): Synthesis and Chiral Selection Properties in the Mirror Image World.

    D'Alonzo, Daniele; Froeyen, Mathy; Schepers, Guy; Di Fabio, Giovanni; Van Aerschot, Arthur; Herdewijn, Piet; Palumbo, Giovanni; Guaragna, Annalisa


    The synthesis and a preliminary investigation of the base pairing properties of (6' → 4')-linked 1',5'-anhydro-L-ribo-hexitol nucleic acids (α-L-HNA) have herein been reported through the study of a model oligoadenylate system in the mirror image world. Despite its considerable preorganization due to the rigidity of the "all equatorial" pyranyl sugar backbone, α-L-HNA represents a versatile informational biopolymer, in view of its capability to cross-communicate with natural and unnatural complements in both enantiomeric forms. This seems the result of an inherent flexibility of the oligonucleotide system, as witnessed by the singular formation of iso- and heterochiral associations composed of regular, enantiomorphic helical structures. The peculiar properties of α-L-HNA (and most generally of the α-HNA system) provide new elements in our understanding of the structural prerequisites ruling the stereoselectivity of the hybridization processes of nucleic acids.

  16. Effect of Clozapine vs Other Second-Generation Antipsychotics on Hospitalization and Seclusion: A Retrospective Mirror-Image Study in a Japanese Public Psychiatric Hospital.

    Misawa, Fuminari; Suzuki, Takefumi; Fujii, Yasuo


    Clozapine has been regarded as the gold standard for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but a recent network meta-analysis has questioned its relative superiority over other second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) such as olanzapine and risperidone. We conducted a retrospective mirror-image study of clozapine vs other SGAs to evaluate real-world effectiveness of clozapine in terms of the duration of hospitalization and seclusion, both of which represent a critical outcome. We included all patients who initiated clozapine at the Yamanashi Prefectural KITA Hospital and had continued to take any SGA(s) other than clozapine for at least 1 year before the initiation of clozapine. We obtained data on hospitalization and seclusion during 1 year of SGA treatment (SGA phase) and 1 year after the treatment was switched to clozapine (clozapine phase). The study included 35 patients (21 men, 31 with schizophrenia, 4 with schizoaffective disorder) with the average ± SD age of 37.3 ± 11.1 years. The results indicated that total hospitalization days did not differ significantly between SGA and clozapine treatment. However, total duration of seclusion was significantly shorter in the clozapine phase than in the SGA phase. Furthermore, the number of patients who were secluded at least once was significantly smaller in the clozapine phase than in the SGA phase. The results were essentially unchanged when outlier patients were excluded and only when patients taking olanzapine and/or risperidone during the SGA phase were considered. Although the findings from this retrospective analysis need to be further tested in prospective trials, they endorse the relative effectiveness of clozapine over other SGAs in the real world.

  17. Stereochemical probes of bovine plasma amine oxidase: evidence for mirror image processing and a syn abstraction of hydrogens from C-1 and C-2 of dopamine

    Farnum, M.F.; Klinman, J.P.


    Bovine plasma amine oxidase (PAO) has previously been shown to catalyze a nonstereospecific loss of tritium from [2(R)- 3 H]- and [2(S)- 3 H]dopamines, attributed to multiple, catalytically active binding sites for substrate. Analysis of products formed from incubation of dopamine with PAO in tritiated water indicates a stereospecific, pro-R, incorporation of label at C-2. Thus, tritium washout (random) and washin (pro-R) are not the microscopic reverse of one another. We conclude that the (enamine) intermediates leading to tritium washin are nonequivalently bound. The observation of pro-R incorporation has provided a straightforward synthetic route to [1(R)- 2 H,2(R)- 3 H]- and [1(S)- 2 H,2(R)- 3 H]dopamines, which upon oxidation with PAO are expected to be processed preferentially by 1S and 1R cleavage, respectively. From previously measured isotope effects, we predict the loss of tritium from the 1(R)-2H and 1(S)-2H samples to be 74:8 for a syn relationship between cleavage at C-1 and C-2 vs. 21:90 for an anti relationship. The observation of a 68:18 ratio at 100% conversion provides strong evidence for a syn cleavage. The data support a mechanism in which a single base catalyzes a 1,3-prototrophic shift of hydrogen from C-1 of the substrate to cofactor, followed by exchange from C-2. Additionally, the results confirm the presence of alternate binding modes for dopamine at the active site of bovine plasma amine oxidase. This interaction of dopamine with plasma amine oxidase is a rare example of mirror-image catalysis in which a single substrate has two functional binding orientations on an enzyme surface



    A composite panel having front and back faces, the panel comprising facing reinforcement, backing reinforcement and matrix material binding to the facing and backing reinforcements, the facing and backing reinforcements each independently comprising one or more reinforcing sheets, the facing rein...... by matrix material, the facing and backing reinforcements being interconnected to resist out-of-plane relative movement. The reinforced composite panel is useful as a barrier element for shielding structures, equipment and personnel from blast and/or ballistic impact damage....

  19. Investigations of timing during the schedule and reinforcement intervals with wheel-running reinforcement.

    Belke, Terry W; Christie-Fougere, Melissa M


    Across two experiments, a peak procedure was used to assess the timing of the onset and offset of an opportunity to run as a reinforcer. The first experiment investigated the effect of reinforcer duration on temporal discrimination of the onset of the reinforcement interval. Three male Wistar rats were exposed to fixed-interval (FI) 30-s schedules of wheel-running reinforcement and the duration of the opportunity to run was varied across values of 15, 30, and 60s. Each session consisted of 50 reinforcers and 10 probe trials. Results showed that as reinforcer duration increased, the percentage of postreinforcement pauses longer than the 30-s schedule interval increased. On probe trials, peak response rates occurred near the time of reinforcer delivery and peak times varied with reinforcer duration. In a second experiment, seven female Long-Evans rats were exposed to FI 30-s schedules leading to 30-s opportunities to run. Timing of the onset and offset of the reinforcement period was assessed by probe trials during the schedule interval and during the reinforcement interval in separate conditions. The results provided evidence of timing of the onset, but not the offset of the wheel-running reinforcement period. Further research is required to assess if timing occurs during a wheel-running reinforcement period.

  20. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    David R Lloyd; David R Lloyd; Douglas J Medina; Larry W Hawk; Whitney D Fosco; Jerry B Richards


    In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We ar...

  1. Flexural reinforced concrete member with FRP reinforcement

    Putzolu, Mariana


    One of the most problematic point in construction is the durability of the concrete especially related to corrosion of the steel reinforcement. Due to this problem the construction sector, introduced the use of Fiber Reinforced Polymer, the main fibers used in construction are Glass, Carbon and Aramid. In this study, the author aim to analyse the flexural behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with FRP. This aim is achieved by the analysis of specimens reinforced with GFRP bars, with theoreti...

  2. Reinforced sulphur concrete


    Reinforced sulphur concrete wherein one or more metal reinforcing members are in contact with sulphur concrete is disclosed. The reinforced sulphur concrete comprises an adhesion promoter that enhances the interaction between the sulphur and the one or more metal reinforcing members.

  3. Sex-Fair Education and the Male Experience.

    Scott, Kathryn P.


    Describes how the traditional, agressive male role has been reinforced by social studies textbooks. The author recommends that teachers teach about new roles for males by presenting images of males in caring, nurturing, and expressive roles. (AM)

  4. Management of Reinforcement Corrosion

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Møller, Per

    Reinforcement corrosion is the most important cause for deterioration of reinforced concrete structures, both with regard to costs and consequences. Thermodynamically consistent descriptions of corrosion mechanisms are expected to allow the development of innovative concepts for the management...... of reinforcement corrosion....

  5. Adapting without reinforcement.

    Kheifets, Aaron; Gallistel, C Randy


    Our data rule out a broad class of behavioral models in which behavioral change is guided by differential reinforcement. To demonstrate this, we showed that the number of reinforcers missed before the subject shifted its behavior was not sufficient to drive behavioral change. What's more, many subjects shifted their behavior to a more optimal strategy even when they had not yet missed a single reinforcer. Naturally, differential reinforcement cannot be said to drive a process that shifts to accommodate to new conditions so adeptly that it doesn't miss a single reinforcer: it would have no input on which to base this shift.

  6. Genomic Signatures of Reinforcement

    Austin G. Garner


    Full Text Available Reinforcement is the process by which selection against hybridization increases reproductive isolation between taxa. Much research has focused on demonstrating the existence of reinforcement, yet relatively little is known about the genetic basis of reinforcement or the evolutionary conditions under which reinforcement can occur. Inspired by reinforcement’s characteristic phenotypic pattern of reproductive trait divergence in sympatry but not in allopatry, we discuss whether reinforcement also leaves a distinct genomic pattern. First, we describe three patterns of genetic variation we expect as a consequence of reinforcement. Then, we discuss a set of alternative processes and complicating factors that may make the identification of reinforcement at the genomic level difficult. Finally, we consider how genomic analyses can be leveraged to inform if and to what extent reinforcement evolved in the face of gene flow between sympatric lineages and between allopatric and sympatric populations of the same lineage. Our major goals are to understand if genome scans for particular patterns of genetic variation could identify reinforcement, isolate the genetic basis of reinforcement, or infer the conditions under which reinforcement evolved.

  7. Genomic Signatures of Reinforcement

    Goulet, Benjamin E.


    Reinforcement is the process by which selection against hybridization increases reproductive isolation between taxa. Much research has focused on demonstrating the existence of reinforcement, yet relatively little is known about the genetic basis of reinforcement or the evolutionary conditions under which reinforcement can occur. Inspired by reinforcement’s characteristic phenotypic pattern of reproductive trait divergence in sympatry but not in allopatry, we discuss whether reinforcement also leaves a distinct genomic pattern. First, we describe three patterns of genetic variation we expect as a consequence of reinforcement. Then, we discuss a set of alternative processes and complicating factors that may make the identification of reinforcement at the genomic level difficult. Finally, we consider how genomic analyses can be leveraged to inform if and to what extent reinforcement evolved in the face of gene flow between sympatric lineages and between allopatric and sympatric populations of the same lineage. Our major goals are to understand if genome scans for particular patterns of genetic variation could identify reinforcement, isolate the genetic basis of reinforcement, or infer the conditions under which reinforcement evolved. PMID:29614048

  8. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    David R Lloyd


    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009;Rankin et al., 2009. We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect ‘accelerated-HRE’. Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  9. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness.

    Lloyd, David R; Medina, Douglas J; Hawk, Larry W; Fosco, Whitney D; Richards, Jerry B


    In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral- and neural-based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009; Rankin etal., 2009). We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow) normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect "accelerated-HRE." Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement-based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  10. The "Case of Two Compounds with Similar Configuration but Nearly Mirror Image CD Spectra" Refuted. Reassignment of the Absolute Configuration of N-Formyl-3',4'-dihydrospiro[indan-1,2'(1'H)-pyridine].

    Padula, Daniele; Di Bari, Lorenzo; Pescitelli, Gennaro


    In 1997, Sandström and co-workers reported the case of two chiral spiro compounds with very similar skeletons but showing almost mirror-image electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra for the corresponding absolute configuration. The paper has been often cited as a proof and good educational example of the pronounced sensitivity of ECD toward molecular conformation, and a clear warning against the use of ECD spectral correlations to assign absolute configurations. Although both concepts remain valid, they are not exemplified by the quoted paper. We demonstrate that the original configurational assignment of one compound was wrong and revise it by using TDDFT calculations. The main reason for the observed failure is the use of the matrix method, a popular approach to predict ECD spectra of compounds which can be treated with an independent system approximation (ISA), including proteins. Using a modern version of the matrix method, we demonstrate that the ISA is not valid for the title compound. Even in the absence of apparent conjugation between the component chromophores, the validity of the ISA should never be taken for granted and the effective extent of orbital overlap should always be verified.

  11. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter


    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...

  12. Algorithms for Reinforcement Learning

    Szepesvari, Csaba


    Reinforcement learning is a learning paradigm concerned with learning to control a system so as to maximize a numerical performance measure that expresses a long-term objective. What distinguishes reinforcement learning from supervised learning is that only partial feedback is given to the learner about the learner's predictions. Further, the predictions may have long term effects through influencing the future state of the controlled system. Thus, time plays a special role. The goal in reinforcement learning is to develop efficient learning algorithms, as well as to understand the algorithms'

  13. Are Imitation and Replication Mirror Image Problems?

    Håkanson, Lars


    -spanning mechanisms. Since these investments are specific to the context in which they take place and to the transactions that they enable, they cannot easily be organized through arm's length contracts. Firms exist because they have a relative advantage over markets in the integration of diverse knowledge. However...

  14. NK cells and T cells: mirror images?

    Versteeg, R.


    The expression of MHC class I molecules protects cells against lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. It is possible that NK cells are 'educated' to recognize self MHC class I molecules and that the combination of self peptide and MHC class I molecule blocks NK-mediated lysis. Here, Rogier Versteeg

  15. Modeling reinforced concrete durability.


    This project developed a next-generation modeling approach for projecting the extent of : reinforced concrete corrosion-related damage, customized for new and existing Florida Department of : Transportation bridges and suitable for adapting to broade...

  16. The role of electrocardiogram in the diagnosis of dextrocardia with mirror image atrial arrangement and ventricular position in a young adult Nigerian in Ile-Ife: a case report.

    Ogunlade, Oluwadare; Ayoka, Abiodun O; Akomolafe, Rufus O; Akinsomisoye, Olumide S; Irinoye, Adedayo I; Ajao, Adewale; Asafa, Muritala A


    Dextrocardia with situs inversus is a rare congenital disease. In patients with this condition, the heart is presented as a mirror image of itself with its apex pointing to the right. The pulmonary and abdominal anatomies are reversed. Dextrocardia with situs inversus occurs at birth but its diagnosis may be in adulthood. This case advances knowledge by graphically describing the unusual electrocardiographic features of dextrocardia in a young adult. We report a case of a 22-year-old Nigerian man of Yoruba ethnicity who presented himself for preadmission medical test. He had a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram which revealed uncommon features: inversion of P waves in leads I, aVL and aVR; dominantly negative QRS waves in leads I, V1 to V6; reverse R wave progression in chest leads; low voltage in V4 to V6; extreme QRS axis; flattened T waves in V4 to V6 and aVR; and inverted T waves in lead I and aVL. An electrocardiogram diagnosis of dextrocardia was made. The differential diagnosis considered was right ventricular hypertrophy. A cardiovascular examination showed pulse rate of 70 beats per minute, blood pressure of 119/62mmHg, visible cardiac impulse at right precordium, apex beat was located at his fifth right intercostal space mid-clavicular line. A chest X-ray (posterior anterior view) including upper abdomen showed dextrocardia; his aortic arch was located on the right. His stomach bubble was located below his right hemidiaphragm. His trachea was slightly deviated to the left. The findings in his lung fields were not remarkable. Abdominopelvic ultrasonography showed that right-sided intra-abdominal organs (liver, gallbladder) were located on the left while left-sided organs (stomach, spleen) were located on the right. His abdominal aorta was on the right while his inferior vena cava was located on the left. A diagnosis of dextrocardia with situs inversus was made ultrasonographically. A properly interpreted electrocardiogram was useful in suspecting the

  17. Behavior of reinforced concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars

    D. H. Tavares

    Full Text Available The use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP bars is one of the alternatives presented in recent studies to prevent the drawbacks related to the steel reinforcement in specific reinforced concrete members. In this work, six reinforced concrete beams were submitted to four point bending tests. One beam was reinforced with CA-50 steel bars and five with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP bars. The tests were carried out in the Department of Structural Engineering in São Carlos Engineering School, São Paulo University. The objective of the test program was to compare strength, reinforcement deformation, displacement, and some anchorage aspects between the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams and the steel-reinforced concrete beam. The results show that, even though four GFRP-reinforced concrete beams were designed with the same internal tension force as that with steel reinforcement, their capacity was lower than that of the steel-reinforced beam. The results also show that similar flexural capacity can be achieved for the steel- and for the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams by controlling the stiffness (reinforcement modulus of elasticity multiplied by the bar cross-sectional area - EA and the tension force of the GFRP bars.

  18. Steel fiber reinforced concrete

    Baloch, S.U.


    Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)

  19. Reinforced concrete tomography

    Mariscotti, M.A.J.; Morixe, M.; Tarela, P.A.; Thieberger, P.


    In this paper we describe the technique of reinforced concrete tomography, its historical background, recent technological developments and main applications. Gamma radiation sensitive plates are imprinted with radiation going through the concrete sample under study, and then processed to reveal the presence of reinforcement and defects in the material density. The three dimensional reconstruction, or tomography, of the reinforcement out of a single gammagraphy is an original development alternative to conventional methods. Re-bar diameters and positions may be determined with an accuracy of ± 1 mm 0.5-1 cm, respectively. The non-destructive character of this technique makes it particularly attractive in cases of inhabited buildings and diagnoses of balconies. (author) [es

  20. Braided reinforced composite rods for the internal reinforcement of concrete

    Gonilho Pereira, C.; Fangueiro, R.; Jalali, S.; Araujo, M.; Marques, P.


    This paper reports on the development of braided reinforced composite rods as a substitute for the steel reinforcement in concrete. The research work aims at understanding the mechanical behaviour of core-reinforced braided fabrics and braided reinforced composite rods, namely concerning the influence of the braiding angle, the type of core reinforcement fibre, and preloading and postloading conditions. The core-reinforced braided fabrics were made from polyester fibres for producing braided structures, and E-glass, carbon, HT polyethylene, and sisal fibres were used for the core reinforcement. The braided reinforced composite rods were obtained by impregnating the core-reinforced braided fabric with a vinyl ester resin. The preloading of the core-reinforced braided fabrics and the postloading of the braided reinforced composite rods were performed in three and two stages, respectively. The results of tensile tests carried out on different samples of core-reinforced braided fabrics are presented and discussed. The tensile and bending properties of the braided reinforced composite rods have been evaluated, and the results obtained are presented, discussed, and compared with those of conventional materials, such as steel.

  1. Soil reinforcement with geosynthetics

    Bessaim Mohammed Mustapha


    Full Text Available The proportionality of existence of land with good bearing to erect any building or building is very small, to remedy this deficiency it is necessary to resort to techniques of reinforcement of the soils which can constitute a very important development. Among these methods of remediation, there is reinforcement by the geosynthetics which constitute an effective solution to these constraints. This process tends to stabilize the soil in question with increased load bearing capacity in civil engineering and geotechnical works such as embankments, slopes, embankments and hydraulic structures, with an inestimable gain in time, economy and durability while preserving the natural and environmental aspect.

  2. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M; Lerman, Dorothea C; Call, Nathan A; Addison, Laura R; Kodak, Tiffany


    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relations among reinforcer magnitude, preference, and efficacy by drawing on the procedures and results of basic experimenta...

  3. Turbomachine blade reinforcement

    Garcia Crespo, Andres Jose


    Embodiments of the present disclosure include a system having a turbomachine blade segment including a blade and a mounting segment coupled to the blade, wherein the mounting segment has a plurality of reinforcement pins laterally extending at least partially through a neck of the mounting segment.

  4. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent


    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  5. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan A.; Addison, Laura R.; Kodak, Tiffany


    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current…

  6. The Reinforcing Event (RE) Menu

    Addison, Roger M.; Homme, Lloyd E.


    A motivational system, the Contingency Management System, uses contracts in which some amount of defined task behavior is demanded for some interval of reinforcing event. The Reinforcing Event Menu, a list of high probability reinforcing behaviors, is used in the system as a prompting device for the learner and as an aid for the administrator in…

  7. Autoshaping Chicks with Heat Reinforcement: The Role of Stimulus-Reinforcer and Response-Reinforcer Relations

    Wasserman, Edward A.; And Others


    The present series of experiments attempted to analyze more fully the contributions of stimulus-reinforcer and response-reinforcer relations to autoshaping within a single conditioning situation. (Author)

  8. Study on reinforced concrete beams with helical transverse reinforcement

    Kaarthik Krishna, N.; Sandeep, S.; Mini, K. M.


    In a Reinforced Concrete (R.C) structure, major reinforcement is used for taking up tensile stresses acting on the structure due to applied loading. The present paper reports the behavior of reinforced concrete beams with helical reinforcement (transverse reinforcement) subjected to monotonous loading by 3-point flexure test. The results were compared with identically similar reinforced concrete beams with rectangular stirrups. During the test crack evolution, load carrying capacity and deflection of the beams were monitored, analyzed and compared. Test results indicate that the use of helical reinforcement provides enhanced load carrying capacity and a lower deflection proving to be more ductile, clearly indicating the advantage in carrying horizontal loads. An analysis was also carried out using ANSYS software in order to compare the test results of both the beams.

  9. Degradation of Waterfront Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Key words: Degradation, reinforced concrete, Dar es Salaam port. Abstract—One of the ... especially corrosion of the reinforcement. ... Corrosion of steel reinforcement contributes .... cracks along the line of reinforcement bars and most of the ...

  10. Male Infertility

    ... hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal problems have a number of possible underlying causes. Defects of tubules that transport sperm. Many ... syndrome — in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one ...

  11. Asymmetrical reinforcement and Wolbachia infection in Drosophila.

    John Jaenike


    Full Text Available Reinforcement refers to the evolution of increased mating discrimination against heterospecific individuals in zones of geographic overlap and can be considered a final stage in the speciation process. One the factors that may affect reinforcement is the degree to which hybrid matings result in the permanent loss of genes from a species' gene pool. Matings between females of Drosophila subquinaria and males of D. recens result in high levels of offspring mortality, due to interspecific cytoplasmic incompatibility caused by Wolbachia infection of D. recens. Such hybrid inviability is not manifested in matings between D. recens females and D. subquinaria males. Here we ask whether the asymmetrical hybrid inviability is associated with a corresponding asymmetry in the level of reinforcement. The geographic ranges of D. recens and D. subquinaria were found to overlap across a broad belt of boreal forest in central Canada. Females of D. subquinaria from the zone of sympatry exhibit much stronger levels of discrimination against males of D. recens than do females from allopatric populations. In contrast, such reproductive character displacement is not evident in D. recens, consistent with the expected effects of unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility. Furthermore, there is substantial behavioral isolation within D. subquinaria, because females from populations sympatric with D. recens discriminate against allopatric conspecific males, whereas females from populations allopatric with D. recens show no discrimination against any conspecific males. Patterns of general genetic differentiation among populations are not consistent with patterns of behavioral discrimination, which suggests that the behavioral isolation within D. subquinaria results from selection against mating with Wolbachia-infected D. recens. Interspecific cytoplasmic incompatibility may contribute not only to post-mating isolation, an effect already widely recognized, but also to

  12. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.


    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  13. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN


    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  14. Wrinkles in reinforced membranes

    Takei, Atsushi; Brau, Fabian; Roman, Benoît; Bico, José.


    We study, through model experiments, the buckling under tension of an elastic membrane reinforced with a more rigid strip or a fiber. In these systems, the compression of the rigid layer is induced through Poisson contraction as the membrane is stretched perpendicularly to the strip. Although strips always lead to out-of-plane wrinkles, we observe a transition from out-of-plane to in plane wrinkles beyond a critical strain in the case of fibers embedded into the elastic membranes. The same transition is also found when the membrane is reinforced with a wall of the same material depending on the aspect ratio of the wall. We describe through scaling laws the evolution of the morphology of the wrinkles and the different transitions as a function of material properties and stretching strain.

  15. Deep Reinforcement Fuzzing

    Böttinger, Konstantin; Godefroid, Patrice; Singh, Rishabh


    Fuzzing is the process of finding security vulnerabilities in input-processing code by repeatedly testing the code with modified inputs. In this paper, we formalize fuzzing as a reinforcement learning problem using the concept of Markov decision processes. This in turn allows us to apply state-of-the-art deep Q-learning algorithms that optimize rewards, which we define from runtime properties of the program under test. By observing the rewards caused by mutating with a specific set of actions...

  16. Reinforcement Value and Substitutability of Sucrose and Wheel Running: Implications for Activity Anorexia

    Belke, Terry W.; Duncan, Ian D.; Pierce, W. David


    Choice between sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement was assessed in two experiments. In the first experiment, ten male Wistar rats were exposed to concurrent VI 30 s VI 30 s schedules of wheel-running and sucrose reinforcement. Sucrose concentration varied across concentrations of 2.5, 7.5, and 12.5%. As concentration increased, more behavior…

  17. Sex Differences in Reinforcement and Punishment on Prime-Time Television.

    Downs, A. Chris; Gowan, Darryl C.


    Television programs were analyzed for frequencies of positive reinforcement and punishment exchanged among performers varying in age and sex. Females were found to more often exhibit and receive reinforcement, whereas males more often exhibited and received punishment. These findings have implications for children's learning of positive and…

  18. Male Hypogonadism

    ... the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an ... Adulthood In adult males, hypogonadism may alter certain masculine physical characteristics and impair normal reproductive function. Signs ...

  19. Male Infertility

    ... to have a baby? If treatment doesn’t work, what are our other options? Resources National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, What Causes Male Infertility? Last Updated: May 30, 2017 This ...

  20. Male contraception.

    Amory, John K


    Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women can not use them because of health conditions or side-effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies, of which 80-90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper briefly reviews the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies and then discusses the research directed toward development of novel methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Condoms - male

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... your health care provider or pharmacy about emergency contraception ("morning-after pills"). PROBLEMS WITH CONDOM USE Some ...

  2. Male contraception

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi


    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...

  3. Male sexuality.

    Ginsberg, Terrie B


    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reinforced seal component

    Jeanson, G.M.; Odent, R.P.


    The invention concerns a seal component of the kind comprising a soft sheath and a flexible reinforcement housed throughout the entire length of the sheath. The invention enables O ring seals to be made capable of providing a radial seal, that is to say between two sides or flat collars of two cylindrical mechanical parts, or an axial seal, that is to say between two co-axial axisymmetrical areas. The seal so ensured is relative, but it remains adequately sufficient for many uses, for instance, to ensure the separation of two successive fixed blading compartments of axial compressors used in gas diffusion isotope concentration facilities [fr

  5. Manifold Regularized Reinforcement Learning.

    Li, Hongliang; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding


    This paper introduces a novel manifold regularized reinforcement learning scheme for continuous Markov decision processes. Smooth feature representations for value function approximation can be automatically learned using the unsupervised manifold regularization method. The learned features are data-driven, and can be adapted to the geometry of the state space. Furthermore, the scheme provides a direct basis representation extension for novel samples during policy learning and control. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on two benchmark control tasks, i.e., the inverted pendulum and the energy storage problem. Simulation results illustrate the concepts of the proposed scheme and show that it can obtain excellent performance.

  6. Modelling reinforcement corrosion in concrete

    Michel, Alexander; Geiker, Mette Rica; Stang, Henrik


    A physio-chemical model for the simulation of reinforcement corrosion in concrete struc-tures was developed. The model allows for simulation of initiation and subsequent propaga-tion of reinforcement corrosion. Corrosion is assumed to be initiated once a defined critical chloride threshold......, a numerical example is pre-sented, that illustrates the formation of corrosion cells as well as propagation of corrosion in a reinforced concrete structure....

  7. The Reinforcement Learning Competition 2014

    Dimitrakakis, Christos; Li, Guangliang; Tziortziotis, Nikoalos


    Reinforcement learning is one of the most general problems in artificial intelligence. It has been used to model problems in automated experiment design, control, economics, game playing, scheduling and telecommunications. The aim of the reinforcement learning competition is to encourage the development of very general learning agents for arbitrary reinforcement learning problems and to provide a test-bed for the unbiased evaluation of algorithms.

  8. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri


    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  9. Male baldness.

    Clarke, Philip


    Male baldness is very common. Its effect on individuals is extremely variable, and in some people it will have a significant adverse effect on their quality of life. The objectives of this article are to help general practitioners (GPs) be aware of potential health problems related to male baldness, to have an approach to assessing hair loss and to be aware of treatment options. Male baldness is, most often, a normal occurrence, but it may have significant effects on a man's health. It may also be a pointer to other potential health issues. The GP is in the ideal position to conduct an initial evaluation, consider other health issues and advise on treatment options.

  10. Constitutive model for reinforced concrete

    Feenstra, P.H.; Borst, de R.


    A numerical model is proposed for reinforced-concrete behavior that combines the commonly accepted ideas from modeling plain concrete, reinforcement, and interaction behavior in a consistent manner. The behavior of plain concrete is govern by fracture-energy-level-based formulation both in tension

  11. Quenched Reinforcement Exposed to Fire

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl


    .0% is seldom found in “slack” (not prestressed) reinforcement, but 2.0% stresses might be relevant for reinforcement in T shaped cross sections and for prestressed structures, where large strains can be applied. All data are provided in a “HOT” condition during a fire and in a “COLD” condition after a fire...

  12. Tangible Reinforcers: Bonuses or Bribes?

    O'Leary, K. Daniel; And Others


    Objections to the use of tangible reinforcers, such as prizes, candy, cigarettes, and money, are discussed. Treatment programs using tangible reinforcers are recommended as powerful modifers of behavior to be implemented only after less powerful means of modification have been tried. (Author)

  13. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effects of sucrose concentration and wheel-running reinforcer duration.

    Belke, Terry W; Hancock, Stephanie D


    Six male albino rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed-interval 30-s schedule of lever pressing that produced either a drop of sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for a fixed duration as reinforcers. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. In Experiment 1, the duration of running was held constant at 15 s while the concentration of sucrose solution was varied across values of 0, 2.5. 5, 10, and 15%. As concentration decreased, postreinforcement pause duration increased and local rates decreased in the presence of the stimulus signaling sucrose. Consequently, the difference between responding in the presence of stimuli signaling wheel-running and sucrose reinforcers diminished, and at 2.5%, response functions for the two reinforcers were similar. In Experiment 2, the concentration of sucrose solution was held constant at 15% while the duration of the opportunity to run was first varied across values of 15, 45, and 90 s then subsequently across values of 5, 10, and 15 s. As run duration increased, postreinforcement pause duration in the presence of the wheel-running stimulus increased and local rates increased then decreased. In summary, inhibitory aftereffects of previous reinforcers occurred when both sucrose concentration and run duration varied; changes in responding were attributable to changes in the excitatory value of the stimuli signaling the two reinforcers.

  14. Overjustification and Intermittent Reinforcement.

    Stalling, Richard B.; And Others

    Within the area of attribution theory, an overjustification effect is inferred if, following reward for an intrinsically interesting activity, individuals subsequently show less interest in that activity than comparable individuals who receive no reward. In an attempt to isolate the overjustification effect, 60 college students (30 male, 30…

  15. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.


    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  16. Modeling reinforced concrete durability : [summary].


    Many Florida bridges are built of steel-reinforced concrete. Floridas humid and marine : environments subject steel in these structures : to corrosion once water and salt penetrate the : concrete and contact the steel. Corroded steel : takes up mo...

  17. Evolutionary computation for reinforcement learning

    Whiteson, S.; Wiering, M.; van Otterlo, M.


    Algorithms for evolutionary computation, which simulate the process of natural selection to solve optimization problems, are an effective tool for discovering high-performing reinforcement-learning policies. Because they can automatically find good representations, handle continuous action spaces,

  18. Deep Reinforcement Learning: An Overview

    Li, Yuxi


    We give an overview of recent exciting achievements of deep reinforcement learning (RL). We discuss six core elements, six important mechanisms, and twelve applications. We start with background of machine learning, deep learning and reinforcement learning. Next we discuss core RL elements, including value function, in particular, Deep Q-Network (DQN), policy, reward, model, planning, and exploration. After that, we discuss important mechanisms for RL, including attention and memory, unsuperv...

  19. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    Ren, Zhifen [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian Guo [Newton, MA; Lao, Jing Y [Chestnut Hill, MA; Li, Wenzhi [Brookline, MA


    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  20. Reinforcement shapes clines in female mate discrimination in Drosophila subquinaria

    Bewick, Emily R.; Dyer, Kelly A.


    Reinforcement of species boundaries may alter mate recognition in a way that also affects patterns of mate preference among conspecific populations. In the fly Drosophila subquinaria, females sympatric with the closely related species D. recens reject mating with heterospecific males as well as with conspecific males from allopatric populations. Here, we assess geographic variation in behavioral isolation within and among populations of D. subquinaria and use cline theory to understand patterns of selection on reinforced discrimination and its consequences for sexual isolation within species. We find that selection has fixed rejection of D. recens males in sympatry, while significant genetic variation in this behavior occurs within allopatric populations. In conspecific matings sexual isolation is also asymmetric and stronger in populations that are sympatric with D. recens. The clines in behavioral discrimination within and between species are similar in shape and are maintained by strong selection in the face of gene flow, and we show that some of their genetic basis may be either shared or linked. Thus, while reinforcement can drive extremely strong phenotypic divergence, the long-term consequences for incipient speciation depend on gene flow, genetic linkage of discrimination traits, and the cost of these behaviors in allopatry. PMID:25163510

  1. Estradiol increases choice of cocaine over food in male rats.

    Bagley, Jared R; Adams, Julia; Bozadjian, Rachel V; Bubalo, Lana; Ploense, Kyle L; Kippin, Tod E


    Estradiol modulates the rewarding and reinforcing properties of cocaine in females, including an increase in selection of cocaine over alternative reinforcers. However, the effects of estradiol on male cocaine self-administration behavior are less studied despite equivalent levels of estradiol in the brains of adult males and females, estradiol effects on motivated behaviors in males that share underlying neural substrates with cocaine reinforcement as well as expression of estrogen receptors in the male brain. Therefore, we sought to characterize the effects of estradiol in males on choice between concurrently-available cocaine and food reinforcement as well as responding for cocaine or food in isolation. Male castrated rats (n=46) were treated daily with estradiol benzoate (EB) (5μg/0.1, S.C.) or vehicle (peanut oil) throughout operant acquisition of cocaine (1mg/kg, IV; FI20 sec) and food (3×45mg; FI20 sec) responding, choice during concurrent access and cocaine and food reinforcement under progressive ratio (PR) schedules. EB increased cocaine choice, both in terms of percent of trials on which cocaine was selected and the proportion of rats exhibiting a cocaine preference as well as increased cocaine, but not food, intake under PR. Additionally, within the EB treated group, cocaine-preferring rats exhibited enhanced acquisition of cocaine, but not food, reinforcement whereas no acquisition differences were observed across preferences in the vehicle treated group. These findings demonstrate that estradiol increases cocaine choice in males similarly to what is observed in females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Corrosion of reinforcement bars in steel ibre reinforced concrete structures

    Solgaard, Anders Ole Stubbe

    and the influence of steel fibres on initiation and propagation of cracks in concrete. Moreover, the impact of fibres on corrosion-induced cover cracking was covered. The impact of steel fibres on propagation of reinforcement corrosion was investigated through studies of their impact on the electrical resistivity...... of concrete, which is known to affect the corrosion process of embedded reinforcement. The work concerning the impact of steel fibres on initiation and propagation of cracks was linked to corrosion initiation and propagation of embedded reinforcement bars via additional studies. Cracks in the concrete cover...... are known to alter the ingress rate of depassivating substances and thereby influence the corrosion process. The Ph.D. study covered numerical as well as experimental studies. Electrochemically passive steel fibres are electrically isolating thus not changing the electrical resistivity of concrete, whereas...

  3. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Grids for Shear and End Zone Reinforcement in Bridge Beams


    Corrosion of reinforcing steel reduces life spans of bridges throughout the United States; therefore, using non-corroding carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) reinforcement is seen as a way to increase service life. The use of CFRP as the flexural ...

  4. Health monitoring of precast bridge deck panels reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars.


    The present research project investigates monitoring concrete precast panels for bridge decks that are reinforced with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bars. Due to the lack of long term research on concrete members reinforced with GFRP bars, lo...

  5. The power reinforcement framework revisited

    Nielsen, Jeppe; Andersen, Kim Normann; Danziger, James N.


    Whereas digital technologies are often depicted as being capable of disrupting long-standing power structures and facilitating new governance mechanisms, the power reinforcement framework suggests that information and communications technologies tend to strengthen existing power arrangements within...... public organizations. This article revisits the 30-yearold power reinforcement framework by means of an empirical analysis on the use of mobile technology in a large-scale programme in Danish public sector home care. It explores whether and to what extent administrative management has controlled decision......-making and gained most benefits from mobile technology use, relative to the effects of the technology on the street-level workers who deliver services. Current mobile technology-in-use might be less likely to be power reinforcing because it is far more decentralized and individualized than the mainly expert...

  6. Nanocellulose reinforcement of Transparent Composites

    Joshua Steele; Hong Dong; James F. Snyder; Josh A. Orlicki; Richard S. Reiner; Alan W. Rudie


    In this work, we evaluate the impact of nanocellulose reinforcement on transparent composite properties. Due to the small diameter, high modulus, and high strength of cellulose nanocrystals, transparent composites that utilize these materials should show improvement in bulk mechanical performances without a corresponding reduction in optical properties. In this study...

  7. Silica reinforced triblock copolymer gels

    Theunissen, E.; Overbergh, N.; Reynaers, H.


    The effect of silica and polymer coated silica particles as reinforcing agents on the structural and mechanical properties of polystyrene-poly(ethylene/butylene)-polystyrene (PS-PEB-PS) triblock gel has been investigated. Different types of chemically modified silica have been compared in order...

  8. Reinforcement learning in supply chains.

    Valluri, Annapurna; North, Michael J; Macal, Charles M


    Effective management of supply chains creates value and can strategically position companies. In practice, human beings have been found to be both surprisingly successful and disappointingly inept at managing supply chains. The related fields of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence have postulated a variety of potential mechanisms to explain this behavior. One of the leading candidates is reinforcement learning. This paper applies agent-based modeling to investigate the comparative behavioral consequences of three simple reinforcement learning algorithms in a multi-stage supply chain. For the first time, our findings show that the specific algorithm that is employed can have dramatic effects on the results obtained. Reinforcement learning is found to be valuable in multi-stage supply chains with several learning agents, as independent agents can learn to coordinate their behavior. However, learning in multi-stage supply chains using these postulated approaches from cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence take extremely long time periods to achieve stability which raises questions about their ability to explain behavior in real supply chains. The fact that it takes thousands of periods for agents to learn in this simple multi-agent setting provides new evidence that real world decision makers are unlikely to be using strict reinforcement learning in practice.

  9. Stability of reinforced cemented backfills

    Mitchell, R.J.; Stone, D.M.


    Mining with backfill has been the subject of several international meetings in recent years and a considerable research effort is being applied to improve both mining economics and ore recovery by using backfill for ground support. Classified mill tailings sands are the most commonly used backfill material but these fine sands must be stabilized before full ore pillar recovery can be achieved. Normal portland cement is generally used for stabilization but the high cost of cement prohibits high cement usage. This paper considers the use of reinforcements in cemented fill to reduce the cement usage. It is concluded that strong cemented layers at typical spacings of about 3 meters in a low cement content bulk fill can reinforce the fill and reduce the overall cement usage. Fibre reinforcements introduced into strong layers or into bulk fills are also known to be effective in reducing cement usage. Some development work is needed to produce the ideal type of anchored fibre in order to realize economic gains from fibre-reinforced fills

  10. Adaptive representations for reinforcement learning

    Whiteson, S.


    This book presents new algorithms for reinforcement learning, a form of machine learning in which an autonomous agent seeks a control policy for a sequential decision task. Since current methods typically rely on manually designed solution representations, agents that automatically adapt their own

  11. Depression, Activity, and Evaluation of Reinforcement

    Hammen, Constance L.; Glass, David R., Jr.


    This research attempted to find the causal relation between mood and level of reinforcement. An effort was made to learn what mood change might occur if depressed subjects increased their levels of participation in reinforcing activities. (Author/RK)

  12. Parasites and health affect multiple sexual signals in male common wall lizards, Podarcis muralis

    Martín, J.; Amo de Paz, L.; López, P.


    Multiple advertising sexual traits may either advertise different characteristics of male condition or be redundant to reinforce reliability of signals. Research has focused on multiple visual traits. However, in animals that use different multiple additional sensory systems, such as chemoreception,

  13. Rational and Mechanistic Perspectives on Reinforcement Learning

    Chater, Nick


    This special issue describes important recent developments in applying reinforcement learning models to capture neural and cognitive function. But reinforcement learning, as a theoretical framework, can apply at two very different levels of description: "mechanistic" and "rational." Reinforcement learning is often viewed in mechanistic terms--as…

  14. Conditioned Reinforcement Value and Resistance to Change

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.


    Three experiments examined the effects of conditioned reinforcement value and primary reinforcement rate on resistance to change using a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures with pigeons. In the absence of observing responses in both components, unsignaled periods of variable-interval (VI) schedule food reinforcement alternated with…

  15. Effects of partial reinforcement and time between reinforced trials on terminal response rate in pigeon autoshaping.

    Gottlieb, Daniel A


    Partial reinforcement often leads to asymptotically higher rates of responding and number of trials with a response than does continuous reinforcement in pigeon autoshaping. However, comparisons typically involve a partial reinforcement schedule that differs from the continuous reinforcement schedule in both time between reinforced trials and probability of reinforcement. Two experiments examined the relative contributions of these two manipulations to asymptotic response rate. Results suggest that the greater responding previously seen with partial reinforcement is primarily due to differential probability of reinforcement and not differential time between reinforced trials. Further, once established, differences in responding are resistant to a change in stimulus and contingency. Secondary response theories of autoshaped responding (theories that posit additional response-augmenting or response-attenuating mechanisms specific to partial or continuous reinforcement) cannot fully accommodate the current body of data. It is suggested that researchers who study pigeon autoshaping train animals on a common task prior to training them under different conditions.

  16. Using Contingent Reinforcement to Augment Muscle Activation After Perinatal Brachial Plexus Injury: A Pilot Study.

    Duff, S V; Sargent, B; Kutch, J J; Berggren, J; Leiby, B E; Fetters, L


    Examine the feasibility of increasing muscle activation with electromyographically (EMG)-triggered musical-video as reinforcement for children with perinatal brachial plexus injury (PBPI). Six children with PBPI (9.3 ± 6.3 months; 5 female, 1 male) and 13 typically developing (TD) controls (7.8 ± 3.5 months; 4 female, 9 males) participated. The left arm was affected in 5/6 children with PBPI. We recorded the integral (Vs) of biceps activation with surface EMG during two conditions per arm in one session: (1) 100 second (s) baseline without reinforcement and (2) 300 s reinforcement (musical-video triggered to play with biceps activation above threshold [V]). We examined the relation between the mean integral with reinforcement and hand preference. Mean biceps activation significantly increased from baseline in the affected arm of the group with PBPI by the 2nd (p < .008) and 3rd (p < .0004) 100 s intervals of reinforcement. Six of 6 children with PBPI and 12/13 TD controls increased activation in at least one arm. A lower integral was linked with hand preference for the unaffected right side in the PBPI group. This study supports contingent reinforcement as a feasible method to increase muscle activation. Future work will examine training dose and intensity to increase arm function.

  17. Woodflour as Reinforcement of Polypropylene

    José Cláudio Caraschi


    Full Text Available The effect of the filler content and size, as well as accelerated aging on the mechanical properties of polypropylene composites reinforced with woodflour (WF/PP were evaluated. The composites were prepared by the extrusion of polypropylene with woodflour (Pinus elliotti based on following ratios: 15, 25 and 40 wt% with two different granulometries. The specimens were injection molded according to ASTM standards. The composite properties did not show significant differences as a function of the filler granulometry. We also observed that by increasing the filler content, both the mechanical properties and the melt flow index (MFI decreased, and the elasticity modulus, hardness and density increased. Concerning the accelerated aging, the composite presented a reduction in tensile properties. The results showed that the composite properties are extremely favorable when compared to other commercial systems reinforced by inorganic fillers.

  18. Carbon fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    Jahromi, Saeed G.


    Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. For many years, they have been utilized extensively in numerous applications in civil engineering. Fiber-reinforcement refers to incorporating materials with desired properties within some other materials lacking those properties. Use of fibers is not a new phenomenon, as the technique of fiber-reinforced bitumen began early as 1950. In all industrialized countries today, nearly all concretes used in construction are reinforced. A multitude of fibers and fiber materials are being introduced in the market regularly. The present paper presents characteristics and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced asphalt mixtures, which improve the performance of pavements. To evaluate the effect of fiber contents on bituminous mixtures, laboratory investigations were carried out on the samples with and without fibers. During the course of this study, various tests were undertaken, applying Marshall Test indirect tensile test, creep test and resistance to fatigue cracking by using repeated load indirect tensile test. Carbon fiber exhibited consistency in results and as such it was observed that the addition of fiber does affect the properties of bituminous mixtures, i.e. an increase in its stability and decrease in the flow value as well as an increase in voids in the mix. Results indicate that fibers have the potential to resist structural distress in pavement, in the wake of growing traffic loads and thus improve fatigue by increasing resistance to cracks or permanent deformation. On the whole, the results show that the addition of carbon fiber will improve some of the mechanical properties like fatigue and deformation in the flexible pavement. (author)

  19. FRP reinforcement of timber structures

    Schober, Kay-Uwe; Harte, Annette M.; Kliger, Robert; Jockwer, Robert; Xu, Qingfeng; Chen, Jian-Fei


    Timber engineering has advanced over recent decades to offer an alternative to traditional materials and methods. The bonding of fibre reinforced plastics (FRP) with adhesives to timber structures for repair and strengthening has many advantages. However, the lack of established design rules has strongly restrained the use of FRP strengthening in many situations, where these could be a preferable option to most traditional techniques. A significant body of research has been carried out in rec...

  20. Continuous carbon nanotube reinforced composites.

    Ci, L; Suhr, J; Pushparaj, V; Zhang, X; Ajayan, P M


    Carbon nanotubes are considered short fibers, and polymer composites with nanotube fillers are always analogues of random, short fiber composites. The real structural carbon fiber composites, on the other hand, always contain carbon fiber reinforcements where fibers run continuously through the composite matrix. With the recent optimization in aligned nanotube growth, samples of nanotubes in macroscopic lengths have become available, and this allows the creation of composites that are similar to the continuous fiber composites with individual nanotubes running continuously through the composite body. This allows the proper utilization of the extreme high modulus and strength predicted for nanotubes in structural composites. Here, we fabricate such continuous nanotube polymer composites with continuous nanotube reinforcements and report that under compressive loadings, the nanotube composites can generate more than an order of magnitude improvement in the longitudinal modulus (up to 3,300%) as well as damping capability (up to 2,100%). It is also observed that composites with a random distribution of nanotubes of same length and similar filler fraction provide three times less effective reinforcement in composites.

  1. Mechanics of fiber reinforced materials

    Sun, Huiyu

    This dissertation is dedicated to mechanics of fiber reinforced materials and the woven reinforcement and composed of four parts of research: analytical characterization of the interfaces in laminated composites; micromechanics of braided composites; shear deformation, and Poisson's ratios of woven fabric reinforcements. A new approach to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of interfaces between composite laminae based on a modified laminate theory is proposed. By including an interface as a special lamina termed the "bonding-layer" in the analysis, the mechanical properties of the interfaces are obtained. A numerical illustration is given. For micro-mechanical properties of three-dimensionally braided composite materials, a new method via homogenization theory and incompatible multivariable FEM is developed. Results from the hybrid stress element approach compare more favorably with the experimental data than other existing numerical methods widely used. To evaluate the shearing properties for woven fabrics, a new mechanical model is proposed during the initial slip region. Analytical results show that this model provides better agreement with the experiments for both the initial shear modulus and the slipping angle than the existing models. Finally, another mechanical model for a woven fabric made of extensible yarns is employed to calculate the fabric Poisson's ratios. Theoretical results are compared with the available experimental data. A thorough examination on the influences of various mechanical properties of yarns and structural parameters of fabrics on the Poisson's ratios of a woven fabric is given at the end.

  2. Reinforcement learning in computer vision

    Bernstein, A. V.; Burnaev, E. V.


    Nowadays, machine learning has become one of the basic technologies used in solving various computer vision tasks such as feature detection, image segmentation, object recognition and tracking. In many applications, various complex systems such as robots are equipped with visual sensors from which they learn state of surrounding environment by solving corresponding computer vision tasks. Solutions of these tasks are used for making decisions about possible future actions. It is not surprising that when solving computer vision tasks we should take into account special aspects of their subsequent application in model-based predictive control. Reinforcement learning is one of modern machine learning technologies in which learning is carried out through interaction with the environment. In recent years, Reinforcement learning has been used both for solving such applied tasks as processing and analysis of visual information, and for solving specific computer vision problems such as filtering, extracting image features, localizing objects in scenes, and many others. The paper describes shortly the Reinforcement learning technology and its use for solving computer vision problems.

  3. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effect of pre-running.

    Belke, Terry W


    Six male albino Wistar rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed interval 30-s schedule that produced either a drop of 15% sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for 15s as reinforcing consequences for lever pressing. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. To assess the effect of pre-running, animals were allowed to run for 1h prior to a session of responding for sucrose and running. Results showed that, after pre-running, response rates in the later segments of the 30-s schedule decreased in the presence of a wheel-running stimulus and increased in the presence of a sucrose stimulus. Wheel-running rates were not affected. Analysis of mean post-reinforcement pauses (PRP) broken down by transitions between successive reinforcers revealed that pre-running lengthened pausing in the presence of the stimulus signaling wheel running and shortened pauses in the presence of the stimulus signaling sucrose. No effect was observed on local response rates. Changes in pausing in the presence of stimuli signaling the two reinforcers were consistent with a decrease in the reinforcing efficacy of wheel running and an increase in the reinforcing efficacy of sucrose. Pre-running decreased motivation to respond for running, but increased motivation to work for food.

  4. Prior methylphenidate self-administration alters the subsequent reinforcing effects of methamphetamine in rats.

    Baladi, Michelle G; Nielsen, Shannon M; Umpierre, Anthony; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E


    Methylphenidate (MPD) is clinically effective in treating the symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; however, its relatively widespread availability has raised public health concerns on nonmedical use of MPD among certain adult populations. Most preclinical studies investigate whether presumed therapeutically relevant doses of MPD alter sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of other drugs, but it remains unclear whether doses of MPD likely exceeding therapeutic relevance impact the subsequent reinforcing effects of drugs. To begin to address this question, the effect of prior MPD self-administration (0.56 mg/kg/infusion) on the subsequent reinforcing effects of methamphetamine (METH, 0.032 or 0.1 mg/kg/infusion) was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. For comparison, it was also determined whether prior experimenter-administered MPD, injected daily at a presumed therapeutically relevant dose (2 mg/kg), altered the subsequent reinforcing effects of METH. Results indicated that, under the current conditions, only a history of MPD self-administration increased sensitivity to the subsequent reinforcing effects of METH. Furthermore, MPD did not impact food-maintained responding, suggesting that the effect of MPD might be specific to drug reinforcers. These data suggest that short-term, nonmedical use of MPD might alter the positive reinforcing effects of METH in a manner relevant to vulnerability to drug use in humans.

  5. Male pattern baldness

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  6. Genital sores - male

    Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...

  7. Studies of wheel-running reinforcement: parameters of Herrnstein's (1970) response-strength equation vary with schedule order.

    Belke, T W


    Six male Wistar rats were exposed to different orders of reinforcement schedules to investigate if estimates from Herrnstein's (1970) single-operant matching law equation would vary systematically with schedule order. Reinforcement schedules were arranged in orders of increasing and decreasing reinforcement rate. Subsequently, all rats were exposed to a single reinforcement schedule within a session to determine within-session changes in responding. For each condition, the operant was lever pressing and the reinforcing consequence was the opportunity to run for 15 s. Estimates of k and R(O) were higher when reinforcement schedules were arranged in order of increasing reinforcement rate. Within a session on a single reinforcement schedule, response rates increased between the beginning and the end of a session. A positive correlation between the difference in parameters between schedule orders and the difference in response rates within a session suggests that the within-session change in response rates may be related to the difference in the asymptotes. These results call into question the validity of parameter estimates from Herrnstein's (1970) equation when reinforcer efficacy changes within a session.

  8. Mirror Image Gerbode or Partial Atrioventricular Canal Defect?

    Cem Ariturk


    Full Text Available Gebode defect, that can accurately be treated surgical repair, is defined as a true communication between left ventricle and right atrium. A 74-year-old woman with a worsening history of ortophnea and peripheral edema was hospitalised. A communication between right atrium and left ventricle was diagnosed using transeusophageal echocardiography. The defect was repaired and mitral valve was replaced with a biologic valve. It would be beter to tailor surgical strategy for each case with atrioventricular canal defect after preoperative transeusophageal echocardiography and peroperative direct sight.

  9. Weaknesses of South African education in the mirror image of ...

    globalisation, of a flat world (where the transport- and communication-technology revolution has .... publications on world education, such as that of Coombs (1985) and projects/ ...... The world crisis in education: The view from the eighties.

  10. Caycedo's Sophrology and Lozanov's Suggestology: Mirror Images of a System.

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    In the 1960's, two medical doctors, Georgi Lozanov and Alfonso Caycedo, discovered independently that certain yogic techniques of physical and mental relaxation could be used to produce not only analgesia but also improved memory and concentration. Systems originally used in medicine and psycho-therapy were applied to education, in particular to…

  11. Origins of food reinforcement in infants12345

    Kong, Kai Ling; Feda, Denise M; Eiden, Rina D; Epstein, Leonard H


    Background: Rapid weight gain in infancy is associated with a higher risk of obesity in children and adults. A high relative reinforcing value of food is cross-sectionally related to obesity; lean children find nonfood alternatives more reinforcing than do overweight/obese children. However, to our knowledge, there is no research on how and when food reinforcement develops. Objective: This study was designed to assess whether the reinforcing value of food and nonfood alternatives could be tested in 9- to 18-mo-old infants and whether the reinforcing value of food and nonfood alternatives is differentially related to infant weight status. Design: Reinforcing values were assessed by using absolute progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement, with presentation of food and nonfood alternatives counterbalanced in 2 separate studies. Two nonfood reinforcers [Baby Einstein–Baby MacDonald shows (study 1, n = 27) or bubbles (study 2, n = 30)] were tested against the baby’s favorite food. Food reinforcing ratio (FRR) was quantified by measuring the reinforcing value of food (Food Pmax) in proportion to the total reinforcing value of food and a nonfood alternative (DVD Pmax or BUB Pmax). Results: Greater weight-for-length z score was associated with a greater FRR of a favorite food in study 1 (FRR-DVD) (r = 0.60, P positively associated with FRR-DVD (r = 0.57, P = 0.009) and FRR-BUB (r = 0.37, P = 0.047). Conclusions: Our newly developed paradigm, which tested 2 different nonfood alternatives, demonstrated that lean infants find nonfood alternatives more reinforcing than do overweight/obese infants. This observation suggests that strengthening the alternative reinforcers may have a protective effect against childhood obesity. This research was registered at as NCT02229552. PMID:25733636

  12. Repair of reinforced concrete beams using carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Karzad Abdul Saboor


    Full Text Available This research paper is part of an ongoing research on the behaviour of Reinforced Concrete (RC beams retrofitted with Externally Bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (EB-CFRP. A total of 5 large-scale rectangular beams, previously damaged due to shear loading, were repaired and strengthened with EB-CFRP and tested in this study. The major cracks of the damaged beams were injected with epoxy and the beams were wrapped with 2 layers of EB-CFRP discrete strips with 100mm width and 150mm center to center spacing. The beams were instrumented and tested to failure under three points loading in simply supported configuration. The measured test parameters were the beams deflection, maximum load, and the strain in the FRP strips. The failure mode was also observed. The results showed that applying EB-FRP strips increased the shear strength significantly relative to the original shear capacity of the beam. The results demonstrate that the application of EB-FRP strips used in this study is an effective repair method that can be used to repair and strengthen damaged beams.

  13. Limit analysis of solid reinforced concrete structures

    Larsen, Kasper Paaske


    Recent studies have shown that Semidefinite Programming (SDP) can be used effectively for limit analysis of isotropic cohesive-frictional continuums using the classical Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion. In this paper we expand on this previous research by adding reinforcement to the model and a solid...... reinforcement and it is therefore possible to analyze structures with complex reinforcement layouts. Tests are conducted to validate the method against well-known analytical solutions....

  14. Strength Characteristics of Reinforced Sandy Soil

    S. N. Bannikov; Mahamed Al Fayez


    Laboratory tests on determination of reinforced sandy soil strength characteristics (angle of internal friction, specific cohesive force) have been carried out with the help of a specially designed instrument and proposed methodology. Analysis of the obtained results has revealed that cohesive forces are brought about in reinforced sandy soil and an angle of internal soil friction becomes larger in comparison with non-reinforced soil.

  15. Behavior of reinforced concrete at elevated temperatures

    Freskakis, G.N.


    A study is presented concerning the behavior of reinforced concrete sections at elevated temperatures. Material properties of concrete and reinforcing steel are discussed. Behavior studies are made by means of moment-curvature-axial force relationships. Particular attention is given to the load carrying capacity, thermal forces and moments, and deformation capacity. The effects on these properties of variations in the strength properties, the temperature level and distribution, the amount of reinforcing steel, and limiting values of strains are considered

  16. Reinforcement Learning in Repeated Portfolio Decisions

    Diao, Linan; Rieskamp, Jörg


    How do people make investment decisions when they receive outcome feedback? We examined how well the standard mean-variance model and two reinforcement models predict people's portfolio decisions. The basic reinforcement model predicts a learning process that relies solely on the portfolio's overall return, whereas the proposed extended reinforcement model also takes the risk and covariance of the investments into account. The experimental results illustrate that people reacted sensitively to...

  17. Design of reinforced concrete plates and shells

    Schulz, M.


    Nowadays, the internal forces of reinforced concrete laminar structures can be easily evaluated by the finite element procedures. The longitudinal design in each direction is not adequate, since the whole set of internal forces in each point must be concomitantly considered. The classic formulation for the design and new design charts which bring reduction of the amount of necessary reinforcement are presented. A rational reinforced concrete mathematical theory which makes possible the limit state design of plates and shells is discussed. This model can also be applied to define the constitutive relationships of laminar finite elements of reinforced concrete. (Author) [pt

  18. Reinforcement of RC structure by carbon fibers

    Kissi B.


    Full Text Available In recent years, rehabilitation has been the subject of extensive research due to the increased spending on building maintenance work and restoration of built works. In all cases, it is essential to carry out methods of reinforcement or maintenance of structural elements, following an inspection analysis and methodology of a correct diagnosis. This research focuses on the calculation of the necessary reinforcement sections of carbon fiber for structural elements with reinforced concrete in order to improve their load bearing capacity and rigidity. The different results obtained reveal a considerable gain in resistance and deformation capacity of reinforced sections without significant increase in the weight of the rehabilitated elements.

  19. Methodology of shell structure reinforcement layout optimization

    Szafrański, Tomasz; Małachowski, Jerzy; Damaziak, Krzysztof


    This paper presents an optimization process of a reinforced shell diffuser intended for a small wind turbine (rated power of 3 kW). The diffuser structure consists of multiple reinforcement and metal skin. This kind of structure is suitable for optimization in terms of selection of reinforcement density, stringers cross sections, sheet thickness, etc. The optimisation approach assumes the reduction of the amount of work to be done between the optimization process and the final product design. The proposed optimization methodology is based on application of a genetic algorithm to generate the optimal reinforcement layout. The obtained results are the basis for modifying the existing Small Wind Turbine (SWT) design.

  20. Reinforcement learning or active inference?

    Friston, Karl J; Daunizeau, Jean; Kiebel, Stefan J


    This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain.

  1. Reinforcement learning or active inference?

    Karl J Friston


    Full Text Available This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain.

  2. Monitoring device for reinforced concrete

    Matsuzaki, Tetsuo; Saito, Koichi; Furukawa, Hideyasu.


    A reactor container made of reinforced concretes is monitored for the temperature at each of portions upon placing concretes under construction of a plant, upon pressure-proof test and during plant operation. That is, optical fibers are uniformly laid spirally throughout the inside of the concretes. Pulses are injected from one end of the optical fibers, and the temperature at a reflection point can be measured by measuring specific rays (Raman scattering rays) among lights reflected after a predetermined period of time. According to the present invention, measurement for an optional position within a range where one fiber cable is laid can be conducted. Accordingly, it is possible to conduct temperature control upon concrete placing and apply temperature compensation for the measurement for stresses of the concretes and the reinforcing steels upon container pressure-proof. Further, during plant operation, if the temperature of the concretes rises due to thermal conduction of the temperature in the container, integrity of the concretes can be ensured by a countermeasures such as air conditioning. (I.S.)

  3. Enhancing corrosion resistance of reinforced concrete structures with hybrid fiber reinforced concrete

    Blunt, J.; Jen, G.; Ostertag, C.P.


    Highlights: • Reinforced concrete beams were subjected to cyclic flexural loading. • Hybrid fiber reinforced composites were effective in reducing corrosion rates. • Crack resistance due to fibers increased corrosion resistance of steel rebar. • Galvanic corrosion measurements underestimated corrosion rates. • Polarization resistance measurements predicted mass loss more accurately. - Abstract: Service loads well below the yield strength of steel reinforcing bars lead to cracking of reinforced concrete. This paper investigates whether the crack resistance of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HyFRC) reduces the corrosion rate of steel reinforcing bars in concrete after cyclic flexural loading. The reinforcing bars were extracted to examine their surface for corrosion and compare microcell and macrocell corrosion mass loss estimates against direct gravimetric measurements. A delay in corrosion initiation and lower active corrosion rates were observed in the HyFRC beam specimens when compared to reinforced specimens containing plain concrete matrices cycled at the same flexural load

  4. Experimental analysis of reinforced concrete beams strengthened in bending with carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    M. M. VIEIRA

    Full Text Available The use of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP has been widely used for the reinforcement of concrete structures due to its practicality and versatility in application, low weight, high tensile strength and corrosion resistance. Some construction companies use CFRP in flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams, but without anchor systems. Therefore, the aim of this study is analyze, through an experimental program, the structural behavior of reinforced concrete beams flexural strengthened by CFRP without anchor fibers, varying steel reinforcement and the amount of carbon fibers reinforcement layers. Thus, two groups of reinforced concrete beams were produced with the same geometric feature but with different steel reinforcement. Each group had five beams: one that is not reinforced with CFRP (reference and other reinforced with two, three, four and five layers of carbon fibers. Beams were designed using a computational routine developed in MAPLE software and subsequently tested in 4-point points flexural test up to collapse. Experimental tests have confirmed the effectiveness of the reinforcement, ratifying that beams collapse at higher loads and lower deformation as the amount of fibers in the reinforcing layers increased. However, the increase in the number of layers did not provide a significant increase in the performance of strengthened beams, indicating that it was not possible to take full advantage of strengthening applied due to the occurrence of premature failure mode in the strengthened beams for pullout of the cover that could have been avoided through the use of a suitable anchoring system for CFRP.

  5. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effect of D-amphetamine.

    Belke, T W; Oldford, A C; Forgie, M Y; Beye, J A


    The present study assessed the effect of D-amphetamine on responding maintained by wheel-running and sucrose reinforcement. Six male albino Wistar rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed-interval 30-s schedule that produced either a drop of 5% sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for 15 s as reinforcing consequences for lever pressing. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. Doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/kg D-amphetamine were administered by i.p. injection 20 min prior to a session. As the dose increased, index of curvature values decreased toward zero and rate-dependency plots revealed increases in lower rates early in the interval and decreases in higher rates toward the end of the interval. Effects were similar in the presence of both stimuli. However, an analysis of post-reinforcement pauses and local response rates broken down by transitions revealed a differential effect. As the dose increased, local response rates following a wheel-running reinforcer were affected more than those following a sucrose reinforcer.

  6. Acute Stimulant Treatment and Reinforcement Increase the Speed of Information Accumulation in Children with ADHD.

    Fosco, Whitney D; White, Corey N; Hawk, Larry W


    The current studies utilized drift diffusion modeling (DDM) to examine how reinforcement and stimulant medication affect cognitive task performance in children with ADHD. In Study 1, children with (n = 25; 88 % male) and without ADHD (n = 33; 82 % male) completed a 2-choice discrimination task at baseline (100 trials) and again a week later under alternating reinforcement and no-reinforcement contingencies (400 trials total). In Study 2, participants with ADHD (n = 29; 72 % male) completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg methylphenidate and completed the same task utilized in Study 1 at baseline (100 trials). Children with ADHD accumulated information at a much slower rate than controls, as evidenced by a lower drift rate. Groups were similar in nondecision time and boundary separation. Both reinforcement and stimulant medication markedly improved drift rate in children with ADHD (ds = 0.70 and 0.95 for reinforcement and methylphenidate, respectively); both treatments also reduced boundary separation (ds = 0.70 and 0.39). Reinforcement, which emphasized speeded accuracy, reduced nondecision time (d = 0.37), whereas stimulant medication increased nondecision time (d = 0.38). These studies provide initial evidence that frontline treatments for ADHD primarily impact cognitive performance in youth with ADHD by improving the speed/efficiency of information accumulation. Treatment effects on other DDM parameters may vary between treatments or interact with task parameters (number of trials, task difficulty). DDM, in conjunction with other approaches, may be helpful in clarifying the specific cognitive processes that are disrupted in ADHD, as well as the basic mechanisms that underlie the efficacy of ADHD treatments.

  7. Failure Criteria for Reinforced Materials

    Rathkjen, Arne

    Failure of materials is often characterized as ductile yielding, brittle fracture, creep rupture, etc., and different criteria given in terms of different parameters have been used to describe different types of failure. Only criteria expressing failure in terms of stress are considered in what...... place until the matrix, the continuous component of the composite, fails. When an isotropic matrix is reinforced as described above, the result is an anisotropic composite material. Even if the material is anisotropic, it usually exhibits a rather high degree of symmetry and such symmetries place...... certain restrictions on the form of the failure criteria for anisotropic materials. In section 2, some failure criteria for homogenous materials are reviewed. Both isotropic and anisotropic materials are described, and in particular the constraints imposed on the criteria from the symmetries orthotropy...

  8. Corrosion of reinforcement induced by environment containing ...


    carbonation and chlorides causing corrosion of steel reinforcement. ... interesting and important when the evaluation of the service life of the ... preferably in the areas of industrial and transport activities. ... For controlling the embedded corrosion sensors, elec- .... danger of corrosion of reinforcement seems to be more.

  9. Reinforcement, Behavior Constraint, and the Overjustification Effect.

    Williams, Bruce W.


    Four levels of the behavior constraint-reinforcement variable were manipulated: attractive reward, unattractive reward, request to perform, and a no-reward control. Only the unattractive reward and request groups showed the performance decrements that suggest the overjustification effect. It is concluded that reinforcement does not cause the…

  10. Continuous jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite

    Jute fibre; laminated paper composite; plastic bag pollution. Abstract. Plastic bags create a serious environmental problem. The proposed jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite and reinforcement-fibre free paper laminate may help to combat the war against this pollutant to certain extent. The paper laminate ...

  11. Durability of fibre reinforced concrete structures

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard


    The planned research will indicate, whether fibre reinforced concrete has better or worse durability than normal concrete. Durability specimens will be measured on cracked as well as uncracked specimens. Also the pore structure in the concrete will be characterized.Keywords: Fibre reinforced...... concrete, durability, pore structure, mechanical load...

  12. Rotational Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Ulfkjær, J. P.; Henriksen, M. S.; Brincker, Rune


    programme where 120 reinforced concrete beams, 54 plain concrete beams and 324 concrete cylinders are tested. For the reinforced concrete beams four different parar meters are varied. The slenderness is 6, 12 and 18, the beam depth is 100 mm, 200 mm and 400 mm giving nine different geometries, five...

  13. Structural Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) Bars

    Ovitigala, Thilan

    The main challenge for civil engineers is to provide sustainable, environmentally friendly and financially feasible structures to the society. Finding new materials such as fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) material that can fulfill the above requirements is a must. FRP material was expensive and it was limited to niche markets such as space shuttles and air industry in the 1960s. Over the time, it became cheaper and spread to other industries such as sporting goods in the 1980-1990, and then towards the infrastructure industry. Design and construction guidelines are available for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), aramid fiber reinforced polymer (AFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and they are currently used in structural applications. Since FRP is linear elastic brittle material, design guidelines for the steel reinforcement are not valid for FRP materials. Corrosion of steel reinforcement affects the durability of the concrete structures. FRP reinforcement is identified as an alternative to steel reinforcement in corrosive environments. Although basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) has many advantages over other FRP materials, but limited studies have been done. These studies didn't include larger BFRP bar diameters that are mostly used in practice. Therefore, larger beam sizes with larger BFRP reinforcement bar diameters are needed to investigate the flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams. Also, shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams was not yet studied. Experimental testing of mechanical properties and bond strength of BFRP bars and flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams are needed to include BFRP reinforcement bars in the design codes. This study mainly focuses on the use of BFRP bars as internal reinforcement. The test results of the mechanical properties of BFRP reinforcement bars, the bond strength of BFRP reinforcement bars, and the flexural and shear behavior of concrete beams

  14. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  15. [Male urinary incontinence

    Boer, T.A. de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.


    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment

  16. Self catheterization - male

    ... male; CIC - male Images Catheterization References Davis JE, Silverman MA. Urologic procedures. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  17. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effect of body weight manipulation.

    Belke, Terry W


    As body weight increases, the excitatory strength of a stimulus signaling an opportunity to run should weaken to a greater degree than that of a stimulus signaling an opportunity to eat. To test this hypothesis, six male albino Wistar rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed interval 30-s schedule that produced either a drop of 15% sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for 15s as reinforcing consequences for lever pressing. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. The effect of varying body weight on responding maintained by these two reinforcers was investigated by systematically increasing and decreasing post-session food amounts. The initial body weight was 335 g. Body weights were increased to approximately 445 g and subsequently returned to 335 g. As body weight increased, overall and local lever-pressing rates decreased while post-reinforcement pauses lengthened. Analysis of post-reinforcement pauses and local lever-pressing rates in terms of transitions between successive reinforcers revealed that local response rates in the presence of stimuli signaling upcoming wheel and sucrose reinforcers were similarly affected. However, pausing in the presence of the stimulus signaling a wheel-running reinforcer lengthened to a greater extent than did pausing in the presence of the stimulus signaling sucrose. This result suggests that as body weight approaches ad-lib levels, the likelihood of initiation of responding to obtain an opportunity to run approaches zero and the animal "rejects" the opportunity to run in a manner similar to the rejection of less preferred food items in studies of food selectivity.




    Acquisition performance of 22 rats in a straight alley runway was examined. The animals were subjected to partial reinforcement when the alley was black (B+/-) and continuous reinforcement when it was white (W+). The results indicated (a) higher terminal performance, for partial as against continuous reinforcement conditions, for starting-time and running-time measures, and (b) lower terminal performance under partial conditions for a goal-entry-time measure. These results confirm within subjects an effect previously demonstrated, in the runway, only in between-groups tests, where one group is run under partial reinforcement and a separate group is run under continuous reinforcement in the presence of the same external stimuli. Differences between the runway situation, employing a discrete-trial procedure and performance measures at three points in the response chain, and the Skinner box situation, used in its free-operant mode with a single performance measure, are discussed in relation to the present findings.

  19. Reinforcement Learning State-of-the-Art

    Wiering, Marco


    Reinforcement learning encompasses both a science of adaptive behavior of rational beings in uncertain environments and a computational methodology for finding optimal behaviors for challenging problems in control, optimization and adaptive behavior of intelligent agents. As a field, reinforcement learning has progressed tremendously in the past decade. The main goal of this book is to present an up-to-date series of survey articles on the main contemporary sub-fields of reinforcement learning. This includes surveys on partially observable environments, hierarchical task decompositions, relational knowledge representation and predictive state representations. Furthermore, topics such as transfer, evolutionary methods and continuous spaces in reinforcement learning are surveyed. In addition, several chapters review reinforcement learning methods in robotics, in games, and in computational neuroscience. In total seventeen different subfields are presented by mostly young experts in those areas, and together the...


    Braverman, J.I.; Miller, C.A.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Naus, D.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bezler, P.; Chang, T.Y.


    This paper describes the results of a study to evaluate, in probabilistic terms, the effects of age-related degradation on the structural performance of reinforced concrete members at nuclear power plants. The paper focuses on degradation of reinforced concrete flexural members and shear walls due to the loss of steel reinforcing area and loss of concrete area (cracking/spalling). Loss of steel area is typically caused by corrosion while cracking and spalling can be caused by corrosion of reinforcing steel, freeze-thaw, or aggressive chemical attack. Structural performance in the presence of uncertainties is depicted by a fragility (or conditional probability of failure). The effects of degradation on the fragility of reinforced concrete members are calculated to assess the potential significance of various levels of degradation. The fragility modeling procedures applied to degraded concrete members can be used to assess the effects of degradation on plant risk and can lead to the development of probability-based degradation acceptance limits

  1. Prostatitis and male infertility.

    Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok


    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Axial Compression Tests on Corroded Reinforced Concrete Columns Consolidated with Fibre Reinforced Polymers

    Bin Ding


    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete structure featured by strong bearing capacity, high rigidity, good integrity, good fire resistance, and extensive applicability occupies a mainstream position in contemporary architecture. However, with the development of social economy, people need higher requirements on architectural structure; durability, especially, has been extensively researched. Because of the higher requirement on building material, ordinary reinforced concrete structure has not been able to satisfy the demand. As a result, some new materials and structures have emerged, for example, fibre reinforced polymers. Compared to steel reinforcement, fibre reinforced polymers have many advantages, such as high tensile strength, good durability, good shock absorption, low weight, and simple construction. The application of fibre reinforced polymers in architectural structure can effectively improve the durability of the concrete structure and lower the maintenance, reinforcement, and construction costs in severe environments. Based on the concepts of steel tube concrete, fibre reinforced composite material confined concrete, and fibre reinforced composite material tubed concrete, this study proposes a novel composite structure, i.e., fibre reinforced composite material and steel tube concrete composite structure. The structure was developed by pasting fibre around steel tube concrete and restraining core concrete using fibre reinforced composite material and steel tubes. The bearing capacity and ultimate deformation capacity of the structure was tested using column axial compression test.

  3. Varicocele and male infertility

    Jensen, Christian Fuglesang S.; Østergren, Peter; Dupree, James M.


    The link between varicoceles and male infertility has been a matter of debate for more than half a century. Varicocele is considered the most common correctable cause of male infertility, but some men with varicoceles are able to father children, even without intervention. In addition, improvements...... if the male partner has a clinically palpable varicocele and affected semen parameters....

  4. Long-term performance of GFRP reinforcement : technical report.


    Significant research has been performed on glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) concrete reinforcement. : This research has shown that GFRP reinforcement exhibits high strengths, is lightweight, can decrease time of : construction, and is corrosion ...

  5. Optimal reinforcing of reticular structures Optimal reinforcing of reticular structures

    Juan Santiago Mejía


    Full Text Available This article presents an application of Genetic Algorithms (GA and Finite Element Analysis (FEA to solve a structural optimisation problem on reticular plastic structures. Structural optimisation is used to modify the original shape by placing reinforcements at optimum locations. As a result, a reduction in the maximum stress by 14,70% for a structure with a final volume increase of 8,36% was achieved. This procedure solves the structural optimisation problem by adjusting the original mold and thereby avoiding the re-construction of a new one.Este artículo presenta una aplicación de Algoritmos Genéticos (GA y Análisis por Elementos Finitos (FEA a la solución de un problema de optimización estructural en estructuras reticulares plásticas. Optimización estructurales usada para modificar la forma original colocando refuerzos en posiciones óptimas. Como resultado se obtuvo una reducción en el esfuerzo máximo de 14,70% para una estructura cuyo volumen original aumento en 8,36%. Este procedimiento soluciona el problema de optimización estructural ajustando el molde original y evitando la manufactura de un nuevo molde.

  6. Do allopatric male Calopteryx virgo damselflies learn species recognition?

    Kuitunen, Katja; Haukilehto, Elina; Raatikainen, Kaisa J; Hakkarainen, Hanne; Miettinen, Minna; Högmander, Harri; Kotiaho, Janne S


    There is a growing amount of empirical evidence that premating reproductive isolation of two closely related species can be reinforced by natural selection arising from avoidance of maladaptive hybridization. However, as an alternative for this popular reinforcement theory, it has been suggested that learning to prefer conspecifics or to discriminate heterospecifics could cause a similar pattern of reinforced premating isolation, but this possibility is much less studied. Here, we report results of a field experiment in which we examined (i) whether allopatric Calopteryx virgo damselfly males that have not encountered heterospecific females of the congener C. splendens initially show discrimination, and (ii) whether C. virgo males learn to discriminate heterospecifics or learn to associate with conspecifics during repeated experimental presentation of females. Our experiment revealed that there was a statistically nonsignificant tendency for C. virgo males to show initial discrimination against heterospecific females but because we did not use sexually naïve individuals in our experiment, we were not able to separate the effect of innate or associative learning. More importantly, however, our study revealed that species discrimination might be further strengthened by learning, especially so that C. virgo males increase their association with conspecific females during repeated presentation trials. The role of learning to discriminate C. splendens females was less clear. We conclude that learning might play a role in species recognition also when individuals are not naïve but have already encountered potential conspecific mates.


    Rundle, Howard D; Schluter, Dolph


    Detailed studies of reproductive isolation and how it varies among populations can provide valuable insight into the mechanisms of speciation. Here we investigate how the strength of premating isolation varies between sympatric and allopatric populations of threespine sticklebacks to test a prediction of the hypothesis of reinforcement: that interspecific mate discrimination should be stronger in sympatry than in allopatry. In conducting such tests, it is important to control for ecological character displacement between sympatric species because ecological character divergence may strengthen prezygotic isolation as a by-product. We control for ecological character displacement by comparing mate preferences of females from a sympatric population (benthics) with mate preferences of females from two allopatric populations that most closely resemble the sympatric benthic females in ecology and morphology. No-choice mating trials indicate that sympatric benthic females mate less readily with heterospecific (limnetic) than conspecific (benthic) males, whereas two different populations of allopatric females resembling benthics show no such discrimination. These differences demonstrate reproductive character displacement of benthic female mate choice. Previous studies have established that hybridization between sympatric species occurred in the past in the wild and that hybrid offspring have lower fitness than either parental species, thus providing conditions under which natural selection would favor individuals that do not hybridize. Results are therefore consistent with the hypothesis that female mate preferences have evolved as a response to reduced hybrid fitness (reinforcement), although direct effects of sympatry or a biased extinction process could also produce the pattern. Males of the other sympatric species (limnetics) showed a preference for smaller females, in contrast to the inferred ancestral preference for larger females, suggesting reproductive character


    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich


    Full Text Available The authors demonstrate that the foam concrete performance can be improved by dispersed reinforcement, including methods that involve basalt fibres. They address the results of the foam concrete modeling technology and assess the importance of technology-related parameters. Reinforcement efficiency criteria are also provided in the article. Dispersed reinforcement improves the plasticity of the concrete mix and reduces the settlement crack formation rate. Conventional reinforcement that involves metal laths and rods demonstrates its limited application in the production of concrete used for thermal insulation and structural purposes. Dispersed reinforcement is preferable. This technology contemplates the infusion of fibres into porous mixes. Metal, polymeric, basalt and glass fibres are used as reinforcing components. It has been identified that products reinforced by polypropylene fibres demonstrate substantial abradability and deformability rates even under the influence of minor tensile stresses due to the low adhesion strength of polypropylene in the cement matrix. The objective of the research was to develop the type of polypropylene of D500 grade that would demonstrate the operating properties similar to those of Hebel and Ytong polypropylenes. Dispersed reinforcement was performed by the basalt fibre. This project contemplates an autoclave-free technology to optimize the consumption of electricity. Dispersed reinforcement is aimed at the reduction of the block settlement in the course of hardening at early stages of their operation, the improvement of their strength and other operating properties. Reduction in the humidity rate of the mix is based on the plasticizing properties of fibres, as well as the application of the dry mineralization method. Selection of optimal parameters of the process-related technology was performed with the help of G-BAT-2011 Software, developed at Moscow State University of Civil Engineering. The authors also

  9. Developing and implementing a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention in prison-based drug treatment: Project BRITE.

    Burdon, William M; St De Lore, Jef; Prendergast, Michael L


    Within prison settings, the reliance on punishment for controlling inappropriate or noncompliant behavior is self-evident. What is not so evident is the similarity between this reliance on punishment and the use of positive reinforcements to increase desired behaviors. However, seldom do inmates receive positive reinforcement for engaging in prosocial behaviors or, for inmates receiving drug treatment, behaviors that are consistent with or support their recovery. This study provides an overview of the development and implementation of a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention in male and female prison-based drug treatment programs. The active involvement of institutional staff, treatment staff, and inmates enrolled in the treatment programs in the development of the intervention along with the successful branding of the intervention were effective at promoting support and participation. However, these factors may also have ultimately impacted the ability of the randomized design to reliably demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention.

  10. Geo synthetic-reinforced Pavement systems

    Zornberg, J. G.


    Geo synthetics have been used as reinforcement inclusions to improve pavement performance. while there are clear field evidence of the benefit of using geo synthetic reinforcements, the specific conditions or mechanisms that govern the reinforcement of pavements are, at best, unclear and have remained largely unmeasured. Significant research has been recently conducted with the objectives of: (i) determining the relevant properties of geo synthetics that contribute to the enhanced performance of pavement systems, (ii) developing appropriate analytical, laboratory and field methods capable of quantifying the pavement performance, and (iii) enabling the prediction of pavement performance as a function of the properties of the various types of geo synthetics. (Author)

  11. Fatigue Performance of Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Jun, Zhang; Stang, Henrik


    The objective of the present study is to obtain basic data of fibre reinforced concrete under fatigue load and to set up a theoretical model based on micromechanics. In this study, the bridging stress in fiber reinforced concrete under cyclic tensile load was investigted in details. The damage...... mechanism of the interface between fiber and matrix was proposed and a rational model given. Finally, the response of a steel fiber reinforced concrete beam under fatigue loading was predicted based on this model and compared with experimental results....

  12. Seismic Stability of Reinforced Soil Slopes

    Tzavara, I.; Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Y.


    Over recent decades increased research interest has been observed on the dynamic response and stability issues of earth walls and reinforced soil structures. The current study aims to provide an insight into the dynamic response of reinforced soil structures and the potential of the geosynthetics...... to prevent the development of slope instability taking advantage of their reinforcing effect. For this purpose, a onedimensional (SDOF) model, based on Newmark’s sliding block model as well as a two-dimensional (plane-strain) dynamic finite-element analyses are conducted in order to investigate the impact...

  13. Elastomer Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    Hudson, Jared L.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan


    Elastomers are reinforced with functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) giving them high-breaking strain levels and low densities. Cross-linked elastomers are prepared using amine-terminated, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), with an average molecular weight of 5,000 daltons, and a functionalized SWNT. Cross-link densities, estimated on the basis of swelling data in toluene (a dispersing solvent) indicated that the polymer underwent cross-linking at the ends of the chains. This thermally initiated cross-linking was found to occur only in the presence of the aryl alcohol functionalized SWNTs. The cross-link could have been via a hydrogen-bonding mechanism between the amine and the free hydroxyl group, or via attack of the amine on the ester linage to form an amide. Tensile properties examined at room temperature indicate a three-fold increase in the tensile modulus of the elastomer, with rupture and failure of the elastomer occurring at a strain of 6.5.

  14. Polymer reinforcement of cement systems

    Swamy, R.N.


    In the last couple of decades several cement- and concrete-based composites have come into prominence. Of these, cement-polymer composites, like cement-fibre composites, have been recognised as very promising, and considerable research and development on their properties, fabrication methods and application are in progress. Of the three types of concrete materials which incorporate polymers to form composites, polymer impregnated concrete forms a major development in which hardened concrete is impregnated with a liquid monomer which is subsequently polymerized to form a rigid polymer network in the pores of the parent material. In this first part of the extensive review of the polymer reinforcement of cement systems, the process technology of the various monomer impregnation techniques and the properties of the impregnated composite are assessed critically. It is shown that the high durability and superior performance of polymer impregnated concrete can provide an economic and competitive alternative in in situ strengthening, and in other areas where conventional concrete can only at best provide adequate performance. The review includes a section on radiation-induced polymerization. (author)

  15. Facilitating tolerance of delayed reinforcement during functional communication training.

    Fisher, W W; Thompson, R H; Hagopian, L P; Bowman, L G; Krug, A


    Few clinical investigations have addressed the problem of delayed reinforcement. In this investigation, three individuals whose destructive behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement were treated using functional communication training (FCT) with extinction (EXT). Next, procedures used in the basic literature on delayed reinforcement and self-control (reinforcer delay fading, punishment of impulsive responding, and provision of an alternative activity during reinforcer delay) were used to teach participants to tolerate delayed reinforcement. With the first case, reinforcer delay fading alone was effective at maintaining low rates of destructive behavior while introducing delayed reinforcement. In the second case, the addition of a punishment component reduced destructive behavior to near-zero levels and facilitated reinforcer delay fading. With the third case, reinforcer delay fading was associated with increases in masturbation and head rolling, but prompting and praising the individual for completing work during the delay interval reduced all problem behaviors and facilitated reinforcer delay fading.

  16. Influence of reinforcement's corrosion into hyperstatic reinforced concrete beams: a probabilistic failure scenarios analysis


    Full Text Available AbstractThis work aims to study the mechanical effects of reinforcement's corrosion in hyperstatic reinforced concrete beams. The focus is the probabilistic determination of individual failure scenarios change as well as global failure change along time. The limit state functions assumed describe analytically bending and shear resistance of reinforced concrete rectangular cross sections as a function of steel and concrete resistance and section dimensions. It was incorporated empirical laws that penalize the steel yield stress and the reinforcement's area along time in addition to Fick's law, which models the chloride penetration into concrete pores. The reliability theory was applied based on Monte Carlo simulation method, which assesses each individual probability of failure. The probability of global structural failure was determined based in the concept of failure tree. The results of a hyperstatic reinforced concrete beam showed that reinforcements corrosion make change into the failure scenarios modes. Therefore, unimportant failure modes in design phase become important after corrosion start.

  17. Modeling of geosynthetic reinforced capping systems

    Viswanadham, B.V.S.; Koenig, D.; Jessberger, H.L.


    The investigation deals with the influence of a geosynthetic reinforcement on the deformation behavior and sealing efficiency of the reinforced mineral sealing layer at the onset of non-uniform settlements. The research program is mainly concentrated in studying the influence of reinforcement inclusion in restraining cracks and crack propagation due to soil-geosynthetic bond efficiency. Centrifuge model tests are conducted in the 500 gt capacity balanced beam Bochum geotechnical Centrifuge (Z1) simulating a differential deformation of a mineral sealing layer of a landfill with the help of trap-door arrangement. By comparing the performance of the deformed mineral sealing layer with and without geogrid, the reinforcement ability of the geogrid in controlling the crack propagation and permeability of the mineral swing layer is evaluated

  18. Chemical modification of flax reinforced polypropylene composites

    Jacob John, Maya


    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the static and dynamic mechanical properties of nonwoven based flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. The effect of zein modification on flax fibres is also reported. Flax nonwovens were treated...

  19. fatigue strength of reinforced concrete flexural members

    Dr Obe


    Mar 1, 1980 ... cyclic loads behave differently compared with static bending and can collapse due to the fatigue of concrete, reinforcement or both when maximum fatigue stresses of ... under low and medium load levels, than under high load ...

  20. Thin fiber and textile reinforced cementitious systems

    Aldea, Corina-Maria


    This Special Publication (SP) contains ten papers which provide insight on the topics of state of the art of thin fiber and textile-reinforced cementitious systems both in academia and the industry...



    mechanical and thermal properties of chitin reinforced composites. ..... with crabyon fiber and normal viscose filaments. Also. Zhang et al.,[65] successfully blended chitin/cellulose using two different coagulating systems (immersed in 5.

  2. Corrosion resistant alloys for reinforced concrete [2009


    Deterioration of concrete bridges because of reinforcing steel corrosion has been recognized for four-plus decades as a major technical and economic challenge for the United States. As an option for addressing this problem, renewed interest has focus...

  3. Belief reward shaping in reinforcement learning

    Marom, O


    Full Text Available A key challenge in many reinforcement learning problems is delayed rewards, which can significantly slow down learning. Although reward shaping has previously been introduced to accelerate learning by bootstrapping an agent with additional...

  4. Reinforced Conductive Polyaniline-Paper Composites

    Jinhua Yan


    Full Text Available A method for direct aniline interfacial polymerization on polyamideamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE-reinforced paper substrate is introduced in this paper. Cellulose-based papers with and without reinforcement were considered. The polyaniline (PANI-paper composites had surface resistivity lower than 100 Ω/sq after more than 3 polymerizations. Their mechanical strength and thermal stability were analyzed by tensile tests and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR results revealed that there was strong interaction between NH groups in aniline monomers and OH groups in fibers, which did not disappear until after 3 polymerizations. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and field emission (FE SEM images showed morphological differences between composites using reinforced and untreated base papers. Conductive composites made with PAE-reinforced base paper had both good thermal stability and good mechanical strength, with high conductivity and a smaller PANI amount.

  5. Corrosion resistant alloys for reinforced concrete [2007


    Deterioration of concrete bridges because of reinforcing steel corrosion has been recognized for 4-plus decades as a major technical and economic challenge for the United States. As an option for addressing this problem, renewed interest has focused ...

  6. Fiber reinforced polymer bridge decks : [technical summary].


    A number of researchers have addressed the use of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) deck as a replacement solution for deteriorated bridge decks made of traditional materials. The use of new, advanced materials such as FRP is advantageous when the bridg...

  7. Finite element modeling of reinforced concrete beams with a hybrid combination of steel and aramid reinforcement

    Hawileh, R.A.


    Highlights: • Modeling of concrete beams reinforced steel and FRP bars. • Developed finite element models achieved good results. • The models are validated via comparison with experimental results. • Parametric studies are performed. - Abstract: Corrosion of steel bars has an adverse effect on the life-span of reinforced concrete (RC) members and is usually associated with crack development in RC beams. Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars have been recently used to reinforce concrete members in flexure due to their high tensile strength and superior corrosion resistance properties. However, FRP materials are brittle in nature, thus RC beams reinforced with such materials would exhibit a less ductile behavior when compared to similar members reinforced with conventional steel reinforcement. Recently, researchers investigated the performance of concrete beams reinforced with a hybrid combination of steel and Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polymer (AFRP) reinforcement to maintain a reasonable level of ductility in such members. The function of the AFRP bars is to increase the load-carrying capacity, while the function of the steel bars is to ensure ductility of the flexural member upon yielding in tension. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model that predicted the load versus mid-span deflection response of tested RC beams conducted by other researchers with a hybrid combination of steel and AFRP bars. The developed FE models account for the constituent material nonlinearities and bond–slip behavior between the reinforcing bars and adjacent concrete surfaces. It was concluded that the developed models can accurately capture the behavior and predicts the load-carrying capacity of such RC members. In addition, a parametric study is conducted using the validated models to investigate the effect of AFRP bar size, FRP material type, bond–slip action, and concrete compressive strength on the performance of concrete beams when reinforced

  8. Combining noncontingent reinforcement and differential reinforcement schedules as treatment for aberrant behavior.

    Marcus, B A; Vollmer, T R


    Research has shown that noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) can be an effective behavior-reduction procedure when based on a functional analysis. The effects of NCR may be a result of elimination of the contingency between aberrant behavior and reinforcing consequences (extinction) or frequent and free access to reinforcers that may reduce the participant's motivation to engage in aberrant behaviors or mands. If motivation is momentarily reduced, behavior such as mands may not be sensitive to p...

  9. Reinforcement Schedules in a Verbal Reinforcement Combination and Renection-Impulsivity

    TAMASE, Koji; UEDA, Masako


    It was predicted that higher proportion of the negative reinforcement "Wrong" than that of the positive reinforcement "Right" in a reinforcement combination will produce higher proportion of the correct response and this trend will be greater in reflective children than in impulsive children. From 140 kindergarten children 30 reflective and 30 impulsive children were selected and they were given a two-hole marble-dropping task. The best performance in the ratio of correct responses was obtain...

  10. Modelling root reinforcement in shallow forest soils

    Skaugset, Arne E.


    A hypothesis used to explain the relationship between timber harvesting and landslides is that tree roots add mechanical support to soil, thus increasing soil strength. Upon harvest, the tree roots decay which reduces soil strength and increases the risk of management -induced landslides. The technical literature does not adequately support this hypothesis. Soil strength values attributed to root reinforcement that are in the technical literature are such that forested sites can't fail and all high risk, harvested sites must fail. Both unstable forested sites and stable harvested sites exist, in abundance, in the real world thus, the literature does not adequately describe the real world. An analytical model was developed to calculate soil strength increase due to root reinforcement. Conceptually, the model is composed of a reinforcing element with high tensile strength, i.e. a conifer root, embedded in a material with little tensile strength, i.e. a soil. As the soil fails and deforms, the reinforcing element also deforms and stretches. The lateral deformation of the reinforcing element is treated analytically as a laterally loaded pile in a flexible foundation and the axial deformation is treated as an axially loaded pile. The governing differential equations are solved using finite-difference approximation techniques. The root reinforcement model was tested by comparing the final shape of steel and aluminum rods, parachute cord, wooden dowels, and pine roots in direct shear with predicted shapes from the output of the root reinforcement model. The comparisons were generally satisfactory, were best for parachute cord and wooden dowels, and were poorest for steel and aluminum rods. A parameter study was performed on the root reinforcement model which showed reinforced soil strength increased with increasing root diameter and soil depth. Output from the root reinforcement model showed a strain incompatibility between large and small diameter roots. The peak

  11. The Recent Research on Bamboo Reinforced Concrete

    Dewi Sri Murni


    Full Text Available The paper presents the last research on bamboo reinforced concrete in Brawijaya University Indonesia. Three kinds of structures studied in recent year, the mounting of pegs on reinforcement, the use of lightweight brick to reduce the weight of the beams, and the use the light weight aggregate for bamboo concrete composite frame. All that experiments overcome some problems exist in using bamboo as environmental acceptance structures.

  12. Reinforced concrete wall under hydrogen detonation

    Saarenheimo, A.


    The structural integrity of a reinforced concrete wall in the BWR reactor building under hydrogen detonation conditions has been analysed. Of particular interest is whether the containment integrity can be jeopardised by an external hydrogen detonation. The load carrying capacity of a reinforced concrete wall was studied. The detonation pressure loads were estimated with computerised hand calculations assuming a direct initiation of detonation and applying the strong explosion theory. The results can be considered as rough and conservative estimates for the first shock pressure impact induced by a reflecting detonation wave. Structural integrity may be endangered due to slow pressurisation or dynamic impulse loads associated with local detonations. The static pressure following the passage of a shock front may be relatively high, thus this static or slowly decreasing pressure after a detonation may damage the structure severely. The mitigating effects of the opening of a door on pressure history and structural response were also studied. The non-linear behaviour of the wall was studied under detonations corresponding a detonable hydrogen mass of 0.5 kg and 1.428 kg. Non-linear finite element analyses of the reinforced concrete structure were carried out by the ABAQUS/Explicit program. The reinforcement and its non-linear material behaviour and the tensile cracking of concrete were modelled. Reinforcement was defined as layers of uniformly spaced reinforcing bars in shell elements. In these studies the surrounding structures of the non-linearly modelled reinforced concrete wall were modelled using idealised boundary conditions. Especially concrete cracking and yielding of the reinforcement was monitored during the numerical simulation. (au)

  13. Shaking Table Tests of Reinforced Concrete Frames

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    -varying systems and to verify various methods for damage assessment of reinforced concrete structures from soft motion measurements. In this study the maximum softening concept will be evaluated. In the paper the assessment obtained by this method is compared to visual damage assessment. The structures considered...... vector ARMA model is suitable for modal identification of degrading reinforced concrete structures and the maximum softening damage index calculated from the obtained identification provides a valuable tool for assessment of the damage state of the structure....

  14. Design Methods for Fibre Reinforced Concrete

    Stang, Henrik


    The present paper describes the outline of a research project on Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) currently being carried out in Denmark under the supervision of Danish Council of Technology, Danish Technical Research Council and Danish Natural Science Research Counsil.......The present paper describes the outline of a research project on Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) currently being carried out in Denmark under the supervision of Danish Council of Technology, Danish Technical Research Council and Danish Natural Science Research Counsil....

  15. Zero-reinforcement vessel closures

    McClellan, G.; Mou, Y.


    Access to the secondary side of a nuclear steam generator is required in order to properly inspect and maintain critical components throughout the life. For the most part, it is only on newer units that sufficient openings have been provided. Older units must be field modified to provide access to the tube bundle and internal lateral support components for inspection and penetration by cleaning equipment. In order to avoid post weld heat treatment after welding on some materials it would be desirable to machine the opening directly into the pressure boundary without providing weld build-up to compensate for the material removed. In such a case, the pressure boundary may be locally thinned below the minimum thickness required by the ASME code. As a result it is not possible to meet reinforcement limits or elastic primary stress limited of the code. However, the ASME code permits justification of the design by utilizing elastic-plastic methods. Elastic-plastic analysis can be utilized to demonstrate shake-down to elastic action and to demonstrate that small deformations in the region of the gasket seating surfaces, or any loss of bolt preload, have not compromised leak tightness. Employing the technique developed by the authors for application in ANSYS, it is feasible to carry-out such a design analysis including the effects of time varying thermal stress. This paper presents the highlights of such an analysis. It is important to note that the method also permits the analysis of openings in locations formerly considered too restrictive, such as near support and major structural discontinuities. (author)

  16. Learning to trade via direct reinforcement.

    Moody, J; Saffell, M


    We present methods for optimizing portfolios, asset allocations, and trading systems based on direct reinforcement (DR). In this approach, investment decision-making is viewed as a stochastic control problem, and strategies are discovered directly. We present an adaptive algorithm called recurrent reinforcement learning (RRL) for discovering investment policies. The need to build forecasting models is eliminated, and better trading performance is obtained. The direct reinforcement approach differs from dynamic programming and reinforcement algorithms such as TD-learning and Q-learning, which attempt to estimate a value function for the control problem. We find that the RRL direct reinforcement framework enables a simpler problem representation, avoids Bellman's curse of dimensionality and offers compelling advantages in efficiency. We demonstrate how direct reinforcement can be used to optimize risk-adjusted investment returns (including the differential Sharpe ratio), while accounting for the effects of transaction costs. In extensive simulation work using real financial data, we find that our approach based on RRL produces better trading strategies than systems utilizing Q-learning (a value function method). Real-world applications include an intra-daily currency trader and a monthly asset allocation system for the S&P 500 Stock Index and T-Bills.

  17. Introduction to Concrete Reinforcing. Instructor Edition. Introduction to Construction Series.

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This module on concrete reinforcing is one of a series of modules designed to teach basic skills necessary for entry-level employment in this field. This module contains three instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) concrete reinforcing materials; (2) concrete reinforcing tools; and (3) concrete reinforcing basic skills. Each…

  18. Video game addiction, ADHD symptomatology, and video game reinforcement.

    Mathews, Christine L; Morrell, Holly E R; Molle, Jon E


    Up to 23% of people who play video games report symptoms of addiction. Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be at increased risk for video game addiction, especially when playing games with more reinforcing properties. The current study tested whether level of video game reinforcement (type of game) places individuals with greater ADHD symptom severity at higher risk for developing video game addiction. Adult video game players (N = 2,801; Mean age = 22.43, SD = 4.70; 93.30% male; 82.80% Caucasian) completed an online survey. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were used to test type of game, ADHD symptom severity, and the interaction between type of game and ADHD symptomatology as predictors of video game addiction severity, after controlling for age, gender, and weekly time spent playing video games. ADHD symptom severity was positively associated with increased addiction severity (b = .73 and .68, ps .05. The relationship between ADHD symptom severity and addiction severity did not depend on the type of video game played or preferred most, ps > .05. Gamers who have greater ADHD symptom severity may be at greater risk for developing symptoms of video game addiction and its negative consequences, regardless of type of video game played or preferred most. Individuals who report ADHD symptomatology and also identify as gamers may benefit from psychoeducation about the potential risk for problematic play.

  19. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.


    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  20. Male mating biology

    Howell, Paul I.; Knols, Bart G. J.


    Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings

  1. Male breast cancer

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke


    OBJECTIVE: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980-2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  2. Male depression in females?

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete


    Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; p<0.05). Overall, prototypic depressive symptoms as well as externalizing symptoms were more pronounced in females. In the subgroup of those at risk for male depression, biological sex and kind of symptoms were unrelated. Principal component analyses revealed a similar symptom structure for males and females. Low scores on masculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not

  3. Demand for male contraception.

    Dorman, Emily; Bishai, David


    The biological basis for male contraception was established decades ago, but despite promising breakthroughs and the financial burden men increasingly bear due to better enforcement of child support policies, no viable alternative to the condom has been brought to market. Men who wish to control their fertility must rely on female compliance with contraceptives, barrier methods, vasectomy or abstinence. Over the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned most of its investment in the field, leaving only nonprofit organisations and public entities pursuing male contraception. Leading explanations are uncertain forecasts of market demand pitted against the need for critical investments to demonstrate the safety of existing candidate products. This paper explores the developments and challenges in male contraception research. We produce preliminary estimates of potential market size for a safe and effective male contraceptive based on available data to estimate the potential market for a novel male method.

  4. Male depression and suicide.

    Wålinder, J; Rutzt, W


    Based on the experiences of the Gotland Study that education of general practitioners about depressive illness resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the number of female suicides, leaving the rate of male suicides almost unaffected, we propose the concept of a male depressive syndrome. This syndrome comprises a low stress tolerance, an acting-out behavior, a low impulse control, substance abuse and a hereditary loading of depressive illness, alcoholism and suicide. This notion is supported by data from The Amish study as well as the concept of van Praag of a stress-precipitated, cortisol-induced, serotonin-related and anxiety-driven depressive illness most often seen in males. In order to identify depressed males, the Gotland Male Depression Scale has been developed. Some preliminary data using the scale in a group of alcohol-dependant patients are presented.

  5. Sex differences in selecting between food and cocaine reinforcement are mediated by estrogen.

    Kerstetter, Kerry A; Ballis, Maya A; Duffin-Lutgen, Stevie; Carr, Amanda E; Behrens, Alexandra M; Kippin, Tod E


    Cocaine-dependent women, relative to their male counterparts, report shorter cocaine-free periods and report transiting faster from first use to entering treatment for addiction. Similarly, preclinical studies indicate that female rats, particularly those in the estrus phase of their reproductive cycle, show increased operant responding for cocaine under a wide variety of schedules. Making maladaptive choices is a component of drug dependence, and concurrent reinforcement schedules that examine cocaine choice offers an animal model of the conditions of human drug use; therefore, the examination of sex differences in decision-making may be critical to understanding why women display a more severe profile of cocaine addiction than men. Accordingly, we assessed sex and estrous cycle differences in choice between food (45 mg grain pellets) and intravenous cocaine (0.4 or 1.0 mg/kg per infusion) reinforcement in male, female (freely cycling), and ovariectomized (OVX) females treated with either estrogen benzoate (EB; 5 μg per day) or vehicle. At both cocaine doses, intact female rats choose cocaine over food significantly more than male rats. However, the estrous cycle did not impact the level of cocaine choice in intact females. Nevertheless, OVX females treated with vehicle exhibited a substantially lower cocaine choice compared with those receiving daily EB or to intact females. These results demonstrate that intact females have a greater preference for cocaine over food compared with males. Furthermore, this higher preference is estrogen-dependent, but does not vary across the female reproductive cycle, suggesting that ovarian hormones regulate cocaine choice. The present findings indicate that there is a biological predisposition for females to forgo food reinforcement to obtain cocaine reinforcement, which may substantially contribute to women experiencing a more severe profile of cocaine addiction than men.

  6. Positive behavioral contrast across food and alcohol reinforcers.

    McSweeney, F K; Melville, C L; Higa, J


    The present study examined behavioral contrast during concurrent and multiple schedules that provided food and alcohol reinforcers. Concurrent-schedule contrast occurred in the responding reinforced by food when alcohol reinforcers were removed. It also occurred in the responding reinforced by alcohol when food was removed. Multiple-schedule contrast appeared for food when alcohol reinforcers were removed, but not for alcohol when food was removed. These results show that behavioral contrast ...

  7. Vicarious Reinforcement In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Steve W. C. Chang


    Full Text Available What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1 and/or rewards to another monkey (M2 with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in nonsocial control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  8. Vicarious reinforcement in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).

    Chang, Steve W C; Winecoff, Amy A; Platt, Michael L


    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1) and/or rewards to another monkey (M2) with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in non-social control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  9. Shear behaviour of reinforced phyllite concrete beams

    Adom-Asamoah, Mark; Owusu Afrifa, Russell


    Highlights: ► Phyllite concrete beams often exhibited shear with anchorage bond failure. ► Different shear design provisions for reinforced phyllite beams are compared. ► Predicted shear capacity of phyllite beams must be modified by a reduction factor. -- Abstract: The shear behaviour of concrete beams made from phyllite aggregates subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading is reported. First diagonal shear crack load of beams with and without shear reinforcement was between 42–58% and 42–92% of the failure loads respectively. The phyllite concrete beams without shear links had lower post-diagonal cracking shear resistance compared to corresponding phyllite beams with shear links. As a result of hysteretic energy dissipation, limited cyclic loading affected the stiffness, strength and deformation of the phyllite beams with shear reinforcement. Generally, beams with and without shear reinforcement showed anchorage bond failure in addition to the shear failure due to high stress concentration near the supports. The ACI, BS and EC codes are conservative for the prediction of phyllite concrete beams without shear reinforcement but they all overestimate the shear strength of phyllite concrete beams with shear reinforcement. It is recommended that the predicted shear capacity of phyllite beams reinforced with steel stirrups be modified by a reduction factor of 0.7 in order to specify a high enough safety factor on their ultimate strength. It is also recommended that susceptibility of phyllite concrete beams to undergo anchorage bond failure is averted in design by the provision of greater anchorage lengths than usually permitted.

  10. On the weld strength of in situ tape placed reinforcements on weave reinforced structures

    Grouve, Wouter Johannes Bernardus; Warnet, Laurent; Rietman, Bert; Akkerman, Remko


    Unidirectionally reinforced thermoplastic tapes were welded onto woven fabric reinforced laminates using a laser assisted tape placement process. A mandrel peel setup was used to quantify the interfacial fracture toughness between the tape and the laminate as a measure for weld strength. The tape

  11. The usage of carbon fiber reinforcement polymer and glass fiber reinforcement polymer for retrofit technology building

    Tarigan, Johannes; Meka, Randi; Nursyamsi


    Fiber Reinforcement Polymer has been used as a material technology since the 1970s in Europe. Fiber Reinforcement Polymer can reinforce the structure externally, and used in many types of buildings like beams, columns, and slabs. It has high tensile strength. Fiber Reinforcement Polymer also has high rigidity and strength. The profile of Fiber Reinforcement Polymer is thin and light, installation is simple to conduct. One of Fiber Reinforcement Polymer material is Carbon Fiber Reinforcement Polymer and Glass Fiber Reinforcement Polymer. These materials is tested when it is installed on concrete cylinders, to obtain the comparison of compressive strength CFRP and GFRP. The dimension of concrete is diameter of 15 cm and height of 30 cm. It is amounted to 15 and divided into three groups. The test is performed until it collapsed to obtain maximum load. The results of research using CFRP and GFRP have shown the significant enhancement in compressive strength. CFRP can increase the compressive strength of 26.89%, and GFRP of 14.89%. For the comparison of two materials, CFRP is more strengthening than GFRP regarding increasing compressive strength. The usage of CFRP and GFRP can increase the loading capacity.

  12. Male Body Practices.

    Lefkowich, Maya; Oliffe, John L; Hurd Clarke, Laura; Hannan-Leith, Madeline


    The pressure on boys and men to engage in extensive body practices (e.g., closely monitored eating and exercise habits) and achieve ideal male bodies has grown significantly over the past 20 years. Central to the depiction of ideal male bodies and body practices are both the pursuit and achievement of lean and well-defined muscles. The labels "pitches," "purchases," and "performativities" were inductively derived from the literature, and used to describe the multifaceted connections between masculinities, muscularity, and idealized male body practices. "Pitches" distil how popular culture posture norms of masculinity, and manly bodies and behaviors attainable and necessary. "Purchases" refer to men's diverse buy-in to dominant discourses about acceptable male bodies and practices. "Performativities" chronicle how men embody and navigate gender norms as they evaluate their own bodies, behaviors, and eating habits and those of their peers. Based on findings from the current scoping review, future research could benefit from fully linking masculinities with the drive for muscularity to address health and social risks associated with the pursuit of the idealized male body. In highlighting the plurality of masculinities and the complexity of men's diverse identities, health care providers can better reach and support men. Focusing on, and celebrating, a wider range of male bodies could help recenter dominant discourses about how and whose bodies and experiences are idealized. The current scoping review article offers an overview of how masculinities and muscularity have been linked to male body practices, and recommendations to advance this emergent field.

  13. Influence of transverse reinforcement on perforation resistance of reinforced concrete slabs under hard missile impact

    Orbovic, Nebojsa; Sagals, Genadijs; Blahoianu, Andrei


    This paper describes the work conducted by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) related to the influence of transverse reinforcement on perforation capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs under “hard” missile impact (impact with negligible missile deformations). The paper presents the results of three tests on reinforced concrete slabs conducted at VTT Technical Research Centre (Finland), along with the numerical simulations as well as a discussion of the current code provisions related to impactive loading. Transverse reinforcement is widely used for improving the shear and punching strength of concrete structures. However, the effect of this reinforcement on the perforation resistance under localized missile impact is still unclear. The goal of this paper is to fill the gap in the current literature related to this topic. Based on similar tests designed by the authors with missile velocity below perforation velocity, it was expected that transverse reinforcement would improve the perforation resistance. Three slabs were tested under almost identical conditions with the only difference being the transverse reinforcement. One slab was designed without transverse reinforcement, the second one with the transverse reinforcement in form of conventional stirrups with hooks and the third one with the transverse reinforcement in form of T-headed bars. Although the transverse reinforcement reduced the overall damage of the slabs (the rear face scabbing), the conclusion from the tests is that the transverse reinforcement does not have important influence on perforation capacity of concrete slabs under rigid missile impact. The slab with T-headed bars presented a slight improvement compared to the baseline specimen without transverse reinforcement. The slab with conventional stirrups presented slightly lower perforation capacity (higher residual missile velocity) than the slab without transverse reinforcement. In conclusion, the performed tests show slightly

  14. Caregiver preference for reinforcement-based interventions for problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement.

    Gabor, Anne M; Fritz, Jennifer N; Roath, Christopher T; Rothe, Brittany R; Gourley, Denise A


    Social validity of behavioral interventions typically is assessed with indirect methods or by determining preferences of the individuals who receive treatment, and direct observation of caregiver preference rarely is described. In this study, preferences of 5 caregivers were determined via a concurrent-chains procedure. Caregivers were neurotypical, and children had been diagnosed with developmental disabilities and engaged in problem behavior maintained by positive reinforcement. Caregivers were taught to implement noncontingent reinforcement (NCR), differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA), and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), and the caregivers selected interventions to implement during sessions with the child after they had demonstrated proficiency in implementing the interventions. Three caregivers preferred DRA, 1 caregiver preferred differential reinforcement procedures, and 1 caregiver did not exhibit a preference. Direct observation of implementation in concurrent-chains procedures may allow the identification of interventions that are implemented with sufficient integrity and preferred by caregivers. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  15. Origins of altered reinforcement effects in ADHD

    Tripp Gail


    Full Text Available Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and deficient sustained attention, is one of the most common and persistent behavioral disorders of childhood. ADHD is associated with catecholamine dysfunction. The catecholamines are important for response selection and memory formation, and dopamine in particular is important for reinforcement of successful behavior. The convergence of dopaminergic mesolimbic and glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses upon individual neostriatal neurons provides a favorable substrate for a three-factor synaptic modification rule underlying acquisition of associations between stimuli in a particular context, responses, and reinforcers. The change in associative strength as a function of delay between key stimuli or responses, and reinforcement, is known as the delay of reinforcement gradient. The gradient is altered by vicissitudes of attention, intrusions of irrelevant events, lapses of memory, and fluctuations in dopamine function. Theoretical and experimental analyses of these moderating factors will help to determine just how reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD. Such analyses can only help to improve treatment strategies for ADHD.

  16. Global reinforcement training of CrossNets

    Ma, Xiaolong


    Hybrid "CMOL" integrated circuits, incorporating advanced CMOS devices for neural cell bodies, nanowires as axons and dendrites, and latching switches as synapses, may be used for the hardware implementation of extremely dense (107 cells and 1012 synapses per cm2) neuromorphic networks, operating up to 10 6 times faster than their biological prototypes. We are exploring several "Cross- Net" architectures that accommodate the limitations imposed by CMOL hardware and should allow effective training of the networks without a direct external access to individual synapses. Our studies have show that CrossNets based on simple (two-terminal) crosspoint devices can work well in at least two modes: as Hop-field networks for associative memory and multilayer perceptrons for classification tasks. For more intelligent tasks (such as robot motion control or complex games), which do not have "examples" for supervised learning, more advanced training methods such as the global reinforcement learning are necessary. For application of global reinforcement training algorithms to CrossNets, we have extended Williams's REINFORCE learning principle to a more general framework and derived several learning rules that are more suitable for CrossNet hardware implementation. The results of numerical experiments have shown that these new learning rules can work well for both classification tasks and reinforcement tasks such as the cartpole balancing control problem. Some limitations imposed by the CMOL hardware need to be carefully addressed for the the successful application of in situ reinforcement training to CrossNets.

  17. The genetics of speciation by reinforcement.

    Daniel Ortiz-Barrientos


    Full Text Available Reinforcement occurs when natural selection strengthens behavioral discrimination to prevent costly interspecies matings, such as when matings produce sterile hybrids. This evolutionary process can complete speciation, thereby providing a direct link between Darwin's theory of natural selection and the origin of new species. Here, by examining a case of speciation by reinforcement in Drosophila,we present the first high-resolution genetic study of variation within species for female mating discrimination that is enhanced by natural selection. We show that reinforced mating discrimination is inherited as a dominant trait, exhibits variability within species, and may be influenced by a known set of candidate genes involved in olfaction. Our results show that the genetics of reinforced mating discrimination is different from the genetics of mating discrimination between species, suggesting that overall mating discrimination might be a composite phenomenon, which in Drosophila could involve both auditory and olfactory cues. Examining the genetics of reinforcement provides a unique opportunity for both understanding the origin of new species in the face of gene flow and identifying the genetic basis of adaptive female species preferences, two major gaps in our understanding of speciation.

  18. Investigating aluminum alloy reinforced by graphene nanoflakes

    Yan, S.J., E-mail: [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Dai, S.L.; Zhang, X.Y.; Yang, C.; Hong, Q.H.; Chen, J.Z. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Lin, Z.M. [Aviation Industry Corporation of China, Beijing 100022 (China)


    As one of the most important engineering materials, aluminum alloys have been widely applied in many fields. However, the requirement of enhancing their mechanical properties without sacrificing the ductility is always a challenge in the development of aluminum alloys. Thanks to the excellent physical and mechanical properties, graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) have been applied as promising reinforcing elements in various engineering materials, including polymers and ceramics. However, the investigation of GNFs as reinforcement phase in metals or alloys, especially in aluminum alloys, is still very limited. In this study, the aluminum alloy reinforced by GNFs was successfully prepared via powder metallurgy approach. The GNFs were mixed with aluminum alloy powders through ball milling and followed by hot isostatic pressing. The green body was then hot extruded to obtain the final GNFs reinforced aluminum alloy nanocomposite. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope analysis show that GNFs were well dispersed in the aluminum alloy matrix and no chemical reactions were observed at the interfaces between the GNFs and aluminum alloy matrix. The mechanical properties' testing results show that with increasing filling content of GNFs, both tensile and yield strengths were remarkably increased without losing the ductility performance. These results not only provided a pathway to achieve the goal of preparing high strength aluminum alloys with excellent ductilitybut they also shed light on the development of other metal alloys reinforced by GNFs.

  19. Reinforcement of Conducting Silver-based Materials

    Heike JUNG


    Full Text Available Silver is a well-known material in the field of contact materials because of its high electrical and thermal conductivity. However, due to its bad mechanical and switching properties, silver alloys or reinforcements of the ductile silver matrix are required. Different reinforcements, e. g. tungsten, tungsten carbide, nickel, cadmium oxide or tin oxide, are used in different sectors of switches. To reach an optimal distribution of these reinforcements, various manufacturing techniques (e. g. powder blending, preform infiltration, wet-chemical methods, internal oxidation are being used for the production of these contact materials. Each of these manufacturing routes offers different advantages and disadvantages. The mechanical alloying process displays a successful and efficient method to produce particle-reinforced metal-matrix composite powders. This contribution presents the obtained fine disperse microstructure of tungsten-particle-reinforced silver composite powders produced by the mechanical alloying process and displays this technique as possible route to provide feedstock powders for subsequent consolidation processes. DOI:

  20. Cytogenetic of Male Infertility

    Lutfiye Ozpak


    Full Text Available Infertility by definition, is not to get pregnant within one year of regular sexual relationship without protection, affects 15-20% of reproductive age couples. Approximately 30% of infertility cases are male originated. Male infertility is caused by endocrine-related genetic defects affecting urogenital system function. These defects adversely affect subsequent spermatogenesis, sexual function, fertility, early embryonic stage of sexual maturation. Autosomal and gonosomal, numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities and related syndromes rank at the top causes of male infertility. Similar chromosome abnormalities are detected in male infertility and as the rate of these abnormalities increase, it was found to reduce sperm count especially in azospermic and oligozoospermic men. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(4.000: 230-245

  1. Males and Eating Disorders

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  2. Male hypogonadism (Part 1)

    Ye.V. Luchytskyy; V.Yе. Luchytskyy; M.D. Tronko


    The first part of the review presents the current data on the prevalence of male hypogonadism, methods of diagnosing different forms of hypogonadism, describes the clinical manifestations of the most common forms of this disease.

  3. Male hypogonadism (Part 1

    Ye.V. Luchytskyy


    Full Text Available The first part of the review presents the current data on the prevalence of male hypogonadism, methods of diagnosing different forms of hypogonadism, describes the clinical manifestations of the most common forms of this disease.

  4. Male breast lesions

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Andrade, L.G. de; Carregal, E.; Marimatsu, R.I.; Matushita, J.S.


    Roentgenographic examination of the male breast is an important aspect of the continued, intensive investigation of the radiologic morphology of the normal and diseased breast conducted in 17 cases examined at the Instituto Nacional do Cancer - RJ. It is purpose of this report to present the Roentgen appearance of various lesions of the male breast as they have been found in our practice and also to stress some of the difficulties in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. (author) [pt

  5. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Anand Kumar


    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  6. Measurement of reinforcement corrosion in marine structures

    Mohammad Ismail; Nordin Yahaya


    The marine environment is known to be aggressive. Structures constructed on this belt need to undergo periodic assessment in order to ensure no defects or signs of deterioration had occurred. One of the most common deterioration that occurs on marine structures is corrosion of the reinforcement. Corrosion is an electrochemical process. The product of corrosion can increase the reinforcement volume, hence causing cracking on concrete cover. If no action is taken, delamination and spalling of concrete will follow and this will affect the structures integrity. It is therefore important to know the state of the structures condition by monitoring them periodically. NDT techniques that can detect the occurrence of corrosion of reinforcement in concrete uses half cell and resistivity meter. The method of application and interpretation of results are discussed. (author)

  7. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    Sidman, M


    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.

  8. Hypocretin / orexin involvement in reward and reinforcement

    España, Rodrigo A.


    Since the discovery of the hypocretins/orexins, a series of observations have indicated that these peptides influence a variety of physiological processes including feeding, sleep/wake function, memory, and stress. More recently, the hypocretins have been implicated in reinforcement and reward-related processes via actions on the mesolimbic dopamine system. Although investigation into the relationship between the hypocretins and reinforcement/reward remains in relatively early stages, accumulating evidence suggests that continued research into this area may offer new insights into the addiction process and provide the foundation to generate novel pharmacotherapies for drug abuse. The current chapter will focus on contemporary perspectives of hypocretin regulation of cocaine reward and reinforcement via actions on the mesolimbic dopamine system. PMID:22640614

  9. Mechanical characterization of sisal reinforced cement mortar

    R. Fujiyama


    Full Text Available This work aims at evaluating the mechanical behavior of sisal fiber reinforced cement mortar. The composite material was produced from a mixture of sand, cement, and water. Sisal fibers were added to the mixture in different lengths. Mechanical characterization of both the composite and the plain mortar was carried out using three point bend, compression, and impact tests. Specimens containing notches of different root radii were loaded in three point bending in an effort to determine the effect of the fibers on the fracture toughness of the material. The results obtained indicate that, while fiber reinforcement leads to a decrease in compressive strength, J-integral calculations at maximum load for the different notch root radii have indicated, particularly for the case of long fibers, a significant superiority of the reinforced material in comparison with the plain cement mortar, in consistence with the impact test data.

  10. Simulating distributed reinforcement effects in concrete analysis

    Marchertas, A.H.


    The effect of the bond slip is brought into the TEMP-STRESS finite element code by relaxing the equal strain condition between concrete and reinforcement. This is done for the elements adjacent to the element which is cracked. A parabolic differential strain variation is assumed along the reinforcement from the crack, which is taken to be at the centroid of the cracked element, to the point where perfect bonding exists. This strain relationship is used to increase the strain of the reinforcement in the as yet uncracked elements located adjacent to a crack. By the same token the corresponding concrete strain is decreased. This estimate is made assuming preservation of strain energy in the element. The effectiveness of the model is shown by examples. Comparison of analytical results is made with structural test data. The influence of the bonding model on cracking is portrayed pictorially. 5 refs., 6 figs

  11. Slipforming of reinforced concrete shield building

    Hsieh, M.C.; King, J.R.


    The unique design and construction features of slipforming the heavily reinforced concrete cylindrical shield walls at the Satsop nuclear plant in Washington, D.C. site are presented. The shield walls were designed in compliance with seismic requirements which resulted in the need for reinforcing steel averaging 326 kg/m/sup 3/. A 7.6 m high, three-deck moving platform was designed to permit easy installation of the reinforcing steel, embedments, and blockouts, and to facilitate concrete placement and finishing. Two circular box trusses, one on each side of the shield wall, were used in combination with a spider truss to meet both the tolerance and strength requirements for the slipform assembly

  12. Pointwise probability reinforcements for robust statistical inference.

    Frénay, Benoît; Verleysen, Michel


    Statistical inference using machine learning techniques may be difficult with small datasets because of abnormally frequent data (AFDs). AFDs are observations that are much more frequent in the training sample that they should be, with respect to their theoretical probability, and include e.g. outliers. Estimates of parameters tend to be biased towards models which support such data. This paper proposes to introduce pointwise probability reinforcements (PPRs): the probability of each observation is reinforced by a PPR and a regularisation allows controlling the amount of reinforcement which compensates for AFDs. The proposed solution is very generic, since it can be used to robustify any statistical inference method which can be formulated as a likelihood maximisation. Experiments show that PPRs can be easily used to tackle regression, classification and projection: models are freed from the influence of outliers. Moreover, outliers can be filtered manually since an abnormality degree is obtained for each observation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bamboo reinforced polymer composite - A comprehensive review

    Roslan, S. A. H.; Rasid, Z. A.; Hassan, M. Z.


    Bamboo has greatly attention of researchers due to their advantages over synthetic polymers. It is entirely renewable, environmentally-friendly, non-toxic, cheap, non-abrasive and fully biodegradable. This review paper summarized an oveview of the bamboo, fiber extraction and mechanical behavior of bamboo reinforced composites. A number of studies proved that mechanical properties of bamboo fibers reinforced reinforced polymer composites are excellent and competent to be utilized in high-tech applications. The properties of the laminate are influenced by the fiber loading, fibre orientation, physical and interlaminar adhesion between fibre and matrix. In contrast, the presence of chemical constituents such as cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose and wax substances in natural fibres preventing them from firmly binding with polymer resin. Thus, led to poor mechanical properties for composites. Many attempt has been made in order to overcome this issue by using the chemical treatment.

  14. Reinforcement Learning in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Manuela Schuetze


    Full Text Available Early behavioral interventions are recognized as integral to standard care in autism spectrum disorder (ASD, and often focus on reinforcing desired behaviors (e.g., eye contact and reducing the presence of atypical behaviors (e.g., echoing others' phrases. However, efficacy of these programs is mixed. Reinforcement learning relies on neurocircuitry that has been reported to be atypical in ASD: prefrontal-sub-cortical circuits, amygdala, brainstem, and cerebellum. Thus, early behavioral interventions rely on neurocircuitry that may function atypically in at least a subset of individuals with ASD. Recent work has investigated physiological, behavioral, and neural responses to reinforcers to uncover differences in motivation and learning in ASD. We will synthesize this work to identify promising avenues for future research that ultimately can be used to enhance the efficacy of early intervention.

  15. Reinforcement learning improves behaviour from evaluative feedback

    Littman, Michael L.


    Reinforcement learning is a branch of machine learning concerned with using experience gained through interacting with the world and evaluative feedback to improve a system's ability to make behavioural decisions. It has been called the artificial intelligence problem in a microcosm because learning algorithms must act autonomously to perform well and achieve their goals. Partly driven by the increasing availability of rich data, recent years have seen exciting advances in the theory and practice of reinforcement learning, including developments in fundamental technical areas such as generalization, planning, exploration and empirical methodology, leading to increasing applicability to real-life problems.

  16. Seismic response of reinforced soil slopes

    Tzavara, Ioanna; Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis


    The main aim of the current study is to assess the dynamic response of reinforced soil structures taking into account the most important aspects of the problem and to compare the available design methods. For this purpose, initially the most commonly used pseudostatic approach is implemented via...... a parametric investigation to illustrate the impact of the crucial parameters of this approach. Subsequently, Newmark’s sliding block model is modified to account for the reinforcement forces in the calculation of seismic displacements. Finally, finite element analyses were performed and the numerical results...


    Catalina IANASI


    Full Text Available One of the defining goals of this paper is getting new resistant material which combine the qualities of basic materials that get into its composition but not to borrow from them their negative properties. In recent years, carbon fiber composites have been increasingly used in different ways in reinforcing structural elements. Specifically, the use of CFRP composite materials as reinforcement for wood beams under bending loads requires paying attention to several aspects of the problem which are presented in this paper.

  18. Theoretical and numerical analysis of reinforced concrete beams with confinement reinforcement

    R. G. Delalibera

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the use of confinement in over-reinforced concrete beams. This reinforcement consists of square stirrups, placed in the compression zone of the beam cross-section, in order to improve its ductility. A parametric numerical study is initially performed, using a finite element computational program that considers the material nonlinearities and the confinement effect. To investigate the influence of the transverse reinforcing ratio on the beam ductility, an experimental program was also conducted. Four over-reinforced beams were tested; three beam specimens with additional transverse reinforcement to confine the beams, and one without it. All specimens were fabricated with a concrete designed for a compressive strength of 25 MPa. The experimental results show that the post-peak ductility factor is proportional to the confining reinforcement ratio, however the same is not observed for the pre-peak ductility factor, which varied randomly with changes in the confining reinforcement ratio. It was also observed from the experiments that the confinement effect tends to be smaller close to the beam neutral axis.

  19. Finite element modelling of concrete beams reinforced with hybrid fiber reinforced bars

    Smring, Santa binti; Salleh, Norhafizah; Hamid, NoorAzlina Abdul; Majid, Masni A.


    Concrete is a heterogeneous composite material made up of cement, sand, coarse aggregate and water mixed in a desired proportion to obtain the required strength. Plain concrete does not with stand tension as compared to compression. In order to compensate this drawback steel reinforcement are provided in concrete. Now a day, for improving the properties of concrete and also to take up tension combination of steel and glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars promises favourable strength, serviceability, and durability. To verify its promise and support design concrete structures with hybrid type of reinforcement, this study have investigated the load-deflection behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with hybrid GFRP and steel bars by using ATENA software. Fourteen beams, including six control beams reinforced with only steel or only GFRP bars, were analysed. The ratio and the ordinate of GFRP to steel were the main parameters investigated. The behaviour of these beams was investigated via the load-deflection characteristics, cracking behaviour and mode of failure. Hybrid GFRP-Steel reinforced concrete beam showed the improvement in both ultimate capacity and deflection concomitant to the steel reinforced concrete beam. On the other hand, finite element (FE) modelling which is ATENA were validated with previous experiment and promising the good result to be used for further analyses and development in the field of present study.

  20. The reinforcing property and the rewarding aftereffect of wheel running in rats: a combination of two paradigms.

    Belke, Terry W; Wagner, Jason P


    Wheel running reinforces the behavior that generates it and produces a preference for the context that follows it. The goal of the present study was to demonstrate both of these effects in the same animals. Twelve male Wistar rats were first exposed to a fixed-interval 30 s schedule of wheel-running reinforcement. The operant was lever-pressing and the reinforcer was the opportunity to run for 45 s. Following this phase, the method of place conditioning was used to test for a rewarding aftereffect following operant sessions. On alternating days, half the rats responded for wheel-running reinforcement while the other half remained in their home cage. Upon completion of the wheel-running reinforcement sessions, rats that ran and rats that remained in their home cages were placed into a chamber of a conditioned place preference (CPP) apparatus for 30 min. Each animal received six pairings of a distinctive context with wheel running and six pairings of a different context with their home cage. On the test day, animals were free to move between the chambers for 10 min. Results showed a conditioned place preference for the context associated with wheel running; however, time spent in the context associated with running was not related to wheel-running rate, lever-pressing rate, or post-reinforcement pause duration. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Concurrent schedules of wheel-running reinforcement: choice between different durations of opportunity to run in rats.

    Belke, Terry W


    How do animals choose between opportunities to run of different durations? Are longer durations preferred over shorter durations because they permit a greater number of revolutions? Are shorter durations preferred because they engender higher rates of running? Will longer durations be chosen because running is less constrained? The present study reports on three experiments that attempted to address these questions. In the first experiment, five male Wistar rats chose between 10-sec and 50-sec opportunities to run on modified concurrent variable-interval (VI) schedules. Across conditions, the durations associated with the alternatives were reversed. Response, time, and reinforcer proportions did not vary from indifference. In a second experiment, eight female Long-Evans rats chose between opportunities to run of equal (30 sec) and unequal durations (10 sec and 50 sec) on concurrent variable-ratio (VR) schedules. As in Experiment 1, between presentations of equal duration conditions, 10-sec and 50-sec durations were reversed. Results showed that response, time, and reinforcer proportions on an alternative did not vary with reinforcer duration. In a third experiment, using concurrent VR schedules, durations were systematically varied to decrease the shorter duration toward 0 sec. As the shorter duration decreased, response, time, and reinforcer proportions shifted toward the longer duration. In summary, differences in durations of opportunities to run did not affect choice behavior in a manner consistent with the assumption that a longer reinforcer is a larger reinforcer.

  2. The possibility of using high strength reinforced concrete

    Miura, Nobuaki


    There is recently much research about and developments in reinforced concrete using high strength concrete and reinforcement. As a result, some high-rise buildings and nuclear buildings have been constructed with such concrete. Reinforced concrete will be stronger in the future, but there is a limit to its strength defined by the character of the materials and also by the character of the reinforced concrete members made of the concrete and reinforcement. This report describes the merits and demerits of using high strength reinforced concrete. (author)

  3. Strengthening of the Timber Members Using Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Ioana-Sorina Enţuc


    Full Text Available The reinforcement of structural wood products has become in the last decades an efficient method of improving structural capabilities of load carrying members made of this material. Some important steps in earlier stages of research were focused on using metallic reinforcement, including steel bars, prestressed stranded cables, and bonded steel and aluminum plates. A disadvantage of the metallic reinforcement was the poor compatibility between the wood and the reinforcing materials. In comparison with metallic reinforcement, fiber reinforced polymers (FRP composites are compatible with structural wood products leading to efficient hybrid members. Some interesting strengthening alternatives using FRP applied to wood beams and to wood columns are presented in this paper.

  4. Analytical, Numerical and Experimental Examination of Reinforced Composites Beams Covered with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic

    Kasimzade, A. A.; Tuhta, S.


    In the article, analytical, numerical (Finite Element Method) and experimental investigation results of beam that was strengthened with fiber reinforced plastic-FRP composite has been given as comparative, the effect of FRP wrapping number to the maximum load and moment capacity has been evaluated depending on this results. Carbon FRP qualitative dependences have been occurred between wrapping number and beam load and moment capacity for repair-strengthen the reinforced concrete beams with carbon fiber. Shown possibilities of application traditional known analysis programs, for the analysis of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) strengthened structures.

  5. Genetically conditioned male sterility

    Gottschalk, W.


    A survey is given of two different types of genetically controlled male sterility in higher plants. 'Functional' male sterility is due to the action of mutated genes causing a misdifferentiation of the growing points in different specific ways. Under the influence of the genes of this group either the stamens or the archespore tissues are not differentiated. In other mutants functionable male germ cells are produced but cannot be used for fertilizing the egg cells because the anthers remain closed or anthers and stigma become spatially separated from each other. Other genes of the group are responsible for the transformation of stamens into carpels, i.e. for a change of the hermaphrodite flower into a unisexually female one. A second type of male sterility is due to the action of ms genes influencing the course of micro-sporogenesis directly. They cause the breakdown of this process in a specific meiotic stage characteristic for each gene of the group. This breakdown is introduced by the degeneration of PMCs, microspores, or pollen grains preventing the production of male germ cells. The female sex organs remain uninfluenced. (author)

  6. Male sterility in chestnuts

    Omura, Mitsuo; Akihama, Tomoya


    A tentative plan was proposed for chestnuts based on their pollination system, male sterility and restoration. The studies on the male sterility of 1,063 cultivars and clones suggested that there were three types of male sterility. The first type (S-1) was characterized by antherless florets. In the second type (S-2), the catkins fell before anthesis, and the third type (S-3) appeared to develop normally in gross floral morphology, but the pollen grains were abnormal in shape and did not have germinating power. In an interspecific hybrid clone CS which belonged to S-1, fertility was restored in an open pollinated progeny. The use of CS and CSO-3 with its restored fertility, permitted the planning of breeding the chestnut hybrid cultivars propagated by seeds. The inbred clones with either male sterility or restorer genes are first bred mainly by back crossing with parents with favorable pollen. The clones are selected individually for early bearing, wasp and disease resistance, and restoration. Then, the hybrid seedling lines between male sterile and restorer inbreds are evaluated for homogenity in nut characters and tree habits. Next, the hybrid seedling lines selected will be examined for crop yield, vigor and cross compatibility. The superior seedling lines are finally selected, and the parental inbreds are grafted to be propagated for seed production orchards. (Kaihara, S.)

  7. Flexural strength using Steel Plate, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) on reinforced concrete beam in building technology

    Tarigan, Johannes; Patra, Fadel Muhammad; Sitorus, Torang


    Reinforced concrete structures are very commonly used in buildings because they are cheaper than the steel structures. But in reality, many concrete structures are damaged, so there are several ways to overcome this problem, by providing reinforcement with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) and reinforcement with steel plates. Each type of reinforcements has its advantages and disadvantages. In this study, researchers discuss the comparison between flexural strength of reinforced concrete beam using steel plates and Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP). In this case, the researchers use Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) as external reinforcements. The dimension of the beams is 15 x 25 cm with the length of 320 cm. Based on the analytical results, the strength of the beam with CFRP is 1.991 times its initial, GFRP is 1.877 times while with the steel plate is 1.646 times. Based on test results, the strength of the beam with CFRP is 1.444 times its initial, GFRP is 1.333 times while the steel plate is 1.167 times. Based on these test results, the authors conclude that beam with CFRP is the best choice for external reinforcement in building technology than the others.

  8. Enhancement of a visual reinforcer by D-amphetamine and nicotine in adult rats: relation to habituation and food restriction.

    Wright, Jennifer M; Ren, Suelynn; Constantin, Annie; Clarke, Paul B S


    Nicotine and D-amphetamine can strengthen reinforcing effects of unconditioned visual stimuli. We investigated whether these reinforcement-enhancing effects reflect a slowing of stimulus habituation and depend on food restriction. Adult male rats pressed an active lever to illuminate a cue light during daily 60-min sessions. Depending on the experiment, rats were challenged with fixed or varying doses of D-amphetamine (0.25-2 mg/kg IP) and nicotine (0.025-0.2 mg/kg SC) or with the tobacco constituent norharman (0.03-10 μg/kg IV). Experiment 1 tested for possible reinforcement-enhancing effects of D-amphetamine and norharman. Experiment 2 investigated whether nicotine and amphetamine inhibited the spontaneous within-session decline in lever pressing. Experiment 3 assessed the effects of food restriction. Amphetamine (0.25-1 mg/kg) and nicotine (0.1 mg/kg) increased active lever pressing specifically (two- to threefold increase). The highest doses of nicotine and amphetamine also affected inactive lever responding (increase and decrease, respectively). With the visual reinforcer omitted, responding was largely extinguished. Neither drug appeared to slow habituation, as assessed by the within-session decline in lever pressing, and reinforcement-enhancing effects still occurred if the drugs were given after this decline had occurred. Food restriction enhanced the reinforcement-enhancing effect of amphetamine but not that of nicotine. Responding remained goal-directed after several weeks of testing. Low doses of D-amphetamine and nicotine produced reinforcement enhancement even in free-feeding subjects, independent of the spontaneous within-session decline in responding. Reinforcement enhancement by amphetamine, but not nicotine, was enhanced by concurrent subchronic food restriction.

  9. Male gametogenesis without centrioles.

    Riparbelli, Maria Giovanna; Callaini, Giuliano


    The orientation of the mitotic spindle plays a central role in specifying stem cell-renewal by enabling interaction of the daughter cells with external cues: the daughter cell closest to the hub region is instructed to self-renew, whereas the distal one starts to differentiate. Here, we have analyzed male gametogenesis in DSas-4 Drosophila mutants and we have reported that spindle alignment and asymmetric divisions are properly executed in male germline stem cells that lack centrioles. Spermatogonial divisions also correctly proceed in the absence of centrioles, giving rise to cysts of 16 primary spermatocytes. By contrast, abnormal meiotic spindles assemble in primary spermatocytes. These results point to different requirements for centrioles during male gametogenesis of Drosophila. Spindle formation during germ cell mitosis may be successfully supported by an acentrosomal pathway that is inadequate to warrant the proper execution of meiosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A tortoiseshell male cat

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian


    Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells....... Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  11. Self-compacting fibre-reinforced concrete

    Grunewald, S.; Walraven, J.C.


    The project 'self-compacting fibre-reinforced concrete (SCFRC)' is part of the Dutch STW/PPM program - 'cement-bonded materials' - DCT.4010. Subproject III to which the project ,SCFRC' belongs deals with the development of new high performance concretes. The project 'SCFRC' aims at investigating the

  12. The Reinforcements of Religiousness in Adolescence.

    Ozorak, Elizabeth Weiss

    A study conducted in 1986 found that parents were the critical influence on the religious beliefs and commitment of their adolescent sons and daughters, while the adolescent's peers seemed to have no significant effect. In addition, the content of the beliefs did not seem to act as a strong reinforcer. Thirty-two of the 390 subjects who…

  13. Steel plate reinforcement of orthotropic bridge decks

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.


    The PhD research is focused on the reinforcement of fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks (OBD) by adding a second steel plate to the existing deck. The main idea is to stiffen the existing deck plate, which will reduce the stresses at the fatigue sensitive details and extend the fatigue

  14. Membrane reinforcement in concrete shells: A review

    Gupta, A.K.


    A historical evolution of the membrane reinforcement design in concrete shells is presented. Theoretical developments, experimental verifications and the history of US codes and standards have been traced. For two decades now, the evidence is converging towards application of the principle of minimum resistance. This principle is rational, and it can reasonably explain the experimental results. (orig.)

  15. Using a board game to reinforce learning.

    Yoon, Bona; Rodriguez, Leslie; Faselis, Charles J; Liappis, Angelike P


    Experiential gaming strategies offer a variation on traditional learning. A board game was used to present synthesized content of fundamental catheter care concepts and reinforce evidence-based practices relevant to nursing. Board games are innovative educational tools that can enhance active learning. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Embedded Incremental Feature Selection for Reinforcement Learning


    Prior to this work, feature selection for reinforce- ment learning has focused on linear value function ap- proximation ( Kolter and Ng, 2009; Parr et al...InProceed- ings of the the 23rd International Conference on Ma- chine Learning, pages 449–456. Kolter , J. Z. and Ng, A. Y. (2009). Regularization and feature

  17. [Reinforcement for overdentures on abutment teeth].

    Osada, Tomoko


    This study investigated the effect of the position of reinforcement wires, differences in artificial teeth, and framework designs on the breaking strength of overdentures. The basal surfaces of composite resin teeth and acrylic resin teeth were removed using a carbide bur. A reinforcement wire or a wrought palatal bar was embedded near the occlusal surface or basal surface. Four types of framework structures were designed : conventional skeleton (skeleton), housing with skeleton (housing), housing plus short metal backing (metal backing), and housing plus long metal backing (double structure). After the wires, bars, and frameworks were sand-blasted with 50 microm Al(2)O(3) powder, they were primed with a metal primer and embedded in a heat-polymerized denture base resin. The breaking strengths (N) and maximum stiffness (N/mm) of two-week aged (37 degrees C) specimens were measured using a bending test (n=8). All data obtained at a crosshead speed of 2.0 mm/min were analyzed by ANOVA/Tukey's test (alpha=0.01). There were no statistical differences between the two kinds of artificial teeth (p>0.01). The wrought palatal bar had significantly higher strength than the reinforcement wire (p0.01). The breaking strength and maximum stiffness of the double structure framework were significantly greater (poverdentures were influenced by the size and position of the reinforcement wires. Double structure frameworks are recommended for overdentures to promote a long-term prognosis without denture breakage.

  18. Machining of Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composite Materials


    Fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are difficult to machine because of the anisotropy and inhomogeneity characterizing their microstructure and the abrasiveness of their reinforcement components. During machining, very rapid cutting tool wear development is experienced, and surface integrity damage is often produced in the machined parts. An accurate selection of the proper tool and machining conditions is therefore required, taking into account that the phenomena responsible for material removal in cutting of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are fundamentally different from those of conventional metals and their alloys. To date, composite materials are increasingly used in several manufacturing sectors, such as the aerospace and automotive industry, and several research efforts have been spent to improve their machining processes. In the present review, the key issues that are concerning the machining of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are discussed with reference to the main recent research works in the field, while considering both conventional and unconventional machining processes and reporting the more recent research achievements. For the different machining processes, the main results characterizing the recent research works and the trends for process developments are presented. PMID:29562635

  19. Scheduling reinforcement about once a day.

    Eckerman, D A


    A pigeon earned its daily food by pecking a key according to reinforcement schedules that produced food about once per day. Fixed-interval (FI), Fixed-time (FT), and various complex schedules were arranged to demonstrate the degree to which a scalloped pattern of responding remained. Pausing continued until about an hour before the reinforcer could be earned for FIs of 12, 24, and 48 h. Pausing was not as long for FIs of 18, 19, and 23 h. Pausing of about 24 h was seen for FI 36 h. FT 24 h produced continued responding but at a diminished frequency. The pattern of responding was strongly controlled by the schedule of reinforcement and seemed relatively independent of the cycle of human activity in the surrounding laboratory. Effects of added ratio contingencies and of signaling the availability of reinforcement in FT were also examined. Signaled FTs of 5 min-3 h produced more responding during the signal (autoshaping) than did FTs of 19 or 24 h.

  20. Corrosion and Cracking of Reinforced Concrete

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Modelling of the deterioration of reinforced concrete has in recent years changed from being a deterministic modelling based on experience to be stochastic modelling based on sound and consistent physical, chemical and mechanical principles. In this paper is presented a brief review of modern mod...... for time to initial corrosion, time to initial cracking, and time to a given crack width may be obtained....

  1. Decentralized Reinforcement Learning of robot behaviors

    Leottau, David L.; Ruiz-del-Solar, Javier; Babuska, R.


    A multi-agent methodology is proposed for Decentralized Reinforcement Learning (DRL) of individual behaviors in problems where multi-dimensional action spaces are involved. When using this methodology, sub-tasks are learned in parallel by individual agents working toward a common goal. In

  2. Corrosion of reinforcement induced by environment containing ...

    ... the action of chloride solutions may intensify the process of corrosion of steel reinforcement in comparison to the converse sequence of the action of mentioned media. At the same time the natrium chloride solution has been shown as a more aggressive medium opposite to the calcium and magnesium chloride solutions.

  3. Assessing corrosion of MSE wall reinforcement.


    The primary objective of this study was to extract reinforcement coupons from select MSE walls and document the extent of corrosion. In doing this, a baseline has been established against which coupons extracted in the future can be compared. A secon...

  4. Machining of Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composite Materials

    Alessandra Caggiano


    Full Text Available Fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are difficult to machine because of the anisotropy and inhomogeneity characterizing their microstructure and the abrasiveness of their reinforcement components. During machining, very rapid cutting tool wear development is experienced, and surface integrity damage is often produced in the machined parts. An accurate selection of the proper tool and machining conditions is therefore required, taking into account that the phenomena responsible for material removal in cutting of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are fundamentally different from those of conventional metals and their alloys. To date, composite materials are increasingly used in several manufacturing sectors, such as the aerospace and automotive industry, and several research efforts have been spent to improve their machining processes. In the present review, the key issues that are concerning the machining of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are discussed with reference to the main recent research works in the field, while considering both conventional and unconventional machining processes and reporting the more recent research achievements. For the different machining processes, the main results characterizing the recent research works and the trends for process developments are presented.

  5. Reinforcement versus fluidization in cytoskeletal mechanoresponsiveness.

    Ramaswamy Krishnan

    Full Text Available Every adherent eukaryotic cell exerts appreciable traction forces upon its substrate. Moreover, every resident cell within the heart, great vessels, bladder, gut or lung routinely experiences large periodic stretches. As an acute response to such stretches the cytoskeleton can stiffen, increase traction forces and reinforce, as reported by some, or can soften and fluidize, as reported more recently by our laboratory, but in any given circumstance it remains unknown which response might prevail or why. Using a novel nanotechnology, we show here that in loading conditions expected in most physiological circumstances the localized reinforcement response fails to scale up to the level of homogeneous cell stretch; fluidization trumps reinforcement. Whereas the reinforcement response is known to be mediated by upstream mechanosensing and downstream signaling, results presented here show the fluidization response to be altogether novel: it is a direct physical effect of mechanical force acting upon a structural lattice that is soft and fragile. Cytoskeletal softness and fragility, we argue, is consistent with early evolutionary adaptations of the eukaryotic cell to material properties of a soft inert microenvironment.

  6. Shape and Reinforcement Optimization of Underground Tunnels

    Ghabraie, Kazem; Xie, Yi Min; Huang, Xiaodong; Ren, Gang

    Design of support system and selecting an optimum shape for the opening are two important steps in designing excavations in rock masses. Currently selecting the shape and support design are mainly based on designer's judgment and experience. Both of these problems can be viewed as material distribution problems where one needs to find the optimum distribution of a material in a domain. Topology optimization techniques have proved to be useful in solving these kinds of problems in structural design. Recently the application of topology optimization techniques in reinforcement design around underground excavations has been studied by some researchers. In this paper a three-phase material model will be introduced changing between normal rock, reinforced rock, and void. Using such a material model both problems of shape and reinforcement design can be solved together. A well-known topology optimization technique used in structural design is bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO). In this paper the BESO technique has been extended to simultaneously optimize the shape of the opening and the distribution of reinforcements. Validity and capability of the proposed approach have been investigated through some examples.

  7. Biopolymer nanocomposite films reinforced with nanocellulose whiskers

    Amit Saxena; Marcus Foston; Mohamad Kassaee; Thomas J. Elder; Arthur J. Ragauskas


    A xylan nanocomposite film with improved strength and barrier properties was prepared by a solution casting using nanocellulose whiskers as a reinforcing agent. The 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the spectral data obtained for the NCW/xylan nanocomposite films indicated the signal intensity originating...

  8. Repairing reinforced concrete slabs using composite layers

    Naghibdehi, M. Ghasemi; Sharbatdar, M.K.; Mastali, M.


    There are several strengthening methods for rehabilitation of RC structural elements. The efficiency of these methods has been demonstrated by many researchers. Due to their mechanical properties, using fibrous materials in rehabilitation applications is growing fast. Therefore, this study presents rehabilitation of slabs in such a way that plain concrete layers on top, on bottom, on the entire cross section are replaced by reinforced concrete layers. In order to reinforce the concrete, Polypropylene (PP) and steel fibers were used by 0.5%, 1% and 2% fiber volume fractions. Nineteen slabs were studied under flexural loadings and fibrous material effects on the initial crack force, the maximum loading carrying capacity, absorbed energy and ductility were investigated. The obtained results demonstrated that increasing the fiber volume fraction or using reinforced concrete layer on top, bottom, or at the entire cross section of the slabs not only always leads to improvement in the slab performance, but also sometimes debilitates the slab performance. Hence, this study will propose the best positioning of reinforced concrete layer, fiber volume fraction and fiber type to achieve the best flexural performance of slabs. - Highlights: • Using PP fibers at the bottom layer led to the best slab performance in bending. • Using steel fiber at the top layer and entire cross-section led to the best slab performance. • Maximum increase in the initial crack force and loading were obtained at 2% steel fiber. • Maximum increase in the initial crack force and loading were obtained at 1% PP fiber

  9. Global methods for reinforced concrete slabs

    Hoffmann, A.; Lepareux, M.; Combescure, A.


    This paper develops the global method strategy to compute elastoplastic thin shells or beams. It is shown how this methodology can be applied to the case of reinforced concrete structures. Two cases of applications are presented: one static, the other dynamic. The numerical results are compared to experimental data

  10. Online reinforcement learning control for aerospace systems

    Zhou, Y.


    Reinforcement Learning (RL) methods are relatively new in the field of aerospace guidance, navigation, and control. This dissertation aims to exploit RL methods to improve the autonomy and online learning of aerospace systems with respect to the a priori unknown system and environment, dynamical

  11. Reinforcement Learning in Continuous Action Spaces

    Hasselt, H. van; Wiering, M.A.


    Quite some research has been done on Reinforcement Learning in continuous environments, but the research on problems where the actions can also be chosen from a continuous space is much more limited. We present a new class of algorithms named Continuous Actor Critic Learning Automaton (CACLA)

  12. Fundamentals of fibre-reinforced soil engineering

    Shukla, Sanjay Kumar


    This book is intended to serve as a one-stop reference on fibre-reinforced soils. Over the past 30-35 years, the engineering behaviour of randomly distributed/oriented fibre-reinforced soil, also called simply fibre-reinforced soil, has been investigated in detail by researchers and engineers worldwide. Waste fibres (plastic waste fibres, old tyre fibres, etc.) create disposal and environmental problems. Utilization of such fibres in construction can help resolve these concerns. Research studies and some field applications have shown that the fibres can be utilized in large quantities in geotechnical and civil engineering applications in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner. This book covers a complete description of fibres, their effects when included within a soil or other similar materials such as the fly ash, and their field applications. It gives a detailed view of fibre-reinforced soil engineering. The book will be useful to students, professional, and researchers alike, and can also ser...

  13. Reinforcement Data for Fire Safety Design

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl


    Idealized materials data are derived from a number of test series reported in the literature and made by the author. The data cover a variety of reinforcing steels from mild steel, deformed bars and cold worked bars to cold drawn prestressing steels. Processes are described, which are responsible...

  14. Efficient abstraction selection in reinforcement learning

    Seijen, H. van; Whiteson, S.; Kester, L.


    This paper introduces a novel approach for abstraction selection in reinforcement learning problems modelled as factored Markov decision processes (MDPs), for which a state is described via a set of state components. In abstraction selection, an agent must choose an abstraction from a set of

  15. Influence of reinforcement behavioral therapy and Ellis cognitive therapy on derelict children’s aggression

    Habibollah Khazaie


    Full Text Available Background: Control of angry in effective manner is very important. In present study we compared the effect of reinforcement behavioral therapy and Ellis cognitive therapy on decreasing of aggression in derelict children aged 10 to 18 years old at hostelry care center of Welfare Organization of Kermanshah. Methods: Fifty-seven out of 89 children (31 male, 26 female was diagnosed as aggressive according to the AGQ results from six hostelry care center of welfare organization of Kermanshah, were selected and participated in the study. Participants allocated in to reinforcement behavioral therapy, Ellis cognitive therapy or control group randomly. Each groups received two hours therapeutic teaching for 10 sessions during 10 weeks. The control group had not been received any intervention. After 10 weeks, the posttest AGQ was performed on participant. The results of pretest and posttest were compared using T-test and ANOVA.Results: The posttest aggression score in reinforcement behavioral therapy group was decreased significantly after intervention (P=0.011. We didn’t find significant differences between pre and post tests aggression score in Ellis cognitive therapy (P=0.258. Result of ANOVA show that there was no significant difference between three group after intervention (P=0.691Conclusion: Reinforcement behavioral therapy and Ellis cognitive therapy did not change the aggression score in derelict children. This may relate to specific hard and stressful life of these children due to ineffectiveness of these short-term methods.

  16. How Effective Is Male Contraception?

    ... Twitter Pinterest Email Print How effective is male contraception? Not all contraceptive methods are appropriate for all ... is best for them. For men, methods of contraception include male condoms and sterilization (vasectomy). Male condoms. ...

  17. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  18. Sexual Experience Enhances Drosophila melanogaster Male Mating Behavior and Success

    Saleem, Sehresh; Ruggles, Patrick H.; Abbott, Wiley K.; Carney, Ginger E.


    Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments. PMID:24805129

  19. Sexual experience enhances Drosophila melanogaster male mating behavior and success.

    Sehresh Saleem

    Full Text Available Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments.

  20. Structural design guidelines for concrete bridge decks reinforced with corrosion-resistant reinforcing bars.


    This research program develops and validates structural design guidelines and details for concrete bridge decks with : corrosion-resistant reinforcing (CRR) bars. A two-phase experimental program was conducted where a control test set consistent : wi...

  1. Reinforcement Toolbox, a Parametric Reinforcement Modelling Tool for Curved Surface Structures

    Lauppe, J.; Rolvink, A.; Coenders, J.L.


    This paper presents a computational strategy and parametric modelling toolbox which aim at enhancing the design- and production process of reinforcement in freeform curved surface structures. The computational strategy encompasses the necessary steps of raising an architectural curved surface model

  2. Effect of hybrid fiber reinforcement on the cracking process in fiber reinforced cementitious composites

    Pereira, Eduardo B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, Joaquim A.O.


    The simultaneous use of different types of fibers as reinforcement in cementitious matrix composites is typically motivated by the underlying principle of a multi-scale nature of the cracking processes in fiber reinforced cementitious composites. It has been hypothesized that while undergoing...... tensile deformations in the composite, the fibers with different geometrical and mechanical properties restrain the propagation and further development of cracking at different scales from the micro- to the macro-scale. The optimized design of the fiber reinforcing systems requires the objective...... materials is carried out by assessing directly their tensile stress-crack opening behavior. The efficiency of hybrid fiber reinforcements and the multi-scale nature of cracking processes are discussed based on the experimental results obtained, as well as the micro-mechanisms underlying the contribution...

  3. simulation models for presiction of structrual fibre-reinforced come


    showed increasing flexural strength up to the optimum fibre volume fraction while the ... the analysis and design of palmnut fibre-reinforced cement composites. ..... Nilson, L. “Reinforcement of Concrete with Sisal and other Vegetable Fibres”.

  4. Acquisition with partial and continuous reinforcement in pigeon autoshaping.

    Gottlieb, Daniel A


    Contemporary time accumulation models make the unique prediction that acquisition of a conditioned response will be equally rapid with partial and continuous reinforcement, if the time between conditioned stimuli is held constant. To investigate this, acquisition of conditioned responding was examined in pigeon autoshaping under conditions of 100% and 25% reinforcement, holding intertrial interval constant. Contrary to what was predicted, evidence for slowed acquisition in partially reinforced animals was observed with several response measures. However, asymptotic performance was superior with 25% reinforcement. A switching of reinforcement contingencies after initial acquisition did not immediately affect responding. After further sessions, partial reinforcement augmented responding, whereas continuous reinforcement did not, irrespective of an animal's reinforcement history. Subsequent training with a novel stimulus maintained the response patterns. These acquisition results generally support associative, rather than time accumulation, accounts of conditioning.



    mechanical and corrosion wear behaviour of any reinforced composites. In other ..... physical properties of glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin and the following .... waste in concrete and cement composites," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.

  6. Ultra thin continuously reinforced concrete pavement research in south Africa

    Perrie, BD


    Full Text Available Ultra thin continuously reinforced concrete pavements (UTCRCP), in literature also referred to as Ultra Thin Reinforced High Performance Concrete (UTHRHPC), have been used in Europe successfully as a rehabilitation measure on steel bridge decks...

  7. Mechanical Behavior of Granular/Particulate Media Reinforced with Fibers

    Michalowski, Radoslw


    Fiber-reinforced ganular composites (for instance, fiber-reinforced sand) are considered as construction materials for such applications as subgrades of airfields and roads, aircraft parking facilities, etc...

  8. Reinforced soil structures. Volume I, Design and construction guidelines


    This report presents comprehensive guidelines for evaluating and using soil reinforcement techniques in the construction of retaining walls, embankment slopes, and natural or cut slopes. A variety of available systems for reinforced soil including in...

  9. Corrosion performance tests for reinforcing steel in concrete : test procedures.


    The existing test method to assess the corrosion performance of reinforcing steel embedded in concrete, mainly : ASTM G109, is labor intensive, time consuming, slow to provide comparative results, and often expensive. : However, corrosion of reinforc...

  10. Evaluation of size effect on shear strength of reinforced concrete ...

    of the longitudinal and the web reinforcement, shear span-to-depth ratio and the ... A simple equation for predicting the shear strength of reinforced concrete deep ..... AASHTO 2007 LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, American Association of ...

  11. Just One of the Boys? A Life History Case Study of a Male Physical Education Teacher

    Wedgwood, Nikki


    Studies of physical education teacher training have already established that hegemonic forms of masculinity are reinforced and reproduced both in the hidden curriculum (Flintoff, 1997) and the informal student culture (Skelton, 1993). Given this, an important feminist concern is whether male PE teachers whose own masculine identities are anchored…

  12. Underwater hearing sensitivity of a male and a female Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Schie, R. van; Verboom, W.C.; Haan, D. de


    The unmasked underwater hearing sensitivities of an 8-year-old male and a 7-year-old female Steller sea lion were measured in a pool, by using behavioral psychophysics. The animals were trained with positive reinforcement to respond when they detected an acoustic signal and not to respond when they

  13. Underwater hearing sensivity of a male and female Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Schie, van R.; Verboom, W.C.; Haan, de D.


    The unmasked underwater hearing sensitivities of an 8-year-old male and a 7-year-old female Steller sea lion were measured in a pool, by using behavioral psychophysics. The animals were trained with positive reinforcement to respond when they detected an acoustic signal and not to respond when they

  14. Producing Durable Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement using Glass-ceramic Coated Reinforcing Steel


    reinforcement if the enamel is broken  Embedded cement grains hydrate if enamel is cracked to self-heal with the formation of calcium silicate hydrate Goal...Reinforced Concrete Pavement The 600% volume change in the iron to iron oxide formation put the concrete in tension and it cracks an spalls BUILDING...corrodes prematurely and delaminates the pavement  Moisture and chlorides can move through the natural porosity of concrete and the cracks in the

  15. The effect of concrete strength and reinforcement on toughness of reinforced concrete beams

    Carneiro, Joaquim A. O.; Jalali, Said; Teixeira, Vasco M. P.; Tomás, M.


    The objective pursued with this work includes the evaluating of the strength and the total energy absorption capacity (toughness) of reinforced concrete beams using different amounts of steel-bar reinforcement. The experimental campaign deals with the evaluation of the threshold load prior collapse, ultimate load and deformation, as well as the beam total energy absorption capacity, using a three point bending test. The beam half span displacement was measured using a displacement transducer,...


    Passage, Michael; Tincani, Matt; Hantula, Donald A.


    This study examined the effectiveness of using qualitatively different reinforcers to teach self-control to an adolescent boy who had been diagnosed with an intellectual disability. First, he was instructed to engage in an activity without programmed reinforcement. Next, he was instructed to engage in the activity under a two-choice fixed-duration schedule of reinforcement. Finally, he was exposed to self-control training, during which the delay to a more preferred reinforcer was initially sh...

  17. Influence of facing vertical stiffness on reinforced soil wall design

    Puig Damians, Ivan; Bathurst, Richard; Josa Garcia-Tornel, Alejandro; Lloret Morancho, Antonio


    Current design practices for reinforced soil walls typically ignore the influence of facing type and foundation compressibility on the magnitude and distribution of reinforcement loads in steel reinforced soil walls under operational conditions. In this paper, the effect of the facing vertical stiffness (due to elastomeric bearing pads placed in the horizontal joints between panels) on load capacity of steel reinforced soil walls is examined in a systematic manner using a numerical modelli...

  18. Normal Strength Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Subjected to Explosive Loading

    Mohammed Alias Yusof; Norazman Norazman; Ariffin Ariffin; Fauzi Mohd Zain; Risby Risby; CP Ng


    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the behavior of plain reinforced concrete and Normal strength steel fiber reinforced concrete panels (SFRC) subjected to explosive loading. The experiment were performed by the Blast Research Unit Faculty of Engineering, University Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia A total of 8 reinforced concrete panels of 600mm x 600mm x 100mm were tested. The steel fiber reinforced concrete panels incorporated three different volume fraction, 0...

  19. Male Reproductive System

    ... With the Male Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor masculino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...


    Le Duc, Ector


    Trichomonas urethritis in the male should be suspected in all chronic cases of urethritis. The diagnosis is easily established by the hanging-drop method of examining the urethral discharge, or the first-glass urine specimen. Curative treatment is readily accomplished by the use of urethral instillations of Carbarsone suspension using 1 capsule of Carbarsone per ounce of distilled water. PMID:13270111

  1. Lycopene and male infertility

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi


    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility—lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4–8 mg of lycopene daily for 3–12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. PMID:24675655

  2. Marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids induce sex-specific changes in reinforcer-controlled behaviour and neurotransmitter metabolism in a spontaneously hypertensive rat model of ADHD

    Dervola Kine S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports suggest that omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA supplements may reduce ADHD-like behaviour. Our aim was to investigate potential effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation in an animal model of ADHD. Methods We used spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. SHR dams were given n-3 PUFA (EPA and DHA-enriched feed (n-6/n-3 of 1:2.7 during pregnancy, with their offspring continuing on this diet until sacrificed. The SHR controls and Wistar Kyoto (WKY control rats were given control-feed (n-6/n-3 of 7:1. During postnatal days (PND 25–50, offspring were tested for reinforcement-dependent attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity as well as spontaneous locomotion. The animals were then sacrificed at PND 55–60 and their neostriata were analysed for monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters with high performance liquid chromatography. Results n-3 PUFA supplementation significantly enhanced reinforcement-controlled attention and reduced lever-directed hyperactivity and impulsiveness in SHR males whereas the opposite or no effects were observed in females. Analysis of neostriata from the same animals showed significantly enhanced dopamine and serotonin turnover ratios in the male SHRs, whereas female SHRs showed no change, except for an intermediate increase in serotonin catabolism. In contrast, both male and female SHRs showed n-3 PUFA-induced reduction in non-reinforced spontaneous locomotion, and sex-independent changes in glycine levels and glutamate turnover. Conclusions Feeding n-3 PUFAs to the ADHD model rats induced sex-specific changes in reinforcement-motivated behaviour and a sex-independent change in non-reinforcement-associated behaviour, which correlated with changes in presynaptic striatal monoamine and amino acid signalling, respectively. Thus, dietary n-3 PUFAs may partly ameliorate ADHD-like behaviour by reinforcement-induced mechanisms in males and partly via reinforcement-insensitive mechanisms

  3. Prediction of reinforcement corrosion using corrosion induced cracks width in corroded reinforced concrete beams

    Khan, Inamullah; François, Raoul; Castel, Arnaud


    This paper studies the evolution of reinforcement corrosion in comparison to corrosion crack width in a highly corroded reinforced concrete beam. Cracking and corrosion maps of the beam were drawn and steel reinforcement was recovered from the beam to observe the corrosion pattern and to measure the loss of mass of steel reinforcement. Maximum steel cross-section loss of the main reinforcement and average steel cross-section loss between stirrups were plotted against the crack width. The experimental results were compared with existing models proposed by Rodriguez et al., Vidal et al. and Zhang et al. Time prediction models for a given opening threshold are also compared to experimental results. Steel cross-section loss for stirrups was also measured and was plotted against the crack width. It was observed that steel cross-section loss in the stirrups had no relationship with the crack width of longitudinal corrosion cracks. -- Highlights: •Relationship between crack and corrosion of reinforcement was investigated. •Corrosion results of natural process and then corresponds to in-situ conditions. •Comparison with time predicting model is provided. •Prediction of load-bearing capacity from crack pattern was studied

  4. Enhancement of shear strength and ductility for reinforced concrete wide beams due to web reinforcement

    M. Said


    Full Text Available The shear behavior of reinforced concrete wide beams was investigated. The experimental program consisted of nine beams of 29 MPa concrete strength tested with a shear span-depth ratio equal to 3.0. One of the tested beams had no web reinforcement as a control specimen. The flexure mode of failure was secured for all of the specimens to allow for shear mode of failure. The key parameters covered in this investigation are the effect of the existence, spacing, amount and yield stress of the vertical stirrups on the shear capacity and ductility of the tested wide beams. The study shows that the contribution of web reinforcement to the shear capacity is significant and directly proportional to the amount and spacing of the shear reinforcement. The increase in the shear capacity ranged from 32% to 132% for the range of the tested beams compared with the control beam. High grade steel was more effective in the contribution of the shear strength of wide beams. Also, test results demonstrate that the shear reinforcement significantly enhances the ductility of the wide beams. In addition, shear resistances at failure recorded in this study are compared to the analytical strengths calculated according to the current Egyptian Code and the available international codes. The current study highlights the need to include the contribution of shear reinforcement in the Egyptian Code requirements for shear capacity of wide beams.

  5. Study of the internal confinement of concrete reinforced (in civil engineering) with woven reinforcement

    Dalal, M.; Goumairi, O.; El Malik, A.


    Concrete is generally the most used material in the field of construction. Despite its extensive use in structures, it represents some drawbacks related to its properties including its low tensile strength and low ductility. To solve this problem, the use of steel reinforcement in concrete structures is possible. Another possibility is the introduction of different types of continuous fibre / staple in the concrete, such as steel fibres or synthetic fibres, to obtain ″Concretes bundles″. Many types of fibre concrete, which have been developed and for many of them, the gain provided by the fibre was rather low and no significant improvement in tensile strength was really reaching. By cons, the ductility was higher than that of ordinary concrete. The objective of this study is to examine concrete reinforcement by inserting reinforcements woven polyester. These are either woven bidirectional (2D) or three-dimensional woven (3D). So we will report the properties of each type of reinforcement and the influence of the method of weaving on the strength reinforcements and on the strength of concrete in which they are incorporated. Such influence should contribute to improving the sustainability and enhancement of reinforcement

  6. Application of Fiber Reinforcement Concrete Technique in Civil ...

    modulus of elasticity, high tensile strength, improved fatigue and impact resistance. Reinforcing the concrete structures with fibers such as polyester is one of the possible ways to provide all the criteria of the durable repair material. This type of reinforcement is called Fiber Reinforcement of Concrete Structures. There is an ...

  7. Effects of Video Games as Reinforcers for Computerized Addition Performance.

    Axelrod, Saul; And Others


    Four 2nd-grade students completed addition problems on a computer, using video games as reinforcers. Two variable ratio schedules of reinforcement failed to increase student accuracy or the rate of correct responses. In a no-games reinforcement condition, students had more opportunities to respond and had a greater number of correct answers.…

  8. Environmental Durability of Reinforced Concrete Deck Girders Strengthened for Shear with Surface-Bonded Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer


    "This research investigated the durability of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites (CFRP) used for shear strengthening reinforced concrete deck girders. Large beams were used to avoid accounting for size effects in the data analysis. The effort...

  9. Male breast pathology

    Puebla, C.; Sainz, J.M.; Pujala, M.; Villavieja, J.L.


    To review the specific radiological signs of male breast pathology observed in our center over the past five years, as well as the pertinent medical literature. A retrospective study was carried out of the 47 mammographic studies performed in 41 men. Oblique mediolateral and craniocaudal views were employed. The distribution of different types of male breast pathology among our patients was as follows: gynecomastia was detected in 30 cases (73.1%), pseudogynectomastia in 4 (9.7%), carcinoma in 3(7.3%), abscess in 2 (4.9%), lipoma in 1 (2.5%) and epidermoid cyst in the remaining patient (2.5%). The results obtained agree with those reported in the literature reviewed. The most significant findings were the low incidence of carcinoma and the high rate of gynecomastia. (Author) 26 refs

  10. Strain Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Members Subjected to Uniaxial Tension

    Hagsten, Lars German; Rasmussen, Annette Beedholm; Fisker, Jakob


    The aim of this paper is to set up a method to determine the strain capacity of tension bars of reinforced concrete (RC) subjected to pure tension. Due to the interaction between reinforcement and concrete and due to the presence of cracks, the stresses in both reinforcement and concrete...... are varying along the length of the tension bar. The strain capacity of the tension bar is seen as the average strain in the reinforcement at the load level corresponding to the ultimate stress capacity of the reinforcement at the cracks. The result of the approach is in overall good agreement when comparing...

  11. [The behavior of fiber-reinforced plastics during laser cutting].

    Emmrich, M; Levsen, K; Trasser, F J


    The pattern of the organic emissions, which are produced by processing of fibre reinforced plastics (epoxy resins reinforced by aramid and glass fibres and phenol resins reinforced by aramid fibre) with laser beam was studied and the concentrations of the main components determined. Despite the application of plastic materials with different chemical structures, the observed patterns are very similar. Mainly aromatic hydrocarbons are emitted, especially benzene and toluene, as well as some heteroatom-containing aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. phenol). By use of oxygen as process gas the emissions during cutting of glass fibre reinforced plastics can be reduced, while they will be constantly high with aramid fibre reinforced plastics.

  12. TiC reinforced cast Cr steels

    Dogan, O.N.; Hawk, J.A.; Schrems, K.K.


    A new class of materials, namely TiC-reinforced cast chromium (Cr) steels, was developed for applications requiring high abrasion resistance and good fracture toughness. The research approach was to modify the carbide structure of commercial AISI 440C steel for better fracture resistance while maintaining the already high abrasion resistance. The new alloys contained 12Cr, 2.5–4.5Ti, and 1–1.5C (wt.%) and were melted in a vacuum induction furnace. Their microstructure was composed primarily of a martensitic matrix with a dispersion of TiC precipitates. Modification of TiC morphology was accomplished through changing the cooling rate during solidification. Wear rates of the TiC-reinforced Cr steels were comparable to that of AISI 440C steel, but the impact resistance was much improved.

  13. TiC-reinforced cast Cr steels

    Doğan, Ö. N.; Hawk, J. A.; Schrems, K. K.


    A new class of materials, namely TiC-reinforced cast chromium (Cr) steels, was developed for applications requiring high abrasion resistance and good fracture toughness. The research approach was to modify the carbide structure of commercial AISI 440C steel for better fracture resistance while maintaining the already high abrasion resistance. The new alloys contained 12Cr, 2.5-4.5Ti, and 1-1.5C (wt.%) and were melted in a vacuum induction furnace. Their microstructure was composed primarily of a martensitic matrix with a dispersion of TiC precipitates. Modification of TiC morphology was accomplished through changing the cooling rate during solidification. Wear rates of the TiC-reinforced Cr steels were comparable to that of AISI 440C steel, but the impact resistance was much improved.

  14. Cellulose nanocrystals reinforced foamed nitrile rubber nanocomposites.

    Chen, Yukun; Zhang, Yuanbing; Xu, Chuanhui; Cao, Xiaodong


    Research on foamed nitrile rubber (NBR)/cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) nanocomposites is rarely found in the literatures. In this paper, CNs suspension and NBR latex was mixed to prepared the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites. We found that the CNs mainly located in the cell walls, effectively reinforcing the foamed NBR. The strong interaction between the CNs and NBR matrix restricted the mobility of NBR chains surrounding the CNs, hence increasing the crosslink density of the NBR matrix. CNs exhibited excellent reinforcement on the foamed NBR: a remarkable increase nearly 76% in the tensile strength of the foamed nanocomposites was achieved with a load of only 15 phr CNs. Enhanced mechanical properties make the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites a promising damping material for industrial applications with a potential to reduce the petroleum consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Seismic evaluation of reinforced masonry walls

    Kelly, T.E.; Button, M.R.; Mayes, R.L.


    Masonry walls in operating nuclear plants are in many cases found to be overstressed in terms of allowable stresses when evaluated using current seismic design criteria. However, experimental evidence exists indicating that reinforced masonry walls have a considerable margin between the load levels at which allowable stresses are exceeded and the load levels at which structural distress and loss of function occurs. This paper presents a methodology which allows the actual capacity of reinforced masonry walls under seismic loading to be quantified. The methodology is based on the use of non-linear dynamic analyses and incorporates observed hysteretic behavior for both in-plane and out-of-plane response. Experimental data is used to develop response parameters and to validate the results predicted by the models. Criteria have been concurrently developed to evaluate the deformations and material performance in the walls to ensure adequate margins of safety for the required function. An example of the application of these procedures is provided

  16. Autonomous reinforcement learning with experience replay.

    Wawrzyński, Paweł; Tanwani, Ajay Kumar


    This paper considers the issues of efficiency and autonomy that are required to make reinforcement learning suitable for real-life control tasks. A real-time reinforcement learning algorithm is presented that repeatedly adjusts the control policy with the use of previously collected samples, and autonomously estimates the appropriate step-sizes for the learning updates. The algorithm is based on the actor-critic with experience replay whose step-sizes are determined on-line by an enhanced fixed point algorithm for on-line neural network training. An experimental study with simulated octopus arm and half-cheetah demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed algorithm to solve difficult learning control problems in an autonomous way within reasonably short time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Processes for fabricating composite reinforced material

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.


    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  18. Reinforcement Learning Based Artificial Immune Classifier

    Mehmet Karakose


    Full Text Available One of the widely used methods for classification that is a decision-making process is artificial immune systems. Artificial immune systems based on natural immunity system can be successfully applied for classification, optimization, recognition, and learning in real-world problems. In this study, a reinforcement learning based artificial immune classifier is proposed as a new approach. This approach uses reinforcement learning to find better antibody with immune operators. The proposed new approach has many contributions according to other methods in the literature such as effectiveness, less memory cell, high accuracy, speed, and data adaptability. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated by simulation and experimental results using real data in Matlab and FPGA. Some benchmark data and remote image data are used for experimental results. The comparative results with supervised/unsupervised based artificial immune system, negative selection classifier, and resource limited artificial immune classifier are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new method.

  19. Numerical Limit Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Larsen, Kasper Paaske

    For more than half a century, limit state analysis based on the extremum principles have been used to assess the load bearing capacity of reinforced concrete structures. Extensi- ve research within the field has lead to several techniques for performing such analysis manually. While these manual...... methods provide engineers with valuable tools for limit sta- te analysis, their application becomes difficult with increased structural complexity. The main challenge is to solve the optimization problem posed by the extremum principles. This thesis is a study of how numerical methods can be used to solve...... limit state analysis problems. The work focuses on determination of the load bearing capacity of reinforced concrete structures by employing the lower bound theorem and a finite element method using equilibrium elements is developed. The recent year’s development within the field of convex optimization...

  20. The technologically-reinforced natural radioactivity


    Technologically-reinforced natural radioactivity comes from mining industries, geological resources and ores de-confinement, and from separation, purification, transformation and use of by-products or products. Partly based on a survey and questionnaires sent to industrial organisations, this report proposes a large and detailed overview of this kind of radioactivity for different sectors or specific activities: the French phosphate sector, the international rare Earth and heavy ores sector, the French monazite sector, the ilmenite sector, the French and international zirconium sector, the non-ferrous metal sector, the international and French drinkable, mineral and spring water sector, the international wastewater sector, the French drilling sector, the international and French geothermal sector, the international and French gas and oil sector, the international and French coal sector, the international and French biomass sector, the international and French paper-making industry, and the management of wastes with technologically-reinforced natural radioactivity in France

  1. Soft soils reinforced by rigid vertical inclusions

    Iulia-Victoria NEAGOE


    Full Text Available Reinforcement of soft soils by rigid vertical inclusions is an increasingly used technique over the last few years. The system consists of rigid or semi-rigid vertical inclusions and a granular platform for the loads transfer from the structure to the inclusions. This technique aims to reduce the differential settlements both at ground level as below the structure. Reinforcement by rigid inclusions is mainly used for foundation works for large commercial and industrial platforms, storage tanks, wastewater treatment plants, wind farms, bridges, roads, railway embankments. The subject is one of interest as it proves the recently concerns at international level in research and design; however, most studies deal more with the static behavior and less with the dynamic one.

  2. Fiber-reinforced neutron shielding mortar concrete

    Kaji, Keisuke; Okazaki, Masaki; Ohigashi, Toshihide; Mayahara, Mitsuro.


    To improve the moldability, durability and economicity by adding cement curing promotors and reinforcing fibers to cement and boron compound which has been considered difficult so far, thereby enabling to add a great amount of the boron compound. The boron compound is added by from 5 to 200% by weight of powder of colemanite or borocarcite as natural ores or boric acid, borax or titanium boride, etc. as synthesis products and lithium hydroxide. calcium aluminate, etc. is added by more than 0.1% x boron compound blending ration (%) as the curing promoter. 0.3 to 5% by weight of polyvinyl alcohol type synthetic fibers, polyacrilonitrile type synthetic fibers or carbon fibers, etc. are added as the reinforcing fibers. This can prevent instantaneous coagulation, curing delay, etc. due to sulfur ions, enable easy application and molding and improve the durability and economicity. (T.M.)

  3. Early Loaded Single Implant Reinforced Mandibular Overdenture

    K. Nischal


    Full Text Available Rehabilitating atrophied mandible with two-implant supported denture is a common treatment modality for implant retained removable overdenture in mandible. This paper aims to design a treatment modality where single implant reinforced overdenture is fabricated for a severely atrophied mandibular ridge with early loading protocol. Results of studies have shown that a single implant mandibular overdenture significantly increases the satisfaction and quality of life of patients with edentulism. Midline fracture of the prosthesis is the most common complication related to single implant and two-implant retained mandibular overdentures. To manage such complication, a thin metal mesh is used to reinforce the overdenture and also to make the prostheses lighter and cost effective as compared to conventional cast metal framework.

  4. Advances in Male Contraception

    Page, Stephanie T.; Amory, John K.; Bremner, William J.


    Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, almost half of all pregnancies are still unwanted or unplanned. Clearly, there is a need for expanded, reversible, contraceptive options. Multicultural surveys demonstrate the willingness of men to participate in contraception and their female partners to trust them to do so. Notwithstanding their paucity of options, male methods including vasectomy and condoms account for almost one third of contraceptive use in the United States and other countries. Recent international clinical research efforts have demonstrated high efficacy rates (90–95%) for hormonally based male contraceptives. Current barriers to expanded use include limited delivery methods and perceived regulatory obstacles, which stymie introduction to the marketplace. However, advances in oral and injectable androgen delivery are cause for optimism that these hurdles may be overcome. Nonhormonal methods, such as compounds that target sperm motility, are attractive in their theoretical promise of specificity for the reproductive tract. Gene and protein array technologies continue to identify potential targets for this approach. Such nonhormonal agents will likely reach clinical trials in the near future. Great strides have been made in understanding male reproductive physiology; the combined efforts of scientists, clinicians, industry and governmental funding agencies could make an effective, reversible, male contraceptive an option for family planning over the next decade. PMID:18436704

  5. Endometriosis in the male.

    Martin, J D; Hauck, A E


    An 83-year-old man with an endometrioma of the lower abdominal wall has been reported. This occurred following the administration of 25 mg of TACE for a period of about 10 years for what was thought to be carcinoma of the prostate. A second transurethral resection done by Dr. R. C. Thompson proved to be adenocarcinoma. Subsequent to this he was continued on TACE. A review of the more commonly accepted theories of the development of endometriosis in the female has been presented. It is pointed out that the separation between the male and female urogenital systems occurs in the embryo between the eighth week and the fourth month. There is always a possibility for remnants of the opposite sex to remain in individuals. No such was seen in the case which is herein reported. Normal phenotype male was demonstrated in the chromosomal evaluation. A review of the literature on endometriosis in the male reveals several cases which have occurred; the origin of which is though to be from the prostatic utricle which is a remnant of the uterus existing in the male. After a prolonged course the patient reported was followed until he died in 1979. There was no recurrence of the abdominal wall mass but persistent low grade carcinoma of the prostate remained. The terminal process was related to cardiovascular disease and not carcinoma of the prostate. There was delay in publication of this unusual case. The original plan was to await final confirmation of the exact pathologic nature of this condition; unfortunately this was never done since a postmortem examination was not performed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Evaluation of the Reinforcing Effect of Quetiapine, Alone and in Combination with Cocaine, in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Brutcher, Robert E; Nader, Susan H; Nader, Michael A


    There are several case reports of nonmedicinal quetiapine abuse, yet there are very limited preclinical studies investigating quetiapine self-administration. The goal of this study was to investigate the reinforcing effects of quetiapine alone and in combination with intravenous cocaine in monkeys. In experiment 1, cocaine-experienced female monkeys (N = 4) responded under a fixed-ratio (FR) 30 schedule of food reinforcement (1.0-g banana-flavored pellets), and when responding was stable, quetiapine (0.003-0.1 mg/kg per injection) or saline was substituted for a minimum of five sessions; there was a return to food-maintained responding between doses. Next, monkeys were treated with quetiapine (25 mg, by mouth, twice a day) for approximately 30 days, and then the quetiapine self-administration dose-response curve was redetermined. In experiment 2, male monkeys (N = 6) self-administered cocaine under a concurrent FR schedule with food reinforcement (three food pellets) as the alternative to cocaine (0.003-0.3 mg/kg per injection) presentation. Once choice responding was stable, the effects of adding quetiapine (0.03 or 0.1 mg/kg per injection) to the cocaine solution were examined. In experiment 1, quetiapine did not function as a reinforcer, and chronic quetiapine treatment did not alter these effects. In experiment 2, cocaine choice increased in a dose-dependent fashion. The addition of quetiapine to cocaine resulted in increases in low-dose cocaine choice and number of cocaine injections in four monkeys, while not affecting high-dose cocaine preference. Thus, although quetiapine alone does not have abuse potential, there was evidence of enhancement of the reinforcing potency of cocaine. These results suggest that the use of quetiapine in cocaine-addicted patients should be monitored. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Male Body Contouring.

    Singh, Babu; Keaney, Terrence; Rossi, Anthony M


    Men are increasingly turning to dermatologists and plastic surgeons to request procedures that correct or enhance physical features. With the advent of this emerging new patient population, alterations in preexisting aesthetic techniques, gender-specific uses of existing devices and overall approaches need to be revisited and adapted to obtain results that are suitable for the male patient. Recently, body contouring has become one of the most sought out procedures by men. Although the majority of clinical studies involving body contouring esthetics are performed with female patients, gains from such studies can be extrapolated to men. Body contouring can be broadly classified as non-invasive or invasive, depending on the modality used. Non-invasive contouring is most frequently performed with devices that target subcutaneous adipose with focused electrical or thermal energy, including low-level laser, cryolipolysis, ultrasonography, and radiofrequency. Invasive body contouring modalities useful for male body contouring include liposuction, pectoral and abdominal wall etching, jawline fillers, synthetic deoxycholic acid injections, and solid silicone implants. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to the unique aspects, strategies, and modalities used in aesthetic body contouring for the male patient.

  8. Gender-disturbed males.

    Levine, S B


    Adolescent and adult cross-dressing or "transvestism" is the most common antecedent behavioral pattern among those who request sex reassignment surgery. Transvestites are actually a diverse group of men who differ in their gender identities, orientation, and intention. They do, however, have in common a soothing image of themselves as women. Because of this, whether cross-dressing occurs among masculine or feminine males or heterosexuals, homosexuals, bisexuals, or asexuals, or among those with paraphilia, the behavior should be considered the expression of their consciously felt femininity. The confusing differences among cross-dressing males may be explained by their diversity along three dimensions: 1) the ambition for heterosexual intercourse; 2) the natural history of their sexual arousal to female clothing; 3) their current capacity to integrate their masculine and feminine strivings into separate compartments. When cross-dressers give up all vestiges of male gender role behaviors and successfully live and work full time as women, the appropriate descriptive term for them becomes "transsexual."

  9. Reinforced concrete behavior due to missile impact

    Alderson, M.A.H.G.; Bartley, R.; O'Brien, T.P.


    The assessment of the safety of nuclear reactors has necessitated the study of the effect of missiles on reinforced concrete containment structures. Two simple theoretical calculational methods have been developed to provide basic information. The first is based on a crude energy balance approach in which that part of the kinetic energy of the missile which is transferred into the containment structure, is absorbed only as bending strain energy. To determine the energy transferred into the structure it is assumed that during the loading the target does not respond. The energy input to the structure is thus equal to the kinetic energy it will possess immediately the impulse has been removed. The boundary of the responding zone is defined by the distance travelled by the shear stress wave during the time in which the impact force increases to the load at which the shear capacity reaches the ultimate shear resistance. The second method is based on the equation of motion for an equivalent one-degree-of-freedom system assuming that only the peak value of deflection is important and that damping can be ignored. The spring stiffness of the equivalent system has been based upon the stiffness of the actual disc configuration responding in the flexural mode only. The boundaries of the disc have been defined by using the elastic plate formulae and equating those positive and negative moments which will produce a specified yield line pattern which may be inferred from plastic plate formulae. The equation of motion is solved to indicate how the quantity of reinforcement included in the structure may modify the peak deflection. By limiting the ductility ratio of the reinforcement to some prescribed level it is possible to indicate the quantity of reinforcement w

  10. Online constrained model-based reinforcement learning

    Van Niekerk, B


    Full Text Available Constrained Model-based Reinforcement Learning Benjamin van Niekerk School of Computer Science University of the Witwatersrand South Africa Andreas Damianou∗ Cambridge, UK Benjamin Rosman Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, and School... MULTIPLE SHOOTING Using direct multiple shooting (Bock and Plitt, 1984), problem (1) can be transformed into a structured non- linear program (NLP). First, the time horizon [t0, t0 + T ] is partitioned into N equal subintervals [tk, tk+1] for k = 0...

  11. Design and analysis of reinforced fiber composites

    Yamagata, Nobuki


    The papers in this volume present a broad range of applications for reinforced fiber composites - from thin shell structures to tires. Linear and nonlinear structural behavior (from linear buckling to nonlinear yelding and fracture) are discussed as well as different materials are presented. Latest developments in computational methods for constructíons are presented which will help to save money and time. This is an edited collection of papers presented at a symposium at the WCCM, Barcelona, 2014.

  12. Extruded bar reinforced structure and manufacturing procedures

    Truchet, J.M.; Bozetto, P.


    A cooling tower has horizontal hoops connected by two inclined sets of bars to form a trellis of equilateral triangle anchored in the ground. The bars and hoops are connected at the corners of the triangle. A skin stretched over the trellis defines the tower. The bars are made with thermosetting resin reinforced by fibres. The fabrication of such tower is cheep and simple it can be used for every type of electrical power station, nuclear or not [fr

  13. Mechanical characterization of sisal reinforced cement mortar

    R. Fujiyama; F. Darwish; M.V. Pereira


    This work aims at evaluating the mechanical behavior of sisal fiber reinforced cement mortar. The composite material was produced from a mixture of sand, cement, and water. Sisal fibers were added to the mixture in different lengths. Mechanical characterization of both the composite and the plain mortar was carried out using three point bend, compression, and impact tests. Specimens containing notches of different root radii were loaded in three point bending in an effort to determine the eff...

  14. Fatigue crack growth in fiber reinforced plastics

    Mandell, J. F.


    Fatigue crack growth in fiber composites occurs by such complex modes as to frustrate efforts at developing comprehensive theories and models. Under certain loading conditions and with certain types of reinforcement, simpler modes of fatigue crack growth are observed. These modes are more amenable to modeling efforts, and the fatigue crack growth rate can be predicted in some cases. Thus, a formula for prediction of ligamented mode fatigue crack growth rate is available.

  15. Gaudi and reinforced concrete in construction

    Grima Lopez, Rosa; Aguado de Cea, Antonio; Gómez Serrano, José


    The first two decades of the 20th century witnessed the introduction and expansion of reinforced concrete as a building material in Spain. Few years passed between the introduction of the first patents in the most industrialized areas of the Iberian Peninsula and the subsequent generalization of the technique through scientific knowledge obtained in universities. This period coincides almost completely with the professional career of Antoni Gaudí, one of the most famous Catalan architects. Th...

  16. Ferroelastic ceramic-reinforced metal matrix composites


    Composite materials comprising ferroelastic ceramic particulates dispersed in a metal matrix are capable of vibration damping. When the ferroelastic ceramic particulates are subjected to stress, such as the cyclic stress experienced during vibration of the material, internal stresses in the ceramic cause the material to deform via twinning, domain rotation or domain motion thereby dissipating the vibrational energy. The ferroelastic ceramic particulates may also act as reinforcements to impro...

  17. Piezoelectric ceramic-reinforced metal matrix composites


    Composite materials comprising piezoelectric ceramic particulates dispersed in a metal matrix are capable of vibration damping. When the piezoelectric ceramic particulates are subjected to strain, such as the strain experienced during vibration of the material, they generate an electrical voltage that is converted into Joule heat in the surrounding metal matrix, thereby dissipating the vibrational energy. The piezoelectric ceramic particulates may also act as reinforcements to improve the mec...

  18. Using Variable Interval Reinforcement Schedules to Support Students in the Classroom: An Introduction with Illustrative Examples

    Hulac, David; Benson, Nicholas; Nesmith, Matthew C.; Wollersheim Shervey, Sarah


    When behaviors are reinforced with a variable interval reinforcement schedule, reinforcement is available only after an unknown period of time. These types of reinforcement schedules are most useful for reinforcing slow and steady responding and for differentially reinforcing behaviors that are incompatible with some problematic behaviors. This…

  19. FEM performance of concrete beams reinforced by carbon fiber bars

    Hasan Hashim


    Full Text Available Concrete structures may be vulnerable to harsh environment, reinforcement with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP bars have an increasing acceptance than normal steel. The nature of (FRP bar is (non-corrosive which is very beneficial for increased durability as well as the reinforcement of FRP bar has higher strength than steel bar. FRP usage are being specified more and more by public structural engineers and individual companies as main reinforcement and as strengthening of structures. Steel reinforcement as compared to (FRP reinforcement are decreasingly acceptable for structural concrete reinforcement including precast concrete, cast in place concrete, columns, beams and other components. Carbon Fiber Reinforcement Polymer (CFRP have a very high modulus of elasticity “high modulus” and very high tensile strength. In aerospace industry, CFRP with high modulus are popular among all FRPs because it has a high strength to weight ratio. In this research, a finite element models will be used to represent beams with Carbon Fiber Reinforcement and beams with steel reinforcement. The primary objective of the research is the evaluation of the effect of (CFR on beam reinforcement.

  20. Glass FRP reinforcement in rehabilitation of concrete marine infrastructure

    Newhook, John P.


    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcements for concrete structures are gaining wide acceptance as a suitable alternative to steel reinforcements. The primary advantage is that they do not suffer corrosion and hence they promise to be more durable in environments where steel reinforced concrete has a limited life span. Concrete wharves and jetties are examples of structures subjected to such harsh environments and represent the general class of marine infrastructure in which glass FRP (GFRP) reinforcement should be used for improved durability and service life. General design considerations which make glass FRP suitable for use in marine concrete rehabilitation projects are discussed. A case study of recent wharf rehabilitation project in Canada is used to reinforce these considerations. The structure consisted of a GFRP reinforced concrete deck panel and steel - GFRP hybrid reinforced concrete pile cap. A design methodology is developed for the hybrid reinforcement design and verified through testing. The results of a field monitoring program are used to establish the satisfactory field performance of the GFRP reinforcement. The design concepts presented in the paper are applicable to many concrete marine components and other structures where steel reinforcement corrosion is a problem. (author)

  1. Soil reinforcement with recycled carpet wastes.

    Ghiassian, Hossein; Poorebrahim, Gholamreza; Gray, Donald H


    A root or fibre-reinforced soil behaves as a composite material in which fibres of relatively high tensile strength are embedded in a matrix of relatively plastic soil. Shear stresses in the soil mobilize tensile resistance in the fibres, which in turn impart greater strength to the soil. A research project has been undertaken to study the influence of synthetic fibrous materials for improving the strength characteristics of a fine sandy soil. One of the main objectives of the project is to explore the conversion of fibrous carpet waste into a value-added product for soil reinforcement. Drained triaxial tests were conducted on specimens, which were prepared in a cylindrical mould and compacted at their optimum water contents. The main test variables included the aspect ratio and the weight percentage of the fibrous strips. The results clearly show that fibrous inclusions derived from carpet wastes improve the shear strength of silty sands. A model developed to simulate the effect of the fibrous inclusions accurately predicts the influence of strip content, aspect ratio and confining pressure on the shear strength of reinforced sand.

  2. Natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    Taj, S.; Khan, S.; Munawar, M.A.


    Natural fibers have been used to reinforce materials for over 3,000 years. More recently they have been employed in combination with plastics. Many types of natural fi fibers have been investigated for use in plastics including Flax, hemp, jute, straw, wood fiber, rice husks, wheat, barley, oats, rye, cane (sugar and bamboo), grass reeds, kenaf, ramie, oil palm empty fruit bunch, sisal, coir, water hyacinth, pennywort, kapok, paper-mulberry, raphia, banana fiber, pineapple leaf fiber and papyrus. Natural fibers have the advantage that they are renewable resources and have marketing appeal. The Asian markets have been using natural fibers for many years e.g., jute is a common reinforcement in India. Natural fibers are increasingly used in automotive and packaging materials. Pakistan is an agricultural country and it is the main stay of Pakistan's economy. Thousands of tons of different crops are produced but most of their wastes do not have any useful utilization. Agricultural wastes include wheat husk, rice husk, and their straw, hemp fiber and shells of various dry fruits. These agricultural wastes can be used to prepare fiber reinforced polymer composites for commercial use. This report examines the different types of fibers available and the current status of research. Many references to the latest work on properties, processing and application have been cited in this review. (author)

  3. Motion sickness: a negative reinforcement model.

    Bowins, Brad


    Theories pertaining to the "why" of motion sickness are in short supply relative to those detailing the "how." Considering the profoundly disturbing and dysfunctional symptoms of motion sickness, it is difficult to conceive of why this condition is so strongly biologically based in humans and most other mammalian and primate species. It is posited that motion sickness evolved as a potent negative reinforcement system designed to terminate motion involving sensory conflict or postural instability. During our evolution and that of many other species, motion of this type would have impaired evolutionary fitness via injury and/or signaling weakness and vulnerability to predators. The symptoms of motion sickness strongly motivate the individual to terminate the offending motion by early avoidance, cessation of movement, or removal of oneself from the source. The motion sickness negative reinforcement mechanism functions much like pain to strongly motivate evolutionary fitness preserving behavior. Alternative why theories focusing on the elimination of neurotoxins and the discouragement of motion programs yielding vestibular conflict suffer from several problems, foremost that neither can account for the rarity of motion sickness in infants and toddlers. The negative reinforcement model proposed here readily accounts for the absence of motion sickness in infants and toddlers, in that providing strong motivation to terminate aberrant motion does not make sense until a child is old enough to act on this motivation.

  4. Damping characteristics of reinforced concrete structures

    Hisano, M.; Nagashima, I.; Kawamura, S.


    Reinforced concrete structures in a nuclear power plant are not permitted to go far into the inelasticity generally, even when subjected to strong ground motion. Therefore it is important to evaluate the damping appropriately in linear and after cracking stage before yielding in the dynamic response analysis. Next three dampings are considered of reinforced concrete structures. 1) Internal damping in linear range material damping of concrete without cracks;2) Hysteretic damping in inelastic range material hysteretic damping of concrete due to cracking and yielding;3) Damping due to the energy dissipation into the ground. Among these damping material damping affects dynamic response of a nuclear power plant on hard rock site where damping due to energy dissipation into the ground is scarcely expected. However material damping in linear and slightly nonlinear range have only been assumed without enough experimental data. In this paper such damping is investigated experimentally by the shaking table tests of reinforced concrete box-walls which modeled roughly the outer wall structure of a P.W.R. type nuclear power plant

  5. The critical dimensions of the response-reinforcer contingency.

    Williams, B A.


    Two major dimensions of any contingency of reinforcement are the temporal relation between a response and its reinforcer, and the relative frequency of the reinforcer given the response versus when the response has not occurred. Previous data demonstrate that time, per se, is not sufficient to explain the effects of delay-of-reinforcement procedures; needed in addition is some account of the events occurring in the delay interval. Moreover, the effects of the same absolute time values vary greatly across situations, such that any notion of a standard delay-of-reinforcement gradient is simplistic. The effects of reinforcers occurring in the absence of a response depend critically upon the stimulus conditions paired with those reinforcers, in much the same manner as has been shown with Pavlovian contingency effects. However, it is unclear whether the underlying basis of such effects is response competition or changes in the calculus of causation.

  6. Numerical estimation of concrete beams reinforced with FRP bars

    Protchenko Kostiantyn


    Full Text Available This paper introduces numerical investigation on mechanical performance of a concrete beam reinforced with Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP bars, which can be competitive alternative to steel bars for enhancing concrete structures. The objective of this work is being identified as elaborating of reliable numerical model for predicting strength capacity of structural elements with implementation of Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The numerical model is based on experimental study prepared for the beams, which were reinforced with Basalt FRP (BFRP bars and steel bars (for comparison. The results obtained for the beams reinforced with steel bars are found to be in close agreement with the experimental results. However, the beams reinforced with BFRP bars in experimental programme demonstrated higher bearing capacity than those reinforced with steel bars, which is not in a good convergence with numerical results. Authors did attempt to describe the reasons on achieving experimentally higher bearing capacity of beams reinforced with BFRP bars.

  7. Flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams Retrofitted with Corrugated Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Laminates

    Aravind, N.; Samanta, Amiya K.; Roy, Dilip Kr. Singha; Thanikal, Joseph V.


    Strengthening the structural members of old buildings using advanced materials is a contemporary research in the field of repairs and rehabilitation. Many researchers used plain Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheets for strengthening Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams. In this research work, rectangular corrugated GFRP laminates were used for strengthening RC beams to achieve higher flexural strength and load carrying capacity. Type and dimensions of corrugated profile were selected based on preliminary study using ANSYS software. A total of twenty one beams were tested to study the load carrying capacity of control specimens and beams strengthened with plain sheets and corrugated laminates using epoxy resin. This paper presents the experimental and theoretical study on flexural strengthening of Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams using corrugated GFRP laminates and the results are compared. Mathematical models were developed based on the experimental data and then the models were validated.

  8. Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites as Internal and External Reinforcements for Building Elements

    Cătălin Banu


    Full Text Available During the latest decades fibre reinforced polymer (FRP composite materials have proven valuable properties and suitable to be used in construction of new buildings and in upgrading the existing ones. These materials have covered the road from research laboratory and demonstration projects to implementation in actual structures. Nowadays the civil and structural engineering communities are about to commence the stage in which the use of FRP composites is becoming a routine similar to that of traditional material such as concrete, masonry and wood. Two main issues are presented in this paper, the use of FRP composite materials for new structural members (internal reinforcements and strengthening of existing members (externally bonded reinforcements. The advantages and disadvantages as well as the problems and constraints associated with both issues are discussed in detail mainly related to concrete members.

  9. Gynecomastia in Adolescent Males

    Lemaine, Valerie; Cayci, Cenk; Simmons, Patricia S.; Petty, Paul


    Gynecomastia is defined as an enlargement of the male breast. It is often benign, and can be the source of significant embarrassment and psychological distress. A general medical history and careful physical examination are essential to distinguish normal developmental variants from pathological causes. Treatment is geared toward the specific etiology when identified. In the majority of cases of pubertal gynecomastia, observation and reassurance are the mainstays of therapy as the condition usually resolves naturally. Pharmacological treatment and surgery are recommended only in selected cases. PMID:24872741

  10. Influence of reinforcement on strains within maxillary implant overdentures.

    Takahashi, Toshihito; Gonda, Tomoya; Maeda, Yoshinobu


    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of reinforcement of an embedded cast on the strains within maxillary implant overdentures. A maxillary edentulous model with implants placed bilaterally in the canine positions, dome-shaped copings, and experimental overdentures was fabricated. Rosette-type strain gauges were attached in the canine positions and at three points along the midline of the polished surface of the denture and connected to the sensor interface controlled by a personal computer. Experimental dentures with five different reinforcements were tested: without reinforcement; with a cast cobalt-chrome reinforcement over the residual ridge and the tops of the copings; with the same reinforcement from first molar to first molar, over the residual ridge and the tops of the copings; with the same reinforcement over the residual ridge and the sides of the copings; and with the same reinforcement from first molar to first molar, over the residual ridge and the sides of the copings. A vertical occlusal load of 49 N was applied to the first premolar and then to the first molar, and the strains were measured and compared by analysis of variance. In both loading situations, significantly less strain was recorded in dentures with reinforcement than in those without reinforcement. When the first premolar was loaded on dentures with and without palatal reinforcement at the first premolars, the strains on the denture with reinforcement over the tops of the copings were significantly lower than on the denture with reinforcement over the sides of the copings at the canine position. Cast reinforcement over the residual ridge and the top of copings embedded in an acrylic base reduced the strain from occlusal stress on maxillary implant overdentures.

  11. Experiencing Male Infertility

    Esmée Hanna


    Full Text Available This article examines the qualitative research literature that exists in relation to men’s experiences of male infertility. Since men have often been marginalized in the realm of reproduction, including academic research on infertility, it is important to focus on any qualitative research that gives voices to male perspectives and concerns. Given the distress documented by studies of infertile women, we focus in particular on the emotive responses and lived experiences of men in relation to infertility. In this article then, we present an analysis of the core themes across 19 qualitative articles, which include “infertility as crisis”; “emoting infertility- men as “being strong”’ “infertility as a source of stigma”; and the “desire for fatherhood.” In light of these insights, we identify key areas for future research and development including men’s emotional responses to infertility, how men seek support for infertility, the intersection between masculinity and infertility, the relationship between the desire to father and infertility, and the outcomes of infertility for men in terms of other aspects of their lives. We suggest that such research would facilitate making the experiences of men more central within our understandings of infertility within a field that has primarily been female focused.

  12. Imaging of male urethra

    Pavlica, Pietro; Barozzi, Libero; Menchi, Ilario


    The male urethral imaging and pathology is not widespread in the radiology literature because this part of the urinary tract is easily studied by urologists with clinical or endoscopic examinations. Ultrasonography and MR imaging are increasingly being used in association with voiding cystourethrography and retrograde urethrography. The posterior urethra is being studied with voiding cystourethrography or voiding sonography which allows the detection of bladder neck pathology, post-surgical stenosis, and neoplasms. The functional aspects of the bladder neck and posterior urethra can be monitored continuously in patients with neuromuscular dysfunction of the bladder. The anterior urethral anatomy and pathology is commonly explored by retrograde urethrography, but recently sonourethrography and MR imaging have been proposed, distending the lumen with simple saline solution instead of iodinated contrast media. They are being used to study the urethral mucosa and the periurethral spongy tissue which can be involved in the urethral pathologies such as strictures, diverticula, trauma, and tumors. Imaging has an important role to play in the study of the diseases of the male urethra since it can detect pathology not visible on urethroscopy. The new imaging techniques in this area, such as sonography and MR, can provide adjunct information that cannot be obtained with other modalities. (orig.)

  13. Male breast cancer

    Ferrando, F.; Vidal, M.A.; Caballero, A.J.; Martinez, A.; Lluch, A.


    To analyze the radiological and ultrasonographic signs that contribute to the diagnosis of male breast cancer to establish its differential diagnosis with regard to the most common pathologies involving the male breast. We studied 14 patients diagnosed as heaving breast cancer over the past 23 years. We reviewed their medical records, personal and familial history disease, use of pharmacological agents and the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings. The literature on this subject was also reviewed. Given the fact that his lesion is rare and unexpected in men, a large percentage of the cases, especially those studied in the early years of the study period, involved very advanced stages of the disease at diagnosis. The most common clinical finding was retroarelar mass. Mammography usually reveals a well.defined mass and ultrasound shows a well-defined, hypoechoic, heterogeneous mass. The most frequent histological type is, an in women, the infiltrating ductal carcinoma. A palpable breast mass in a man should suggest possible malignant disease. Thus, mammographic and ultrasonographic studies should be performed early, accompanied, if necessary, by aspiration biopsy; with these measures the prognosis may approximate that of women. (Author) 21 refs

  14. Imaging of male urethra

    Pavlica, Pietro [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital M. Malpighi, Via Palagi 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Barozzi, Libero [Department of Emergency Radiology, Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Menchi, Ilario [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital S. Maria Nuova, 55100 Florence (Italy)


    The male urethral imaging and pathology is not widespread in the radiology literature because this part of the urinary tract is easily studied by urologists with clinical or endoscopic examinations. Ultrasonography and MR imaging are increasingly being used in association with voiding cystourethrography and retrograde urethrography. The posterior urethra is being studied with voiding cystourethrography or voiding sonography which allows the detection of bladder neck pathology, post-surgical stenosis, and neoplasms. The functional aspects of the bladder neck and posterior urethra can be monitored continuously in patients with neuromuscular dysfunction of the bladder. The anterior urethral anatomy and pathology is commonly explored by retrograde urethrography, but recently sonourethrography and MR imaging have been proposed, distending the lumen with simple saline solution instead of iodinated contrast media. They are being used to study the urethral mucosa and the periurethral spongy tissue which can be involved in the urethral pathologies such as strictures, diverticula, trauma, and tumors. Imaging has an important role to play in the study of the diseases of the male urethra since it can detect pathology not visible on urethroscopy. The new imaging techniques in this area, such as sonography and MR, can provide adjunct information that cannot be obtained with other modalities. (orig.)

  15. Sexual Selection on male cuticular hydrocarbons via male-male competition and female choice.

    Lane, S M; Dickinson, A W; Tregenza, T; House, C M


    Traditional views of sexual selection assumed that male-male competition and female mate choice work in harmony, selecting upon the same traits in the same direction. However, we now know that this is not always the case and that these two mechanisms often impose conflicting selection on male sexual traits. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) have been shown to be linked to both social dominance and male attractiveness in several insect species. However, although several studies have estimated the strength and form of sexual selection imposed on male CHCs by female mate choice, none have established whether these chemical traits are also subject to sexual selection via male-male competition. Using a multivariate selection analysis, we estimate and compare sexual selection exerted by male-male competition and female mate choice on male CHC composition in the broad-horned flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. We show that male-male competition exerts strong linear selection on both overall CHC abundance and body size in males, while female mate choice exerts a mixture of linear and nonlinear selection, targeting not just the overall amount of CHCs expressed but the relative abundance of specific hydrocarbons as well. We discuss the potential implications of this antagonistic selection with regard to male reproductive success. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Characterization of untreated and treated male and female date palm leaves

    AlMaadeed, M.A.; Kahraman, Ramazan; Noorunnisa Khanam, P.; Al-Maadeed, Somaya


    Highlights: ► Sheshi female and male date palm leaves were treated with NaOH concentrations. ► Male leaves have lower mechanical properties and improved when treated by NaOH 2%. ► Female leaves have higher thermal stability. ► There are different properties for different types of date leaves. ► Leaves can be used as reinforcements for thermoplastic materials. -- Abstract: This paper describes the characterization of male and female date palm leaves from two different cultivars, Sheshi female and unknown male leaves. Characterization was done for both untreated and NaOH treated date palm leaves by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopic techniques. To our knowledge, the difference in specious reaction to the treatment type of date palm fiber has not been investigated earlier. These leaves were treated with different concentrations of NaOH, 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (w/w). The results from this investigation indicate that female leaves have better tensile properties which deteriorate with the increase of the alkali. The male leaves have lower tensile properties than female leaves and their mechanical properties are improved slightly by NaOH treatment. Female leaves have more pores than male leaves, this was proved and calculated by image analysis. Untreated female leaves have higher thermal stability (353 °C) than male leaves (343 °C). Both can be used as reinforcements in thermoplastic matrix materials whose processing temperatures are below 300 °C.

  17. Occupational causes of male infertility

    Bonde, Jens P E


    To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function.......To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function....

  18. Reinforced concrete tomography; Tomografia de hormigon armado

    Mariscotti, M A.J.; Morixe, M; Tarela, P A; Thieberger, P [Tomografia de Hormigon Armado S.A., Boulogne (Argentina)


    In this paper we describe the technique of reinforced concrete tomography, its historical background, recent technological developments and main applications. Gamma radiation sensitive plates are imprinted with radiation going through the concrete sample under study, and then processed to reveal the presence of reinforcement and defects in the material density. The three dimensional reconstruction, or tomography, of the reinforcement out of a single gammagraphy is an original development alternative to conventional methods. Re-bar diameters and positions may be determined with an accuracy of {+-} 1 mm 0.5-1 cm, respectively. The non-destructive character of this technique makes it particularly attractive in cases of inhabited buildings and diagnoses of balconies. (author) 8 refs., 12 figs. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describe la tecnica de tomografia de hormigon armado, sus antededentes, recientes desarrollos y aplicaciones mas importantes. Esta tecnica se basa en el uso de radiacion gamma para penetrar piezas de hormigon. Placas gammagraficas son sensibilizadas con la radiacion que atraviesa la pieza bajo estudio y luego procesadas para revelar la presencia de armadura e inhomogeneidades en la densidad del concreto. La reconstruccion tridimensional o tomografia, de la armadura a partir de una sola gammagrafia es un desarrollo original alternativo a los metodos convencionales. Diametros y posiciones de los hierros existentes en el interior de columnas, vigas y losas pueden ser determinados con precisiones de {+-} 1 mm y 0.5-1 cm, respectivamente. La condicion de no destructiva hace que esta tecnica sea particularmente apreciada en los casos de edificios habitados y sea insustituible para el diagnostico de balcones. (autor)

  19. Enriching behavioral ecology with reinforcement learning methods.

    Frankenhuis, Willem E; Panchanathan, Karthik; Barto, Andrew G


    This article focuses on the division of labor between evolution and development in solving sequential, state-dependent decision problems. Currently, behavioral ecologists tend to use dynamic programming methods to study such problems. These methods are successful at predicting animal behavior in a variety of contexts. However, they depend on a distinct set of assumptions. Here, we argue that behavioral ecology will benefit from drawing more than it currently does on a complementary collection of tools, called reinforcement learning methods. These methods allow for the study of behavior in highly complex environments, which conventional dynamic programming methods do not feasibly address. In addition, reinforcement learning methods are well-suited to studying how biological mechanisms solve developmental and learning problems. For instance, we can use them to study simple rules that perform well in complex environments. Or to investigate under what conditions natural selection favors fixed, non-plastic traits (which do not vary across individuals), cue-driven-switch plasticity (innate instructions for adaptive behavioral development based on experience), or developmental selection (the incremental acquisition of adaptive behavior based on experience). If natural selection favors developmental selection, which includes learning from environmental feedback, we can also make predictions about the design of reward systems. Our paper is written in an accessible manner and for a broad audience, though we believe some novel insights can be drawn from our discussion. We hope our paper will help advance the emerging bridge connecting the fields of behavioral ecology and reinforcement learning. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reinforcement learning for microgrid energy management

    Kuznetsova, Elizaveta; Li, Yan-Fu; Ruiz, Carlos; Zio, Enrico; Ault, Graham; Bell, Keith


    We consider a microgrid for energy distribution, with a local consumer, a renewable generator (wind turbine) and a storage facility (battery), connected to the external grid via a transformer. We propose a 2 steps-ahead reinforcement learning algorithm to plan the battery scheduling, which plays a key role in the achievement of the consumer goals. The underlying framework is one of multi-criteria decision-making by an individual consumer who has the goals of increasing the utilization rate of the battery during high electricity demand (so as to decrease the electricity purchase from the external grid) and increasing the utilization rate of the wind turbine for local use (so as to increase the consumer independence from the external grid). Predictions of available wind power feed the reinforcement learning algorithm for selecting the optimal battery scheduling actions. The embedded learning mechanism allows to enhance the consumer knowledge about the optimal actions for battery scheduling under different time-dependent environmental conditions. The developed framework gives the capability to intelligent consumers to learn the stochastic environment and make use of the experience to select optimal energy management actions. - Highlights: • A consumer exploits a 2 steps-ahead reinforcement learning for battery scheduling. • The Q-learning based mechanism is fed by the predictions of available wind power. • Wind speed state evolutions are modeled with a Markov chain model. • Optimal scheduling actions are learned through the occurrence of similar scenarios. • The consumer manifests a continuous enhance of his knowledge about optimal actions

  1. Influence of Additives on Reinforced Concrete Durability

    Neverkovica Darja


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research on carbonation and chloride induced corrosion mechanisms in reinforced concrete structures, based on three commercially available concrete admixtures: Xypex Admix C-1000, Penetron Admix and Elkem Microsilica. Carbonation takes place due to carbon dioxide diffusion, which in the required amount is present in the air. Chlorides penetrate concrete in case of the use of deicing salt or structure exploitation in marine atmosphere. Based on the implemented research, Elkem Microsilica is the recommended additive for the use in aggressive environmental conditions. Use of Xypex Admix C-1000 and Penetron Admix have only average resistance to the aggressive environmental impact.

  2. Reinforcement learning: Solving two case studies

    Duarte, Ana Filipa; Silva, Pedro; dos Santos, Cristina Peixoto


    Reinforcement Learning algorithms offer interesting features for the control of autonomous systems, such as the ability to learn from direct interaction with the environment, and the use of a simple reward signalas opposed to the input-outputs pairsused in classic supervised learning. The reward signal indicates the success of failure of the actions executed by the agent in the environment. In this work, are described RL algorithmsapplied to two case studies: the Crawler robot and the widely known inverted pendulum. We explore RL capabilities to autonomously learn a basic locomotion pattern in the Crawler, andapproach the balancing problem of biped locomotion using the inverted pendulum.

  3. Seismic behavior of reinforced concrete shear walls

    Wang, F.; Gantenbein, F.


    Reinforced concrete shear walls have an important contribution to building stiffness. So, it is necessary to know their behavior under seismic loads. The ultimate behavior study of shear walls subjected to dynamic loadings includes: - a description of the nonlinear global model based on cyclic static tests, - nonlinear time history calculations for various forcing functions. The comparison of linear and nonlinear results shows important margins related to the ductility when the bandwidth of the forcing function is narrow and centred on the wall natural frequency

  4. Shear reinforced beams in autoclaved aerated concrete

    Cornelius, Thomas


    Shear behaviour in concrete materials is very well documented, for normal density concrete materials. In this paper results of various tests on low density concrete materials like aerated autoclaved concrete (in the following denoted aircrete) will be presented and analyzed for different combinat....... Codes for designing prefabricated reinforced components of aircrete structures have adopted these recently developed approaches.......Shear behaviour in concrete materials is very well documented, for normal density concrete materials. In this paper results of various tests on low density concrete materials like aerated autoclaved concrete (in the following denoted aircrete) will be presented and analyzed for different...

  5. Optimization of Reinforcement of RC Framed Structures

    P. Štěpánek


    Full Text Available This paper presents the entire formulation of longitudinal reinforcement minimization in a concrete structure of known sections and shape under loading by the normal force and the bending moment. Constraint conditions are given by the conditions of structure reliability in accordance with the relevant codes for ultimate strength and applicability of the sections specified by a designer. Linearization of the non-linear function is described, and possibilities of applying algorithms of linear computing are discussed. The functioning of the process described is demonstrated on a plane frame structure design.

  6. Titanium reinforced boron-polyimide composite

    Clark, G. A.; Clayton, K. I.


    Processing techniques for boron polyimide prepreg were developed whereby composites could be molded under vacuum bag pressure only. A post-cure cycle was developed which resulted in no loss in room temperature mechanical properties of the composite at any time during up to 16 hours at 650 F. A design utilizing laminated titanium foil was developed to achieve a smooth transition of load from the titanium attachment points into the boron-reinforced body of the structure. The box beam test article was subjected to combined bending and torsional loads while exposed to 650 F. Loads were applied incrementally until failure occurred at 83% design limit load.

  7. Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Structures in Flexure

    Hestbech, Lars


    In this thesis, a rotational capacity model for flexural reinforced concrete elements is presented. The model is based on the general assumption, that any other failure mode than bending is prevented by proper design. This includes failure due to shear, anchorage, concentrated loads etc. Likewise...... are not necessarily so. An example shows the applicability of the model and a parametric study shows the advantages of the model compared with code provisions. Finally, improvements of the compression zone modelling is performed in order to include a better performance when concrete crushing is the failure criterion...

  8. Reinforcement learning account of network reciprocity.

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Masuda, Naoki


    Evolutionary game theory predicts that cooperation in social dilemma games is promoted when agents are connected as a network. However, when networks are fixed over time, humans do not necessarily show enhanced mutual cooperation. Here we show that reinforcement learning (specifically, the so-called Bush-Mosteller model) approximately explains the experimentally observed network reciprocity and the lack thereof in a parameter region spanned by the benefit-to-cost ratio and the node's degree. Thus, we significantly extend previously obtained numerical results.

  9. Reinforcement learning account of network reciprocity.

    Takahiro Ezaki

    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory predicts that cooperation in social dilemma games is promoted when agents are connected as a network. However, when networks are fixed over time, humans do not necessarily show enhanced mutual cooperation. Here we show that reinforcement learning (specifically, the so-called Bush-Mosteller model approximately explains the experimentally observed network reciprocity and the lack thereof in a parameter region spanned by the benefit-to-cost ratio and the node's degree. Thus, we significantly extend previously obtained numerical results.

  10. Manipulating parameters of reinforcement to reduce problem behavior without extinction.

    Kunnavatana, S Shanun; Bloom, Sarah E; Samaha, Andrew L; Slocum, Timothy A; Clay, Casey J


    Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) most often includes extinction as a treatment component. However, extinction is not always feasible and it can be counter-therapeutic if implemented without optimal treatment integrity. Researchers have successfully implemented DRA without extinction by manipulating various parameters of reinforcement such that alternative behavior is favored. We extended previous research by assessing three participants' sensitivities to quality, magnitude, and immediacy using arbitrary responses and reinforcers that maintain problem behavior. The results were used to implement an intervention for problem behavior using DRA without extinction. Our findings indicate that arbitrary responses can be used to identify individual and relative sensitivity to parameters of reinforcement for reinforcers that maintain problem behavior. Treatment was effective for all participants when we manipulated parameters of reinforcement to which they were most sensitive, and, for two participants, the treatment was less effective when we manipulated parameters to which they were least sensitive. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  11. Continuous Natural Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites by Fiber Surface Modification

    Patcharat Wongsriraksa


    Full Text Available Continuous natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic materials are expected to replace inorganic fiber reinforced thermosetting materials. However, in the process of fabricating the composite, it is difficult to impregnate the thermoplastic resin into reinforcement fiber because of the high melt viscosity. Therefore, intermediate material, which allows high impregnation during molding, has been investigated for fabricating continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite by aligning resin fiber alongside reinforcing fiber with braiding technique. This intermediate material has been called “microbraid yarn (MBY.” Moreover, it is well known that the interfacial properties between natural fiber and resin are low; therefore, surface treatment on continuous natural fiber was performed by using polyurethane (PU and flexible epoxy (FLEX to improve the interfacial properties. The effect of surface treatment on the mechanical properties of continuous natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites was examined. From these results, it was suggested that surface treatment by PU with low content could produce composites with better mechanical properties.

  12. Concrete cover cracking due to uniform reinforcement corrosion

    Solgaard, Anders Ole Stubbe; Michel, Alexander; Geiker, Mette Rica


    and reinforcement de-passivation is a frequently used limit state. The present paper investigates an alternative limit state: corrosion-induced cover cracking. Results from numerical simulations of concrete cover cracking due to reinforcement corrosion are presented. The potential additional service life...... is calculated using literature data on corrosion rate and Faraday’s law. The parameters varied comprise reinforcement diameter, concrete cover thickness and concrete material properties, viz. concrete tensile strength and ductility (plain concrete and fibre reinforced concrete). Results obtained from......Service life design (SLD) is an important tool for civil engineers to ensure that the structural integrity and functionality of the structure is not compromised within a given time frame, i.e. the service life. In SLD of reinforced concrete structures, reinforcement corrosion is of major concern...

  13. Analysis of FRP bars used as reinforcement in concrete structures

    Kinga Brózda


    Full Text Available In the design and construction of building and engineering structures, it is of utmost importance to provide their reliability and safety. The use of FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymers bars as reinforcement of structural concrete elements could help reducing the typical defects of reinforced concrete and increase its strength parameters. In the paper the selected FRP bar characteristic properties are presented and advantages derived therefrom are specified. Furthermore, the most commonly used in construction types of FRP bars, depending on the raw material used during the production process are listed. In addition, the possibility of recycling of elements reinforced with FRP bars is presented and compared with traditional reinforced concrete (reinforced with steel bars. The production method of FRP bars (pultrusion is shown. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of using this method are discussed.

  14. Design for whipping pipe impact on reinforced concrete panels

    Chen, C.C.; Gurbuz, O.


    This paper describes determination of local and overall effects on reinforced concrete panels due to whipping pipe impact in postulated pipe break events. Local damage includes the prediction of minimum concrete panel thickness required to prevent spalling from the back face of the target reinforced concrete panels. Evaluation of overall effect deals with the ductility ratio calculation for the target reinforced concrete panels. Design curves for determining the minimum panel thickness and the minimum reinforcement of reinforced concrete panels are presented in this paper for some cases commonly encountered in nuclear applications. The methodology and the results provided can be used to determine if an existing reinforced concrete wall is capable of resisting the whipping pipe impact, and consequently, if pipe whip restraints can be eliminated

  15. Sport and male sexuality.

    Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L


    The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.

  16. (nanoclay and CaSiO3)-reinforced E-glass-reinforced epoxy

    For instance, Zhang et al. [6] have prepared 30 types of epoxy matrix reinforced with ... the resin in a high-speed metal blade rotation medium. The .... Tests were run for .... Figure 2. Mean effect plots showing the influence of load, nanoclay content and speed on ..... [8] Wang K, Chen L, Wu J, Toh M L, He C and Yee A F 2005.

  17. Value learning through reinforcement : The basics of dopamine and reinforcement learning

    Daw, N.D.; Tobler, P.N.; Glimcher, P.W.; Fehr, E.


    This chapter provides an overview of reinforcement learning and temporal difference learning and relates these topics to the firing properties of midbrain dopamine neurons. First, we review the RescorlaWagner learning rule and basic learning phenomena, such as blocking, which the rule explains. Then

  18. Dual Effects on Choice of Conditioned Reinforcement Frequency and Conditioned Reinforcement Value

    McDevitt, Margaret A.; Williams, Ben A.


    Pigeons were presented with a concurrent-chains schedule in which the total time to primary reinforcement was equated for the two alternatives (VI 30 s VI 60 s vs. VI 60 s VI 30 s). In one set of conditions, the terminal links were signaled by the same stimulus, and in another set of conditions they were signaled by different stimuli. Choice was…

  19. Bond of reinforcing bars in self-compacting steel fiber reinforced concrete

    Schumacher, P.; Bigaj-van Vliet, A.J.; Braam, C.R.; Uijl, J.A. den; Walraven, J.C.


    Pull-out tests were performed on 10 mm diameter ribbed bars embedded along three times the bar diameter in 200 mm cubes made of plain and steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) of normal strength (B45). The fiber content was 60 and 120 kg/m3, respectively, the aspect ratio of the fibers was 45 and

  20. Treatment of Escape-Maintained Behavior with Positive Reinforcement: The Role of Reinforcement Contingency and Density

    Ingvarsson, Einar T.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Welter, Katherine M.


    Functional analyses suggested that the disruptive behavior of three preschool children was maintained by escape from demands. While keeping the escape contingency intact, we conducted (a) a density analysis in which the children earned preferred items for task completion according to two schedules that varied in reinforcement density, and (b) a…

  1. Effects of Signaled Positive Reinforcement on Problem Behavior Maintained by Negative Reinforcement

    Schieltz, Kelly M.; Wacker, David P.; Romani, Patrick W.


    We evaluated the effects of providing positive reinforcement for task completion, signaled via the presence of a tangible item, on escape-maintained problem behavior displayed by three typically developing children during one-time 90-min outpatient evaluations. Brief functional analyses of problem behavior, conducted within a multielement design,…

  2. Investigation on reinforced concrete slabs subjeted to impact loading

    Freiman, M.; Krutzik, N.J.; Tropp, R.; Zorn, N.F.


    A comparison of experimental and computational results for tests of reinforced concrete slabs subjected to soft missile impact is presented. Numerical simulation techniques were employed to predict the target response. The objective of the calculations was to validate the material model for reinforced concrete implemented in a finite difference code. The computational results regarding displacements or strains in the reinforcement conform satisfactorily with the experimental values. (Author) [pt

  3. Mechanical Behaviour of Sisal Fibre Reinforced Cement Composites

    M. Aruna


    Emphasis on the advancement of new materials and technology has been there for the past few decades. The global development towards using cheap and durable materials from renewable resources contributes to sustainable development. An experimental investigation of mechanical behaviour of sisal fibre-reinforced concrete is reported for making a suitable building material in terms of reinforcement. Fibre reinforced Composite is one such material, which has reformed the concept of high strength. ...

  4. Nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete structures using software package abaqus

    Marković Nemanja; Stojić Dragoslav; Cvetković Radovan


    Reinforced concrete (AB) is characterized by huge inhomogeneity resulting from the material characteristics of the concrete, then, quasi-brittle behavior during failure. These and other phenomena require the introduction of material nonlinearity in the modeling of reinforced concrete structures. This paper presents the modeling reinforced concrete in the software package ABAQUS. A brief theoretical overview is presented of methods such as: Concrete Damage Plasticity (CDP), Smeared Concrete Cr...

  5. Hybrid fiber and nanopowder reinforced composites for wind turbine blades

    Nikoloz M. Chikhradze


    Full Text Available The results of an investigation into the production of wind turbine blades manufactured using polymer composites reinforced by hybrid (carbon, basalt, glass fibers and strengthened by various nanopowders (oxides, carbides, borides are presented. The hybrid fiber-reinforced composites (HFRC were manufactured with prepreg technology by molding pre-saturated epoxy-strengthened matrix-reinforced fabric. Performance of the manufactured composites was estimated with values of the coefficient of operating condition (COC at a moderate and elevated temperature.

  6. Drug specificity in drug versus food choice in male rats.

    Tunstall, Brendan J; Riley, Anthony L; Kearns, David N


    Although different classes of drug differ in their mechanisms of reinforcement and effects on behavior, little research has focused on differences in self-administration behaviors maintained by users of these drugs. Persistent drug choice despite available reinforcement alternatives has been proposed to model behavior relevant to addiction. The present study used a within-subjects procedure, where male rats (Long-Evans, N = 16) were given a choice between cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/infusion) and food (a single 45-mg grain pellet) or between heroin (0.02 mg/kg/infusion) and food in separate phases (drug order counterbalanced). All rats were initially trained to self-administer each drug, and the doses used were based on previous studies showing that small subsets of rats tend to prefer drug over food reinforcement. The goal of the present study was to determine whether rats that prefer cocaine would also prefer heroin. Choice sessions consisted of 2 forced-choice trials with each reinforcer, followed by 14 free-choice trials (all trials separated by 10-min intertrial interval). Replicating previous results, small subsets of rats preferred either cocaine (5 of the 16 rats) or heroin (2 of the 16 rats) to the food alternative. Although 1 of the 16 rats demonstrated a preference for both cocaine and heroin to the food alternative, there was no relationship between degree of cocaine and heroin preference in individual rats. The substance-specific pattern of drug preference observed suggests that at least in this animal model, the tendencies to prefer cocaine or heroin in preference to a nondrug alternative are distinct behavioral phenomena.

  7. Effect of reinforcement on plastic limit loads of branch junctions

    Kim, Yun-Jae; Myeong, Man-Sik; Yoon, Kee-Bong


    This paper provides effects of reinforcement shape and area on plastic limit loads of branch junctions under internal pressure and in-plane/out-of-plane bending, via detailed three-dimensional finite element limit analysis assuming elastic-perfectly plastic material behaviour. It is found that reinforcement is most effective when (in-plane/out-of-plane) bending is applied to the branch pipe. When bending is applied to the run pipe, reinforcement is less effective when bending is applied to the branch pipe. The reinforcement effect is the least effective for internal pressure.

  8. Halloysite reinforced epoxy composites with improved mechanical properties

    Saif Muhammad Jawwad


    Full Text Available Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs reinforced epoxy composites with improved mechanical properties were prepared. The prepared HNTs reinforced epoxy composites demonstrated improved mechanical properties especially the fracture toughness and flexural strength. The flexural modulus of nanocomposite with 6% mHNTs loading was 11.8% higher than that of neat epoxy resin. In addition, the nanocomposites showed improved dimensional stability. The prepared halloysite reinforced epoxy composites were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. The improved properties are attributed to the unique characteristics of HNTs, uniform dispersion of reinforcement and interfacial coupling.

  9. Human choice among five alternatives when reinforcers decay.

    Rothstein, Jacob B; Jensen, Greg; Neuringer, Allen


    Human participants played a computer game in which choices among five alternatives were concurrently reinforced according to dependent random-ratio schedules. "Dependent" indicates that choices to any of the wedges activated the random-number generators governing reinforcers on all five alternatives. Two conditions were compared. In the hold condition, once scheduled, a reinforcer - worth a constant five points - remained available until it was collected. In the decay condition, point values decreased with intervening responses, i.e., rapid collection was differentially reinforced. Slopes of matching functions were higher in the decay than hold condition. However inter-subject variability was high in both conditions.

  10. Study of Interaction of Reinforcement with Concrete by Numerical Methods

    Tikhomirov, V. M.; Samoshkin, A. S.


    This paper describes the study of deformation of reinforced concrete. A mathematical model for the interaction of reinforcement with concrete, based on the introduction of a contact layer, whose mechanical characteristics are determined from the experimental data, is developed. The limiting state of concrete is described using the Drucker-Prager theory and the fracture criterion with respect to maximum plastic deformations. A series of problems of the theory of reinforced concrete are solved: stretching of concrete from a central-reinforced prism and pre-stressing of concrete. It is shown that the results of the calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  11. Toughened microstructures for ductile phase reinforced molybdenum disilicide

    Pickard, S.M.; Ghosh, A.K.


    Various morphologies of ductile Nb refractory metal reinforcement are incorporated into a MoSi 2 matrix using powder metallurgy, including single-ply laminates, continuous metal ribbons and sections of 2-dimensional wire mesh. Hot forging techniques are used to redistribute the reinforcement and change the dimensions and the aspect ratio of the reinforcing metal ligaments. Work-of-rupture measurements are conducted on bend test specimens and precracked tensile specimens of the composite so that the toughness contribution from the various ductile metal morphologies can be assessed according to its effectiveness. Accompanying microstructural examination of crack bridging interaction with the reinforcement is conducted

  12. Nondestructive evaluation of reinforced plastics by a radiometric measurement technique

    Entine, Gerald; Afshari, Sia; Verlinden, Matt


    The demand for new high-performance plastics has greatly increased with advances in the performance characteristics of sophisticated reinforced engineering resins. However, conventional methods for the evaluation of the glass and filler contents of reinforced plastics are destructive, labor intensive, and time consuming. We have developed a new instrument, to address this problem, which provides for the rapid, accurate, and nondestructive measurement of glass or filler content in reinforced plastics. This instrument utilizes radiation transmission and scattering techniques for analytical measurement of glass, graphite and other fillers used in reinforced plastics. (author)

  13. Superelastic SMA–FRP composite reinforcement for concrete structures

    Wierschem, Nicholas; Andrawes, Bassem


    For many years there has been interest in using fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs) as reinforcement in concrete structures. Unfortunately, due to their linear elastic behavior, FRP reinforcing bars are never considered for structural damping or dynamic applications. With the aim of improving the ductility and damping capability of concrete structures reinforced with FRP reinforcement, this paper studies the application of SMA–FRP, a relatively novel type of composite reinforced with superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) wires. The cyclic tensile behavior of SMA–FRP composites are studied experimentally and analytically. Tests of SMA–FRP composite coupons are conducted to determine their constitutive behavior. The experimental results are used to develop and calibrate a uniaxial SMA–FRP analytical model. Parametric and case studies are performed to determine the efficacy of the SMA–FRP reinforcement in concrete structures and the key factors governing its behavior. The results show significant potential for SMA–FRP reinforcement to improve the ductility and damping of concrete structures while still maintaining its elastic characteristic, typical of FRP reinforcement

  14. Structural Applications of Fibre Reinforced Concrete in the Czech Republic

    Kohoutková, A.; Broukalová, I.


    The paper presents improvement of function and performance of the precast structural members by using fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) instead of ordinary reinforced concrete and attempts to transfer innovative technologies from laboratory in academic sphere into real industrial production which is cost-effective and brings about savings of labour and material. Three examples of successful technology transfer are shown - application of FRC in an element without common rebar reinforcement, in the element with steel rebar reinforcement and SFRC pre-tensioned structural element. Benefits of FRC utilization are discussed.

  15. Optimizing microstimulation using a reinforcement learning framework.

    Brockmeier, Austin J; Choi, John S; Distasio, Marcello M; Francis, Joseph T; Príncipe, José C


    The ability to provide sensory feedback is desired to enhance the functionality of neuroprosthetics. Somatosensory feedback provides closed-loop control to the motor system, which is lacking in feedforward neuroprosthetics. In the case of existing somatosensory function, a template of the natural response can be used as a template of desired response elicited by electrical microstimulation. In the case of no initial training data, microstimulation parameters that produce responses close to the template must be selected in an online manner. We propose using reinforcement learning as a framework to balance the exploration of the parameter space and the continued selection of promising parameters for further stimulation. This approach avoids an explicit model of the neural response from stimulation. We explore a preliminary architecture--treating the task as a k-armed bandit--using offline data recorded for natural touch and thalamic microstimulation, and we examine the methods efficiency in exploring the parameter space while concentrating on promising parameter forms. The best matching stimulation parameters, from k = 68 different forms, are selected by the reinforcement learning algorithm consistently after 334 realizations.

  16. Rockfall vulnerability assessment for reinforced concrete buildings

    Mavrouli, O.; Corominas, J.


    The vulnerability of buildings to the impact of rockfalls is a topic that has recently attracted increasing attention in the scientific literature. The quantification of the vulnerability, when based on empirical or heuristic approaches requires data recorded from historical rockfalls, which are not always available. This is the reason why appropriate alternatives are required. The use of analytical and numerical models can be one of them. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for the analytical evaluation of the vulnerability of reinforced concrete buildings. The vulnerability is included in the risk equation by incorporating the uncertainty of the impact location of the rock block and the subsequent damage level. The output is a weighted vulnerability that ranges from 0 to 1 and expresses the potential damage that a rock block causes to a building in function of its velocity and size. The vulnerability is calculated by the sum of the products of the probability of block impact on each element of the building and its associated damage state, the latter expressed in relative recovery cost terms. The probability of exceeding a specific damage state such as non-structural, local, partial, extensive or total collapse is also important for the quantification of risk and to this purpose, several sets of fragility curves for various rock diameters and increasing velocities have been prepared. An example is shown for the case of a simple reinforced concrete building and impact energies from 0 to 4075 kJ.

  17. Reinforced concrete treatment as composite material

    Oller, S.; Onate, E.; Miguel, J.


    This paper presents the general mixing theory applied to the numerical simulation of multiphase composite material behaviour as reinforced concrete materials. This theory is based on the mixture of that composite basic substances and allows to evaluate the inter-dependence behaviour between the different compounding constitutive models. If it would be necessary to consider the initial anisotropy of each compound it could be done by mean of the mapped isotropic plastic formulation. The approach is a generalization of the classic isotropic plasticity theory to be applied to either ortho tropic or anisotropic materials such as reinforced concrete. The existence of a stress and strain real anisotropic spaces, and the respective fictitious isotropic spaces are assumed, where a mapped fictitious problem is solved. Those spaces are relating by means of two fourth order transformation tensors. Both formulation are joined establishing a powerful work tool for the treatment of bulk-fiber composite materials. The induced anisotropy behaviour is take into account by each compounding constitutive formulation. (author). 24 refs., 3 figs

  18. Reinforcing of Cement Composites by Estabragh Fibres

    Merati, A. A.


    The influence of Estabragh fibres has been studied to improve the performance characteristics of the reinforced cement composites. The concrete shrinkage was evaluated by counting the number of cracks and measuring the width of cracks on the surface of concrete specimens. Although, the Estabragh fibres lose their strength in an alkali environment of cement composites, but, the ability of Estabragh fibres to bridge on the micro cracks in the concrete matrix causes to decrease the width of the cracks on the surface of the concrete samples in comparison with the plain concrete. However, considering the mechanical properties of specimens such as bending strength and impact resistance, the specimens with 0.25 % of Estabragh fibre performed better in all respects compared to the physical and mechanical properties of reinforced cement composite of concrete. Consequently, by adding 0.25 % of Estabragh fibres to the cement composite of concrete, a remarkable improvement in physical and mechanical properties of fibre-containing cement composite is achieved.

  19. Fiber-Reinforced Origamic Robotic Actuator.

    Yi, Juan; Chen, Xiaojiao; Song, Chaoyang; Wang, Zheng


    A novel pneumatic soft linear actuator Fiber-reinforced Origamic Robotic Actuator (FORA) is proposed with significant improvements on the popular McKibben-type actuators, offering nearly doubled motion range, substantially improved force profile, and significantly lower actuation pressure. The desirable feature set is made possible by a novel soft origamic chamber that expands radially while contracts axially when pressurized. Combining this new origamic chamber with a reinforcing fiber mesh, FORA generates very high traction force (over 150N) and very large contractile motion (over 50%) at very low input pressure (100 kPa). We developed quasi-static analytical models both to characterize the motion and forces and as guidelines for actuator design. Fabrication of FORA mostly involves consumer-grade three-dimensional (3D) printing. We provide a detailed list of materials and dimensions. Fabricated FORAs were tested on a dedicated platform against commercially available pneumatic artificial muscles from Shadow and Festo to showcase its superior performances and validate the analytical models with very good agreements. Finally, a robotic joint was developed driven by two antagonistic FORAs, to showcase the benefits of the performance improvements. With its simple structure, fully characterized mechanism, easy fabrication procedure, and highly desirable performance, FORA could be easily customized to application requirements and fabricated by anyone with access to a 3D printer. This will pave the way to the wider adaptation and application of soft robotic systems.

  20. Reinforcement and recovery of timber structures

    Antonio Alves Dias


    Full Text Available Preservation of timber structures is a reason for constant concern because their deterioration often involves compromising the historical patrimony, besides endangering the safety of the structure, and consequently, of their users. Many are the examples of churches, residences or other constructions where this manifestation is a fact. The technique of reinforcing structurally endangered pieces with the addition of natural or synthetic fibers, is an alternative that has been researched. In the group of synthetic fibers, fiberglass, carbon and aramid ones are included. On the other hand, it has been frequent in the restoration of old buildings, especially in Europe, the employment of materials that were not available in the past, aiming to achieve structural, acoustic and aesthetic benefits. On an existing timber structure floor, a concrete slab has been carried out, with an appropriate connection system among the parts, constituting the composite timber-concrete structures. This alternative has been considered as extraordinarily viable, because it gathers a series of convenience related with the durability and it presents better mechanic performance than conventional timber structures. In this work, the state-of-the-art of the use of fibers as structural reinforcement and of the timber-concrete composite structures, is presented.

  1. Reinforcement of Aluminum Castings with Dissimilar Metals

    Han, Q


    The project ''Reinforcement of Aluminum Casting with Dissimilar Metal'' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Cummins Inc. This project, technologies have been developed to reinforce aluminum castings with steel insert. Defect-free bond between the steel insert and the aluminum casting has been consistently obtained. The push-out experiment indicated that the bond strength is higher than that of the Al-Fin method. Two patents have been granted to the project team that is comprised of Cummins Inc. and ORNL. This report contains four sections: the coating of the steel pins, the cast-in method, microstructure characterization, and the bond strength. The section of the coating of the steel pins contains coating material selection, electro-plating technique for plating Cu and Ni on steel, and diffusion bonding of the coatings to the steel. The section of cast-in method deals with factors that affecting the quality of the metallurgical bond between the coated steel and the aluminum castings. The results of microstructure characteristics of the bonding are presented in the microstructure characterization section. A push-out experiment and the results obtained using this method is described in the section of bond strength/mechanical property.

  2. Energy efficiency - an alternative to grid reinforcement



    A shortage of electrical distribution capacity can be approached either by reinforcing the existing distribution network or by using demand side management (DSM) to match consumption to existing capacity. Oslo-based E-CO Partner and network owner Viken Nett have recently completed a project on implementing DSM in Oslo. The results of this project are being used in another, ongoing, project, 'New technology for controlling power load in Oslo', which started in 2001. The two projects evaluate the potential for peak load power reduction amongst residential and commercial customers, as well as the potential for saving energy and for selecting alternative energy carriers to electricity. The consequences and limitations of implementing DSM were studied in greater depth in three pilot studies: these included the analysis of metered data, model simulations and comprehensive surveys to map key motivational factors and behaviour amongst a wide selection of end-users. The projects have shown that it is possible, over a 3-4 year period, to reduce or curb the peak load in a city area by 10-15%. This potential is related to a wide type of measures, among them installation of new equipment, replacement of electrical energy carriers, renovation of buildings and installation of smart house solutions. For network owners, the project has shown that DSM measures in a certain city area can be achieved at a cost 30% below that for grid reinforcement. (UK)


    Fehmi ÇİVİCİ


    Full Text Available Fiber concrete is a composite material which has mechanical and physical characteristics unlike plain concrete. One of the important mechanical characteristics of fiber concrete is its energy absorbing capability. This characteristics which is also called toughness, is defined as the total area under the load-deflection curve. A number of composite characteristics such as crack resistance, ductility and impact resistance are related to the energy absorbtion capacity. According to ASTM C 1018 and JSCE SF-4 the calculation of toughness is determined by uniaxial flexural testing. Fiber concrete is often used in plates such as bridge decks, airport pavements, parking areas, subjected to cavitation and erosion. In this paper, toughness has been determined according to ASTM C 1018 and JSCE SF-4 methods by testing beam specimens. Energy absorbing capacities of plain and steel fiber reinforced concrete has been compared by evaluating the results of two methods. Also plain and steel fiber reinforced plate specimens behaviors subjected to biaxial flexure are compared by the loaddeflection curves of each specimen.

  4. Thermal expansion of fibre-reinforced composites

    Schneider, B.


    The integral thermal expansion and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of carbon and Kevlar fibre-reinforced composites were measured with high accuracy from 5 K to room temperature. For this, a laser dilatometer and a sophisticated measuring procedure were used. CTE dependence on the orientation angle ω of angle-ply laminates was determined for samples with 5 different fibre alignments (UD 0deg, +/-30deg, +/-45deg, +/-60deg and UD 90deg). A high variability of the CTE with the orientation angle was shown. At angles of approximately +/-30deg even negative CTEs were found. With suitable reinforcing fibres being selected, their absolute values rose up to 30-100% of the positive CTEs of metals. Hence, composites of this type would be suitable as compensating materials in metal constructions where little thermal expansion is desired. To check the lamination theory, theoretical computations of the CTE- ω -dependence were compared with the measured values. An excellent agreement was found. Using the lamination theory, predictions about the expansion behaviour of angle-ply laminates can be made now, if the thermal and mechanical properties of the unidirectional (UD) laminate are known. Furthermore, it is possible to carry out simulation computations aimed at investigating the influence of a single parameter of the UD-laminate (e.g. shear modulus) on the expansion of the angle-ply laminate. (orig.) [de

  5. Nano-Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polyurethane Foam

    Semmes, Edmund B.; Frances, Arnold


    Closed cell polyurethane and, particularly, polyisocyanurate foams are a large family of flexible and rigid products the result of a reactive two part process wherein a urethane based polyol is combined with a foaming or "blowing" agent to create a cellular solid at room temperature. The ratio of reactive components, the constituency of the base materials, temperature, humidity, molding, pouring, spraying and many other processing techniques vary greatly. However, there is no known process for incorporating reinforcing fibers small enough to be integrally dispersed within the cell walls resulting in superior final products. The key differentiating aspect from the current state of art resides in the many processing technologies to be fully developed from the novel concept of milled nano pulp aramid fibers and their enabling entanglement capability fully enclosed within the cell walls of these closed cell urethane foams. The authors present the results of research and development of reinforced foam processing, equipment development, strength characteristics and the evolution of its many applications.

  6. UV-Curing of Nanoparticle Reinforced Acrylates

    Bauer, F.


    Polymer reinforcement by silica and alumina nanoparticles evidently yields improved surface hardness. Single mixing of nanoparticles into an acrylate formulations, however, leads to highly viscous solutions inappropriate for coating procedures. The incompatibility of inorganic fillers and organic polymers can be avoided by surface modification providing an interface between the two dissimilar materials. For example, vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMO) can react via hydrolysis/condensation reactions with hydroxyl groups present on the inorganic surface and should bond via the polymerisation-active vinyl group to an acrylate resin through crosslinking reactions. Grafting reactions of surface OH groups and different trialkoxysilanes were studied by thermogravimetry, infrared, and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. The copolymeri-zation of modified nanoparticles with the acrylate matrix has been investigated by 13 C NMR spectroscopy. UV curing under nitrogen inertization revealed a lower reactivity of vinyl groups of VTMO-modified silica compared to grafted methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (MEMO) which showed complete conversion of olefinic carbons (signals at 120 - 140 ppm). Under conditions of oxygen inhibition, the effect of the kind and the concentration of photoinitiator on the photopoly-merization reaction was studied. Compared to neat polyacrylate coatings the nanocomposite materials exhibit markedly improved properties, e.g., heat, scratch, and abrasion resistance. However, a much better abrasion resistance was obtained for coatings containing both silica nano-particles and corundum microparticles. In particular cases, radiation curing with 172 nm photons generated by Xe excimer was performed to obtain structured polymer surfaces, i.e., matting of the reinforced acrylate coatings

  7. Effects of reinforcer magnitude on responding under differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedules of rats and pigeons.

    Doughty, Adam H; Richards, Jerry B


    Experiment I investigated the effects of reinforcer magnitude on differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) schedule performance in three phases. In Phase 1, two groups of rats (n = 6 and 5) responded under a DRI. 72-s schedule with reinforcer magnitudes of either 30 or 300 microl of water. After acquisition, the water amounts were reversed for each rat. In Phase 2, the effects of the same reinforcer magnitudes on DRL 18-s schedule performance were examined across conditions. In Phase 3, each rat responded unider a DR1. 18-s schedule in which the water amotnts alternated between 30 and 300 microl daily. Throughout each phase of Experiment 1, the larger reinforcer magnitude resulted in higher response rates and lower reinforcement rates. The peak of the interresponse-time distributions was at a lower value tinder the larger reinforcer magnitude. In Experiment 2, 3 pigeons responded under a DRL 20-s schedule in which reinforcer magnitude (1-s or 6-s access to grain) varied iron session to session. Higher response rates and lower reinforcement rates occurred tinder the longer hopper duration. These results demonstrate that larger reinforcer magnitudes engender less efficient DRL schedule performance in both rats and pigeons, and when reinforcer magnitude was held constant between sessions or was varied daily. The present results are consistent with previous research demonstrating a decrease in efficiency as a function of increased reinforcer magnituide tinder procedures that require a period of time without a specified response. These findings also support the claim that DRI. schedule performance is not governed solely by a timing process.

  8. Confinement of Reinforced-Concrete Columns with Non-Code Compliant Confining Reinforcement plus Supplemental Pen-Binder

    Anang Kristianto


    Full Text Available One of the important requirements for earthquake resistant building related to confinement is the use of seismic hooks in the hoop or confining reinforcement of reinforced-concrete column elements. However, installation of a confining reinforcement with a 135-degree hook is not easy. Therefore, in practice, many construction workers apply a confining reinforcement with a 90-degreehook (non-code compliant. Based on research and records of recent earthquakes in Indonesia, the use of a non-code compliant confining reinforcement for concrete columns produces structures with poor seismic performance. This paper presents a study that introduces an additional element that is expected to improve the effectiveness of concrete columns confined with a non-code compliant confining reinforcement. The additional element, named a pen-binder, is used to keep the non-code compliant confining reinforcement in place. The effectiveness of this element under pure axial concentric loading was investigatedcomprehensively.The specimens tested in this study were 18 concrete columns,with a cross-section of 170 mm x 170 mm and a height of 480 mm. The main test variables were the material type of the pen-binder, the angle of the hook, and the confining reinforcement configuration.The test results indicate that adding pen-binders can effectively improve the strength and ductility of the column specimens confined with a non-code compliant confining reinforcement

  9. Generating Variable and Random Schedules of Reinforcement Using Microsoft Excel Macros

    Bancroft, Stacie L.; Bourret, Jason C.


    Variable reinforcement schedules are used to arrange the availability of reinforcement following varying response ratios or intervals of time. Random reinforcement schedules are subtypes of variable reinforcement schedules that can be used to arrange the availability of reinforcement at a constant probability across number of responses or time.…

  10. Fatigue properties of particle reinforced aluminium alloys

    Tabernig, B.J.


    In this work the particle reinforced Al-alloys 359 T6 + 20 % SiC and 2124 + 17 % SiC which differ significantly in their production and microstructure are investigated. Standard and in-situ tensile tests show, that in the powder metallurgically produced alloy 2124 reinforcement leads to a higher Young's modulus, yield and ultimate tensile stress where the cast alloy 359 + 20 % SiC exhibit increased stiffness, but low ductility due to cast porosity of some 100 μm. The failure mechanism governed by microstructural parameters is found to play an important role for ductility. The fatigue properties are investigated with specific regard to the influence of the in-service condition (load ratio, temperature, variable amplitude loading) in the foreseen applications in the automobile- and aerospace industry. Standard fatigue tests point out that the endurance limit is improved by reinforcement, but is strongly dependent on the size of given initial defects. The fatigue crack properties are characterised by standard crack growth curves and r(esistance)-curves for the threshold of stress intensity factor range. Both composites exhibit a higher effective threshold than their unreinforced alloys. Furthermore the fatigue resistance described by the R-curve as well as the long crack threshold are improved in the alloy 2124 + 17 % SiC. While in crack growth tests under constant amplitude loading the alloy 2124 + 17 % SiC shows lower crack growth rates than its unreinforced alloy, the opposite case is in the alloy 359 + 20 % SiC at high DK. Periodic overloads lead in the 359 + 20 % SiC to particle fracture at the crack tip and to a steeper increase in the crack growth rate. In the 2124 + 17% SiC the fatigue crack grows predominately in the matrix and a retardation effect due to overloads is observed. In order to describe the fatigue limit of components as a function of initial defect size an analytical concept is developed assuming that the fatigue limit is controlled by the

  11. Shallow discounting of delayed cocaine by male rhesus monkeys when immediate food is the choice alternative.

    Huskinson, Sally L; Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; Rowlett, James K; Woolverton, William L; Freeman, Kevin B


    Huskinson et al. (2015) recently examined delay discounting in monkeys choosing between an immediate drug (cocaine) reinforcer and a delayed nondrug (food) reinforcer. The present experiment examined the reverse situation: choice between immediate nondrug (food) and delayed drug (cocaine) reinforcers. Whereas the former choice situation exemplifies drug abuse from a delay-discounting perspective, our interest in the latter choice situation is derived from the observation that drug abusers, who characteristically are associated with impulsive choice, typically must devote considerable time to procuring drugs, often at the expense of immediate nondrug alternatives. Accordingly, we analyzed 3 male rhesus monkeys' choices between immediate food and delayed cocaine (0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg/injection) using a hyperbolic model that allowed us to compare discounting rates between qualitatively different reinforcers. Choice of immediate food increased with food amount, and choice functions generally shifted leftward as delay to cocaine increased, indicating a decrease in the subjective value of cocaine. Compared with our previous delay-discounting experiment with immediate cocaine versus delayed food, both doses of delayed cocaine were discounted at a shallow rate. The present results demonstrate that rhesus monkeys will tolerate relatively long delays in an immediate-food versus delayed-drug situation, suggesting that in intertemporal choices between cocaine and food, the subjective value of cocaine is less affected by the delay until reinforcement than is the subjective value of delayed food. More generally, the present findings suggest that although drug abusers may choose impulsively when immediate drug reinforcement is available, they exercise self-control in the acquisition of a highly preferred, delayed drug reinforcer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Coaching the alpha male.

    Ludeman, Kate; Erlandson, Eddie


    Highly intelligent, confident, and successful, alpha males represent about 70% of all senior executives. Natural leaders, they willingly take on levels of responsibility most rational people would find overwhelming. But many of their quintessential strengths can also make alphas difficult to work with. Their self-confidence can appear domineering. Their high expectations can make them excessively critical. Their unemotional style can keep them from inspiring their teams. That's why alphas need coaching to broaden their interpersonal tool kits while preserving their strengths. Drawing from their experience coaching more than 1,000 senior executives, the authors outline an approach tailored specifically for the alpha. Coaches get the alpha's attention by inundating him with data from 360-degree feedback presented in ways he will find compelling--both hard-boiled metrics and vivid verbatim comments from colleagues about his strengths and weaknesses. A 360-degree assessment is a wake-up call for most alphas, providing undeniable proof that their behavior doesn't work nearly as well as they think it does. That paves the way for a genuine commitment to change. In order to change, the alpha must venture into unfamiliar--and often uncomfortable--psychological territory. He must admit vulnerability, accept accountability not just for his own work for others', connect with his underlying emotions, learn to motivate through a balance of criticism and validation, and become aware of unproductive behavior patterns. The goal of executive coaching is not simply to treat the alpha as an individual problem but to improve the entire team dynamic. Initial success creates an incentive to persevere, and the virtuous cycle reverberates throughout the entire organization.

  13. Contributions to reinforced concrete structures numerical simulations

    Badel, P.B.


    In order to be able to carry out simulations of reinforced concrete structures, it is necessary to know two aspects: the behaviour laws have to reflect the complex behaviour of concrete and a numerical environment has to be developed in order to avoid to the user difficulties due to the softening nature of the behaviour. This work deals with these two subjects. After an accurate estimation of two behaviour models (micro-plan and mesoscopic models), two damage models (the first one using a scalar variable, the other one a tensorial damage of the 2 order) are proposed. These two models belong to the framework of generalized standard materials, which renders their numerical integration easy and efficient. A method of load control is developed in order to make easier the convergence of the calculations. At last, simulations of industrial structures illustrate the efficiency of the method. (O.M.)

  14. Challenging or Reinforcing the Gender Divide?

    Gustafsson, Jessica; Nielsen, Poul Erik


    This chapter aims to deepen the understanding of how the appropriations of new communication technologies in dramatic changing communication ecologies interrelate with social and cultural changes in contemporary rural and urban Kenya, focusing on gender and space. The study, which is set in Uasin...... Gishu County, Kenya, is based on a 799 households survey concerning gendered access and usage of media and ICT and 80 life-world interviews with men and women on their appropriations of new media. The chapter concludes that the interrelation between new media and gender is complex. To a large extent...... the media usage reflects the patriarchal structure in Kenya and reinforces gendered spaces but new media also offer new spaces that challenge prevailing norms. Suggesting that new technologies can simultaneously function as vehicles of transformation and reproduce power relations and cultural patterns....

  15. Ensemble Network Architecture for Deep Reinforcement Learning

    Xi-liang Chen


    Full Text Available The popular deep Q learning algorithm is known to be instability because of the Q-value’s shake and overestimation action values under certain conditions. These issues tend to adversely affect their performance. In this paper, we develop the ensemble network architecture for deep reinforcement learning which is based on value function approximation. The temporal ensemble stabilizes the training process by reducing the variance of target approximation error and the ensemble of target values reduces the overestimate and makes better performance by estimating more accurate Q-value. Our results show that this architecture leads to statistically significant better value evaluation and more stable and better performance on several classical control tasks at OpenAI Gym environment.

  16. Femtosecond laser ablation of carbon reinforced polymers

    Moreno, P.; Mendez, C.; Garcia, A.; Arias, I.; Roso, L.


    Interaction of intense ultrashort laser pulses (120 fs at 795 nm) with polymer based composites has been investigated. We have found that carbon filled polymers exhibit different ultrafast ablation behaviour depending on whether the filling material is carbon black or carbon fiber and on the polymer matrix itself. The shape and dimensions of the filling material are responsible for some geometrical bad quality effects in the entrance and inner surfaces of drilled microholes. We give an explanation for these non-quality effects in terms of fundamentals of ultrafast ablation process, specifically threshold laser fluences and material removal paths. Since carbon fiber reinforced polymers seemed particularly concerned, this could prevent the use of ultrafast ablation for microprocessing purposes of some of these materials

  17. Composites reinforcement by rods a SAS study

    Urban, V; Pyckhout-Hintzen, W; Richter, D; Straube, E


    The mechanical properties of composites are governed by size, shape and dispersion degree of so-called reinforcing particles. Polymeric fillers based on thermodynamically driven microphase separation of block copolymers offer the opportunity to study a model system of controlled rod-like filler particles. We chose a triblock copolymer (PBPSPB) and carried out SAS measurements with both X-rays and neutrons, in order to characterize separately the hard phase and the cross-linked PB matrix. The properties of the material depend strongly on the way that stress is carried and transferred between the soft matrix and the hard fibers. The failure of the strain-amplification concept and the change of topological contributions to the free energy and scattering factor have to be addressed. In this respect the composite shows a similarity to a two-network system, i.e. interpenetrating rubber and rod-like filler networks. (orig.)

  18. Tank War Using Online Reinforcement Learning

    Toftgaard Andersen, Kresten; Zeng, Yifeng; Dahl Christensen, Dennis


    Real-Time Strategy(RTS) games provide a challenging platform to implement online reinforcement learning(RL) techniques in a real application. Computer as one player monitors opponents'(human or other computers) strategies and then updates its own policy using RL methods. In this paper, we propose...... a multi-layer framework for implementing the online RL in a RTS game. The framework significantly reduces the RL computational complexity by decomposing the state space in a hierarchical manner. We implement the RTS game - Tank General, and perform a thorough test on the proposed framework. The results...... show the effectiveness of our proposed framework and shed light on relevant issues on using the RL in RTS games....

  19. Micromechanical failure in fiber-reinforced composites

    Ashouri Vajari, Danial

    Micromechanical failure mechanisms occurring in unidirectional fiber-reinforced composites are studied by means of the finite element method as well as experimental testing. This study highlights the effect of micro-scale features such as fiber/matrix interfacial debonding, matrix cracking...... and microvoids on the microscopic and macroscopic mechanical response of composite materials. To this end, first a numerical study is carried out to explore ways to stabilize interfacial crack growth under dominant Mode-I fracture using the cohesive zone model. Consequently, this study suggests a method...... composites. In the first approach, the J2 plasticity model is implemented to model the elasto-plastic behavior of the matrix while in the second strategy the modified Drucker-Prager plasticity model is utilized to account for brittle-like and pressure dependent behavior of an epoxy matrix. In addition...

  20. Frost resistance of fibre reinforced concrete structures

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place


    Frost resistance of fibre reinforced concrete with 2.5-4.2% air and 6-9% air (% by volume in fresh concrete) casted in the laboratory and in-situ is compared. Steel fibres with hooked ends (ZP, length 30 mm) and polypropylene fibres (PP, CS, length 12 mm) are applied. It is shown that· addition...... of 0.4-1% by volume of fibres cannot replace air entrainment in order to secure a frost resistant concrete; the minimum amount of air needed to make the concrete frost resistant is not changed when adding fibres· the amount of air entrainment must be increased when fibres are added to establish...

  1. Reinforced orbitotemporal lift: contribution to midface rejuvenation.

    Renó, Waldir Teixeira


    The changes in the aging face occur from progressive ptosis of the skin, fat, and muscle, in conjunction with bone absorption and cartilage atrophy. In the orbital region, hollowness and compartmentalization occur. Conventional face lift procedures correct only the skin flaccidity, and superficial musculoaponeurotic system techniques reposition the skin and platysma without repositioning the middle third of the face, creating an artificial jawline. Subperiosteal rhytidectomy disrupts the anatomy of the periorbita, which gives the patient a certain scarecrow aspect. Composite rhytidectomy associated with brow lift and blepharoplasty may offer better results, with improvement in the malar and orbital regions. The reinforced orbitotemporal lift (ROTEL) is a new procedure in a face lift that allows the orbicularis oculi muscle and all the structures connected to it to be elevated and stretched and the orbitotemporal skin to be raised, repositioning these structures and ending orbital compartmentalization. The result is an impressive improvement in the malar-orbitotemporal region, resulting in a natural and youthful appearance.

  2. Reinforcement Learning for a New Piano Mover

    Yuko Ishiwaka


    Full Text Available We attempt to achieve corporative behavior of autonomous decentralized agents constructed via Q-Learning, which is a type of reinforcement learning. As such, in the present paper, we examine the piano mover's problem. We propose a multi-agent architecture that has a training agent, learning agents and intermediate agent. Learning agents are heterogeneous and can communicate with each other. The movement of an object with three kinds of agent depends on the composition of the actions of the learning agents. By learning its own shape through the learning agents, avoidance of obstacles by the object is expected. We simulate the proposed method in a two-dimensional continuous world. Results obtained in the present investigation reveal the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Reinforced concrete design to Eurocode 2

    Toniolo, Giandomenico


    This textbook describes the basic mechanical features of concrete and explains the main resistant mechanisms activated in the reinforced concrete structures and foundations when subjected to centred and eccentric axial force, bending moment, shear, torsion and prestressing,. It presents a complete set of limit-state design criteria of the modern theory of RC incorporating principles and rules of the final version of the official Eurocode 2. This textbook examines methodological more than notional aspects of the presented topics, focusing on the verifications of assumptions, the rigorousness of the analysis and the consequent degree of reliability of results. Each chapter develops an organic topic, which is eventually illustrated by examples in each final paragraph containing the relative numerical applications. These practical end-of-chapter appendices and intuitive flow-charts ensure a smooth learning experience. The book stands as an ideal learning resource for students of structural design and analysis cou...

  4. Cracking in Flexural Reinforced Concrete Members

    Rasmussen, Annette Beedholm; Fisker, Jakob; Hagsten, Lars German


    The system of cracks developing in reinforced concrete is in many aspects essential when modelling structures in both serviceability- and ultimate limit state. This paper discusses the behavior concerning crack development in flexural members observed from tests and associates it with two different...... existing models. From the investigations an approach is proposed on how to predict the crack pattern in flexural members involving two different crack systems; primary flexural cracks and local secondary cracks. The results of the approach is in overall good agreement with the observed tests and captures...... the pronounced size effect associated with flexural cracking in which the crack spacing and crack widths are approximately proportional to the depth of the member....

  5. Democratic reinforcement: A principle for brain function

    Stassinopoulos, D.; Bak, P.


    We introduce a simple ''toy'' brain model. The model consists of a set of randomly connected, or layered integrate-and-fire neurons. Inputs to and outputs from the environment are connected randomly to subsets of neurons. The connections between firing neurons are strengthened or weakened according to whether the action was successful or not. Unlike previous reinforcement learning algorithms, the feedback from the environment is democratic: it affects all neurons in the same way, irrespective of their position in the network and independent of the output signal. Thus no unrealistic back propagation or other external computation is needed. This is accomplished by a global threshold regulation which allows the system to self-organize into a highly susceptible, possibly ''critical'' state with low activity and sparse connections between firing neurons. The low activity permits memory in quiescent areas to be conserved since only firing neurons are modified when new information is being taught

  6. Reinforced plastics and aerogels by nanocrystalline cellulose

    Leung, Alfred C. W.; Lam, Edmond; Chong, Jonathan; Hrapovic, Sabahudin; Luong, John H. T., E-mail: [National Research Council Canada (Canada)


    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), a rigid rod-like nanoscale material, can be produced from cellulosic biomass in powder, liquid, or gel forms by acid and chemical hydrolysis. Owing to its unique and exceptional physicochemical properties, the incorporation of a small amount of NCC into plastic enhances the mechanical strength of the latter by several orders of magnitudes. Carbohydrate-based NCC poses no serious environmental concerns, providing further impetus for the development and applications of this green and renewable biomaterial to fabricate lightweight and biodegradable composites and aerogels. Surface functionalization of NCC remains the main focus of NCC research to tailor its properties for dispersion in hydrophilic or hydrophobic media. It is of uttermost importance to develop tools and protocols for imaging of NCC in a complex matrix and quantify its reinforcement effect.

  7. Optimizing Chemical Reactions with Deep Reinforcement Learning.

    Zhou, Zhenpeng; Li, Xiaocheng; Zare, Richard N


    Deep reinforcement learning was employed to optimize chemical reactions. Our model iteratively records the results of a chemical reaction and chooses new experimental conditions to improve the reaction outcome. This model outperformed a state-of-the-art blackbox optimization algorithm by using 71% fewer steps on both simulations and real reactions. Furthermore, we introduced an efficient exploration strategy by drawing the reaction conditions from certain probability distributions, which resulted in an improvement on regret from 0.062 to 0.039 compared with a deterministic policy. Combining the efficient exploration policy with accelerated microdroplet reactions, optimal reaction conditions were determined in 30 min for the four reactions considered, and a better understanding of the factors that control microdroplet reactions was reached. Moreover, our model showed a better performance after training on reactions with similar or even dissimilar underlying mechanisms, which demonstrates its learning ability.

  8. Durable fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete

    Corinaldesi, V.; Moriconi, G.


    In order to produce thin precast elements, a self-compacting concrete was prepared. When manufacturing these elements, homogenously dispersed steel fibers instead of ordinary steel-reinforcing mesh were added to the concrete mixture at a dosage of 10% by mass of cement. An adequate concrete strength class was achieved with a water to cement ratio of 0.40. Compression and flexure tests were carried out to assess the safety of these thin concrete elements. Moreover, serviceability aspects were taken into consideration. Firstly, drying shrinkage tests were carried out in order to evaluate the contribution of steel fibers in counteracting the high concrete strains due to a low aggregate-cement ratio. Secondly, the resistance to freezing and thawing cycles was investigated on concrete specimens in some cases superficially treated with a hydrophobic agent. Lastly, both carbonation and chloride penetration tests were carried out to assess durability behavior of this concrete mixture

  9. Aluminum matrix composites reinforced with alumina nanoparticles

    Casati, Riccardo


    This book describes the latest efforts to develop aluminum nanocomposites with enhanced damping and mechanical properties and good workability. The nanocomposites exhibited high strength, improved damping behavior and good ductility, making them suitable for use as wires. Since the production of metal matrix nanocomposites by conventional melting processes is considered extremely problematic (because of the poor wettability of the nanoparticles), different powder metallurgy routes were investigated, including high-energy ball milling and unconventional compaction methods. Special attention was paid to the structural characterization at the micro- and nanoscale, as uniform nanoparticle dispersion in metal matrix is of prime importance. The aluminum nanocomposites displayed an ultrafine microstructure reinforced with alumina nanoparticles produced in situ or added ex situ. The physical, mechanical and functional characteristics of the materials produced were evaluated using different mechanical tests and micros...

  10. [Fusion implants of carbon fiber reinforced plastic].

    Früh, H J; Liebetrau, A; Bertagnoli, R


    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) are used in the medical field when high mechanical strength, innovative design, and radiolucency (see spinal fusion implants) are needed. During the manufacturing process of the material CFRP carbon fibers are embedded into a resin matrix. This resin material could be thermoset (e.g., epoxy resin EPN/DDS) or thermoplastic (e.g., PEAK). CFRP is biocompatible, radiolucent, and has higher mechanical capabilities compared to other implant materials. This publication demonstrates the manufacturing process of fusion implants made of a thermoset matrix system using a fiber winding process. The material has been used clinically since 1994 for fusion implants of the cervical and lumbar spine. The results of the fusion systems CORNERSTONE-SR C (cervical) and UNION (lumbar) showed no implant-related complications. New implant systems made of this CFRP material are under investigation and are presented.

  11. The local strength of microscopic alumina reinforcements

    Žagar, Goran; Pejchal, Václav; Mueller, Martin G.; Rossoll, Andreas; Cantoni, Marco; Mortensen, Andreas


    We measure, using an adaptation of a method designed for ceramic ball bearings, the local strength of a brittle second phase that serves to reinforce a metal. The method uses focused ion beam milling and a nanoindentation device, and is free of artifacts commonly present in micromachined specimens. It is demonstrated on Nextel 610™ nanocrystalline alumina fibers embedded in an aluminum matrix composite. Results reveal a size effect that does not follow, across size scales, usual Weibull statistics: the fiber strength distribution differs between measurements at the microscale and macroscopic tensile testing. This implies that, in micromechanical analysis of multiphase materials, highly localized events such as the propagation of internal damage require input data that must be measured at the same, local, microscale as the event; the present work opens a path to this end.

  12. Quality control of fireproof coatings for reinforced concrete structures

    Gravit, Marina; Dmitriev, Ivan; Ishkov, Alexander


    The article analyzes methods of quality inspection of fireproof coatings (work flow, measuring, laboratory, etc.). In modern construction there is a problem of lack of distinct monitoring for the fire protection testing. There is a description of this testing for reinforced concrete structures. The article shows the results of calculation quality control of hatches as an example of fireproof coating for reinforced concrete structures.

  13. Fragile yet Ductile : Structural Aspects of Reinforced Glass Beams

    Louter, P.C.


    This dissertation investigates the structural aspects of reinforced glass beams. The concept of these beams, which are intended for building applications, is to provide redundancy even if the glass is broken. This redundancy is obtained through a small reinforcement section that is bonded at the

  14. Human demonstrations for fast and safe exploration in reinforcement learning

    Schonebaum, G.K.; Junell, J.L.; van Kampen, E.


    Reinforcement learning is a promising framework for controlling complex vehicles with a high level of autonomy, since it does not need a dynamic model of the vehicle, and it is able to adapt to changing conditions. When learning from scratch, the performance of a reinforcement learning controller

  15. Self-compacting fibre reinforced concrete applied in thin plates

    Grunewald, S.; Shionaga, R.; Walraven, J.C.


    Floor panels produced with traditionally vibrated concrete are relatively thick due to the need to reinforce concrete and consequently, heavy. Without the need to place rebars in panels and by applying self-compacting fibre reinforced concrete (SCFRC) the production process becomes more efficient.

  16. Development of a relationship between external measurements and reinforcement stress

    Brault, Andre; Hoult, Neil A.; Lees, Janet M.


    As many countries around the world face an aging infrastructure crisis, there is an increasing need to develop more accurate monitoring and assessment techniques for reinforced concrete structures. One of the challenges associated with assessing existing infrastructure is correlating externally measured parameters such as crack widths and surface strains with reinforcement stresses as this is dependent on a number of variables. The current research investigates how the use of distributed fiber optic sensors to measure reinforcement strain can be correlated with digital image correlation measurements of crack widths to relate external crack width measurements to reinforcement stresses. An initial set of experiments was undertaken involving a series of small-scale beam specimens tested in three-point bending with variable reinforcement properties. Relationships between crack widths and internal reinforcement strains were observed including that both the diameter and number of bars affected the measured maximum strain and crack width. A model that uses measured crack width to estimate reinforcement strain was presented and compared to the experimental results. The model was found to provide accurate estimates of load carrying capacity for a given crack width, however, the model was potentially less accurate when crack widths were used to estimate the experimental reinforcement strains. The need for more experimental data to validate the conclusions of this research was also highlighted.

  17. Survival of the Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect after Contextual Shifts

    Boughner, Robert L.; Papini, Mauricio R.


    The effects of contextual shifts on the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) were studied in autoshaping with rats. Experiment 1 established that the two contexts used subsequently were easily discriminable and equally salient. In Experiment 2, independent groups of rats received acquisition training under partial reinforcement (PRF) or…

  18. An Analysis of Stochastic Game Theory for Multiagent Reinforcement Learning

    Bowling, Michael


    .... In this paper we contribute a comprehensive presentation of the relevant techniques for solving stochastic games from both the game theory community and reinforcement learning communities. We examine the assumptions and limitations of these algorithms, and identify similarities between these algorithms, single agent reinforcement learners, and basic game theory techniques.

  19. Fatigue Strength of Reinforced Concrete Flexural Members | Kuryllo ...

    It is well known that reinforced concrete flexural members subjected to cyclic loads behave differently compared with static bending and can collapse due to the fatigue of concrete, reinforcement or both when maximum fatigue stresses of concrete and steel are well below the corresponding static strengths. But up till now ...

  20. Midbroken Reinforced Concrete Shear Frames Due to Earthquakes

    Köylüoglu, H. U.; Cakmak, A. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    A non-linear hysteretic model for the response and local damage analyses of reinforced concrete shear frames subject to earthquake excitation is proposed, and, the model is applied to analyse midbroken reinforced concrete (RC) structures due to earthquake loads. Each storey of the shear frame...

  1. Teaching Self-Control with Qualitatively Different Reinforcers

    Passage, Michael; Tincani, Matt; Hantula, Donald A.


    This study examined the effectiveness of using qualitatively different reinforcers to teach self-control to an adolescent boy who had been diagnosed with an intellectual disability. First, he was instructed to engage in an activity without programmed reinforcement. Next, he was instructed to engage in the activity under a two-choice fixed-duration…

  2. Aggression as Positive Reinforcement in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    May, Michael E.


    From an applied behavior-analytic perspective, aggression in people with intellectual disabilities is mostly maintained by social reinforcement consequences. However, nonsocial consequences have also been identified in functional assessments on aggression. Behaviors producing their own reinforcement have been labeled "automatic" or "nonsocial" in…

  3. Using Aberrant Behaviors as Reinforcers for Autistic Children.

    Charlop, Marjorie H.; And Others


    Three experiments assessed the efficacy of various reinforcers to increase correct task responding in a total of 10 autistic children, aged 6-9. Of the reinforcers used (stereotypy, delayed echolalia, perseverative behavior, and food), task performance was highest with opportunities to engage in aberrant behaviors, and lowest with edible…

  4. Punishment Insensitivity and Impaired Reinforcement Learning in Preschoolers

    Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Nichols, Sara R.; Voss, Joel; Zobel, Elvira; Carter, Alice S.; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, James; Wakschlag, Lauren S.


    Background: Youth and adults with psychopathic traits display disrupted reinforcement learning. Advances in measurement now enable examination of this association in preschoolers. The current study examines relations between reinforcement learning in preschoolers and parent ratings of reduced responsiveness to socialization, conceptualized as a…

  5. On the simulation of kink bands in fiber reinforced composites

    Sørensen, K.D.; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard; Jensen, H.M.


    Simulations of kink band formation in fiber reinforced composites are carried out using the commercial finite element program ABAQUS. A smeared-out, plane constitutive model for fiber reinforced materials is implemented as a user subroutine, and effects of fiber misalignment on elastic and plastic...

  6. Reinforced Variability in Animals and People: Implications for Adaptive Action.

    Neuringer, Allen


    Although reinforcement often leads to repetitive, even stereotyped responding, that is not a necessary outcome. When it depends on variations, reinforcement results in responding that is diverse, novel, indeed unpredictable, with distributions sometimes approaching those of a random process. This article reviews evidence for the powerful and…

  7. Study of a railway embankment reinforced with jute tassels

    Embankment; models (physical); soil reinforcement; jute tassel; slope ... Because of high tensile strength of vetiver grass roots, they act like soil .... All the joints are glued as well as reinforced with steel angles and .... slipping, it is nailed to the top of the embankment by several 25.4 mm iron ... The cables can yield in ten-.

  8. Mechanical properties of thermoplastic composites reinforced with Entada Mannii fibre

    Oluwayomi BALOGUN


    Full Text Available The mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms of thermoplastic composites reinforced with Entada mannii fibres was investigated. Polypropylene reinforced with 1, 3, 5, and 7 wt% KOH treated and untreated Entada mannii fibres were processed using a compression moulding machine. The tensile properties, impact strength, and flexural properties of the composites were evaluated while the tensile fracture surface morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The results show that reinforcing polypropylene with Entada mannii fibres resulted in improvement of the tensile strength and elastic modulus. This improvement is remarkable for 5 wt% KOH treated Entada mannii fibre reinforced composites by 28 % increase as compared with the unreinforced polypropylene. The composites reinforced with Entada mannii fibres also had impact strength values of 70 % higher than the unreinforced polypropylene. However, the polypropylene reinforced with 5 and 7wt% KOH treated fibres exhibited significantly higher flexural strength and Young’s modulus by 53% and 52% increase as compared with the unreinforced polypropylene. The fracture surface of the polypropylene composites reinforced with untreated Entada mannii fibres were characterized by fibre debonding, fibre pull-out and matrix yielding while less voids and fibre pull-outs are observed in the composites reinforced with KOH treated Entada mannii fibres. v

  9. Design of fibre reinforced PV concepts for building integrated applications

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; de Wit, H.; de Boer, Andries; Ossenbrink Sinke, W.; Helm, P.


    Fibre reinforced polymers present an interesting encapsulation medium for PV-modules. Glass fibres can provide increased strength and stiffness to thin polymer layers overcoming the brittleness and limited deformability of glass-panes. Glass fibre reinforced polymers allows for transparency over a

  10. Strength and thermal stability of fiber reinforced plastic composites ...

    Therefore, the strength properties and thermal stability of plastic composites reinforced with rattan fibers were investigated in this work. Particles of rattan species (Eremospatha macrocarpa (EM) and Laccosperma secundiflorum (LS)) were blended with High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) to produce fiber reinforced plastic ...

  11. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    Hoang, Cao linh


    The paper deals with the plastic shear strength of non shear reinforced T-beams.The influence of an un-reinforced flange on the shear capacity is investigated by considering a failure mechanism involving crack sliding in the web and a kind of membrane action over an effective width of the flange...

  12. optimisation of thickness of fibre reinforced polymer sheets for ...

    The use of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) is becoming a widely accepted solution for repairing and strengthening of deteriorated reinforced concrete members, to restore their load carrying capacities. One of the major concerns in the use of FRP is its cost. This therefore calls for the use of efficient and cost effective design ...

  13. Continuous residual reinforcement learning for traffic signal control optimization

    Aslani, Mohammad; Seipel, Stefan; Wiering, Marco


    Traffic signal control can be naturally regarded as a reinforcement learning problem. Unfortunately, it is one of the most difficult classes of reinforcement learning problems owing to its large state space. A straightforward approach to address this challenge is to control traffic signals based on

  14. The extrinsic influence of carbon fibre reinforced plastic laminates to ...

    The extrinsic influence of carbon fibre reinforced plastic laminates to strengthen steel structures ... The intrinsic advantages of strengthening the steel-based structures by the use of fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) material have ... Sadhana | News.

  15. Disperse reinforced concrete used in obtaining prefabricated elements for roads

    Bogdan MEZEI


    Full Text Available Concrete is the most used material in construction. By improving the performance of materials and of technologies, concretes with outstanding performances were also developed, in the past two decades. Concrete with dispersed reinforcement represents a new generation of reinforced concrete that combines a good behavior of concrete compressive strength with an increased tensile strength of steel fibers. Using this material, monolithic and prefabricated concrete elements with high mechanical strengths and high durability can be obtained. Technological processes for preparation of concrete with dispersed reinforcement are similar to the conventional methods and do not involve using additional equipment for dosing the dispersed reinforcement. The study aimed the development of road plates made with optimized disperse- reinforced concrete. The first tests were done on plates from the gutter roadway, having a classic reinforcement, using different percentages of fibre reinforcement in the concrete composition, leading to the development of a new optimized economical solution. The results prove the enhanced characteristics of the disperse-reinforced concrete versus conventional concrete, and hence of the developed concrete plates.

  16. How edge-reinforced random walk arises naturally

    Rolles, S.W.W.


    We give a characterization of a modified edge-reinforced random walk in terms of certain partially exchangeable sequences. In particular, we obtain a characterization of an edge-reinforced random walk (introduced by Coppersmith and Diaconis) on a 2-edge-connected graph. Modifying the notion of

  17. Energy Absorption of Monolithic and Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Cylinders

    De Kanter, J.L.C.G.


    Summary accompanying the thesis: Energy Absorption of Monolithic and Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Cylinders by Jens de Kanter This thesis presents the investigation of the crush behaviour of both monolithic aluminium cylinders and externally fibre reinforced aluminium cylinders. The research is based

  18. Optimising of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Mix Design | Beddar ...

    Optimising of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Mix Design. ... as a result of the loss of mixture workability that will be translated into a difficult concrete casting in site. ... An experimental study of an optimisation method of fibres in reinforced ...

  19. Engineered cementitious composites for strengthening masonry infilled reinforced concrete frames

    Dehghani, Ayoub; Nateghi-Alahi, Fariborz; Fischer, Gregor


    The results of the second part of a comprehensive experimental program, aimed at investigating the behavior of masonry infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames strengthened with fiber reinforced engineered cementitious composites (ECC) used as an overlay on the masonry wall, are presented...

  20. Reinforcement learning in continuous state and action spaces

    H. P. van Hasselt (Hado); M.A. Wiering; M. van Otterlo


    textabstractMany traditional reinforcement-learning algorithms have been designed for problems with small finite state and action spaces. Learning in such discrete problems can been difficult, due to noise and delayed reinforcements. However, many real-world problems have continuous state or action

  1. Visual reinforcement audiometry: an Adobe Flash based approach.

    Atherton, Steve


    Visual Reinforcement Audiometry (VRA) is a key behavioural test for young children. It is central to the diagnosis of hearing-impaired infants (1) . Habituation to the visual reinforcement can give misleading results. Medical Illustration ABM University Health Board has designed a collection of Flash animations to overcome this.

  2. The improved design method of shear strength of reinforced concrete beams without transverse reinforcement

    Vegera Pavlo


    Full Text Available In this article, results of experimental testing of reinforced concrete beams without transverse shear reinforcement are given. Three prototypes for improved testing methods were tested. The testing variable parameter was the shear span to the effective depth ratio. In the result of the tests we noticed that bearing capacity of RC beams is increased with the decreasing shear span to the effective depth ratio. The design method according to current codes was applied to test samples and it showed a significant discrepancy results. Than we proposed the improved design method using the adjusted value of shear strength of concrete CRd,c. The results obtained by the improved design method showed satisfactory reproducibility.

  3. Highly radioresistant aramid fiber as a concrete-reinforcing material. Development of reinforced compound materials

    Udagawa, Akira; Moriya, Toshio.


    Nuclear installations, such as nuclear fusion reactor always receive strong influence from magnetic field. There, stray current is induced by the changes in magnetic fields among iron rods of the construction, resulting that the plasma control magnetic field might be disturbed. As the countermeasures for these troubles, iron rods mixed with non-magnetic Mn-steel have been used in JAERI, but it is insufficient to completely prevent such electromagnetic damages. Thus, aramid fiber reinforced plastics (ArFRP) was paid an attention as a concrete-reinforcing material. JAERI has been attempting to develop a radioresistant ArFRP jointly with Mitsui Construction Co., Ltd. and a highly efficient producing process of ArFRP was developed. The product had superior properties in respects of radioresistancy, heat-resistancy and durability. The properties of newly developed ArFRP rods were compared with those of the conventional ArFRP and iron rods. (M.N.)

  4. Design of reinforced concrete members based on structural mechanics

    Diaz, B.E.; Schulz, M.


    Up to now the design of reinforced concrete linear members is performed with the help of an inconsistent design theory, which nevertherless is sufficiently safe and simple to be used in the practice. The purpose of this paper is to present a rational reinforced concrete design method which is not too dissimilar to the present design rules, but is capable of defining consistently internal stresses along a reinforced concrete section. The present status of the completed computer procedures allows the analysis of linear reinforced concrete members formed by laminar reinforced concrete plates presenting variable thickness. A practical approach is presented for which the concrete and steel section is constant along the member axis. In this case, the concept of the equivalent section is introduced, which allows a simple analysis of the stress pattern along the member section. (Author) [pt

  5. Behavior of reinforcement SCC beams under elevated temperatures

    Fathi, Hamoon; Farhang, Kianoosh


    This experimental study focuses on the behavior of heated reinforced concrete beams. Four types of concrete mixtures were used for the tested self-compacting concrete beams. A total of 72 reinforced concrete beams and 72 standard cylindrical specimens were tested. The compressive strength under uniaxial loading at 23 °C ranged from 30 to 45 MPa. The specimens were exposed to different temperatures. The test parameters of interest were the compressive strength and the temperature of the specimens. The effect of changes in the parameters was examined so as to control the behavior of the tested concrete and that of the reinforced concrete beam. The results indicated that flexibility and compressive strength of the reinforced concrete beams decreased at higher temperatures. Furthermore, heating beyond 400 °C produced greater variations in the structural behavior of the materials in both the cylindrical samples and the reinforced concrete beams.

  6. Quantitative radiographic analysis of fiber reinforced polymer composites.

    Baidya, K P; Ramakrishna, S; Rahman, M; Ritchie, A


    X-ray radiographic examination of the bone fracture healing process is a widely used method in the treatment and management of patients. Medical devices made of metallic alloys reportedly produce considerable artifacts that make the interpretation of radiographs difficult. Fiber reinforced polymer composite materials have been proposed to replace metallic alloys in certain medical devices because of their radiolucency, light weight, and tailorable mechanical properties. The primary objective of this paper is to provide a comparable radiographic analysis of different fiber reinforced polymer composites that are considered suitable for biomedical applications. Composite materials investigated consist of glass, aramid (Kevlar-29), and carbon reinforcement fibers, and epoxy and polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) matrices. The total mass attenuation coefficient of each material was measured using clinical X-rays (50 kev). The carbon fiber reinforced composites were found to be more radiolucent than the glass and kevlar fiber reinforced composites.

  7. Tensile behavior and tension stiffening of reinforced concrete

    Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon


    For the ultimate behavior analysis of containment buildings under severe accident conditions, a clear understanding of tensile behaviors of plain and reinforced concrete is necessary. Nonlinear models for tensile behaviors of concrete are also needed. This report describe following items: tensile behaviors of plain concrete, test results of reinforced concrete panels in uniaxial and biaxial tension, tension stiffening. The tensile behaviors of reinforced concrete are significantly influenced by the properties of concrete and reinforcing steel. Thus, for a more reliable evaluation of tensile behavior and ultimate pressure capacity of a reinforced or prestressed concrete containment building, an advanced concrete model which can be considered rebar-concrete interaction effects should be developed. In additions, a crack behavior analysis method and tension stiffening models, which are based on fracture mechanics, should be developed. The model should be based on the various test data from specimens considering material and sectional properties of the containment building

  8. Reinforcement Corrosion: Numerical Simulation and Service Life Prediction

    Michel, Alexander

    defects and b) define the end of service life once reinforcement corrosion is initiated neglecting corrosion processes during the propagation stage. The goal of this work was to develop a framework for the service life prediction of reinforced concrete covering initiation and propagation of chloride......Modelling of deterioration processes in concrete structures plays an increasing role in the design of reinforced concrete structures. Large sums are spent every year to ensure the durability of concrete structures, especially towards reinforcement corrosion. Improved durability provides increased...... structural reliability, economical improvements in form of less need for maintenance and repair as well as increased sustainability due to an increased energy and resource efficiency. Several service life prediction models dealing with reinforcement corrosion in concrete structurescan be found...

  9. A shell approach for fibrous reinforcement forming simulations

    Liang, B.; Colmars, J.; Boisse, P.


    Because of the slippage between fibers, the basic assumptions of classical plate and shell theories are not verified by fiber reinforcement during a forming. However, simulations of reinforcement forming use shell finite elements when wrinkles development is important. A shell formulation is proposed for the forming simulations of continuous fiber reinforcements. The large tensile stiffness leads to the quasi inextensibility in the fiber directions. The fiber bending stiffness determines the curvature of the reinforcement. The calculation of tensile and bending virtual works are based on the precise geometry of the single fiber. Simulations and experiments are compared for different reinforcements. It is shown that the proposed fibrous shell approach not only correctly simulates the deflections but also the rotations of the through thickness material normals.

  10. Cohesive fracture model for functionally graded fiber reinforced concrete

    Park, Kyoungsoo; Paulino, Glaucio H.; Roesler, Jeffery


    A simple, effective, and practical constitutive model for cohesive fracture of fiber reinforced concrete is proposed by differentiating the aggregate bridging zone and the fiber bridging zone. The aggregate bridging zone is related to the total fracture energy of plain concrete, while the fiber bridging zone is associated with the difference between the total fracture energy of fiber reinforced concrete and the total fracture energy of plain concrete. The cohesive fracture model is defined by experimental fracture parameters, which are obtained through three-point bending and split tensile tests. As expected, the model describes fracture behavior of plain concrete beams. In addition, it predicts the fracture behavior of either fiber reinforced concrete beams or a combination of plain and fiber reinforced concrete functionally layered in a single beam specimen. The validated model is also applied to investigate continuously, functionally graded fiber reinforced concrete composites.

  11. Behaviour of fibre reinforced polymer confined reinforced concrete columns under fire condition

    Chowdhury, Ershad Ullah

    In recent years, fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) materials have demonstrated enormous potential as materials for repairing and retrofitting concrete bridges that have deteriorated from factors such as electro-chemical corrosion and increased load requirements. However, concerns associated with fire remain an obstacle to applications of FRP materials in buildings and parking garages due to FRP's sensitivity to high temperatures as compared with other structural materials and to limited knowledge on their thermal and mechanical behaviour in fire. This thesis presents results from an ongoing study on the fire performance of FRP materials, fire insulation materials and systems, and FRP wrapped reinforced concrete columns. The overall goal of the study is to understand the fire behaviour of FRP materials and FRP strengthened concrete columns and ultimately, provide rational fire safety design recommendations and guidelines for FRP strengthened concrete columns. A combined experimental and numerical investigation was conducted to achieve the goals of this research study. The experimental work consisted of both small-scale FRP material testing at elevated temperatures and full-scale fire tests on FRP strengthened columns. A numerical model was developed to simulate the behaviour of unwrapped reinforced concrete and FRP strengthened reinforced concrete square or rectangular columns in fire. After validating the numerical model against test data available in literature, it was determined that the numerical model can be used to analyze the behaviour of concrete axial compressive members in fire. Results from this study also demonstrated that although FRP materials experience considerable loss of their mechanical and bond properties at temperatures somewhat below the glass transition temperature of the resin matrix, externally-bonded FRP can be used in strengthening concrete structural members in buildings, if appropriate supplemental fire protection system is provided over

  12. Review of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Reinforced Material in Concrete Structure

    Ayuddin Ayuddin


    Full Text Available Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP is a material that is lightweight, strong, anti-magnetic and corrosion resistant. This material can be used as an option to replace the steel material in concrete construction or as material to improve the strength of existing construction. CFRP is quite easy to be attached to the concrete structure and proved economically used as a material for repairing damaged structures and increase the resilience of structural beams, columns, bridges and other parts of the structure against earthquakes. CFRP materials can be shaped sheet to be attached to the concrete surface. Another reason is due to the use of CFRP has a higher ultimate strength and lower weight compared to steel reinforcement so that the handling is significantly easier. Through this paper suggests that CFRP materials can be applied to concrete structures, especially on concrete columns. Through the results of experiments conducted proved that the concrete columns externally wrapped with CFRP materials can increase the strength. This treatment is obtained after testing experiments on 130 mm diameter column with a height of 700 mm with concentric loading method to collapse. The experimental results indicate that a column is wrapped externally with CFRP materials can achieve a load capacity of 250 kN compared to the concrete columns externally without CFRP material which only reached 150 kN. If the column is given internally reinforcing steel and given externally CFRP materials can reach 270 kN. It shows that CFRP materials can be used for concrete structures can even replace reinforcing steel that has been widely used in building construction in Indonesia.

  13. The general matching law describes choice on concurrent variable-interval schedules of wheel-running reinforcement.

    Belke, T W; Belliveau, J


    Six male Wistar rats were exposed to concurrent variable-interval schedules of wheel-running reinforcement. The reinforcer associated with each alternative was the opportunity to run for 15 s, and the duration of the changeover delay was 1 s. Results suggested that time allocation was more sensitive to relative reinforcement rate than was response allocation. For time allocation, the mean slopes and intercepts were 0.82 and 0.008, respectively. In contrast, for response allocation, mean slopes and intercepts were 0.60 and 0.03, respectively. Correction for low response rates and high rates of changing over, however, increased slopes for response allocation to about equal those for time allocation. The results of the present study suggest that the two-operant form of the matching law can be extended to wheel-running reinforcement. 'I'he effects of a low overall response rate, a short Changeover delay, and long postreinforcement pausing on the assessment of matching in the present study are discussed.

  14. Exercise reinforcement, stress, and β-endorphins: an initial examination of exercise in anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence.

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Shope, Sydney; Varangis, Eleanna; Klein, Diane; Pfaff, Donald W; Yehuda, Rachel


    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) are abused primarily in the context of intense exercise and for the purposes of increasing muscle mass as opposed to drug-induced euphoria. AASs also modulate the HPA axis and may increase the reinforcing value of exercise through changes to stress hormone and endorphin release. To test this hypothesis, 26 adult males drawn from a larger study on AAS use completed a progressive ratio task designed to examine the reinforcing value of exercise relative to financial reinforcer. Sixteen experienced and current users (8 on-cycle, 8 off-cycle) and 10 controls matched on quantity×frequency of exercise, age, and education abstained from exercise for 24 h prior to testing and provided 24-h cortisol, plasma cortisol, ACTH, β-endorphin samples, and measures of mood, compulsive exercise, and body image. Between group differences indicated that on-cycle AAS users had the highest β-endorphin levels, lowest cortisol levels, higher ACTH levels than controls. Conversely, off-cycle AAS users had the highest cortisol and ACTH levels, but the lowest β-endorphin levels. Exercise value was positively correlated with β-endorphin and symptoms of AAS dependence. The HPA response to AASs may explain why AASs are reinforcing in humans and exercise may play a key role in the development of AAS dependence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Full Scale Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joints Strengthened with Steel Reinforced Polymer Systems

    Alessandro De Vita


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign performed at the Laboratory of Materials and Structural Testing of the University of Salerno (Italy in order to investigate the seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC beam-column joints strengthened with steel reinforced polymer (SRP systems. With the aim to represent typical façade frames’ beam-column subassemblies found in existing RC buildings, specimens were provided with two short beam stubs orthogonal to the main beam and were designed with inadequate seismic details. Five members were strengthened by using two different SRP layouts while the remaining ones were used as benchmarks. Once damaged, two specimens were also repaired, retrofitted with SRP, and subjected to cyclic test again. The results of cyclic tests performed on SRP strengthened joints are examined through a comparison with the outcomes of the previous experimental program including companion specimens not provided with transverse beam stubs and strengthened by carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP systems. In particular, both qualitative and quantitative considerations about the influence of the confining effect provided by the secondary beams on the joint response, the suitability of all the adopted strengthening solutions (SRP/CFRP systems, the performances and the failure modes experienced in the several cases studied are provided.

  16. Experimental and analytical investigation of reinforced high strength concrete continuous beams strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer

    Akbarzadeh, H.; Maghsoudi, A.A.


    Carbon and glass fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP and GFRP) are two materials suitable for strengthening the reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Although many in situ RC beams are of continuous constructions, there has been very limited research on the behavior of such beams with externally applied FRP laminate. In addition, most design guidelines were developed for simply supported beams with external FRP laminates. This paper presents an experimental program conducted to study the flexural behavior and redistribution in moment of reinforced high strength concrete (RHSC) continuous beams strengthened with CFRP and GFRP sheets. Test results showed that with increasing the number of CFRP sheet layers, the ultimate strength increases, while the ductility, moment redistribution, and ultimate strain of CFRP sheet decrease. Also, by using the GFRP sheet in strengthening the continuous beam reduced loss in ductility and moment redistribution but it did not significantly increase ultimate strength of beam. The moment enhancement ratio of the strengthened continuous beams was significantly higher than the ultimate load enhancement ratio in the same beam. An analytical model for moment-curvature and load capacity are developed and used for the tested continuous beams in current and other similar studies. The stress-strain curves of concrete, steel and FRP were considered as integrity model. Stress-strain model of concrete is extended from Oztekin et al.'s model by modifying the ultimate strain. Also, new parameters of equivalent stress block are obtained for flexural calculation of RHSC beams. Good agreement between experiment and prediction values is achieved.

  17. The aging male project

    Farid Saad


    alpha estradiol have been synthesized some of which show selectivity for the central nervous system. CNS effects have been demonstrated in female and male animals. Cardiovascular protection by estrogens has been shown in animal and human studies. Atherosclerotic plaque size was reduced after estrogen injections in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Phytoestrogen-fed monkeys had lower total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and higher HDL cholesterol. Apart from atherosclerotic lesions, coronary artery vascular reactivity was improved. Some of these experimental findings were confirmed in human studies in postmenopausal women with and without estrogen treatment. Whether all of the described estrogenic effects can be seen in men remains to be investigated. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 127-33Keywords : aging, andropause, testosterone, estrogens

  18. Factors that influence the reinforcing value of foods and beverages.

    Temple, Jennifer L


    Behavioral economic principles state that as the cost of a product increases, purchasing or consumption of that product will decrease. To understand the impact of behavioral economics on ingestive behavior, our laboratory utilizes an operant behavior paradigm to measure how much work an individual will engage in to get access to foods and beverages. This task provides an objective measure of the reinforcing value. We have shown that consumption of the same high fat snack food every day for two weeks reduces its reinforcing value in lean individuals, but increases its reinforcing value in a subset of obese individuals. This increase in the reinforcing value of food predicts future weight gain. Similarly, we have shown that repeated intake of caffeinated soda increases its reinforcing value in boys, but not in girls. This increase in reinforcing value is not related to usual caffeine consumption, but may be associated with positive, subjective effects of caffeine that are more likely to be reported by boys than by girls. Because food and beverage reinforcement relates to real-world consumption, it is important to determine factors that increase or decrease the reinforcing value and determine the consequences of these responses. We are especially interested in determining ways to shift the behavioral economic curve in order to develop novel strategies to decrease the reinforcing value of less healthy snack foods and beverages, such as soda, potato chips and candy and to increase the reinforcing value of healthier foods and beverages, such as water, fruits, and vegetables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain network response underlying decisions about abstract reinforcers.

    Mills-Finnerty, Colleen; Hanson, Catherine; Hanson, Stephen Jose


    Decision making studies typically use tasks that involve concrete action-outcome contingencies, in which subjects do something and get something. No studies have addressed decision making involving abstract reinforcers, where there are no action-outcome contingencies and choices are entirely hypothetical. The present study examines these kinds of choices, as well as whether the same biases that exist for concrete reinforcer decisions, specifically framing effects, also apply during abstract reinforcer decisions. We use both General Linear Model as well as Bayes network connectivity analysis using the Independent Multi-sample Greedy Equivalence Search (IMaGES) algorithm to examine network response underlying choices for abstract reinforcers under positive and negative framing. We find for the first time that abstract reinforcer decisions activate the same network of brain regions as concrete reinforcer decisions, including the striatum, insula, anterior cingulate, and VMPFC, results that are further supported via comparison to a meta-analysis of decision making studies. Positive and negative framing activated different parts of this network, with stronger activation in VMPFC during negative framing and in DLPFC during positive, suggesting different decision making pathways depending on frame. These results were further clarified using connectivity analysis, which revealed stronger connections between anterior cingulate, insula, and accumbens during negative framing compared to positive. Taken together, these results suggest that not only do abstract reinforcer decisions rely on the same brain substrates as concrete reinforcers, but that the response underlying framing effects on abstract reinforcers also resemble those for concrete reinforcers, specifically increased limbic system connectivity during negative frames. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Patterns of reproductive isolation in the Drosophila subquinaria complex: can reinforced premating isolation cascade to other species?

    Humphreys, Devon P.; Rundle, Howard D.; Dyer, Kelly A.


    Abstract The reinforcement of premating barriers due to reduced hybrid fitness in sympatry may cause secondary sexual isolation within a species as a by-product. Consistent with this, in the fly Drosophila subquinaria, females that are sympatric with D. recens mate at very low rates not only with D. recens, but also with conspecific D. subquinaria males from allopatry. Here, we ask if these effects of reinforcement cascade more broadly to affect sexual isolation with other closely related species. We assay reproductive isolation of these species with D. transversa and find that choosy D. subquinaria females from the region sympatric with D. recens discriminate strongly against male D. transversa, whereas D. subquinaria from the allopatric region do not. This increased sexual isolation cannot be explained by natural selection to avoid mating with this species, as they are allopatric in geographic range and we do not identify any intrinsic postzygotic isolation between D. subquinaria and D. transversa. Variation in epicuticular hydrocarbons, which are used as mating signals in D. subquinaria, follow patterns of premating isolation: D. transversa and allopatric D. subquinaria are most similar to each other and differ from sympatric D. subquinaria, and those of D. recens are distinct from the other two species. We suggest that the secondary effects of reinforcement may cascade to strengthen reproductive isolation with other species that were not a target of selection. These effects may enhance the divergence that occurs in allopatry to help explain why some species are already sexually isolated upon secondary contact. PMID:29491905

  1. Influence of sedentary, social, and physical alternatives on food reinforcement.

    Carr, Katelyn A; Epstein, Leonard H


    This study examined the potential for nonfood alternative activities to compete with the reinforcing value of food. Participants rated the frequency and pleasantness of engaging in a variety of activities and made hypothetical choices between food and 4 types of alternatives; cognitive-enriching (reading, listening to music), social (attending a party or event), sedentary (watching TV), and physically active (running, biking). Two-hundred seventy-six adults completed an online survey using a crowdsourcing platform. Adults with higher BMI reported engaging in fewer activities within the cognitive-enriching, social, and physically active categories. When examining how well each alternative activity type was able to compete with food, sedentary alternatives were associated with the highest food reinforcement, or were least able to compete with food reinforcers, as compared with cognitive-enriching, social, and physical. Social activities were associated with the lowest food reinforcement, or the best able to compete with food reinforcers. These results suggest that increasing the frequency and range of nonfood alternative activities may be important to obesity. This study also suggests that the class of social activities may have the biggest impact on reducing food reinforcement, and the class of sedentary may have the smallest effect on food reinforcement. These tools have relevance to clinical interventions that capitalize on increasing access to behaviors that can reduce the motivation to eat in clinical interventions for obesity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Strain rate effects on reinforcing steels in tension

    Cadoni, Ezio; Forni, Daniele


    It is unquestionable the fact that a structural system should be able to fulfil the function for which it was created, without being damaged to an extent disproportionate to the cause of damage. In addition, it is an undeniable fact that in reinforced concrete structures under severe dynamic loadings, both concrete and reinforcing bars are subjected to high strain-rates. Although the behavior of the reinforcing steel under high strain rates is of capital importance in the structural assessment under the abovementioned conditions, only the behaviour of concrete has been widely studied. Due to this lack of data on the reinforcing steel under high strain rates, an experimental program on rebar reinforcing steels under high strain rates in tension is running at the DynaMat Laboratory. In this paper a comparison of the behaviour in a wide range of strain-rates of several types of reinforcing steel in tension is presented. Three reinforcing steels, commonly proposed by the European Standards, are compared: B500A, B500B and B500C. Lastly, an evaluation of the most common constitutive laws is performed.

  3. Mechanical Properties of Welded Deformed Reinforcing Steel Bars

    Ghafur H. Ahmed


    Full Text Available Reinforcement strength, ductility and bendability properties are important components in design of reinforced concrete members, as the strength of any member comes mainly from reinforcement. Strain compatibility and plastic behaviors are mainly depending on reinforcement ductility. In construction practice, often welding of the bars is required. Welding of reinforcement is an instant solution in many cases, whereas welding is not a routine connection process. Welding will cause deficiencies in reinforcement bars, metallurgical changes and re-crystallization of microstructure of particles. Weld metal toughness is extremely sensitive to the welding heat input that decreases both of its strength and ductility. For determining the effects of welding in reinforcement properties, 48 specimens were tested with 5 different bar diameters, divided into six groups. Investigated parameters were: properties of un-welded bars; strength, ductility and density of weld metal; strength and ductility reduction due to heat input for bundled bars and transverse bars; welding effect on bars’ bending properties; behavior of different joint types; properties of three weld groove shapes also the locations and types of failures sections. Results show that, strength and elongation of the welded bars decreased by (10-40% and (30-60% respectively. Cold bending of welded bars and groove welds shall be prevented.

  4. Experience with dynamic reinforcement rates decreases resistance to extinction.

    Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A


    The ability of organisms to detect reinforcer-rate changes in choice preparations is positively related to two factors: the magnitude of the change in rate and the frequency with which rates change. Gallistel (2012) suggested similar rate-detection processes are responsible for decreases in responding during operant extinction. Although effects of magnitude of change in reinforcer rate on resistance to extinction are well known (e.g., the partial-reinforcement-extinction effect), effects of frequency of changes in rate prior to extinction are unknown. Thus, the present experiments examined whether frequency of changes in baseline reinforcer rates impacts resistance to extinction. Pigeons pecked keys for variable-interval food under conditions where reinforcer rates were stable and where they changed within and between sessions. Overall reinforcer rates between conditions were controlled. In Experiment 1, resistance to extinction was lower following exposure to dynamic reinforcement schedules than to static schedules. Experiment 2 showed that resistance to presession feeding, a disruptor that should not involve change-detection processes, was unaffected by baseline-schedule dynamics. These findings are consistent with the suggestion that change detection contributes to extinction. We discuss implications of change-detection processes for extinction of simple and discriminated operant behavior and relate these processes to the behavioral-momentum based approach to understanding extinction. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  5. Thermomechanical analyses of phenolic foam reinforced with glass fiber mat

    Zhou, Jintang; Yao, Zhengjun; Chen, Yongxin; Wei, Dongbo; Wu, Yibing


    Highlights: • Over 10% glass fiber was used to reinforce phenolic foam in the shape of glass fiber mat. • Nucleating agents were used together with glass fiber mat and improved tensile strength of phenolic foam by 215.6%. • Nucleating agents lead to a smaller bubble size of phenolic foam. • The glass transition temperature of phenolic foam remained unchanged during the reinforcement. - Abstract: In this paper, thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and dynamic mechanical analysis were employed to study the properties of phenolic foam reinforced with glass fiber mat. Unreinforced phenolic foam was taken as the control sample. Mechanical tests and scanning electron microscopy were performed to confirm the results of TMA. The results show that glass fiber mat reinforcement improves the mechanical performance of phenolic foam, and nucleating agents improve it further. Phenolic foam reinforced with glass fiber mat has a smaller thermal expansion coefficient compared with unreinforced foam. The storage modulus of the reinforced phenolic foam is also higher than that in unreinforced foam, whereas the loss modulus of the former is lower than that of the latter. The glass transition temperature of the phenolic foam matrix remains unchanged during the reinforcement

  6. Effect of kenaf fiber in reinforced concrete slab

    Syed Mohsin, S. M.; Baarimah, A. O.; Jokhio, G. A.


    The effect of kenaf fibers in reinforced concrete slab with different thickness is discusses and presented in this paper. Kenaf fiber is a type of natural fiber and is added in the reinforced concrete slab to improve the structure strength and ductility. For this study, three types of mixtures were prepared with fiber volume fraction of 0%, 1% and 2%, respectively. The design compressive strength considered was 20 MPa. Six cubes were prepared to be tested at 7th and 28th day. A total of six reinforced concrete slab with two variances of thickness were also prepared and tested under four-point bending test. The differences in the thickness is to study the potential of kenaf fiber to serve as part of shear reinforcement in reinforced concrete slab that was design to fail in shear. It was observed that, addition of kenaf fiber in reinforced concrete slab improves the flexural strength and ductility of the reinforced concrete slab. In the slab with reduction in thickness, the mode of failure change from brittle to ductile with the inclusion of kenaf fiber.

  7. Investigation of nanoscale reinforcement into textile polymers

    Khan, Mujibur Rahman

    A dual inclusion strategy for textile polymers has been investigated to increase elastic energy storage capacity of fibers used in high velocity impact applications. Commercial fibers such as Spectra and Dyneema are made from ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Dynamic elastic energy of these fibers is still low therefore limiting their wholesale application without a secondary metallic or ceramic component. The idea in this investigation is to develop methodologies so that the elastic energy of polyethylene based fibers can be increased by several folds. This would allow manufacturing of an all-fabric system for high impact applications. The dual inclusion consists of a polymer phase and a nanoscale inorganic phase to polyethylene. The polymer phase was nylon-6 and the inorganic phase was carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Nylon-6 was blended as a minor phase into UHMWPE and was chosen because of its large fracture strain -- almost one order higher than that of UHMWPE. On the other hand, CNTs with their very high strength, modulus, and aspect ratio, contributed to sharing of load and sliding of polymer interfaces as they aligned during extrusion and strain hardening processes. A solution spinning process was developed to produce UHMWPE filaments reinforced with CNTs and nylon-6. The procedure involved dispersing of CNTs into paraffin oil through sonication followed by dissolving polymers into paraffin-CNT solution using a homogenizer. The admixture was fed into a single screw extruder for melt mixing and extrusion through an orifice. The extrudate was rinsed via a hexane bath, stabilized through a heater, and then drawn into a filament winder with controlled stretching. In the next step, the as produced filaments were strain-hardened through repeated loading unloading cycles under tension. Neat and reinforced filaments were characterized through DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), XRD (X-ray Diffraction), Raman Spectroscopy, SEM (Scanning Electron

  8. Thermoforming of Continuous Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites

    McCool, Rauri; Murphy, Adrian; Wilson, Ryan; Jiang Zhenyu; Price, Mark


    The introduction of new materials, particularly for aerospace products, is not a simple, quick or cheap task. New materials require extensive and expensive qualification and must meet challenging strength, stiffness, durability, manufacturing, inspection and maintenance requirements. Growth in industry acceptance for fibre reinforced thermoplastic composite systems requires the determination of whole life attributes including both part processing and processed part performance data. For thermoplastic composite materials the interactions between the processing parameters, in-service structural performance and end of life recyclability are potentially interrelated. Given the large number and range of parameters and the complexity of the potential relationships, understanding for whole life design must be developed in a systematic building block approach. To assess and demonstrate such an approach this article documents initial coupon level thermoforming trials for a commercially available fibre reinforced thermoplastic laminate, identifying the key interactions between processing and whole life performance characteristics. To examine the role of the thermoforming process parameters on the whole life performance characteristics of the formed part requires a series of manufacturing trials combined with a series of characterisation tests on the manufacturing trial output. Using a full factorial test programme and considering all possible process parameters over a range of potential magnitudes would result in a very large number of manufacturing trials and accompanying characterisation tests. Such an approach would clearly be expensive and require significant time to complete, therefore failing to address the key requirement for a future design methodology capable of rapidly generating design knowledge for new materials and processes. In this work the role of mould tool temperature and blank forming temperature on the thermoforming of a commercially available

  9. Nanoscale Reinforced, Polymer Derived Ceramic Matrix Coatings

    Rajendra Bordia


    The goal of this project was to explore and develop a novel class of nanoscale reinforced ceramic coatings for high temperature (600-1000 C) corrosion protection of metallic components in a coal-fired environment. It was focused on developing coatings that are easy to process and low cost. The approach was to use high-yield preceramic polymers loaded with nano-size fillers. The complex interplay of the particles in the polymer, their role in controlling shrinkage and phase evolution during thermal treatment, resulting densification and microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and effectiveness as corrosion protection coatings were investigated. Fe-and Ni-based alloys currently used in coal-fired environments do not possess the requisite corrosion and oxidation resistance for next generation of advanced power systems. One example of this is the power plants that use ultra supercritical steam as the working fluid. The increase in thermal efficiency of the plant and decrease in pollutant emissions are only possible by changing the properties of steam from supercritical to ultra supercritical. However, the conditions, 650 C and 34.5 MPa, are too severe and result in higher rate of corrosion due to higher metal temperatures. Coating the metallic components with ceramics that are resistant to corrosion, oxidation and erosion, is an economical and immediate solution to this problem. Good high temperature corrosion protection ceramic coatings for metallic structures must have a set of properties that are difficult to achieve using established processing techniques. The required properties include ease of coating complex shapes, low processing temperatures, thermal expansion match with metallic structures and good mechanical and chemical properties. Nanoscale reinforced composite coatings in which the matrix is derived from preceramic polymers have the potential to meet these requirements. The research was focused on developing suitable material systems and

  10. Effect of runway training on rat brain tyrosine hydroxylase: differential effect of continuous and partial reinforcement schedules.

    Boarder, M R; Feldon, J; Gray, J A; Fillenz, M


    Previous experiments have implicated ascending noradrenergic systems in the development of the behavioural responses to different patterns of reward. In this report food deprived male Sprague--Dawley rats were trained to run a straight alley for good reward on a continuous reinforcement (CRF) or a partial reinforcement (PRF) schedule. Tyrosine hydroxylase measured in a partially solubilized preparation from hippocampus and hypothalamus at the end of acquisition was not different from controls, indicating that enzyme induction does not occur during either training schedules. However, hippocampal synaptosomal tyrosine hydroxylation rates from the CRF group was significantly higher than from either the PRF group or the handled controls. This indicates that at the end of the acquisition schedule the noradrenergic projection to hippocampus was more active in the CRF group than with the PRF group or the handled control.

  11. Wheel running decreases the positive reinforcing effects of heroin.

    Smith, Mark A; Pitts, Elizabeth G


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of voluntary wheel running on the positive reinforcing effects of heroin in rats with an established history of drug self-administration. Rats were assigned to sedentary (no wheel) and exercise (wheel) conditions and trained to self-administer cocaine under positive reinforcement contingencies. Rats acquiring cocaine self-administration were then tested with various doses of heroin during daily test sessions. Sedentary rats self-administered more heroin than exercising rats, and this effect was greatest at low and moderate doses of heroin. These data suggest that voluntary wheel running decreases the positive reinforcing effects of heroin.

  12. Reinforcement learning in complementarity game and population dynamics.

    Jost, Jürgen; Li, Wei


    We systematically test and compare different reinforcement learning schemes in a complementarity game [J. Jost and W. Li, Physica A 345, 245 (2005)] played between members of two populations. More precisely, we study the Roth-Erev, Bush-Mosteller, and SoftMax reinforcement learning schemes. A modified version of Roth-Erev with a power exponent of 1.5, as opposed to 1 in the standard version, performs best. We also compare these reinforcement learning strategies with evolutionary schemes. This gives insight into aspects like the issue of quick adaptation as opposed to systematic exploration or the role of learning rates.

  13. Collaboration of polymer composite reinforcement and cement concrete

    Khozin, V. G.; Gizdatullin, A. R.


    The results of experimental study of bond strength of cement concrete of different types with fiber reinforcing polymer (FRP) bars are reported. The reinforcing bars were manufactured of glass fibers and had a rebar with different types of the surface relief formed by winding a thin strip impregnated with a binder or by “sanding”. The pullout tests were carried out simultaneously for the steel reinforcing ribbed bars A400. The impact of friction, adhesion and mechanical bond on the strength of bonds between FRP and concrete was studied. The influence of the concrete strength and different operation factors on the bond strength of concrete was evaluated.

  14. Numerical analysis of pipe impact on reinforced concrete structures

    Prinja, N.K.


    This paper presents the methodology and the results of numerical analyses carried out by using the computer code DYNA3D to analyse pipe impacts on a reinforced concrete slab, a floor beam and a column. Modelling techniques employed to represent various features of typical reinforced concrete (RC) structures and the details of a soil and crushable foam type of material model used to represent concrete material behaviour are described. The results show that a reasonable prediction of global behaviour of reinforced concrete structures under impact loading can be obtained by this numerical method. (author)

  15. Monitoring Corrosion of Steel Bars in Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Bhadauria, Sudhir Singh; Akhtar, Saleem


    Corrosion of steel bars embedded in reinforced concrete (RC) structures reduces the service life and durability of structures causing early failure of structure, which costs significantly for inspection and maintenance of deteriorating structures. Hence, monitoring of reinforcement corrosion is of significant importance for preventing premature failure of structures. This paper attempts to present the importance of monitoring reinforcement corrosion and describes the different methods for evaluating the corrosion state of RC structures, especially hal-cell potential (HCP) method. This paper also presents few techniques to protect concrete from corrosion. PMID:24558346

  16. Hybrid fiber reinforcement and crack formation in Cementitious Composite Materials

    Pereira, E.B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, J.A.O.


    reinforcement systems. The research described in this paper shows that the multi-scale conception of cracking and the use of hybrid fiber reinforcements do not necessarily result in an improved tensile behavior of the composite. Particular material design requirements may nevertheless justify the use of hybrid......- to the macroscale. In this study, the performance of different fiber reinforced cementitious composites is assessed in terms of their tensile stress-crack opening behavior. The results obtained from this investigation allow a direct quantitative comparison of the behavior obtained from the different fiber...

  17. Structural behavior of reinforced concrete structures at high temperatures

    Yamazaki, N.; Yamazaki, M.; Mochida, T.; Mutoh, A.; Miyashita, T.; Ueda, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Sugiyama, K.; Hirakawa, K.; Kikuchi, R.; Hiramoto, M.; Saito, K.


    To establish a method to predict the behavior of reinforced concrete structures subjected simultaneously to high temperatures and external loads, this paper presents the results obtained in several series of tests carried out recently in Japan. This paper reports on the material properties of concrete and steel bars under high temperatures. It also considers the heat transfer properties of thick concrete walls under transient high temperatures, and the structural behavior of reinforced concrete beams subjected to high temperatures. In the tests, data up to 800 C were obtained for use in developing a computational method to estimate the non-linear behavior of reinforced concrete structures exposed to high temperatures. (orig.)

  18. Monitoring corrosion of steel bars in reinforced concrete structures.

    Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Bhadauria, Sudhir Singh; Akhtar, Saleem


    Corrosion of steel bars embedded in reinforced concrete (RC) structures reduces the service life and durability of structures causing early failure of structure, which costs significantly for inspection and maintenance of deteriorating structures. Hence, monitoring of reinforcement corrosion is of significant importance for preventing premature failure of structures. This paper attempts to present the importance of monitoring reinforcement corrosion and describes the different methods for evaluating the corrosion state of RC structures, especially hal-cell potential (HCP) method. This paper also presents few techniques to protect concrete from corrosion.

  19. Stochastic Models for Chloride-Initiated Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

    Engelund, Svend; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures can lead to a substantial decrease of the load-bearing capacity. One mode of corrosion initiation is when the chloride content around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. In the present paper a statistical model is developed by which...... the chloride content in a 1reinforced concrete structure can be predicted. The model parameters are estimated on the basis of measurements. The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by FORMISORM-analysis....

  20. Episodic reinforcement learning control approach for biped walking

    Katić Duško


    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid dynamic control approach to the realization of humanoid biped robotic walk, focusing on the policy gradient episodic reinforcement learning with fuzzy evaluative feedback. The proposed structure of controller involves two feedback loops: a conventional computed torque controller and an episodic reinforcement learning controller. The reinforcement learning part includes fuzzy information about Zero-Moment- Point errors. Simulation tests using a medium-size 36-DOF humanoid robot MEXONE were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.