Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out the relationship between psychological variables and soccer playing ability among the university level male players. 42 soccer players representing different universities who participated in inter university competitions were selected as the subjects of the study. The dependent variable was soccer playing ability and independent variables were the selected psychological variables. Soccer playing ability was determined through a 10 point scale at the time of competitions. Psychological variables included achievement motivation, anxiety, self-concept and aggression. The data was statistically analyzed using Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis using SPSS. It was concluded that soccer playing ability has a positive correlation with achievement motivation and self-concept whereas anxiety and aggression have a negative correlation with soccer playing ability.
Harøy, Joar; Clarsen, Ben; Thorborg, Kristian
surveillance method developed to capture acute and overuse problems. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study. METHODS: We registered groin problems during a 6-week period of match congestion using the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Overuse Injury Questionnaire. A total of 240 players from 15 teams......BACKGROUND: The majority of surveillance studies in soccer have used a time-loss injury definition, and many groin problems result from overuse, leading to gradually increasing pain and/or reduced performance without necessarily causing an absence from soccer training or match play. Thus......, the magnitude of groin problems in soccer has probably been underestimated in previous studies based on traditional injury surveillance methods. PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence of groin problems among soccer players of both sexes and among male soccer players at different levels of play through a new...
Brophy, Robert H.; Schmitz, Leah; Wright, Rick W.; Dunn, Warren R.; Parker, Richard D.; Andrish, Jack T.; McCarty, Eric C.; Spindler, Kurt P.
Background There is limited information on outcomes and return to play (RTP) after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) in soccer athletes. Hypothesis The purpose of this study was to (i) test the hypotheses that player sex, side of injury and graft choice do not influence RTP, and (ii) define the risk for future ACL injury in soccer players after ACLR. Study design Retrospective cohort study, Level II. Methods Soccer players in a prospective cohort were contacted to determine RTP following ACLR. Information regarding if and when they returned to play, their current playing status, the primary reason they stopped playing soccer (if relevant) and incidence of subsequent ACL surgery was recorded. Results Initially, 72% of 100 soccer athletes (55 male, 45 female) with a mean age of 24.2 years at the time of ACL reconstruction returned to soccer. At average follow up of 7.0 years, 36% were still playing, a significant decrease compared to initial RTP (psoccer athletes had undergone further ACL surgery, including 9 on the contralateral knee and 3 on the ipsilateral knee. In a univariate analysis, females were more likely to have future ACL surgery (20% v. 5.5%, p=0.03). Soccer athletes who underwent ACLR on their non-dominant limb had a higher future rate of contra-lateral ACLR (16%) than soccer athletes who underwent ACLR on their dominant limb (3.5%) (p=0.03). Conclusion Younger and male soccer players are more likely to return to play after ACL reconstruction. Return to soccer following ACLR declines over time. PMID:23002201
Romann, Michael; Fuchslocher, Jörg
Relative age effects (RAEs) refer to age differences between children in the same selection year. The present study investigated the prevalence of RAEs and their link to playing positions in Swiss junior soccer. Swiss male junior soccer players (n=50,581) representing 11% of the age-matched population - members of extra-curricular soccer teams - were evaluated to determine the influence of RAEs on Swiss junior soccer. Subgroups were the national talent development programme (n=2880), and U-15 to U-21 national teams (n=630). While no RAEs were found for the self-selected extra-curricular soccer teams or for the U-20 teams (P>0.05), significant RAEs were found for talent development and the national U-15 to U-19 and U-21 teams (Pborn early in the year were significantly overrepresented compared with goalkeepers, midfielders and strikers (Ptalent identification process for U-15 to U-18 teams, significantly influencing the selection of players in talent development teams already at an early age, but do not influence self-selected participation in extra-curricular soccer. Additionally, the RAE bias may be a predictor of playing positions in national teams. To minimise RAEs in Swiss soccer, systematic education for all coaches regarding RAEs should be established, in addition to a slotting system with rotating calendar cut-off dates.
O'Kane, John W
Soccer is among the most popular youth sports with over 3 million youth players registered in the U.S. Soccer is unique in that players intentionally use their head to strike the ball, leading to concerns that heading could cause acute or chronic brain injury, especially in the immature brains of children. Pub Med search without date restriction was conducted in November 2014 and August 2015 using the terms soccer and concussion, heading and concussion, and youth soccer and concussion. 310 articles were identified and reviewed for applicable content specifically relating to youth athletes, heading, and/or acute or chronic brain injury from soccer. Soccer is a low-risk sport for catastrophic head injury, but concussions are relatively common and heading often plays a role. At all levels of play, concussions are more likely to occur in the act of heading than with other facets of the game. While concussion from heading the ball without other contact to the head appears rare in adult players, some data suggests children are more susceptible to concussion from heading primarily in game situations. Contributing factors include biomechanical forces, less developed technique, and the immature brain's susceptibility to injury. There is no evidence that heading in youth soccer causes any permanent brain injury and there is limited evidence that heading in youth soccer can cause concussion. A reasonable approach based on U.S. Youth Soccer recommendations is to teach heading after age 10 in controlled settings, and heading in games should be delayed until skill acquisition and physical maturity allow the youth player to head correctly with confidence.
Edholm, P; Krustrup, Peter; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard
This study investigated the acute effects of a half-time re-warm up on performance and movement patterns in soccer match play. Using a crossover design, 22 professional male players performed traditional passive rest (CON) or a low-intensity re-warm up (RW) during the half-time period of two soccer.......01). Moreover, RW had more possession of the ball in the beginning of the second half. In conclusion, traditional passive half-time rest leads to impaired sprint and jump performance during the initial phase of the second half in professional soccer players whereas a re-warm up effectively attenuates...
Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W; Freiwald, Jürgen
This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Randomized controlled trial. University biomechanics laboratory. Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into a stretching (26.9 ± 6.2 years, 1.77 ± 0.09 m, 67.9 ± 10.7 kg) and a control group (27.9 ± 7.4 years, 1.75 ± 0.08 m, 72.0 ± 14.9 kg). Thirty-one amateur soccer players in an additional soccer group (25.1 ± 5.6 years, 1.74 ± 0.10 m, 71.8 ± 14.8 kg). All participants had no history of knee injury requiring surgery and any previous knee ligament or cartilage injury. The stretching group performed 4 different static stretching exercises with a duration of 2 × 20 seconds interspersed with breaks of 10 seconds. The soccer group completed a 90-minute soccer-specific training program. The control group did not perform any physical activity for approximately 30 minutes. Anterior tibial translation was measured with the KT-1000 knee arthrometer at forces of 67 N, 89 N, and maximal manual force (Max) before and after the intervention. There was a significant increase in ATT after static stretching and playing soccer at all applied forces. Maximal manual testing revealed a mean increase of ATT after static stretching of 2.1 ± 1.6 mm (P soccer of 1.0 ± 1.5 mm (P = 0.001). The ATT increase after static stretching at 67 and 89 N is significantly higher than in controls. At maximum manual testing, significant differences were evident between all groups. Static stretching and playing soccer increase ATT and may consequently influence mechanical factors of the anterior cruciate ligament. The ATT increase after static stretching was greater than after playing soccer. The observed increase in ATT after static stretching and playing soccer may be associated with changes in kinesthetic perception and sensorimotor control, activation of muscles, joint stability, overall performance, and higher injury risk.
Beijsterveldt, A.M. van; Steffen, K.; Stubbe, J.H.; Frederiks, J.E.; Port, I.G.L. van de; Backx, F.J.G.
OBJECTIVE:: To describe characteristics of outdoor soccer injury and recovery among Dutch soccer players. DESIGN:: Prospective cohort study. SETTING:: The 2009-2010 competitive season (33 weeks). PARTICIPANTS:: Four hundred fifty-six Dutch male soccer players of 23 amateur teams. MAIN OUTCOME
van Beijsterveldt, A.M.C.
Soccer causes the largest number of injuries each year (18% of all sports injuries) in the Netherlands. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the body of evidence on injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Chapter 1 is a general introduction and presents the “sequence of
Leslie Andrews Portes
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine anthropometric and physical fitnesscharacteristics of Brazilian male children and adolescents at the beginning of soccer training. Inthis study, 282 male soccer players ranging in age from 10 to 13 years were evaluated. The athletesparticipated in a formal soccer training program 3 times per week, with each training lasting 3hours. Anthropometric and physical fitness parameters were obtained. The boys were divided intoage classes and prevalence data were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-square test. Parametric datawere compared by one-way ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test, when necessary. The resultsare expressed as the mean ± standard deviation and a p value <0.05 was considered to be significant.Growth, development, body adiposity and physical fitness characteristics were adequateand proportional to age among the boys studied (p<0.05. It was concluded that anthropometricand physical fitness characteristics of young male elite soccer players improve with and areproportional to age. Children and adolescents greatly benefit from regular physical activity. Thepresent results show that young male soccer players present adequate anthropometric conditionsand physical fitness prior to the initiation of formal training at soccer clubs.
Callum G. Brownstein
Full Text Available Aim: Previous research into the etiology of neuromuscular fatigue following competitive soccer match-play has primarily focused on peripheral perturbations, with limited research assessing central nervous system function in the days post-match. The aim of the present study was to examine the contribution and time-course of recovery of central and peripheral factors toward neuromuscular fatigue following competitive soccer match-play.Methods: Sixteen male semi-professional soccer players completed a 90-min soccer match. Pre-, post- and at 24, 48, and 72 h participants completed a battery of neuromuscular, physical, and perceptual tests. Maximal voluntary contraction force (MVC and twitch responses to electrical (femoral nerve and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS of the motor cortex during isometric knee-extension and at rest were measured to assess central nervous system (voluntary activation, VA and muscle contractile (potentiated twitch force, Qtw, pot function. Electromyography responses of the rectus femoris to single- and paired-pulse TMS were used to assess corticospinal excitability and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI, respectively. Fatigue and perceptions of muscle soreness were assessed via visual analog scales, and physical function was assessed through measures of jump (countermovement jump height and reactive strength index and sprint performance.Results: Competitive match-play elicited significant post-match declines in MVC force (−14%, P < 0.001 that persisted for 48 h (−4%, P = 0.01, before recovering by 72 h post-exercise. VA (motor point stimulation was reduced immediately post-match (−8%, P < 0.001, and remained depressed at 24 h (−5%, P = 0.01 before recovering by 48 h post-exercise. Qtw,pot was reduced post-match (−14%, P < 0.001, remained depressed at 24 h (−6%, P = 0.01, before recovering by 48 h post-exercise. No changes were evident in corticospinal excitability or SICI. Jump performance
Russell, Mark; Benton, David; Kingsley, Michael
The ingestion of carbohydrate (CHO) before and during exercise and at halftime is commonly recommended to soccer players for maintaining blood glucose concentrations throughout match play. However, an exercise-induced rebound glycemic response has been observed in the early stages of the second half of simulated soccer-specific exercise when CHO-electrolyte beverages were consumed regularly. Therefore, the metabolic effects of CHO beverage consumption throughout soccer match play remain unclear. To investigate the blood glucose and blood lactate responses to CHOs ingested before and during soccer match play. Crossover study. Applied research study. Ten male outfield academy soccer players (age = 15.6 ± 0.2 years, height = 1.74 ± 0.02 m, mass = 65.3 ± 1.9 kg, estimated maximal oxygen consumption = 58.4 ± 0.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Players received a 6% CHO-electrolyte solution or an electrolyte (placebo) solution 2 hours before kickoff, before each half (within 10 minutes), and every 15 minutes throughout exercise. Blood samples were obtained at rest, every 15 minutes during the match (first half: 0-15, 15-30, and 30-45 minutes; second half: 45-60, 60-75, and 75-90 minutes) and 10 minutes into the halftime break. Metabolic responses (blood glucose and blood lactate concentrations) and markers of exercise intensity (heart rate) were recorded. Supplementation influenced the blood glucose response to exercise (time × treatment interaction effect: P ≤ .05), such that glucose concentrations were higher at 30 to 45 minutes in the CHO than in the placebo condition. However, in the second half, blood glucose concentrations were similar between conditions because of transient reductions from peak values occurring in both trials at halftime. Blood lactate concentrations were elevated above those at rest in the first 15 minutes of exercise (time-of-sample effect: P interaction effect: P = .49). Ingestion of a 6% CHO-electrolyte beverage before and during soccer match
Souglis, Athanasios; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Chryssanthopoulos, Costas; Apostolidis, Nikolaos; Geladas, Nikos D
This study examined the influence of sex and playing position on the time-course of selected oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage markers following an official soccer match. Sixty professional soccer players (30 male and 30 female) were divided into three groups, according to their playing position: defenders, midfielders and attackers. Each group consisted of 10 male and 10 female players. Sixty healthy volunteers (30 males and 30 females) served as control. Blood samples were taken before and after the match and daily for five days after the match. Analysis of variance revealed different responses over time between sex and playing positions, as shown by the 3-way interaction, for creatine kinase (CK), protein carbonyls (PC), catalase, fibrinogen (FIB), uric acid (UA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reduced glutathione, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (p position, for all oxidative, inflammatory and muscle damage indices (psexes, midfielders had higher peaks in all indices compared with defenders (p sex and playing position influence the time-course of selected oxidative stress, inflammation and muscle damage markers following an official soccer game. This information should be taken into account by practitioners for the design of training programs following match play.
van der Horst, N
The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate strategies for the prevention of hamstring injuries. Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent muscle injury in soccer. In spite of efforts to reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in soccer, injury rates have not decreased over the last three decades. Therefore, research on hamstring injury prevention is necessary to reduce hamstring injury rates. Exercise programs to reduce soccer injuries are easy to implement during r...
Thorborg, Kristian; Branci, Sonia; Stensbirk, Frederik
BACKGROUND/AIM: Reference values are needed in order to interpret the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS) in male soccer players with hip and groin pain. The aim of this study was to establish reference values for HAGOS in hip and groin injury-free male soccer players. METHODS: We...... included 444 groin injury-free soccer players from 40 clubs (divisions 1-4) in Eastern Denmark, mean age (SD) 23.6 (4.4), training soccer 3.4 (1) times per week. All players were hip and groin injury-free at the time of inclusion (beginning of season, 2011). RESULTS: Of the 444 hip and groin injury...... HAGOS subscales (psoccer players, with no pain in the previous or present season (n=301), are: pain: 80.1-100, symptoms: 64.3-100, activities of daily living: 80...
Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to assess gender differences regarding lactate threshold and intermittent shuttle run performance in female and male soccer players as well as to investigate the relationships between both endurance characteristics in both genders. Fourteen female (1st division and thirteen male (4th division soccer players completed an incremental test (IT to determine running velocities at 2 and 4 mmol · l-1 blood lactate (v2 and v4 and maximum velocity (vmax as well as an interval shuttle run test (ISRT to determine running distance. Based on v2 and v4 and their percentages in relation to vmax, three intensity zones were calculated: a low lactate zone (v4. Female soccer players have a lower v4 (8.2%, vmax (11.3% and ISRT distance (31.6%. No gender difference was found in v2. In contrast to males, ISRT distance correlates with vmax as well as with v2 and v4 in female soccer players. The intensity zones v4 differ between genders. The present study revealed that gender differences increase when the running performance is intermittent including change of directions. In both genders, different relationships between lactate threshold and intermittent shuttle run performance exist. During incremental testing, the running performances of female and male players reflect different distributions of aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways. The revealed gender differences should be considered for soccer endurance training.
van der Horst, N
The aim of the studies reported in this thesis was to investigate strategies for the prevention of hamstring injuries. Hamstring injuries are the most prevalent muscle injury in soccer. In spite of efforts to reduce the occurrence of hamstring injuries in soccer, injury rates have not decreased over
de Putter, C E; van Beeck, E F; Burdorf, A; Borsboom, G J J M; Toet, H; Hovius, S E R; Selles, R W
Young male soccer players have been identified as a target group for injury prevention, but studies addressing trends and determinants of injuries within this group are scarce. The goal of this study was to analyze age-specific trends in hospital-treated upper extremity fractures (UEF) among boys playing soccer in the Netherlands and to explore associated soccer-related factors. Data were obtained from a national database for the period 1998-2009. Rates were expressed as the annual number of UEF per 1000 soccer players. Poisson's regression was used to explore the association of UEF with the number of artificial turf fields and the number of injuries by physical contact. UEF rates increased significantly by 19.4% in boys 5-10 years, 73.2% in boys 11-14 years, and 38.8% in boys 15-18 years old. The number of injuries by physical contact showed a significant univariate association with UEF in boys 15-18 years old. The number of artificial turf fields showed a significant univariate association with UEF in all age groups, and remained significant for boys aged 15-18 years in a multivariate model. This study showed an increase of UEF rates in boys playing soccer, and an independent association between artificial turf fields and UEF in the oldest boys. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Soccer is the most popular sport worldwide. Despite its global acclaim, scientific studies of soccer have tended to focus on tactics and techniques, thereby neglecting the physical and physiological profile of the players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine physical and anthropometric characteristics of male South African university soccer players. Twenty-seven male soccer players aged 19 to 24 (mean age: 22.1 years; s = 1.5 years volunteered to participate in the study. The results showed that goalkeepers (77.5 ± 9.7 kg and defenders (68.2 ± 6.5 kg were the heaviest compared to players in other playing positions. The goalkeepers also had the highest percentage of body fat (11.3 ± 2.3%, in contrast to midfielders who had the lowest body fat content (9.1 ± 0.9%. With regard to flexibility, defenders (45.1 ± 4.9 cm and midfielders (45.9 ± 5.4 cm performed better than goalkeepers (37.1 ± 4.3 cm and strikers (40.1 ± 3.4 cm. Midfielders (57.2 ± 3.1 ml1·kg−1·min1 and defenders (56.1 ± 5.1 ml1·kg−1·min1 had significantly higher values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max than goalkeepers (47.9 ± 0.2 ml−1·kg−1·min−1 and strikers (49.8 ± 6.2 ml−1·kg−1·min−1. No significant (p > 0.05 differences were observed for all other variables, with the exception of body height, body mass, and VO2max. It was therefore concluded that sports scientists and coaches should tailor conditioning programmes in soccer according to players’ positions in view of the implications for successful performance.
Kubayi, Alliance; Paul, Yvonne; Mahlangu, Prescott; Toriola, Abel
Soccer is the most popular sport worldwide. Despite its global acclaim, scientific studies of soccer have tended to focus on tactics and techniques, thereby neglecting the physical and physiological profile of the players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine physical and anthropometric characteristics of male South African university soccer players. Twenty-seven male soccer players aged 19 to 24 (mean age: 22.1 years; s = 1.5 years) volunteered to participate in the study. The results showed that goalkeepers (77.5 ± 9.7 kg) and defenders (68.2 ± 6.5 kg) were the heaviest compared to players in other playing positions. The goalkeepers also had the highest percentage of body fat (11.3 ± 2.3%), in contrast to midfielders who had the lowest body fat content (9.1 ± 0.9%). With regard to flexibility, defenders (45.1 ± 4.9 cm) and midfielders (45.9 ± 5.4 cm) performed better than goalkeepers (37.1 ± 4.3 cm) and strikers (40.1 ± 3.4 cm). Midfielders (57.2 ± 3.1 ml 1 ·kg -1 ·min 1 ) and defenders (56.1 ± 5.1 ml 1 ·kg -1 ·min 1 ) had significantly higher values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ) than goalkeepers (47.9 ± 0.2 ml -1 ·kg -1 ·min -1 ) and strikers (49.8 ± 6.2 ml -1 ·kg -1 ·min -1 ). No significant (p > 0.05) differences were observed for all other variables, with the exception of body height, body mass, and VO 2max . It was therefore concluded that sports scientists and coaches should tailor conditioning programmes in soccer according to players' positions in view of the implications for successful performance.
van Doormaal, Mitchell C M; van der Horst, Nick; Backx, Frank J G; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Huisstede, Bionka M A
In soccer, although hamstring flexibility is thought to play a major role in preventing hamstring injuries, the relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries remains unclear. To investigate the relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries in male amateur soccer players. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. This study included 450 male first-class amateur soccer players (mean age, 24.5 years). Hamstring flexibility was measured by performing the sit-and-reach test (SRT). The relationship between hamstring flexibility and the occurrence of hamstring injuries in the following year, while adjusting for the possible confounding effects of age and previous hamstring injuries, was determined with a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of the 450 soccer players, 21.8% reported a hamstring injury in the previous year. The mean (±SD) baseline score for the SRT was 21.2 ± 9.2 cm. During the 1-year follow-up period, 23 participants (5.1%) suffered a hamstring injury. In the multivariate analysis, while adjusting for age and previous injuries, no significant relationship was found between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries ( P = .493). In this group of soccer players, hamstring flexibility (measured with the SRT) was not related to hamstring injuries. Age and previous hamstring injuries as possible confounders did not appear to influence this relationship. Other etiological factors need to be examined to further elucidate the mechanism of hamstring injuries.
Valente-dos-Santos, Joao; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J.; Simoes, Filipe; Figueiredo, Antonio J.; Leite, Neiva; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Malina, Robert M.; Sherar, Lauren
This study evaluates the contributions of age. growth, skeletal maturation, playing position and training to longitudinal changes in functional and skill performance in male youth soccer. Players were annually followed over 5 years (n = 83, 4.4 measurements per player). Composite scores for
Mizuguchi, S; Gray, H; Calabrese, L S; Haff, G G; Sands, W A; Ramsey, M W; Cardinale, M; Stone, M H
The aim of the study was to investigate the applicability of a repeated change-of-direction (RCoD) test for NCAA Division-I male soccer players. The RCoD test consisted of 5 diagonal direction changes per repetition with a soccer ball to be struck at the end. Each player performed 15 repetitions with approximately 10 seconds to jog back between repetitions. Data were collected in two sessions. In the first session, 13 players were examined for heart rate responses and blood lactate concentrations. In the second session, 22 players were examined for the test's ability to discriminate the primary from secondary players (78.0±16.1 and 10.4±13.3 minutes per match, respectively). Heart rate data were available only from 9 players due to artifacts. The peak heart rate (200.2±6.6 beats∙min-1: 99.9±3.0% maximum) and blood lactate concentration (14.8±2.4 mmol∙L-1 immediately after) resulted in approximately 3.5 and 6.4-fold increases from the resting values, respectively. These values appear comparable to those during intense periods of soccer matches. In addition, the average repetition time of the test was found to discriminate the primary (4.85±0.23 s) from the secondary players (5.10±0.24 s) (P=0.02). The RCoD test appears to induce physiological responses similar to intense periods of soccer matches with respect to heart rate and blood lactate concentration. Players with better average repetition times tend to be those who play major minutes.
Fransson, Dan; Nielsen, Tobias Schmidt; Olsson, Karl
PURPOSE: To examine the skeletal muscle and performance responses across two different exercise training modalities which are highly applied in soccer training. METHODS: Using an RCT design, 39 well-trained male soccer players were randomized into either a speed endurance training (SET; n = 21...... pronouncedly than small-sided game training, but comparable responses were in muscle ion transporters and antioxidative capacity in well-trained male soccer players....
The influence of modern studded and bladed soccer boots and sidestep cutting on noncontact knee loading during match play conditions is not fully understood. Modern soccer boot type and sidestep cutting compared with straight-ahead running do not significantly influence knee internal tibia axial and valgus moments, anterior joint forces, and flexion angles. Controlled laboratory study. Fifteen professional male outfield soccer players undertook trials of straight-ahead running and sidestep cutting at 30 degrees and 60 degrees with a controlled approach velocity on a Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) approved soccer surface. Two bladed and 2 studded soccer boots from 2 manufacturers were investigated. Three-dimensional inverse dynamics analysis determined externally applied internal/external tibia axial and valgus/varus moments, anterior forces, and flexion angles throughout stance. The soccer boot type imparted no significant difference on knee loading for each maneuver. Internal tibia and valgus moments were significantly greater for sidestep cutting at 30 degrees and 60 degrees compared with straight-ahead running. Sidestep cutting at 60 degrees compared with straight-ahead running significantly increased anterior joint forces. Varying soccer boot type had no effect on knee loading for each maneuver, but sidestep cutting significantly increased internal tibia and valgus moments and anterior joint forces. Sidestep cutting, irrespective of the modern soccer boot type worn, may be implicated in the high incidence of noncontact soccer anterior cruciate ligament injuries by significantly altering knee loading.
Locks, Renato; Utsunomiya, Hajime; Briggs, Karen K; McNamara, Shannen; Chahla, Jorge; Philippon, Marc J
Arthroscopic hip surgery has been shown to be effective in returning professional athletes back to play at a high level of performance in different sports. Limited information exists regarding professional soccer players and their return to play. To determine the rate and time to return to sport for professional soccer players after hip arthroscopic surgery for the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and to identify possible risk factors associated with a delay in returning to play. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Professional soccer players who underwent hip arthroscopic surgery for FAI by a single surgeon between 2005 and 2015 were evaluated. Data retrieved from www.mlssoccer.com , www.fifa.com , www.transfermarkt.co.uk , and www.wikipedia.org included information on each player's professional career, participation on the national team, length of professional career before surgery, number of appearances (games) before surgery, time between surgery and first appearance in a professional game, and number of appearances after surgery. Other data were obtained from the patient's medical records. Twenty-four professional soccer players (26 hips) were included. The mean age at surgery was 25.0 ± 4.0 years (range, 19-32 years). A total of 96% of patients were able to return to play at the professional level. The mean time between surgery and the first professional game played was 9.2 months (range, 1.9-24.0 months). On average, players played in 70 games after surgery (range, 0-224). National team players were able to return to play significantly earlier than the rest of the players (median, 5.7 months vs 11.6 months, respectively; P = .018). Severe chondral damage and microfracture did not interfere with return to play. The arthroscopic management of FAI in symptomatic professional soccer players allowed 96% of them to return to play. Players with national team experience were able to return to play earlier than those without it. Severe chondral damage
Reza Rahimi Moghaddam
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Soccer is classified as a high to moderate-intensity contact sport. It is therefore of importance that the incidence of soccer injuries be reduced through preventive interventions. The purpose of this review is to conclude the importance of a prevention program and explore the role parents have towards minimizing soccer related injuries among children and adolescence football players.METHOD: 42 hand searches, 5 books, and 25 electronic articles were reviewed and relevant results were collected for the purpose of this paper. Selected studies were categorized as follows: soccer injury statistics, injury prevention program, and parents and prevention.RESULTS: 5-16 year of age is a critical age range for soccer related injuries. Some studies have confirmed soccer injuries can be reduced by preventive interventions, and mentioned the importance of prevention program and the role of parents in the program. A few studies reported the efficacy for a positive parent-child relationship and injury prevalence, while other reported the negative influence parental demand on injury rates among children. Moreover, suggestions were made of consideration to parents prior to allowing children to participate in soccer.CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of sports injuries is team work, and parent's role can be as vital as other members of the prevention team. In a successful preventive program, there are steps that parents can take to help kids stay safe on the soccer field or wherever they play or participate in sports activities. Educational materials should be provided to parents by soccer camp organizers before children involve in soccer programs.
Barbero Álvarez, José Carlos; Gómez López, Maite; Barbero Álvarez, Verónica; Granda Vera, Juan; Castagna, Carlo
The physical and physiological demands of high-level male soccer have been studied extensively, while few studies have investigated the demands placed on females during match-play, however, there is no information available about the heart rate and activity profile of young female soccer players during match play. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine cardiovascular (heart-rates HR) and physical demands of young female soccer players during a match. Players were observed during a fr...
Pfirrmann, Daniel; Herbst, Mark; Ingelfinger, Patrick; Simon, Perikles; Tug, Suzan
The incidence of injury for elite youth and professional adult soccer players is an important concern, but the risk factors for these groups are different. To summarize and compare the injury incidences and injury characteristics of male professional adult and elite youth soccer players. We searched MEDLINE and Web of Science using the search terms elite, international, European, soccer, football, injury, injuries, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, not female, not American football, and not rugby. We also used the search terms professional for studies on professional adult soccer players and high-level, soccer academy, youth, adolescent, and young for studies on elite youth soccer players. Eligible studies were published in English, had a prospective cohort design, and had a minimum study period of 6 months. To ensure that injury data were assessed in relationship to the athlete's individual exposure, we included only studies that reported on injuries and documented exposure volume. Two independent reviewers applied the selection criteria and assessed the quality of the studies. A total of 676 studies were retrieved from the literature search. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria: 6 for elite youth and 12 for professional adult soccer players. Injury rates were higher for matches than for training for both youth and adult players. Youth players had a higher incidence of training injuries than professionals. Efforts must be made to reduce the overall injury rate in matches. Therefore, preventive interventions, such as adequately enforcing rules and focusing on fair play, must be analyzed and developed to reduce match-related injury incidences. Reducing training injuries should be a particular focus for youth soccer players.
Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W.; Freiwald, Juergen
Objective: This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into
Baumgart, Christian; Gokeler, Alli; Donath, Lars; Hoppe, Matthias W.; Freiwald, Juergen
Objective: This study investigated exercise-induced effects of static stretching and playing soccer on anterior tibial translation (ATT) of the knee joint. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Thirty-one athletes were randomly assigned into
Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van
Soccer causes the largest number of injuries each year (18% of all sports injuries) in the Netherlands. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the body of evidence on injury prevention for adult male soccer players. Chapter 1 is a general introduction and presents the “sequence of
Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian; Dehlendorff, Christian
BACKGROUND: Groin injuries cause major problems in the football codes, as they are prevalent and lead to prolonged symptoms and high recurrence. The aim of the present study was to describe the occurrence and clinical presentation of groin injuries in a large cohort of sub-elite soccer players.......0096). Having both adductor and abdominal pain also increased the injury time significantly when compared to injuries with no adductor and no abdominal pain (RIT=4.56, 95% CI 1.91 to 10.91, p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Adductor-related groin injury was the most common clinical presentation of groin injuries in male...... during a season. METHODS: Physiotherapists allocated to each of the participating 44 soccer clubs recorded baseline characteristics and groin injuries sustained by a cohort of 998 sub-elite male soccer players during a full 10-month season. All players with groin injuries were examined using the clinical...
Female soccer players often have only limited time available to prepare and consume meals, due to the constraints faced by having to combine training and playing with full-time occupations. The energy expenditure of females playing soccer has been estimated at approximately 70% VO2 max, corresponding to an energy production of around 4600 kJ (1100 kcal). As with male soccer players, carbohydrate consumption is essential to support the demands of playing, training and to facilitate recovery. There are some reports to suggest that females in team sports may consume diets with a low energy intake, due to the desire to lose or maintain body weight. In extreme cases, this can result in eating disorders. However, there is no clear evidence to suggest that this problem is common among female soccer players. To maintain a consistent balance between energy intake and expenditure, players should receive nutritional advice to cover all phases of the year, not just the competitive season. Dietary calcium and iron supplements may be a useful precautionary measure, in players who are known to be at risk of deficiencies in these areas. Correct and sensitive nutritional counselling is essential for players and coaches.
Branci, Sonia; Thorborg, Kristian; Bech, Birthe Højlund; Boesen, Mikael; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Hölmich, Per
Soccer players are commonly affected by long-standing adductor-related groin pain (ARGP), but the clinical significance of MRI findings in these athletes is largely unknown. Our aims were (1) to evaluate whether MRI findings are associated with long-standing ARGP in soccer players, (2) to assess MRI findings in asymptomatic soccer players and non-soccer playing controls. This cross-sectional study included 28 male soccer players with long-standing ARGP, 17 male asymptomatic soccer players and 20 male asymptomatic non-soccer playing athletes of matching age and athletic exposure. Participants underwent identical standardised and reliable clinical examination, and MRI scans (3 T) of the pelvis performed by a blinded observer. Images were consensus rated by three blinded radiologists according to a standardised MRI evaluation protocol. The associations between clinical adductor-related findings and pathological MRI findings were investigated with χ(2) statistics and OR. Central disc protrusion (p=0.027) and higher grades of pubic bone marrow oedema (BMO; p=0.027) were significantly more present in symptomatic players than asymptomatic players. However, up to 71% of asymptomatic soccer players displayed different positive MRI findings, and asymptomatic soccer players had significantly higher odds (OR ranging from 6.3 to 13.3) for BMO, adductor tendinopathy and degenerative changes than non-soccer players. ARGP in soccer players was associated with central disc protrusion and higher grades of pubic BMO. Moreover, positive MRI findings were significantly more frequent in soccer players compared with non-soccer players irrespective of symptoms, suggesting that these MRI changes may be associated with soccer play itself rather than clinical symptoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Academic and practitioner interest in the physical performance of male professional soccer players in the competition setting determined via time-motion analyses has grown substantially over the last four decades leading to a substantial body of published research and aiding development of a more systematic evidence-based framework for physical conditioning. Findings have forcibly shaped contemporary opinions in the sport with researchers and practitioners frequently emphasising the important role that physical performance plays in match outcomes. Time-motion analyses have also influenced practice as player conditioning programmes can be tailored according to the different physical demands identified across individual playing positions. Yet despite a more systematic approach to physical conditioning, data indicate that even at the very highest standards of competition, the contemporary player is still susceptible to transient and end-game fatigue. Over the course of this article, the author suggests that a more pragmatic approach to interpreting the current body of time-motion analysis data and its application in the practical setting is nevertheless required. Examples of this are addressed using findings in the literature to examine (a) the association between competitive physical performance and 'success' in professional soccer, (b) current approaches to interpreting differences in time-motion analysis data across playing positions, and (c) whether data can realistically be used to demonstrate the occurrence of fatigue in match-play. Gaps in the current literature and directions for future research are also identified.
Fransson, Dan; Vigh-Larsen, Jeppe Foged; Fatouros, Ioannis G
We examined the degree of post-game fatigue and the recovery pattern in various leg and upper-body muscle groups after a simulated soccer game. Well-trained competitive male soccer players (n = 12) participated in the study. The players completed the Copenhagen Soccer Test, a 2 x 45 min simulated...
Tenga, Albin; Holme, Ingar; Ronglan, Lars Tore; Bahr, Roald
Methods that include an assessment of opponent interactions are thought to provide a more valid analysis of team match performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of playing tactics on goal scoring by assessing opponent interactions in Norwegian elite soccer. The sample included 203 team possessions leading to goals (cases) and 1688 random team possessions (control group) from 163 of 182 (90%) matches played in the men's professional league during the 2004 season. Multidimensional qualitative data using ten ordered categorical variables were obtained to characterize each team possession. The proportion of goals scored during counterattacks (52%) was higher than during elaborate attacks (48%), while for the control group the proportion using elaborate attacks (59%) was higher than when using counterattacks (41%) (P = 0.002). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that, for the main variable "team possession type", counterattacks were more effective than elaborate attacks when playing against an imbalanced defence (OR = 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.03 to 2.61; P = 0.038). Assessment of opponent interactions is critical to evaluate the effectiveness of offensive playing tactics on the probability of scoring goals, and improves the validity of team match-performance analysis in soccer.
van Beijsterveldt, Anna M C; van de Port, Ingrid G L; Krist, Mark R; Schmikli, Sandor L; Stubbe, Janine H; Frederiks, Janet E; Backx, Frank J G
Background The incidence rate of soccer injuries is among the highest in sports, particularly for adult male soccer players. Purpose To investigate the effect of the ‘The11’ injury prevention programme on injury incidence and injury severity in adult male amateur soccer players. Study design Cluster-randomised controlled trial. Methods Teams from two high-level amateur soccer competitions were randomly assigned to an intervention (n=11 teams, 223 players) or control group (n=12 teams, 233 players). The intervention group was instructed to perform The11 in each practice session during one soccer season. The11 focuses on core stability, eccentric training of thigh muscles, proprioceptive training, dynamic stabilisation and plyometrics with straight leg alignment. All participants of the control group continued their practice sessions as usual. Results In total, 427 injuries were recorded, affecting 274 of 456 players (60.1%). Compliance with the intervention programme was good (team compliance=73%, player compliance=71%). Contrary to the hypothesis, injury incidences were almost equal between the two study groups: 9.6 per 1000 sports hours (8.4–11.0) for the intervention group and 9.7 (8.5–11.1) for the control group. No significant differences were found in injury severity, but a significant difference was observed in the location of the injuries: players in the intervention group sustained significantly less knee injuries. Conclusions This study did not find significant differences in the overall injury incidence or injury severity between the intervention and control group of adult male soccer players. More research is recommended, focusing on injury aetiology and risk factors in adult male amateur soccer players. PMID:22878257
Horst, Nick Van Der; Priesterbach, Annique; Backx, Frank; Smits, Dirk-Wouter
Objective: This study investigated the hamstring-and-lower-back flexibility (HLBF) of male adult amateur soccer players, using the sit-and-reach test (SRT), with a view to obtaining population-based reference values and to determining whether SRT scores are associated with player characteristics.
Brito, João; Vasconcellos, Fabrício; Oliveira, José
This study aimed to analyse the short-term performance effects of three in-season low-volume strength-training programmes in college male soccer players. Fifty-seven male college soccer players (age: 20.31.6 years) were randomly assigned to a resistance-training group (n=12), plyometric training.......001) compared with the control group. No differences were observed in 5-m sprint and agility performances (p>0.05). Overall, the results suggest that in-season low-volume strength training is adequate for developing strength and speed in soccer players....
Malina, Robert M; Figueiredo, António J; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J
Studies of the body size and proportions of athletes have a long history. Comparisons of athletes within specific sports across time, though not extensive, indicate both positive and negative trends. To evaluate secular variation in heights and weights of male youth soccer players reported in studies between 1978 and 2015. Reported mean ages, heights, and weights of male soccer players 9-18 years of age were extracted from the literature and grouped into two intervals: 1978-99 and 2000-15. A third-order polynomial was fitted to the mean heights and weights across the age range for each interval, while the Preece-Baines model 1 was fitted to the grand means of mean heights and mean weights within each chronological year to estimate ages at peak height velocity and peak weight velocity for each time interval. Third-order polynomials applied to all data points and estimates based on the Preece-Baines model applied to grand means for each age group provided similar fits. Both indicated secular changes in body size between the two intervals. Secular increases in height and weight between 1978-99 and 2000-15 were especially apparent between 13 and 16 years of age, but estimated ages at peak height velocity (13.01 and 12.91 years) and peak weight velocity (13.86 and 13.77 years) did not differ between the time intervals. Although the body size of youth soccer players increased between 1978-99 and 2000-15, estimated ages at peak height velocity and peak weight velocity did not change. The increase in height and weight likely reflected improved health and nutritional conditions, in addition to the selectivity of soccer reflected in systematic selection and retention of players advanced in maturity status, and exclusion of late maturing players beginning at about 12-13 years of age. Enhanced training programs aimed at the development of strength and power are probably an additional factor contributing to secular increases in body weight.
Full Text Available The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the perturbations in hormonal and psychological homeostasis in response to soccer match-play. These perturbations were explored according to match outcome (i.e., win versus loss, gender, type of contest (i.e., competitive versus non-competitive fixtures and competitive level (i.e., novice versus high-level. The review was conducted according to the Population/Intervention or Exposure/Comparison/Outcome(s (PICO criteria and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA guidelines. Match outcome, type of contest and competitive levels were moderator variables in the examined steroid hormones responses to a soccer match-play. Different testosterone responses were seen between match winners (increase and losers (decrease when compared to pre-game or baseline values (p <0.05, whilst no changes could be detected for cortisol relative to match outcome in female soccer players. Males (Δ% = 6.26; ES = 0.28 demonstrated a marginally lower increase in testosterone levels when compared to females (Δ% = 49.16; ES = 1.00, though not statistically significant. Females (Δ% = 162.7; ES = 0.98 did not demonstrate elevated cortisol match response compared to males (Δ% = 34.60; ES = 1.20. Male novice soccer match-play increased cortisol levels compared to high-level soccer match-play (Q = 18.08, p<0.001. Competitive soccer matches increased cortisol levels compared to non-competitive fixtures (i.e., collegiate tournament. Additionally, competitive levels moderate the relationship between a soccer match and testosterone levels (p <0.001, regardless of gender differences. From the presented systematic review and meta-analysis it appears (1 cortisol changes are associated with cognitive anxiety in starter female soccer players, while (2 testosterone changes are associated with changes in mood state in females and social connectedness in male soccer players. This
Arroyo, Marta; Gonzalez-de-Suso, Jose Manuel; Sanchez, Celia; Ansotegui, Laura; Rocandio, Ana M
The purpose of this study was to evaluate body composition and body image (perception and satisfaction) in a group of young elite soccer players and to compare the data with those of a control group (age and BMI matched). Participants were 56 volunteer males whose mean age and BMI were 19.6 (SD 1.3) years and 23.3 (SD 1.1) kg/m2, respectively. Results showed that soccer players have a higher lean mass and lower fat mass than controls. Moreover, body perception (difference between current and actual image) was more accurate in controls than in soccer players, and the results suggest a tendency for soccer players to aspire to have more muscle mass and body fat. Soccer players perceived an ideal image with significantly higher body-fat percentage than their current and actual images. There were no body-dissatisfaction differences between groups, however. Although the results are necessarily limited by the small sample size, the findings should be of interest to coaches of young elite soccer teams.
Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; García, Angela; García-Zapico, Pedro; Pérez-Landaluce, Javier; Patterson, Angeles M; García-Rovés, Pablo Miguel
Many authors have proposed the necessity of the design and implementation of dietary and nutrition education programs for soccer players, although little information is available about the determinants of food selection and nutrient intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional intake and eating patterns of soccer players according to their playing position in the team. Eighty-seven young male soccer players (aged 16-21 years) were recruited from the junior teams of a Spanish First Division Soccer League Club and divided into 6 positional categories (goalkeepers, full-backs, centre-backs, midfielders, wingers, and forwards). Body composition (height, weight, and body fat), performance in soccer-specific tests (jumping, sprinting, and intermittent endurance), and dietary intake (weighed food intake method) were assessed. A spontaneous higher carbohydrate intake was observed for full-backs, midfielders, and wingers (g·kg(-1) body mass: 4.9 ± 1.0, 4.9 ± 1.3, 4.9 ± 0.8; % of energy intake: 47 ± 5, 46 ± 6, 46 ± 4), compared with goalkeepers and centre-backs (g·kg(-1) of body mass: 3.9 ± 1.0, 4.3 ± 1.1; % of energy intake: 44 ± 3, 42 ± 4). These differences were related to food selection patterns, and a higher contribution to daily energy intake of cereals, derivatives, and potatoes was observed between full-backs compared with goalkeepers and centre-backs (33% vs. 27% and 25%). The magnitude of these differences is limited considering the whole diet, and an inadequate nutrient intake were observed in most individuals of every group. The design and implementation of nutrition intervention programs, taking into consideration positional differences in nutritional intake, would be useful for these players.
Hendry, David T; Crocker, Peter R E; Hodges, Nicola J
Based upon predictions derived from the Developmental Model of Sports Participation, we tested whether hours in domain-specific play (self-led activities) and practice (coach-led activities) during childhood (~5-12 year) in an elite group of youth soccer players from the UK (N = 144) were related to motivation. Independent analysis of three different age groups (Under 13, 15 and 17 year) did not show relations between play and practice activities during childhood and global measures of motivation. However, secondary analysis showed that when controlling for years in soccer, years in the UK Academy system were negatively related to global indices of self-determined motivation (SDI) and positively related to controlled motivation for the oldest players. Despite predictions, there was no evidence that play during childhood was positively related to more SDI. Prospective research is recommended to enable more robust conclusions about the role of early developmental practice activities, especially early specialisation in a high-performance system, on both skill and psychosocial development.
Stubbe, Janine H.; van Beijsterveldt, Anne-Marie M. C.; van der Knaap, Sissi; Stege, Jasper; Verhagen, Evert A.; van Mechelen, Willem; Backx, Frank J. G.
Context: Injuries are a major adverse event in a soccer player's career. Reducing injury incidence requires a thorough knowledge of the epidemiology of soccer injuries. Objective: To investigate the incidence and characteristics of injuries in the Dutch premier soccer league. Design: Cohort study. Setting: The Dutch premier soccer league. Patients or Other Participants: During the 2009–2010 soccer season, a total of 217 professional soccer players from 8 teams were prospectively followed. Main Outcome Measure(s): The medical staff recorded time-loss injuries, including information on injuries (ie, type, body part, duration) and exposure data for training sessions and matches. Results: A total of 286 injuries were recorded, affecting 62.7% of the players. The overall injury incidence was 6.2 injuries per 1000 player-hours, 2.8 in training sessions and 32.8 in matches. Most of the recorded injuries were acute (68.5%). Eight percent of the injuries were classified as recurrent. Injuries were most likely to be located in the lower extremities (82.9%). Injury time loss ranged from 1 to 752 days, with a median of 8 days. Knee injuries had the greatest consequences in terms of days of absence from soccer play (on average, 45 days). The most common diagnosis was muscle/tendon injury of the lower extremities (32.9%). Conclusions: Injury risk in the Dutch premier soccer league is high, especially during matches. Preventive measures should focus on the most common diagnoses, namely, muscle/tendon injuries of the lower extremities. PMID:25531144
Fothergill, Melissa; Wolfson, Sandy; Neave, Nick
The present studies examined the influence of playing venue on psychobiological responses in male soccer players. Many studies have demonstrated the existence of a home advantage, wherein teams perform better at home than away. A recent focus has attempted to explain this advantage from a psychobiological perspective, with studies showing hormonal differences with regard to venue, game outcome, dominance and perceived stress. Two studies investigated testosterone and cortisol responses in relation to home and away venues. In an initial study of 18 male elite Premier League academy soccer players (age, 17.47, SD, 64), salivary cortisol levels were monitored in two competitive matches, both at home and away. Higher post-game cortisol levels were observed at home (p=0.002), with the team winning all its games. In a second study involving a 12 semi-professional group of players (age, 23.17, SD, 3.8), the same post-game cortisol findings at home were replicated (p=0.001), with this team losing all its games. No effects were observed for testosterone in either study. The results extend earlier research findings on the complex relationship which surrounds the psychobiological impact on the home advantage. The findings suggest that higher levels of stress are experienced by home players in their home matches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brito, João; Krustrup, Peter; Rebelo, António
This study aimed to analyze the influence of the playing surface on movement pattern, physical loading, perceived exertion, and fatigue development during small-sided recreational soccer games. Time-motion, heart rate, blood lactate, and perceived exertion were measured for 16 recreational players aged 22 (range: 19-35) yrs. During 5-a-side soccer games on 3 different field surfaces: sand, artificial turf, and asphalt. Jump and sprint tests were performed prior to and after each game. Total distance covered was higher on asphalt and turf than on sand (3.89±0.04 and 3.73±0.12 vs. 2.59±0.21 km; p90% HR(max) (20.8±5.1% vs. 44.1±5.0%) were lower (precreational soccer games elicit high heart rates, multiple intense actions, and decreased jump performance for all the investigated playing surfaces, suggesting that multiple fitness and health benefits can be achieved through soccer on sand, artificial turf and asphalt. Nonetheless, locomotor activities, heart rate, blood lactate levels, and perceived exertion differ between surfaces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ranchordas, Mayur K; King, George; Russell, Mitchell; Lynn, Anthony; Russell, Mark
The purpose of this study was to determine whether caffeinated gum influenced performance in a battery of soccer-specific tests used in the assessment of performance in soccer players. In a double blind, randomised, cross-over design, ten male university-standard soccer players (age 19 ± 1 y, stature 1.80 ± 0.10 m, body mass 75.5 ± 4.8 kg) masticated a caffeinated (200 mg; caffeine) or control (0 mg; placebo) gum on two separate occasions. After a standardised warm-up, gum was chewed for 5 min and subsequently expectorated 5 min before players performed a maximal countermovement jump, a 20 m sprint test and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1). Performance on 20 m sprints were not different between trials (caffeine: 3.2 ± 0.3 s, placebo: 3.1 ± 0.3 s; p = 0.567; small effect size: d = 0.33), but caffeine did allow players to cover 2.0% more distance during Yo-YoIR1 (caffeine: 1754 ± 156 m, placebo: 1719 ± 139 m; p = 0.016; small effect size: d = 0.24) and increase maximal countermovement jump height by 2.2% (caffeine: 47.1 ± 3.4 cm, placebo: 46.1 ± 3.2 cm; p = 0.008; small effect size: d = 0.30). Performance on selected physical tests (Yo-YoIR1 and countermovement jump) was improved by the chewing of caffeinated gum in the immediate period before testing in university-standard soccer players but the sizes of such effects were small. Such findings may have implications for the recommendations made to soccer players about to engage with subsequent exercise performance.
Delaney, J Scott; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Correa, José A
To examine the mechanisms of injury for concussions in university football, ice hockey, and soccer. Prospective cohort design. McGill University Sport Medicine Clinic. Male and female athletes participating in varsity football, ice hockey, and soccer. Athletes were followed prospectively over a 10-year period to determine the mechanisms of injury for concussions and whether contact with certain areas of the body or individual variables predisposed to longer recovery from concussions. For soccer, data were collected on whether concussions occurred while attempting to head the ball. There were 226 concussions in 170 athletes over the study period. The side/temporal area of the head or helmet was the most common area to be struck resulting in concussion in all 3 sports. Contact from another player's head or helmet was the most probable mechanism in football and soccer. In hockey, concussion impacts were more likely to occur from contact with another body part or object rather than another head/helmet. Differences in mechanisms of injuries were found between males and females in soccer and ice hockey. Athletes with multiple concussions took longer to return to play with each subsequent concussion. Half of the concussions in soccer were related to attempting to head the soccer ball. The side of the head or helmet was the most common area to be struck resulting in concussion in all 3 sports. In ice hockey and soccer, there are differences in the mechanisms of injury for males and females within the same sport.
Full Text Available The popularity of female soccer is increasing as well as the number of females playing soccer. Similarly, over the last twenty or so years, research in soccer has increased significantly, but a large disparity exists in the volume of studies involving male and female players. As a consequence of this, female players remain less well understood compared to males. The purpose of the present narrative review was to describe morphological characteristics, physiological demands, physical abilities and injuries in female soccer players. Physiological demands are similar between men’s and women’s soccer, but competitive women’s matches were characterized by nearly 33% less distance covered, although at higher intensity levels (maximum speeds greater than 15 km/h than typically found in the men’s game. Sub-elite female players also tended to run less at higher intensity levels at the end of both halves in comparison with elite female players. High intensity running is an important factor of success in soccer since many critical moments of the game occur under this condition. The ability to rapidly change direction also determined elite, sub-elite and amateur levels. The implementation of functional training, which focused on soccer-specific drills and plyometric exercises, to improve explosive power, may improve conditioning in female soccer players as well as decrease the risk of injuries which was 3-8 times higher in females compared to males. This review presents an in-depth overview of the most influential factors for determining success in female soccer.
Lynall, Robert C; Clark, Michael D; Grand, Erin E; Stucker, Jaclyn C; Littleton, Ashley C; Aguilar, Alain J; Petschauer, Meredith A; Teel, Elizabeth F; Mihalik, Jason P
There are limited nonlaboratory soccer head impact biomechanics data. This is surprising given soccer's global popularity. Epidemiological data suggest that female college soccer players are at a greater concussion injury risk than their male counterparts. Therefore, the purposes of our study were to quantify head impact frequency and magnitude during women's soccer practices and games in the National Collegiate Athletic Association and to characterize these data across event type, playing position, year on the team, and segment of game (first and second halves). Head impact biomechanics were collected from female college soccer players (n = 22; mean ± SD age = 19.1 ± 0.1 yr, height = 168.0 ± 3.5 cm, mass = 63.7 ± 6.0 kg). We employed a helmetless head impact measurement device (X2 Biosystems xPatch) before each competition and practice across a single season. Peak linear and rotational accelerations were categorized based on impact magnitude and subsequently analyzed using appropriate nonparametric analyses. Overall, women's college soccer players experience approximately seven impacts per 90 min of game play. The overwhelming majority (~90%) of all head impacts were categorized into our mildest linear acceleration impact classification (10g-20g). Interestingly, a higher percentage of practice impacts in the 20g-40g range compared with games (11% vs 7%) was observed. Head impact biomechanics studies have provided valuable insights into understanding collision sports and for informing evidence-based rule and policy changes. These have included changing the football kickoff, ice hockey body checking ages, and head-to-head hits in both sports. Given soccer's global popularity, and the growing public concern for the potential long-term neurological implications of collision and contact sports, studying soccer has the potential to impact many athletes and the sports medicine professionals caring for them.
Gatterer, H; Ruedl, G; Faulhaber, M; Regele, M; Burtscher, M
Soccer is characterized by high injury rates that necessitate interventions for its reduction. The "11" is a multi-modal preventive program that was developed to reduce injury rate. However, outcomes on the effectiveness of the program are not unambiguous and data for the largest group at risk (i.e., male adult amateur players) are missing. The study aims to assess the injury rate in male adult amateur soccer players of different levels and to evaluate the effectiveness of the prevention program the "11". Three amateur soccer teams participated in the study during the first round of a competition season. Two teams played at a regional level (6th Italian league) and one team at a provincial level (7th Italian league). The regional league is of a higher skill level compared to the provincial league. Duration and frequency of training and match sessions and the occurrence of time-loss injuries were recorded. One team of the 6th league performed an injury prevention program. The total injury rate for the intervention and the control team in the 6th league was 3.3 (CI 0.7-5.9) and 4.3 (CI 1.3-7.3) injuries/1000 h, respectively (P=0.841). The 6th league control team tended to have a lesser injury rate compared to the 7th league team (P=0.081). The relative risk was 2 fold higher in the 7th compared to the 6th league team (P=0.0285 one tailed). Present results show that injury rate in amateur soccer depended rather on the skill level than the prevention program. In this study the prevention program the "11" was not shown to be highly effective in soccer player of intermediate level (i.e., 6th Italian league).
Sapieja, Klaudia M; Dunn J, G H; Holt, Nicholas L
Although perfectionist orientations have been linked to a variety of cognitive, affective, and behavioral correlates in youth sport, little is known about antecedent factors that may influence adolescent athletes' perfectionist orientations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether perceptions of parenting styles differ as a function of adolescent athletes' perfectionist orientations. A total of 194 male youth soccer players (M age = 13.64 years; SD = 1.51; range, 10.67-16.25 years) completed measures of their perfectionist orientations in sport and of their perceptions of maternal and paternal parenting styles. Scores from the parenting style measure were calculated such that higher scores were reflective of higher parental authoritativeness (as perceived by the athletes). Cluster analyses conducted on perfectionism responses produced independent clusters of unhealthy perfectionists, healthy perfectionists, and nonperfectionists. MANOVA results revealed that both healthy- and nonperfectionists had significantly higher perceptions of maternal and paternal authoritativeness than unhealthy perfectionists (ps authoritative parenting may play a role in developing healthy perfectionist orientations (or decrease the likelihood of developing unhealthy perfectionist orientations) in youth sport.
Silvers-Granelli, Holly J; Bizzini, Mario; Arundale, Amelia; Mandelbaum, Bert R; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn
The FIFA 11+ injury prevention program has been shown to decrease the risk of soccer injuries in men and women. The program has also been shown to decrease time loss resulting from injury. However, previous studies have not specifically investigated how the program might impact the rate of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in male soccer players. The purpose of this study was to examine if the FIFA 11+ injury prevention program can (1) reduce the overall number of ACL injuries in men who play competitive college soccer and whether any potential reduction in rate of ACL injuries differed based on (2) game versus practice setting; (3) player position; (4) level of play (Division I or II); or (5) field type. This study was a prospective cluster randomized controlled trial, which was conducted in 61 Division I and Division II National Collegiate Athletic Association men's soccer teams over the course of one competitive soccer season. The FIFA 11+ is a 15- to 20-minute on-the-field dynamic warm-up program used before training and games and was utilized as the intervention throughout the entire competitive season. Sixty-five teams were randomized: 34 to the control group (850 players) and 31 to the intervention group (675 players). Four intervention teams did not complete the study and did not submit their data, noting insufficient time to complete the program, reducing the number for per-protocol analysis to 61. Compliance to the FIFA 11+ program, athletic exposures, specific injuries, ACL injuries, and time loss resulting from injury were collected and recorded using a secure Internet-based system. At the end of the season, the data in the injury surveillance system were crosshatched with each individual institution's internal database. At that time, the certified athletic trainer signed off on the injury collection data to confirm their accuracy and completeness. A lower proportion of athletes in the intervention group experienced knee injuries (25% [34 of
Shadle, Ian B; Cacolice, Paul A
Clinical Scenario: Hamstring strains are a common sport-related injury, which may limit athletic performance for an extended period of time. These injuries are common in the soccer setting. As such, it is important to determine an appropriate prevention program to minimize the risk of such an injury for these athletes. Eccentric hamstring training may be an effective and practical hamstring strain prevention strategy. What is the effect of eccentric exercises on hamstring strain prevention in adult male soccer players? Summary of Key Findings: Current literature was searched for studies of level 2 evidence or higher that investigated the effect of eccentric exercises in preventing hamstring strains in adult male soccer players. Three articles returned from the literature search met the inclusion criteria. A fourth article looked at differences in strength gains between eccentric and concentric hamstring strengthening exercises, but did not record hamstring strain incidence. A fifth article, a systematic review, met all the criteria except for the correct population. Of the 3 studies, 2 were randomized control trails and 1 was a cohort study. Clinical Bottom Line: There is robust supportive evidence that eccentric hamstring exercises can prevent a hamstring injury to an elite adult male soccer player. Therefore, it is recommended that athletic trainers and other sports medicine providers evaluate current practices relating to reducing hamstring strains and consider implementing eccentric exercise based prevention programs. Strength of Recommendation: All evidence was attained from articles with a level of evidence 2b or higher, based on the Center for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) criteria, stating that eccentric exercises can decrease hamstring strains.
Alberto Inácio da Silva
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the caloric expenditure and the intensity of physical activities performed by official soccer referees during a match expressed in Metabolic Equivalent (METs. The physical activity of referees accredited by CBF (Brazilian Confederation of Soccer was video-recorded during twenty-nine official games of Paraná Championship (Brasil, Series A and B of the 2005/2006. Computerized video analysis was used to determine the time spent in 6 locomotor activities (standing still, walking, jogging, backwards running, running and sprint. The frequency and duration of each activity were recorded and these data were utilized to calculate the distance covered by the referee. Energy expenditure values were estimated, utilizing specific equations, from the time players spent in each motor activity. The referees observed in this study had a mean age of 38.9 ± 3.8 years, body mass of 86.1 ± 7.1 kg, stature of 1.80 ± 0.07 m and a body mass index of 26.5 ± 0.6 kg·m-2. During match-play, referees covered an average distance of 9155.4 ± 70.3 meters (8411 - 9765, with a mean energy expenditure of 734.7 ± 65 kcal. This energy expenditure was significantly reduced in the second half: 359.9 ± 6.3 vs 374.7 ± 6.6 kcal (p = 0.006, and averaged to be moderate energy intensity (5 METs with predominant utilization of the aerobic energy system. In total, during 67% of match-play the intensity was equal or lower than 3.8 METs and in 33% it was higher than 9.8 METs. The pattern of movement observed in the present study confirms that soccer refereeing may be considered as a highly intermittent exercise mode. The high to low-intensity activity ratio may be defined as 1:7.1. In conclusion, referees officiating in professional soccer matches in Brazil should perform a physical conditioning regime that provides the stamina required at this level and consume appropriate and adequate nutrition to meet the energetic demands for match-play
Van Doormaal, Mitchell C M; Van Der Horst, Nick; Backx, Frank J G; Smits, Dirk Wouter; Huisstede, Bionka M A
BACKGROUND: In soccer, although hamstring flexibility is thought to play a major role in preventing hamstring injuries, the relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries remains unclear. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between hamstring flexibility and hamstring injuries
Aldous, Jeffrey W F; Akubat, Ibrahim; Chrismas, Bryna C R; Watkins, Samuel L; Mauger, Alexis R; Midgley, Adrian W; Abt, Grant; Taylor, Lee
This study investigated the reliability and validity of a novel nonmotorised treadmill (NMT)-based soccer simulation using a novel activity category called a "variable run" to quantify fatigue during high-speed running. Twelve male University soccer players completed 3 familiarization sessions and 1 peak speed assessment before completing the intermittent soccer performance test (iSPT) twice. The 2 iSPTs were separated by 6-10 days. The total distance, sprint distance, and high-speed running distance (HSD) were 8,968 ± 430 m, 980 ± 75 m and 2,122 ± 140 m, respectively. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was found between repeated trials of the iSPT for all physiological and performance variables. Reliability measures between iSPT1 and iSPT2 showed good agreement (coefficient of variation: 0.80). Furthermore, the variable run phase showed HSD significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.05) in the last 15 minutes (89 ± 6 m) compared with the first 15 minutes (85 ± 7 m), quantifying decrements in high-speed exercise compared with the previous literature. This study validates the iSPT as a NMT-based soccer simulation compared with the previous match-play data and is a reliable tool for assessing and monitoring physiological and performance variables in soccer players. The iSPT could be used in a number of ways including player rehabilitation, understanding the efficacy of nutritional interventions, and also the quantification of environmentally mediated decrements on soccer-specific performance.
Helsen, Werner F; Starkes, Janet L; Van Winckel, Jan
The consistent asymmetry in the birth-date distribution of senior professional soccer players has led us to investigate whether similar asymmetries emerge throughout youth categories in soccer. Birth dates were considered for professional players, national youth teams, youth players transferred to top teams, and regular youth league players. Kolmogorov Smirnov tests assessed differences between observed and expected birth-date distributions. Regression analyses examined the relationship between month of birth and number of participants at various levels of play in soccer. Results indicated that youth players born from August to October (the early part of the selection year), beginning in the 6-8 year age group, are more likely to be identified as talented and to be exposed to higher levels of coaching. Eventually, these players are more likely to be transferred to top teams, to play for national teams, and to become involved professionally. In comparison, players born late in the selection year tended to dropout as early as 12 years of age. Recommendations suggest a review of the 24-month age band and current methods for talent detection and selection. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 10:791-798, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Da Silva, Rafael P; Mündel, Toby; Natali, Antonio J; Bara Filho, Mauricio G; Alfenas, Rita C G; Lima, Jorge R P; Belfort, Felipe G; Lopes, Priscila R N R; Marins, João C B
In this study, we assessed the pre-game hydration status and fluid balance of elite young soccer players competing in a match played in the heat (temperature 31.0 ± 2.0 ° C, relative humidity 48.0 ± 5.0%) for an official Brazilian soccer competition. Fluid intake was measured during the match, as were urine specific gravity and body mass before and after the game to estimate hydration status. Data were obtained from 15 male players (age 17.0 ± 0.6 years, height 1.78 ± 0.06 m, mass 65.3 ± 3.8 kg); however, data are only analysed for 10 players who completed the full game. The mean (± s) sweat loss of players amounted to 2.24 ± 0.63 L, and mean fluid intake was 1.12 ± 0.39 L. Pre-game urine specific gravity was 1.021 ± 0.004, ranging from 1.010 to 1.025. There was no significant correlation between sweat loss and fluid intake (r = 0.504, P = 0.137) or between urine specific gravity and fluid intake (r = -0.276, P = 0.440). We conclude that young, native tropical soccer players started the match hypohydrated and replaced about 50% of the sweat lost. Thus, effective strategies to improve fluid replacement are needed for players competing in the heat.
Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)
Paterson, Anne [Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, Radiology Department, Belfast (United Kingdom)
Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)
Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics.
Johan Torp Rasmussen, Ludvig; Østergaard, Lars Domino
Creativity is essential in soccer due to the unpredictable and complex situations occurring in the game, where stereotypical play gradually loses its efficiency. Further, creativity is an important psychological factor for the development of soccer expertise, and valuing creativity increases...... sessions where TSCP was implemented at a youth team indicate that the application of TCSP exercises establishes a playful, judgment-free and autonomy-supportive training environment, where soccer players are able to unfold their creative potential. The creative environment helped the youth players...... in the intervention engage in unfamiliar activities that they did not dare to do in normal training sessions (i.e., performed difficult, new and playful technical skills), which developed creative abilities important for game performance (i.e., idea generation abilities and not fearing mistakes)....
Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van; Port, L.G.L. van de; Vereijken, A.J.; Backx, F.J.C.
Hamstring injuries are common injuries in soccer players. In view of the high incidence and the serious consequences, identifying risk factors related to hamstring injuries is essential. The aim of this systematic review was therefore to identify risk factors for hamstring injuries in male adult
Magrini, Mitchel A; Colquhoun, Ryan J; Sellers, John H; Conchola, Eric C; Hester, Garrett M; Thiele, Ryan M; Pope, Zach K; Smith, Doug B
Although soccer is predominately an endurance sport, high velocity movements may be an important indicator of athletic success. The purpose of this investigation was to establish whether squat jumps (SJ) can differentiate starters from non-starters with a female collegiate division I soccer team. Eighteen female division I soccer athletes were separated into two groups: 9 starters (age: 19.5 ± 1.0; mass = 64.8 ± 11.5 kg; height = 167.5 ± 7.7 cm; games started = 18.2 ± 4.7; minutes played = 1633.8 ± 478.2 min) and 9 non-starters (age: 19.4 ± 1.4 years; mass = 63.3 ± 4.2 kg; height = 164.7 ± 6.8 cm; games started 0.7 ± 1.3; minutes played 158.2 ± 269.3). Each athlete performed 3 maximal SJs at a starting knee angle of 110° without arm swing. Each participant's SJ height, mean power (MP), peak power (PP), mean velocity (MV), and peak velocity (PV) were measured during each attempt by a linear position transducer (LPT). No statistically significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) in MP and PP between the starters and non-starters were observed. However, starters performed significantly better than non-starters in SJ height (p = 0.002), MV (p = 0.025), and PV (p = 0.015). Additionally, SJ height was strongly correlated with MV (r = 0.628) and PV (r = 0.647). These findings suggest that SJ height, MV and PV, may be important variables for discriminating differences between starters and non-starters in division I female soccer athletes and a strong indicator of explosive performance.
Ré, Alessandro H Nicolai; Cattuzzo, Maria Teresa; Henrique, Rafael Dos Santos; Stodden, David F
This study examined the relative contribution of age, stage of puberty, anthropometric characteristics, health-related fitness, soccer-specific tests and match-related technical performance to variance in involvements with the ball during recreational 5-a-side small-sided (32 × 15 m) soccer matches. Using a cross-sectional design, 80 healthy male students (14.6 ± 0.5 years of age; range 13.6-15.4) who played soccer recreationally were randomly divided into 10 teams and played against each other. Measurements included height, body mass, pubertal status, health-related fitness (12-min walk/run test, standing long jump, 15-m sprint and sit-ups in 30 s), soccer-specific tests (kicking for speed, passing for accuracy and agility run with and without a ball), match-related technical performance (kicks, passes and dribbles) and involvements with the ball during matches. Forward multiple regression analysis revealed that cardiorespiratory fitness (12-min walk/run test) accounted for 36% of the variance in involvements with the ball. When agility with the ball (zigzag running) and power (standing long jump) were included among the predictors, the total explained variance increased to 62%. In conclusion, recreational adolescent players, regardless of their soccer-specific skills, may increase participation in soccer matches most through physical activities that promote improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle power and agility.
Brito, João; Krustrup, Peter; Rebelo, António
This study aimed to analyze the influence of the playing surface on movement pattern, physical loading, perceived exertion, and fatigue development during small-sided recreational soccer games. Time-motion, heart rate, blood lactate, and perceived exertion were measured for 16 recreational players...... aged 22 (range: 19-35)yrs. During 5-a-side soccer games on 3 different field surfaces: sand, artificial turf, and asphalt. Jump and sprint tests were performed prior to and after each game. Total distance covered was higher on asphalt and turf than on sand (3.89±0.04 and 3.73±0.12 vs. 2.59±0.21km; p90...
Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Lange, Paul A.M.; Oosterlaan, Jaap
Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9), and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8) in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition), the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention) and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT) on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur) as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer. PMID:24632735
Full Text Available Executive functions might be important for successful performance in sports, particularly in team sports requiring quick anticipation and adaptation to continuously changing situations in the field. The executive functions motor inhibition, attention and visuospatial working memory were examined in highly talented soccer players. Eighty-four highly talented youth soccer players (mean age 11.9, and forty-two age-matched amateur soccer players (mean age 11.8 in the age range 8 to 16 years performed a Stop Signal task (motor inhibition, the Attention Network Test (alerting, orienting, and executive attention and a visuospatial working memory task. The highly talented soccer players followed the talent development program of the youth academy of a professional soccer club and played at the highest national soccer competition for their age. The amateur soccer players played at a regular soccer club in the same geographical region as the highly talented soccer players and play in a regular regional soccer competition. Group differences were tested using analyses of variance. The highly talented group showed superior motor inhibition as measured by stop signal reaction time (SSRT on the Stop Signal task and a larger alerting effect on the Attention Network Test, indicating an enhanced ability to attain and maintain an alert state. No group differences were found for orienting and executive attention and visuospatial working memory. A logistic regression model with group (highly talented or amateur as dependent variable and executive function measures that significantly distinguished between groups as predictors showed that these measures differentiated highly talented soccer players from amateur soccer players with 89% accuracy. Highly talented youth soccer players outperform youth amateur players on suppressing ongoing motor responses and on the ability to attain and maintain an alert state; both may be essential for success in soccer.
Váczi, Márk; Tollár, József; Meszler, Balázs; Juhász, Ivett; Karsai, István
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a short-term in-season plyometric training program on power, agility and knee extensor strength. Male soccer players from a third league team were assigned into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group, beside its regular soccer training sessions, performed a periodized plyometric training program for six weeks. The program included two training sessions per week, and maximal intensity unilateral and bilateral plyometric exercises (total of 40 - 100 foot contacts/session) were executed. Controls participated only in the same soccer training routine, and did not perform plyometrics. Depth vertical jump height, agility (Illinois Agility Test, T Agility Test) and maximal voluntary isometric torque in knee extensors using Multicont II dynamometer were evaluated before and after the experiment. In the experimental group small but significant improvements were found in both agility tests, while depth jump height and isometric torque increments were greater. The control group did not improve in any of the measures. Results of the study indicate that plyometric training consisting of high impact unilateral and bilateral exercises induced remarkable improvements in lower extremity power and maximal knee extensor strength, and smaller improvements in soccer-specific agility. Therefore, it is concluded that short-term plyometric training should be incorporated in the in-season preparation of lower level players to improve specific performance in soccer.
Váczi, Márk; Tollár, József; Meszler, Balázs; Juhász, Ivett; Karsai, István
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a short-term in-season plyometric training program on power, agility and knee extensor strength. Male soccer players from a third league team were assigned into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group, beside its regular soccer training sessions, performed a periodized plyometric training program for six weeks. The program included two training sessions per week, and maximal intensity unilateral and bilateral plyometric exercises (total of 40 – 100 foot contacts/session) were executed. Controls participated only in the same soccer training routine, and did not perform plyometrics. Depth vertical jump height, agility (Illinois Agility Test, T Agility Test) and maximal voluntary isometric torque in knee extensors using Multicont II dynamometer were evaluated before and after the experiment. In the experimental group small but significant improvements were found in both agility tests, while depth jump height and isometric torque increments were greater. The control group did not improve in any of the measures. Results of the study indicate that plyometric training consisting of high impact unilateral and bilateral exercises induced remarkable improvements in lower extremity power and maximal knee extensor strength, and smaller improvements in soccer-specific agility. Therefore, it is concluded that short-term plyometric training should be incorporated in the in-season preparation of lower level players to improve specific performance in soccer. PMID:23717351
Thorborg, Kristian; Branci, Sonia; Nielsen, Peter Martin
BACKGROUND: Adductor-related pain is the most common clinical finding in soccer players with groin pain and can be a long-standing problem affecting physical function and performance. Hip adductor weakness has been suggested to be associated with this clinical entity, although it has never been...... investigated. PURPOSE: To investigate whether isometric and eccentric hip strength are decreased in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain compared with asymptomatic soccer controls. The hypothesis was that players with adductor-related groin pain would have lower isometric and eccentric hip adduction...... strength than players without adductor-related groin pain. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Male elite and subelite players from 40 teams were contacted. In total, 28 soccer players with adductor-related groin pain and 16 soccer players without adductor-related groin pain...
Noda, Yuka; Iide, Kazuhide; Masuda, Reika; Kishida, Reina; Nagata, Atsumi; Hirakawa, Fumiko; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Imamura, Hiroyuki
The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to evaluate the dietary iron intake and blood iron status of Japanese collegiate soccer players. The subjects were 31 soccer players and 15 controls. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. The mean carbohydrate (6.9 g.kg-1 BW) and protein (1.3 g/kg) intakes of the soccer players were marginal in comparisons with recommended targets. The mean intakes of calcium, magnesium, vitamin A, B1, B2, and C were lower than the respective Japanese recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate dietary intakes in the soccer players. The mean intakes of green and other vegetables, milk and dairy products, fruits, and eggs were lower than the recommended targets. Thus, we recommended athletes to increase the intake of these foodstuffs along with slight increase in carbohydrate and lean meat. The mean intake of iron was higher than the respective RDA in the soccer players. A high prevalence of hemolysis (71%) in the soccer players was found. None of the soccer players and controls had anemia. Two soccer players had iron depletion, while none was found in the controls. In those players who had iron deficiency, the training load need to be lowered and/or iron intake may be increased.
Soccer in Rwandan high schools can expose players to the risk of injury warranting prevention programmes. The aim of this study was to determine the type, causes, severity and management of injuries among high school soccer players in Rwanda, in order to obtain baseline data for injury prevention programmes.
Alexandre, Dellal; da Silva, Cristiano Diniz; Hill-Haas, Stephen; Wong, Del P; Natali, Antonio J; De Lima, Jorge R P; Bara Filho, Mauricio G B; Marins, Joao J C B; Garcia, Emerson Silami; Karim, Chamari
The identification of physiological loads imposed by soccer training or match play reveals essential information, which may help improve training and recovery strategies. Until today, the use of heart rate (HR) monitoring is not standardized in soccer. Thus, the aim of this review was to analyze, determine and compare the exercise intensity (EI) monitored by HR in professional, youth, and recreational soccer players during matches and training sessions using a meta-analysis. Heart rate is one of the most common physiological variables used to determine exercise internal training load. The mean EI recorded during competitive matches was described as 70-80% of VO2max or 80-90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax), independent of the playing level. With respect to HR training zones, approximately 65% of the total match duration is spent at intensity of 70-90% HRmax and rarely below 65% HRmax. However, although HRmax is mostly employed in the literature, monitoring EI should be expressed in relation to reserve heart rate, as it was described as a more reliable indicator of HR, allowing interindividual comparisons. The HR response according to the playing position indicates that midfielders are characterized by the highest EI, followed by forwards and fullbacks. Moreover, in the second half of the match, the EI is lower than that observed during the first half; this reduction could be correlated with the level of the player's physical conditioning. Consequently, coaches may favor the use of interval training or small-sided training games because these are shown to improve both aerobic capacity and the ability to repeat high-intensity actions. Small-sided games allow reaching similar HR responses to those found during interval training and match play but with greater heterogeneity values. Future investigations should include a larger sample of players with special reference to playing position and the expression of EI in percentage of the reserve heart rate, analyzing the
Grassi, Alberto; Smiley, Stephen Paul; Roberti di Sarsina, Tommaso; Signorelli, Cecilia; Marcheggiani Muccioli, Giulio Maria; Bondi, Alice; Romagnoli, Matteo; Agostini, Alessandra; Zaffagnini, Stefano
Soccer is considered the most popular sport in the world concerning both audience and athlete participation, and the incidence of ACL injury in this sport is high. The understanding of injury situations and mechanisms could be useful as substratum for preventive actions. To conduct a video analysis evaluating the situations and mechanisms of ACL injury in a homogeneous population of professional male soccer players, through a search entirely performed on the YouTube.com Web site focusing on the most recent years. A video analysis was conducted obtaining videos of ACL injury in professional male soccer players from the Web site YouTube. Details regarding injured players, events and situations were obtained. The mechanism of injury was defined on the basis of the action, duel type, contact or non-contact injury, and on the hip, knee and foot position. Thirty-four videos were analyzed, mostly from the 2014-2015 season. Injuries occurred mostly in the first 9 min of the match (26%), in the penalty area (32%) or near the side-lines (44%), and in non-rainy conditions (97%). Non-contact injuries occurred in 44% of cases, while indirect injuries occurred in 65%, mostly during pressing, dribbling or tackling. The most recurrent mechanism was with an abducted and flexed hip, with knee at first degrees of flexion and under valgus stress. Through a YouTube-based video analysis, it was possible to delineate recurrent temporal, spatial and mechanical characteristics of ACL injury in male professional soccer players. Level IV, case series.
Abdullah, M. R; Maliki, A. B. H. M; Musa, R. M; Kosni, N. A; Juahir, H
This study aims to predict the potential pattern of soccer technical skill on Malaysia youth soccer players relative performance using multivariate analysis and artificial neural network techniques. 184 male youth soccer players were recruited in Malaysia soccer academy (average age = 15.2±2.0) underwent to, physical fitness test, anthropometric, maturity, motivation and the level of skill related soccer. Unsupervised pattern recognition of principal component analysis (PCA) was used to ident...
Thorborg, Kristian; Branci, Sonia; Nielsen, Martin Peter; Tang, Lars; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Hölmich, Per
Background: Adductor-related pain is the most common clinical finding in soccer players with groin pain and can be a long-standing problem affecting physical function and performance. Hip adductor weakness has been suggested to be associated with this clinical entity, although it has never been investigated. Purpose: To investigate whether isometric and eccentric hip strength are decreased in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain compared with asymptomatic soccer controls. The hypothesis was that players with adductor-related groin pain would have lower isometric and eccentric hip adduction strength than players without adductor-related groin pain. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Male elite and subelite players from 40 teams were contacted. In total, 28 soccer players with adductor-related groin pain and 16 soccer players without adductor-related groin pain (asymptomatic controls) were included in the study. In primary analysis, the dominant legs of 21 soccer players with adductor-related groin pain (≥4 weeks duration) were compared with the dominant legs of 16 asymptomatic controls using a cross-sectional design. The mean age of the symptomatic players was 24.5 ± 2.5 years, and the mean age of the asymptomatic controls was 22.9 ± 2.4 years. Isometric hip strength (adduction, abduction, and flexion) and eccentric hip strength (adduction) were assessed with a handheld dynamometer using reliable test procedures and a blinded assessor. Results: Eccentric hip adduction strength was lower in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain in the dominant leg (n = 21) compared with asymptomatic controls (n = 16), namely 2.47 ± 0.49 versus 3.12 ± 0.43 N·m/kg, respectively (P strength differences were observed between symptomatic players and asymptomatic controls for the dominant leg (P = .35-.84). Conclusion: Large eccentric hip adduction strength deficits were found in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain
Bredtmann, Julia; Crede, Carsten J.; Otten, Sebastian
In this paper, we propose a new estimation strategy that uses the variation in success between the male and the female national soccer team within a country to identify the causal impact of gender equality on women’s soccer performance. In particular, we analyze whether within-country variations...... in labor force participation rates and life expectancies between the genders, which serve as measures for the country’s gender equality, are able to explain diff erences in the international success of male and female national soccer teams. Our results reveal that diff erences in male and female labor...... force participation rates and life expectancies are able to explain the international soccer performance of female teams, but not that of male teams, suggesting that gender equality is an important driver of female sport success....
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare physical fitness parameters of male adolescent soccer players and sedentary counterparts. A total of 26 male adolescents participated in this study voluntarily: Active soccer players (n: 3, age x : 13,00 ± 0,00 and sedentary counterparts (n: 13, age x :12,92 ± 0,75. The EUROFIT test battery was used to determine physical fitness. The test battery includes body height and weight measurements, touching the discs, flamingo balan ce, throwing health ball, vertical jumping, sit and reach, sit - up for 30 s, 20 meter sprint run, and 20 meter shuttle run tests. Data were analyzed by Mann Whitney U test. Significance was defined as p.05. In conclusion, children who do sports are more successful on most of the fitness parameters than sedentary children.
Güllich, Arne; Kovar, Peter; Zart, Sebastian; Reimann, Ansgar
This study examined contributions of different types of sport activities to the development of elite youth soccer performance. Match-play performance of 44 German male players was assessed by expert coaches twice, 24 months apart (age 11.1-13.1 years), based on videotaped 5v5 matches. Player pairs were matched by identical age and initial performance at t 1 . Each player was assigned to a group of either "Strong" or "Weak Responders" based on a higher or lower subsequent performance improvement at t 2 within each pair (mean Δperformance 29% vs. 7%). A questionnaire recorded current and earlier amounts of organised practice/training and non-organised sporting play, in soccer and other sports, respectively. Group comparison revealed that "Strong Responders" accumulated more non-organised soccer play and organised practice/training in other sports, but not more organised soccer practice/training. Subsequent multivariate analyses (multiple linear regression analyses (MLR)) highlighted that higher resultant match-play performance at t 2 was accounted for R 2 adj = 0.65 by performance at t 1 , together with more non-organised soccer play and organised engagement in other sports, respectively, and greater current, but less earlier volume of organised soccer. The findings suggest that variable early sporting experience facilitates subsequent soccer performance development in German elite youth footballers.
Castagna, Carlo; Krustrup, Peter; D'Ottavio, Stefano
The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and the association with relevant match activities (ecological validity) of an age-adapted field test for intermittent high-intensity endurance known as Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children test (YYIR1C) in young male soccer players......-intensity metabolic power (r=0.46) distances. Match total distance was largely associated with YYIR1C (r=0.30). The results of this study showed that YYIR1C may be considered a valid and reliable field test for assessing intermittent high-intensity endurance in young male soccer players. Due to the relevance...... performance showed an excellent relative (ICC=0.94) and a good absolute reliability (TEM as %CV=5.1%). Very large and significant associations were found between YYIR1C performance and match high-intensity activity (r=0.53). Large correlations were found between YYIR1C and match sprinting (r=0.42) and high...
Doncaster, Greg; Unnithan, Viswanath
To assess the between-game variation in measures of physical performance during 11 v 11 soccer match-play, over a short period of time, in highly trained youth soccer players. A single cohort observational study design was employed. Physical match performance data were collected from 17 male, highly trained youth soccer players (age: 13.3 ± 0.4 y) over three, 2 x 20min, 11 v 11 matches. Using 10 Hz GPS, the variables selected for analyses were total distance (TD), high-speed running (HSR), very high-speed running (VHSR), number of high-speed running efforts (HSReff) and number of very high-speed running efforts (VHSReff). Match data was also separated into cumulative 5 min epochs, to identify the peak 5 min epoch and the mean of the cumulative 5 min epochs for each match. Variability was quantified using the coefficient of variation (CV), Standard error of measurement (SEM) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Between- and within-player smallest worthwhile changes (SWC) were also calculated for each variable to aid in the interpretation of the data. Analysis of the variance between games reported a low CV for TD (3.8%) but larger CVs for HSR (33.3%), HSReff (35.4%) and VHSR and VHSReff (59.6 and 57.4 %, respectively). Analysis of 5 min epochs (peak and average) found an increase in the CVs beyond that of the values reported for the whole match. Between-player SWC in high intensity physical performance data ranged from 24.7 - 42.4 %, whereas within-player SWC ranged from 1.2 - 79.9%. The between-game variability of high and very high intensity activities in youth soccer players, across three soccer matches over a short period of time (2 weeks), is relatively 'large' and specific to the individual, thus highlighting the need for caution when interpreting physical performance data between games and players.
Suarez-Arrones, L; Torreño, N; Requena, B; Sáez De Villarreal, E; Casamichana, D; Barbero-Alvarez, J C; Munguía-Izquierdo, D
The aim was to quantify for the first time the physical and physiological profile of professional soccer players in official games using GPS and heart rate (HR) response. Thirty professional soccer players were investigated during a half in competitive club level matches (N.=348) using GPS devices. The relative total distance was 118.9±10.7 m∙min(-1) and player's Work-To-Rest Ratio was 2.1:1. Defenders covered the lowest total distance, while Second-Strikers (2(nd)S) and Wide-Midfielders (W-MD) traveled the greatest total distance. Defenders presented the lowest Work-To-Rest Ratio values. Playing position also impacted on all sprinting performance results, except in average sprint distance and time of sprint. The number of sprints and repeated-sprint sequences recorded by the W-MD and Strikers (S) were significantly greater than any other group. The average HR recorded was 87.1%HRmax and the relationship between the external and internal load value (Effindex) was 1.4 with significant differences in both between playing positions. W-MD recorded a significantly smaller average HR than any other group and Centre-Backs showed a significantly smaller Effindex value than any other group. Conversely, W-MD showed a significantly greater Effindex value than any other group, except the 2(nd)S. This study has verified a number of statistically significant differences between the different playing positions. Coaches should be focused on the specific physical and physiological requirements of the playing positions to optimize the training prescription in soccer. The relationships between external and internal load measures among position-specific indicates that players with less overall running performance during match-play were the worst in Effindex.
Tenga, Albin; Holme, Ingar; Ronglan, Lars Tore; Bahr, Roald
Methods of analysis that include an assessment of opponent interactions are thought to provide a more valid means of team match performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of playing tactics on achieving score-box possession by assessing opponent interactions in Norwegian elite soccer matches. We analysed a random series of 1703 team possessions from 163 of 182 (90%) matches played in the professional men's league during the 2004 season. Multidimensional qualitative data obtained from ten ordered categorical variables were used. Offensive tactics were more effective in producing score-box possessions when playing against an imbalanced defence (28.5%) than against a balanced defence (6.5%) (P tactics on producing score-box possessions, and improves the validity of team match-performance analysis in soccer.
Smith, Mitchell R.; Zeuwts, Linus; Lenoir, Matthieu; Hens, Nathalie; De Jong, Laura M. S.; Coutts, Aaron J.
This study aimed to investigate the impact of mental fatigue on soccer-specific decision-making. Twelve well-trained male soccer players performed a soccer-specific decision-making task on two occasions, separated by at least 72 h. The decision-making task was preceded in a randomised order by 30
Rasmussen, Ludvig Johan Torp; Østergaard, Lars Domino
Creativity is essential in soccer due to the unpredictable and complex situations occurring in the game, where stereotypical play gradually loses its efficiency. Further, creativity is an important psychological factor for the development of soccer expertise, and valuing creativity increases satisfaction and well-being. Although creative players…
Lago-Ballesteros, Joaquin; Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Rey, Ezequiel
The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of playing tactics, opponent interaction and situational variables on achieving score-box possessions in professional soccer. The sample was constituted by 908 possessions obtained by a team from the Spanish soccer league in 12 matches played during the 2009-2010 season. Multidimensional qualitative data obtained from 12 ordered categorical variables were used. Sampled matches were registered by the AMISCO PRO system. Data were analysed using chi-square analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis. Of 908 possessions, 303 (33.4%) produced score-box possessions, 477 (52.5%) achieved progression and 128 (14.1%) failed to reach any sort of progression. Multiple logistic regression showed that, for the main variable "team possession type", direct attacks and counterattacks were three times more effective than elaborate attacks for producing a score-box possession (P tactics on producing score-box possessions.
Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens
This review describes when fatigue may develop during soccer games and the potential physiological mechanisms that cause fatigue in soccer. According to time?-?motion analyses and performance measures during match-play, fatigue or reduced performance seems to occur at three different stages......, acidity or the breakdown of creatine phosphate. Instead, it may be related to disturbances in muscle ion homeostasis and an impaired excitation of the sarcolemma. Soccer players' ability to perform maximally is inhibited in the initial phase of the second half, which may be due to lower muscle...... concentrations in a considerable number of individual muscle fibres. In a hot and humid environment, dehydration and a reduced cerebral function may also contribute to the deterioration in performance. In conclusion, fatigue or impaired performance in soccer occurs during various phases in a game, and different...
Academic and practitioner interest in the physical performance of male professional soccer players in the competition setting determined via time-motion analyses has grown substantially over the last four decades leading to a substantial body of published research and aiding development of a more systematic evidence-based framework for physical conditioning. Findings have forcibly shaped contemporary opinions in the sport with researchers and practitioners frequently emphasising the important...
Guchan, Zehra; Bayramlar, Kezban; Ergun, Nevin
The aim of this paper is to determine the effects of playing soccer on various components of physical performance such as body composition, muscular endurance, anaerobic power, flexibility, balance, and speed of individuals with transtibial amputation. Twelve amputee football players aged 26.67±7.76 years and twelve sedentary individuals aged 33±6.7 years were involved in this study. Body composition, and isotonic and isometric endurance of trunk muscles were assessed. Vertical jump test, sit-and-reach test, modified Thomas test, Berg Balance Scale, L test, and figure-of-eight walk (F8W) test were used to assess other physical fitness parameters. The Body Mass Index, waist circumference and body fat percentages of the amputee soccer players were significantly lower than the sedentary amputees (Psoccer group (119.33±47.15 s) than the endurance in the control group (26.25±15.96 s) (Psoccer group had significantly higher anaerobic power than those in the control group (Psoccer group (P=0.002), whereas the modified Thomas test, which is also used to measure flexibility, indicated no significant difference among both groups (P>0.05). Balance was higher in the soccer group (P=0.023). The completion period of the F8W test was significantly lower in the soccer group (4.54±0.9 s) than in the control group (7.71±2.25 s) (Psoccer on physical fitness parameters of amputees, but further studies with randomized controlled trials, with larger populations, and with other sport branches should be conducted to motivate all amputees to participate in sports.
Background. The physical demands of field hockey and soccer, based on match analysis, are comparable. As a consequence many exercise scientists and coaches have started to use the same type of field tests for hockey and soccer for the purposes of talent identification and training prescription. The validity of this ...
Chaabene, Helmi; Negra, Yassine
To assess and compare the effects of 8 wk of in-season (2 sessions/wk) low- and high-volume plyometric training (PT) on measures of physical fitness in prepubertal male soccer players. A total of 25 soccer players were randomly assigned to a low-volume PT group (LPT; n = 13, age 12.68 ± 0.23 y, age at peak height velocity [APHV] 14.25 ± 0.29 y, maturity offset -1.57 ± 0.29 y) or a high-volume PT group (HPT; n = 12, age 12.72 ± 0.27 y, APHV 14.33 ± 0.77 y, maturity offset -1.61 ± 0.76 y). A linear-sprint test (5-m, 10-m, 20-m, and 30-m), change-of-direction (CoD) test, and vertical- (squat-jump [SJ]), countermovement- (CMJ), and horizontal-jump (standing long jump [SLJ]) test were carried out before and after 8 wk of PT. There was a significant main effect of time for sprint outcomes (5-m, P = .005, ES = 0.86; 10-m, P = .006, ES = 0.85; 20-m, P = .03, ES = 0.64, and 30-m, P = .05, ES = 0.57), CoD (P = .002, ES = 0.96), SJ (P = .008, ES = 0.81; CMJ, P = .01, ES = 0.73), and SLJ ability (P = .007, ES = 0.83). There were no significant training group × time interactions in any measured outcomes. After 8 wk of training, results showed similar performance improvement on measures of sprint time, CoD, and jumping ability between LPT and HPT groups. From a time-efficiency perspective, it is recommended to use LPT in prepubertal male soccer players to improve their proxies of athletic performance.
Reynolds, Bryson B.; Patrie, James; Henry, Erich J.; Goodkin, Howard P.; Broshek, Donna K.; Wintermark, Max; Druzgal, T. Jason
Background: The effects of head impact in sports are of growing interest for clinicians, scientists, and athletes. Soccer is the most popular sport worldwide, but the burden of head impact in collegiate soccer is still unknown. Purpose: To quantify head impact associated with practicing and playing collegiate soccer using wearable accelerometers. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: Mastoid patch accelerometers were used to quantify head impact in soccer, examining differences in head impact as a function of sex and event type (practice vs game). Seven female and 14 male collegiate soccer players wore mastoid patch accelerometers that measured head impacts during team events. Data were summarized for each athletic exposure, and statistical analyses evaluated the mean number of impacts, mean peak linear acceleration, mean peak rotational acceleration, and cumulative linear and rotational acceleration, each grouped by sex and event type. Results: There were no differences in the frequency or severity of head impacts between men’s and women’s soccer practices. For men’s soccer, games resulted in 285% more head impacts than practices, but there were no event-type differences in mean impact severity. Men’s soccer games resulted in more head impacts than practices across nearly all measured impact severities, which also resulted in men’s soccer games producing a greater cumulative impact burden. Conclusion: Similar to other sports, men’s soccer games have a greater impact burden when compared with practices, and this effect is driven by the quantity rather than severity of head impacts. In contrast, there were no differences in the quantity or severity of head impacts in men’s and women’s soccer practices. These data could prompt discussions of practical concern to collegiate soccer, such as understanding sex differences in head impact and whether games disproportionately contribute to an athlete’s head impact burden. PMID:28491885
Briggs, Marc A; Harper, Liam D; McNamee, Ged; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L S; Stevenson, Emma J; Russell, Mark
Dietary analysis of Academy soccer players highlights that total energy and carbohydrate intakes are less than optimal, especially, on match-days. As UK Academy matches predominantly kick-off at ∼11:00 h, breakfast is likely the last pre-exercise meal and thus may provide an intervention opportunity on match-day. Accordingly, the physiological and performance effects of an increased calorie breakfast consumed ∼135-min before soccer-specific exercise was investigated. English Premier League Academy soccer players (n = 7) repeated a 90-min soccer match simulation on two occasions after consumption of habitual (B hab ; ∼1100 kJ) or increased (B inc ; ∼2100 kJ) energy breakfasts standardised for macronutrient contributions (∼60% carbohydrates, ∼15% proteins and ∼25% fats). Countermovement jump height, sprint velocities (15-m and 30-m), 30-m repeated sprint maintenance, gut fullness, abdominal discomfort and soccer dribbling performances were measured. Blood samples were taken at rest, pre-exercise, half-time and every 15-min during exercise. Although dribbling precision (P = .522; 29.9 ± 5.5 cm) and success (P = .505; 94 ± 8%) were unchanged throughout all time-points, mean dribbling speed was faster (4.3 ± 5.7%) in B inc relative to B hab (P = .023; 2.84 vs 2.75 m s -1 ). Greater feelings of gut fullness (67 ± 17%, P = .001) were observed in B inc without changes in abdominal discomfort (P = .595). All other physical performance measures and blood lactate and glucose concentrations were comparable between trials (all P > .05). Findings demonstrate that Academy soccer players were able to increase pre-match energy intake without experiencing abdominal discomfort; thus, likely contributing to the amelioration of energy deficits on match-days. Furthermore, whilst B inc produced limited benefits to physical performance, increased dribbling speed was identified, which may be of benefit to match-play.
Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Alvarez-Diaz, Pedro; Ramon, Silvia; Marin, Miguel; Steinbacher, Gilbert; Rius, Marta; Seijas, Roberto; Ares, Oscar; Cugat, Ramon
There is a large number of publications evaluating neuromuscular risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in athletes. However, most of them have involved the female athlete and, in addition, the gastrocnemius muscles have been less investigated by far compared with the quadriceps and hamstring. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the gastrocnemius muscles as neuromuscular risk factors for ACL injury in male soccer players, through tensiomyography (TMG). All competitive male soccer players with confirmed ACL tear included in this study underwent resting TMG assessment of gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and gastrocnemius lateralis muscles of the uninjured side. The same values were obtained from a sex-, and sports level-matched control group in both sides. The maximal displacement (D m), delay time (T d), contraction time (T c), sustained time (T s), and half-relaxation time (T r) were obtained for both muscles. TMG values of the uninjured side in ACL-injured group were compared with the mean values between both sides in the control subjects. There were no significant between-group differences in demographic characteristics. Most TMG parameters of the gastrocnemius muscles were not significantly different between the two groups. Only the GM-T r (p = 0.02) and GM-D m (p = 0.006) were significantly higher in the ACL-injured group compared with control group. Neuromuscular characteristics in terms of mechanical and contractile properties of the gastrocnemius muscles may not be significant risk factors for ACL injury in male soccer players.
Schuermans, Joke; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Palmans, Tanneke; Danneels, Lieven; Witvrouw, Erik
Although the vast majority of hamstring injuries in male soccer are sustained during high speed running, the association between sprinting kinematics and hamstring injury vulnerability has never been investigated prospectively in a cohort at risk. This study aimed to objectify the importance of lower limb and trunk kinematics during full sprint in hamstring injury susceptibility. Cohort study; level of evidence, 2. At the end of the 2013 soccer season, three-dimensional kinematic data of the lower limb and trunk were collected during sprinting in a cohort consisting of 30 soccer players with a recent history of hamstring injury and 30 matched controls. Subsequently, a 1.5 season follow up was conducted for (re)injury registry. Ultimately, joint and segment motion patterns were submitted to retro- and prospective statistical curve analyses for injury risk prediction. Statistical analysis revealed that index injury occurrence was associated with higher levels of anterior pelvic tilting and thoracic side bending throughout the airborne (swing) phases of sprinting, whereas no kinematic differences during running were found when comparing players with a recent hamstring injury history with their matched controls. Deficient core stability, enabling excessive pelvis and trunk motion during swing, probably increases the primary injury risk. Although sprinting encompasses a relative risk of hamstring muscle failure in every athlete, running coordination demonstrated to be essential in hamstring injury prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stubbe, J.H.; Beijsterveldt, A.M. van; Knaap, S. van der; Stege, J.; Verhagen, E.; Mechelen, W. van; Backx, F.J.G.
Context : Injuries are a major adverse event in a soccer player's career. Reducing injury incidence requires a thorough knowledge of the epidemiology of soccer injuries. Objective : To investigate the incidence and characteristics of injuries in the Dutch premier soccer league. Design : Cohort
Stubbe, J.H.; van Beijsterveldt, A.M.M.C.; van der Knaap, S.; Stege, J.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Backx, F.J.G.
Context: Injuries are a major adverse event in a soccer player's career. Reducing injury incidence requires a thorough knowledge of the epidemiology of soccer injuries. Objective: To investigate the incidence and characteristics of injuries in the Dutch premier soccer league. Design: Cohort study.
Johansen, Stine Liv
Children’s play must nowadays be understood as a mediatized field in society and culture. Media – understood in a very broad sense - holds severe explanatory power in describing and understanding the practice of play, since play happens both with, through and inspired by media of different sorts........ In this presentation the case of ‘playing soccer’ will be outlined through its different mediated manifestations, including soccer games and programs on TV, computer games, magazines, books, YouTube videos and soccer trading cards....
Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric; Rivière, Terence; Marion, Vincent; Montoya, Richard; Dupui, Philippe
Sport training enhances the ability to use somatosensory and otolithic information, which improves postural capabilities. Postural changes are different according to the sport practiced, but few authors have analyzed subjects' postural performances to discriminate the expertise level among highly skilled athletes within a specific discipline. To compare the postural performance and the postural strategy between soccer players at different levels of competition (national and regional). Repeated measures with 1 between-groups factor (level of competition: national or regional) and 1 within-groups factor (vision: eyes open or eyes closed). Dependent variables were center-of-pressure surface area and velocity; total spectral energy; and percentage of low-, medium-, and high-frequency band. Sports performance laboratory. Fifteen national male soccer players (age = 24 +/- 3 years, height = 179 +/- 5 cm, mass = 72 +/- 3 kg) and 15 regional male soccer players (age = 23 +/- 3 years, height = 174 +/- 4 cm, mass = 68 +/- 5 kg) participated in the study. The subjects performed posturographic tests with eyes open and closed. While subjects performed static and dynamic posturographic tests, we measured the center of foot pressure on a force platform. Spatiotemporal center-of-pressure measurements were used to evaluate the postural performance, and a frequency analysis of the center-of-pressure excursions (fast Fourier transform) was conducted to estimate the postural strategy. Within a laboratory task, national soccer players produced better postural performances than regional players and had a different postural strategy. The national players were more stable than the regional players and used proprioception and vision information differently. In the test conditions specific to playing soccer, level of playing experience influenced postural control performance measures and strategies.
Bradley, Paul S; Carling, Chris; Archer, Dave
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of playing formation on high-intensity running and technical performance during elite soccer matches. Twenty English FA Premier League games were analysed using a multiple-camera computerized tracking system (n = 153 players). Overall ball possession...
Fransson, Dan; Vigh-Larsen, Jeppe Foged; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni
We examined the degree of post-game fatigue and the recovery pattern in various leg and upper-body muscle groups after a simulated soccer game. Well-trained competitive male soccer players (n = 12) participated in the study. The players completed the Copenhagen Soccer Test, a 2 x 45 min simulated soccer protocol, following baseline measures of maximal voluntary contractions of multiple muscle groups and systemic markers of muscle damage and inflammation at 0, 24 and 48 h into recovery. All muscle groups had a strength decrement ( p ≤ 0.05) at 0 h post-match with knee flexors (14 ± 3%) and hip abductors (6 ± 1%) demonstrating the largest and smallest impairment. However, 24 h into recovery all individual muscles had recovered. When pooled in specific muscle groups, the trunk muscles and knee joint muscles presented the largest decline 0 h post-match, 11 ± 2% for both, with the performance decrement still persistent (4 ± 1%, p ≤ 0.05) for trunk muscles 24 h into recovery. Large inter-player variations were observed in game-induced fatigue and recovery patterns in the various muscle groups. Markers of muscle damage and inflammation peaked 0 h post-match (myoglobin) and 24 h into recovery (creatine kinase), respectively, but thereafter returned to baseline. Intermittent test performance correlated with creatine kinase activity 24 h after the Copenhagen Soccer Test (r = -0.70; p = 0.02). In conclusion, post-game fatigue is evident in multiple muscle groups with knee flexors showing the greatest performance decrement. Fatigue and recovery patterns vary markedly between muscle groups and players, yet trunk muscles display the slowest recovery.
Full Text Available We examined the degree of post-game fatigue and the recovery pattern in various leg and upper-body muscle groups after a simulated soccer game. Well-trained competitive male soccer players (n = 12 participated in the study. The players completed the Copenhagen Soccer Test, a 2 x 45 min simulated soccer protocol, following baseline measures of maximal voluntary contractions of multiple muscle groups and systemic markers of muscle damage and inflammation at 0, 24 and 48 h into recovery. All muscle groups had a strength decrement (p ≤ 0.05 at 0 h post-match with knee flexors (14 ± 3% and hip abductors (6 ± 1% demonstrating the largest and smallest impairment. However, 24 h into recovery all individual muscles had recovered. When pooled in specific muscle groups, the trunk muscles and knee joint muscles presented the largest decline 0 h post-match, 11 ± 2% for both, with the performance decrement still persistent (4 ± 1%, p ≤ 0.05 for trunk muscles 24 h into recovery. Large inter-player variations were observed in game-induced fatigue and recovery patterns in the various muscle groups. Markers of muscle damage and inflammation peaked 0 h post-match (myoglobin and 24 h into recovery (creatine kinase, respectively, but thereafter returned to baseline. Intermittent test performance correlated with creatine kinase activity 24 h after the Copenhagen Soccer Test (r = -0.70; p = 0.02. In conclusion, post-game fatigue is evident in multiple muscle groups with knee flexors showing the greatest performance decrement. Fatigue and recovery patterns vary markedly between muscle groups and players, yet trunk muscles display the slowest recovery.
Yamaner, Faruk; Gumusdag, Hayrettin; Kartal, Alparslan; Gumus, M.; Gullu, A.; Imamoglu, O.
Study aim: To assess the prevalence and anatomical sites of injuries in professional soccer players in one game season. Material and methods: A cohort of 510 professional male soccer players consisting of 48 goalkeepers, 194 defence players, 189 mid-field players and 79 forward players of the 1st and 2nd Turkish Professional Soccer Leagues in…
Drust, B; Ahmed, Q; Roky, R
Ramadan results in a number of behavioural alterations in individuals when compared to their normal habits outside of this holy month. These changes in behaviour could impact upon the effectiveness of the activity of an elite athlete who has high daily activity levels and energy expenditures. Understanding the true impact of Ramadan on human physiology will also require an awareness of the key aspects of circadian rhythms. This article will present theoretical background content on circadian rhythms along with data on the potential influence of circadian variation on soccer performance. It will also attempt to provide an insight into the problems of partial sleep deprivation and travel for the elite player. The contents will suggest that there is a basis for the within-day variation in physiological and psychological function to impact soccer performance if games are played early in the day or very late at night. As competitive fixtures are uncommon at these times these influences may be more relevant to the timing and organisation of training sessions. It is also likely that a lack of sleep and excessive travel will provide conditions that are not conducive to optimal performance. This would indicate that teams should think carefully about their preparation strategies for important tournaments and games.
Mohib, Milad; Moser, Nicholas; Kim, Richard; Thillai, Maathavan; Gringmuth, Robert
Introduction: With over 200 million amateur players worldwide, soccer is one of the most popular and internationally recognized sports today. By understanding how and why soccer injuries occur we hope to reduce prevalent injuries amongst elite soccer athletes. Methods: Via a prospective cohort, we examined both male and female soccer players eligible to train with the Ontario Soccer Association provincial program between the ages of 13 to 17 during the period of October 10, 2008 and April 20, 2012. Data collection occurred during all player exposures to potential injury. Exposures occurred at the Soccer Centre, Ontario Training grounds and various other venues on multiple playing surfaces. Results: A total number of 733 injuries were recorded. Muscle strain, pull or tightness was responsible for 45.6% of all injuries and ranked as the most prevalent injury. Discussion: As anticipated, the highest injury reported was muscular strain, which warrants more suitable preventive programs aimed at strengthening and properly warming up the players’ muscles. PMID:25550661
Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios; Natsikas, Christos
The purpose of the current study was to examine the kinematic differences during instep soccer kicks between players who were blind and sighted controls. Eleven male soccer players who were blind and nine male sighted performed instep kicks under static and dynamic conditions. The results indicated significantly higher (p less than 0.05) ball…
Full Text Available Gunnar Mathisen, Svein Arne Pettersen School of Sport Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway Objective: To investigate the relationship between anthropometrics and sprint and agility performance and describe the development of sprint (acceleration and agility performance in 10- to 16-year-old male soccer players. Methods: One hundred and thirty-two participants were divided into three age groups, 10–12 years (mean 10.8±0.50, 13–14 years (mean 13.9±0.50, and 15–16 years (mean 15.5±0.24, with assessment of 20 m sprint with 10 m split time and agility performance related to body height and body mass within groups. Results: In the 10- to 12-year-olds, there were no significant correlations between height, weight, and the performance variables, except for body mass, which was correlated to 10–20 m sprint (r=0.30. In the 13- to 14-year-olds, body height was significantly correlated with 10 m sprint (r=0.50 and 20 m sprint (r=0.52, as well as 10–20 m sprint (r=0.50 and agility performance (r=0.28. In the 15- to 16-year-old group, body height was correlated to 20 m (r=0.38 and 10–20 m (r=0.45 sprint. Body mass was significantly correlated to 10 m spring (r=0.35 in the 13- to 14-year-olds, as well as 20 m (r=0.33 and 10–20 m (r=0.35 sprint in the 15- to 16-year-olds. Conclusion: Height and body mass were significantly correlated with sprint performance in 13- to 16-year-old male soccer players. However, the 10- to 12-year-olds showed no significant relationship between sprint performance and anthropometrics, except for a small correlation in 10–20 m sprint. This may be attributed to maturation, with large differences in body height and body mass due to different patterns in the growth spurt. The agility performance related to anthropometrics was insignificant apart from a moderate correlation in the 13- to 14-year-olds. Keywords: youth soccer, running speed, development, football, puberty, skills
Oliveira, César Chaves; Ferreira, Diogo; Caetano, Carlos; Granja, Diana; Pinto, Ricardo; Mendes, Bruno; Sousa, Mónica
Contemporary elite soccer features increased physical demands during match-play, as well as a larger number of matches per season. Now more than ever, aspects related to performance optimization are highly regarded by both players and soccer coaches. Here, nutrition takes a special role as most elite teams try to provide an adequate diet to guarantee maximum performance while ensuring a faster recovery from matches and training exertions. It is currently known that manipulation and periodization of macronutrients, as well as sound hydration practices, have the potential to interfere with training adaptation and recovery. A careful monitoring of micronutrient status is also relevant to prevent undue fatigue and immune impairment secondary to a deficiency status. Furthermore, the sensible use of evidence-based dietary supplements may also play a role in soccer performance optimization. In this sense, several nutritional recommendations have been issued. This detailed and comprehensive review addresses the most relevant and up-to-date nutritional recommendations for elite soccer players, covering from macro and micronutrients to hydration and selected supplements in different contexts (daily requirements, pre, peri and post training/match and competition). PMID:29910389
Oliveira, César Chaves; Ferreira, Diogo; Caetano, Carlos; Granja, Diana; Pinto, Ricardo; Mendes, Bruno; Sousa, Mónica
Contemporary elite soccer features increased physical demands during match-play, as well as a larger number of matches per season. Now more than ever, aspects related to performance optimization are highly regarded by both players and soccer coaches. Here, nutrition takes a special role as most elite teams try to provide an adequate diet to guarantee maximum performance while ensuring a faster recovery from matches and training exertions. It is currently known that manipulation and periodization of macronutrients, as well as sound hydration practices, have the potential to interfere with training adaptation and recovery. A careful monitoring of micronutrient status is also relevant to prevent undue fatigue and immune impairment secondary to a deficiency status. Furthermore, the sensible use of evidence-based dietary supplements may also play a role in soccer performance optimization. In this sense, several nutritional recommendations have been issued. This detailed and comprehensive review addresses the most relevant and up-to-date nutritional recommendations for elite soccer players, covering from macro and micronutrients to hydration and selected supplements in different contexts (daily requirements, pre, peri and post training/match and competition).
Krustrup, Peter; Christensen, Jesper F.; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard
We examined the physical demands of small-sided soccer games in untrained middle-age males and muscle adaptations and performance effects over 12 weeks of recreational soccer training in comparison with continuous running. Thirty-eight healthy subjects (20-43 years) were randomized into a soccer....... Blood lactate during running at 11 km/h was lowered (p soccer organized as small-sided games stimulates both aerobic and anaerobic...
Thorborg, Kristian; Branci, Sonia; Nielsen, Martin Peter; Tang, Lars; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Hölmich, Per
Adductor-related pain is the most common clinical finding in soccer players with groin pain and can be a long-standing problem affecting physical function and performance. Hip adductor weakness has been suggested to be associated with this clinical entity, although it has never been investigated. To investigate whether isometric and eccentric hip strength are decreased in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain compared with asymptomatic soccer controls. The hypothesis was that players with adductor-related groin pain would have lower isometric and eccentric hip adduction strength than players without adductor-related groin pain. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Male elite and subelite players from 40 teams were contacted. In total, 28 soccer players with adductor-related groin pain and 16 soccer players without adductor-related groin pain (asymptomatic controls) were included in the study. In primary analysis, the dominant legs of 21 soccer players with adductor-related groin pain (≥4 weeks duration) were compared with the dominant legs of 16 asymptomatic controls using a cross-sectional design. The mean age of the symptomatic players was 24.5 ± 2.5 years, and the mean age of the asymptomatic controls was 22.9 ± 2.4 years. Isometric hip strength (adduction, abduction, and flexion) and eccentric hip strength (adduction) were assessed with a handheld dynamometer using reliable test procedures and a blinded assessor. Eccentric hip adduction strength was lower in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain in the dominant leg (n = 21) compared with asymptomatic controls (n = 16), namely 2.47 ± 0.49 versus 3.12 ± 0.43 N·m/kg, respectively (P strength differences were observed between symptomatic players and asymptomatic controls for the dominant leg (P = .35-.84). Large eccentric hip adduction strength deficits were found in soccer players with adductor-related groin pain compared with asymptomatic soccer players, while no isometric
Full Text Available Objective: The aim was effect deliberate practice and deliberate play on sports skills with emphasis on specialization and diversification in boys 10-12. Methods: The 120 male students randomly divided into four groups of volleyball, soccer, basketball deliberate practice and deliberate play. Pretest and posttest were AAHPERD volleyball, soccer, and Basketball sports skills. Duration of the project was 16 weeks and 3 sessions per week and 90 minutes each session began. Data obtained from questionnaires and personal details about sports experience and test were adjusted using parametric tests, such as T-dependent test and MANOVA with Tukey post hoc test, and software Statistical SPSS19. Results: The results of the study showed that compared four groups, deliberate plays to other deliberate practices have a better motor skill in volleyball, soccer and Basketball sports skills (P<0.05. Volleyball and soccer deliberate practice group had developed Soccer Dribble Test and Control dribble and Defensive movement basketball skills test. Basketball deliberate practice group had not developed the others soccer and volleyball skills. Conclusion: The results showed that diversification participation in some exercises during the early stages of growth, can facilitate the development of general cognitive and physiological skills and create a rich environment for children.
Russell, Mark; Pennock, Anthony
Limited data exist concerning the dietary practices of young professional soccer players that compete within the United Kingdom. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the nutritional and activity habits of professional male soccer players (n = 10; age: 17 ± 1 years, height: 1.72 ± 0.01 m, mass: 67.5 ± 1.8 kg, estimated maximal aerobic capacity: 57.8 ± 0.9 ml·kg·min) who played for the youth team of a UK-based Championship club. All players recorded their 7-day dietary intake and activity habits during a competitive week that included a match day, 4- training days, and 2 rest days in the first half of the 2009/2010 playing season. The intake of carbohydrates (5.9 ± 0.4 g·kg·d), proteins (1.7 ± 0.1 g·kg·d), and fats (1.5 ± 0.1 g·kg·d) represented 56 ± 1, 16 ± 1, and 31 ± 1% of the mean daily energy intake respectively. The intake of fiber was found to be significantly lower than Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) values (67% of RNI, p nutritional practices of the sampled group of professional youth soccer players were inadequate to sustain optimized performance throughout training and match play. Youth soccer players should therefore seek to ensure that their diets contain adequate energy through increased total caloric intake, while also optimizing the proportion of energy derived from carbohydrates and ensuring that enough fiber-rich foods are consumed.
Fernandez-Navarro, Javier; Fradua, Luis; Zubillaga, Asier; Ford, Paul R; McRobert, Allistair P
The aim of this study was to define and categorise different styles of play in elite soccer and associated performance indicators by using factor analysis. Furthermore, the observed teams were categorised using all factor scores. Data were collected from 97 matches from the Spanish La Liga and the English Premier League from the seasons 2006-2007 and 2010-2011 using the Amisco® system. A total of 19 performance indicators, 14 describing aspects of attacking play and five describing aspects of defensive play, were included in the factor analysis. Six factors, representing 12 different styles of play (eight attacking and four defensive), had eigenvalues greater than 1 and explained 87.54% of the total variance. Direct and possession styles of play, defined by factor 1, were the most apparent styles. Factor analysis used the performance indicators to cluster each team's style of play. Findings showed that a team's style of play was defined by specific performance indicators and, consequently, teams can be classified to create a playing style profile. For practical implications, playing styles profiling can be used to compare different teams and prepare for opponents in competition. Moreover, teams could use specific training drills directed to improve their styles of play.
Hughes, Jonathan D; Denton, Katrina; S Lloyd, Rhodri; Oliver, Jon L; De Ste Croix, Mark
Post-match assessment of creatine kinase (CK) activity and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) are common markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and recovery status in soccer players. These responses have not been examined in youth female players. This study examined the effect of competitive match play on CK activity and DOMS in elite youth players. Thirty-four elite female players, divided into three chronological age groups (U13, n=11; U15, n=10; U17 n=12). Players completed baseline testing for CK and DOMS that was repeated immediately (for DOMS), 80, 128 and 168 h post-competitive match play for CK. Significant time effects were reported for CK (P=0.006) and DOMS (Pathletes. Therefore, monitoring strategies to assess muscle damage between training and match play should be considered to track recovery and potentially reduce muscular injury risk. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Doncaster, Greg; Marwood, Simon; Iga, John; Unnithan, Viswanath
To examine the relationship between oxygen uptake kinetics (VO2 kinetics) and physical measures associated with soccer match play, within a group of highly trained youth soccer players. Seventeen highly trained youth soccer players (age: 13.3 ± 0.4 year, self-assessed Tanner stage: 3 ± 1) volunteered for the study. Players initially completed an incremental treadmill protocol to exhaustion, to establish gaseous exchange threshold (GET) and VO2max (59.1 ± 5.4 mL kg(-1) min(-1)). On subsequent visits, players completed a step transition protocol from rest-moderate-intensity exercise, followed by an immediate transition, and from moderate- to severe-intensity exercise (moderate: 95 % GET, severe: 60 %∆), during which VO2 kinetics were determined. Physical soccer-based performance was assessed using a maximal Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) and via GPS-derived measures of physical soccer performance during soccer match play, three 2 × 20 min, 11 v 11 matches, to gain measures of physical performance during soccer match play. Partial correlations revealed significant inverse relationships between the unloaded-to-moderate transition time constant (tau) and: Yo-Yo IR1 performance (r = -0.58, P = 0.02) and GPS variables [total distance (TD): r = -0.64, P = 0.007, high-speed running (HSR): r = -0.64, P = 0.008 and high-speed running efforts (HSReff): r = -0.66, P = 0.005]. Measures of VO2 kinetics are related to physical measures associated with soccer match play and could potentially be used to distinguish between those of superior physical performance, within a group of highly trained youth soccer players.
Karsten, Bettina; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Kandemir, Gokhan; Hazir, Tahir; Klose, Andreas; Naclerio, Fernando
The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of a moderate intensity strength training on changes in critical velocity (CV), anaerobic running distance (D'), sprint performance and Yo-Yo intermittent running test (Yo-Yo IR1) performances. two recreational soccer teams were divided in a soccer training only group (SO; n = 13) and a strength and soccer training group (ST; n = 13). Both groups were tested for values of CV, D', Yo-Yo IR1 distance and 30-m sprint time on two separate occasions (pre and post intervention). The ST group performed a concurrent 6-week upper and lower body strength and soccer training, whilst the SO group performed a soccer only training. after the re-test of all variables, the ST demonstrated significant improvements for both, YoYo IR1 distance (p = 0.002) and CV values (psoccer training significantly improves CV, Yo-Yo IR1 whilst moderately improving 30-m sprint performances in non-previously resistance trained male soccer players. Critical Velocity can be recommended to coaches as an additional valid testing tool in soccer.
Rutten, E.A.; Biesta, G.J.J.; Dekovic, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Schuengel, C.; Verweel, P.
The aim of this pilot study was to examine the possible effects of a forum theatre intervention on moral team atmosphere, moral reasoning, fair play attitude and on- and off-field antisocial and prosocial behaviour in male adolescent soccer players from 10 to 18 years of age (n = 99). From pre-test
Rutten, E.A.; Biesta, G.J.J.; Dekovic, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Schuengel, C.; Verweel, P.
The aim of this pilot study was to examine the possible effects of a forum theatre intervention on moral team atmosphere, moral reasoning, fair play attitude and on- and off-field antisocial and prosocial behaviour in male adolescent soccer players from 10 to 18 years of age (n = 99). From pre-test
Rutten, E.A.; Biesta, G.J.J.; Deković, M.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Schuengel, C.; Verweel, P.
The aim of this pilot study was to examine the possible effects of a forum theatre intervention on moral team atmosphere, moral reasoning, fair play attitude and on‐ and off‐field antisocial and prosocial behaviour in male adolescent soccer players from 10 to 18 years of age (n = 99). From pre‐test
Harry, John R; Barker, Leland A; Mercer, John A; Dufek, Janet S
Harry, JR, Barker, LA, Mercer, JA, and Dufek, JS. Vertical and horizontal impact force comparison during jump landings with and without rotation in NCAA Division I male soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1780-1786, 2017-There is a wealth of research on impact force characteristics when landing from a jump. However, there are no data on impact forces during landing from a jump with an airborne rotation about the vertical axis. We examined impact force parameters in the vertical and horizontal axes during vertical jump (VJ) landings and VJ landings with a 180° rotation (VJR). Twenty-four Division I male soccer players performed 3 VJ and VJR landings on a dual-force platform system. Paired-samples t-tests (α = 0.05) compared differences in the first (F1) and second (F2) peak vertical ground reaction forces, times to F1 (tF1), F2 (tF2), and the end of the impact phase, vertical impulse, and anterior-posterior and medial-lateral force couples. Effect sizes (ES; large >0.8) were computed to determine the magnitude of the differences. Lower jump height (41.60 ± 4.03 cm, VJ landings; 39.40 ± 4.05 cm, VJR landings; p = 0.002; ES = 0.39), greater F2 (55.71 ± 11.95 N·kg, VJ; 68.16 ± 14.82 N·kg; p jump with 180° airborne rotation is different than landing from a jump without an airborne rotation. Male Division I soccer players could benefit from increasing the volume of VJR landings during training to address the differences in jump height and force parameters compared with VJ landings.
Anne-Marie van Beijsterveldt, A. M C; Stubbe, J. H.; Schmikli, S. L.; Van De Port, I. G L; Backx, F. J G
Objectives To compare the incidence and characteristics of injuries between Dutch amateur and professional male soccer players during one entire competition season. Design A prospective two-cohort design. Methods During the 2009–2010 season, 456 Dutch male amateur soccer players and 217 professional
Background: Sport is a compulsory activity in schools in South Africa. Female learners participating in soccer are more vulnerable to injuries than males. Objective: This study determined the epidemiology of injuries in female high school soccer players. Methods: A cross sectional survey captured the epidemiology of ...
We do not know much about the beginnings of soccer in Ðakovo. Based on modest and not always representative historical sources, as well as memories of the first soccer activists, I feel that we are today nevertheless able to offer a sufficiently coherent genesis of football in Ðakovo from its beginnings till the outbreak of World War I. Soccer first began to be played in an organized fashion within the Section of the sport society “Hrvatski sokol” that was established in 1908, and afterwards ...
Full Text Available To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance and adverse health behaviours (adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutrition behaviour among professional soccer players, and to explore their associations with potential stressors (severe injury, surgery, life events and career dissatisfaction. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among male professional players. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours as well as stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries from three continents. Prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players ranged from 4% for smoking and 9% for adverse alcohol behaviour to 38% for anxiety/depression and 58% for adverse nutrition behaviour. Significant associations were found for a higher number of severe injuries with distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance and adverse alcohol behaviour, an increased number of life events with distress, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking, as well as an elevated level of career dissatisfaction with distress, anxiety/depression and adverse nutrition behaviour. Statistically significant correlations (p<0.01 were found for severe injuries and career dissatisfaction with most symptoms of common mental disorders. High prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours was found among professional players, confirming a previous pilot-study in a similar study population.
Schmikli, Sandor L.; de Vries, Wouter R.; Brink, Michel S.; Backx, Frank J. G.
Objective To verify if in male elite junior soccer players a minimum 1-month performance decrease is accompanied by a mood profile and hormone levels typical of non-functional over-reaching (NFOR). Design A prospective case-control study using a monthly performance monitor with a standardised field
Sedano, Silvia; Vaeyens, Roel; Redondo, Juan Carlos
The purposes of the study were to examine relative age effects (RAEs) in Spanish female soccer and to identify the influence of a playing position. The sample comprised all female players (n=4035) of five different competitive levels in the 2010-2013 seasons: First, Second and Third divisions (n=936, n=1711 and n=870, respectively), and National and Regional (n=232 and n=286, respectively) teams were included. Differences between the observed and expected birth-date distributions were tested based on data from the general Spanish population, using the chi-square statistic followed up by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results revealed that the birth-date distributions of almost all groups of football players showed an overrepresentation of players born in the first quartile. Only in the lowest level was age distribution not significantly different from that of the general population. Moreover, the RAE risk progressively increased with a higher level of involvement. It was also observed that at some playing positions the birth-date distributions were significantly biased. That was the case for goalkeepers and defenders. It could be concluded that in the current structure of Spanish female soccer there is a relative age effect, probably due to the early processes of talent identification.
Full Text Available The purposes of the study were to examine relative age effects (RAEs in Spanish female soccer and to identify the influence of a playing position. The sample comprised all female players (n=4035 of five different competitive levels in the 2010-2013 seasons: First, Second and Third divisions (n=936, n=1711 and n=870, respectively, and National and Regional (n=232 and n=286, respectively teams were included. Differences between the observed and expected birth-date distributions were tested based on data from the general Spanish population, using the chi-square statistic followed up by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results revealed that the birth-date distributions of almost all groups of football players showed an overrepresentation of players born in the first quartile. Only in the lowest level was age distribution not significantly different from that of the general population. Moreover, the RAE risk progressively increased with a higher level of involvement. It was also observed that at some playing positions the birth-date distributions were significantly biased. That was the case for goalkeepers and defenders. It could be concluded that in the current structure of Spanish female soccer there is a relative age effect, probably due to the early processes of talent identification.
Datson, Naomi; Hulton, Andrew; Andersson, Helena; Lewis, Tracy; Weston, Matthew; Drust, Barry; Gregson, Warren
The popularity and professionalism of female soccer has increased markedly in recent years, with elite players now employed on either a professional or semi-professional basis. The previous review of the physiological demands of female soccer was undertaken two decades ago when the sport was in its relative infancy. Increased research coupled with greater training and competition demands warrants an updated review to consider the effect on physical performance and injury patterns. The physical demands of match-play along with the influence of factors such as the standard of competition, playing position and fatigue have been explored. Total distance covered for elite female players is approximately 10 km, with 1.7 km completed at high speed (>15 kmh(-1)) [corrected].Elite players complete 28% more high-speed running and 24 % more sprinting than moderate-level players. Decrements in high-speed running distance have been reported between and within halves, which may indicate an inability to maintain high-intensity activity. Although the physical capacity of female players is the most thoroughly researched area, comparisons are difficult due to differing protocols. Elite players exhibit maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) values of 49.4-57.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), Yo Yo Intermittent Endurance test level 2 (YYIE2) scores of 1,774 ± 532 m [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] and 20 m sprint times of 3.17 ± 0.03 s (mean ± SD). Reasons for the increased prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in females (2-6 times greater than males) are discussed, with anatomical, biomechanical loading and neuromuscular activation differences being cited in the literature. This review presents an in-depth contemporary examination of the applied physiology of the female soccer player.
Pau, Massimiliano; Ibba, Gianfranco; Leban, Bruno; Scorcu, Marco
In this study, we investigated the static balance of adult and adolescent elite soccer players to understand how expertise and playing position influence postural control. Seventy-one national level players were tested using a force platform to acquire Center-of-Pressure (COP) data in uni- and bipedal stance and calculate sway area (SA), COP path length, velocity and displacements. The results show significant differences in postural sway related to age and playing position only for single-limb stance. In particular, midfielders exhibited significantly lower values of SA with respect to defenders (-48%, p = 0.001) and the under-15 players exhibited SA 42-64% higher than all the others (p = 0.001). In the light of planning training or rehabilitation programs specific for each player's role and age, sway measurements may supply useful, objective and reliable information only for the unipedal test as the bipedal standing appears not challenging enough to let differences in balance abilities emerge.
The aims of the present research are to test the effects of running and playing exercises on leucocyte and differential leucocyte accounts, and to test the possible differences between running and playing exercises in terms of leucocyte accounts. They were thirty two male young soccer players. Participants arrived at the laboratory after a 12-hour…
The purpose of this study was to analyze the leadership power perception of amateur and professional soccer coaches and players according to their belief in good luck or not. Data collected from 165 male soccer coaches and 870 male soccer players including professionals and amateurs. The coaches had a mean age of 40.24 years (SD = 8.40) and had been coaching for an average of 8.56 years (SD = 6.75). The players had a mean age of 18.40 years (SD = 4.00) and had been playing soccer for an average of 6.00 years (SD = 4.15) with license. Adapted Turkish version of Power in Soccer Questionnaire-Other (PSQ-O for soccer players), Power in Soccer Questionnaire-Self (PSQ-S for coaches) and an information form were used for the data collection. Cronbach Reliability Alphas of PSQ-O and PSQ-S range between 0.60 and 0.84. Players' and coaches' data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney Tests. Analysis of PSQ-O revealed significant differences related to Coersive Power-CP [chi2 (3) = 8.46, p Referent Power-RP [chi2 (3) = 14.84, p 0.05). Results of PSQ-O and PSQ-S indicated complex relationships related to belief in good luck or not. Overall, there are differences between coaches' and players'perception of CP, LP and EP related to belief in good luck or not. The only similarity appears to be in perception of RP. However, there is lack of research to make more certain conclusions. Future researchers should also take into consideration gender, sport experience, age, taking responsibility, self-confidence, attributions, expectations, superstitions, emotions, perception of achievement etc.
Vincent, John; Glamser, Francis D
A large body of research has shown that a disproportionate number of elite youth male soccer players competing in age-segmented competition are born early in the selection year. The advantage of being born early in a cohort has been termed the "relative age effect". Although there has been an exponential growth in women's soccer, few studies have examined the relative age effect in female youth soccer. This study compared the relative age effect of 1,344 female and male youth soccer players considered by the US Olympic Development Program (ODP), in 2001, to be the most talented soccer players born in 1984. The birth dates were taken from the women's state and regional ODP, and national team rosters, and were analysed using basic descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. Results revealed only a marginal relative age effect for female ODP regional and national team players and no relative age effect for female ODP state team players. In comparison, a strong relative age effect was found in male state, regional and national team players. The results suggest that there are gender differences in the relative age effect of 17-year-old elite female and male soccer players. The gender differences may be explained by a complex interaction of biological and maturational differences with socialization influences.
Munguia-Izquierdo, Diego; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Di Salvo, Valter; Paredes-Hernandez, Victor; Alcazar, Julian; Ara, Ignacio; Kreider, Richard; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto
This study determined the most effective field method for quantifying body fat percentage in male elite youth soccer players and developed prediction equations based on anthropometric variables. Forty-four male elite-standard youth soccer players aged 16.3-18.0 years underwent body fat percentage assessments, including bioelectrical impedance analysis and the calculation of various skinfold-based prediction equations. Dual X-ray absorptiometry provided a criterion measure of body fat percentage. Correlation coefficients, bias, limits of agreement, and differences were used as validity measures, and regression analyses were used to develop soccer-specific prediction equations. The equations from Sarria et al. (1998) and Durnin & Rahaman (1967) reached very large correlations and the lowest biases, and they reached neither the practically worthwhile difference nor the substantial difference between methods. The new youth soccer-specific skinfold equation included a combination of triceps and supraspinale skinfolds. None of the practical methods compared in this study are adequate for estimating body fat percentage in male elite youth soccer players, except for the equations from Sarria et al. (1998) and Durnin & Rahaman (1967). The new youth soccer-specific equation calculated in this investigation is the only field method specifically developed and validated in elite male players, and it shows potentially good predictive power. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Fabrícia Geralda Ferreira
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate fluid replacement strategies of young soccer players and their level of knowledge regarding hydration management. A total of 216 males (age: 18 ± 0.9 years playing soccer for 8.7 ± 2.6 years were studied. The participants were members of four elite and subelite Brazilian soccer clubs. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of 18 objective questions. The main results indicated that 32.3% and 30.1% of the athletes do not have an appropriate strategy for fluid replacement during competitions and training, respectively. In addition, 1.4% and 4.6% of the subjects reported to ingest no fluids during these exercise conditions. When asked about the type of solution (water or isotonic solution consumed before, during and after exercise, water was the main fluid ingested during these periods. Approximately 80 athletes only ingest fluids when feeling thirsty. Coca-Cola® accounted for 11.1% of ingested fluids. Only 27.8% of the participants measure their body weight and 54.2% were unaware of the adequate strategy for fluid replacement. The most common symptoms reported by the athletes were cramps (53.2%, intense thirst (37.5%, and headache (33.8%. These results suggest that young soccer players have inappropriate fluid replacement habits, a fact that may lead to low performance during training or competition.
O'Reilly, John; Wong, Stephen H S
Methods of assessing soccer players' performance have developed significantly in recent times. The fitness profiles and skill levels of a prospective elite soccer player is a valuable resource for coaches in the process of identifying talent. Traditional means to measure aerobic fitness have centred on the 'aerobic capacity' or '&OV0312;O(2max)' test (also known as the maximal oxygen consumption test) but, over time, this has been shown not to be a sensitive measure for specific aspects of soccer in a match situation. Therefore, numerous soccer-specific simulations have been designed to re-create exercise patterns similar to those experienced during a match. Some of these studies have yet to be validated, while others have been shown to result in a similar physiological load to that encountered during regular match play. Further developments have led to specifically designed intermittent sprint tests, which are used as a sensitive tool to accurately measure the fluctuations in players' ability both between and within soccer seasons. Testing procedures have also been developed that incorporate elements of both skill and physical ability. Soccer-specific field tests have been designed, incorporating skill and dynamic movements, and this opens up the possibility of teams testing the aerobic capacity of their elite players using soccer-specific movements. Valid studies assessing soccer-specific skills in an ecologically sound environment have been quite rare until recently. Some test protocols have been deemed largely irrelevant to soccer match play, while others have had limited impact on scientific literature. More recently, skill tests have been developed and shown to be valid and reliable methods of assessing soccer skill performance. Many new skill tests continue to be developed, and some have been shown to be highly reliable, but further study of these relatively novel concepts is required before a more solid recommendation can be made. Overall, while significant
Stewart, Walter F; Kim, Namhee; Ifrah, Chloe; Sliwinski, Martin; Zimmerman, Molly E; Kim, Mimi; Lipton, Richard B; Lipton, Michael L
Compared to heading, unintentional head impacts (e.g., elbow to head, head to head, head to goalpost) in soccer are more strongly related to risk of moderate to very severe Central Nervous System (CNS) symptoms. But, most head impacts associated with CNS symptoms that occur in soccer are mild and are more strongly related to heading. We tested for a differential relation of heading and unintentional head impacts with neuropsychological (NP) test performance. Active adult amateur soccer players were recruited in New York City and the surrounding areas for this repeated measures longitudinal study of individuals who were enrolled if they had 5+ years of soccer play and were active playing soccer 6+ months/year. All participants completed a baseline validated questionnaire ("HeadCount-2w"), reporting 2-week recall of soccer activity, heading and unintentional head impacts. In addition, participants also completed NP tests of verbal learning, verbal memory, psychomotor speed, attention, and working memory. Most participants also completed one or more identical follow-up protocols (i.e., HeadCount-2w and NP tests) at 3- to 6-month intervals over a 2-year period. Repeated measures General Estimating Equations (GEE) linear models were used to determine if variation in NP tests at each visit was related to variation in either heading or unintentional head impacts in the 2-week period before testing. 308 players (78% male) completed 741 HeadCount-2w. Mean (median) heading/2-weeks was 50 (17) for men and 26 (7) for women. Heading was significantly associated with poorer performance on psychomotor speed ( p impacts were not significantly associated with any NP test. Results did not differ after excluding 22 HeadCount-2w with reported concussive or borderline concussive symptoms. Poorer NP test performance was consistently related to frequent heading during soccer practice and competition in the 2 weeks before testing. In contrast, unintentional head impacts incurred
Asadi, Kamran; Mirbolook, Ahmadreza; Heidarzadeh, Abtin; Mardani Kivi, Mohsen; Emami Meybodi, Mohammad Kazem; Rouhi Rad, Melina
Background: Genu varum is a physical deformity marked by bowing of the leg. One of the risk factors of this musculoskeletal alignment is stress on the knee joint such as with exercise. Objectives: Since the evaluation of genu varum has not been widely studies, this study was conducted to examine the association between genu varum and playing soccer. Materials and Methods: Between Septembers 2010-2012, 750 soccer players and 750 non-soccer players 10-18 years of age were included in the study. A questionnaire of data including age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), years of soccer participation, the average time of playing soccer per week, previous trauma to the lower limbs, history of any fractures of the knee, previous hospitalizations, and the distance of joint lines between the knees was assessed for all subjects. Chi-square, student t-test, and one-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis by SPSS v.19.0 software. In all tests, a P value of less than 0.05 was construed as statistically significant. Results: Both soccer players and controls had genu varum. However, the incidence of genu varum was higher in the soccer players (P = 0.0001) and it was more prevalent in the 16-18 year age group (P = 0.0001). The results revealed a statistically significant association between the degree of practices and the prevalence of genu varum (P = 0.0001). Moreover, previous trauma to the knees and practicing in load-bearing sports led to an increase in the degree of genu varum (P = 0.0001). Conclusions: There was a higher incidence of genu varum in soccer players than in control adolescents; the stress and load imposed on the knee joint led to more severe genu varum. PMID:26290852
Idoate, Fernando; Calbet, Jose A. L.; Izquierdo, Mikel; Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin
Purpose To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the rectus abdominis muscle (RA) in professional soccer players. Methods The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 15 professional male soccer players and 6 non-active male control subjects. Results Soccer players had 26% greater RA volume than controls (Psoccer players (P = 0.42) and in controls (P = 0.75) (Dominant/non-dominant = 0.99, in both groups). Segmental analysis showed a progressive increase in the degree of side-to-side asymmetry from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis in soccer players (r = 0.80, Psoccer players, although this trend was not statistically significant (P = 0.14). Conclusions Professional soccer is associated with marked hypertrophy of the rectus abdominis muscle, which achieves a volume that is 26% greater than in non-active controls. Soccer induces the hypertrophy of the non-dominant side in proximal regions and the dominant side in regions closer to pubic symphysis, which attenuates the pattern of asymmetry of rectus abdominis observed in non-active population. It remains to be determined whether the hypertrophy of rectus abdominis in soccer players modifies the risk of injury. PMID:21541351
Hägglund, Martin; Zwerver, Johannes; Ekstrand, Jan
Background: Patellar tendinopathy is common among athletes in jumping sports and in sports with prolonged repetitive stress of the knee extensor apparatus. The epidemiology in soccer is not well described. Purpose: This study was undertaken to investigate and describe the epidemiology of patellar
Williams, A M; Reilly, T
In this review, we attempt to integrate the main research findings concerned with talent identification and development in soccer. Research approaches in anthropometry, physiology, psychology and sociology are considered and, where possible, integrated. Although some progress has been made in identifying correlates of playing success, it appears that no unique characteristics can be isolated with confidence. Both biological and behavioural scientists have indicated a strong genetic component in performance of sports such as soccer; nevertheless, the influence of systematic training and development programmes should not be underestimated. We conclude that the sport and exercise sciences have an important support role in the processes of identifying, monitoring and nurturing talented soccer players towards realizing their potential.
Cross, Kevin M.; Saliba, Susan A.; Conaway, Mark; Gurka, Kelly K.; Hertel, Jay
Context Among US collegiate soccer players, the incidence rate and the event characteristics of hamstrings strains differ between sexes, but comparisons in the return-to-participation (RTP) time have not been reported. Objective To compare the RTP time between male and female collegiate soccer players and analyze the influence of event characteristics on the RTP time for each sex. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Data were collected from collegiate teams that voluntarily participated in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System. Patients or Other Participants Collegiate soccer athletes who sustained 507 hamstrings strains (306 men, 201 women) during the 2004 through 2009 fall seasons. Main Outcome Measure(s) Nonparametric statistics were used to evaluate RTP time differences between sexes and among categories of each event characteristic (ie, time of season, practice or competition, player position). Negative binomial regression was used to model the RTP time for each sex. All analyses were performed separately for first-time and recurrent strains. Results We found no differences in the RTP time between sexes for first-time (median: men = 7.0 days, women = 6.0 days; P = .07) or recurrent (median: men = 11 days, women = 5.5 days; P = .06) hamstrings strains. For male players with first-time strains, RTP time was increased when the strain occurred during competition or the in-season/postseason and varied depending on the division of play. Among female players with first-time strains, we found no differences in RTP time within characteristics. For male players with recurrent hamstrings strains, the RTP time was longer when the injury occurred during the in-season/postseason. Among female players with recurrent strains, RTP time was longer for forwards than for midfielders or defenders. Conclusions Although we found no differences in the RTP time after hamstrings strains in male and female collegiate soccer players, each sex
Rutten, Esther A.; Biesta, Gert J. J.; Dekovic, Maja; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Schuengel, Carlo; Verweel, Paul
The aim of this pilot study was to examine the possible effects of a forum theatre intervention on moral team atmosphere, moral reasoning, fair play attitude and on- and off-field antisocial and prosocial behaviour in male adolescent soccer players from 10 to 18 years of age (n = 99). From pre-test to post-test, small but positive changes were…
Coelho, Daniel Barbosa; Pimenta, Eduardo Mendonça; Veneroso, Christiano Eduardo; Morandi, Rodrigo Figueiredo; Pacheco, Diogo Antônio Soares; Pereira, Emerson Rodrigues; Coelho, Leonardo Gomes Martins; Silami-Garcia, Emerson
Soccer is a sport practiced worldwide, on all continents. It is considered an intermittent activity of high intensity and long duration, in which movements that require great strength and speed, such as jumps and sprints, result in high levels of muscle microtrauma, hampering athletes' training and recovery. The present study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of changes in different markers of physiological demand resulting from a soccer match in healthy individuals. Ten healthy male physical e...
Hammami, Amri; Randers, Morten B.; Kasmi, Sofien
, and enjoyment responses. Over 8 weeks, the between-group analysis revealed that soccer training had a large beneficial effect on postural balance (45%) when compared with control group with unclear effects on other fitness parameters. Conclusion: Adolescent soccer players had markedly higher physical fitness......, postural balance, flexibility, and aerobic capacity. After baseline testing, Purposes 2 and 3 were addressed by randomly assigning the untrained boys to either a soccer-training group (small-sided games, 2 sessions per week for 8 weeks) or to a control group, followed by identical retesting. Results......: At baseline, physical fitness was higher (p postural balance. Small-sided games using 6 v 6 or 4 v 4 elicited similar heart rate (HR) (mean: ~ 85% peak heart rate, HRpeak), rate of perceived exertion...
Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Møller, Merete
BACKGROUND: Previous studies report varying rates of time-loss injuries in adolescent female soccer, ranging from 2.4 to 5.3 per 1000 athlete-exposures or 2.5 to 3.7 per 1000 hours of exposure. However, these studies collected data using traditional injury reports from coaches or medical staff......, with methods that significantly underestimate injury rates compared with players' self-reports. PURPOSE: The primary aim was to investigate the injury incidence in adolescent female soccer using self-reports via mobile telephone text messaging. The secondary aim was to explore the association between soccer...... exposure, playing level, and injury risk. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study and cohort study; Level of evidence, 2 and 3. METHODS: During a full adolescent female soccer season in Denmark (February-June 2012), a population-based sample of 498 girls aged 15 to 18 years was included...
Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Álvarez-Díaz, Pedro; Doblas, Jesús; Steinbacher, Gilbert; Seijas, Roberto; Ares, Oscar; Boffa, Juan José; Cuscó, Xavier; Cugat, Ramón
To report the return to sports and recurrence rates in competitive soccer players after arthroscopic capsulolabral repair using knotless suture anchors at a minimum of 5 years of follow-up. All competitive soccer players with anterior glenohumeral instability treated by arthroscopic capsulolabral repair using knotless suture anchors between 2002 and 2009 were retrospectively identified through the medical records. Inclusion criteria were: no previous surgical treatment of the involved shoulder, absence of glenoid or tuberosity fractures, absence of large Hill-Sachs or glenoid bone defect, minimum follow-up of 5 years, instability during soccer practice or games, and failure of non-surgical treatment. The charts of included players were reviewed, and a phone call was performed in a cross-sectional manner to obtain information on: current soccer, return to soccer, recurrence of instability, shoulder function (Rowe score), and disability [Quick-Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score and Quick-DASH Sports/Performing Arts Module]. Fifty-seven young male soccer players were finally included with a median (range) follow-up of 8 (5-10) years. Forty-nine (86 %) of the soccer players were able to return to soccer and 36 of them (73 %) at the same pre-injury level. There were 6 (10.5 %) re-dislocations in the 57 players, all of them of traumatic origin produced during soccer and other unrelated activities. The main reasons to not return to soccer were: knee injuries (two players), changes in personal life (two players), and job-related (three players). None of the players quit playing soccer because of their shoulder instability injury. The median (range) Rowe score, Quick-DASH score, and Quick-DASH sports score were 80 (25-100), 2.3 (0-12.5), and 0 (0-18.8), respectively. Competitive soccer players undergoing arthroscopic capsulolabral repair with knotless suture anchors for shoulder instability without significant bone loss demonstrate excellent return to
Marsha R Zhang
Full Text Available Does frequent head-to-ball contact cause cognitive dysfunctions and brain injury to soccer players? An iPad-based experiment was designed to examine the impact of ball-heading among high school female soccer players. We examined both direct, stimulus-driven, or reflexive point responses (Pro-Point as well as indirect, goal-driven, or voluntary point responses (Anti-Point, thought to require cognitive functions in the frontal lobe. The results show that soccer players were significantly slower than controls in the Anti-Point task but displayed no difference in Pro-Point latencies, indicating a disruption specific to voluntary responses. These findings suggest that even subconcussive blows in soccer can result in cognitive function changes that are consistent with mild traumatic brain injury of the frontal lobes. There is great clinical and practical potential of a tablet-based application for quick detection and monitoring of cognitive dysfunction.
Lin, Angela H.; Patel, Saumil S.; Sereno, Anne B.
Does frequent head-to-ball contact cause cognitive dysfunctions and brain injury to soccer players? An iPad-based experiment was designed to examine the impact of ball-heading among high school female soccer players. We examined both direct, stimulus-driven, or reflexive point responses (Pro-Point) as well as indirect, goal-driven, or voluntary point responses (Anti-Point), thought to require cognitive functions in the frontal lobe. The results show that soccer players were significantly slower than controls in the Anti-Point task but displayed no difference in Pro-Point latencies, indicating a disruption specific to voluntary responses. These findings suggest that even subconcussive blows in soccer can result in cognitive function changes that are consistent with mild traumatic brain injury of the frontal lobes. There is great clinical and practical potential of a tablet-based application for quick detection and monitoring of cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23460843
Arnason, Arni; Sigurdsson, Stefan B; Gudmundsson, Arni; Holme, Ingar; Engebretsen, Lars; Bahr, Roald
To investigate the relationship between physical fitness and team success in soccer, and to test for differences in physical fitness between different player positions. Participants were 306 male soccer players from 17 teams in the two highest divisions in Iceland. Just before the start of the 1999 soccer season, the following variables were tested: height and weight, body composition, flexibility, leg extension power, jump height, and peak O2 uptake. Injuries and player participation in matches and training were recorded through the 4-month competitive season. Team average physical fitness was compared with team success (final league standing) using a linear regression model. Physical fitness was also compared between players in different playing positions. A significant relationship was found between team average jump height (countermovement jump and standing jump) and team success (P = 0.009 and P = 0.012, respectively). The same trend was also found for leg extension power (P = 0.097), body composition (% body fat, P = 0.07), and the total number of injury days per team (P = 0.09). Goalkeepers demonstrated different fitness characteristics from outfield players. They were taller and heavier, more flexible in hip extension and knee flexion, and had higher leg extension power and a lower peak O2 uptake. However, only minor differences were observed between defenders, midfield players, and attackers. Coaches and medical support teams should pay more attention to jump and power training, as well as preventive measures and adequate rehabilitation of previous injuries to increase team success.
Rebelo, A; Brito, J; Seabra, A
-based methods (TRIMP and Edwards' method). 51 soccer players (age 15.6±0.3 years) answered 2 questions to assess perceived exertion and fatigue (VAS1-TL, and VAS2-TL) after training sessions and official matches. Performance in the Yo-Yo tests, VAS scores and heart rate of training sessions and matches......An accurate evaluation of training load is paramount for the planning and periodization of training. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between a new method to monitor training load in soccer (Visual Analogic Scale training load; VAS-TL), and two established heart rate...
Landry, Scott C; McKean, Kelly A; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L; Stanish, William D; Deluzio, Kevin J
Female athletes are 2 to 8 times more likely than male athletes to injure the anterior cruciate ligament during a non-contact athletic maneuver. Identifying anterior cruciate ligament injury risk factors in female athletes may help with the development of preventive training programs aimed at reducing injury rates. Differences between genders in lower limb kinematics, kinetics, and neuromuscular patterns will be identified in an adolescent soccer population during an unanticipated side-cut maneuver. Controlled laboratory study. Forty-two elite adolescent soccer players (21 male and 21 female) performed an unanticipated side-cut maneuver, with the 3-dimensional kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic lower limb data being analyzed using principal component analysis. The female athletes had higher gastrocnemius activity, normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contractions, and a mediolateral gastrocnemius activation imbalance that was not present in the male athletes during early stance to midstance of the side-cut. Female athletes demonstrated greater rectus femoris muscle activity throughout stance, and the only hamstring difference identified was a mediolateral activation imbalance in male athletes only. Female athletes performed the side-cut with less hip flexion and more hip external rotation and also generated a smaller hip flexion moment compared with the male athletes. This is the first study to identify gender-related differences in gastrocnemius muscle activity during an unanticipated cutting maneuver. The increased and imbalanced gastrocnemius muscle activity, combined with increased rectus femoris muscle activity and reduced hip flexion angles and moments in female subjects, may all have important contributing roles in the higher noncontact ACL injury rates observed in female athletes.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the rectus abdominis muscle (RA in professional soccer players. METHODS: The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in 15 professional male soccer players and 6 non-active male control subjects. RESULTS: Soccer players had 26% greater RA volume than controls (P<0.05, due to hypertrophy of both the dominant (28% greater volume, P<0.05 and non-dominant (25% greater volume, P<0.01 sides, after adjusting for age, length of the RA muscle and body mass index (BMI as covariates. Total volume of the dominant side was similar to the contralateral in soccer players (P = 0.42 and in controls (P = 0.75 (Dominant/non-dominant = 0.99, in both groups. Segmental analysis showed a progressive increase in the degree of side-to-side asymmetry from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis in soccer players (r = 0.80, P<0.05 and in controls (r = 0.75, P<0.05. The slope of the relationship was lower in soccer players, although this trend was not statistically significant (P = 0.14. CONCLUSIONS: Professional soccer is associated with marked hypertrophy of the rectus abdominis muscle, which achieves a volume that is 26% greater than in non-active controls. Soccer induces the hypertrophy of the non-dominant side in proximal regions and the dominant side in regions closer to pubic symphysis, which attenuates the pattern of asymmetry of rectus abdominis observed in non-active population. It remains to be determined whether the hypertrophy of rectus abdominis in soccer players modifies the risk of injury.
Williams, Jeremy D; Abt, Grant; Kilding, Andrew E
The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of a 90-minute soccer performance test: Ball-sport Endurance and Sprint Test (BEAST90). Fifteen healthy male amateur soccer players participated and attended 5 testing sessions over a 10-day period to perform physiologic and soccer-specific assessments. This included familiarization sessions and 2 full trials of the BEAST90, separated by 7 days. The total 90-minute distance, mean percent peak heart rate (HRpeak), and estimated percent peak oxygen uptake of the BEAST90 were 8,097 ± 458 m, 85 ± 5% and 82 ± 14%, respectively. Measures obtained from trial 1 and trial 2 were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Reliability of measures over 90 minutes ranged from 0.9-25.5% (% typical error). The BEAST90 protocol replicated soccer match play in terms of time, movement patterns, physical demands (volume and intensity), distances, and mean and HRpeak values, as well as having an aerobic load similar to that observed during a soccer match. Reproducibility of key physical measures during the BEAST90 were mostly high, suggesting good reliability. The BEAST90 could be used in studies that wish to determine the effects of training or nutritional interventions on prolonged intermittent physical performance.
Angoorani, Hooman; Haratian, Zohreh; Halabchi, Farzin
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) refers to a group of congenital conditions characterized by disordered cortisol synthesis. The correlation between CAH and sports performance has been less studied before and there is very limited information regarding the impacts of this congenital disease on sports performance. Probably, there are some limitations for patients who suffer from CAH in sports, but at the same time, they may enjoy some advantage due to the probable effect of endogenous hyperandrogenism on their exercise performance. The case is a 14 - year old girl with male phenotype who is a known case of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. She plays in the women's national soccer team of under 16. She has been in the first division league of indoor soccer for 4 years and was also selected in the preparation training camp of women's football team for Singapore's youth Olympic Games. Her illness and dependence on corticosteroid have caused some concerns for her participation in the international competitions of women. However, following consultations with the Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) Committee of games organization, she received TUE to use corticosteroid only within the games period. Despite all her problems, she is now playing in the Second Division League of indoor soccer. A female adolescent with CAH may compete at the high level of outdoor and indoor soccer. However, there are many questions regarding the advantages and disadvantages of this congenital disorder and its treatment on sports related issues.
Bradley, Paul S.; Sheldon, William; Wooster, Blake
The aims of this study were to (1) determine the activity profiles of a large sample of English FA Premier League soccer players and (2) examine high-intensity running during elite-standard soccer matches for players in various playing positions. Twenty-eight English FA Premier League games were...
Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Brochmann, Marit; Castagna, Carlo
after two and four minutes of the Yo-Yo IR tests by testing 57 high-level soccer players. All players played regularly in one of the three highest levels of Norwegian soccer and were tested during three sessions on three consecutive days. Large correlations were observed between Yo-Yo IR1 and IR2 test...... using only one of the Yo-Yo tests and a RSA test, in a general soccer-specific field test protocol. The sub-maximal heart rate measures during Yo-Yo tests are reproducible and may be utilized for frequent, time-efficient and non-exhaustive testing of intermittent exercise capacity of high-level soccer...
Full Text Available Angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE gene and α-actinin-3 (ACTN3 gene polymorphisms are considered to be the most important candidate genes for genetic predisposition to human athletic performance. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the distribution of ACE and ACTN3 polymorphisms for the first time in male Turkish soccer players. In this prospective study, our cohort consisted of 25 professional players, all with Turkish ancestry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction length polymorphism was used for the characterization of the genotype of ACTN3 and single PCR for ACE . For ACE genotype, 16%, 44%, and 40% of the players had insertion/insertion (II, insertion/deletion (ID, and deletion/deletion (DD genotypes, respectively, whereas 20% had XX, 36% had RX, and 44% had RR genotypes for ACTN3 . When we examined the allelic percentages, for ACE , D allele was recorded as 62 and I as 38, and for ACTN3 , R allele was 62 and X was 38. Our results were in agreement with the previous reports, indicating the presence of ACTN3 D and ACE X allele in soccer players. We suggest that ACE and ACTN3 genotypes are important biomarkers for genetic counseling for the individuals who are prone to be successful soccer players.
Walter F. Stewart
Full Text Available ObjectiveCompared to heading, unintentional head impacts (e.g., elbow to head, head to head, head to goalpost in soccer are more strongly related to risk of moderate to very severe Central Nervous System (CNS symptoms. But, most head impacts associated with CNS symptoms that occur in soccer are mild and are more strongly related to heading. We tested for a differential relation of heading and unintentional head impacts with neuropsychological (NP test performance.MethodActive adult amateur soccer players were recruited in New York City and the surrounding areas for this repeated measures longitudinal study of individuals who were enrolled if they had 5+ years of soccer play and were active playing soccer 6+ months/year. All participants completed a baseline validated questionnaire (“HeadCount-2w”, reporting 2-week recall of soccer activity, heading and unintentional head impacts. In addition, participants also completed NP tests of verbal learning, verbal memory, psychomotor speed, attention, and working memory. Most participants also completed one or more identical follow-up protocols (i.e., HeadCount-2w and NP tests at 3- to 6-month intervals over a 2-year period. Repeated measures General Estimating Equations (GEE linear models were used to determine if variation in NP tests at each visit was related to variation in either heading or unintentional head impacts in the 2-week period before testing.Results308 players (78% male completed 741 HeadCount-2w. Mean (median heading/2-weeks was 50 (17 for men and 26 (7 for women. Heading was significantly associated with poorer performance on psychomotor speed (p < 0.001 and attention (p = 0.02 tasks and was borderline significant with poorer performance on the working memory (p = 0.06 task. Unintentional head impacts were not significantly associated with any NP test. Results did not differ after excluding 22 HeadCount-2w with reported concussive or borderline concussive symptoms
Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Ozer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Aglamis, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu
The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were…
Bakken, Arnhild; Targett, Stephen; Bere, Tone; Eirale, Cristiano; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Mosler, Andrea B; Tol, Johannes L; Whiteley, Rod; Khan, Karim M; Bahr, Roald
Lower extremity muscle strength tests are commonly used to screen for injury risk in professional soccer. However, there is limited evidence on the ability of such tests in predicting future injuries. To examine the association between hip and thigh muscle strength and the risk of lower extremity injuries in professional male soccer players. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Professional male soccer players from 14 teams in Qatar underwent a comprehensive strength assessment at the beginning of the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons. Testing consisted of concentric and eccentric quadriceps and hamstring isokinetic peak torques, eccentric hip adduction and abduction forces, and bilateral isometric adductor force (squeeze test at 45°). Time-loss injuries and exposure in training and matches were registered prospectively by club medical staff throughout each season. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs. In total, 369 players completed all strength tests and had registered injury and exposure data. Of these, 206 players (55.8%) suffered 538 lower extremity injuries during the 2 seasons; acute muscle injuries were the most frequent. Of the 20 strength measures examined, greater quadriceps concentric peak torque at 300 deg/s (HR, 1.005 [95% CI, 1.00-1.01]; P = .037) was the only strength measure identified as significantly associated with a risk of lower extremity injuries in multivariate analysis. Greater quadriceps concentric peak torque at 60 deg/s (HR, 1.004 [95% CI, 1.00-1.01]; P = .026) was associated with the risk of overuse injuries, and greater bilateral adductor strength adjusted for body weight (HR, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.57-0.97; P = .032) was associated with a lower risk for any knee injury. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicated poor predictive ability of the significant strength variables (area under the curve, 0.45-0.56). There was a weak association with the risk of
Saeed Najafpour Bushehry
Full Text Available Exercise and nutrition have a significant impact on health. To evaluate nutrient consumption pattern of soccer players in city of Shiraz, 323 players were selected by proportional multi-stage cluster random sampling from 11 clubs in Shiraz. Anthropometric indices, socioeconomic status, 24 hours dietary recall and food frequency data were collected. Protein, carbohydrate and fat intake of the players were 73.73 gr (10.8%, 493.3 gr (72.4% and 50.8 gr (16.7%, respectively. Calcium (689.6 mg, phosphorus (734.4 mg, iron (20.3 mg, vitamin B1 (2 mg, vitamin B2 (1.6 mg, vitamin C (107.5 mg and vitamin A (962.4 mcg RE intake were lower than the desirable levels. The mean energy consumption of the players was 2723 Kcal per day. In conclusion, protein and micronutrients intakes are not desirable in Iranian soccer players in Shiraz.
DEVELOPMENT OF BODY COMPOSITION, HORMONE PROFILE, PHYSICAL FITNESS, GENERAL PERCEPTUAL MOTOR SKILLS, SOCCER SKILLS AND ON-THE-BALL PERFORMANCE IN SOCCER-SPECIFIC LABORATORY TEST AMONG ADOLESCENT SOCCER PLAYERS
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the development of on-the-ball skills in soccer-specific laboratory test and to examine how traditional measures of body composition, hormone profile, physical fitness, general perceptual motor skills and soccer skills were related to performance measured in open skill environment among 10, 12, and 14-year-old regional male soccer players (n = 12/group. The measured variables were height, weight, fat, muscle mass, testosterone, 10m sprint, agility, counter movement jump, peripheral awareness, Eye- Hand-Foot coordination, passing skill, dribbling skill and on-the-ball skills (performance time and passing accuracy in soccer-specific laboratory test. A significant main effect by age was found in all measured variables except in fat, in peripheral awareness and in passing accuracy. In discriminant analysis 63.9% (λ = 0.603, F = 4.600, p < 0.01 of the players were classified correctly based on physical fitness and general perceptual motor skills into three ability groups originally classified with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test. Correlation co- efficient analysis with-in age groups revealed that variables associated with performance time in soccer-specific laboratory test were peripheral awareness (r = 0.72, p < 0.01 in 10-year-olds; testosterone (r = -0.70, p < 0.05, dribbling skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01 and passing skill (r = 0.73, p < 0.01 in 12-year-olds; agility (r = 0.79, p < 0.01, counter movement jump (r = - 0.62, p < 0.01, dribbling skill (r = 0.80, p < 0.01 and passing skill (r = 0.58, p < 0. 05 in 14-year olds. Corresponding relationships with passing accuracy were weight (r = 0.59, p < 0.05, fat (r = 0.66, p < 0.05, 10m sprint (r = 0.71, p < 0.01 and countermovement jump (r = -0.64, p < 0.05 in 10-year-olds; Eye-Hand-Foot coordination (r = 0.63, p < 0.05 in 14-year- olds. The relationship between soccer-specific anticipation time and performance time in soccer- specific
Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Krustrup, Peter
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of intense intermittent exercise performed as soccer training or interval running in comparison with continuous endurance running exercise on postural balance in young healthy untrained males. Young sedentary men were randomized to soccer training...... strength and countermovement jump velocity. Postural control was improved in response to 12 weeks of soccer training and high-intensity interval running, respectively, while less-marked changes were observed following continuous running. Notably, the reduced variability in CoP acceleration after soccer...
Perin, Charles; Vuillemot, Romain; Fekete, Jean-Daniel
This article presents SoccerStories, a visualization interface to support analysts in exploring soccer data and communicating interesting insights. Currently, most analyses on such data relate to statistics on individual players or teams. However, soccer analysts we collaborated with consider that quantitative analysis alone does not convey the right picture of the game, as context, player positions and phases of player actions are the most relevant aspects. We designed SoccerStories to support the current practice of soccer analysts and to enrich it, both in the analysis and communication stages. Our system provides an overview+detail interface of game phases, and their aggregation into a series of connected visualizations, each visualization being tailored for actions such as a series of passes or a goal attempt. To evaluate our tool, we ran two qualitative user studies on recent games using SoccerStories with data from one of the world's leading live sports data providers. The first study resulted in a series of four articles on soccer tactics, by a tactics analyst, who said he would not have been able to write these otherwise. The second study consisted in an exploratory follow-up to investigate design alternatives for embedding soccer phases into word-sized graphics. For both experiments, we received a very enthusiastic feedback and participants consider further use of SoccerStories to enhance their current workflow.
Krustrup, Peter; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel
INTRODUCTION: The present study investigated the fitness and health effects of medium-term soccer training for untrained hypertensive middle-aged men. METHODS: Thirty-three untrained males (31-54 y) with mild-to-moderate hypertension were randomised 2:1 to a soccer training group (STG, two 1-h...... sessions per week, n=22, 68% on medication) and a doctor advice group receiving traditional physician-guided recommendations on cardiovascular risk factor modification (DAG, n=11, 73% on medication). Two-way repeated-measurement ANOVA time-group statistics was applied. RESULTS: During soccer training...
Aldous, Jeffrey W. F.; Chrismas, Bryna C. R.; Akubat, Ibrahim; Dascombe, Ben; Abt, Grant; Taylor, Lee
The effects of heat and/or hypoxia have been well-documented in match-play data. However, large match-to-match variation for key physical performance measures makes environmental inferences difficult to ascertain from soccer match-play. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the hot (HOT), hypoxic (HYP), and hot-hypoxic (HH) mediated-decrements during a non-motorized treadmill based soccer-specific simulation. Twelve male University soccer players completed three familiarization sessions and four randomized crossover experimental trials of the intermittent Soccer Performance Test (iSPT) in normoxic-temperate (CON: 18°C 50% rH), HOT (30°C; 50% rH), HYP (1000 m; 18°C 50% rH), and HH (1000 m; 30°C; 50% rH). Physical performance and its performance decrements, body temperatures (rectal, skin, and estimated muscle temperature), heart rate (HR), arterial blood oxygen saturation (SaO2), perceived exertion, thermal sensation (TS), body mass changes, blood lactate, and plasma volume were all measured. Performance decrements were similar in HOT and HYP [Total Distance (−4%), High-speed distance (~−8%), and variable run distance (~−12%) covered] and exacerbated in HH [total distance (−9%), high-speed distance (−15%), and variable run distance (−15%)] compared to CON. Peak sprint speed, was 4% greater in HOT compared with CON and HYP and 7% greater in HH. Sprint distance covered was unchanged (p > 0.05) in HOT and HYP and only decreased in HH (−8%) compared with CON. Body mass (−2%), temperatures (+2–5%), and TS (+18%) were altered in HOT. Furthermore, SaO2 (−8%) and HR (+3%) were changed in HYP. Similar changes in body mass and temperatures, HR, TS, and SaO2 were evident in HH to HOT and HYP, however, blood lactate (p physical performance during iSPT. Future interventions should address the increases in TS and body temperatures, to attenuate these decrements on soccer performance. PMID:26793122
Mohr, Magni; Mujika, I; Santisteban, J
The study examines fatigue in elite soccer played in hot conditions. High-profile soccer players (n=20) were studied during match play at ~31 °C. Repeated sprint and jump performances were assessed in rested state and after a game and activity profile was examined. Additionally, heart rate (HR...
Fábio Augusto Sfoggia Verardi
Full Text Available Abstract: This qualitative study, of descriptive and exploratory manner, aims to determine the formation of youth soccer association structure in the professional soccer clubs in the Rio Pardo and Taquari valleys, in order to modernize the sport nowadays. The subjects of this study are five male administrators of different soccer clubs. The results show that in four of these clubs, the work with youth soccer association is recent, covering only the categories for children, junior and youth with various forms of admissions; but all coaches believe in the commitment of such work. It is observed that its main objective is to train athletes in this association to supply the professional team, without, however, a usual line of tactical system to be observed at different levels. The sponsorship is the main income source for the maintenance of these activities, not being exploited for the dissemination and marketing initiatives. All clubs have trained athletes from the youth soccer association playing in their professional teams, but only one club indicated some indices of those players who were sold or borrowed to other clubs. Thus, it shows that the youth soccer association has received some attention from the sports administrators, but there is still the lack of a better professional management on it, developing its various aspects. So, it could provide more satisfactory results, as a profitable alternative to prepare players for professional teams. Keywords: soccer; structure; clubs, training of athletes.
Coelho, Daniel Barbosa; Pimenta, Eduardo Mendonça; Veneroso, Christiano Eduardo; Pacheco, Diogo Antônio Soares; Pereira, Emerson Rodrigues; Coelho, Leonardo Gomes Martins; Silami-Garcia, Emerson
Soccer is a sport practiced worldwide, on all continents. It is considered an intermittent activity of high intensity and long duration, in which movements that require great strength and speed, such as jumps and sprints, result in high levels of muscle microtrauma, hampering athletes’ training and recovery. The present study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of changes in different markers of physiological demand resulting from a soccer match in healthy individuals. Ten healthy male physical e...
Hammami, Mohamed Ali; Ben Abderrahman, Abderraouf; Hackney, Anthony C; Kebsi, Wiem; Owen, Adam L; Nebigh, Amar; Racil, Ghazi; Tabka, Zouhair; Zouhal, Hassane
Hammami, MA, Ben Abderrahman, A, Hackney, AC, Kebsi, W, Owen, AL, Nebigh, A, Racil, G, Tabka, Z, and Zouhal, H. Hormonal (cortical-gonadotropic axis) and physical changes with two years intense exercise training in elite young soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2388-2397, 2017-The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 soccer-training seasons on physical fitness and hormone concentrations in elite youth soccer players. Twenty male elite soccer players (SP, age 14.5 ± 0.4 years) and 20 male control subjects (CS, age 14.3 ± 0.3 years) participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements, aerobic (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 [YYIRT1]) and anaerobic soccer relevant performances (jump and sprint tests), blood testosterone (T), cortisol (C), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and T/C ratio were assessed 5 times (from T0 to T4) during 2 competitive seasons. Significant differences from basal values (Δ) of T, SHBG, and C between SP and CS were observed (p soccer players group compared with controls. Our findings also show that the T concentrations and power performance outcomes co-vary positively over the 2 soccer seasons in soccer players.
Juan Del Coso
Full Text Available Background: Epidemiologic research to learn the incidence, type, location, and severity of female soccer injuries and the risk factors for sustaining a sport injury is the first step in developing preventive policies. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of injuries in the population of female soccer players in Spain. Methods: The injuries incurred by 25,397 female soccer players were registered by the medical staff of the Spanish Football Federation during 1 season. A standardized medical questionnaire was used to classify the injury according to type, severity, location, and injury mechanism. A total of 2108 injuries was reported with an incidence of 0.083 injuries per player per season. Most injuries were in the lower limbs (74.0%, mainly affecting knee (30.4% and ankle joints (17.9%. Results: The proportion of injuries derived from contact with another player was higher during matches (33.7% than during training (11.4%; p 0.05. Conclusion: Most female soccer injuries were located at the knee and ankle; the injury mechanism determined the playing time lost; and the player's age did not affect injury characteristics. Keywords: Ankle, Epidemiology, Knee, Sport injuries, Women
Soccer, or football as it is called in the rest of the world, is the most popular and fastest-growing global sport, with an estimated 240 million people regularly playing what Brazilian star Pele called "the beautiful game." Millions, worldwide, watch it on television. In 2006, the average viewership for each match of the month-long World Cup was…
Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter
ABSTRACT:: The present study examined the effect of environmental heat stress on repeated jump performance after elite competitive soccer games. Male elite soccer players (n=19) from two Scandinavian teams participated (age; 26.7±1.0 yrs, height; 181.7±1.1 cm, body mass; 75.8±1.0 kg). The players...... had a Yo-Yo IR2 performance of 1032±42 m (range: 920-1400 m). The players took part in the Champions League Qualification (CL), where six games (three home and three away) were played. The home games took place at an average ambient temperature of 12.2±0.5 oC (control game; CON) and the away games...... in hot conditions (30.0±0.3 oC; HOT). In resting condition (Baseline) and immediately after CON and HOT, the players performed a repeated countermovement jump (CMJ) test consisting of five jumps separated by 10 s of recovery. Game-induced body mass loss was determined based on change in body mass after...
Krustrup, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Krustrup, Birgitte
To examine the effects of regular participation in recreational soccer on health profile, 38 healthy untrained Danish males aged 20-43 years were randomised into a soccer group (SO; n=14), a running group (RU; n=13) and a control group (CO; n=11). Training was performed for one hour two-three times.......05) in SO and RU, respectively, after 12 weeks. No changes in any of the measured variables were observed for CO. In conclusion, participation in regular recreational soccer training, organised as small-sided drills, has significant beneficial effects on health profile and physical capacity for untrained...
Castro-Sepúlveda, Mauricio; Astudillo, Sebastian; Álvarez, Cristian; Zapata-Lamana, Rafael; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Jorquera, Carlos
there is a lack of studies concerning hydration status before training in professional soccer player. to describe hydration status before regular training practices in professional soccer players. a total of 156 male soccer players (age 25.4 ± 5.2 y) from six professional Chilean clubs were included. No hydration or food intake recommendations were made before experiment, with the aim to assess hydration status under athlete's regular "real" conditions. Body mass, height and urine specific gravity (USG) measurements were performed before training practices. 98% of athletes showed dehydration (between moderate and severe) before regular training practices. dehydration is the most prevalent hydration status in professional Chilean soccer players before training, which may negatively affect athlete's performance and may increase their risk of heat-related injuries. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Iaia, F Marcello; Fiorenza, Matteo; Perri, Enrico
In order to better understand the specificity of training adaptations, we compared the effects of two different anaerobic training regimes on various types of soccer-related exercise performances. During the last 3 weeks of the competitive season, thirteen young male professional soccer players...... different determinants of soccer-related physical performance. SEP improved repeated sprint and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, whereas SEM increased muscles' ability to maximize fatigue tolerance and maintain speed development during both repeated all-out and continuous short......-duration maximal exercises. These results provide new insight into the precise nature of a stimulus necessary to improve specific types of athletic performance in trained young soccer players....
Luciano Meireles de Pontes
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in amateur soccer players. Thirty-two men (39.0 ± 6.4 years regularly playing soccer were studied. Nutritional status was evaluated according to body mass index (BMI and the World Health Organization classification. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criterion of the International Diabetes Federation which, in addition to central obesity (waist circumference > 90 cm, considers two or more of the following conditions in males: triglyceridemia ≥ 150 mg/dl; HDL < 40 mg/dl; systolic pressure ≥ 130 mmHg or diastolic pressure ≥ 85 mm/Hg, and fasting glycemia ≥ 100 mg/dl. Statistical analysis processed descriptive data of percentage, mean, minimum, maximum, and standard deviation. Correlations between pairs of variables were determined by Pearson’s r coefficient. The results showed that 43.8% of the soccer players were eutrophic, 43.8% presented overweight and 12.5% were obese. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.5% and the most prevalent components were abdominal obesity in 59.4%, hypertension in 40.6%, hypertriglyceridemia in 34.4%, HDL-c in 28.1%, and fasting glycemia in 15.6%. BMI presented a more robust correlation with waist circumference (r = 0.918. In conclusion, the nutritional status of the soccer players studied was characterized by the presence of overweight and obesity. Although the frequency of metabolic syndrome was lower than in other epidemiological studies, these sportsmen should engage in other health-promoting behaviors such as good eating habits and control of stress in addition to physical activity.
Bradley, Paul S; Mohr, Magni; Bendiksen, Mads
to detect test-retest changes and discriminate between performance for different playing standards and positions in elite soccer. Elite (n = 148) and sub-elite male (n = 14) soccer players carried out the Yo-Yo IE2 test on several occasions over consecutive seasons. Test-retest coefficient of variation (CV......) in Yo-Yo IE2 test performance and heart rate after 6 min were 3.9% (n = 37) and 1.4% (n = 32), respectively. Elite male senior and youth U19 players Yo-Yo IE2 performances were better (P ......The aims of this study were to (1) determine the reproducibility of sub-maximal and maximal versions of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2 test), (2) assess the relationship between the Yo-Yo IE2 test and match performance and (3) quantify the sensitivity of the Yo-Yo IE2 test...
Smith, Mitchell R; Zeuwts, Linus; Lenoir, Matthieu; Hens, Nathalie; De Jong, Laura M S; Coutts, Aaron J
This study aimed to investigate the impact of mental fatigue on soccer-specific decision-making. Twelve well-trained male soccer players performed a soccer-specific decision-making task on two occasions, separated by at least 72 h. The decision-making task was preceded in a randomised order by 30 min of the Stroop task (mental fatigue) or 30 min of reading from magazines (control). Subjective ratings of mental fatigue were measured before and after treatment, and mental effort (referring to treatment) and motivation (referring to the decision-making task) were measured after treatment. Performance on the soccer-specific decision-making task was assessed using response accuracy and time. Visual search behaviour was also assessed throughout the decision-making task. Subjective ratings of mental fatigue and effort were almost certainly higher following the Stroop task compared to the magazines. Motivation for the upcoming decision-making task was possibly higher following the Stroop task. Decision-making accuracy was very likely lower and response time likely higher in the mental fatigue condition. Mental fatigue had unclear effects on most visual search behaviour variables. The results suggest that mental fatigue impairs accuracy and speed of soccer-specific decision-making. These impairments are not likely related to changes in visual search behaviour.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare isokinetic strength performance profiles in elite soccer players across different field positions. A total of 111 elite international players of Polish Ekstraklasa (the top division in Poland were examined during the 2010-2015 seasons. The players were classified into six positional roles: central defenders (CD, external defenders (ED, central midfielders (CM, external midfielders (EM, forwards (F, and goalkeepers (G. The concentric isokinetic strength (peak torque [PT] of quadriceps and hamstrings, H/Q ratios was calculated for the dominant leg and the non-dominant leg at angular velocity of 1.05 rad ·s-1, whereas to assess isokinetic muscle endurance, the total work [TW] at angular velocity of 4.19 rad ·s-1, was taken into consideration. The results showed that isokinetic strength performance varies significantly among players in different playing positions. The analysis of PT for quadriceps (PT-Q and hamstrings (PT-H generally showed that the goalkeepers and central midfielders had lower strength levels compared to other playing positions. In the case of PT-H and hamstring/quadricep (H/Q peak torque ratios, statistically significant differences were also noted for the legs, where mean values noted for the dominant leg were higher than for the non-dominant leg. For TW for quadriceps (TW-Q and hamstrings (TW-H, statistically significant differences were noted only between playing positions. TW-Q values for goalkeepers were lower than for central defenders and external midfielders. TW-H values for goalkeepers were lower than for central midfielders, central defenders and external midfielders. This study showed that specific functional activity of players in individual positions on the field influences the varied profile of isokinetic strength performance.
Full Text Available Many sports (for instance soccer are stereotypically perceived as a male activity. Even so, more and more women decide to become competitive athletes. Since the theory of sport requires comprehensive explanations and the practice of sport needs clear guidelines, interdisciplinary studies into the nature of sport, including its psychological aspects, are necessary. Analysing the psychological profile of female soccer players, particularly those who are about to become professional athletes, can provide many interesting insights into the specific character of female youth sport and show where improvements can be made in athletic training programmes (especially in mental training. It is therefore important to study psychological gender that determines social behaviours and to analyse female athletes’ emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is defined as a set of emotional competencies that determine the effectiveness of human behaviours. Psychological gender and emotional intelligence have a significant effect on human adaptability and the efficiency of psychosocial functioning. This research was undertaken with the dual purpose of identifying the psychological gender and emotional intelligence of female soccer players. It involved 54 secondary-school girls, some of whom attended a sports class and others played on the Polish national team. The following tools were used to carry out the research: the Gender Assessment Inventory (IPP [This and the other acronyms derive from the Polish language]-developed by Kuczyńska and the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (INTE; created by Jaworowska and Matczak. As shown by the analysis of the results, most female soccer players in the study were androgynous and the level of their emotional intelligence was significantly higher than in other participants. This also seems to point to their significantly greater adaptability. At the same time, the level of emotional intelligence in many players was
Rutkowska, Katarzyna; Bergier, Józef
Many sports (for instance soccer) are stereotypically perceived as a male activity. Even so, more and more women decide to become competitive athletes. Since the theory of sport requires comprehensive explanations and the practice of sport needs clear guidelines, interdisciplinary studies into the nature of sport, including its psychological aspects, are necessary. Analysing the psychological profile of female soccer players, particularly those who are about to become professional athletes, can provide many interesting insights into the specific character of female youth sport and show where improvements can be made in athletic training programmes (especially in mental training). It is therefore important to study psychological gender that determines social behaviours and to analyse female athletes' emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is defined as a set of emotional competencies that determine the effectiveness of human behaviours. Psychological gender and emotional intelligence have a significant effect on human adaptability and the efficiency of psychosocial functioning. This research was undertaken with the dual purpose of identifying the psychological gender and emotional intelligence of female soccer players. It involved 54 secondary-school girls, some of whom attended a sports class and others played on the Polish national team. The following tools were used to carry out the research: the Gender Assessment Inventory (IPP [This and the other acronyms derive from the Polish language]-developed by Kuczyńska) and the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (INTE; created by Jaworowska and Matczak). As shown by the analysis of the results, most female soccer players in the study were androgynous and the level of their emotional intelligence was significantly higher than in other participants. This also seems to point to their significantly greater adaptability. At the same time, the level of emotional intelligence in many players was average or low
Carter, Elizabeth A; Westerman, Beverly J; Hunting, Katherine L
A major challenge in the field of sports injury epidemiology is identifying the appropriate denominators for injury rates. To characterize risk of injury from participation in basketball, football, and soccer in the United States, using hours of participation as the measure of exposure, and to compare these rates with those derived using population estimates in the denominator. Descriptive epidemiology study. United States, 2003-2007. People ages 15 years and older who experienced an emergency department-treated injury while playing basketball, football, or soccer. Rates of emergency department-treated injuries resulting from participation in basketball, football, or soccer. Injury rates were calculated for people ages 15 and older for the years 2003-2007 using the U.S. population and hours of participation as the denominators. The risk of injury associated with each of these sports was compared for all participants and by sex. From 2003 through 2007, annual injury rates per 1000 U.S. population were as follows: 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30, 1.67) in basketball, 0.93 (95% CI = 0.82, 1.04) in football, and 0.43 (95% CI = 0.33, 0.53) in soccer. When the denominator was hours of participation, the injury rate in football (5.08 [95% CI = 4.46, 5.69]/10 000 hours) was almost twice as high as that for basketball (2.69 [95% CI = 2.35, 3.02]/10 000 hours) and soccer (2.69 [95% CI = 2.07, 3.30]/10 000 hours). Depending on the choice of denominator, interpretation of the risk of an emergency department-treated injury in basketball, football, or soccer varies greatly. Using the U.S. population as the denominator produced rates that were highest in basketball and lowest in soccer. However, using hours of participation as a more accurate measure of exposure demonstrated that football had a higher rate of injury than basketball or soccer for both males and females.
Harley, Jamie A; Lovell, Ric J; Barnes, Christopher A; Portas, Matthew D; Weston, Matthew
In elite-level soccer, player motion characteristics are commonly generated from match play and training situations using semiautomated video analysis systems and global positioning system (GPS) technology, respectively. Before such data are used collectively to quantify global player load, it is necessary to understand both the level of agreement and direction of bias between the systems so that specific interventions can be made based on the reported results. The aim of this report was to compare data derived from both systems for physical match performances. Six elite-level soccer players were analyzed during a competitive match using semiautomated video analysis (ProZone® [PZ]) and GPS (MinimaxX) simultaneously. Total distances (TDs), high speed running (HSR), very high speed running (VHSR), sprinting distance (SPR), and high-intensity running distance (HIR; >4.0 m·s(-1)) were reported in 15-minute match periods. The GPS reported higher values than PZ did for TD (GPS: 1,755.4 ± 245.4 m; PZ: 1,631.3 ± 239.5 m; p < 0.05); PZ reported higher values for SPR and HIR than GPS did (SPR: PZ, 34.1 ± 24.0 m; GPS: 20.3 ± 15.8 m; HIR: PZ, 368.1 ± 129.8 m; GPS: 317.0 ± 92.5 m; p < 0.05). Caution should be exercised when using match-load (PZ) and training-load (GPS) data interchangeably.
Nicole M. Sauls
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the differences in collegiate and recreationally trained soccer players in sprint, vertical jump, and balance performance. Methods: Twenty-one soccer players, twelve Division II collegiate and nine recreationally trained volunteered to participate. Session one acted as a familiarization day, where the participants were familiarized with testing day protocols. During testing day, participants performed a dynamic warm-up, followed by balance measurements, three countermovement vertical jumps, and pro-agility shuttle test. Results: There were no significant (p>0.05 differences between groups in the all balance variables. Collegiate soccer players had a significantly (p0.05 differences in groups in all other variables. Conclusion: These results indicate that collegiate, Division II, soccer players had greater vertical jumping and sprinting velocities when compared to recreationally trained soccer players. These results may have been impacted by the lack of resistance training background in either of the two groups. With the addition of more time on a collegiate resistance training program, it is very likely the Division II athletes will see a significant increase in all balance, sprint, and vertical jump performance measures compared to recreationally trained players who receive little to no specialized resistance training.
Forsman, Hannele; Gråstén, Arto; Blomqvist, Minna; Davids, Keith; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Konttinen, Niilo
The objective of this study was to create a valid, self-reported, game-specific soccer competence scale. A structural model of perceived competence, performance measures and motivation was tested as the basis for the scale. A total of 1321 soccer players (261 females, 1060 males) ranging from 12 to 15 years (13.4 ± 1.0 years) participated in the study. They completed the Perceived Game-Specific Soccer Competence Scale (PGSSCS), self-assessments of tactical skills and motivation, as well as technical and speed and agility tests. Results of factor analyses, tests of internal consistency and correlations between PGSSCS subscales, performance measures and motivation supported the reliability and validity of the PGSSCS. The scale can be considered a suitable instrument to assess perceived game-specific competence among young soccer players.
Shephard, R J
Recent literature on the biology and medicine of soccer (primarily since 1990) has been accumulated by a combination of computer searching of relevant databases and review of the author's extensive files. From a total of 9681 papers, 540 were selected for closer scrutiny and 370 are discussed in the present review. These articles cover patterns of play and the resulting energy demands, the nutritional requirements of soccer, the anthropometric, physiological, biochemical and immunological characteristics of successful players, the influence of environmental stressors (heat, cold, hypoxia and time zone shifts), special features of female and junior competitors, selected issues in training, and the incidence and prevention of injuries. The information presented has important implications for the safety and success of soccer players; the challenge is now to ensure that this information is understood and acted upon by coaches and individual team members.
Meyers, Michael C
Numerous injuries have been attributed to playing on artificial turf. More recently, newer generations of artificial turf have been developed to duplicate the playing characteristics of natural grass. Although artificial turf has been deemed safer than natural grass in some studies, few long-term studies have been conducted comparing match-related collegiate soccer injuries between the 2 playing surfaces. Collegiate male soccer athletes do not experience any difference in the incidence, mechanisms, or severity of match-related injuries between FieldTurf and natural grass. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Male soccer athletes from 11 universities were evaluated over 6 seasons. Demographic features and predictors included player position, cleat design, player weight, turf age, and environmental factors. Outcomes of interest included injury incidence, injury category, time loss, injury mechanism and situation, type of injury, injury grade and anatomic location, injury severity, head and lower extremity trauma, and elective medical procedures. All match-related injuries were evaluated by the attending head athletic trainer and team physicians on site and subsequently in the physician's office when further follow-up and treatment were deemed necessary. In sum, 765 collegiate games were evaluated for match-related soccer injuries sustained on FieldTurf or natural grass during 6 seasons. Overall, 380 team games (49.7%) were played on FieldTurf versus 385 team games (50.3%) played on natural grass. A total of 722 injuries were documented, with 268 (37.1%) occurring on FieldTurf and 454 (62.9%) on natural grass. Multivariate analysis per 10 team games indicated a significant playing surface effect: F 2,720 = 7.260, P = .001. A significantly lower total injury incidence rate (IIR) of 7.1 (95% CI, 6.6-7.5) versus 11.8 (95% CI, 11.3-12.2; P < .0001) and lower rate of substantial injuries, 0.7 (95% CI, 0.5-1.0) versus 1.9 (95% CI, 1.5-2.3; P < .03), were documented on Field
Abbott, Will; Brownlee, Thomas E; Harper, Liam D; Naughton, Robert J; Clifford, Tom
This study examined if subjective wellbeing in soccer players was affected by match location, match result and opposition quality before a match (PRE), 1 day after (POST-1), and 3 days after a match (POST-3). Eleven professional male soccer players from the under 23 squad playing in the Premier League 2 division completed a wellbeing questionnaire before and after 17 matches. Match training load (session-rating perceived exertion) was not different, regardless of the location, result, or quality of opposition faced (P > 0.05). Subjective wellbeing was not different at PRE (P > 0.05); however, at POST-1 and POST-3, stress and mood were ≥20% lower after playing away from home or losing (P sleep were ≥12% worse after playing against a higher-level opposition at POST-1. Coaches need to be aware that match location, match result and the quality of the opposition can influence post-match wellbeing, irrespective of match load.
Briggs, Marc A.; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L. S.; Rae, Glen; Stevenson, Emma J.; Russell, Mark
This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall) and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry) were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day−1 (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg−1 BM) carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day−1 (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg−1 BM) protein and 70 ± 7 g·day−1 (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg−1 BM) fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of −1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035) was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ) and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ). Match days (−2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012) and heavy training days (−2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016) elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players. PMID:26445059
Marc A. Briggs
Full Text Available This study investigated the energy intake and expenditure of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Over a seven day period that included four training days, two rest days and a match day, energy intake (self-reported weighed food diary and 24-h recall and expenditure (tri-axial accelerometry were recorded in 10 male players from a professional English Premier League club. The mean macronutrient composition of the dietary intake was 318 ± 24 g·day−1 (5.6 ± 0.4 g·kg−1 BM carbohydrate, 86 ± 10 g·day−1 (1.5 ± 0.2 g·kg−1 BM protein and 70 ± 7 g·day−1 (1.2 ± 0.1 g·kg−1 BM fats, representing 55% ± 3%, 16% ± 1%, and 29% ± 2% of mean daily energy intake respectively. A mean daily energy deficit of −1302 ± 1662 kJ (p = 0.035 was observed between energy intake (9395 ± 1344 kJ and energy expenditure (10679 ± 1026 kJ. Match days (−2278 ± 2307 kJ, p = 0.012 and heavy training days (−2114 ± 2257 kJ, p = 0.016 elicited the greatest deficits between intake and expenditure. In conclusion, the mean daily energy intake of professional adolescent academy-level soccer players was lower than the energy expended during a competitive week. The magnitudes of these deficits were greatest on match and heavy training days. These findings may have both short and long term implications on the performance and physical development of adolescent soccer players.
Dragone, Mauro; O'Donoghue, Ruadhan; Leonard, John J.; O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Patrikalakis, Andrew; Leederkerken, Jacques
The paper describes an ongoing effort to enable autonomous mobile robots to play soccer in unstructured, everyday environments. Unlike conventional robot soccer competitions that are usually held on purpose-built robot soccer "fields", in our work we seek to develop the capability for robots to demonstrate aspects of soccer-playing in more diverse environments, such as schools, hospitals, or shopping malls, with static obstacles (furniture) and dynamic natural obstacles (people). This problem of "Soccer Anywhere" presents numerous research challenges including: (1) Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) in dynamic, unstructured environments, (2) software control architectures for decentralized, distributed control of mobile agents, (3) integration of vision-based object tracking with dynamic control, and (4) social interaction with human participants. In addition to the intrinsic research merit of these topics, we believe that this capability would prove useful for outreach activities, in demonstrating robotics technology to primary and secondary school students, to motivate them to pursue careers in science and engineering.
Serner, Andreas; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Andersen, Lars Louis
INTRODUCTION: Exercise programmes are used in the prevention and treatment of adductor-related groin injuries in soccer; however, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the intensity of frequently used exercises. OBJECTIVE: Primarily to investigate muscle activity of adductor longus during six...... traditional and two new hip adduction exercises. Additionally, to analyse muscle activation of gluteals and abdominals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 healthy male elite soccer players, training >5 h a week, participated in the study. Muscle activity using surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured bilaterally...
Rafn, Bolette S; Tang, Lars; Nielsen, Peter Martin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether self-reported pain during hip strength testing correlates to a large degree with hip muscle strength in soccer players with long-standing unilateral hip and groin pain. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Clinical assessments at Sports Orthopaedic Research...... Center-Copenhagen (SORC-C), Arthroscopic Centre Amager, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four male soccer players with unilateral long-standing hip and groin pain. INTERVENTIONS: The soccer players performed 5 reliable hip muscle strength tests (isometric hip flexion...... strength (Spearman rho = -0.44, P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported pain during testing does not seem to correlate with the majority of hip muscle strength tests used in soccer players with long-standing hip and groin pain....
Bretzin, Abigail C; Mansell, Jamie L; Tierney, Ryan T; McDevitt, Jane K
Soccer players head the ball repetitively throughout their careers; this is also a potential mechanism for a concussion. Although not all soccer headers result in a concussion, these subconcussive impacts may impart acceleration, deceleration, and rotational forces on the brain, leaving structural and functional deficits. Stronger neck musculature may reduce head-neck segment kinematics. The relationship between anthropometrics and soccer heading kinematics will not differ between sexes. The relationship between anthropometrics and soccer heading kinematics will not differ between ball speeds. Pilot, cross-sectional design. Level 3. Division I soccer athletes (5 male, 8 female) were assessed for head-neck anthropometric and neck strength measurements in 6 directions (ie, flexion, extension, right and left lateral flexions and rotations). Participants headed the ball 10 times (25 or 40 mph) while wearing an accelerometer secured to their head. Kinematic measurements (ie, linear acceleration and rotational velocity) were recorded at 2 ball speeds. Sex differences were observed in neck girth ( t = 5.09, P soccer heading kinematics for sex and ball speeds. Neck girth and neck strength are factors that may limit head impact kinematics.
Nowhere in the world has sports in general and soccer in particular played such a key role in the development of a region than in the Middle East and North Africa. Yet, the nexus of sports, politics and society is one area that Middle East studies with few exceptions have ignored. Similarly, sports studies have focused on all parts of the world with one exception: the Middle East and North Africa. Nonetheless, sports and particularly soccer has been in various parts of the Middle East key to ...
Brito, João; Fontes, Ivo; Ribeiro, Fernando
To investigate the effects of an official soccer match on postural stability in youth elite soccer players.......To investigate the effects of an official soccer match on postural stability in youth elite soccer players....
Schuermans, Joke; Danneels, Lieven; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Palmans, Tanneke; Witvrouw, Erik
With their unremittingly high incidence rate and detrimental functional repercussions, hamstring injuries remain a substantial problem in male soccer. Proximal neuromuscular control ("core stability") is considered to be of key importance in primary and secondary hamstring injury prevention, although scientific evidence and insights on the exact nature of the core-hamstring association are nonexistent at present. The muscle activation pattern throughout the running cycle would not differ between participants based on injury occurrence during follow-up. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Sixty amateur soccer players participated in a multimuscle surface electromyography (sEMG) assessment during maximal acceleration to full-speed sprinting. Subsequently, hamstring injury occurrence was registered during a 1.5-season follow-up period. Hamstring, gluteal, and trunk muscle activity time series during the airborne and stance phases of acceleration were evaluated and statistically explored for a possible causal association with injury occurrence and absence from sport during follow-up. Players who did not experience a hamstring injury during follow-up had significantly higher amounts of gluteal muscle activity during the front swing phase ( P = .027) and higher amounts of trunk muscle activity during the backswing phase of sprinting ( P = .042). In particular, the risk of sustaining a hamstring injury during follow-up lowered by 20% and 6%, with a 10% increment in normalized muscle activity of the gluteus maximus during the front swing and the trunk muscles during the backswing, respectively ( P hamstring injury occurrence in male soccer players. Higher amounts of gluteal and trunk muscle activity during the airborne phases of sprinting were associated with a lower risk of hamstring injuries during follow-up. Hence, the present results provide a basis for improved, evidence-based rehabilitation and prevention, particularly focusing on increasing neuromuscular
Full Text Available Introduction. The aims of the present study were to determine the activity profiles of a large sample of Polish Premier League soccer players during elite-standard soccer matches depending on their position on the pitch and the intensity range of physical activity. Material and methods. The study sample comprised 1,178 players in 5 outfield positions: external defenders (ED, n = 289, central defenders (CD, n = 307, central midfield players (CM, n = 327, external midfield players (EM, n = 152, and forwards (F, n = 103. Altogether, 81 Polish League games held during four domestic seasons (2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013, and 2013-2014 were used in the analysis. A semi-automatic computerised player tracking system (Amisco Pro®, version 1.0.2, Nice, France was applied to create the match activity profiles of the teams. Results. The results of statistical analysis revealed that the average total distance covered by all the players (n = 1,178 was 11,313 ± 852 m. With respect to the players’ position on the pitch, the central midfielders travelled the longest average distance (11,894 ± 765 m during the game. The longest distance was covered in the V1 intensity range (62%, followed by V2 (15%, V3 (10%, V4 (8%, V5 (3%, and V6 (2%. Conclusions. The objective of this study was to verify the differences among playing positions and to quantify the demands placed on elite Polish soccer players in each individual position during match play. While analysing elite-level match play in terms of the overall distance covered in different categories of intensity, we found a number of statistically significant differences between different playing positions. The data presented in this study can be regarded as norms for elite soccer players, serve for present and future comparison, and represent the scientific basis for developing position-specific conditioning/training protocols in soccer.
Piras, Alessandro; Raffi, Milena; Atmatzidis, Charalampos; Merni, Franco; Di Michele, Rocco
Running with the ball is a soccer-specific activity frequently used by players during match play and training drills. Nevertheless, the energy cost (EC) of on-grass running with the ball has not yet been determined. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the EC of constant-speed running with the ball, and to compare it with the EC of normal running. Eight amateur soccer players performed two 6- min runs at 10 km/h on artificial turf, respectively with and without the ball. EC was measured with indirect calorimetry and, furthermore, estimated with a method based on players' accelerations measured with a GPS receiver. The EC measured with indirect calorimetry was higher in running with the ball (4.60±0.42 J/kg/m) than in normal running (4.19±0.33 J/kg/m), with a very likely moderate difference between conditions. Instead, a likely small difference was observed between conditions for EC estimated from GPS data (4.87±0.07 vs. 4.83±0.08 J/kg/m). This study sheds light on the energy expenditure of playing soccer, providing relevant data about the EC of a typical soccer-specific activity. These findings may be a reference for coaches to precisely determine the training load in drills with the ball, such as soccer-specific circuits or small-sided games. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Carter, Elizabeth A.; Westerman, Beverly J.; Hunting, Katherine L.
Context: A major challenge in the field of sports injury epidemiology is identifying the appropriate denominators for injury rates. Objective: To characterize risk of injury from participation in basketball, football, and soccer in the United States, using hours of participation as the measure of exposure, and to compare these rates with those derived using population estimates in the denominator. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: United States, 2003–2007. Participants: People ages 15 years and older who experienced an emergency department–treated injury while playing basketball, football, or soccer. Main Outcome Measure(s): Rates of emergency department–treated injuries resulting from participation in basketball, football, or soccer. Injury rates were calculated for people ages 15 and older for the years 2003–2007 using the U.S. population and hours of participation as the denominators. The risk of injury associated with each of these sports was compared for all participants and by sex. Results: From 2003 through 2007, annual injury rates per 1000 U.S. population were as follows: 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30, 1.67) in basketball, 0.93 (95% CI = 0.82, 1.04) in football, and 0.43 (95% CI = 0.33, 0.53) in soccer. When the denominator was hours of participation, the injury rate in football (5.08 [95% CI = 4.46, 5.69]/10 000 hours) was almost twice as high as that for basketball (2.69 [95% CI = 2.35, 3.02]/10 000 hours) and soccer (2.69 [95% CI = 2.07, 3.30]/10 000 hours). Conclusions: Depending on the choice of denominator, interpretation of the risk of an emergency department–treated injury in basketball, football, or soccer varies greatly. Using the U.S. population as the denominator produced rates that were highest in basketball and lowest in soccer. However, using hours of participation as a more accurate measure of exposure demonstrated that football had a higher rate of injury than basketball or soccer for both males and
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between coaching efficacy and conflict management style of the soccer coaches. The sample included 224 male soccer coaches ranging in coaching experience from 2 to 15 years. The Coaching Efficacy Scale and The Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory were used to measure coaching…
Russell, Mark; Benton, David; Kingsley, Michael
This study investigated the influence of carbohydrate supplementation on skill performance throughout exercise that replicates soccer match-play. Experimentation was conducted in a randomised, double-blind and cross-over study design. After familiarization, 15 professional academy soccer players completed a soccer match simulation incorporating passing, dribbling and shooting on two separate occasions. Participants received a 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CHO) or electrolyte solution (PL). Precision, success rate, ball speed and an overall index (speed-precision-success; SPS) were determined for all skills. Blood samples were taken at rest, immediately before exercise, every 15 min during exercise (first half: 15, 30 and 45 min; second half: 60, 75 and 90 min), and 10 min into the half time (half-time). Carbohydrate supplementation influenced shooting (time×treatment interaction: pinteraction: pCarbohydrate supplementation attenuated decrements in shooting performance during simulated soccer match-play; however, further research is warranted to optimise carbohydrate supplementation regimes for high-intensity intermittent sports. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wong, Pui-lam; Chamari, Karim; Mao, De Wei; Wisløff, Ulrik; Hong, Youlian
To measure the plantar pressure in four soccer-related movements in 15 male soccer players (mean (SD) age 20.9 (1.3) years, height 173 (4) cm, weight 61.7 (3.6) kg). To record plantar pressure distribution, the players wore soccer boots with 12 circular studs and with an insole pressure recorder device equipped with 99 sensors. Plantar pressure was recorded in five successful trials in each of the four soccer-related movements: running, sideward cutting, 45 degrees cutting and landing from a vertical jump. Each footprint was divided into 10 recorded areas for analysis. Compared with running at 3.3 m/s, maximal speed sideward cutting and 45 degrees cutting induced higher peak pressure (pplantar surface as compared with the lateral side. These data suggest that the medial side of the plantar surface may be more prone to injuries, and that foot orthosis adoption, improved soccer boot design and specific muscle training could be considered to reduce pressure and the subsequent risk of injury.
Full Text Available Introduction: Osgood–Schlatter disease is an irritation of the patellar tendon at the tibial tubercle. Sports with jumps, running, and repeated contractions of knee extension apparatus are considered to be importantexternal risk-factors which could cause Osgood–Schlatter disease.Objectives of the study are to draw attention to the importance of clinical examination in diagnostics of Osgood–Schlatter disease in boys playing soccer or basketball.Methods: The research included data obtained from 120 boys, average age of 14 years. Examinees were split into two groups, one with young athletes which regularly have soccer or basketball trainings and thesecond one with boys who do not participating in sports. We performed anthropological measurements and clinical examinations of both knees and hips for both groups. For the statistical analysis we used pointbiserialcorrelation coefficient.Results: Based on clinical examination, Osgood–Schlatter disease was diagnosed in 51 examinees (42.5%. In “athletic group” Osgood–Schlatter disease had 31 boys or 52%, comparing with “non-athletic group” wherewe found 20 adolescents with disease (33%. Number of boys with Osgood–Schlatter disease was higher for 19% in “athletic group” comparing with “non-athletic group”. Comparing incidence rate for boys in both groups with diagnosed II and III level of Osgood–Schlatter disease we found that rate is higher in “athletic group” 2.25 times comparing with “non-athletic group”.Conclusions: Clinical examination is critical method in the process of diagnosing Osgood–Schlatter disease especially for identifying II and III level of this disease.
Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni; Steensberg, Adam
Abstract: Purpose: To examine muscle and blood metabolites during soccer match play and relate it to possible changes in sprint performance. Methods: Thirty-one Danish fourth division players took part in three friendly games. Blood samples were collected frequently during the game, and muscle......, muscle pH, or total glycogen content. Conclusion: Sprint performance is reduced both temporarily during a game and at the end of a soccer game. The latter finding may be explained by low glycogen levels in individual muscle fibers. Blood lactate is a poor indicator of muscle lactate during soccer match...
Van Yperen, N.W.
This study investigated whether the perception of disadvantageous inequity makes athletes more vulnerable to dropping out. Sixty five talented youth male soccer players (mean age = 16.6 years), attending a prestigious soccer school, completed a questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the
Kramer, J.; Scheurecker, G.
Soccer is the most common sport activity worldwide. Over the last two decades the increase in soccer players has mainly been due to increased interest by females. In general, soccer is a relatively safe sport activity, especially if minor injuries resulting in short periods of absence from playing or training are neglected. However, due to the high number of soccer players severe injuries are also frequent. These are a problem not only for the injured player and the team but may also become problematic for the socio-economic system. In up to 80-90% structures of the lower extremities are injured. For sufficient radiological diagnosis knowledge of the biomechanics of the soccer game and some details about the history of the injury may be of help. To prevent soccer injuries or keep the degree of injury low, special programs had been developed. (orig.) [de
Schmikli, Sándor L; de Vries, Wouter R; Brink, Michel S; Backx, Frank Jg
To verify if in male elite junior soccer players a minimum 1-month performance decrease is accompanied by a mood profile and hormone levels typical of non-functional over-reaching (NFOR). A prospective case-control study using a monthly performance monitor with a standardised field test to detect the performance changes. Players with a performance decrease lasting at least 1 month were compared with control players without a performance decrease on mood scores and pre-exercise and postexercise levels of stress hormones. Sporting field and sports medical laboratory. Ninety-four young elite soccer players were monitored during the 2006-2008 seasons. Twenty-one players were invited to the laboratory, seven of whom showed a significant performance decrease. Performance change over time, scores on the profile of mood states and premaximal and postmaximal exercise serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol. Players with a performance decrease showed psychological and hormonal changes typical of the non-functional state of over-reaching. Scores were higher on depression and anger, whereas the resting GH levels and ACTH levels after maximal exercise were reduced. ACTH and GH were capable of classifying all but one player correctly as either NFOR or control. Performance-related criteria in field tests are capable of identifying players with worsened mood and adaptations of the endocrine system that fit the definition of NFOR. Performance, mood and hormone levels may therefore be considered as valid instruments to diagnose NFOR in young elite soccer players.
Smith, Nicholas A; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Xiang, Huiyun
To investigate the epidemiology of youth soccer-related injuries treated in emergency departments in the United States. A retrospective analysis was conducted of soccer-related injuries among children 7 through 17 years of age from 1990 through 2014 with data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. Injury rates were calculated from soccer participation data. An estimated 2 995 765 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2 309 112-3 682 418) children 7 through 17 years old were treated in US emergency departments for soccer-related injuries during the 25-year study period, averaging 119 831 (95% CI, 92 364-147 297) annually. The annual injury rate per 10 000 soccer participants increased significantly, by 111.4%, from 1990 to 2014. Patients 12 to 17 years old accounted for 72.7% of injuries, 55.5% of patients were male, and most injuries occurred in a place of sport or recreation (68.5%) or school (25.7%). Struck by (38.5%) and fell (28.7%) were the leading mechanisms of injury. Injuries most commonly were diagnosed as sprain or strain (34.6%), fracture (23.2%), and soft tissue injury (21.9%), and occurred to the upper extremity (20.7%), ankle (17.8%), and head or neck (17.7%). Concussions or other closed head injuries accounted for 7.3% of the injuries, but the annual rate of concussions/closed head injuries per 10 000 participants increased significantly, by 1595.6%, from 1990 to 2014. This study is the first to comprehensively investigate soccer-related injuries and calculate injury rates based on soccer participation data among children at the national level. The increasing number and rate of pediatric soccer-related injuries, especially soccer-related concussions/closed head injuries, underscore the need for increased efforts to prevent these injuries. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Proietti, Riccardo; di Fronso, Selenia; Pereira, Lucas A; Bortoli, Laura; Robazza, Claudio; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Bertollo, Maurizio
Heart rate variability (HRV) has been increasingly used to monitor team sports athletes. Besides the traditional time domain indices (i.e., the SD of successive RR intervals [SDNN] and the root mean square difference of successive normal RR intervals [RMSSD]), recently the use of the stress score (SS), which is an inverse function of the SD2 index derived from the Poincaré plot, and the sympathetic/parasympathetic ratio (S/PS) to monitor soccer players has been proposed. However, the reliability of these new indices and the ability of HRV to differentiate between soccer competitive levels are unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability of the different HRV-derived indices in professional soccer players during the competitive period and to compare HRV of professional soccer players from 3 teams of distinct competitive levels (i.e., Italian Second Division [2D], European League [EL], and Champions League [CL]). Fifty-four male professional soccer players from 3 different teams of 2 European countries (Italy and Germany) participated in the study. The intraclass correlation coefficient values of the HRV indices varied from 0.78 (very large) to 0.90 (near perfect). The coefficient of variation (CV) values for RMSSD and SDNN were all soccer players and is able to differentiate between international- and national-level players.
Objective. To investigate the effectiveness of accelerated rehabilitation and accelerated hydrotherapy after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in male athletes participating in soccer. Design. A non-concurrent single subject, multiple baseline design (ABA design) was conducted over 10 weeks. A series of three ...
De Ste Croix, M B A; Priestley, A M; Lloyd, R S; Oliver, J L
Fatigue is known to influence dynamic knee joint stability from a neuromuscular perspective, and electromechanical delay (EMD) plays an important role as the feedback activation mechanism that stabilizes the joint. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of soccer-specific fatigue on EMD in U13-, U15-, and U17-year-old female soccer players. Thirty-six youth soccer players performed eccentric actions of the hamstrings in a prone position at 60, 120, and 180°/s before and after a soccer-specific fatigue trial. Surface electromyography was used to determine EMD from the semitendinosus, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius. A time × age × muscle × velocity repeated measures analysis of variance was used to explore the influence of fatigue on EMD. A significant main effect for time (P = 0.001) indicated that EMD was significantly longer post- compared with pre-fatigue (58.4% increase). A significant time × group interaction effect (P = 0.046) indicated EMD was significantly longer in the U13 age group compared with the U15 (P = 0.011) and U17 (P = 0.021) groups and greater post-fatigue. Soccer-specific fatigue compromised neuromuscular feedback mechanisms and the age-related effects may represent a more compliant muscle-tendon system in younger compared with older girls, increasing risk of injury. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Marcelo de Oliveira Matta
The objectives of this study were to describe and compare the anthropometric profile, physical fitness and soccer-specific skills between under-15 and under-17 Brazilian soccer players, as well as to evaluate possible differences in these variables according to biological maturation in the age categories. The sample consisted of 245 male soccer players (under-15: n=161; under-17: n=84. Anthropometric measures included weight, height and skinfolds. Biological maturation was assessed based on pubic hair development. The following tests were used for functional assessment: static and countermovement jump, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (level 2, RAST, 5- and 30-meter running speed, and agility T-test. Soccer-specific skills were assessed using three tests: ball control, dribbling, and kick accuracy. Descriptive statistics, t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. The results showed a larger body size (stature and body mass, longer sports experience (years of formal training and better performance in most of the functional tests for under-17 soccer players compared to under-15 players. There were no significant differences in adiposity or soccer-specific skills between levels of competition. Significant differences as a function of maturation stage were observed in anthropometric and functional variables only in the under-15 category. In conclusion, the under-17 category differs from the under-15 category in terms of anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics. However, no difference was observed in two of the three soccer-specific skills. Physical fitness components and soccer-specific skills were associated with maturity only in the under-15 category.
Daniel Barbosa Coelho
Full Text Available Soccer is a sport practiced worldwide, on all continents. It is considered an intermittent activity of high intensity and long duration, in which movements that require great strength and speed, such as jumps and sprints, result in high levels of muscle microtrauma, hampering athletes’ training and recovery. The present study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of changes in different markers of physiological demand resulting from a soccer match in healthy individuals. Ten healthy male physical education students participated in the study and were evaluated in two matches: the semi-final and final games of the college tournament at the federal university where they studied. Blood samples were collected from each volunteer pre- and post-match. Cortisol, IL-6 and CK concentrations were increased after the match (p < 0.05. Testosterone and alpha-actin concentrations did not change. Our results indicate that changes in some of the acute response markers evaluated in players before and after competitive soccer matches provide important information for planning training or recovery, as well as nutritional strategies for improving performance.
Jonge, M.C. de; Maas, M.; Kuijk, C. van
Soccer is one of the most popular sports worldwide. There is a high incidence of injuries in soccer in which several intrinsic and extrinsic factors play a part. Most injuries are minor, self-limiting and do not need extensive medical treatment or imaging. Imaging can be required for several reasons e.g. when the clinical findings are doubtful, to replace arthroscopy (i. e. of the knee) or for prognostic reasons. All imaging modalities available to the radiologist can be used but MRI is the most valuable imaging modality with its superior contrast resolution and multiplanar capabilities. Basically, injuries in the soccer player can occur anywhere in the body like in every sport. The lower extremities, more specific the knee and ankle, are however the most injured parts. (orig.) [de
Dupont, Gregory; Nedelec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; McCormack, Derek; Berthoin, Serge; Wisløff, Ulrik
Recovery duration may be too short during the congested fixtures of professional soccer players with regard to maintaining physical performance and a low injury rate. To analyze the effects of 2 matches per week on physical performance and injury rate in male elite soccer players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Match results, match-related physical performance, and injuries were monitored during 2 seasons (2007-2008 and 2008-2009) for 32 professional soccer players in a top-level team participating in the UEFA (Union of European Football Associations) Champions League. Total distance, high-intensity distance, sprint distance, and number of sprints were collected for 52 home matches. Injuries and player participation in matches and training were recorded throughout the full season. Physical performance, as characterized by total distance covered, high-intensity distance, sprint distance, and number of sprints, was not significantly affected by the number of matches per week (1 versus 2), whereas the injury rate was significantly higher when players played 2 matches per week versus 1 match per week (25.6 versus 4.1 injuries per 1000 hours of exposure; P physical performance tested but is not long enough to maintain a low injury rate. The present data highlight the need for player rotation and for improved recovery strategies to maintain a low injury rate among athletes during periods with congested match fixtures.
Yang, Grace S; Huesmann, L Rowell; Bushman, Brad J
Previous research has shown that violent video games can increase aggression in players immediately after they play. The present research examines the effects of one subtle cue within violent video games that might moderate these effects-whether the avatar is male or female. One common stereotype is that males are more aggressive than females. Thus, playing a violent video game as a male avatar, compared to a female avatar, should be more likely to prime aggressive thoughts and inclinations in players and lead to more aggressive behavior afterwards. Male and female university students (N = 242) were randomly assigned to play a violent video game as a male or female avatar. After gameplay, participants gave an ostensible partner who hated spicy food hot sauce to eat. The amount of hot sauce given was used to measure aggression. Consistent with priming theory, results showed that both male and female participants who played a violent game as a male avatar behaved more aggressively afterwards than those who played as female avatar. The priming effects of the male avatar were somewhat stronger for male participants than for female participants, suggesting that male participants identified more with the male avatar than did the female participants. These results are particularly noteworthy because they are consistent with another recent experiment showing that playing a violent game as an avatar with a different stereotypically aggressive attribute (black skin color) stimulates more aggression than playing as an avatar without the stereotypically aggressive attribute (Yang et al., 2014, Social Psychological and Personality Science). © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rascle, Olivier; Traclet, Alan; Souchon, Nicolas; Coulomb-Cabagno, Genevieve; Petrucci, Carrie
The purpose of this study was to investigate the aggressor-victim difference in perceived legitimacy of aggression in soccer as a function of score information (tied, favorable, unfavorable), sporting penalization (no risk, yellow card, red card), and type of aggression (instrumental, hostile). French male soccer players (N = 133) read written…
García-Rovés, Pablo M.; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Ángeles M.; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo
Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. PMID:25045939
García-Rovés, Pablo M; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Angeles M; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo
Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player's career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players.
Pablo M. García-Rovés
Full Text Available Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players.
What do Italy and Germany have in common? The world's largest PV markets and world class soccer. But while PV systems are frequently found on the rooftops of Germany's soccer stadiums, Italy has left this potential largely untapped.
Den Hartigh, Ruud J R; Van Der Steen, Steffie; Hakvoort, Bas; Frencken, Wouter G P; Lemmink, Koen A P M
Applying an established theory of cognitive development-Skill Theory-the current study compares the game-reading skills of youth players selected for a soccer school of a professional soccer club (n = 49) and their non-selected peers (n = 38). Participants described the actions taking place in videos of soccer game plays, and their verbalisations were coded using Skill Theory. Compared to the non-selected players, the selected players generally demonstrated higher levels of complexity in their game-reading, and structured the information of game elements-primarily the player, teammate and field-at higher complexity levels. These results demonstrate how Skill Theory can be used to assess, and distinguish game-reading of youth players with different expertise, a skill important for soccer, but also for other sports.
Nickerson, Brett S; Mangine, Gerald T; Williams, Tyler D; Martinez, Ismael A
The purpose of this study was to determine if back squat cluster sets (CS) with varying inter-repetition rest periods would potentiate greater sprint performance compared with a traditional set parallel back squat in collegiate soccer players. Twelve collegiate male soccer players (age, 21.0 ± 2.0 years; height, 180.0 ± 9.0 cm; body mass, 79.0 ± 9.5 kg) performed a 20-m sprint prior to a potentiation complex and at 1, 4, 7, and 10 min postexercise on 3 separate, randomized occasions. On each occasion, the potentiation complex consisted of 1 set of 3 repetitions at 85% 1-repetition maximum (1RM) for the traditional parallel back squat. However, on 1 occasion the 3-repetition set was performed in a traditional manner (i.e., continuously), whereas on the other 2 occasions, 30s (CS 30 ) and 60 s (CS 60 ) of rest were allotted between each repetition. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed greater (p = 0.022) mean barbell velocity on CS 60 compared with the traditional set. However, faster (p < 0.040) 20-m sprint times were observed for CS 30 (3.15 ± 0.16 s) compared with traditional (3.20 ± 0.17 s) only at 10 min postexercise. No other differences were observed. These data suggest that a single cluster set of 3 repetitions with 30-s inter-repetition rest periods at 85% 1RM acutely improves 20-m sprinting performance. Strength and conditioning professionals and their athletes might consider its inclusion during the specific warm-up to acutely improve athletic performance during the onset (≤10 min) of training or competition.
Hassabi, Mohammad; Mohammad-Javad Mortazavi, Seyed; Giti, Mohammad-Reza; Hassabi, Majid; Mansournia, Mohammad-Ali; Shapouran, Sara
Despite numerous studies which have been done regarding soccer injuries worldwide, there is lack of available data considering the epidemiology of injuries in the Iranian soccer premier league, although it is the most popular sport in the country. The main goal of this research was to determine the incidence of physical injuries in the studied population, considering other characteristics such as site, type and mechanism as well. Twenty one adult male professional soccer players (age 24±3), members of a team (Tehran-Pas) participating in Iranian premier league, were followed during a 4-month period. The injury characteristics and exposure times were recorded by the team physician during all the matches and training sessions. The total exposure time was 2610 playing hours (2352 h of training versus 258 h of competition). Eighty six percent of the injuries were acute. Incidence of acute injuries was 16.5 (95% CI: 12-22) per 1000 hours of playing (11.5 per 1000 hrs of training and 62 per 1000 hrs of competition). The most common types of injuries were strains followed by contusions, each of which constituted 30% of acute injuries. More than 80% of injuries occurred in lower limbs, especially in thigh and groin regions. Nearly 60% of acute injuries occurred in dominant side of the body, and collision was the reason of about half of the acute injuries. Severity of more than 70% of the injuries was minor. On average each injury had led the player being off the field for about 10 days. The incidence of injury in this research is in range of numbers obtained in important international tournaments but the rate of injuries during training sessions is higher than comparable studies.
Junge, A; Cheung, K; Edwards, T; Dvorak, J
Objectives: In reviewing the literature on sports injuries, few studies could be found in which exposure related incidences of injury in different types of sport were compared. These studies indicated that ice hockey, handball, basketball, soccer, and rugby are popular team sports with a relatively high risk of injury. The aim of the study was to compare the characteristics and incidence of injuries in male youth amateur soccer and rugby players.
Gordon, Reno Eron; Kassier, Susanna Maria; Biggs, Chara
Poor hydration compromises performance and heightens the risk of heat stress which adolescents are particularly susceptible to as they produce comparatively larger amount of metabolic heat during exercise. This study determined the hydration status and fluid intake of socio-economically disadvantaged, male adolescent soccer players during training. A pilot study was conducted among 79 soccer players (mean age 15.9 ± 0.8 years; mean BMI 20.2 ± 2.1 kg/m(2)). Hydration status was determined before and after two training sessions, using both urine specific gravity and percent loss of body weight. The type and amount of fluid consumed was assessed during training. A self-administered questionnaire was used to determine the players' knowledge regarding fluid and carbohydrate requirements for soccer training. Players were at risk of developing heat illness during six of the 14 training sessions (60 - 90 minutes in length). Although on average players were slightly dehydrated (1.023 ± 0.006 g/ml) before and after (1.024 ± 0.007 g/ml) training, some were extremely dehydrated before (24%) and after (27%) training. Conversely some were extremely hyperhydrated before (3%) and after training (6%). The mean percent loss of body weight was 0.7 ± 0.7%. The majority did not consume fluid during the first (57.0%) and second (70.9%) training sessions. An average of 216.0 ± 140.0 ml of fluid was consumed during both training sessions. The majority (41.8%) consumed water, while a few (5.1%) consumed pure fruit juice. More than 90% stated that water was the most appropriate fluid to consume before, during and after training. Very few (5.0%) correctly stated that carbohydrate should be consumed before, during and after training. Approximately a quarter were severely dehydrated. Many did not drink or drank insufficient amounts. The players' beliefs regarding the importance of fluid and carbohydrate consumption did not correspond with their practices. A
Comstock, R Dawn; Currie, Dustin W; Pierpoint, Lauren A; Grubenhoff, Joseph A; Fields, Sarah K
Soccer, originally introduced as a safer sport for children and adolescents, has seen a rapid increase in popularity in the United States over the past 3 decades. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding the safety of soccer ball heading (when an athlete attempts to play the ball in the air with his or her head) given the rise in concussion rates, with some calling for a ban on heading among soccer players younger than 14 years. To evaluate trends over time in boys' and girls' soccer concussions, to identify injury mechanisms commonly leading to concussions, to delineate soccer-specific activities during which most concussions occur, to detail heading-related soccer concussion mechanisms, and to compare concussion symptom patterns by injury mechanism. Retrospective analysis of longitudinal surveillance data collected from 2005-2006 through 2013-2014 in a large, nationally representative sample of US high schools. Participants were boys and girls who were high school soccer players. Concussions sustained during high school-sanctioned soccer games and practices. Mechanism and sport-specific activity of concussion. Overall, 627 concussions were sustained during 1,393,753 athlete exposures (AEs) among girls (4.50 concussions per 10,000 AEs), and 442 concussions were sustained during 1,592,238 AEs among boys (2.78 concussions per 10,000 AEs). For boys (68.8%) and girls (51.3%), contact with another player was the most common concussion mechanism. Heading was the most common soccer-specific activity, responsible for 30.6% of boys' concussions and 25.3% of girls' concussions. Contact with another player was the most common mechanism of injury in heading-related concussions among boys (78.1%) and girls (61.9%). There were few differences in concussion symptom patterns by injury mechanism. Although heading is the most common activity associated with concussions, the most frequent mechanism was athlete-athlete contact. Such information is needed to drive evidence
Daniel Barbosa Coelho
Full Text Available Most soccer matches are conducted by coaches who usually make all player substitutions allowed. Therefore, it is extremely important to study these substitutions and their effects on the intensity of effort required from players. To date, no published studies have reported on this topic using heart rate (HR as an intensity parameter. The objective of this study was to compare effort intensity (EI of soccer players in the following situations: 1 first half (FH-EI; 2 second half (SH-EI; 3 second half with substitutions(SHS-EI. Forty-five male soccer players (18.5±1.2 years old, 74.25±5.79 kg, 182.6±8.55 cm, 9.56±2.47% body fat, 56.3±4.3 mLO2/kg/min were evaluated during 29 official games. EI was considered as the mean HR, expressed as the percentage of each player’s maximal HR (%HRmax and as the time spent in each intensity zone (Z according to %HRmax (Z1<70%; Z2 70-85%; Z3 85-90%; Z4 90-95%; Z5 95-100%. FH-EI (86.3±3.3%HRmax was higher than SH-EI (80.6±4.4%HRmax and SHS-EI (83.6±2.8%HRmax. SHS-EI was higher than SH-EI (p<0.05. Time spent in high-intensity zones was lower in SH-EI than in FH-EI, buthigher in SHS-EI when compared to SH-EI (p<0.05. It was concluded that the decrease in EI in the second half of soccer matches was attenuated by substitutions made at halftime, as evidenced by a longer time spent in high-intensity zones when compared to SH-EI.
Leo, Francisco M; Sánchez-Miguel, Pedro A; Sánchez-Oliva, David; Amado, Diana; García-Calvo, Tomás
The principal aims of the study were to define different profiles of cohesion and perceived efficacy in soccer players and to measure their differences in performance. The subjects were 235 soccer players in the under-18 category who played in the National League in Spain and 15 coaches whose ages ranged from 29 to 45 years. Diverse instruments to assess cohesion, perceived efficacy, and expectations of success were used in the study. Moreover, we measured playing time and performance. The results of the study proved the existence of four cohesion and efficacy profiles that presented significant differences in expectations of success, playing time, and performance. Furthermore, significant differences were found in the distribution of players in the teams as a function of performance. The main conclusion of this study is that soccer players with higher cohesion and collective efficacy levels belonged to teams that completed the season at the top-level classification. In contrast, athletes with low cohesion and collective efficacy usually played in unsuccessful teams. Coaches and sports psychologists are encouraged to promote both social and task cohesion and collective efficacy to enhance team performance.
Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni; Nybo, Lars
biopsies and blood samples were obtained, and heart rate was measured before, during, and after the Yo-Yo IR2 test. Additionally, 119 Scandinavian elite soccer players carried out the Yo-Yo IR2 test on two to four occasions. Results: Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 591 +/- 43 (320-920) m or 4.3 (2.6-7.9) min...... was better (P elite soccer players than for moderate elite players (1059 +/- 35 vs 771 +/- 26 m) and better (P elite soccer players...... turnover. Specifically, the Yo-Yo IR2 test was shown to be a sensitive tool to differentiate between intermittent exercise performance of soccer players in different seasonal periods and at different competitive levels and playing positions....
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the number of goal-posts and the positioning of goal-posts used within small-sided games on the frequency of technical actions and offensive scenarios performed by prepubescent players within soccer. The participants were eight male prepubescent soccer players (12.1 ± 0.5 years. The participants were video recorded for 20 min playing four different formats of 4v4 small-sided games: (1 standard two goal game; (2 four goal game, one goal in each corner; (3 two goal game with goal-posts positioned 9.14 m/10 yd infield, scoring only through the back of the goal; (4 four goal-game, one goal positioned 9.14 m/10 yd infield in each corner, scoring through either the front or back of each goal. Chi-squared tests of independence were utilized to statistically explore the impact of the different small-sided game formats. There were significant associations (p < 0.05 observed between the different small-sided game formats and the frequency of turns, dribbles, shots, goals and overlaps performed. For example, players performed more turns in small-sided game format two and more shots during small-sided game format four. It is suggested coaches should consider using a variation of the number and positioning of goal-posts in small-sided games as an effective training tool in the development of prepubescent soccer players. This will enable coaches to vary the focus of sessions, and develop specific technical and tactical actions within a situation similar to that of real match-play.
Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Özer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Ağlamış, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu
The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were randomly selected out of all the students between the ages 12 and 15, with a diagnosis of educable mental retardation and no secondary disabilities, who were attending a special education school. Participants without ID (WoID) were randomly selected from a regular secondary school out of the same age groups of male students. All participants were given permission by their parents or guardians to participate in the study. Participants in the TRG included 23 youth WID and 23 youth WoID. Mean ages were = 14.1 (SD = 1.1) and 13.2 (SD = 0.79) respectively. Fifteen WID, and 15 WoID comprised the CG. Mean ages were 14.51 (SD = 0.81) and 13.78 (SD = 0.49) respectively. Prior to and following the program measurements were conducted, and data were collected on students' anthropometric and fitness components of the Brockport physical fitness test as well as a soccer skill performance based on the SO soccer skill test. Participants in the TRG trained 8 weeks, 1.5h per session, three times per week, in an after-school soccer program. CG did not participate in any sports program outside of the school physical education class. Dependent t tests and effect size calculations revealed that SO athletes and non-disabled partners scored significantly higher with regard to physical fitness and football skills in most variables compared with their CG. This Unified Program was successful in increasing fitness and soccer skill performance of youth WID as well as of those WoID. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to assess whether the demands of the modern English competitive soccer season would be reflected in the mood states of professional soccer players. Sixty-nine male participants either activity competing in English soccer leagues or resident in England were recruited and grouped accordingly as professional soccer players, university level soccer players, Sunday league soccer players, or non-sporting controls. On three separate occasions; at the beginning, at the middle, and finally towards the end of the English soccer season, participants completed both the Profile of Mood States (POMS questionnaire as well as a questionnaire related to their teams’ performance in addition to their perceived life stress. Results showed the POMS scores to differ over the season in relation to the groups’ standard of competition. ANOVAs demonstrated this pattern to be significant for the dependent measures of tension, depression, and confusion with significant group by time interactions (95% level of confidence. At the outset of the season professionals had the most positive POMS profile, however, as the season progressed they showed the greatest change towards a negative profile. These results indicate that English soccer is placing professional players at a predisposition of demonstrating POMS commensurate with negative adaptation to training, having important implications for their long-term performance and health.
Full Text Available It has been shown that nitrate supplementation can enhance endurance exercise performance. Recent work suggests that nitrate ingestion can also increase intermittent type exercise performance in recreational athletes. We hypothesized that six days of nitrate supplementation can improve high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players. Thirty-two male soccer players (age: 23 ± 1 years, height: 181 ± 1 m, weight: 77 ± 1 kg, playing experience: 15.2 ± 0.5 years, playing in the first team of a 2nd or 3rd Dutch amateur league club participated in this randomized, double-blind cross-over study. All subjects participated in two test days in which high-intensity intermittent running performance was assessed using the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Subjects ingested nitrate-rich (140 mL; ~800 mg nitrate/day; BR or a nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (PLA for six subsequent days, with at least eight days of wash-out between trials. The distance covered during the Yo-Yo IR1 was the primary outcome measure, while heart rate (HR was measured continuously throughout the test, and a single blood and saliva sample were collected just prior to the test. Six days of BR ingestion increased plasma and salivary nitrate and nitrite concentrations in comparison to PLA (p < 0.001, and enhanced Yo-Yo IR1 test performance by 3.4 ± 1.3% (from 1574 ± 47 to 1623 ± 48 m; p = 0.027. Mean HR was lower in the BR (172 ± 2 vs. PLA trial (175 ± 2; p = 0.014. Six days of BR ingestion effectively improves high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players.
Daniel Barbosa Coelho
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n6p667 Soccer is a sport practiced worldwide, on all continents. It is considered an intermittent activity of high intensity and long duration, in which movements that require great strength and speed, such as jumps and sprints, result in high levels of muscle microtrauma, hampering athletes’ training and recovery. The present study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of changes in different markers of physiological demand resulting from a soccer match in healthy individuals. Ten healthy male physical education students participated in the study and were evaluated in two matches: the semi-final and final games of the college tournament at the federal university where they studied. Blood samples were collected from each volunteer pre- and post-match. Cortisol, IL-6 and CK concentrations were increased after the match (p < 0.05. Testosterone and alpha-actin concentrations did not change. Our results indicate that changes in some of the acute response markers evaluated in players before and after competitive soccer matches provide important information for planning training or recovery, as well as nutritional strategies for improving performance.
Earls, Melissa K.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on remedying the social skills deficits of adolescent African-American males. Additionally, the study investigated whether age and grade level impacted the outcome of the intervention. The participants were adolescent African-American males ages 10 to…
Castagna, Carlo; Francini, Lorenzo; Krustrup, Peter
The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness and reliability characteristics of a repeated sprint ability test considering 5 line sprints of 30-m interspersed with 30-s of active recovery in non-elite outfield young male soccer players. Twenty-six (age 14.9±1.2 years, height 1.72±0.12 cm......, body mass 62.2±5.1 kg) players were tested 48 hours and 7 days apart for 5x30-m performance over 5 trials (T1-T5). Short- (T1-T2) and long-term reliability (T1-T3-T4-T5) were assessed with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and with typical error for measurement (TEM). Short- and long...... study revealed that the 5x30-m sprint test is a reliable field test in the short and long-term when the sum of sprint times and the best sprint performance are considered as outcome variables. Sprint performance decrements variables showed large variability across trials....
Nichols, Andrew W
To investigate the effectiveness of a 10-week hamstring exercise training program in reducing the incidence and severity of new and recurrent hamstring injuries among male soccer players. Cluster-randomized (by team)controlled trial, stratified by level of play and geographic location. Sample size was calculated with 80% power to show a relative risk reduction for injury of 50% at P ≤ 0.05. Soccer community study in Denmark during the period January to December 2008. Teams in the top 5 soccer divisions (2 professional and 3 amateur)were invited to participate. The exclusion criterion for teams was that they already used eccentric hamstring exercises, and for participants was that they joined the teams after the beginning of the season. Of 116 teams, 54 were eligible and willing to be randomized and 50 were included in the analysis (942 players). Teams in both the intervention and control groups followed their normal training programs. At the beginning of the study period, the intervention teams added 27 sessions of the Nordicham string exercise (after warm-up) during the 10-week period of the mid-season break. The exercise begins with the player kneeling with the torso upright and rigid, and the feet held down to the ground by a partner. The player lowers his torso forwards toward the ground braking with his hamstring muscles until the chest reaches the ground (eccentric phase). He returns to the upright position, pushing with his hands to minimize the concentric phase load. Sessions per week and sets and repetitions per session increased to 3, 3, and 12, respectively. Team coaches supervised the sessions. A hamstring injury was defined as an acute occurrence of a “physical complaint in the region of the posterior thigh sustained during a soccer match or training, irrespective of the need for medical attention or time loss from soccer activities.” Injuries were recorded by the teams’ medical staff on standardized forms. Only first injuries during the season
Giancola, Silvio; Amine, Mohieddine; Dghaily, Tarek; Ghanem, Bernard
In this paper, we introduce SoccerNet, a benchmark for action spotting in soccer videos. The dataset is composed of 500 complete soccer games from six main European leagues, covering three seasons from 2014 to 2017 and a total duration of 764 hours. A total of 6,637 temporal annotations are automatically parsed from online match reports at a one minute resolution for three main classes of events (Goal, Yellow/Red Card, and Substitution). As such, the dataset is easily scalable. These annotations are manually refined to a one second resolution by anchoring them at a single timestamp following well-defined soccer rules. With an average of one event every 6.9 minutes, this dataset focuses on the problem of localizing very sparse events within long videos. We define the task of spotting as finding the anchors of soccer events in a video. Making use of recent developments in the realm of generic action recognition and detection in video, we provide strong baselines for detecting soccer events. We show that our best model for classifying temporal segments of length one minute reaches a mean Average Precision (mAP) of 67.8%. For the spotting task, our baseline reaches an Average-mAP of 49.7% for tolerances $\\delta$ ranging from 5 to 60 seconds.
In this paper, we introduce SoccerNet, a benchmark for action spotting in soccer videos. The dataset is composed of 500 complete soccer games from six main European leagues, covering three seasons from 2014 to 2017 and a total duration of 764 hours. A total of 6,637 temporal annotations are automatically parsed from online match reports at a one minute resolution for three main classes of events (Goal, Yellow/Red Card, and Substitution). As such, the dataset is easily scalable. These annotations are manually refined to a one second resolution by anchoring them at a single timestamp following well-defined soccer rules. With an average of one event every 6.9 minutes, this dataset focuses on the problem of localizing very sparse events within long videos. We define the task of spotting as finding the anchors of soccer events in a video. Making use of recent developments in the realm of generic action recognition and detection in video, we provide strong baselines for detecting soccer events. We show that our best model for classifying temporal segments of length one minute reaches a mean Average Precision (mAP) of 67.8%. For the spotting task, our baseline reaches an Average-mAP of 49.7% for tolerances $\\\\delta$ ranging from 5 to 60 seconds.
Wesam Saleh A Al Attar
Trial registration: ACTRN12615001206516. [Al Attar WSA, Soomro N, Pappas E, Sinclair PJ, Sanders RH (2017 Adding a post-training FIFA 11+ exercise program to the pre-training FIFA 11+ injury prevention program reduces injury rates among male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 235–242
Russell, Mark; Kingsley, Michael
investigated the influence of caffeine ingestion (n = 2) and fluid provision (n = 3). Findings were reported for a total of 171 participants and all but one of the included articles used cross-over study designs. Most participants (94 %) were male, highly trained (reported maximal aerobic capacity range 50-59 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and exercised in temperate environments (reported temperature range 13-25 °C). Six of the eight studies reported that carbohydrates, consumed in the form of a 6-8 % solution of glucose, sucrose or maltodextrin at rates of 30-60 g·h(-1), enhanced at least one aspect of skilled performance over the duration of exercise (75-90 min). Although some evidence exists to support the consumption of caffeine (6 mg·kg(-1) body mass [BM]) and prescribed fluid to preserve skills performed during soccer-specific exercise, findings from the small number of included studies were inconsistent. The outcome measures and methods used to quantify skilled performance were not consistent across studies; consequently, it was not possible to perform meta-analyses to produce pooled effect sizes in this review. The findings from this systematic review suggest that nutritional interventions, which provide carbohydrate, caffeine and fluid, have potential to preserve skills performed under conditions that induce soccer-specific fatigue. The weight of current evidence supports the consumption of carbohydrate, but is less conclusive with respect to caffeine and fluid provision. It is likely that the efficacy of a nutritional intervention will be modulated by factors including the dose consumed, the mode of administration, individual responsiveness to the intervention and interactions with other physiological changes occurring during soccer-specific exercise. Consequently, these factors should be considered when using carbohydrates, caffeine and fluid provision to maintain skilled performances in soccer. Future research should seek to optimise the nutritional strategies employed to
Devlin, Brooke L; Kingsley, Michael; Leveritt, Michael D; Belski, Regina
Devlin, BL, Kingsley, M, Leveritt, MD, and Belski, R. Seasonal changes in soccer players' body composition and dietary intake practices. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3319-3326, 2017-The aims of this study were 2-fold: to determine seasonal changes in dietary intake and body composition in elite soccer players and to evaluate the influence of self-determined individual body composition goals on dietary intake and body composition. This longitudinal, observational study assessed body composition (total mass, fat-free soft tissue mass, and fat mass) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and dietary intake (energy and macronutrients) via multiple-pass 24-hour recalls, at 4 time points over a competitive season in elite soccer players from one professional club in the Australian A-League competition. Self-reported body composition goals were also recorded. Eighteen elite male soccer players took part (25 ± 5 years, 180.5 ± 7.4 cm, 75.6 ± 6.5 kg). Majority (≥67%) reported the goal to maintain weight. Fat-free soft tissue mass increased from the start of preseason (55,278 ± 5,475 g) to the start of competitive season (56,784 ± 5,168 g; p nutrition recommendations. The self-reported body composition goals did not strongly influence dietary intake practices or changes in body composition. This study has demonstrated that body composition changes over the course of a soccer season are subtle in elite soccer players despite relatively low self-reported intake of energy and carbohydrate.
Busey, Christopher L.; Waring, Scott M.
As evidenced by the Super Bowl, the Olympics, and the World Cup, sports is a major part of global society, as millions of people throughout the world tune in to view renowned sporting events each and every week. This is especially true for soccer, which is the world's most popular and global sport. Because soccer is played in nearly every country…
Ersoy, Nesli; Ersoy, Gulgun; Kutlu, Mehmet
The purpose of the study is to determine and compare the hydration status with different methods and determine fluid intake, dehydration percentages and sweat rate of 26 young male soccer players (15 ± 1.2 years) before an important competition. More specifically, the study aims at validating the urine strip and advising the players to use it as an easy and practical method. Measurements of urine analysis were taken from the urine sample of the participants before breakfast and conducted for 3 consecutive days before the competition. Hydration status was assessed through analysis of urine color, urine specific gravity (USG) (laboratory, strip, refractometry), and osmolality. The players' dehydration percentages and sweat ratio were calculated. The average values for all samples were 3 ± 1 for color, and 1.021 ± 4 g/cm(3) for USG (laboratory), and 1.021 ± 3 g/cm(3) for USG (strip), and 1.021 ± 4 for USG (refractometry), and 903 ± 133 mOsm/kg for osmolality. USG (strip) was highly correlated with USG (laboratory), USG (refractometry) (r = 0.8; P soccer players were observed as 0.5 % and 582.3 ± 232.0 mL/h, respectively. We found that youth soccer players are under a slight risk of dehydration under moderate weather conditions. As indicated by the research results, determination of hydration status of athletes must be taken into account more carefully under moderate and hot weather conditions. In addition, hydration methods were compatible with one another as measured in this study.
Full Text Available The relative age effect (RAE in the selection of young soccer players is a well-known phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to examine the relative age effect existing despite strategies that have been implemented to avoid its presence in the selection process. We also aimed to investigate the RAE during the three different selection stages for B13, B14 (boys, and G13, G14 (girls, and gender differences in the RAE. This was achieved by collecting data from everyone who played soccer in Troendelag, and data that would illuminate the RAE during the three stages of selection for the regional teams of the 2015/2016 season. Mann–Whitney U-tests and Chi-square tests were used as statistical methods. The main finding of this study is that, despite the intention to reduce RAE in the selection process according to the criterion that at least 40% of the players should be born in the second half of the year, both the early-born boys and girls are more likely to be selected. The results also show that the RAE occurs gradually, and the longer the players are in the selection process the more prominent it is. This study highlights the importance of being aware of the RAE when selecting young players.
Koerte, Inga K; Lin, Alexander P; Muehlmann, Marc; Merugumala, Sai; Liao, Huijun; Starr, Tyler; Kaufmann, David; Mayinger, Michael; Steffinger, Denise; Fisch, Barbara; Karch, Susanne; Heinen, Florian; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Reiser, Maximilian; Stern, Robert A; Zafonte, Ross; Shenton, Martha E
Soccer is played by more than 250 million people worldwide. Repeatedly heading the ball may place soccer players at high risk for repetitive subconcussive head impacts (RSHI). This study evaluates the long-term effects of RSHI on neurochemistry in athletes without a history of clinically diagnosed concussion, but with a high exposure to RSHI. Eleven former professional soccer players (mean age 52.0±6.8 years) and a comparison cohort of 14 age- and gender-matched, former non-contact sport athletes (mean age 46.9±7.9 years) underwent 3T magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and neurocognitive evaluation. In the soccer players a significant increase was observed in both choline (Cho), a membrane marker, and myo-inositol (ml), a marker of glial activation, compared with control athletes. Additionally, ml and glutathione (GSH) were significantly correlated with lifetime estimate of RSHI within the soccer group. There was no significant difference in neurocognitive tests between groups. Results of this study suggest an association between RSHI in soccer players and MRS markers of neuroinflammation, suggesting that even subconcussive head impacts affect the neurochemistry of the brain and may precede neurocognitive changes. Future studies will need to determine the role of neuroinflammation in RSHI and the effect on neurocognitive function.
Visscher, C; Elferink-Gemser, MT; Lemmink, KAPM
The purpose of this study, in which 113 talented Youth soccer players (M = 16.0 yr., SD = 15), selected by their age and level of performance participated, was to investigate interval endurance capacity needed to play at the highest level of competition in the age-category 12 through 18.
Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Myer, Gregory D; Silvers, Holly J; Samitier, Gonzalo; Romero, Daniel; Lázaro-Haro, Cristina; Cugat, Ramón
Soccer is the most commonly played sport in the world, with an estimated 265 million active soccer players by 2006. Inherent to this sport is the higher risk of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) relative to other sports. ACL injury causes the most time lost from competition in soccer which has influenced a strong research focus to determine the risk factors for injury. This research emphasis has afforded a rapid influx of literature defining potential modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors that increase the risk of injury. The purpose of the current review is to sequence the most recent literature that reports potential mechanisms and risk factors for non-contact ACL injury in soccer players. Most ACL tears in soccer players are non-contact in nature. Common playing situations precluding a non-contact ACL injury include: change of direction or cutting maneuvers combined with deceleration, landing from a jump in or near full extension, and pivoting with knee near full extension and a planted foot. The most common non-contact ACL injury mechanism include a deceleration task with high knee internal extension torque (with or without perturbation) combined with dynamic valgus rotation with the body weight shifted over the injured leg and the plantar surface of the foot fixed flat on the playing surface. Potential extrinsic non-contact ACL injury risk factors include: dry weather and surface, and artificial surface instead of natural grass. Commonly purported intrinsic risk factors include: generalized and specific knee joint laxity, small and narrow intercondylar notch width (ratio of notch width to the diameter and cross sectional area of the ACL), pre-ovulatory phase of menstrual cycle in females not using oral contraceptives, decreased relative (to quadriceps) hamstring strength and recruitment, muscular fatigue by altering neuromuscular control, decreased "core" strength and proprioception, low trunk, hip, and knee flexion angles, and high
The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of selected stressors to the level of stress experienced by South African soccer officials. Forty-two South African Football Association (SAFA) accredited officials, attending a training camp in Potchefstroom, participated in this study. The group comprised of 40 male ...
Padlipsky, Patricia S; Brindis, Seth; Young, Kelly D
The spleen is the most commonly injured abdominal organ in children who sustain blunt abdominal trauma, and pediatric splenic injury may result from minor mechanisms of injury, including sports participation. We present 2 cases of splenic injury in soccer goalies because of blunt abdominal trauma sustained during game play. Although abdominal organ injuries are uncommon in soccer, emergency medicine and primary care physicians must be aware of the possibility. A high index of suspicion and careful physical examination are key in making the diagnosis.
Petersen, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann
BACKGROUND: An injury to the hamstring muscle complex is the most common injury in soccer. Ultrasound of acute hamstring injuries is often used as a clinical tool for diagnosing hamstring injuries and guiding players in when they can return to play. PURPOSE: To (1) investigate the characteristic......) to investigate if ultrasonography can be used as a prognostic indicator of time to return to play. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: Players from 50 teams participating in 1 of the top 5 Danish soccer divisions were followed in the period from January to December 2008. Of 67 players...
Lund, Henrik Hautop
We developed the Playware Soccer game and tested this with more than 1,000 users during the FIFA World Cup 2010 in South Africa in townships, orphanages for HIV/AIDS children, markets, FIFA fan parks, etc. The playware game is set up to motivate players to engage in training of technical soccer...... skills by receiving motivating, immediate feedback on the soccer playing on a modular interactive wall composed of modular interactive tiles that respond with coloured light, sound and scores on the players performance. The flexibility of the system was designed for with the modular interactive tiles......, and simple construction with these building blocks should give a high degree of flexibility for the designer and the user to create various set-ups and interaction possibilities in an easy manner....
Samuel P. Hills
Full Text Available Carbohydrate consumption is synonymous with soccer performance due to the established effects on endogenous energy store preservation, and physical capacity maintenance. For performance-enhancement purposes, exogenous energy consumption (in the form of drinks, bars, gels and snacks is recommended on match-day; specifically, before and during match-play. Akin to the demands of soccer, limited opportunities exist to consume carbohydrates outside of scheduled breaks in competition, such as at half-time. The link between cognitive function and blood glucose availability suggests that carbohydrates may influence decision-making and technical proficiency (e.g., soccer skills. However, relatively few reviews have focused on technical, as opposed to physical, performance while also addressing the practicalities associated with carbohydrate consumption when limited in-play feeding opportunities exist. Transient physiological responses associated with reductions in activity prevalent in scheduled intra-match breaks (e.g., half-time likely have important consequences for practitioners aiming to optimize match-day performance. Accordingly, this review evaluated novel developments in soccer literature regarding (1 the ergogenic properties of carbohydrates for skill performance; and (2 novel considerations concerning exogenous energy provision during half-time. Recommendations are made to modify half-time practices in an aim to enhance subsequent performance. Viable future research opportunities exist regarding a deeper insight into carbohydrate provision on match-day.
Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to empirically analyze the sports background, personality dimensions, attitudes, and social competencies of adult head coaches and young assistant coaches involved in the German Einfach Fußball (Just Soccer program, which promotes the participation of pupils with intellectual disabilities in soccer/sports and society. Methods. The study recruited 28 head coaches and 29 assistant coaches who completed a questionnaire battery of standardized instruments (NEO Five-Factor Inventory, Interpersonal Reactivity Index, Social Self-Efficacy as well as self-developed instruments. Analysis of the data involved descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. A descriptive comparison of the assistant coaches with a normative sample of males aged 16-20 years was performed. Results. The head coaches were found with little soccer/sports experience with persons with disabilities prior to participation in the Just Soccer program. However, the majority were familiar with these persons through personal/vocational contacts. Overall, the head coaches were differentiated by formal coaching levels and playing backgrounds, with very few holding any additional formal qualifications in special education. The assistant coaches presented below average scores in the analyzed five personality dimensions when compared with the normative sample. Their attitudes and social competencies did not change during their 8-month involvement in Just Soccer. Conclusions. The findings highlight the important role of the coaching staff in the success of the Just Soccer program. Coaches involved in such activities should be familiarized with needs of people with disabilities, be stress-resistant, and possess a balanced set of personality traits. In addition, the results suggest that such individuals should be coaches/players from conventional soccer clubs instead of special school physical education teachers.
Koertz, Rune; Andersen, T. Bull
. METHODS: Participants were 23 male elite soccer players, 13-16 years of age. They trained 6 times a week. The participants, who were randomly divided into a training group (N.=12) and a control group (N.=11), completed a pre and post test, which for each player consisted of 16 shots with their non......AIM: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if players and coaches should focus more on the non-preferred foot. The hypothesis of this study is that a small amount of training focusing on the non-preferred foot will improve the performance of the non-preferred foot for young elite players......-preferred foot towards a goal corner in a soccer goal. Velocity and accuracy were measured. The training intervention for the training group consisted of 7-13 training sessions. RESULTS: The result showed only few statistic significant differences (P
Nortje, L.; Dicks, M.S.; Coopoo, Y.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.
The main goal of the study was to examine whether a relationship existed between self-reported and in situ tactical decision-making in the form of actions for small-sided soccer games, namely 4-vs.-4 and 8-vs.-8 games. Sixteen skilled male soccer players participated and completed the Tactical
Goedecke, Julia H; White, Nicholas J; Chicktay, Waheed; Mahomed, Hafsa; Durandt, Justin; Lambert, Michael I
This study investigated how performance was affected after soccer players, in a postprandial state, ingested a 7% carbohydrate (CHO) solution compared to a placebo (0% CHO) during a simulated soccer match. Using a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 22 trained male league soccer players (age: 24 ± 7 years, wt: 73.4 ± 12.0 kg, VO2max: 51.8 ± 4.3 mL O2/kg/min) completed two trials, separated by 7 days, during which they ingested, in random order, 700 mL of either a 7% CHO or placebo drink during a simulated soccer match. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), agility, timed and run to fatigue were measured during the trials. Change in agility times was not altered by CHO vs. placebo ingestion (0.57 ± 1.48 vs. 0.66 ± 1.00, p = 0.81). Timed runs to fatigue were 381 ± 267 s vs. 294 ± 159 s for the CHO and placebo drinks, respectively (p = 0.11). Body mass modified the relationship between time to fatigue and drink ingestion (p = 0.02 for drink × body mass), such that lower body mass was associated with increased time to fatigue when the players ingested CHO, but not placebo. RPE values for the final stage of the simulated soccer match were 8.5 ± 1.7 and 8.6 ± 1.5 for the CHO and placebo drinks respectively (p = 0.87). The group data showed that the 7% CHO solution (49 g CHO) did not significantly improve performance during a simulated soccer match in league soccer players who had normal pre-match nutrition. However, when adjusting for body mass, increasing CHO intake was associated with improved time to fatigue during the simulated soccer match.
Julia H. Goedecke
Full Text Available Aim: This study investigated how performance was affected after soccer players, in a postprandial state, ingested a 7% carbohydrate (CHO solution compared to a placebo (0% CHO during a simulated soccer match. Methods: Using a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 22 trained male league soccer players (age: 24 ± 7 years, wt: 73.4 ± 12.0 kg, VO2max: 51.8 ± 4.3 mL O2/kg/min completed two trials, separated by 7 days, during which they ingested, in random order, 700 mL of either a 7% CHO or placebo drink during a simulated soccer match. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE, agility, timed and run to fatigue were measured during the trials. Results: Change in agility times was not altered by CHO vs. placebo ingestion (0.57 ± 1.48 vs. 0.66 ± 1.00, p = 0.81. Timed runs to fatigue were 381 ± 267 s vs. 294 ± 159 s for the CHO and placebo drinks, respectively (p = 0.11. Body mass modified the relationship between time to fatigue and drink ingestion (p = 0.02 for drink × body mass, such that lower body mass was associated with increased time to fatigue when the players ingested CHO, but not placebo. RPE values for the final stage of the simulated soccer match were 8.5 ± 1.7 and 8.6 ± 1.5 for the CHO and placebo drinks respectively (p = 0.87. Conclusions: The group data showed that the 7% CHO solution (49 g CHO did not significantly improve performance during a simulated soccer match in league soccer players who had normal pre-match nutrition. However, when adjusting for body mass, increasing CHO intake was associated with improved time to fatigue during the simulated soccer match.
Full Text Available Plyometric training is an important training program in improving physical fitness and soccer skills of players. The study was conducted to find out the effects of plyometric training on soccer related physical fitness variables of Haramaya University intercollegiate female soccer players. For this study forty female (age, 20±1.5 years; height, 1.61±0.7 m; BMI, 20.41±0.7Kg/cm2 soccer players were selected through purposive sampling. Experimental group (n= 20 participants were engaged in a supervised plyometric training program 3 days/week for 12 weeks. The control group (n= 20 did not participate in any of the program except regular soccer training however, the tests were conducted for them. The physical fitness and soccer skill variables selected for the study were: Speed, Explosive power, Agility, Dribbling, Kicking Right and Left Feet. Tests were taken three times at pre training, during training and post training. Comparison of mean was done by paired t-test. The results obtained in this study indicated that there was significant improvement in selected physical fitness and soccer skill variables due to the effects of plyometric training. After 12 weeks of plyometric training participant’s speed (0.78 m/sec., agility (2.64 sec, and explosive power (7.85 cm were changed significantly (p<0.05. Participant’s dribbling soccer skill (1.92 sec., kicking right foot for distance (2.19 m and kicking left foot for distance (2.91 m were significantly improved through plyometric training. This study proved that plyometric training was significantly better in improving the physical fitness variables and soccer skills of female soccer players.
Raizel, Raquel; da Mata Godois, Allan; Coqueiro, Audrey Yule; Voltarelli, Fabrício Azevedo; Fett, Carlos Alexandre; Tirapegui, Julio; de Paula Ravagnani, Fabricio Cesar; de Faria Coelho-Ravagnani, Christianne
Despite the well-documented importance of nutrition in optimizing performance and health, the dietary intake of soccer players has attracted little attention. We aimed to assess the pre-season dietary intake of professional soccer players and its adequacy in macro and micronutrients. The pre-season dietary intake of 19 male athletes was assessed using a semi-structured 3-day food record. To determine dietary adequacy and excess, energy and macronutrient intake were compared with the Brazilian dietary reference values for athletes, and micronutrients were compared with the Estimated Average Requirement - EAR (minimum recommendation) and Tolerable Upper Intake Level - UL (maximum recommendation). Mean daily energy intake (40.74±12.81 kcal/kg) was adequate. However, there was a low carbohydrate intake (5.44±1.86 g/kg/day) and a high amount of protein and fat (1.91±0.75 and 1.27±0.50 g/kg/day, respectively). Sodium intake (3141.77±939.76 mg/day) was higher than UL (2300 mg/day), while the majority of players showed daily intake of vitamin A (74%), vitamin D (100%), folate (58%), calcium and magnesium (68%) below the EAR (625, 10 and 320 µg/day, 800 and 330 mg/day, respectively). The dietary intake of professional soccer players was adequate in energy, but inadequate in macro and micronutrients, which suggests the need to improve nutritional practices to sustain the physical demands of soccer during pre-season.
Pau, Massimiliano; Ibba, Gianfranco; Attene, Giuseppe
Although balance is generally recognized to be an important feature in ensuring good performance in soccer, its link with functional performance remains mostly unexplored, especially in young athletes. To investigate changes in balance induced by fatigue for unipedal and bipedal static stances in young soccer players. Crossover study. Biomechanics laboratory and outdoor soccer field. Twenty-one male soccer players (age = 14.5 ± 0.2 years, height = 164.5 ± 5.6 cm, mass = 56.8 ± 6.8 kg). Static balance was assessed with postural-sway analysis in unipedal and bipedal upright stance before and after a fatigue protocol consisting of a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test (2 × 15-m shuttle sprint interspersed with 20 seconds of passive recovery, repeated 6 times). On the basis of the center-of-pressure (COP) time series acquired during the experimental tests, we measured sway area, COP path length, and COP maximum displacement and velocity in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. Fatigue increased all sway values in bipedal stance and all values except COP velocity in the mediolateral direction in unipedal stance. Fatigue index (calculated on the basis of RSA performance) was positively correlated with fatigue/rest sway ratio for COP path length and COP velocity in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions for nondominant single-legged stance. Fatigued players exhibited reduced performance of the postural-control system. Participants with better performance in the RSA test appeared less affected by balance impairment, especially in single-legged stance.
Nowhere in the world has sports in general and soccer in particular played such a key role in the development of a region than in the Middle East and North Africa. Yet, the nexus of sports, politics and society is one area that Middle East studies with few exceptions have ignored. Similarly, sports
Diekhof, Esther Kristina; Wittmer, Susanne; Reimers, Luise
Parochial altruism, defined as increased ingroup favoritism and heightened outgroup hostility, is a widespread feature of human societies that affects altruistic cooperation and punishment behavior, particularly in intergroup conflicts. Humans tend to protect fellow group members and fight against outsiders, even at substantial costs for themselves. Testosterone modulates responses to competition and social threat, but its exact role in the context of parochial altruism remains controversial. Here, we investigated how testosterone influences altruistic punishment tendencies in the presence of an intergroup competition. Fifty male soccer fans played an ultimatum game (UG), in which they faced anonymous proposers that could either be a fan of the same soccer team (ingroup) or were fans of other teams (outgroups) that differed in the degree of social distance and enmity to the ingroup. The UG was played in two contexts with varying degrees of intergroup rivalry. Our data show that unfair offers were rejected more frequently than fair proposals and the frequency of altruistic punishment increased with increasing social distance to the outgroups. Adding an intergroup competition led to a further escalation of outgroup hostility and reduced punishment of unfair ingroup members. High testosterone levels were associated with a relatively increased ingroup favoritism and also a change towards enhanced outgroup hostility in the intergroup competition. High testosterone concentrations further predicted increased proposer generosity in interactions with the ingroup. Altogether, a significant relation between testosterone and parochial altruism could be demonstrated, but only in the presence of an intergroup competition. In human males, testosterone may promote group coherence in the face of external threat, even against the urge to selfishly maximize personal reward. In that way, our observation refutes the view that testosterone generally promotes antisocial behaviors and
The occurrence of injuries in sports and the negligence of the injured players are key factors in the early exit of talented players from competitive sport in developing countries. It is for this reason that this study prospectively observed and documented injuries to male soccer players who participated in the 2001 Moi Golden ...
Full Text Available This study analyzed soccer players’ retention of coaches’ feedback during training sessions. We intended to determine if the retention of information was influenced by the athletes’ personal characteristic (age, gender and the sports level, the quantity of information included in coach’s feedback (the number of ideas and redundancy, athletes’ perception of the relevance of the feedback information and athletes’ motivation as well as the attention level. The study that was conducted over the course of 18 sessions of soccer practice, involved 12 coaches (8 males, 4 females and 342 athletes (246 males, 96 females, aged between 10 and 18 years old. All coach and athlete interventions were transposed to a written protocol and submitted to content analysis. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression were calculated. The results showed that a substantial part of the information was not retained by the athletes; in 65.5% of cases, athletes experienced difficulty in completely reproducing the ideas of the coaches and, on average, the value of feedback retention was 57.0%. Six variables with a statistically significant value were found: gender, the athletes’ sports level, redundancy, the number of transmitted ideas, athletes’ perception of the relevance of the feedback information and the athletes’ motivation level.
Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino
To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep
Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E
In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the
Clark, Niall A.; Edwards, Andrew M.; Morton, R. Hugh; Butterly, Ronald J.
The purpose of this study was to examine season-to-season variations in physiological fitness parameters among a 1st team squad of professional adult male soccer players for the confirmatory purposes of identifying normative responses (immediately prior to pre-season training (PPS), mid-season (MID), and end-of-season (EOS)). Test-retest data were collected from a student population on the primary dependent variables of anaerobic threshold (AT) and maximal aerobic power (VO2 max) to define meaningful measurement change in excess of test-retest technical error between test-to-test performances. Participants from a pool of 42 professional soccer players were tested over a set sequence of tests during the 3-year period: 1) basic anthropometry, 2) countermovement jump (CMJ) tests 3) a combined AT and VO2 max test. Over the 3-year period there were no test-to-test changes in mean VO2 max performance exceeding pre-defined limits of test agreement (mean of eight measures: 61.6 ± 0.6 ml·kg-1·min-1). In contrast, VO2 at AT was significantly higher at the MID test occasion in seasons 2 (+4.8%; p = 0.04, p elite cohort between test-to-test occasions, VO2 max values did not vary significantly over the study which supports previous short-term observations suggesting a general ‘elite’ threshold of 60 ml·kg-1 min. Interestingly, AT significantly varied where VO2 max was stable and these variations also coincided with on- and off-seasons suggesting that AT is a better indication of acute training state than VO2 max. Key points Maximal aerobic power remains fairly stable across inter- and intra-season measurements. Anaerobic threshold appears more sensitive of training state confirming our earlier observations. The professional players tended to attain optimal performances at the mid-season interval over the 3 seasons, presumably prior to the development of accumulative fatigue. PMID:24150149
Badin, Oliver O; Smith, Mitchell R; Conte, Daniele; Coutts, Aaron J
To assess the effects of mental fatigue on physical and technical performance in small-sided soccer games. Twenty soccer players (age 17.8 ± 1.0 y, height 179 ± 5 cm, body mass 72.4 ± 6.8 kg, playing experience 8.3 ± 1.4 y) from an Australian National Premier League soccer club volunteered to participate in this randomized crossover investigation. Participants played 15-min 5-vs-5 small-sided games (SSGs) without goalkeepers on 2 occasions separated by 1 wk. Before the SSG, 1 team watched a 30-min emotionally neutral documentary (control), while the other performed 30 min of a computer-based Stroop task (mental fatigue). Subjective ratings of mental and physical fatigue were recorded before and after treatment and after the SSG. Motivation was assessed before treatment and SSG; mental effort was assessed after treatment and SSG. Player activity profiles and heart rate (HR) were measured throughout the SSG, whereas ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were recorded before the SSG and immediately after each half. Video recordings of the SSG allowed for notational analysis of technical variables. Subjective ratings of mental fatigue and effort were higher after the Stroop task, whereas motivation for the upcoming SSG was similar between conditions. HR during the SSG was possibly higher in the control condition, whereas RPE was likely higher in the mental-fatigue condition. Mental fatigue had an unclear effect on most physical-performance variables but impaired most technical-performance variables. Mental fatigue impairs technical but not physical performance in small-sided soccer games.
Marshall, Paul W. M.; Lovell, Ric; Jeppesen, Gitte K.; Andersen, Kristoffer; Siegler, Jason C.
Purpose To examine changes in hamstring muscle fatigue and central motor output during a 90-minute simulated soccer match, and the concomitant changes in hamstring maximal torque and rate of torque development. Method Eight amateur male soccer players performed a 90-minute simulated soccer match, with measures performed at the start of and every 15-minutes during each half. Maximal torque (Nm) and rate of torque development (RTD; Nm.s–1) were calculated from maximal isometric knee flexor contractions performed at 10° of flexion. Hamstring peripheral fatigue was assessed from changes in the size and shape of the resting twitch (RT). Hamstring central motor output was quantified from voluntary activation (%) and normalized biceps femoris (BF) and medial hamstrings (MH) electromyographic amplitudes (EMG/M). Results Maximal torque was reduced at 45-minutes by 7.6±9.4% (phamstring peripheral fatigue. Conclusion Centrally mediated reductions in maximal torque and rate of torque development provide insight into factors that may explain hamstring injury risk during soccer. Of particular interest were early reductions during the first-half of hamstring rate of torque development, and the decline in maximal EMG/M of biceps femoris in the latter stages of the half. These are important findings that may help explain why the hamstrings are particularly vulnerable to strain injury during soccer. PMID:25047547
Cleston Alexandre dos Santos
Full Text Available Brazilian soccer teams are required to present good results inside and outside the field. The main demand is about winning titles, to present continuous and increasing profits, and, consequently, to reach economic-financial stability. The present study aims at analyzing the relationship between the ranking formed by the Brazilian Soccer Confederation (CBF and the economic-financial indicators of the Brazilian soccer teams. The sample consisted of 36 Brazilian soccer teams that belong to the series A, B and C. Such teams are linked to CBF and published their financial statements of 2014. For data analysis, we used multi-criteria decision making method VIKOR that was applied along with Kendall rank correlation. Results revealed that the majority of Brazilian soccer teams have insufficient economical liquidity; they cannot bear their own expenses; they dependent of third-party resources; and they present negative profitability. Results also showed, through VIKOR technique, that the soccer teams studied occupy different positions in CBF ranking and in the economical-financial indicators, except for Botafogo club. Kendall rank correlation revealed no correlation and no significance between the rankings. Findings seem to support the idea that there is no relationship between CBF rankings and the economical-financial indicators of Brazilian soccer teams.
Currell, Kevin; Conway, Steve; Jeukendrup, Asker E
The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability of a new test of soccer performance and evaluate the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) on soccer performance. Eleven university footballers were recruited and underwent 3 trials in a randomized order. Two of the trials involved ingesting a placebo beverage, and the other, a 7.5% maltodextrin solution. The protocol comprised a series of ten 6-min exercise blocks on an outdoor Astroturf pitch, separated by the performance of 2 of the 4 soccer-specific tests, making the protocol 90 min in duration. The intensity of the exercise was designed to be similar to the typical activity pattern during soccer match play. Participants performed skill tests of dribbling, agility, heading, and shooting throughout the protocol. The coefficients of variation for dribbling, agility, heading, and shooting were 2.2%, 1.2%, 7.0%, and 2.8%, respectively. The mean combined placebo scores were 42.4 +/- 2.7 s, 43.1 +/- 3.7 s, 210 +/- 34 cm, and 212 +/- 17 points for agility, dribbling, heading, and kicking, respectively. CHO ingestion led to a combined agility time of 41.5 +/- 0.8 s, for dribbling 41.7 +/- 3.5 s, 213 +/- 11 cm for heading, and 220 +/- 5 points for kicking accuracy. There was a significant improvement in performance for dribbling, agility, and shooting (p soccer performance, and ingesting CHO leads to an improvement in soccer performance.
Full Text Available Soccer referees enforce the laws of the game and the decisions they make can directly affect match results. Fixtures within European competitions take place in climatic conditions that are often challenging (e.g. Moscow ~ -5oC, Madrid ~30oC. Effects of these temperatures on player performance are well documented; however, little is known how this environmental stress may impair cognitive performance of soccer referees and if so, whether exercise exasperates this. The present study aims to investigate the effect of cold (COLD; 5oC, 40% relative humidity (RH, hot (HOT; 30oC, 40% RH and temperate (CONT; 18oC, 40% RH conditions on decision making during soccer specific exercise. On separate occasions within each condition, thirteen physically active males; either semi-professional referees or semi-professional soccer players completed three 90 min intermittent treadmill protocols that simulated match play, interspersed with 4 computer delivered cognitive tests to measure vigilance and dual task capacity. Core and skin temperature, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion and thermal sensation were recorded throughout the protocol. There was no significant difference between conditions for decision making (p > 0.05 despite significant differences in measured physiological variables (skin temperature = HOT 34.5 ± 5.1°C; CONT 31.2 ± 0.1°C and COLD 26.7 ± 0.5°C; p < 0.05. It is hypothesised that the lack of difference observed in decision making ability between conditions was due to the exercise protocol used, as it may not have elicited an appropriate and valid soccer specific internal load to alter cognitive functioning.
Taylor, Lee; Fitch, Natalie; Castle, Paul; Watkins, Samuel; Aldous, Jeffrey; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Midgely, Adrian; Brewer, John; Mauger, Alexis
Soccer referees enforce the laws of the game and the decisions they make can directly affect match results. Fixtures within European competitions take place in climatic conditions that are often challenging (e.g., Moscow ~ -5°C, Madrid ~30°C). Effects of these temperatures on player performance are well-documented; however, little is known how this environmental stress may impair cognitive performance of soccer referees and if so, whether exercise exasperates this. The present study aims to investigate the effect of cold [COLD; -5°C, 40% relative humidity (RH)], hot (HOT; 30°C, 40% RH) and temperate (CONT; 18°C, 40% RH) conditions on decision making during soccer specific exercise. On separate occasions within each condition, 13 physically active males; either semi-professional referees or semi-professional soccer players completed three 90 min intermittent treadmill protocols that simulated match play, interspersed with 4 computer delivered cognitive tests to measure vigilance and dual task capacity. Core and skin temperature, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation (TS) were recorded throughout the protocol. There was no significant difference between conditions for decision making in either the dual task (interaction effects: FALSE p = 0.46; MISSED p = 0.72; TRACKING p = 0.22) or vigilance assessments (interaction effects: FALSE p = 0.31; HIT p = 0.15; MISSED p = 0.17) despite significant differences in measured physiological variables (skin temperature: HOT vs. CONT 95% CI = 2.6 to 3.9, p decision making ability between conditions was due to the exercise protocol used, as it may not have elicited an appropriate and valid soccer specific internal load to alter cognitive functioning.
Goff, John Eric; Kelley, John; Hobson, Chad M.; Seo, Kazuya; Asai, Takeshi; Choppin, S. B.
Trajectory analysis is an alternative to using wind tunnels to measure a soccer ball’s aerodynamic properties. It has advantages over wind tunnel testing such as being more representative of game play. However, previous work has not presented a method that produces complete, speed-dependent drag and lift coefficients. Four high-speed cameras in stereo-calibrated pairs were used to measure the spatial co-ordinates for 29 separate soccer trajectories. Those trajectories span a range of launch speeds from 9.3 to 29.9 m s-1. That range encompasses low-speed laminar flow of air over a soccer ball, through the drag crises where air flow is both laminar and turbulent, and up to high-speed turbulent air flow. Results from trajectory analysis were combined to give speed-dependent drag and lift coefficient curves for the entire range of speeds found in the 29 trajectories. The average root mean square error between the measured and modelled trajectory was 0.028 m horizontally and 0.034 m vertically. The drag and lift crises can be observed in the plots of drag and lift coefficients respectively.
Staufenbiel, Kathrin; Lobinger, Babett; Strauss, Bernd
In soccer, home teams win about 67% of decided games. The causes for this home advantage are still unresolved. There is a shortage of research on the psychological states of actors involved. In this study, we examined soccer coaches' expectations, goal setting and tactical decisions in relation to game location. Soccer coaches (N = 297) with different expertise levels participated in an experimental, online management game and were randomly assigned to one of two groups, "home game (HG)" or "away game." Participants received information on the game for which they were asked to make decisions in multiple points. The only differing information between groups was game location. Regardless of expertise, HG coaches had higher expectations to win, set more challenging goals and decided for more offensive and courageous playing tactics. Possible consequences of these findings concerning home advantage in soccer are discussed.
McDougall, Casey L.; Terrance, Cheryl; Weatherly, Jeffrey N.
Previous research suggests that the actions of a confederate can alter participants' gambling behavior. In the present experiment, male participants played Blackjack either alone or in the presence of a confederate. The confederate either quit early in the session or played for the entire session. Across sessions in which the confederate played…
Khodaee, Morteza; Currie, Dustin W; Asif, Irfan M; Comstock, R Dawn
Research on high school soccer injury epidemiology is sparse. To describe high school soccer injury rates, trends and patterns by type of athlete exposure (AE), position and sex. This descriptive epidemiological study used data from a large national high school sports injury surveillance programme to describe rates and patterns of soccer-related injuries including concussion sustained from 2005/2006 to 2013/2014. Injury rates are calculated per 1000 AEs. Overall, 6154 soccer injuries occurred during 2 985 991 AEs; injury rate=2.06 per 1000 AEs. Injury rates were higher during competition (4.42) than practice (1.05; rate ratio (RR)=4.19; 95% CI 3.98 to 4.41), and in girls (2.33) than boys (1.83; RR=1.27, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.34). Boys' non-concussion injury rates decreased significantly (p=0.001) during the study period while reported concussion rates increased significantly (p=0.002). Girls' non-concussion rates were relatively stable and reported concussion rates increased significantly (p=0.004). Player-player contact was the injury mechanism that led to the most competition injuries (injury proportion ratio (IPR)=2.87; 95% CI 2.57 to 3.21), while non-contact injuries were the most common mechanisms among practice injuries (IPR=2.10; 95% CI 1.86 to 2.38). Recovery from concussion was >7 days in a third of the cases. Injury patterns were similar between sexes with respect to position played and location on the field at the time of injury. High school soccer injury rates vary by sex and type of exposure, while injury patterns are more similar across sexes. Reported concussion rates increased significantly over the study period in male and female athletes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Male teamsport athletes have traditionally been described as some of the most homophobic and femphobic men in North American culture. However, in this ethnographic research of an education-based soccer team at a small Catholic university in a rural part of Middle America, I use inclusive masculinity theory to highlight that a softer version of…
Michalski, A; Glazebrook, C M; Martin, A J; Wong, W W N; Kim, A J W; Moody, K D; Salbach, N M; Steinnagel, B; Andrysek, J; Torres-Moreno, R; Zabjek, K F
The Nintendo Wii Fit™ may provide an affordable alternative to traditional biofeedback or virtual reality systems for retraining or improving motor function in populations with impaired balance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate postural control strategies healthy individuals use to play Wii Fit™ videogames. Sixteen young adults played 10 trials of Ski Slalom and Soccer Heading respectively. Centre of pressure (COP) excursion and three-dimensional movement data were acquired to determine variability in medial-lateral COP sway and shoulder-pelvic movement. While there was no difference in medial-lateral COP variability between games during trial 1, there was a significant difference after 10 trials. COP sway increased (59-75 mm) for Soccer Heading while it decreased (67-33 mm) for Ski Slalom from trial 1 to trial 10. During Ski Slalom participants demonstrated decreased shoulder and pelvic movement combined with increased pelvic-shoulder coupling. Conversely, participants demonstrated greater initial shoulder tilt when playing Soccer Heading, with no reduction in pelvic rotation and tilt. Participants decreased pelvic and trunk movements when skiing, suggesting a greater contribution of lower extremity control while they primarily used a trunk strategy to play Soccer Heading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Belhaj, K; Meftah, S; Mahir, L; Lmidmani, F; Elfatimi, A
This study aims to compare the isokinetic profile of hip abductor and adductor muscle groups between soccer players suffering from chronic adductor-related groin pain (ARGP), soccer players without ARGP and healthy volunteers from general population. Study included 36 male professional soccer players, who were randomly selected and followed-up over two years. Of the 21 soccer players eligible to participate in the study, 9 players went on to develop chronic ARGP and 12 players did not. Ten healthy male volunteers were randomly selected from the general population as a control group. Comparison between the abductor and adductor muscle peak torques for players with and without chronic ARGP found a statistically significant difference on the dominant and non-dominant sides (p muscle significantly stronger than the adductor muscle. In the group of healthy volunteers, the adductor muscle groups were significantly stronger than the abductor muscle groups on both dominant and non-dominant sides (p muscle strength was also significantly decreased on the affected side. This imbalance appears to be a risk factor for adductor-related groin injury. Therefore, restoring the correct relationship between these two agonist and antagonist hip muscles may be an important preventative measure that should be a primary concern of training and rehabilitation programmes.
Wing, Christopher E; Turner, Anthony N; Bishop, Chris J
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the importance of strength and power in relation to key performance indicators (KPI's) within competitive soccer match play. This was achieved through using an experimental approach where fifteen subjects were recruited from a professional soccer club's scholarship squad during the 2013/14 season. Following anthropometric measures, power and strength were assessed across a range of tests which included the squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), 20 metre (m) sprint and arrowhead change of direction test. A predicted 1-repetition maximum (RM) was also obtained for strength by performing a 3RM test for both the back squat and bench press and a total score of athleticism (TSA) was provided by summing z-scores for all fitness tests together, providing one complete score for athleticism. Performance analysis data was collected during 16 matches for the following KPIs: passing, shooting, dribbling, tackling and heading. Alongside this, data concerning player ball involvements (touches) was recorded. Results showed that there was a significant correlation (p soccer performance, particularly when players are required to win duels of a physical nature. There were no other relationships found between the fitness data and the KPI's recorded during match play which may indicate that other aspects of player's development such as technical skill, cognitive function and sensory awareness are more important for soccer-specific performance.
Hidalgo y Teran Elizondo, Roberto; Martín Bermudo, Francisco Manuel; Peñaloza Mendez, Ricardo; Berná Amorós, Genoveva; Lara Padilla, Eleazar; Berral de la Rosa, Francisco José
nutritional intake and status of soccer players has attracted not much research attention. Many soccer players follow an inadequate nutritional intake and have a poor nutritional status. This is relevant in youngsters soccer players, in order to improve performance and promote healthy dietary practices. analyze anthropometric characterizes, evaluate nutritional intake and status, dietary habits and pre- and post-exercise meals in elite teenagers soccer players. seventy-two young male soccer players (15-20 years) from four junior teams of a soccer Club from the Mexican National Soccer League were measured for height, seat height, weight, 6 skinfolds, 6 diameters and 7 circumferences, height-for-age and BMI-for-age values. Skin, adipose, muscle, bone and residual tissue masses were calculated with the Ross and Kerr equation. Resting energy expenditure and intake was also measured. Daily dietary intake was self-recorded for 4 consecutive days (excluding the match day) using a digital food-weighing scale and a food record questionnaire. Dietary analysis was performed using the NutriBase 7 Clinical software. Several biochemical values were determined. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc testing was performed using t-tests with a Bonferroni correction. all soccer players were within the normal range values for anthropometric parameters studies, when compared with other adolescent elite soccer teams. Values of plasma glucose, urea, creatinine, uric acid, lipid profile and total proteins were within normal range for young adult population, although albumin levels were high. Moreover, 14% and 20% of soccer players presented hyperuricemia and elevated total cholesterol levels respectively. Energy expenditure and intake were within normal range for all teenager elite soccer players. However, two teams shower significant lower intakes than demands. All macronutrient intakes were within recommendations, except protein that was higher. Micronutrient intake exceeded
Oh, Seong Hwan; Joo, Chang Hwa
The aims of this study were to examine the differences in technical aspects and physical demands between small-size games (SSG; 8 vs. 8) and regular-size games (RSG; 11 vs. 11) in young Korean soccer players. Seventy-nine young soccer players from 6 teams (U-12) volunteered to participate in the study. The players completed 4 games (2 SSG, 62×51 m, and 2 RSG, 80×54 m) in 2 days. Each game was filmed to evaluate technical actions. Physical demand variables were measured using global positioning system technology. SSG showed significantly greater numbers of technical plays among 17 variables when compared to RSG ( P game format for Korean young soccer players, resulting in significantly greater exposure to technical plays without excessive physical demands.
Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Caramelli, Paulo
Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered as an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of 6–12 incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years, some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the establishment of safety
Ana Carolina Oliveira Rodrigues
Full Text Available Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of six to twelve incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the
Memmert, Daniel; Lemmink, Koen A P M; Sampaio, Jaime
Tactical match performance depends on the quality of actions of individual players or teams in space and time during match-play in order to be successful. Technological innovations have led to new possibilities to capture accurate spatio-temporal information of all players and unravel the dynamics and complexity of soccer matches. The main aim of this article is to give an overview of the current state of development of the analysis of position data in soccer. Based on the same single set of position data of a high-level 11 versus 11 match (Bayern Munich against FC Barcelona) three different promising approaches from the perspective of dynamic systems and neural networks will be presented: Tactical performance analysis revealed inter-player coordination, inter-team and inter-line coordination before critical events, as well as team-team interaction and compactness coefficients. This could lead to a multi-disciplinary discussion on match analyses in sport science and new avenues for theoretical and practical implications in soccer.
Vazini Taher, Amir; Parnow, Abdolhossein
Different methods of warm-up may have implications in improving various aspects of soccer performance. The present study aimed to investigate acute effects of soccer specific warm-up protocols on functional performance tests. This study using randomized within-subject design, investigated the performance of 22 collegiate elite soccer player following soccer specific warm-ups using dynamic stretching, static stretching, and FIFA 11+ program. Post warm-up examinations consisted: 1) Illinois Agility Test; 2) vertical jump; 3) 30 meter sprint; 4) consecutive turns; 5) flexibility of knee. Vertical jump performance was significantly lower following static stretching, as compared to dynamic stretching (P=0.005). Sprint performance declined significantly following static stretching as compared to FIFA 11+ (P=0.023). Agility time was significantly faster following dynamic stretching as compared to FIFA 11+ (P=0.001) and static stretching (P=0.001). Knee flexibility scores were significantly improved following the static stretching as compared to dynamic stretching (P=016). No significant difference was observed for consecutive turns between three warm-up protocol. The present finding showed that a soccer specific warm-up protocol relied on dynamic stretching is preferable in enhancing performance as compared to protocols relying on static stretches and FIFA 11+ program. Investigators suggest that while different soccer specific warm-up protocols have varied types of effects on performance, acute effects of dynamic stretching on performance in elite soccer players are assured, however application of static stretching in reducing muscle stiffness is demonstrated.
Taylor, Jeffrey B; Ford, Kevin R; Schmitz, Randy J; Ross, Scott E; Ackerman, Terry A; Shultz, Sandra J
Taylor, JB, Ford, KR, Schmitz, RJ, Ross, SE, Ackerman, TA, and Shultz, SJ. Biomechanical differences of multidirectional jump landings among female basketball and soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3034-3045, 2017-Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs are less successful in basketball than soccer and may be due to distinct movement strategies that these athletes develop from sport-specific training. The purpose of this study was to identify biomechanical differences between female basketball and soccer players during multidirectional jump landings. Lower extremity biomechanics of 89 female athletes who played competitive basketball (n = 40) or soccer (n = 49) at the middle- or high-school level were analyzed with 3-dimensional motion analysis during a drop vertical jump, double- (SAG-DL) and single-leg forward jump (SAG-SL), and double- (FRONT-DL) and single-leg (FRONT-SL) lateral jump. Basketball players landed with either less hip or knee, or both hip and knee excursion during all tasks (p ≤ 0.05) except for the SAGSL task, basketball players landed with greater peak hip flexion angles (p = 0.04). The FRONT-SL task elicited the most distinct sport-specific differences, including decreased hip adduction (p soccer players exhibited a more protective landing strategy than basketball players, justifying future efforts toward sport-specific ACL injury prevention programs.
Buchheit, M; Mendez-Villanueva, A; Simpson, B M; Bourdon, P C
The activity profiles of highly trained young soccer players were examined in relation to age, playing position and physical capacity. Time-motion analyses (global positioning system) were performed on 77 (U13-U18; fullbacks [FB], centre-backs [CB], midfielders [MD], wide midfielders [W], second strikers [2 (nd)S] and strikers [S]) during 42 international club games. Total distance covered (TD) and very high-intensity activities (VHIA; >16.1 km·h (-1)) were computed during 186 entire player-matches. Physical capacity was assessed via field test measures (e. g., peak running speed during an incremental field test, VVam-eval). Match running performance showed an increasing trend with age ( Pperformance was position-dependent ( Pperformance and physical capacities were position-dependent, with poor or non-significant correlations within FB, CB, MD and W (e. g., VHIA vs. VVam-eval: R=0.06 in FB) but large associations within 2 (nd)S and S positions (e. g., VHIA vs. VVam-eval: R=0.70 in 2 (nd)S). In highly trained young soccer players, the importance of fitness level as a determinant of match running performance should be regarded as a function of playing position.
Unnithan, Viswanath; White, Jordan; Georgiou, Andreas; Iga, John; Drust, Barry
The purpose of this review article was firstly to evaluate the traditional approach to talent identification in youth soccer and secondly present pilot data on a more holistic method for talent identification. Research evidence exists to suggest that talent identification mechanisms that are predicated upon the physical (anthropometric) attributes of the early maturing individual only serve to identify current performance levels. Greater body mass and stature have both been related to faster ball shooting speed and vertical jump capacity respectively in elite youth soccer players. This approach, however, may prematurely exclude those late maturing individuals. Multiple physiological measures have also been used in an effort to determine key predictors of performance; with agility and sprint times, being identified as variables that could discriminate between elite and sub-elite groups of adolescent soccer players. Successful soccer performance is the product of multiple systems interacting with one another. Consequently, a more holistic approach to talent identification should be considered. Recent work, with elite youth soccer players, has considered whether multiple small-sided games could act as a talent identification tool in this population. The results demonstrated that there was a moderate agreement between the more technically gifted soccer player and success during multiple small-sided games.
Nielsen, Joachim; Krustrup, Peter; Nybo, Lars
Whole muscle glycogen levels remain low for a prolonged period following a soccer match. The present study was conducted to investigate how this relates to glycogen content and particle size in distinct subcellular localizations. Seven high-level male soccer players had a vastus lateralis muscle...... biopsy collected immediately after and 24, 48, 72 and 120 h after a competitive soccer match. Transmission electron microscopy was used to estimate the subcellular distribution of glycogen and individual particle size. During the first day of recovery, glycogen content increased by ~60% in all...
Taskin, Cengiz; Karakoc, Onder; Taskin, Mine; Dural, Murat
70 soccer players in Gaziantep amateur league voluntarily participated in this study, (average of their ages 19,17±1,34years, average of their heights 181,28±5,06 cm, average of their body weights 76,75±4,43 kg and average of their sports experiences 3,78±0,95 years) to analyze visual and auditory reaction times and aerobic capacities of amateur…
Ruscello, Bruno; Esposito, Mario; Partipilo, Filippo; DI Cicco, Dalila; Filetti, Cristoforo; Pantanella, Laura; D'Ottavio, Stefano
To investigate the applicability of three different exercise to rest ratios in RSA training in women's soccer players, applying those ones already adopted in male adult and young players, when performing three different sprinting modes (straight, shuttle and sprinting with changing of direction). 15 trained female soccer players (height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m; weight: 59.3 ± 9.0 kg; BMI 21.6 ± 2.7 kg·m-2; age: 23.3±5.9 years) participated to the study. In order to compare the different values of the time recorded, an Index of Fatigue was used. Recovery times among trials in the sets were administered according to the 1:5, 1:3; 1:2 exercise to rest ratio, respectively. Blood lactate concentrations at the end of each set (3') were analyzed. Significant differences among trials within each set (Repeated Measures Anova; p0.05). Significant differences were found in blood lactate concentrations (pRSA in women's soccer players, keeping the performances in the speed domain (IF% < ⊕7-8%) but inducing the fatigue processes sought with this kind of training method.
Rössler, Roland; Junge, Astrid; Chomiak, Jiri; Dvorak, Jiri; Faude, Oliver
As part of a risk-management approach, sound epidemiological data are needed to develop prevention programs. A recent review on soccer injuries of players younger than 19 years concluded that prospective data concerning children are lacking. To analyze the incidence and characteristics of soccer injuries in children aged 7 to 12 years. Descriptive epidemiological study. The present survey was a prospective descriptive epidemiological study on soccer injuries over 2 seasons in the Czech Republic and Switzerland. Exposure of players during training and match play (in hours) and injury data were reported by coaches via an Internet-based registration system. Location, type, and severity of injuries were classified according to an established consensus. Injury characteristics are presented as absolute numbers and injury incidence rates (injuries per 1000 hours of soccer exposure). An injury was defined as any physical complaint sustained during a scheduled training session or match play resulting in at least 1 of the following: (1) inability to complete the current match or training session, (2) absence from subsequent training sessions or matches, and (3) injury requiring medical attention. In total, 6038 player-seasons with 395,295 hours of soccer exposure were recorded. The mean (±SD) age of the players was 9.5 ± 2.0 years, and 3.9% of the participants were girls. A total of 417 injuries were reported. Most (76.3%) injuries were located in the lower limbs, with 15.6% located in the upper limbs. Joint and ligament injuries comprised 30.5%, contusions 22.5%, muscle and tendon injuries 18.5%, and fractures and bone injuries 15.4% of all injuries; 23.7% of injuries led to more than 28 days of absence from sport participation. The overall injury incidence was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.53-0.69) injuries per 1000 hours of soccer exposure during training sessions and 4.57 (95% CI, 4.00-5.23) during match play. Injury incidence rates increased with increasing age. The observed injury
Nikolaos E Koundourakis
Full Text Available The current study had two aims. The primary purpose was to examine the association between serum vitamin D levels and the ergometric evaluation of muscle strength, aerobic capacity, and speed in professional soccer players. The secondary aim was to evaluate the effects of the soccer off-season period on serum vitamin D levels.Sixty-seven Caucasian male soccer players (age 25.6 ± 6.2 and height 1.81 ± 0.08 m, members of two Greek Superleague Soccer teams and one Football-league championship team participated in this study. Exercise performance testing for the determination of squat jump (SJ, countermovement jump (CMJ, 10 (10 m and 20 meters (20 m sprint performance, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, anthropometry, and blood sampling were performed before (pre and after (post the six-week off-season period.Analysis of our results showed the following: (a a significant correlations between serum vitamin D levels and performance parameters in both pre (SJ; P < 0.001, CMJ; P < 0.001, VO2max; P < 0.001, 10 m; P < 0.001, and 20 m; P < 0.001 and post (SJ; P < 0.001, CMJ; P<0.001, VO2max; P = 0.006, 10 m; P < 0.001, and 20 m; P < 0.001 experimental sessions. (b Vitamin D concentration increased significantly (P < 0.001 following the six-week off-season period compared to baseline, while at the same time all measured performance parameters decreased (SJ; P < 0.001, CMJ; P < 0.001, 10 m; P < 0.001, 20 m; P < 0.001, VO2max; P<0.001.Our findings suggest that vitamin D levels are associated with the ergometric evaluation of muscle strength, as expressed by SJ and CMJ, sprinting capacity, and VO2max in professional soccer players, irrespective the levels of performance. Furthermore, our data reaffirm the importance of UVB on serum vitamin D levels. Moreover, reductions in exercise training stress may also have beneficial effects on vitamin D levels, suggesting a possible association of its levels and the training-induced stress. Our results indicate a
Full Text Available Strength imbalances between the hamstrings and quadriceps are an essential predictor for hamstring strain in soccer. The study aimed to investigate and compare the muscle strength imbalances of professional soccer players of different performance levels. One hundred and fifty nine senior male professional soccer players from first (n = 75 and second league (n = 84 Portuguese clubs participated in this study. Muscle strength was evaluated with a REV9000 isokinetic dynamometer. Maximal peak torque data were used to calculate quadriceps and hamstrings strength during concentric and eccentric actions, bilateral asymmetry, conventional strength ratios and dynamic control ratios. Second league athletes produced slightly lower conventional strength ratios in the right and left legs (ES = 0.22, p = 0.17 and ES = 0.36, p = 0.023, respectively compared to the first league athletes. No significant differences were found in dynamic control ratios or in bilateral asymmetry among first and second league athletes. These findings do not show a clear link between the competitive level and injury risk in soccer players. However, some of the differences found, particularly in conventional strength ratios, highlight the importance of performing off-season and pre-season strength assessments to prescribe and adjust individual strength training programs among professional soccer players.
Grosdent, Stéphanie; Demoulin, Christophe; Rodriguez de La Cruz, Carlos; Giop, Romain; Tomasella, Marco; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Vanderthommen, Marc
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the history of low back pain and quality of lumbopelvic motor control in soccer players. Forty-three male elite soccer players (mean age, 18.2 ± 1.4 years) filled in questionnaires related to low back pain and attended a session to assess lumbopelvic motor control by means of five tests (the bent knee fall out test, the knee lift abdominal test, the sitting knee extension test, the waiter's bow and the transversus abdominis test). A physiotherapist, blinded to the medical history of the participants, scored (0 = failed, 1 = correct) the performance of the players for each of the tests resulting in a lumbopelvic motor control score ranging from 0 to 5. Forty-seven per cent of the soccer players reported a disabling low back pain episode lasting at least two consecutive days in the previous year. These players scored worse lumbopelvic motor control than players without a history of low back pain (lumbopelvic motor control score of 1.8 vs. 3.3, P soccer players with a history of low back pain had an altered lumbopelvic motor control. Further research should examine whether lumbopelvic motor control is etiologically involved in low back pain episodes in soccer players.
Alex de Andrade Fernandes
Full Text Available Introduction Soccer is among the sports with the highest injury rate. A group of international experts from the Fédération Internationale de Football Association — FIFA’s Medical Assessment and Research Centre — have developed the “FIFA 11+”, a warm-up programme whose main goal is to reduce the risk of common injuries in both male and female soccer players. Objective To conduct a literature review in order to check the efficiency of the “FIFA 11 +” warm-up programme in preventing injuries in soccer players. Methods We conducted a systematic review of studies in the databases MEDLINE/PubMed, SciELO, ScienceDirect and SPORTDiscus, using the following keywords in combination with one another: “injury”, “prevention” and “warm-up”. Results Five studies met the inclusion criteria. In four studies, the authors conclude that the “FIFA 11 +” warm-up programme is effective for preventing injuries in soccer players. In one study, this protective effect was not observed. Conclusion The analyzed studies indicate that the FIFA 11+ warm-up programme for the prevention of sports injuries show positive signs that the use of the programme may help reduce the incidence of injuries in girls aged 13–17 years. In a male children population the results are inconclusive and further research is needed.
Bobian, Michael R; Hanba, Curtis J; Svider, Peter F; Hojjat, Houmehr; Folbe, Adam J; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Shkoukani, Mahdi A
Soccer participation continues to increase among all ages in the US. Our objective was to analyze trends in soccer-related facial injury epidemiology, demographics, and mechanisms of injury. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was evaluated for soccer-related facial injuries from 2010 through 2014. Results for product code "soccer" were filtered for injures to the face. Number of injuries was extrapolated, and data were analyzed for age, sex, specific injury diagnoses, locations, and mechanisms. In all, 2054 soccer-related facial trauma entries were analyzed. During this time, the number of injures remained relatively stable. Lacerations were the most common diagnosis (44.2%), followed by contusions and fractures. The most common sites of fracture were the nose (75.1%). Of fractures with a reported mechanism of injury, the most common was head-to-head collisions (39.0%). Patients soccer-related facial trauma has remained stable, but the severity of such injuries remain a danger. Facial protection in soccer is virtually absent, and our findings reinforce the need to educate athletes, families, and physicians on injury awareness and prevention. © The Author(s) 2016.
Elbin, R J; Beatty, Amanda; Covassin, Tracey; Schatz, Philip; Hydeman, Ana; Kontos, Anthony P
This study compared changes in neurocognitive performance and symptom reports following an acute bout of soccer heading among athletes with and without protective soccer headgear. A total of 25 participants headed a soccer ball 15 times over a 15-minute period, using a proper linear heading technique. Participants in the experimental group completed the heading exercise while wearing a protective soccer headband and controls performed the heading exercise without wearing the soccer headband. Neurocognitive performance and symptom reports were assessed before and after the acute bout of heading. Participants wearing the headband showed significant decreases on verbal memory (p = 0.02) compared with the no headband group, while the no headband group demonstrated significantly faster reaction time (p = 0.03) than the headband group following the heading exercise. These findings suggest that protective soccer headgear likely does not mitigate the subtle neurocognitive effects of acute soccer heading.
De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Hughes, Jonathan D; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Oliver, Jon L; Read, Paul J
De Ste Croix, MBA, Hughes, JD, Lloyd, RS, Oliver, JL, and Read, PJ. Leg stiffness in female soccer players: intersession reliability and the fatiguing effects of soccer-specific exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3052-3058, 2016-Low levels of leg stiffness and reduced leg stiffness when fatigue is present compromise physical performance and increase injury risk. The purpose of this study was to (a) determine the reliability of leg stiffness measures obtained from contact mat data and (b) explore age-related differences in leg stiffness after exposure to a soccer-specific fatigue protocol in young female soccer players. Thirty-seven uninjured female youth soccer players divided into 3 subgroups based on chronological age (under 13 [U13], under 15 [U15], and under 17 [U17] year-olds) volunteered to participate in the study. After baseline data collection, during which relative leg stiffness, contact time, and flight time were collected, participants completed an age-appropriate soccer-specific fatigue protocol (SAFT). Upon completion of the fatigue protocol, subjects were immediately retested. Intersession reliability was acceptable and could be considered capable of detecting worthwhile changes in performance. Results showed that leg stiffness decreased in the U13 year-olds, was maintained in the U15 age group, and increased in the U17 players. Contact times and flight times did not change in the U13 and U15 year-olds, but significantly decreased and increased, respectively, in the U17 age group. The data suggest that age-related changes in the neuromuscular control of leg stiffness are present in youth female soccer players. Practitioners should be aware of these discrepancies in neuromuscular responses to soccer-specific fatigue, and should tailor training programs to meet the needs of individuals, which may subsequently enhance performance and reduce injury risk.
Forsman, Hannele; Gråstén, Arto; Blomqvist, Minna; Davids, Keith; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Konttinen, Niilo
The objective of this 1-year, longitudinal study was to examine the development of perceived competence, tactical skills, motivation, technical skills, and speed and agility characteristics of young Finnish soccer players. We also examined associations between latent growth models of perceived competence and other recorded variables. Participants were 288 competitive male soccer players ranging from 12 to 14 years (12.7 ± 0.6) from 16 soccer clubs. Players completed the self-assessments of perceived competence, tactical skills, and motivation, and participated in technical, and speed and agility tests. Results of this study showed that players' levels of perceived competence, tactical skills, motivation, technical skills, and speed and agility characteristics remained relatively high and stable across the period of 1 year. Positive relationships were found between these levels and changes in perceived competence and motivation, and levels of perceived competence and speed and agility characteristics. Together these results illustrate the multi-dimensional nature of talent development processes in soccer. Moreover, it seems crucial in coaching to support the development of perceived competence and motivation in young soccer players and that it might be even more important in later maturing players.
Karbasizadeh, Sina; Jani, Masih; Keshvari, Mahtab
To determine the relationship between the parent-child relationship, self-control and demographic characteristics and the desire to play video games among male university students at one university in Iran. This was a correlational, descriptive, applied study. A total of 103 male students were selected randomly as a study sample from the population of male students at Isfahan University in Iran. Data collection tools used were the Video Games Questionnaire, Tanji's Self-Control Scale, Parent-Child Relationship Questionnaire, and Demographic Questionnaire. Data were analysed using stepwise regression analysis. This study found several factors increased male students' desire to play video games. Demographic characteristics associated with increased tendency to play video games among male students in Iran are older age, larger number of family members, lower parental level of education and higher socio-economic class, while other significant factors are a lower level of self‑control and a poorer parent-child relationship. PARTICIPANTS': higher socio-economic class, lower level of self-control and older age explained 8.2%, 5.2% and 5.9% of their desire to play video games, respectively. These three variables together accounted for significantly 16.9% of a male student's desire to play video games in this study ( P video games in Iran. Moreover, lower levels of self-control and a poorer parent-child relationship were found to be accompanied by a greater desire to play video games among male university students. © 2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Diment, Gregory Michael
Psychological Skills Training (PST) has been a tool used by sport psychology consultants. However, within soccer many of these programs have been delivered as workshops, homework tasks, or individual consultations with athletes. The aim of the project was to develop an ecological intervention...... by creating a series of drillbased sessions to train psychological skills, and educate coaches about how to implement and integrate PST as a natural part of daily training. The program was delivered to the youth academies in nine Danish professional soccer clubs and consisted of three phases: (a) planning...... of the program, (b) education and designing soccer drills, and (c) delivery of the drills on the soccer pitch. The program was well received by clubs, coaches, and players. With regards to project aims, the intervention was generally considered a success. Coaches reported that the drill-based nature...
Iaia, F. Marcello; Fiorenza, Matteo; Perri, Enrico; Alberti, Giampietro; Millet, Grégoire P.; Bangsbo, Jens
In order to better understand the specificity of training adaptations, we compared the effects of two different anaerobic training regimes on various types of soccer-related exercise performances. During the last 3 weeks of the competitive season, thirteen young male professional soccer players (age 18.5±1 yr, height 179.5±6.5 cm, body mass 74.3±6.5 kg) reduced the training volume by ~20% and replaced their habitual fitness conditioning work with either speed endurance production (SEP; n = 6) or speed endurance maintenance (SEM; n = 7) training, three times per wk. SEP training consisted of 6–8 reps of 20-s all-out running bouts followed by 2 min of passive recovery, whereas SEM training was characterized by 6–8 x 20-s all-out efforts interspersed with 40 s of passive recovery. SEP training reduced (pstrategies target different determinants of soccer-related physical performance. SEP improved repeated sprint and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, whereas SEM increased muscles’ ability to maximize fatigue tolerance and maintain speed development during both repeated all-out and continuous short-duration maximal exercises. These results provide new insight into the precise nature of a stimulus necessary to improve specific types of athletic performance in trained young soccer players. PMID:26394225
de Sousa, M Vieira; Fukui, R; Krustrup, Peter
Background: Moderate calorie-restricted diets and exercise training prevent loss of lean mass and cardiovascular risk. Because adherence to routine exercise recommendation is generally poor, we utilized recreational soccer training as a novel therapeutic exercise intervention in type 2 diabetes (T2......D) patients. Objective: We compared the effects of acute and chronic soccer training plus calorie-restricted diet on protein catabolism and cardiovascular risk markers in T2D. Design, setting and subjects: Fifty-one T2D patients (61.1±6.4 years, 29 females: 22 males) were randomly allocated...... to the soccer+diet-group (SDG) or to the dietgroup (DG). The 40-min soccer sessions were held 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Results: Nineteen participants attended 100% of scheduled soccer sessions, and none suffered any injuries. The SDG group showed higher levels of growth hormone (GH), free fatty acids...
Siegler, J; Robergs, R; Weingart, H
The application of performance testing for the evaluation of non-elite soccer players has received little attention. The purpose of this investigation was to use tests developed for elite soccer players to evaluate performance in non-elite soccer players and compare performance test results between elite (literature) and non-elite (data) players. Thirteen male soccer players volunteered to participate. The tests included a treadmill VO2max test, 20 m sprint, vertical jump (VJ), 30 s Wingate cycle ergometer test, the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST), and 2 20-m multi-stage shuttle runs to exhaustion (fatigue test). Actual VO2max (absolute and relative) scores were correlated with the estimated VO2max scores (fatigue test), 20 m sprint, VJ, and 30 s Wingate using a Pearson's product-moment correlation. A paired t-test was conducted on the fatigue test trials. Non-significant relationships were observed between actual VO2max scores and estimated VO2max from the fatigue test (absolute and relative terms). Non-significant relationships were also observed between peak and average power output (Wingate), 20 m sprint, and VJ. Mean heart rates (HRs) throughout the LIST was 165+/-7 bpm, which represented 88% of HRmax. The results of this study demonstrate that to elicit physiological differences between elite and non-elite players, assessment must include both an aerobic and anaerobic component.
Read, Paul J; Oliver, Jon L; De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Myer, Gregory D; Lloyd, Rhodri S
Early specialisation is characterised by formal participation in a single sport at the exclusion of others. Limited data are available to support this approach in the development of soccer players who attain elite status later in life. Of growing concern is the associated increased risk of injury and suggestions that single sport specialisation is a risk factor independent of age, growth, biological maturation and training volumes. In the United Kingdom, elite soccer organisations have recently adopted an early sport specialisation approach following the introduction of the Elite Player Performance Plan. A key tenet of this programme is increased opportunities for training through a marked rise in the specified on-pitch hours per week. The accumulation of high training hours may be less of a relevant marker for success, and the impact of such a significant increase in training volume for young athletes who are experiencing a range of growth and maturational processes is currently unknown. This critical commentary includes an evidence-based discussion of the effectiveness of early sport specialisation and the potential injury risks associated with such programmes placing a specific focus on elite male youth soccer players. Available data indicate that modifications to the existing Elite Player Performance Plan framework could enhance players' development and reduce injury risk. Proposed alterations include reduced volume of soccer-specific training at key stages of growth and maturation and guidelines for the provision of a greater variety of physical activities that are integrated within other programme components.
Jensen, Jesper; Bandholm, Thomas; Hölmich, Per
Hip adduction strength is important for kicking and acceleration in soccer players. Changes in hip adduction strength may therefore have an effect on soccer players' athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and sub-acute effects of a kicking drill session on hip...... percentiles), at pre-kicking to 2.65 (2.55-2.81) Nm ∙ kg(-1) (P = 0.024) 24 h post-kicking. This may have implications for the soccer player's ability to maximally activate the hip adductors during kicking and acceleration, and thereby improve performance the day after a kicking drill session....... strength, concerning isometric hip adduction, abduction and flexion torque of the kicking leg and the supporting leg. Ten injury-free male elite soccer players, mean ± s age of 15.8 ± 0.4 years participated. All players underwent a specific 20 min kicking drill session, comprising 45 kicks. The players...
Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book addresses and appropriately explains the soccer match analysis, looks at the very latest in match analysis research, and at the innovative technologies used by professional clubs. This handbook is also bridging the gap between research, theory and practice. The methods in it can be used by coaches, sport scientists and fitness coaches to improve: styles of play, technical ability and physical fitness; objective feedback to players; the development of specific training routines; use of available notation software, video analysis and manual systems; and understanding of current academic research in soccer notational analysis. PURPOSE The aim is to provide a prepared manual on soccer match analysis in general for coaches and sport scientists. Thus, the professionals in this field would gather objective data on the players and the team, which in turn could be used by coaches and players to learn more about performance as a whole and gain a competitive advantage as a result. The book efficiently meets these objectives. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the athlete, the coach, the sports scientist professional or any sport conscious person who wishes to analyze relevant soccer performance. The editors and the contributors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depend on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book demonstrates how a notation system can be established to produce data to analyze and improve performance in soccer. It is composed of 9 chapters which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Introduction to Soccer Match Analysis, 2. Developing a Manual Notation System, 3. Video and Computerized Match Analysis Technology, 4. General Advice on Analyzing Match Performance, 5. Analysis and Presentation of the Results, 6. Motion Analysis and Consequences for Training, 7. What Match
Krustrup, Peter; Ørtenblad, Niels; Nielsen, Joachim
The aim of this study was to examine maximal voluntary knee-extensor contraction force (MVC force), sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and muscle glycogen levels in the days after a high-level soccer game when players ingested an optimised diet. Seven high-level male soccer players had a vastus...... lateralis muscle biopsy and a blood sample collected in a control situation and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after a competitive soccer game. MVC force, SR function, muscle glycogen, muscle soreness and plasma myoglobin were measured. MVC force sustained over 1 s was 11 and 10% lower (P ...
Haan, M.; Koning, Ruud H.; Witteloostuijn, A. van
Recent decades have witnessed major changes in the market for European soccer. The most profound were the Bosman ruling, which lifted restrictions in the European labor market for soccer talent, and the introduction of the Champions' League, a high-profile international competition that generates
Roescher, C. R.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Huijgen, B. C. H.; Visscher, C.
The development of intermittent endurance capacity, its underlying mechanisms and role in reaching professional level in soccer was investigated. The sample included 130 talented youth soccer players aged 14-18, who became professional (n = 53) or non-professional (n = 77) players in adulthood. In
Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Alvarez, Cristian; Gentil, Paulo; Loturco, Irineu; Sanchez-Sanchez, Javier; Izquierdo, Mikel; Moran, Jason; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Chaabene, Helmi; Granacher, Urs
To compare the effects of short-term (i.e., 7 week) plyometric training applied before (PJT-B) or after (PJT-A) soccer practice on components of physical fitness in young soccer players, a single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted. Post-pubertal boys aged 17.0±0.5 years were allocated to three groups: PJT-B (n=12), PJT-A (n=14), and control (CON; n=12). The outcome measures included tests to evaluate 20-m speed, standing long jump [SLJ], squat jump [SJ], countermovement jump [CMJ], and drop jump [DJ], 20-m multistage shuttle running speed [MSSRT], and Illinois change of direction speed [ICODT]. While the CON performed soccer-specific training, the PJT-A and PJT-B groups conducted the same soccer-specific sessions but replaced ∼11% of their time with plyometric training. The PJT-B group performed plyometric exercises after a warm-up program, and the PJT-A group conducted plyometric exercises ∼10 minutes after the completion of soccer training. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to detect differences between groups in all variables for pre- and post-training tests. Main effects of time (all pplyometric training is effective in improving measures of physical fitness in young male soccer players when combined with regular soccer training. More specifically, larger training induced effects on physical fitness were registered if plyometric training was conducted prior to soccer specific training.
Chiamonti Bona, Cleiton; Tourinho Filho, Hugo; Izquierdo, Mikel; Pires Ferraz, Ricardo M; Marques, Mário C
Soccer is a sport that is practiced worldwide and has been investigated in its various aspects, particularly muscle strength, which is an essential motor skill for sports performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the peak torque and muscle balance on the knee extensor and flexor of young soccer players in the tactical positions of goalkeeper, defender, full back, midfielder, defensive midfielder and striker, as well as to determine which field position has the highest peak torque. Forty-nine male players were recruited and divided into two categories during the preparatory period of the season: the Under-15 (U-15) group (N.=23, mean age 14.7±0.5 years, body mass 58.2±10.5 kg, body height 168.5±7.6 cm), and the Under-17 (U-17) group (N.=26, mean age 16.8±0.4 years, body mass 69.2±7.9 kg, body height 176.2±6.6 cm). The U-17 athletes presented a higher peak torque in all the movements of flexion and extension in the two angular velocities (i.e. 60°/s and 300°/s), but only the dominant knee extensor at 300°/s was significantly different between the two categories as well as the percentage change in peak torque compared between U-15 and U-17 was always above 20%. The peak torque variation in the U-17 category (i.e. mostly above 20%) highlights a higher peak torque compared to U-15 athletes. The muscular deficit of the two categories presented a low average of 10-15%, indicating a good muscle balance between knee extensors and flexors. Finally, goalkeepers and defenders achieved the highest peak torque amongst the field positions.
Avhandling (doktorgrad) - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2015 Background: High performance in soccer depends on various physical qualities and skills, including tactical and technical skills as the two most import factors that contribute to success. These skills could be more important than small differences in physical performance abilities. Nevertheless, to be able to utilize the tactical and technical skills during a top soccer match, a soccer player has to cope with the physical demands...
Maria Cristina Chimelo Paim
Full Text Available This study aimed to verify what were the motivational factors that made teenagers to choose ADUFSM soccer school, and to verify the difference among the groups, the performance and gain scores at soccer basis. The sample comprised 32 persons, 10 to 16 years old, that practice soccer at ADUFSM. The sample was divided in four groups. The motivational factors inventory (MFI was applied in the beginning of the semester. It was verified, through descriptive statistics, that the stronger motivation for the subjects involvement with soccer was to develop skills (78%, followed by excitation and challenge (72%; affiliation (70% and aptitude (68%. The performance level evaluation in three different phases was done through soccer basis analytical matrix (SBAM, always in game situation. Five observations per subject were made for each base listed in SBAM, and the execution mistakes were identifies. Initially, an ANOVA was used to deal with the data; later, a post-hoc test. The results showed that learning occurred and that there was a significant difference favoring GF10 in the learning gain scores after the treatment.
Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to compare the morphological characteristics of experienced futsal players with professional soccer players. Methods. The research sample included 22 university futsal players and 22 professional soccer players. Parameters including body height and mass, skinfold thicknesses of the trunk and extremities, lower limb length, trunk width, humerus and femur bone breadths, and the circumferences of the chest, hips, thighs, and calves were used to calculate various somatic indices. Somatotyping was performed using the Heath–carter method. Differences in the characteristics between the futsal and soccer players were analyzed using Student’s t test. Intragroup analysis was also performed on futsal players depending on player position and compared with the arithmetic means and standard deviations of all variables of the entire sample. Results. compared with their soccer-playing peers, the futsal players were shorter, weighed less, had shorter lower limbs, narrower hips, and smaller hip circumference and bone breadth values. In contrast, higher levels of body fat and endomorphy were noted in this group. The proportion of mesomorphs and ectomorphs were similar in both groups. Futsal goalkeepers were differentiated by greater subcutaneous adiposity and body mass. Defenders had the slimmest body shape, with relatively narrower shoulders and hips, smaller bone breadths, and lower levels of adiposity. The body build of wingers was slightly larger. Pivoters were characterized by greater body height and larger values for the characteristics measuring the lateral trunk dimensions. Conclusions. The observed morphological differences between futsal and soccer players were mainly in body height and height-associated characteristics. This indicates that no specialized approach in futsal recruitment is currently used. This points to the need to develop a specialized approach in the player recruitment stage, as the tactical and
Hart, David; Funk, Lennard
An evidence base for the management and prevention of shoulder injuries in soccer is lacking. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the type, mechanism and recovery time after surgery associated with serious shoulder injuries sustained in professional soccer to build an evidence base foundation. Fifty-two professional soccer players underwent shoulder surgery for injuries sustained during match play. Of these, 25 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Data were collected for injury mechanism and type; clinical, radiological and surgical findings and procedures; and return to full participation. Subjects were all managed by the same surgeon. Labral injuries represented the most common injury type affecting 21 (84 %) subjects; two rotator cuff (8 %) and two combined labral/rotator cuff (8 %) injuries were less common. Fourteen (56 %) subjects sustained a high-energy trauma injury in a combined abduction and external rotation position. Six (24 %) subjects sustained a low-energy trauma mechanism in variable positions, while five (20 %) had a gradual onset of symptoms. Twenty-two (88 %) subjects reported a dislocation as a feature of their presentation. All of the subjects with high- and low-energy trauma mechanisms reported a dislocation occurring at the time of injury. Eight (32 %) subjects had sustained a previous significant shoulder injury to the ipsilateral side. Goalkeepers did not sustain low-energy trauma injuries. Outfield players returned to full participation in a mean time of 11.6 weeks, while goalkeepers did so in 11.1 weeks post-surgery. Return to participation time ranged from 7 to 24 weeks with a median of 11 weeks. Professional soccer players can expect a return to participation within 12 weeks post-surgery. The majority of serious shoulder injuries in soccer occur at a positional extreme of external rotation and abduction in high-energy situations, while a significant number occur in low-energy situations away from this position. Most serious shoulder
Full Text Available It is recognized that much of the dietary data on adolescents and athletes is prone to reporting error, mostly through under-reporting. Nevertheless, in the majority of studies assessing the nutritional intake of young soccer players under-reporting has not been taken into consideration. The purpose of this study was to assess the dietary intake of a sample of young male Italian high-level soccer players on two time points to evaluate the degree of under- reporting. Seventy-five male high level soccer players (age range: 15-17 years completed 4-day food records on two separate occasions (T0; T1, 3 months after T0. Under-reporting was assessed by the ratio of reported estimated energy intake (EEI to estimated energy expenditure (EEE. Forty- three subjects, whose food records were judged accurate enough both at T0 and T1, were included in the data analysis (inclusion rate 57.3%. No significant weight changes were documented between T0 and T1 and in the two weeks preceding both T0 and T1. Reported mean daily energy intake was significantly lower than mean estimated daily energy expenditure both at T0 and T1 (p < 0.001. The average EEI/EEE ratio was 0.75 + 0.2 both at T0 and T1. It was < 80% in 27 subjects (62.8% at T0 and in 23 (53.4% at T1; it reached 50% in 4 subjects both at T0 and T1. The degree of under- reporting of the young soccer players was in line with the available data on this age group. This study emphasizes that under-reporting is a critical issue in the evaluation of young athletes dietary intake, which should be considered in the interpretation of data, particularly when energy inadequacies are reported. Further studies with uniformed methods are needed, in order to reduce the degree of under-reporting, obtain reliable data on the dietary intake of young soccer players and evaluate the efficacy of targeted nutrition education programs
Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra
as pretence, children’s play is understood as an activity involving rules of the social order (roles and positions) as well as identification processes (imagined situations). The theoretical argumentation builds on empirical examples obtained in two different Danish day-care centres. The chapter is informed...... by ethnographic observations and draws on illustrative examples with symbolic group play as well as game-play with rules (soccer) among 5 year old boys. Findings suggest that day-care children’s play, involves negotiation of roles, positioning and identification, and rules – and that these negotiations......This chapter offers support for Vygotsky’s claim that all play involves both an imagined situation as well as rules. Synthesising Schousboe’s comprehensive model of spheres of realities in playing (see Chapter 1, this volume) with Lev Vygotskys insight that all playing involve rules as well...
Fenner, Jonathan S J; Iga, John; Unnithan, Viswanath
The aim of this study was to evaluate physiological and technical attributes of prepubertal soccer players during multiple small-sided games (SSGs), and determine if SSGs can act as a talent identification tool. Sixteen highly trained U10 soccer players participated and separated into two groups of eight. Each group played six small-sided (4 vs. 4) matches of 5-min duration. Each player was awarded total points for the match result and goals scored. A game technical scoring chart was used to rate each player's performance during each game. Time-motion characteristics were measured using micromechanical devices. Total points had a very large significant relationship with game technical scoring chart (r = 0.758, P talented prepubertal soccer players.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the lateral abdominal muscle thickness and other possible functional risk factors in young soccer players with and without low back pain (LBP.METHOD: In total, 30 young soccer players between 16 and 20 years old, with and without LBP, from the premier league participated in this study. The thicknesses of external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis on both sides were measured via ultrasound imaging. In addition, hamstring flexibility, active lumbar forward flexion, and isometric muscle endurance of trunk extensors were measured and were compared regarding the history of LBP.RESULTS: Mean ± SD age of the subjects was 17.4 ± 1.1 years. There was no statistically significant difference regarding age, BMI, weekly training hours and age of starting to compete between groups. Subjects with sports-life, last year and last month history ofLBP had a statistically significant lower external oblique muscle thickness in both right and left side, and both dominant and non-dominant feet (p<0.05. Subjects with sportslife history of LBP had lower internal oblique muscle thickness in both side and both feet (p<0.05. Moreover, those with a sports-life history of LBP had a significantly higher degree of hamstring muscle tightness than non-LBP group on the dominant foot (p <0.05.CONCLUSION: In this sample group of young soccer players, abdominal muscles seem to have an important role in the stability of the spine and prevention of LBP. Further longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the role of these muscles as a risk factor for soccer players.
Robelen, Erik W.
Amid a struggling economy, a raft of foreign-policy headaches, and the tail end of a heated campaign season, President Barack Obama carved out time in his schedule last month to watch students in the State Dining Room demonstrate a solar-powered model car, a water-purification system, and a soccer-playing robot. The science fair was the fifth…
The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of teaching core exercises on some motoric parameters in young soccer players. 32 amateur male football players from Afjet Afyonspor and Muglaspor football team; 16 experimental group (average age 13.75 ± 0.46 years; mean body height 1.65.± 0.09 cm; mean body mass 52.88 ± 8.04 kg) and 16…
Alex Christiano Barreto Fensterseifer
Full Text Available Violence in Soccer has been worrying specialists in Physical Education, Psychology, Sociology, Law and Press for many years. Despite their best efforts to reduce it, violence continues to increase. The purpose of this review study is to verify what the above-mentioned sciences have to say about violence in soccer. The literature suggests that there are two big theories about this problem: an internal and psychological one, and an external and sociological one. Therefore, data analyses suggests a two way intervention in order to change the increasing aggressive behavior in Soccer: an internal action, consisting in an interdisciplinary task between coaching staff, psychologists and aggressive athletes; and an external action, involving important changes in Soccer rules to make athletes play as cautiously as if they were about to earn a second yellow card during that match or a third accumulative card before an important match. RESUMO A violência no Futebol é um assunto que vem preocupando profissionais da Educação Física, Psicologia, Sociologia, Direito e Imprensa há anos e, apesar dos esforços em minimizá-la, seu índice continua crescente. Este artigo de revisão tem como objetivo levantar seu histórico e origens em livros, revistas e sites das ciências supra-citadas sobre o assunto. A literatura revista aponta para a existência de duas grandes teorias psico-sociais para a violência no Futebol: uma, interna e psicológica, e outra, externa e sociológica. Assim sendo, propõe-se duas soluções para amenizar os incidentes agressivos em campo: uma interna, onde a comissão técnica trabalha a questão de forma interdisciplinar junto ao atleta, e outra externa, onde mudanças de regras fariam com que o jogador sempre atuasse como se estivesse sob o risco de receber o segundo cartão amarelo na mesma partida ou o terceiro acumulativo antes de um jogo importante.
O'Kane, John W.; Gray, Kristen E.; Levy, Marni R.; Neradilek, Moni; Tencer, Allan F.; Polissar, Nayak L.; Schiff, Melissa A.
Objective Describe acute lower extremity injuries and evaluate extrinsic risk factors in female youth soccer Design Nested case-control study Setting Youth soccer clubs in Washington State, USA. Participants Female soccer players (N= 351) ages 11 to 15 years randomly selected from 4 soccer clubs from which 83% of their players were enrolled with complete follow-up for 92% of players. Interventions Injured players were interviewed regarding injury, field surface, shoe type, and position. Uninjured controls, matched on game or practice session, were also interviewed. Main Outcome Measures The association between risk factors and acute lower extremity injury using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results One hundred seventy-three acute lower extremity injuries occurred involving primarily the ankle (39.3%), knee (24.9%), and thigh (11.0%). Over half (52.9%) recovered within 1 week, while 30.2% lasted beyond 2 weeks. During practices, those injured were approximately 3-fold ( OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.49-5.31) more likely to play on grass than artificial turf and 2.4-fold (95% CI 1.03-5.96) more likely to wear cleats on grass than other shoe and surface combinations. During games injured players were 89% (95% CI 1.03-4.17) more likely to play defender compared to forward. Conclusions Half of the acute lower extremity injuries affected the ankle or knee. Grass surface and wearing cleats on grass increased training injuries. PMID:26327288
Andersson, Helena A; Randers, Morten B; Heiner-Møller, Anja; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni
The purpose of this study was to compare movement pattern, fatigue development, and heart rate (HR) for top-class elite female players when playing international (INT) vs. domestic league games (DOM). Video-based time-motion analyses and HR recordings were performed on 17 players during INT and DOM. The distances covered in high-intensity running (HIR) and sprinting were longer (p game types, the amount of HIR was reduced by 24-27% (p game. The midfielders covered longer (p game and in the most intense 5-minute period of the games, whereas no differences were observed between the game types for defenders. No difference in the HR response was found between INT and DOM. In conclusion, more HIR and sprinting occur in international compared with domestic games, which may affect the fatigue development for players in physically demanding roles. Thus, our results are important to coaches to prepare players to meet the challenges of international soccer games and show that the ability to perform intense intermittent exercise should be trained regularly in elite female players.
Van Yperen, Nico W.; Duda, Joan L.
Extending past work testing goal perspective theory in sport, one purpose of this study was to examine, via a longitudinal design, the relationship of goal orientations to the beliefs about the causes of success in the case of elite male Dutch soccer players. A second purpose was to determine the
Radman, Ivan; Wessner, Barbara; Bachl, Norbert; Ruzic, Lana; Hackl, Markus; Baca, Arnold; Markovic, Goran
The study aimed to evaluate the test–retest reliability of a newly developed 356 Soccer Shooting Test (356-SST), and the discriminative ability of this test with respect to the soccer players' proficiency level and leg dominance. Sixty-six male soccer players, divided into three groups based on their proficiency level (amateur, n = 24; novice semi-professional, n = 18; and experienced semi-professional players, n = 24), performed 10 kicks following a two-step run up. Forty-eight of them repeated the test on a separate day. The following shooting variables were derived: ball velocity (BV; measured via radar gun), shooting accuracy (SA; average distance from the ball-entry point to the goal centre), and shooting quality (SQ; shooting accuracy divided by the time elapsed from hitting the ball to the point of entry). No systematic bias was evident in the selected shooting variables (SA: 1.98±0.65 vs. 2.00±0.63 m; BV: 24.6±2.3 vs. 24.5±1.9 m s-1; SQ: 2.92±1.0 vs. 2.93±1.0 m s-1; all p>0.05). The intra-class correlation coefficients were high (ICC = 0.70–0.88), and the coefficients of variation were low (CV = 5.3–5.4%). Finally, all three 356-SST variables identify, with adequate sensitivity, differences in soccer shooting ability with respect to the players' proficiency and leg dominance. The results suggest that the 356-SST is a reliable and sensitive test of specific shooting ability in men’s soccer. Future studies should test the validity of these findings in a fatigued state, as well as in other populations. PMID:26812247
Ishii, Hideyuki; Sakurai, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Takeo
New soccer shoes have been developed by considering various concepts related to kicking, such as curving a soccer ball. However, the effects of shoes on ball behaviour remain unclear. In this study, by using a finite element simulation, we investigated the factors that affect ball behaviour immediately after impact in a curve kick. Five experienced male university soccer players performed one curve kick. We developed a finite element model of the foot and ball and evaluated the validity of the model by comparing the finite element results for the ball behaviour immediately after impact with the experimental results. The launch angle, ball velocity, and ball rotation in the finite element analysis were all in general agreement with the experimental results. Using the validated finite element model, we simulated the ball behaviour. The simulation results indicated that the larger the foot velocity immediately before impact, the larger the ball velocity and ball rotation. Furthermore, the Young's modulus of the shoe upper and the coefficient of friction between the shoe upper and the ball had little effect on the launch angle, ball velocity, and ball rotation. The results of this study suggest that the shoe upper does not significantly influence ball behaviour.
Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Vergara-Pedreros, Marcelo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Martínez-Salazar, Cristian; Alvarez, Cristian; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; De La Fuente, Carlos I; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel
In a randomised controlled trial design, effects of 6 weeks of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance performance were compared in male and female soccer players. Young (age 21.1 ± 2.7 years) players with similar training load and competitive background were assigned to training (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) and control (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) groups. Players were evaluated for lower- and upper-body maximal-intensity exercise, 30 m sprint, change of direction speed and endurance performance before and after 6 weeks of training. After intervention, the control groups did not change, whereas both training groups improved jumps (effect size (ES) = 0.35-1.76), throwing (ES = 0.62-0.78), sprint (ES = 0.86-1.44), change of direction speed (ES = 0.46-0.85) and endurance performance (ES = 0.42-0.62). There were no differences in performance improvements between the plyometric training groups. Both plyometric groups improved more in all performance tests than the controls. The results suggest that adaptations to plyometric training do not differ between men and women.
Fransson, Dan; Vigh-Larsen, Jeppe Foged; Fatouros, Ioannis G
soccer protocol, following baseline measures of maximal voluntary contractions of multiple muscle groups and systemic markers of muscle damage and inflammation at 0, 24 and 48 h into recovery. All muscle groups had a strength decrement (p ≤ 0.05) at 0 h post-match with knee flexors (14 ± 3%) and hip...... decrement still persistent (4 ± 1%, p ≤ 0.05) for trunk muscles 24 h into recovery. Large inter-player variations were observed in game-induced fatigue and recovery patterns in the various muscle groups. Markers of muscle damage and inflammation peaked 0 h post-match (myoglobin) and 24 h into recovery...... (creatine kinase), respectively, but thereafter returned to baseline. Intermittent test performance correlated with creatine kinase activity 24 h after the Copenhagen Soccer Test (r = -0.70; p = 0.02). In conclusion, post-game fatigue is evident in multiple muscle groups with knee flexors showing...
Abstract:During mammalian sexual differentiation, androgens, and specifically, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, are critical for the organization of the male phenotype. In rats, social play behavior is organized by androgens during the neonatal period. Males play more ...
Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to determine inter and intra positional differences in ball kicking speed between U-16 Croatian soccer players. 44 young soccer players (15.7 ± 1.5 years were tested with 8 specific soccer field tests that evaluate kicking velocity by using Pocket radar that was reading the ball velocity in km/h. The tests took place two days in a row; beginning at 8 A.M. Prior to the tests, players warmed up and stretched for 20 minutes (13 minutes of running with and without the ball, 7 minutes of dynamic stretching. Inter positional differences were significant (p ≤ 0.05 between midfielders and defenders in all tests and in one test midfielders scored better than strikers. The fastest kicks were instep kicks when stationary and non-stationary ball was kicked. Shots were taken by midfielders with 106.94±7.07 and 101.61±7.88 km/h respectively. Similar to dominant leg, midfielders also achieved the fastest instep kicks with non-dominant leg (91.44±9.56 km/h. Intra positional differences revealed that soccer kick velocity is one of possible selection tools, because more efficient players in all playing lines shoot faster kicks than less efficient players.
Roca, André; Williams, A Mark; Ford, Paul R
We examined whether soccer players with varying levels of perceptual-cognitive expertise can be differentiated based on their engagement in various types and amounts of activity during their development. A total of 64 participants interacted with life-size video clips of 11 versus 11 dynamic situations in soccer, viewed from the first-person perspective of a central defender. They were required to anticipate the actions of their opponents and to make appropriate decisions as to how best to respond. Response accuracy scores were used to categorise elite players (n = 48) as high- (n = 16) and low-performing (n = 16) participants. A group of recreational players (n = 16) who had lower response accuracy scores compared to the elite groups acted as controls. The participation history profiles of players were recorded using retrospective recall questionnaires. The average hours accumulated per year during childhood in soccer-specific play activity was the strongest predictor of perceptual-cognitive expertise. Soccer-specific practice activity during adolescence was also a predictor, albeit its impact was relatively modest. No differences were reported across groups for number of other sports engaged in during development, or for some of the key milestones achieved. A number of implications for talent development are discussed.
Full Text Available With recent advances in sensor technologies, large amounts of movement data have become available in many application areas. A novel, promising application is the data-driven analysis of team sport. Specifically, soccer matches comprise rich, multivariate movement data at high temporal and geospatial resolution. Capturing and analyzing complex movement patterns and interdependencies between the players with respect to various characteristics is challenging. So far, soccer experts manually post-analyze game situations and depict certain patterns with respect to their experience. We propose a visual analysis system for interactive identification of soccer patterns and situations being of interest to the analyst. Our approach builds on a preliminary system, which is enhanced by semantic features defined together with a soccer domain expert. The system includes a range of useful visualizations to show the ranking of features over time and plots the change of game play situations, both helping the analyst to interpret complex game situations. A novel workflow includes improving the analysis process by a learning stage, taking into account user feedback. We evaluate our approach by analyzing real-world soccer matches, illustrate several use cases and collect additional expert feedback. The resulting findings are discussed with subject matter experts.
Wagner-Egger, Pascal; Gygax, Pascal; Ribordy, Farfalla
This experiment investigated challenge evaluations in soccer and their relation to prejudice: more precisely, whether skin colour may influence judgments of soccer tackles. Three groups of participants (soccer players, referees,and soccer fans) were asked to evaluate challenges, featuring Black and White players as aggressors and victims in a mixed-design study. Results showed that participants made some differentiations between Black and White players in a challenge evaluation task. Participants were more likely to consider within-group challenges as fouls and were faster to consider challenges made by Black players as fouls. On the other hand, fouls made by White players were seen as more severe. There were no major differences between the participating groups, suggesting that the observed effects were independent of how good players were or whether the participants were referees or not.
Interest and participation in soccer continue to grow in every part of the world. The increase in the number of people participating in soccer in Rwanda is also prominent. However, with the increase in the number of people participating in soccer there is an increase in the risk of injuries, thus making prevention of injury more ...
Taylor, Jeffrey B; Ford, Kevin R; Schmitz, Randy J; Ross, Scott E; Ackerman, Terry A; Shultz, Sandra J
Anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs are less successful in basketball than soccer and may be due to distinct movement strategies that these athletes develop from sport-specific training. The purpose of this study was to identify biomechanical differences between female basketball and soccer players during multi-directional jump landings. Lower extremity biomechanics of eighty-nine female athletes who played competitive basketball (n=40) or soccer (n=49) at the middle- or high-school level were analyzed with three-dimensional motion analysis during a drop vertical jump (DVJ), double- (SAG-DL) and single-leg forward jump (SAG-SL), and double- (FRONT-DL) and single-leg (FRONT-SL) lateral jump. Basketball players landed with less hip and/or knee excursion during all tasks (pbasketball players landed with greater peak hip flexion angles (p=.04). The FRONT-SL task elicited the most distinct sport-specific differences, including decreased hip adduction (pbasketball players. Additionally, the FRONT-SL task elicited greater forces in knee abduction (p=.003) and lesser forces in hip adduction (p=.001) and knee external rotation (pbasketball players. Joint energetics were different during the FRONT-DL task, as basketball players exhibited less sagittal plane energy absorption at the hip (pjump landing tasks, such that soccer players exhibited a more protective landing strategy than basketball players, justifying future efforts toward sport-specific ACL injury prevention programs.
Lund, Henrik Hautop; Thorsteinsson, Tumi
-ups in Europe and Asia. With the social playware, players would compete against each other simultaneously in three continents, Africa, Europe, and Asia, and feel the presence of the competitors on the other continents expressed through the playware. The playware game is set up to motivate players to engage...... in training in technical soccer skills by receiving immediate feedback and offering challenges to players of all skills at soccer. It is played on a modular interactive wall composed of modular interactive tiles that respond with colored lights, sounds, and scores of the players’ performance. This article...
Van Yperen, N.W.
This study of 65 highly skilled young male soccer players (mean age = 16.6 years) employed a 7-month longitudinal design to examine the causal relationship between performance level and interpersonal stress within the team. Particular attention was paid to the moderating effect of parental support.
Full Text Available Genetics plays an integral role in athletic performance and is increasingly becoming recognised as an important risk factor for injury. Ankle and knee injuries are the most common injuries sustained by soccer players. Often these injuries result in players missing training and matches, which can incur significant costs to clubs. This study aimed to identify genotypes associated with ankle and knee injuries in soccer players and how these impacted the number of matches played. 289 soccer players, including 46 professional, 98 semi-professional and 145 amateur players, were genetically tested. Ankle and knee injuries and the number of matches played were recorded during the 2014/15 season. Four genes were assessed in relation to injury. Genotypes found to be associated with injury included the TT (nucleobase genotype of the GDF5 gene, TT and CT (nucleobase genotypes of AMPD1 gene, TT genotype of COL5A1 and GG (nucleobase genotype of IGF2 gene. These genes were also associated with a decrease in the number of matches played.
Pallesen, Ståle; Gundersen, Hilde Stokvold; Kristoffersen, Morten; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Thun, Eirunn; Harris, Anette
Many athletes sleep poorly due to stress, travel, and competition anxiety. In the present study, we investigated the effects of sleep deprivation on soccer skills (juggling, dribbling, ball control, continuous kicking, 20 and 40 m sprint, and 30 m sprint with changes of direction). In all, 19 male junior soccer players (14-19 years old) were recruited and participated in a cross-balanced experimental study comprising two conditions; habitual sleep and 24 hours sleep deprivation. In both conditions, testing took place between 8 a.m. and 10 a.m. Order of tests was counterbalanced. Each test was conducted once or twice in a sequence repeated three times. The results revealed a negative effect of sleep deprivation on the continuous kicking test. On one test, 30 meter sprint with directional changes, a significant condition × test repetition interaction was found, indicating a steeper learning curve in the sleep deprived condition from Test 1 to Test 2 and a steeper learning curve in the rested condition from Test 2 to Test 3. The results are discussed in terms of limitations and strengths, and recommendations for future studies are outlined.
Kim, Hyoung-Gook; Roeber, Steffen; Samour, Amjad; Sikora, Thomas
In this paper, we present an automatic extraction of goal events in soccer videos by using audio track features alone without relying on expensive-to-compute video track features. The extracted goal events can be used for high-level indexing and selective browsing of soccer videos. The detection of soccer video highlights using audio contents comprises three steps: 1) extraction of audio features from a video sequence, 2) event candidate detection of highlight events based on the information provided by the feature extraction Methods and the Hidden Markov Model (HMM), 3) goal event selection to finally determine the video intervals to be included in the summary. For this purpose we compared the performance of the well known Mel-scale Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) feature extraction method vs. MPEG-7 Audio Spectrum Projection feature (ASP) extraction method based on three different decomposition methods namely Principal Component Analysis( PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). To evaluate our system we collected five soccer game videos from various sources. In total we have seven hours of soccer games consisting of eight gigabytes of data. One of five soccer games is used as the training data (e.g., announcers' excited speech, audience ambient speech noise, audience clapping, environmental sounds). Our goal event detection results are encouraging.
Andrews, Michael C; Itsiopoulos, Catherine
Athletes require sufficient nutrition knowledge and skills to enable appropriate selection and consumption of food and fluids to meet their health, body composition, and performance needs. This article reports the nutrition knowledge and dietary habits of male football (soccer) players in Australia. Players age 18 years and older were recruited from 1 A-League club (professional) and 4 National Premier League clubs (semiprofessional). No significant difference in general nutrition knowledge (GNK; 54.1% ± 13.4%; 56.8% ± 11.7%; M ± SD), t(71) = -0.91, p = .37, or sports nutrition knowledge (SNK; 56.9% ± 15.5%; 61.3% ± 15.9%), t(71) = -1.16, p = .25) were noted between professional (n = 29) and semiprofessional (n = 44) players. In general, players lacked knowledge in regard to food sources and types of fat. Although nutrition knowledge varied widely among players (24.6-82.8% correct responses), those who had recently studied nutrition answered significantly more items correctly than those who reported no recent formal nutrition education (62.6% ± 11.9%; 54.0% ± 11.4%), t(67) = 2.88, p = .005). Analysis of 3-day estimated food diaries revealed both professionals (n = 10) and semiprofessionals (n = 31) consumed on average less carbohydrate (3.5 ± 0.8 gC/kg; 3.9 ± 1.8 gC/kg) per day than football-specific recommendations (FIFA Medical and Assessment Research Centre [F-MARC]: 5-10 gC/kg). There was a moderate, positive correlation between SNK and carbohydrate intake (n = 41, ρ = 0.32, p = .04), indicating that players who exhibited greater SNK had higher carbohydrate intakes. On the basis of these findings, male football players in Australia would benefit from nutrition education targeting carbohydrate and fat in an attempt to improve nutrition knowledge and dietary practices.
Full Text Available Abstract Background During a soccer game, the cardiovascular system is severely taxed The referees must be alert and their level of fitness must be such that fatigue will not impair their decision-making. Referee's peak overall performance is usually after 40 when the performance starts to decline. We evaluated the morphological and functional cardiac profile of professional soccer referees. Materials and methods We submitted to a clinical and echocardiographic exam a group of 120 professional soccer referees aged 25 – 45 years, including the first division of the Italian Championship, matched with 120 soccer players, including élite soccer players. Data were compared using an unpaired Student's t test. Statistical significance was with p Results Right ventricle dimensions (22.2 ± 3.8 vs 25.9 ± 2.4 mm and Left Ventricular Mass Index (LVMi (100.5 ± 45.2 vs 105.4 ± 17.3 were significantly greater in referees than in active soccer players. Left atrium dimensions (33.7 ± 8.9 vs 36.2 ± 3.1 mm, aortic root (29.7 ± 7.9 vs 32.1 ± 3 mm and LVMi (115.1 ± 16.7 vs 134.1 ± 19.9 g/m2 were significantly greater in élite soccer players than in first-division referees. Conclusion Our investigation shows that right ventricle is greater in referees than in soccer players. The differences (left atrium, aortic root and LVMi between first division referees and élite soccer players may derive from the different training workloads.
Stig Arve Sæther
Full Text Available European top-level soccer clubs are continually looking for talented players. Few clubs, however, are willing to let youth players play at the highest senior level. Perhaps as a consequence, the search for talented players has resulted in an imbalance in the characteristics of these players, towards an overrepresentation of players born early in the selection year, an effect called the relative age effect (RAE. The RAE has been documented to be present among senior top-level players. Even so, few studies have investigated the effect among youth players at the senior level. The aim of this study is to examine RAE among U17-U20 players in the Norwegian premier league Tippeligaen in the 2009-2012 seasons. Participants were 315 male players born in 1990-1996. The results showed that 68% of the players were born in the two first quartiles of the year. The effect was even increasing in the four-year period. As we could expect based on the literature, the oldest players are given more playing time. However, the connection between playing time and RAE was inconsistent. Norwegian top-level soccer seems to be affected by the RAE when selecting their players. These players are not however guaranteed playing time because of the RAE.
Bisyri Husin Musawi Maliki, Ahmad; Razali Abdullah, Mohamad; Juahir, Hafizan; Abdullah, Farhana; Ain Shahirah Abdullah, Nurul; Muazu Musa, Rabiu; Musliha Mat-Rasid, Siti; Adnan, Aleesha; Azura Kosni, Norlaila; Muhamad, Wan Siti Amalina Wan; Afiqah Mohamad Nasir, Nur
This study aims to identify the most dominant factors that influencing performance of soccer player and to predict group performance for soccer players. A total of 184 of youth soccer players from Malaysia sport school and six soccer academy encompasses as respondence of the study. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were computed to identify the most dominant factors whereas reducing the initial 26 parameters with recommended >0.5 of factor loading. Meanwhile, prediction of the soccer performance was predicted by regression model. CFA revealed that sit and reach, vertical jump, VO2max, age, weight, height, sitting height, calf circumference (cc), medial upper arm circumference (muac), maturation, bicep, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, 5M, 10M, and 20M speed were the most dominant factors. Further index analysis forming Youth Soccer Performance Index (YSPI) resulting by categorizing three groups namely, high, moderate, and low. The regression model for this study was significant set as p < 0.001 and R2 is 0.8222 which explained that the model contributed a total of 82% prediction ability to predict the whole set of the variables. The significant parameters in contributing prediction of YSPI are discussed. As a conclusion, the precision of the prediction models by integrating a multilateral factor reflecting for predicting potential soccer player and hopefully can create a competitive soccer games.
Minett, M.M.; Binkley, T.B.; Weidauer, L.A.; Specker, B.L.
Objectives: To assess body composition and bone changes pre- to post-season (pre-post) and post- to off-season (post-off) in female soccer athletes (SC). Methods: Outcomes were assessed using DXA and pQCT in 23 SC and 17 controls at three times throughout season. Results: SC, non-starters in particular, lost lean mass pre-post (-0.9±0.2 kg, pSoccer players lost lean mass over the competitive season that was not recovered during off-season. Bone size increased pre- to post-season. Female soccer athletes experience body composition and bone geometry changes that differ depending on the time of season and on athlete’s playing status. Evaluations of athletes at key times across the training season are necessary to understand changes that occur. PMID:28250243
Enright, Kevin; Morton, James; Iga, John; Drust, Barry
This study compared the adaptive responses to two concurrent training programmes frequently used in professional soccer. Fifteen youth soccer players (17.3 ± 1.6 years, 1.82 ± 0.06 m, 77.0 ± 7.3 kg; VO2 peak, 62.0 ± 4.7 ml(-1) kg(-1) min(-1)) who compete in the English Premier League volunteered for this study. In addition to completing their habitual training practices, the participants were asked to alter the organisation concurrent training by performing strength (S) training either prior to (S + E, n = 8) or after (E + S, n = 7) soccer-specific endurance training (E) 2d wk(-1) for 5 wk(-1). With the exception of 30 m sprint, IMVC PF, quadriceps strength (60°/s(CON), 180°/s(CON), 120°/s(ECC)) pooled data revealed training effects across all other performances measures (P nutrition may be able to modulate small but clinically significant changes in physical performance parameters associated with match-play. This may have practical implications for practitioners who prescribe same day concurrent training protocols.
Prieske, O; Muehlbauer, T; Borde, R; Gube, M; Bruhn, S; Behm, D G; Granacher, U
Cross-sectional studies revealed that inclusion of unstable elements in core-strengthening exercises produced increases in trunk muscle activity and thus potential extra stimuli to induce more pronounced performance enhancements in youth athletes. Thus, the purpose of the study was to investigate changes in neuromuscular and athletic performance following core strength training performed on unstable (CSTU) compared with stable surfaces (CSTS) in youth soccer players. Thirty-nine male elite soccer players (age: 17 ± 1 years) were assigned to two groups performing a progressive core strength-training program for 9 weeks (2-3 times/week) in addition to regular in-season soccer training. CSTS group conducted core exercises on stable (i.e., floor, bench) and CSTU group on unstable (e.g., Thera-Band® Stability Trainer, Togu© Swiss ball) surfaces. Measurements included tests for assessing trunk muscle strength/activation, countermovement jump height, sprint time, agility time, and kicking performance. Statistical analysis revealed significant main effects of test (pre vs post) for trunk extensor strength (5%, P training. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Grégory Hallé Petiot
Full Text Available Abstract Aim The aim of this research is to identify the mechanisms that lead soccer players to make quality tactical decisions, and how these mechanisms evolve over time. Methods Ninety male youth players training in a professional club in Brazil were submitted to a soccer video test which consists in making tactical decisions when the image freezes. These participants were divided in five groups with 18 players in each of following age levels: Under-11, Under-13, Under-15, Under-17 and Under-20. The dominant statements of verbal reports were distributed in categories that reflect key mechanisms. The frequency of correct tactical answers was calculated for each statement types and Standard Residuals (e were calculated to verify the influence of the mechanisms on the quality of tactical decision for each age level. Results Results revealed that evaluation statement was related to accurate tactical decisions from Under-15 age level. Conclusion In conclusion, evaluation of perceived information makes better decision makers.
Delaney, J Scott; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Baylis, Penny-Jane; Aljufaili, Mahmood; Correa, José A
To assess the effectiveness of a standard long-handle laryngoscope and a short-handle laryngoscope on ease of possible intubation in football, ice hockey, and soccer players. Prospective crossover study. University Sport Medicine Clinic. Sixty-two university varsity football (62 males), 45 ice hockey (26 males and 19 females), and 39 soccer players (20 males, 19 females). Athletes were assessed for different airway and physical characteristics. Three different physicians then assessed the use of laryngoscopes of different handle sizes in supine athletes who were wearing protective equipment while in-line cervical spine immobilization was maintained. The ease of passage of a laryngoscope blade into the posterior oropharynx of a supine athlete was assessed using both a standard long-handle and a short-handle laryngoscope. Use of a short-handle laryngoscope was easier for all physicians in all sports as compared with a standard-sized laryngoscope. Passage of a laryngoscope blade into the posterior oropharynx of a supine athlete was easiest in soccer players and most difficult in football and ice hockey players for both sizes of laryngoscope. Interference from chest or shoulder pads was a common cause for difficulty in passing the laryngoscope blade into the posterior oropharynx for football and ice hockey players. In the rare instances that an endotracheal intubation is to be attempted on an unconscious athlete, a short-handle laryngoscope may provide the best chance for successful intubation.
Hirose, Norikazu; Seki, Taigo
The present study examined 2-year changes in anthropometric variables and motor abilities in elite male youth soccer players to identify potential talent identification indexes. This was a cross-sequential study examining two different age groups at two time points. Height, weight, 40-m sprint speed, muscular power (5-step bounding), and change of direction (COD) ability (10 m×5 COD) were measured in 12- and 14-year-old soccer players and repeated after 2 years (at 14 and 16 years of age). Correlations and changes in ranking between the two measurements were determined. Both groups had small ranking changes in height (12-14-year-olds: r=0.80, 14-16-year-olds: r=0.89; ptalent identification index for youth soccer players. On the other hand, muscular power and COD ability is changeable during growth period suggests that these parameters is not useful for talent identification index. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bendiksen, Mads; Pettersen, Svein Arne; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen
We evaluated the physiological response, sprint performance and technical ability in various phases of the Copenhagen Soccer Test for Women (CSTw) and investigated whether the locomotor activities of the CSTw were comparable to competitive match-play (CM). Physiological measurements and physical....../technical assessments were performed during CSTw for eleven Norwegian high-level women soccer players. The activity pattern during CSTw and CM was monitored using the ZXY tracking system. No differences were observed between CSTw and CM with regards to total distance covered (10093±94 and 9674±191m), high intensity...
Full Text Available Soccer research has traditionally focused on technical and tactical aspects of team play, but few studies have analyzed motor skills in individual actions, such as goal scoring. The objective of this study was to investigate how Lionel Messi, one of the world’s top soccer players, uses his motor skills and laterality in individual attacking actions resulting in a goal. We analyzed 103 goals scored by Messi between over a decade in three competitions: La Liga (n = 74, Copa del Rey (n = 8, and the UEFA Champions League (n = 21. We used an ad hoc observation instrument (OSMOS-soccer player comprising 10 criteria and 50 categories; polar coordinate analysis, a powerful data reduction technique, revealed significant associations for body part and orientation, foot contact zone, turn direction, and locomotion. No significant associations were observed for pitch area or interaction with opponents. Our analysis confirms significant associations between different aspects of motor skill use by Messi immediately before scoring, namely use of lower limbs, foot contact zones, turn direction, use of wings, and orientation of body to move towards the goal. Studies of motor skills in soccer could shed light on the qualities that make certain players unique.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyse the parameters that characterize the vertical ground reaction force during the landing phase of a jump, and to determine the relationship among these parameters in elite soccer players with cerebral palsy (CP. Thirteen male members of the Spanish national soccer team for people with CP (mean age: 27.1 ± 4.7 years volunteered for the study. Each participant performed three counter movement jumps. The characteristics of the first peak of the vertical ground reaction force during the landing phase of a jump, which corresponds to the forefoot contact with the ground, were similar to the results obtained in previous studies. However, a higher magnitude of rearfoot contact with the ground (F2 was observed in participants with CP than in participants without CP. Furthermore, a significant correlation between F2 magnitude and the elapsed time until its production (T2 was not observed (r = -0.474 for p = 0.102. This result implies that a landing technique based on a delay in the production of F2 might not be effective to reduce its magnitude, contrary to what has been observed in participants without CP. The absence of a significant correlation between these two parameters in the present study, and the high magnitude of F2, suggest that elite soccer players with CP should use footwear with proper cushioning characteristics.
Bode, Gerrit; Hammer, Thorsten; Karvouniaris, N; Feucht, M J; Konstantinidis, L; Südkamp, N P; Hirschmüller, A
The prevalence of patellar tendinopathy is elevated in elite soccer compared to less explosive sports. While the burden of training hours and load is comparably high in youth elite players (age soccer academy. One hundred nineteen male youth soccer players (age 15,97 ± 2,24 years, height 174, 60 ± 10,16 cm, BMI 21, 24 ± 2,65) of the U-13 to U-23 teams were part of the study. Data acquisition included sport specific parameters such as footwear, amount of training hours, leg dominance, history of tendon pathologies, and clinical examination for palpatory pain, indurations, muscular circumference, and range of motion. Subjective complaints were measured with the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment Patellar (VISA-P) Score. Furthermore, sonographical examinations (Aplio SSA-770A/80; Toshiba, Tokyo, Japan) with 12-MHz multifrequency linear transducers (8-14 MHz) of both patellar tendons were performed with special emphasis on hyper- and hypo echogenic areas, diameter and neovascularization. The prevalence of patellar tendinopathies was 13.4%. Seventy-five percent of the players complained of pain of their dominant leg with onset of pain at training in 87.5%. The injured players showed a medium amount of 10.34 ± 3.85 training hours and a medium duration of symptoms of 11.94 ± 18.75 weeks. Two thirds of players with patellar tendinopathy were at the age of 15-17 (Odds ratio 1.89) while no differences between players of the national or regional league were observed. In case of patellar tendinopathy, VISA-P was significantly lower in comparison to healthy players (mean ± SD 76.80 ± 28.56 points vs. 95.85 ± 10.37). The clinical examination revealed local pain at the distal patella, pain at stretching, and thickening of the patellar tendon (p = 0.02). The mean tendon diameter measured 2 cm distally to the patella was 4.10 ± 0.68 mm with a significantly increased diameter of 0.15 mm in case of an underlying tendinopathy (p = 0.00). The
Innocencio da Silva Gomes, Ainá; Gonçalves Ribeiro, Beatriz; de Abreu Soares, Eliane
The purpose of this study was to determine the dietary and anthropometric profiles of the Brazilian amputee soccer players during the training period before the world soccer amputee championship, according to their positional roles in the game. Fifteen male athletes participated in the study. Data on height, weight, skinfold thickness, and circumferences were collected to assess nutritional status. Dietary intake was obtained by using 6-d dietary records, analyzed by a Nutrition Support Program for total energy intake, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. One-way analysis of variance was used to identify differences in groups (P nutritional orientation and the lack of information about disabled sports and athletes highlights the need for more studies in this area.
Handziska, E; Handziski, Z; Gjorgoski, I; Dalip, M
The relationship between somatotype and cortisol and adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) hormone concentrations at rest or after exercise in adolescent soccer players at different time points throughout a soccer season is not understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between somatotype and cortisol and ACTH concentrations at rest and after exercise in adolescent soccer players at different time points during a soccer season. During the first 4 months of the soccer season, 47 soccer players (between 15-17 years of age) were tested at three different time points including at baseline, after 6 weeks, and at the end of 4 months. Testing included anaerobic threshold (AnT, km/h) and maximal speed of running (Max, km/h) were measured with Conconi protocol on treadmill. Before and after a maximal exercise Test, plasma levels of cortisol (ug/dL) and ACTH (pg/ml) were assessed by chemiluminometry enzyme amplificated method. Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype model was used to determine 13 elements of somatotype. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used for statistical analysis (Psoccer training process could indicate a stagnation of training process, accordingly with insignificant changes of AnT. The significant correlations of some somatotypes with stress hormonal responses could only suggest that the somatotype characteristics of young soccer players could be of interest in process of selection and planning of soccer training process with an essential need for more studies.
Full Text Available Plyometric training (PT enhances soccer performance, particularly vertical jump. However, the effectiveness of PT depends on various factors. A systematic search of the research literature was conducted for randomized controlled trials (RCTs studying the effects of PT on countermovement jump (CMJ height in soccer players. Ten studies were obtained through manual and electronic journal searches (up to April 2017. Significant differences were observed when compared: (1 PT group vs. control group (ES=0.85; 95% CI 0.47â1.23; I2=68.71%; p<0.001, (2 male vs. female soccer players (Q=4.52; p=0.033, (3 amateur vs. high-level players (Q=6.56; p=0.010, (4 single session volume (<120 jumps vs. â¥120 jumps; Q=6.12, p=0.013, (5 rest between repetitions (5Â s vs. 10Â s vs. 15Â s vs. 30Â s; Q=19.10, p<0.001, (6 rest between sets (30Â s vs. 60Â s vs. 90Â s vs. 120Â s vs. 240Â s; Q=19.83, p=0.001 and (7 and overall training volume (low: <1600 jumps vs. high: â¥1600 jumps; Q=5.08, p=0.024. PT is an effective form of training to improve vertical jump performance (i.e., CMJ in soccer players. The benefits of PT on CMJ performance are greater for interventions of longer rest interval between repetitions (30Â s and sets (240Â s with higher volume of more than 120 jumps per session and 1600 jumps in total. Gender and competitive level differences should be considered when planning PT programs in soccer players. Keywords: Stretch-shortening cycle, Meta-analysis, Jump height, Soccer
Asadi, Abbas; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Arazi, Hamid; Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maturation on power and sprint performance adaptations following 6 weeks of plyometric training in youth soccer players during pre-season. Sixty male soccer players were categorized into 3 maturity groups (Pre, Mid and Post peak height velocity [PHV]) and then randomly assigned to plyometric group and control group. Vertical jump, standing long jump, and 20-m sprint (with and without ball) tests were collected before- and after-intervention. After the intervention, the Pre, Mid and Post-PHV groups showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) and small to moderate effect size (ES) improvement in vertical jump (ES = 0.48; 0.57; 0.73), peak power output (E = 0.60; 0.64; 0.76), standing long jump (ES = 0.62; 0.65; 0.7), 20-m sprint (ES = -0.58; -0.66), and 20-m sprint with ball (ES = -0.44; -0.8; -0.55) performances. The Post-PHV soccer players indicated greater gains than Pre-PHV in vertical jump and sprint performance after training (P ≤ 0.05). Short-term plyometric training had positive effects on sprinting and jumping-power which are important determinants of match-winning actions in soccer. These results indicate that a sixty foot contact, twice per week program, seems effective in improving power and sprint performance in youth soccer players.
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to verify the occurrence of dental injuries in 343 amateur Turkish soccer players in İzmir and the level of knowledge of the teams’ soccer players about mouthguards. The soccer players were interviewed to determine the occurrence of dental trauma during soccer and mouthguard usage level. The data were analyzed with descriptive analysis to determine absolute and relative frequencies of answers for each one of the questions. Only 35 (10.2% soccer players reported the occurrence of some type of dental injury during soccer practice. Regarding emergency conducts, approximately 84 players (24.48% answered that replantation could be obtained after teeth avulsion, 23 players (27.38% answered that successful replantation could be obtained within 2 hours immediately after injury, and 60.71% were not able to answer this question. Regarding mouthguard use, 61.8% of soccer players did not know about mouthguards. It was possible to conclude that dental injuries are common during amateur soccer practice and that there is a lack of information in the soccer players related to the emergency conducts and prevention of dental trauma.
Mallo, Javier; Mena, Esteban; Nevado, Fabio; Paredes, Víctor
The aim of this study was to examine the physical demands imposed on professional soccer players during 11-a-side friendly matches in relation to their playing position, using global positioning system (GPS) technology. One hundred and eleven match performances of a Spanish "La Liga" team during the 2010-11 and 2011-12 pre-seasons were selected for analysis. The activities of the players were monitored using GPS technology with a sampling frequency of 1 Hz. Total distance covered, distance in different speed categories, accelerations, and heart rate responses were analyzed in relation to five different playing positions: central defenders (n=23), full-backs (n=20), central midfielders (n=22), wide midfielders (n=26), and forwards (n=20). Distance covered during a match averaged 10.8 km, with wide and central midfielders covering the greatest total distance. Specifically, wide midfielders covered the greatest distances by very high-intensity running (>19.8 km·h-1) and central midfielders by jogging and running (7.2-19.7 km·h-1). On the other hand, central defenders covered the least total distance and at high intensity, although carried out more (pwork rate profile of the players obtained with the GPS was very similar to that obtained with semi-automatic image technologies. However, when comparing results from this study with data available in the literature, important differences were detected in the amount of distance covered by sprinting, which suggests that caution should be taken when comparing data obtained with the GPS with other motion analysis systems, especially regarding high-intensity activities.
Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen
The effects of 52 weeks of soccer or resistance training were investigated in untrained elderly men. The subjects aged 68.1±2.1 yrs were randomised into a soccer (SG; n = 9), a resistance (RG; n = 9) and a control group (CG; n = 8). The subjects in SG and RG, respectively, trained 1.7±0.3 and 1...... expression decreased by 38% (psoccer training reduces BMI and improves anti-oxidative capacity, while long-term resistance training impacts muscle protein enzyme expression and increases lean body mass in elderly men....
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse the leadership power perception of amateur and professional soccer coaches according to their marital status. Data were collected from 165 male soccer coaches (n=71 technical director-manager and A license, n=46 B license, n=48 amateur license. An adapted Turkish version of Power in Soccer Questionnaire-Self (PSQ-S for coaches and an information form were used for the data collection . Cronbach reliability alphas of PSQ-S range between 0.65 and 0.84. Coaches’ data were analysed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of PSQ-S revealed significant differences between leadership power perception of amateur and professional soccer coaches according to their marital status related to Referent Power (RP [χ[sup]2[/sup] (3 = 9.61, p0.05. The results indicated that married coaches have higher perception of RP than single coaches, irrespective of being an amateur or a professional. Comparison of professional and amateur coaches suggests that while single professional coaches have higher perception of EP than married professional coaches, the results are the reverse for amateur coaches; in other words, amateur married coaches have higher perception of EP than amateur single coaches. There is a lack of research to draw more certain conclusions. Future researchers should also take into consideration personality, psychological skills, sport experience, age, taking responsibility, attributions, expectations, emotions, perception of achievement, etc.
Cristiano Diniz Da Silva
Full Text Available Investigations in the physiological demands of soccer have identified that a significant percentage of energy production in match performance is provided through the aerobic pathways. It is therefore important to assess maximal oxygen uptake (VO2Max of players in order to evaluate their aerobic fitness status and optimize their physical conditioning. However, it is also important to consider the variation of (VO2Max profiles for soccer players, with differences having been identified in terms of playing position as well as playing style. This paper reviews the academic literature between 1996 and 2006 and reports on the methodologies employed and the values obtained for stature, body mass and (VO2Max profiles of soccer players of different positions in professional Brazilian clubs at U-17, U-20 and First Division levels. Indirect measurements accounted for the majority of tests conducted at U-17 (70% and U-20 (84.6% levels whereas at First Division level almost half of the (VO2Max evaluations were performed by direct measurements (47.8%. The mean (VO2Max profiles obtained for outfield players in U-17 was 56.95 ± 3.60 ml·kg-1·min-1, 58.13 ± 3.21 ml·kg-1·min-1 for U-20 players and 56.58 ± 5.03 ml·kg-1·min-1 for First Division players. In Brazil, the U-20 players appear to have highest VO2Max values, however the profiles reported for all outfield positions in U-17 and First Division levels are often lower than those reported for the same category of players from other countries. This may be a reflection of the style of play used in Brazilian soccer. This is further emphasized by the fact that the playing position with the highest VO2Max values was the external defenders whereas most findings from studies performed in European soccer indicate that midfielders require the highest VO2Max values.
Umaña Alvarado, Mónica
El artículo también se encuentra escrito en español. The growing participation of young people in soccer is a motivation so that the trainers, physical educators and parents know which are the special requirements to practice this sport in a safe manner, specially the nutritional requirements. The present revision includes generalities on the physiological demands of soccer, the differences between young people and adults when making prolonged exercise, the necessities ...
Full Text Available Most studies on the identification and development of soccer talent have been one-dimensional in nature. Although some multi-dimensional analyses have been conducted, few research studies have assessed in any depth the socio-spatial factors influencing talent development. The aim of this particular study was to analyse variations in the international representation of clubs (n = 821 and countries (n = 59 in the development of players who took part in the 2014 FIFA Soccer World Cup. Clubs and countries were ranked and divided into quartiles according to the number of players developed between the ages of 15 and 21 (clubs and countries that developed players for at least three years between these ages and the number of official league matches played by these players up to the age of 23. Significant variations were observed between clubs in terms of the number of developed players who took part in the World Cup and the number of official league matches played by these players up to the age of 23 (p < .05, and also between countries (p < .05. The findings reveal the need to carry out more in-depth studies into the type of training and competition engaged in by elite players in the period of development between the ages of 15 and 21. It may be the case that these factors are potentially decisive socio-spatial constraints in the development of soccer talent.
McCunn, Robert; Fünten, Karen Aus der; Whalan, Matthew; Sampson, John A; Meyer, Tim
Study Design Prospective cohort. Background The association between movement quality and injury is equivocal. No soccer-specific movement assessment has been prospectively investigated in relation to injury risk. Objectives To investigate the association between a soccer-specific movement quality assessment and injury risk among semi-professional soccer players. Methods Semi-professional soccer players (n=306) from 12 clubs completed the Soccer Injury Movement Screen (SIMS) during the pre-season period. Individual training/match exposure and non-contact time loss injuries were recorded prospectively for the entirety of the 2016 season. Relative risks (RR) were calculated, and presented with 90% confidence intervals (CI), for the SIMS composite and individual sub-test scores from generalized linear models with Poisson distribution offset for exposure. Results When considering non-contact time loss lower extremity injuries (primary level of analysis), there was a most likely trivial association with the SIMS composite score. Similarly, SIMS composite score demonstrated most likely to likely trivial associations to all injury categories included in the secondary level of analysis (non-contact time loss hip/groin, thigh, knee and ankle injuries). When considering hamstring strains and ankle sprains specifically (tertiary level of analysis) the SIMS composite score, again, demonstrated very likely trivial associations. A total of 262 non-contact time loss injuries were recorded. The overall (training and match exposure combined) incidence of non-contact time loss injury was 12/1000 hours. Conclusion The SIMS composite score demonstrated no association to any of the investigated categories of soccer-related injury. The SIMS composite score should not be used to group players into 'high' or 'low' risk groups. Level of Evidence Prognosis, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 8 May 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.8037.
Wunderlich, Fabian; Memmert, Daniel
Betting odds are frequently found to outperform mathematical models in sports related forecasting tasks, however the factors contributing to betting odds are not fully traceable and in contrast to rating-based forecasts no straightforward measure of team-specific quality is deducible from the betting odds. The present study investigates the approach of combining the methods of mathematical models and the information included in betting odds. A soccer forecasting model based on the well-known ELO rating system and taking advantage of betting odds as a source of information is presented. Data from almost 15.000 soccer matches (seasons 2007/2008 until 2016/2017) are used, including both domestic matches (English Premier League, German Bundesliga, Spanish Primera Division and Italian Serie A) and international matches (UEFA Champions League, UEFA Europe League). The novel betting odds based ELO model is shown to outperform classic ELO models, thus demonstrating that betting odds prior to a match contain more relevant information than the result of the match itself. It is shown how the novel model can help to gain valuable insights into the quality of soccer teams and its development over time, thus having a practical benefit in performance analysis. Moreover, it is argued that network based approaches might help in further improving rating and forecasting methods.
José Roberto Andrade do Nascimento Junior
Full Text Available This descriptive study investigated the levels of athlete satisfaction and group cohesion in adult indoor soccer teams. Fifty-eight male athletes of the Parana indoor soccer. Championship participated in the study. The Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Group Environment Questionnaire were used for assessment. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Cronbach’s alpha, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Manova, and the post hoc Scheffe test were used for data analysis (p < 0.05. The results showed that teams with higher levels of athlete satisfaction had higher perception of group cohesion. Teams with low levels of personal satisfaction had lower perception of group cohesion. Comparison of the teams showed differences in three dimensions of satisfaction (training-education, team performance, and strategy and in all dimensions of cohesion. The more satisfied the athletes were with the instruction of the coach, personal treatment and strategies, the more cohesive were the teams for the task. It was concluded that the level of athlete satisfaction plays a key role in the perception of cohesion in sport teams, with a predominance of aspects related to the group-task dimensions over social-group dimensions.
José Roberto Andrade do Nascimento Junior
Full Text Available This descriptive study investigated the levels of athlete satisfaction and group cohesion in adult indoor soccer teams. Fifty-eight male athletes of the Parana indoor soccer. Championship participated in the study. The Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Group Environment Questionnaire were used for assessment. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Cronbach’s alpha, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Manova, and the post hoc Scheffe test were used for data analysis (p < 0.05. The results showed that teams with higher levels of athlete satisfaction had higher perception of group cohesion. Teams with low levels of personal satisfaction had lower perception of group cohesion. Comparison of the teams showed differences in three dimensions of satisfaction (training-education, team performance, and strategy and in all dimensions of cohesion. The more satisfied the athletes were with the instruction of the coach, personal treatment and strategies, the more cohesive were the teams for the task. It was concluded that the level of athlete satisfaction plays a key role in the perception of cohesion in sport teams, with a predominance of aspects related to the group-task dimensions over social-group dimensions.
Full Text Available Background: Weight loss and decreasing the Body fat percentage (BF% is motivated to optimize performance. In order to achieve these, many supplements are used by athletes, however the possible negative or synergic effects have not been fully described in the literature, specifically in humans. The present study was conducted to investigate the co-administration effects of two common used supplements in body weight and BF% management to recommend athletes for safe weight and BF% reduction. Materials and Methods: In the present double-blind, randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled study, the effect of six-week co-administration of caffeine and carnitine was determined on changes in body weight (BW, BF%, serum leptin concentration and lipid profile (triglyceride, HDL Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol and Total Cholesterol, fasting blood glucose (FBG, and free fatty acid (FFA changes. Twenty eight male teen soccer players from Ahvaz-Iran, were divided in three groups (group CafPlc, caffeine (6 mg/kg/day + dextrose; group CafCar, caffeine (6 mg/kg/day + carnitine (2g; and group Plc, dextrose. Results: Caffeine-carnitine had a lowering effect on BW (P=0.02 and BF% (P=0.03, compared to caffeine alone and placebo in male teen soccer players (mean age of 16.92 ± 0.76 years. TG was significantly decreased in CafCar (P=0.04. FFA levels were increased in CafCar (P=0.04 and there was significant differences between CafCar and Plc groups (P=0.01. FBG was increased in both CafPlc and CafCar (P=0.01 and P=0.02, respectively, with no significant differences between groups. Conclusion: The synergistic effect of caffeine-carnitine might be suggested to decrease the BF% and BW, besides it may prevent the increment of FFA levels; however it should be prescribed cautiously since it increased FBG levels.
Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of additional in-season speed endurance production versus speed endurance maintenance training regimes on performance in competitive male soccer players. In a randomised controlled trial 18 male sub-elite players were exposed to additional...... during training were higher (psoccer players with superior...... speed endurance production (SEP) or speed endurance maintenance (SEM) training (two additional sessions/wk for 4 weeks) during the competitive season. Players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test (YYIR2) and a repeated sprint test (RST) pre- and postintervention. Yo-Yo IR2 performance...
van Beijsterveldt, A M C; van der Horst, Nick; van de Port, Ingrid G L; Backx, Frank J G
The incidence of soccer (football) injuries is among the highest in sports. Despite this high rate, insufficient evidence is available on the efficacy of preventive training programmes on injury incidence. To systematically study the evidence on preventive exercise-based training programmes to reduce the incidence of injuries in soccer. The databases EMBASE/MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials, PEDro and SPORTDiscus™ were searched for relevant articles, from inception until 20 December 2011. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the PEDro scale. The inclusion criteria for this review were (1) randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials; (2) primary outcome of the study is the number of soccer injuries and/or injury incidence; (3) intervention focusing on a preventive training programme, including a set of exercises aimed at improving strength, coordination, flexibility or agility; and (4) study sample of soccer players (no restrictions as to level of play, age or sex). The exclusion criteria were: (1) the article was not available as full text; (2) the article was not published in English, German or Dutch; and (3) the trial and/or training programme relates only to specific injuries and/or specific joints. To compare the effects of the different interventions, we calculated the incidence risk ratio (IRR) for each study. Six studies involving a total of 6,099 participants met the inclusion criteria. The results of the included studies were contradictory. Two of the six studies (one of high and one of moderate quality) reported a statistical significant reduction in terms of their primary outcome, i.e. injuries overall. Four of the six studies described an overall preventive effect (IRRbased programmes to prevent soccer injuries. Some reasons for the contradictory findings could be different study samples (in terms of sex and soccer type) in the included studies, differences between
Marshall, Paul W; Lovell, Ric; Siegler, Jason C
Passive muscle tension is increased after damaging eccentric exercise. Hamstring-strain injury is associated with damaging eccentric muscle actions, but no research has examined changes in hamstring passive muscle tension throughout a simulated sport activity. The authors measured hamstring passive tension throughout a 90-min simulated soccer match (SAFT90), including the warm-up period and every 15 min throughout the 90-min simulation. Passive hamstring tension of 15 amateur male soccer players was measured using the instrumented straight-leg-raise test. Absolute torque (Nm) and slope (Nm/°) of the recorded torque-angular position curve were used for data analysis, in addition to total leg range of motion (ROM). Players performed a 15-min prematch warm-up, then performed the SAFT90 including a 15-min halftime rest period. Reductions in passive stiffness of 20-50° of passive hip flexion of 22.1-29.2% (P hamstring ROM (P = .0009). The findings of this study imply that hamstring passive tension is reduced after an active warm-up that includes dynamic stretching but does not increase in a pattern suggestive of eccentric induced muscle damage during soccer-specific intermittent exercise. Hamstring ROM and passive tension increases are best explained by improved stretch tolerance.
Harper, Liam D.; Fothergill, Melissa; West, Daniel J.; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark
Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners’ perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time reg...
Full Text Available In this paper the trajectories of a soccer ball for the most important kicks in the football game - a corner kick and a direct free kick are studied. The soccer ball is modelled as an ideal rigid hollow spherical body with six degrees of freedom, which performs a general motion in an immovable air environment with constant parameters. The ball 3D orientation is determined by the three Cardan angles. The aerodynamic forces and moments with which the air environment acts to the ball are taken into account. Two of the most dangerous areas of the football goal are defined. Differential equations which describe the motion of the soccer ball are solved numerically by MatLab-Simulink.
Jerrard, David A
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To study whether emergency department (ED visits by male patients wane simultaneously with the play of scheduled professional and college sports events.METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis looked at ED male patient registration rates during a time block lasting from two hours before, during, and two hours after the play of professional football games (Monday night, Sundays, post-season play, major league baseball, and a Division I college football and basketball team, respectively. These registration rates were compared to rates at similar times on similar days of the week during the year devoid of a major sporting contest. Games were assumed to have a play time of three hours. Data was collected from April 2000 through March 2003 at an urban academic ED seeing 33,000 male patients above the age of 18 years annually.RESULTS: A total of 782 games were identified and used for purposes of the study. Professional football game dates had a mean of 17.9 males (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.4-18.4 registering vs. 26.8 males (95% CI 25.9-27.6 on non-game days. A registration rate for major league baseball was 18.4 patients (95% CI 17.6-18.4. The mean for registration on comparable non-game days was 23.9 patients (95% CI 22.8-24.3. For the regional Division I college football team, the mean number of patients registering on game days and non-game days was 21.7 (95% CI 20.9-22.4 and 23.4 (95% CI 22.9-23.7, respectively. Division I college basketball play for game and non-game days had mean rates of registration of 14.5 (95% CI 13.9-15.1 and 15.5 (95% CI 15.1-15.9 patients, respectively. For all sports dates collectively, a comparison of two means yielded a mean of 18.2 patients (95% CI 17.4-18.8 registering during the study hours on game days vs. 23.3 patients (95% CI 22.0-23.7 on non-game days. The mean difference was 5.1 patients (95% CI 3.7 to 7.0 with p < .000074.CONCLUSION: Male patient visits to the ED decline during major sporting
Armenis, Elias; Pefanis, Nikolaos; Tsiganos, Georgios; Karagounis, Panagiotis; Baltopoulos, Panagiotis
Sports activities cause increased loads in elite athletes' joints. Current scientific knowledge highlights the importance of applied mechanical loads on the physiology and pathophysiology of the articular cartilage. Thus, it is possible that sporting activity has a role in the development of osteoarthritis (OA), a painful and damaging joint disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate and record osteoarthritic alterations in the ankle and foot complex in former Greek soccer players and also compare them with those in the general population. The study sample consisted of 170 male, former elite soccer players, aged between 42 and 55 years (mean = 49.8 years, standard deviation [SD] = 7.4). A control group of 132 men, aged between 42 and 55 years (mean, 50.7 years, SD = 9.9), with no regular athletic activity were examined. The development of osteoarthritic alterations was recorded through a questionnaire and clinical and radiological examination. Radiographic analysis of the images in former athletes group showed not only more signs of cartilage degeneration in comparison with the control group (P .05). Osteophyte formation is a frequent disease among former soccer players--with variations on radiographic images--but it does not appear in their clinical picture. However, it is likely that both spurs and subchondral sclerosis (main findings) are preclinical manifestations of OA. Prognostic, Level II.
Schenk, K; Bizzini, M; Gatterer, H
Referees are an integral part of soccer, and their performance is fundamental for regular match flow, irrespective of the competition level or age classes. So far, scientific interest was mainly limited to aspects of exercise physiology and match performance of soccer referees, whereas recommendations for nutrition were adopted from active professional soccer. In contrast to elite soccer players, most referees are non-professional and engaged in different occupations. Furthermore, elite referees and soccer players differ in regard to age, body composition, aerobic capacity, and training load. Thus, referees' caloric needs and recommended daily carbohydrate intake may generally be lower compared to active soccer players, with higher intakes limited to periods of increased training load and match days or for referees engaged in physical demanding occupations. With respect to fluid intake, pre-match and in-match hydration strategies generally valid in sports are recommended also for referees to avoid cognitive and physical performance loss, especially when officiating in extreme climates and altitude. In contrast to elite soccer, professional assistance concerning nutrition and training is rarely available for national elite referees of most countries. Therefore, special attention on education about adequate nutrition and fluid intake, about the dietary prevention of deficiencies (iron in female referees, vitamin D irrespective of sex and age), and basic precautions for travels abroad is warranted. In conclusion, the simple adoption of nutritional considerations from active soccer for referees may not be appropriate. Recommendations should respect gender differences, population-specific physical characteristics, and demands just as well as individual characteristics and special needs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The most recent trend of soccer violence in the South African context is explored though a synthesis of theoretical perspectives and the 'sociogenesis' of soccer hooliganism. Against the background of profiling South African soccer spectators and an analysis of soccer violence since 1977, three trends were identified.
Bedendo, André; Opaleye, Emérita S; Andrade, André Luiz Monezi; Noto, Ana Regina
Heavy episodic drinking (HED) (consumption of five or more drinks on the same occasion) among adolescents is related to several problems and partaking in sport or physical activities has been suggested as an option to prevent or reduce alcohol consumption among this population. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between soccer practice and heavy episodic drinking among high school students from Brazil. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study among a representative sample of public and private high school students from all Brazilian state capitals (N=19,132). Only students aged from 14 to 18 who reported having taken part in soccer practice, other team sports or non-practicing sports in the last month were included. Characteristics of sport practice (frequency and motivation) and HED in the last month (type of drink; where and with whom they drank; frequency of HED) were also considered. Regression models were controlled for sociodemographic variables. For all groups studied most of the students reported drinking beer, with friends and at nightclubs or bars. Soccer practice was associated to HED when compared to non-practicing sports and to other team sports. Compared to other team sports, playing soccer for pleasure or profession, but not for keep fit or health reasons, were more associated to HED. Frequency of soccer practice from 1 to 5 days per month and 20 or more days per month, but not from 6 to 19 days per month, were also more associated to HED. The relationship between soccer and HED appears to be particularly stronger than in other team sports among adolescents in Brazil. Induced sociability of team sports practice cannot be assumed as the main reason for HED among soccer players. Possibly these results reflect the importance of a strong cultural association between soccer and beer in Brazil and these findings should be integrated to future prevention or intervention programs.
Williams, Jeffrey G; Gard, Hannah I; Gregory, Jeana M; Gibson, Amy; Austin, Jennifer
Collegiate soccer players suffer hamstring injuries due to inflexibility and repetitive motions involving intense hamstring lengthening and contraction during sport. Although a popular intervention for muscular injury, there exists limited evidence of the effects of therapeutic cupping on hamstring flexibility. To determine the effect of cupping therapy on hamstring flexibility in collegiate soccer players. Cohort design. Athletic training clinic. Twenty-five, asymptomatic, NCAA Division III soccer players (10 males, 15 females) (age = 19.4 ± 1.30 years, height = 175.1 ± 8.2 cm, mass = 69.5 ± 6.6 kg). A 7-minute therapeutic cupping treatment was delivered to the treatment group. Four 2-inch cups were fixed atop trigger point locations within the hamstring muscle bellies of participants' dominant legs. Control group participants received no intervention between pre- and post-test measurements. Pretest and posttest measurements of hamstring flexibility, using a Passive Straight Leg Raise (PSLR), were performed on both groups. PSLR measurements were conducted by blinded examiners using a digital inclinometer. An independent samples t-test was used to analyze changes in hamstring flexibility from pre- to post-treatment with p-values set a priori at 0.05. An independent samples t-test demonstrated no significant difference in change in hamstring flexibility between participants in the treatment group and those in the control group (t 23 = -.961, p = .35). The findings of this study demonstrated no statistically significant changes in hamstring flexibility following a cupping treatment.
Liam D Harper
Full Text Available Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners' perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time regulations, and ideas for future research. Using inductive content analysis, the following general dimensions were identified: 'importance of extra-time', 'rule changes', 'efficacy of extra-time hydro-nutritional provision', 'nutritional timing', 'future research directions', 'preparatory modulations' and 'recovery'. The majority of practitioners (63% either agreed or strongly agreed that extra-time is an important period for determining success in knockout football match-play. When asked if a fourth substitution should be permitted in extra-time, 67% agreed. The use of hydro-nutritional strategies prior to extra-time was predominately considered important or very important. However; only 41% of practitioners felt that it was the most important time point for the use of nutritional products. A similar number of practitioners account (50% and do not (50% account for the potential of extra-time when training and preparing players and 89% of practitioners stated that extra-time influences recovery practices following matches. In the five minute break prior to extra-time, the following practices (in order of priority were advocated to players: hydration, energy provision, massage, and tactical preparations. Additionally, 87% of practitioners advocate a particular nutritional supplementation strategy prior to extra-time. In order of importance, practitioners see the following as future research areas: nutritional interventions, fatigue responses, acute injury risk
Harper, Liam D; Fothergill, Melissa; West, Daniel J; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark
Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners' perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time regulations, and ideas for future research. Using inductive content analysis, the following general dimensions were identified: 'importance of extra-time', 'rule changes', 'efficacy of extra-time hydro-nutritional provision', 'nutritional timing', 'future research directions', 'preparatory modulations' and 'recovery'. The majority of practitioners (63%) either agreed or strongly agreed that extra-time is an important period for determining success in knockout football match-play. When asked if a fourth substitution should be permitted in extra-time, 67% agreed. The use of hydro-nutritional strategies prior to extra-time was predominately considered important or very important. However; only 41% of practitioners felt that it was the most important time point for the use of nutritional products. A similar number of practitioners account (50%) and do not (50%) account for the potential of extra-time when training and preparing players and 89% of practitioners stated that extra-time influences recovery practices following matches. In the five minute break prior to extra-time, the following practices (in order of priority) were advocated to players: hydration, energy provision, massage, and tactical preparations. Additionally, 87% of practitioners advocate a particular nutritional supplementation strategy prior to extra-time. In order of importance, practitioners see the following as future research areas: nutritional interventions, fatigue responses, acute injury risk, recovery
Crema, Michel D; Godoy, Ivan R B; Abdalla, Rene J; de Aquino, Jose Sanchez; Ingham, Sheila J McNeill; Skaf, Abdalla Y
Discrepancies exist in the literature regarding the association of the extent of injuries assessed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with recovery times. MRI-detected edema in grade 1 hamstring injuries does not affect the return to play (RTP). Retrospective cohort study. Level 4. Grade 1 hamstring injuries from 22 professional soccer players were retrospectively reviewed. The extent of edema-like changes on fluid-sensitive sequences from 1.5-T MRI were evaluated using craniocaudal length, percentage of cross-sectional area, and volume. The time needed to RTP was the outcome. Negative binomial regression analysis tested the measurements of MRI-detected edema-like changes as prognostic factors. The mean craniocaudal length was 7.6 cm (SD, 4.9 cm; range, 0.9-19.1 cm), the mean percentage of cross-sectional area was 23.6% (SD, 20%; range, 4.4%-89.6%), and the mean volume was 33.1 cm 3 (SD, 42.6 cm 3 ; range, 1.1-161.3 cm 3 ). The mean time needed to RTP was 13.6 days (SD, 8.9 days; range, 3-32 days). None of the parameters of extent was associated with RTP. The extent of MRI edema in hamstring injuries does not have prognostic value. Measuring the extent of edema in hamstring injuries using MRI does not add prognostic value in clinical practice.
Miyaguchi, Kazuyoshi; Demura, Shinich; Sugiura, Hiroki; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Noda, Masahiro
This study examines the development of various reaction movements in preschool children and the relationship between reaction times and favorite play activities. The subjects were 167 healthy preschool children aged 4-6 (96 boys and 71 girls). This study focused on the reaction times of the upper limbs (reaction 1: release; reaction 2: press) and the whole body (reaction 3: forward jump). The activities frequently played in preschools are largely divided into dynamic play activities (tag, soccer, gymnastics set, dodge ball, and jump rope) and static play activities (drawing, playing house, reading, playing with sand, and building blocks). The subjects chose 3 of 10 cards picturing their favorite play activities, depicting 10 different activities. All intraclass correlation coefficients of measured reaction times were high (0.73-0.79). In addition, each reaction time shortened with age. Reaction 1 showed a significant and low correlation with reaction 3 (r = 0.37). The effect size of the whole body reaction time was the largest. Whole body reaction movement, which is largely affected by the exercise output function, develops remarkably in childhood. Children who liked "tag" were faster in all reaction times. The children who chose "soccer" were faster in reactions 2 and 3. In contrast, children who liked "playing house" tended to have slower reaction times. Dynamic activities, such as tag and soccer, promote development of reaction speed and agility in movements involving the whole body. Preschool teachers and physical educators should re-examine the effect of tag and use it periodically as one of the exercise programs to avoid unexpected falls and injuries in everyday life.
Eggels, H.; van Elk, R.; Pechenizkiy, M.
In elite soccer, decisions are often based on recent results and emotions. In this paper, we propose a method to determine the expected winner of a match in elite soccer. The expected result of a soccer match is determined by estimating the probability of scoring for the individual goal scoring
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the physical demands imposed on professional soccer players during 11-a-side friendly matches in relation to their playing position, using global positioning system (GPS technology. One hundred and eleven match performances of a Spanish “La Liga” team during the 2010-11 and 2011-12 pre-seasons were selected for analysis. The activities of the players were monitored using GPS technology with a sampling frequency of 1 Hz. Total distance covered, distance in different speed categories, accelerations, and heart rate responses were analyzed in relation to five different playing positions: central defenders (n=23, full-backs (n=20, central midfielders (n=22, wide midfielders (n=26, and forwards (n=20. Distance covered during a match averaged 10.8 km, with wide and central midfielders covering the greatest total distance. Specifically, wide midfielders covered the greatest distances by very high-intensity running (>19.8 km·h-1 and central midfielders by jogging and running (7.2-19.7 km·h-1. On the other hand, central defenders covered the least total distance and at high intensity, although carried out more (p<0.05-0.01 accelerations than forwards, wide midfielders, and fullbacks. The work rate profile of the players obtained with the GPS was very similar to that obtained with semi-automatic image technologies. However, when comparing results from this study with data available in the literature, important differences were detected in the amount of distance covered by sprinting, which suggests that caution should be taken when comparing data obtained with the GPS with other motion analysis systems, especially regarding high-intensity activities.
Mantini, S; Bruner, E; Colaiacomo, B; Ciccarelli, A; Redaelli, A; Ripani, M
The plantar support and its modifications are widely studied because of their bearing on posture. In particular, past studies have focused on the support modification during specific athletic tasks to highlight the eventual correlations between foot type and the most frequent sport injuries, due to intrinsic and extrinsic components that involve the structural and functional dynamics that act on the plantar vault during static and dynamic condition. These studies have been conducted by analyzing the morphological variation of the footprint during the performance. In the present study the variation in shape of the baropodometrical footprint of young soccer players, has been analyzed using geometric morphometrics. This approach permits a quantification of the morphological variation of the subjects using Cartesian coordinates placed at specific points on the footprint outline, and to correlate them with physical variables. In the present study the young soccer players displayed a narrowing of the footprint due to a transversal variation on the isthmus, when compared to children of the same age who did not play soccer. These results suggest a physiological and biomechanical organization of the foot type in soccer due to the specific athletic tasks involved. As the foot type, in sport, is strictly associated to recurrent injuries, the result obtained in this study should be considered as indicative for future analysis. In fact, a clear and univocal knowledge of this phenomenon would be useful in the planning of a training protocol to reduce the incidence of sport related injuries.
Garcia Jorge Diaz-Cidoncha
Full Text Available There has been a lot of research that enabled soccer to improve: its technique, tactics and strategy through analysis and training. Nevertheless, players’ need to interact with each other turns any defending or attacking situation into complex solutions with a wide range of variables to be considered, in which the player is never isolated and must make the move that has the most positive impact on play. Fifty-four sided games played in three different formats (5v5, 7v7 and 9v9 and with two age groups (U9 and U14 were filmed at three soccer clubs in Spain in order to identify the most relevant attacking moves, from a technical and tactical perspective. This study used the observational method; it is descriptive and is applied through well-prepared systematic quantitative observation in a natural environment. A key part of the method involved viewing the match recordings and logging moves that had been categorised beforehand. Cohen’s Kappa analysis showed that the results for the most representative variables presented a substantial degree of concordance (0.61-0.80. The results show that there were significant variations depending on the game format, and the following study will present a description and analysis of the aspects that had considerable influence on attacking moves in different formats of sided games (5v5, 7v7 and 9v9. The study also presents various practical applications for the area of training and analysing both youth and professional soccer.
Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.
We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…
Iaia, F. Marcello; Fiorenza, Matteo; Larghi, Luca; Alberti, Giampietro; Millet, Grégoire P.; Girard, Olivier
The present study compared the effects of two repeated-sprint training (RST) programs, differing in duration of the between-sprint rest intervals, on various soccer-related exercise performances. For 5 weeks during the competitive season, twenty-nine young trained male soccer players either replaced two of their habitual fitness conditioning sessions with RST characterized by short (5–15; n = 9) or long (5–30; n = 10) rest intervals, or served as control (n = 10). The 5–15 and 5–30 protocols consisted of 6 repetitions of 30-m (~5 s) straight-line sprints interspersed with 15 s or 30 s of passive recovery, respectively. 5–15 improved 200-m sprint time (2.0±1.5%; pRecovery Test Level 2 increased following 5–15 (11.4±5.0%; psoccer players, RST over a 5-week in-season period is an efficient means to simultaneously develop different components of fitness relevant to match performance, with different benefits induced by shorter compared to longer rest intervals. PMID:28199402
Van de Hoef, S; Huisstede, B M A; Brink, M S; de Vries, N; Goedhart, E A; Backx, F J G
Hamstring injuries are the most common muscle injury in amateur and professional soccer. Most hamstring injuries occur in the late swing phase, when the hamstring undergoes a stretch-shortening cycle and the hamstring does a significant amount of eccentric work. The incidence of these injuries has not decreased despite there being effective injury prevention programmes focusing on improving eccentric hamstring strength. As this might be because of poor compliance, a more functional injury prevention exercise programme that focuses on the stretch-shortening cycle might facilitate compliance. In this study, a bounding exercise programme consisting of functional plyometric exercises is being evaluated. A cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT). Male amateur soccer teams (players aged 18-45 years) have been randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. Both groups are continuing regular soccer training and the intervention group is additionally performing a 12-week bounding exercise programme (BEP), consisting of a gradual build up and maintenance programme for the entire soccer season. The primary outcome is hamstring injury incidence. Secondary outcome is compliance with the BEP during the soccer season and 3 months thereafter. Despite effective hamstring injury prevention programmes, the incidence of these injuries remains high in soccer. As poor compliance with these programmes may be an issue, a new plyometric exercise programme may encourage long-term compliance and is expected to enhance sprinting and jumping performance besides preventing hamstring injuries. NTR6129 . Retrospectively registered on 1 November 2016.
Antosiak-Cyrak Katarzyna Z.
Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present study was assessment of laterality of the legs of young female soccer players and their non-training counterparts. Methods. The study sample comprised 9 female soccer players and 19 non-training girls. They underwent three measurement sessions, one every six months. The applied tests included kinesthetic differentiation, rate of local movements, static balance, single-leg hop, rate of global movements, strength and speed, and functional asymmetry of the legs tests. Results. The soccer players were better than the controls in their performance of the rate of local movements, rate of global movements, kinesthetic differentiation, single-leg 15m timed hop and static balance tests. Smaller differences between the results of the left and the right legs in soccer players, than in non-training girls, were noted in the rate of local movements, rate of global movements and kinesthetic differentiation tests. In the static balance test, the differences were greater in the group of soccer players. Conclusions. Lateralization of the lower limbs is a highly complex characteristic with a different variability in athletes than in nontraining individuals. The results of the present study also point to the specialization of soccer players’ left legs in body balance and single-leg hop tests.
Alexander, Gerianne M; Charles, Nora
An individual's reproductive potential appears to influence response to attractive faces of the opposite sex. Otherwise, relatively little is known about the characteristics of the adult observer that may influence his or her affective evaluation of male and female faces. An untested hypothesis (based on the proposed role of attractive faces in mate selection) is that most women would show greater interest in male faces whereas most men would show greater interest in female faces. Further, evidence from individuals with preferences for same-sex sexual partners suggests that response to attractive male and female faces may be influenced by gender-linked play preferences. To test these hypotheses, visual attention directed to sex-linked stimuli (faces, toys, play styles) was measured in 39 men and 44 women using eye tracking technology. Consistent with our predictions, men directed greater visual attention to all male-typical stimuli and visual attention to male and female faces was associated with visual attention to gender conforming or nonconforming stimuli in a manner consistent with previous research on sexual orientation. In contrast, women showed a visual preference for female-typical toys, but no visual preference for male faces or female-typical play styles. These findings indicate that sex differences in visual processing extend beyond stimuli associated with adult sexual behavior. We speculate that sex differences in visual processing are a component of the expression of gender phenotypes across the lifespan that may reflect sex differences in the motivational properties of gender-linked stimuli.
Asai, Takeshi; Seo, Kazuya
Soccer balls such as the Adidas Roteiro that have been used in soccer tournaments thus far had 32 pentagonal and hexagonal panels. Recently, the Adidas Teamgeist II and Adidas Jabulani, respectively having 14 and 8 panels, have been used at tournaments; the aerodynamic characteristics of these balls have not yet been verified. Now, the Adidas Tango 12, having 32 panels, has been developed for use at tournaments; therefore, it is necessary to understand its aerodynamic characteristics. Through a wind tunnel test and ball trajectory simulations, this study shows that the aerodynamic resistance of the new 32-panel soccer ball is larger in the high-speed region and lower in the middle-speed region than that of the previous 14- and 8-panel balls. The critical Reynolds number of the Roteiro, Teamgeist II, Jabulani, and Tango 12 was ~2.2 × 10(5) (drag coefficient, C d ≈ 0.12), ~2.8 × 10(5) (C d ≈ 0.13), ~3.3 × 10(5) (C d ≈ 0.13), and ~2.4 × 10(5) (C d ≈ 0.15), respectively. The flight trajectory simulation suggested that the Tango 12, one of the newest soccer balls, has less air resistance in the medium-speed region than the Jabulani and can thus easily acquire large initial velocity in this region. It is considered that the critical Reynolds number of a soccer ball, as considered within the scope of this experiment, depends on the extended total distance of the panel bonds rather than the small designs on the panel surfaces.
Schuermans, Joke; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Danneels, Lieven; Witvrouw, Erik
Running-related hamstring strain injuries remain a delicate issue in several sports such as soccer. Their unremittingly high incidence and recurrence rates indicate that the underlying risk has not yet been fully identified. Among other factors, the importance of neuromuscular coordination and the quality of interplay between the different hamstring muscle bellies is thought to be a key determinant within the intrinsic injury risk. Muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) is one of the tools that has been proven to be valid for evaluating intermuscular coordination. To investigate the risk of sustaining an index or recurring soccer-related hamstring injury by exploring metabolic muscle characteristics using mfMRI. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 27 healthy male soccer players and 27 soccer players with a history of hamstring injuries underwent standardized mfMRI. The mfMRI protocol consisted of a resting scan, a strenuous bilateral eccentric hamstring exercise, and a postexercise scan. The exercise-related T2 change, or the signal intensity shift between both scans, was used to detect differences in metabolic characteristics between (1) the different hamstring muscle bellies and (2) the prospective cohorts based on the (re)occurrence of hamstring injuries during a follow-up period of 18 months. The risk of sustaining a first hamstring injury was associated with alterations in the intermuscular hierarchy in terms of the magnitude of the metabolic response after a heavy eccentric effort, with the dominant role of the semitendinosus set aside for a higher contribution of the biceps femoris (P = .017). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis demonstrated that this variable was significantly able to predict the occurrence of index injuries with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 70% when the metabolic activity of the biceps femoris exceeded 10%. The risk of sustaining a reinjury was associated with a substantial deficit
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare of body mass index (BMI, balance and agility features of soccer players at different positions and to investigate the relation between these features. Material and Methods: Research was carried out on 44 amateur soccer player whom played in different positions in various teams that compete in amateur league of İstanbul. In the research, it was tested vki, balance, agility with ball and agility without ball on soccer players. The average of variables was taken and Kruskal Wallis nonparametric variance analysis was used to determine the difference between groups. Pearson correlation was used to determine correlations between variables. Results: As a result of measuments, when compare between positions, it was found that there was a statistical difference on body mass measurement (p0,01. As a result of correlations, it was found statistically significant relation between body mass and agility with ball between BMI and agility with ball and between body mass and BMI variables (p<0,01. Conclusion: As a result of assesstments it has been revealed that there was a correlation between BMI and dribbling skills on soccer players however there wasn’t found any differences between other parameters as balance and agility because of the trainings that carried out regardless of the positions in soccer. As a conclusion, optimal training programmes that will be held on according to positions of players, additional balance trainings and the identified shortcomings may contribute to the development of soccer players performance and skill with appliying ideal diet programme to maintain the appropriate body weight for players heights.
Full Text Available Purpose. The present study aimed to examine the current methods employed to assess anticipation in soccer players as well as to elicit the main findings of recent studies. Methods. The study was carried out in systematic review form and its sample comprised nine scientific papers published in academic journals. Only the studies involving soccer players (professionals and amateurs, except goalkeepers were included in this review. Results and conclusions. We observed that most of the studies employed video footage obtained from soccer matches, which are occluded at a given point for study participants to quickly and precisely elicit the positions of opponents, teammates and the ball as well as anticipate actions (dribbling, shooting, passing from surrounding players (teammates and opponents. In addition, the studies compared the performance of players from both high and low competitive levels in anticipation tasks.
Bishop, Chris; Read, Paul; McCubbine, Jermaine; Turner, Anthony
Inter-limb asymmetries have been shown to be greater during vertical jumping compared to horizontal jumping. Notable inter-limb differences have also been established at an early age in male youth soccer players. Furthermore, given the multi-planar nature of soccer, establishing between-limb differences from multiple jump tests is warranted. At present, a paucity of data exists regarding asymmetries in youth female soccer players and their effects on physical performance. The aims of this study were to quantify inter-limb asymmetries from unilateral jump tests and examine their effects on speed and jump performance. Nineteen elite youth female soccer players performed a single leg countermovement jump (SLCMJ), single, triple, and crossover hops for distance and a 20 m sprint test. Test reliability was good to excellent (ICC = 0.81-0.99) and variability acceptable (CV = 1.74-5.42%). A one-way ANOVA highlighted larger asymmetries from the SLCMJ compared to all other jump tests (p jump performance (r = -0.47 to -0.58) and vertical asymmetries during the SLCMJ and vertical jump performance (r = -0.47 to -0.53). The results from this study highlight that the SLCMJ appears to be the most appropriate jump test for identifying between-limb differences with values ∼12% showing negative associations with sprint times. Furthermore, larger asymmetries are associated with reduced jump performance and would appear to be direction-specific. Practitioners can use this information as normative data to be mindful of when quantifying inter-limb asymmetries and assessing their potential impact on physical performance in youth female soccer players.
Marques, Nelson Kautzner, Jr.
Brazilian Soccer began developing its current emphasis on peripheral vision in the late 1950s, by initiative of coach of the Canto do Rio Football Club, in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, a pioneer in the development of peripheral vision training in soccer players. Peripheral vision training gained world relevance when a young talent from Canto do Rio,…
Mello, Rodrigo; Mello, Ricardo; Gomes, Diego; Paz, Gabriel Andrade; Nasser, Igor; Miranda, Humberto; Salerno, Verônica P
The present study investigated the effects of a moderate-intensity soccer training session on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant capacity in athletes along with the biomarkers creatine kinase and transaminases for lesions in muscle and liver cells. Twenty-two male soccer players participated in this study. Blood samples were collected 5 min before and after a moderate-intensity game simulation. The results showed a decrease in the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) from an elevation in the production of ROS that maintained the redox homeostasis. Although the session promoted an elevated energy demand, observed by an increase in lactate and glucose levels, damage to muscle and/or liver cells was only suggested by a significant elevation in the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT). Of the two biomarkers analysed, the results suggest that measurements of the ALT levels could be adopted as a method to monitor recovery in athletes.
Full Text Available Abstract Exercise training is known to induce an increase in free radical production potentially leading to enhanced muscle injury. Vitamins C and E are well known antioxidants that may prevent muscle cell damage. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of these supplemental antioxidant vitamins on markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage and performance of elite soccer players. Ten male young soccer players were divided into two groups. Supplementation group (n = 5 received vitamins C and E supplementation daily during the pre-competitive season (S group, while the placebo group (PL group, n = 5 received a pill containing maltodextrin. Both groups performed the same training load during the three-month pre-season training period. Erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase, catalase and plasma carbonyl derivatives did not show any significant variation among the experimental groups. Similarly, fitness level markers did not differ among the experimental groups. However, S group demonstrated lower lipid peroxidation and muscle damage levels (p
Harøy, Joar; Thorborg, Kristian; Serner, Andreas; Bjørkheim, André; Rolstad, Linn E; Hölmich, Per; Bahr, Roald; Andersen, Thor Einar
The FIFA 11+ was developed as a complete warm-up program to prevent injuries in soccer players. Although reduced hip adduction strength is associated with groin injuries, none of the exercises included in the FIFA 11+ seem to specifically target hip adduction strength. To investigate the effect on eccentric hip adduction strength of the FIFA 11+ warm-up program with or without the Copenhagen adduction exercise. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. We recruited 45 eligible players from 2 U19 elite male soccer teams. Players were randomized into 2 groups; 1 group carried out the standard FIFA 11+ program, while the other carried out the FIFA 11+ but replaced the Nordic hamstring exercise with the Copenhagen adduction exercise. Both groups performed the intervention 3 times weekly for 8 weeks. Players completed eccentric strength and sprint testing before and after the intervention. Per-protocol analyses were performed, and 12 players were excluded due to low compliance (<67% of sessions completed). The main outcome was eccentric hip adduction strength (N·m/kg). Between-group analyses revealed a significantly greater increase in eccentric hip adduction strength of 0.29 Nm/kg (8.9%; P = .01) in favor of the group performing the Copenhagen adduction exercise, whereas no within-group change was noted in the group that used the standard FIFA 11+ program (-0.02 N·m/kg [-0.7%]; P = .69). Including the Copenhagen adduction exercise in the FIFA 11+ program increases eccentric hip adduction strength, while the standard FIFA 11+ program does not. Registration: Registration: ISRCTN13731446 (International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry).
Robert G. Lockie
Full Text Available Freshmen college soccer players will have lower training ages than their experienced teammates (sophomores, juniors, seniors. How this is reflected in field test performance is not known. Freshmen (n = 7 and experienced (n = 10 male field soccer players from the same Division I school completed soccer-specific tests to identify potential differences in incoming freshmen. Testing included: vertical jump (VJ, standing broad jump, and triple hop (TH; 30-m sprint, (0–5, 5–10, 0–10, and 0–30 m intervals; 505 change-of-direction test; Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2 (YYIRT2; and 6 × 30-m sprints to measure repeated-sprint ability. A MANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc was conducted on the performance test data, and effect sizes and z-scores were calculated from the results for magnitude-based inference. There were no significant between-group differences in the performance tests. There were moderate effects for the differences in VJ height, left-leg TH, 0–5, 0–10 and 0–30 m sprint intervals, and YYIRT2 (d = 0.63–1.18, with experienced players being superior. According to z-score data, freshmen had meaningful differences below the squad mean in the 30-m sprint, YYIRT2, and jump tests. Freshmen soccer players may need to develop linear speed, high-intensity running, and jump performance upon entering a collegiate program.
Lesinski, Melanie; Prieske, Olaf; Helm, Norman; Granacher, Urs
The objectives of this study were to (i) describe soccer training (e.g., volume, types), anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness and (ii) compute associations between soccer training data and relative changes of anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness during a soccer season in female elite young athletes. Seasonal training (i.e., day-to-day training volume/types) as well as variations in anthropometry (e.g., body height/mass), body composition (e.g., lean body/fat mass), and physical fitness (e.g., muscle strength/power, speed, balance) were collected from 17 female elite young soccer players (15.3 ± 0.5 years) over the training periods (i.e., preparation, competition, transition) of a soccer season that resulted in the German championship title in under-17 female soccer. Training volume/types, anthropometrics, body composition, and physical fitness significantly varied over a soccer season. During the two preparation periods, higher volumes in resistance and endurance training were performed (2.00 ≤ d ≤ 18.15; p < 0.05), while higher sprint and tactical training volumes were applied during the two competition periods (2.22 ≤ d ≤ 11.18; p < 0.05). Body height and lean body mass increased over the season (2.50 ≤ d ≤ 3.39; p < 0.01). In terms of physical fitness, significant performance improvements were found over the soccer season in measures of balance, endurance, and sport-specific performance (2.52 ≤ d ≤ 3.95; p < 0.05). In contrast, no statistically significant changes were observed for measures of muscle power/endurance, speed, and change-of-direction speed. Of note, variables of muscle strength (i.e., leg extensors) significantly decreased (d = 2.39; p < 0.01) over the entire season. Our period-specific sub-analyses revealed significant performance improvements during the first round of the season for measures of muscle power/endurance, and balance (0.89 ≤ d ≤ 4.01; p < 0.05). Moreover, change
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to (i describe soccer training (e.g., volume, types, anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness and (ii compute associations between soccer training data and relative changes of anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness during a soccer season in female elite young athletes. Seasonal training (i.e., day-to-day training volume/types as well as variations in anthropometry (e.g., body height/mass, body composition (e.g., lean body/fat mass, and physical fitness (e.g., muscle strength/power, speed, balance were collected from 17 female elite young soccer players (15.3 ± 0.5 years over the training periods (i.e., preparation, competition, transition of a soccer season that resulted in the German championship title in under-17 female soccer. Training volume/types, anthropometrics, body composition, and physical fitness significantly varied over a soccer season. During the two preparation periods, higher volumes in resistance and endurance training were performed (2.00 ≤ d ≤ 18.15; p < 0.05, while higher sprint and tactical training volumes were applied during the two competition periods (2.22 ≤ d ≤ 11.18; p < 0.05. Body height and lean body mass increased over the season (2.50 ≤ d ≤ 3.39; p < 0.01. In terms of physical fitness, significant performance improvements were found over the soccer season in measures of balance, endurance, and sport-specific performance (2.52 ≤ d ≤ 3.95; p < 0.05. In contrast, no statistically significant changes were observed for measures of muscle power/endurance, speed, and change-of-direction speed. Of note, variables of muscle strength (i.e., leg extensors significantly decreased (d = 2.39; p < 0.01 over the entire season. Our period-specific sub-analyses revealed significant performance improvements during the first round of the season for measures of muscle power/endurance, and balance (0.89 ≤ d ≤ 4.01; p < 0.05. Moreover, change
Afyon, Yakup Akif
Core trainings have been widely used by trainers recently in order to improve performance of soccer players. In this context, the aim of this study is to examine the effect of core training on some motoric capabilities of 16 years old soccer players. Thirty certified soccer players who were 16 years old from B.B. Bodrumspor Club in 2013-2014…
Wollin, Martin; Thorborg, Kristian; Welvaert, Marijke
OBJECTIVES: The primary purpose of this study was to describe an early detection and management strategy when monitoring in-season hip and groin strength, health and function in soccer. Secondly to compare pre-season to in-season test results. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. METHODS: Twenty......-seven elite male youth soccer players (age: 15.07±0.73years) volunteered to participate in the study. Monitoring tests included: adductor strength, adductor/abductor strength ratio and hip and groin outcome scores (HAGOS). Data were recorded at pre-season and at 22 monthly intervals in-season. Thresholds.......09, CI95%: 0.04, 0.13 respectively). HAGOS subscale scores were lowest at baseline with all, except Physical Activity, showing significant improvements at time-point one (ptime-loss were classified minimal or mild. CONCLUSIONS: In-season monitoring aimed at early detection...
Phillips, Saun M; Sykes, Dave; Gibson, Neil
The objective of the study was to investigate the hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during three consecutive training sessions. Fourteen males (age 16.9 ± 0.8 years, height 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass (BM) 70.6 ± 5.0 kg) had their hydration status assessed from first morning urine samples (baseline) and pre- and post-training using urine specific gravity (USG) measures, and their fluid balance calculated from pre- to post-training BM change, corrected for fluid intake and urine output. Most participants were hypohydrated upon waking (USG >1.020; 77% on days 1 and 3, and 62% on day 2). There was no significant difference between first morning and pre-training USG (p = 0.11) and no influence of training session (p = 0.34) or time (pre- vs. post-training; p = 0.16) on USG. Significant BM loss occurred in sessions 1-3 (0.69 ± 0.22, 0.42 ± 0.25, and 0.38 ± 0.30 kg respectively, p sessions 1-3 was 425 ± 185, 355 ± 161, and 247 ± 157 ml, respectively (p sessions. Body mass loss, fluid intake, and USG measures showed large inter-individual variation. Elite young European soccer players likely wake and present for training hypohydrated, when a USG threshold of 1.020 is applied. When training in a cool environment with ad libitum access to fluid, replacing ~71% of sweat losses results in minimal hypohydration (training appears to prevent excessive (≥2% BM) dehydration, as advised by current fluid intake guidelines. Current fluid intake guidelines appear applicable for elite European youth soccer players training in a cool environment. Key PointsThe paper demonstrates a notable inter-participant variation in first morning, pre- and post-training hydration status and fluid balance of elite young European soccer players.On average, elite young European soccer players are hypohydrated upon waking and remain hypohydrated before and after training.Elite young European soccer players display varied fluid intake volumes during training
Soccer entails intermittent exercise with bouts of short, intense activity punctuating longer periods of low-level, moderate-intensity exercise. High levels of blood lactate may sometimes be observed during a match but the active recovery periods at submaximal exercise levels allow for its removal on a continual basis. While anaerobic efforts are evident in activity with the ball and shadowing fast-moving opponents, the largest strain is placed on aerobic metabolism. On average, competitive soccer corresponds to an energy expenditure of about 75% maximal aerobic power. The energy expenditure varies with playing position, being highest among midfield players. Muscle glycogen levels can be reduced towards the end of a game, the level of reduction being reflected in a decrease in work rate. Blood glucose levels are generally well-maintained, although body temperature may rise by 2 degrees C even in temperate conditions. The distance covered by players tends to under-reflect the energy expended. Unorthodox modes of motion-running backwards and sideways, accelerating, decelerating and changing direction-accentuate the metabolic loading. These are compounded by the extra requirements for energy associated with dribbling the ball and contesting possession. The overall energy expended is extreme when players are required to play extra-time in tournaments. Training, nutritional and tactical strategies may be used to reduce the effects of fatigue that may occur late in the game.
Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Čović, Nedim; Sporiš, Goran; Krustrup, Peter
Soccer is the most popular sport worldwide, with a long history and currently more than 500 million active participants, of whom 300 million are registered football club members. On the basis of scientific findings showing positive fitness and health effects of recreational soccer, FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) introduced the slogan "Playing football for 45 min twice a week-best prevention of non-communicable diseases" in 2010. The objective of this paper was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to determine the effects of recreational soccer on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Six electronic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and Google Scholar) were searched for original research articles. A manual search was performed to cover the areas of recreational soccer, recreational physical activity, recreational small-sided games and VO2max using the following key terms, either singly or in combination: recreational small-sided games, recreational football, recreational soccer, street football, street soccer, effect, maximal oxygen uptake, peak oxygen uptake, cardiorespiratory fitness, VO2max. The inclusion criteria were divided into four sections: type of study, type of participants, type of interventions and type of outcome measures. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences for meta-analysed effects were based on standardised thresholds for small, moderate and large changes (0.2, 0.6 and 1.2, respectively) derived from between-subject standard deviations for baseline fitness. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Mean differences showed that VO2max increased by 3.51 mL/kg/min (95 % CI 3.07-4.15) over a recreational soccer training programme in comparison with other training models. The meta-analysed effects of recreational soccer on VO2max compared with the controls of no exercise, continuous running and strength
Michalsik, Lars Bojsen; Madsen, Klavs; Aagaard, Per
Modern team handball match-play imposes substantial physical and technical demands on elite players. However, only limited knowledge seems to exist about the specific working requirements in elite team handball. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the physical demands imposed on male elite team handball players in relation to playing position and body anthropometry. Based on continuous video recording of individual players during elite team handball match-play (62 tournament games, ∼4 players per game), computerized technical match analysis was performed in male elite team handball players along with anthropometric measurements over a 6 season time span. Technical match activities were distributed in 6 major types of playing actions (shots, breakthroughs, fast breaks, tackles, technical errors, and defense errors) and further divided into various subcategories (e.g., hard or light tackles, type of shot, claspings, screenings, and blockings). Players showed 36.9 ± 13.1 (group mean ± SD) high-intense technical playing actions per match with a mean total effective playing time of 53.85 ± 5.87 minutes. In offense, each player performed 6.0 ± 5.2 fast breaks, received 34.5 ± 21.3 tackles in total, and performed in defense 3.7 ± 3.5 blockings, 3.9 ± 3.0 claspings, and 5.8 ± 3.6 hard tackles. Wing players (84.5 ± 5.8 kg, 184.9 ± 5.7 cm) were less heavy and smaller (p handball match-play is characterized by a high number of short-term, high-intense intermittent technical playing actions. Indications of technical fatigue were observed. Physical demands differed between playing positions with wing players performing more fast breaks and less physical confrontations with opponent players than backcourt players and pivots. Body anthropometry seemed to have an important influence on playing performance because it is highly related to playing positions. The present observations suggest that male elite team handball players should implement more position
Joo, Chang H; Hwang-Bo, Kwan; Jee, Haemi
Joo, CH, Hwang-Bo, K, and Jee, H. Technical and physical activities of small-sided games in young Korean soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2164-2173, 2016-The aim of this study was to examine the technical aspects and physical demands during small-sided games (SSGs) with different sized pitches in young Korean soccer players. Participants were randomly selected during a nationally held youth competition. Three different game formats were used: SSG8 (8 vs. 8 played on a small-sized field [68 × 47 m]), RSG8 (8 vs. 8 played on a regular-sized field [75 × 47 m]), and RSG11 (11 vs. 11 played on a regular-sized field). Eleven technical (ball touches, passes, and shots) and 6 physical demand variables (exercise frequency by intensity) were observed and analyzed. Same variables were also analyzed for the goalkeepers. As a result, SSG8 and RSG8 showed significantly greater numbers of technical plays in 5 and 4 variables in comparison to RSG11, respectively. In addition, although the exercise intensities increased slightly in both SSG formats, the amount was within the similar range as previous reports. In conclusion, the SSGs with reduced number of players may be referred in young players to effectively train them in technical aspects of the game by allowing greater ball exposure time without excessive physical demands. Various confounding factors such as pitch dimension should be carefully considered for training specific technical and physical variables in young Korean players.
Lisa Müller, Josef Gehmaier, Christoph Gonaus, Christian Raschner, Erich Müller
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the role of the relative age effect (RAE and to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in international under-9 soccer. The birth dates of 222 male participants of the U9 Eurochampionship Soccer Tournament in Vienna in 2016 were analyzed and divided into four relative age quarters (Q1-Q4 and the biological maturity status was assessed with the age at peak height velocity (APHV method. Based on the mean±standard deviation of the APHV, the athletes were divided into three groups of maturity: early, normal and late maturing. Chi-Square-tests were used to assess the difference between the observed and the expected even relative age quarter distribution and to evaluate the difference between the observed distribution of early, normal and late maturing athletes and the expected normal distribution. A univariate analysis of variance was performed to assess differences in the APHV between the relative age quarters. A RAE was present (χ2 = 23.87; p < 0.001; ω = 0.33. A significant difference was found in APHV between the four relative age quarters (F = 9.906; p < 0.001; relatively older athletes were significantly less mature. A significant difference was found between the distribution of early, normal and late maturing athletes and the expected normal distribution for athletes of Q1 (high percentage of late maturing athletes: 27%; χ2 = 17.69; p < 0.001; ω = 0.46 and of Q4 (high percentage of early maturing soccer players: 31%; χ2 = 12.08; p = 0.002; ω = 0.58. These findings demonstrated that the selection process in international soccer, with athletes younger than 9 years, seems to be associated with the biological maturity status and the relative age. Relatively younger soccer players seem to have a better chance for selection for international tournaments, if they enter puberty at an earlier age, whereas relatively older athletes seem to have an increased likelihood for
Morales, Anderson Pontes; Sampaio-Jorge, Felipe; da Cruz Rangel, Luiz Felipe; de Souza Menezes, Jackson; Leite, Tiago Costa; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves
The aim of this study was to evaluate the curves of cardiorespiratory variables during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in soccer players who had acute alterations in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after performing the pre-season training protocol. Sixteen male professional soccer players (25 ± 3 years; 179 ± 2 cm; and 77 ± 6 kg) were evaluated for oxygen uptake (VO 2 ), heart rate (HR) and pulse relative oxygen (relative O 2 Pulse) curves with intervals corresponding to 10% of the total duration of CPET. Athletes were grouped according to the GFR and classified as decreased GFR (dGFR; n = 8) and normal GFR (nGFR; n = 8). Athletes from the dGFR group exhibited lower VO 2 values (p values (p values (p < 0.05) when 70% (dGFR 25.6 ± 8.4 vs. nGFR 27.9 ± 9.7 ml·beat -1 ·kg -1 ), 80% (dGFR 26.6 ± 8.8 vs. nGFR 29.1 ± 10.0 ml·beat -1 ·kg -1 ), 90% (dGFR 27.1 ± 9.0 vs. nGFR 30.8 ± 10.6 ml·beat -1 ·kg -1 ) and 100% (dGFR 28 ± 9.2 vs. nGFR 31.8 ± 10.9 ml·beat -1 ·kg -1 ) of the test was complete. A correlation was found (r = -0.66, R 2 = 0.44, p = 0.00) between lower VO 2 peak and elevated levels of urinary protein excretion. In conclusion, soccer players with reduced kidney function after performing the pre-season training protocol also presented alterations in cardiopulmonary variables. We suggest that monitoring of renal function may be used to identify less conditioned soccer players.
... commonly injured. Keywords: Epidemiology, soccer injuries, youth ... fun and enjoyment while burning up calories especially when electronic devices ... ture on female soccer players has also grown significant- ly9,10. In the last decade, ...
This investigation was undertaken to establish soccer coaches' views and experiences with regard to mentoring as a way of developing their skills and knowledge. The authors conducted a qualitative phenomenological study with seven purposively selected participants (coded as M1 – M7) who were involved in soccer ...
Slip sliding away: Promoting ethical behaviours in soccer. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... after the 2010 Soccer World Cup, has led to increased demands on sport organisations, coaches and players ... While the natural law steers individuals to act morally, a performance ethic motivates many ...
Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Čović, Nedim
BACKGROUND: Soccer is the most popular sport worldwide, with a long history and currently more than 500 million active participants, of whom 300 million are registered football club members. On the basis of scientific findings showing positive fitness and health effects of recreational soccer, FIFA...... of recreational soccer on maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]). METHODS: Six electronic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and Google Scholar) were searched for original research articles. A manual search was performed to cover the areas of recreational soccer, recreational...
This is a twofold study with the goals of evaluating tactical oriented game test situations for 12-13-year old highly-talented soccer players and to analyze dynamic, intra-individual developments of the players. A cross-sectional design was carried in study 1, using game test situations to measure specific tactics and creative performance for 195 expert players. The results from five evaluation criteria show that both diagnostic instruments can be used for recording football-specific creativity and game intelligence in talented young players. They produced tactical indicators that can be described as objective and valid, exhibit a sufficient degree of differentiation and are easy to record. Study 2 uses a longitudinal design to present a dynamic performance diagnostic tool for analyzing intra-individual improvements of German Soccer Foundation talents according to football-specific creativity and game intelligence. The results with respect to divergent tactical thinking clearly show that very different change processes were observed in the German Soccer Foundation players. Finally, the practical implications for the training process are discussed on the basis of both studies. Key pointsWith game test situations it is possible to assess tactical performance as game intelligence and creativity objective, valid, with a sufficient degree of differentiation, and economically.The results with respect to game intelligence and creativity show that very different change processes were observed in the German Soccer Foundation players dependend on the bases (trainers).Current literature on tactics for school sports as well as for children's, youth and high performance soccer at the club level should place much more emphasis on individual and group-tactical requirements in soccer.
Julio Francisco Kleinpaul
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a incidência de lesões, os principais desvios posturais e a possível associação entre lesões e desvios posturais em jogadores de futebol. Foram avaliados 21 voluntários do sexo masculino tendo entre 17 e 19 anos, jogadores de futebol de uma equipe profissional, que foram divididos em dois grupos: G1 formado por 15 jogadores que sofreram lesões relacionadas à prática de futebol; e G2 composto por 6 atletas que não tiveram lesões. Foram coletados dados sobre características antropométricas, posição de jogo, tempo de prática de futebol, freqüência de prática e histórico de lesões relacionadas à prática de futebol. O alinhamento postural foi verificado utilizando um protocolo específico para detectar alterações. Os resultados mostram alterações no alinhamento corporal em ambos os grupos. Os maiores desvios posturais encontrados foram assimetria das escápulas, no alinhamento horizontal da cabeça e no da pelve, em ambos os grupos. Considerando as lesões no G1, a mais comum foi no tornozelo (35% e a segunda mais freqüente, no joelho (23%. Embora não tenha sido encontrada associação entre desvios posturais e ocorrência de lesões, a incidência de ambos é importante, sugerindo a necessidade de intervenções de prevenção na formação de jogadores de futebol.The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of injuries, deviations in postural alignment, and possible associations between injuries and postural deviations in soccer players. Twenty-one male professional soccer players, aged 17 to 19 years old, were assessed as to anthropometric features, playing position, length and frequency of soccer practice, and history of injuries linked to soccer practicing. Athletes were divided into two groups: G1 made up by 15 players who had suffered soccer-related injuries; and G2 composed by 6 players with no such injuries. Postural alignment was assessed using a specific protocol
Marqués-Jiménez, Diego; Calleja-González, Julio; Arratibel-Imaz, Iñaki; Delextrat, Anne; Uriarte, Fernando; Terrados, Nicolás
There is not enough evidence of positive effects of compression therapy on the recovery of soccer players after matches. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the influence of different types of compression garments in reducing exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) during recovery after a friendly soccer match. Eighteen semi-professional soccer players (24 ± 4.07 years, 177 ± 5 cm; 71.8 ± 6.28 kg and 22.73 ± 1.81 BMI) participated in this study. A two-stage crossover design was chosen. Participants acted as controls in one match and were assigned to an experimental group (compression stockings group, full-leg compression group, shorts group) in the other match. Participants in experimental groups played the match wearing the assigned compression garments, which were also worn in the 3 days post-match, for 7 h each day. Results showed a positive, but not significant, effect of compression garments on attenuating EIMD biomarkers response, and inflammatory and perceptual responses suggest that compression may improve physiological and psychological recovery.
Charles Ricardo L OPES
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of daily undulating training periodization designed for maximal lower limb muscle strength and sprint performance in under - 20 soccer players. Twenty - four male athletes (age = 19.1 ± 1.2 yr; mass = 71.1 ± 6. 8 kg; height = 178.0 ± 0.1 cm participated in four weeks of a daily undulating periodized (DUP training soccer program. During the pre - and post - training periods the subjects performed a one repetition maximum (1 RM half back squat test and a 15 - meter s print. Significant training - induced changes were observed in sprint times (pre = 2.38 ± 0.01 s; post = 2.31 ± 0.02 s and 1 RM tests (pre = 107.0 ± 2.0 kg; post = 128.0 ± 2.2 kg. These results indicate that a DUP program is efficient in promoting positive neuromuscular adaptations in soccer players, even with a short - term preseason training period.
Smith, Mitchell R; Coutts, Aaron J; Merlini, Michele; Deprez, Dieter; Lenoir, Matthieu; Marcora, Samuele M
To investigate the effects of mental fatigue on soccer-specific physical and technical performance. This investigation consisted of two separate studies. Study 1 assessed the soccer-specific physical performance of 12 moderately trained soccer players using the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test, Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1). Study 2 assessed the soccer-specific technical performance of 14 experienced soccer players using the Loughborough Soccer Passing and Shooting Tests (LSPT, LSST). Each test was performed on two occasions and preceded, in a randomized, counterbalanced order, by 30 min of the Stroop task (mentally fatiguing treatment) or 30 min of reading magazines (control treatment). Subjective ratings of mental fatigue were measured before and after treatment, and mental effort and motivation were measured after treatment. Distance run, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion were recorded during the Yo-Yo IR1. LSPT performance time was calculated as original time plus penalty time. LSST performance was assessed using shot speed, shot accuracy, and shot sequence time. Subjective ratings of mental fatigue and effort were higher after the Stroop task in both studies (P motivation was similar between conditions. This mental fatigue significantly reduced running distance in the Yo-Yo IR1 (P performance time were not different between conditions; however, penalty time significantly increased in the mental fatigue condition (P = 0.015). Mental fatigue also impaired shot speed (P = 0.024) and accuracy (P performance.
Yang, G.S.; Huesmann, L.R.; Bushman, B.J.
Previous research has shown that violent video games can increase aggression in players immediately after they play. The present research examines the effects of one subtle cue within violent video games that might moderate these effects-whether the avatar is male or female. One common stereotype is
Lex, Heiko; Essig, Kai; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas
Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans’ long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study. PMID:25714486
Nashirudin, M.; Kusnanik, N. W.
Soccer players are required to have good physical fitness in order to achieve optimum accomplishment; physical fitness stands as the foundation of technical and tactical proficiency as well as the mental maturity during the matches. The purpose of this study was to identify the physiological profile of junior soccer players of SSB Surabaya Bhakti age 16-17. The research was conducted at 20 junior soccer players. This research was quantitative with descriptive analysis. Data were collected by testing of physiological (anaerobic power and capacity including explosive leg power, speed, agility; aerobic capacity: cardiovascular endurance). Data was analyzed using percentage. The result showed that the percentage of explosive leg power of junior soccer players were 30% (good category), speed was 85% (average category), right agility was 90% (average category), left agility was 75% (average category). On the other hand, the aerobic power and capacity of the junior soccer players in this study was 50% (average category). The conclusion of this research is that the physiological profile of junior soccer players at SSB Surabaya Bhakti age 16-17 was majority in average category.
Full Text Available Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans' long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study.
Lex, Heiko; Essig, Kai; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas
Two core elements for the coordination of different actions in sport are tactical information and knowledge about tactical situations. The current study describes two experiments to learn about the memory structure and the cognitive processing of tactical information. Experiment 1 investigated the storage and structuring of team-specific tactics in humans' long-term memory with regard to different expertise levels. Experiment 2 investigated tactical decision-making skills and the corresponding gaze behavior, in presenting participants the identical match situations in a reaction time task. The results showed that more experienced soccer players, in contrast to less experienced soccer players, possess a functionally organized cognitive representation of team-specific tactics in soccer. Moreover, the more experienced soccer players reacted faster in tactical decisions, because they needed less fixations of similar duration as compared to less experienced soccer players. Combined, these experiments offer evidence that a functionally organized memory structure leads to a reaction time and a perceptual advantage in tactical decision-making in soccer. The discussion emphasizes theoretical and applied implications of the current results of the study.
Bendiksen, Mads; Bischoff, Rasmus; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard
in various phases of CST. METHODS: Twelve Danish Second and Third Division soccer players participated in the study. On separate days, heart rate (HR) measurements, frequent blood sampling and physical/technical tests were performed during 60- and 90-min versions of CST during which repeated m. vastus......INTRODUCTION: The aims of the study were 1) to evaluate whether a multi-facetted simulated soccer game protocol, entitled the Copenhagen Soccer Test (CST), elicited a similar physiological loading as a competitive game, and 2) to determine muscle metabolites, blood variables and sprint performance...
Full Text Available This research is aimed at examining sensitivity of the speed evaluation tests while carrying the ball. The research included 76 male examinees, aged 17 years (+/- 6 months, who were divided into two qualitatively different subgroups. For determining the speed while carrying the ball, the tests of M type of carrying the ball between cones and slalom ball carrying with a pass were performed. The obtained results proved that the examinees from the group of more successful soccer players (Group 1 scored better on the applied tests when compared to the results of the group consisting of the soccer players from lower ranked clubs and who are not national team members (Group 2. High values of the result homogeneity in the two groups (for the Groups 1 and 2 it was 75% and 68.75% respectively lead to the conclusion that this ability is essential characteristics of young soccer players. The coefficient of discrimination of 0.269 for the results of M type test and 0.197 for the results of the test of carrying the ball with a pass indicate that the results of the two tests provide possibility to qualitatively distinguish youth players. Therefore, it can be concluded that as a technical element, carrying the ball significantly affects the quality of players' performance.
Soccer is one of the most widely played and complex sports in the world, where success depends on technical, tactical and physical skills of the players. Studies to improve performance in soccer have often focused on technique and tactics. However, nutrition is one of the most important factors influencing athletic performance of the players. The duration of matches is long and the training is intense. This leads to increased requirements for energy and nutrients, as well as increased reactive oxygen radicals and hence increased muscle damage. Vitamins are micronutrients that a living organism requires in trace quantities for health. As these assume crucial functions in the body, the performance of the player is negatively affected particularly during long-term deficiency. Beta-carotene, C and E vitamins are antioxidants that protect against oxygen radicals. In case of their deficiency, oxidative stress and muscle fatigue increases. Vitamin D is involved in maintaining mineral balance, and it increases absorption of dietary calcium and phosphorus. In case of vitamin D deficiency, injuries resulting from the musculoskeletal system might increase. B Vitamins (B1, B2, niacin, B6, B12, biotin, folic acid and pantothenic acid) perform duties such as energy production, absorption and transport of iron and blood cell production. Athletes who follow an energy-restricted and imbalanced diet might develop vitamin deficiency. In such a case, supplements can be used as recommended by the doctor/dietician. It is further reported that supplement use by athletes who have an adequate and balanced nutrition does not increase performance.
Mark P. Funnell
Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of carbohydrate intake on self-selected soccer-specific running performance. Sixteen male soccer players (age 23 ± 4 years; body mass 76.9 ± 7.2 kg; predicted VO2max = 54.2 ± 2.9 mL∙kg−1∙min−1; soccer experience 13 ± 4 years completed a progressive multistage fitness test, familiarisation trial and two experimental trials, involving a modified version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST to simulate a soccer match in a fed state. Subjects completed six 15 min blocks (two halves of 45 min of intermittent shuttle running, with a 15-min half-time. Blocks 3 and 6, allowed self-selection of running speeds and sprint times, were assessed throughout. Subjects consumed 250 mL of either a 12% carbohydrate solution (CHO or a non-caloric taste matched placebo (PLA before and at half-time of the LIST. Sprint times were not different between trials (CHO 2.71 ± 0.15 s, PLA 2.70 ± 0.14 s; p = 0.202. Total distance covered in self-selected blocks (block 3: CHO 2.07 ± 0.06 km; PLA 2.09 ± 0.08 km; block 6: CHO 2.04 ± 0.09 km; PLA 2.06 ± 0.08 km; p = 0.122 was not different between trials. There was no difference between trials for distance covered (p ≥ 0.297 or mean speed (p ≥ 0.172 for jogging or cruising. Blood glucose concentration was greater (p < 0.001 at the end of half-time during the CHO trial. In conclusion, consumption of 250 mL of 12% CHO solution before and at half-time of a simulated soccer match does not affect self-selected running or sprint performance in a fed state.
Nedelec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Grégory
International audience; In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue...
Zulkifli Ahmad Fahim
Full Text Available Study aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a student centered curricular intervention on students’ self-efficacy and soccer skills performance. Materials and methods: One group of 25 mixed-gender students (ages 11-13 participated in this study of student centered soccer lessons twice per week (30 minutes on a soccer field for three weeks at a Southwestern USA Middle School. The intervention was designed to engage students in the skill lessons by adopting a student-centered approach, and reciprocal/peer teaching of the soccer skills. Students’ self-efficacy was assessed using the modified Traits Sport-Confidence Inventory. Soccer skill performance was assessed using previously validated skill tests. Further, students’ perception of reciprocal teaching were gathered using exit slips. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-tests to explore pre/post differences. Results: The students’ skill performance slightly improved. Students’ self-efficacy related to soccer skills was significantly higher at post-test. Students’ positively perceived the opportunities to participate in student-centered lessons and the use reciprocal teaching styles to work together in skill development. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that seventh-grade students could learn soccer skills, develop desirable perceptions and efficacy and improve their physical activity/sport participation levels as they engaged in student-centered teaching and learning.
This research examines the systematic process of developing an integrative play therapy group model for middle school male students, ages 11-15 who participate in bullying behaviors. Play therapy approaches and evidence-based practices are documented as effective measures for addressing bullying behaviors with children and adolescents. This group…
Spaaij, R.; Anderson, A.
Building on Braun and Vliegenthart’s recent study of soccer hooliganism, this article develops an explanatory model of soccer fan violence and collective violence more generally. The fabric of soccer fan violence becomes a richer tapestry if the diversity of the phenomenon is recognized and the
Matsuda, Sho; Fukubayashi, Toru; Hirose, Norikazu
There is a large amount of information regarding risk factors for fifth metatarsal stress fractures; however, there are few studies involving large numbers of subjects. This study aimed to compare the static foot alignment and distribution of foot pressure of athletes with and without a history of fifth metatarsal stress fractures. The study participants comprised 335 collegiate male soccer players. Twenty-nine with a history of fifth metatarsal stress fractures were in the fracture group and 306 were in the control group (with subgroups as follows: 30 in the fracture foot group and 28 in the non-fracture group). We measured the foot length, arch height, weight-bearing leg-heel alignment, non-weight-bearing leg-heel alignment, forefoot angle relative to the rearfoot, forefoot angle relative to the horizontal axis, and foot pressure. The non-weight-bearing leg-heel alignment was significantly smaller and the forefoot angle relative to the rearfoot was significantly greater in the fracture foot group than in the control foot group (P = 0.049 and P = 0.038, respectively). With regard to plantar pressure, there were no significant differences among the groups. Midfield players had significantly higher rates of fifth metatarsal stress fracture in their histories, whereas defenders had significantly lower rates (chi-square = 13.2, P stress fractures according to the type of foot (kicking foot vs. pivoting foot) or the severity of ankle sprain. Playing the midfield position and having an everted rearfoot and inverted forefoot alignment were associated with fifth metatarsal stress fractures. This information may be helpful for preventing fifth metatarsal stress fracture recurrence. More detailed load evaluations and a prospective study are needed in the future.
Suzue, Naoto; Iwame, Toshiyuki; Kato, Kenji; Takao, Shoichiro; Tateishi, Tomohiko; Takeda, Yoshitsugu; Hamada, Daisuke; Goto, Tomohiro; Takata, Yoichiro; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Sairyo, Koichi
We report the case of a 29-year-old male professional soccer player who presented with symptoms of plantar fasciitis. His symptoms occurred with no remarkable triggers and gradually worsened despite conservative treatments including taping, use of insoles, and physical therapy. Local corticosteroid injection was given twice as a further intervention, but his plantar fascia partially ruptured 49 days after the second injection. He was treated conservatively with platelet-rich plasma, and magnetic resonance imaging showed regenerative change of the ruptured fascia. Five months after the rupture, he returned to his original level of training. If professional athletes find it difficult to refrain from athletic activity, as in the present case, the risk of rupture due to corticosteroid injection should not be overlooked.
Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; van der Kamp, J.; Williams, A.M.; Ward, P.
A novel methodological approach is presented to examine the visual search behaviours employed by expert goalkeepers during simulated penalty kick situations in soccer. Expert soccer goalkeepers were classified as successful or unsuccessful based on their performance on a film-based test of
Bradley, P S; Bendiksen, M; Dellal, A; Mohr, M; Wilkie, A; Datson, N; Orntoft, C; Zebis, M; Gomez-Diaz, A; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P
The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2) to elite female soccer populations. Elite senior (n = 92), youth (n = 42), domestic (n = 46) and sub-elite female soccer players (n = 19) carried out the Yo-Yo IE2 test on numerous occasions across the season. Test-retest coefficient of variation (CV) in Yo-Yo IE2 test performance in domestic female players was 4.5%. Elite senior female players' Yo-Yo IE2 test performances were better (P wide midfielders (2057 ± 550 m) had a higher Yo-Yo IE2 test performance (P World Cup Finals (2049 ± 283 vs 1803 ± 342 m). The data demonstrate that the Yo-Yo IE2 test is reproducible and is an indicator of the match-specific physical capacity of female soccer players. Furthermore, the Yo-Yo IE2 test illustrates sensitivity by differentiating intermittent exercise performance of female players in various competitive levels, stages of the season and playing positions. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Freitas Camila G.
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine SIgA responses (concentration [SIgAabs] and a secretion rate [SIgArate] to official and simulated competitive matches in young soccer players. The sample was composed of 26 male soccer players (age 15.6 ± 1.1 yrs, stature 177.0 ± 6.1 cm, body mass 70.5 ± 5.7 kg. Four soccer matches (two simulated matches [SM] and two official matches [OM] were conducted. The matches consisted of two halves of 35 min with a 10 min rest interval. Each assessed player participated in only one SM and one OM. All matches were performed in the same week, during the competitive season, and at the same time of the day (9:00 am, separated by 48 h. Saliva samples were collected before and after every match. The session rating of perceived exertion was reported 30 min after each match in order to determine the internal training load (ITL. A significant decrease in SIgAabs and SIgArate after OM was observed when compared to the pre-match value. In addition, the SIgArate was higher at pre-OM when compared to pre-SM. A higher ITL for OM was observed compared to SM. The current findings indicate that OM may lead to a decrease in the main mucosal immunity function parameter of young soccer players that could increase the risk of URTI. Coaches should be aware of it in order to plan appropriate training loads and recovery procedures to avoid or minimize the likelihood of upper respiratory tract infection occurrences.
Roberto Dantas de Queiroz
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the return to sport after surgical treatment for pubalgia among 30 professional soccer players and describe the surgical technique used.METHOD: this case series was evaluated by means of a questionnaire and physical examination on 30 male professional soccer players of mean age 24.4 years (range: 18-30. The mean duration of the symptoms was 18.6 months (range: 13-28. The diagnosis was made through clinical investigation, special maneuvers and complementary examinations, by the same examiner. All the patients underwent surgical treatment after conservative treatment failed; all procedures were performed by the same surgeon using the same technique. Nonparametric comparisons were made to investigate the time taken to recover after the surgery, for the patients to return to their sport.RESULTS: five patients evolved with hematoma, with the need to remove the stitches three weeks after the operation because of a small dehiscence at the site of the operative wound. The wound healed completely in all these cases by five weeks after the surgery. Four patients presented dysuria in the first week, but improved in the second postoperative week. The mean time taken to return to training was around eight weeks (range: seven-nine. All the players returned to competitive soccer practice within 16 weeks. When asked about their degree of satisfaction after the operation (satisfied or dissatisfied, taking into consideration their return to the sport, there was 100% satisfaction, and they returned to professional practice at the same competitive level as before the injury. This degree of satisfaction continued to the last assessment, which was made after 36 months of postoperative follow-up.CONCLUSION: the surgical technique presented in this case series, with trapezoidal resection of the pubic symphysis in association with bilateral partial tenotomy of the long adductor, was a fast and effective procedure with a low rate of postoperative
de Queiroz, Roberto Dantas; de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; de Queiroz Szeles, Paulo Roberto; Janovsky, César; Cohen, Moisés
to evaluate the return to sport after surgical treatment for pubalgia among 30 professional soccer players and describe the surgical technique used. this case series was evaluated by means of a questionnaire and physical examination on 30 male professional soccer players of mean age 24.4 years (range: 18-30). The mean duration of the symptoms was 18.6 months (range: 13-28). The diagnosis was made through clinical investigation, special maneuvers and complementary examinations, by the same examiner. All the patients underwent surgical treatment after conservative treatment failed; all procedures were performed by the same surgeon using the same technique. Nonparametric comparisons were made to investigate the time taken to recover after the surgery, for the patients to return to their sport. five patients evolved with hematoma, with the need to remove the stitches three weeks after the operation because of a small dehiscence at the site of the operative wound. The wound healed completely in all these cases by five weeks after the surgery. Four patients presented dysuria in the first week, but improved in the second postoperative week. The mean time taken to return to training was around eight weeks (range: seven-nine). All the players returned to competitive soccer practice within 16 weeks. When asked about their degree of satisfaction after the operation (satisfied or dissatisfied), taking into consideration their return to the sport, there was 100% satisfaction, and they returned to professional practice at the same competitive level as before the injury. This degree of satisfaction continued to the last assessment, which was made after 36 months of postoperative follow-up. the surgical technique presented in this case series, with trapezoidal resection of the pubic symphysis in association with bilateral partial tenotomy of the long adductor, was a fast and effective procedure with a low rate of postoperative complications. It was shown to be an excellent
Müller, Lisa; Gonaus, Christoph; Perner, Christoph; Müller, Erich; Raschner, Christian
Since the relative age effect (RAE) characterizes a problem in all age categories of alpine ski racing and soccer and the fact that, yet, to date the underlying factors have not been well investigated, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE among youth alpine ski racers (YSR) and soccer players (SP). In total, 183 male and female YSR selected for national final races and 423 male SP selected for Elite Youth Development Centres were investigated. Additionally, a comparison group of 413 non-athletes was evaluated. The birth months were split into four relative age quarters. The biological maturity status was assessed by the age at peak height velocity (APHV) method; according to the M±SD of the comparison group, the athletes were divided into normal, early and late maturing. Chi2-tests indicated a significant RAE among YSR (χ2(3,N = 183) = 18.0; psports are effectively based on early biological development and relatively older age, both of which should be considered in future in the talent selection process. In this context, the easy feasible method of assessing the APHV can be used. PMID:28759890
Lucena, Rebecca Luna; Steinke, Ercília Torres; Pacheco, Christina; Vieira, Lucas Lima; Betancour, Maribel Olaya; Steinke, Valdir Adilson
The main objective of this research was to analyze the climate data for the host cities of the soccer World Cup held in Brazil in June and July 2014. A great deal of criticism was expressed about the Brazilian climate in the national and international press and media in the run-up to the competition, suggesting that the air temperature and relative air humidity would be the main adversaries of the soccer teams, especially those from Europe, during the competition. An analysis of the weather was done at the places and times of each of the 64 matches held. A human thermal comfort index was calculated (discomfort index (DI)) for each of the matches in order to discover the real climatic conditions in the host cities during the 2014 World Cup and their potential influence on the teams and human comfort in general. During the 2014 World Cup, only two matches were played at temperatures above 30 °C, representing a negligible percentage of the total number of matches. The air temperature for over half the matches (53%) was 20-25 °C. The results showed the air temperature and relative humidity data analyzed here both individually and in the form of an index indicate that the World Cup held in Brazil in 2014 did not put any of the players at risk due to extreme heat.
Śliwowski, Robert; Jadczak, Łukasz; Hejna, Rafał; Wieczorek, Andrzej
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a resistance training program on the muscular strength of soccer players’ knees that initially presented unilateral and bilateral differences. For this study, a team of 24 male well-trained junior soccer players was divided into two strength program training groups: a Resistance Training Control Group (RTCG) composed of 10 players that did not have muscular imbalances and a Resistance Training Experimental Group (RTEG) composed of 14 players that had muscular imbalances. All players followed a resistance training program for six weeks, two times per week, during the transition period. The program of individualized strength training consisted of two parts. The first part, which was identical in terms of the choice of training loads, was intended for both training groups and contained two series of exercises including upper and lower body exercises. The second part of the program was intended only for RTEG and consisted of two additional series for the groups of muscles that had identified unilateral and bilateral differences. The applied program showed various directions in the isokinetic profile of changes. In the case of RTCG, the adaptations related mainly to the quadriceps muscle (the peak torque (PT) change for the dominant leg was statistically significant (p soccer players. PMID:26630271
Wieczorek, Marta; Wiliński, Wojciech; Struzik, Artur; Rokita, Andrzej
Amputee soccer is one of the types of soccer designed for the disabled, especially those who have undergone amputations, as well as those with extremity dysfunction. The objective of the study was to find the relationship between hand grip strength and sprint time in amputee soccer players. Thirteen field amputee soccer players participated in the study. A SAEHAN hydraulic hand dynamometer manufactured by Jamar was used for hand grip strength measurements. The sprint running test was conducted over a distance of 30 m. The Fusion Smart Speed System was employed for running time measurements. No statistically significant relationships were found between hand grip strength of the left or right hand, and sprint times over 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 m. Analysis of the running velocity curve of the subjects showed an interesting profile characterized by a 15 meter-long acceleration phase and a significant velocity increase over a distance of 20 - 25 m. The study suggests that there is no relationship between hand grip strength and sprint effectiveness in amputee soccer players. The specificity of locomotion with the use of elbow crutches among elite Polish amputee soccer players probably accounts for the profile of the sprint velocity curve. Extension of the acceleration phase in the sprint run and a velocity increase in the subsequent part of the run were observed.
Full Text Available Amputee soccer is one of the types of soccer designed for the disabled, especially those who have undergone amputations, as well as those with extremity dysfunction. The objective of the study was to find the relationship between hand grip strength and sprint time in amputee soccer players. Thirteen field amputee soccer players participated in the study. A SAEHAN hydraulic hand dynamometer manufactured by Jamar was used for hand grip strength measurements. The sprint running test was conducted over a distance of 30 m. The Fusion Smart Speed System was employed for running time measurements. No statistically significant relationships were found between hand grip strength of the left or right hand, and sprint times over 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 m. Analysis of the running velocity curve of the subjects showed an interesting profile characterized by a 15 meter-long acceleration phase and a significant velocity increase over a distance of 20 – 25 m. The study suggests that there is no relationship between hand grip strength and sprint effectiveness in amputee soccer players. The specificity of locomotion with the use of elbow crutches among elite Polish amputee soccer players probably accounts for the profile of the sprint velocity curve. Extension of the acceleration phase in the sprint run and a velocity increase in the subsequent part of the run were observed.
Collins, Brian; Rovatsos, Michael
This paper describes an approach to using a hierarchical machine learning model in a two player 3D physics-based soccer video game to improve human player satisfaction. Learning is accomplished at two layers to form a complete game-playing agent such that higher level strategy learning is dependent on lower-level learning of basic behaviors.Supervised learning is used to train neural networks on human data to model the basic behaviors. The reinforcement learning algorithms Sarsa (λ) and Q(λ) ...
This study focused on coping strategies used by soccer (football) players by exploring the role of the environment, ethnicity and culture in players' response to stressful situations. An interpretive-qualitative research methodology was applied with a sample of 33 professional soccer players. The subjects were representative ...
Chrisman, Sara P.; O'Kane, John W.; Polissar, Nayak L.; Tencer, Allan F.; Mack, Christopher D.; Levy, Marni R.; Schiff, Melissa A.
Context Most researchers investigating soccer injuries have studied elite athletes because they have greater athletic-exposure hours than other athletes, but most youth participate at the recreational level. If risk factors for injury vary by soccer level, then recommendations generated using research with elite youth soccer players might not generalize to recreational players. Objective To examine injury risk factors of strength and jump biomechanics by soccer level in female youth athletes and to determine whether research recommendations based on elite youth athletes could be generalized to recreational players. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Seattle Youth Soccer Association. Patients or Other Participants Female soccer players (N = 92) aged 11 to 14 years were recruited from 4 randomly selected elite (n = 50; age = 12.5 years, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]) = 12.3, 12.8 years; height = 157.8 cm, 95% CI = 155.2, 160.3 cm; mass = 49.9 kg, 95% CI = 47.3, 52.6 kg) and 4 randomly selected recreational (n = 42; age = 13.2 years, 95% CI = 13.0, 13.5 years; height = 161.1 cm, 95% CI = 159.2, 163.1 cm; mass = 50.6 kg, 95% CI = 48.3, 53.0 kg) soccer teams. Main Outcome Measure(s) Players completed a questionnaire about demographics, history of previous injury, and soccer experience. Physical therapists used dynamometry to measure hip strength (abduction, adduction, extension, flexion) and knee strength (flexion, extension) and Sportsmetrics to measure vertical jump height and jump biomechanics. We compared all measurements by soccer level using linear regression to adjust for age and mass. Results Elite players were similar to recreational players in all measures of hip and knee strength, vertical jump height, and normalized knee separation (a valgus estimate generated using Sportsmetrics). Conclusions Female elite youth players and recreational players had similar lower extremity strength and jump biomechanics. This suggests that recommendations generated from
How coaches use their knowledge to develop small-sided soccer games: a case study. ... The method employed by coaches when designing small-sided soccer games has had limited attention from the ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Kramer, J.; Scheurecker, G. [Roentgeninstitut am Schillerpark, Linz (Austria)
Soccer is the most common sport activity worldwide. Over the last two decades the increase in soccer players has mainly been due to increased interest by females. In general, soccer is a relatively safe sport activity, especially if minor injuries resulting in short periods of absence from playing or training are neglected. However, due to the high number of soccer players severe injuries are also frequent. These are a problem not only for the injured player and the team but may also become problematic for the socio-economic system. In up to 80-90% structures of the lower extremities are injured. For sufficient radiological diagnosis knowledge of the biomechanics of the soccer game and some details about the history of the injury may be of help. To prevent soccer injuries or keep the degree of injury low, special programs had been developed. (orig.) [German] Fussball ist die weltweit am meisten verbreitete Sportart. Der Zuwachs an Fussballspieler(innen) in den letzten beiden Jahrzehnten wird jedoch hauptsaechlich auf das verstaerkte Interesse an weiblichen Spielern zurueckgefuehrt. Das Fussballspiel gilt grundsaetzlich, insbesondere wenn man geringfuegige Verletzungen, die keine therapeutischen Massnahmen notwendig machen, sondern lediglich eine kurzfristige Trainings- oder Spielpause bedingen, als eine relativ sichere Sportart. Auf Grund der Vielzahl an SpielerInnen kommt es allerdings doch zu einer betraechtlichen Anzahl durchaus sehr schwerer Verletzungen. Diese Tatsache stellt ein Problem fuer Spieler und Team dar und mag moeglicherweise auch fuer das soziooekonomische System problematisch werden. Von Verletzungen sind v. a. auf Grund der Natur des Spieles die unteren Extremitaeten betroffen. Zur Durchfuehrung einer suffizienten radiologischen Diagnostik sind Kenntnisse der moeglichen Verletzungsmechanismen und eine Anamneseerhebung von nicht zu unterschaetzendem Wert. Um jedoch derartige Laesionen zu vermeiden bzw. gering zu halten, wurde ueber die Jahre
Diment, Gregory Michael
a systematic observation checklist of mental toughness behavior in professional soccer. Consistent with existing studies, the results created a systematic observation instrument containing 15 mental toughness behaviors. Practical implications include goal-setting, game analysis and self-modeling interventions...
Alex Christiano Barreto Fensterseifer; Nivia Marcia Velho; Mário Luiz C. Barroso
Violence in Soccer has been worrying specialists in Physical Education, Psychology, Sociology, Law and Press for many years. Despite their best efforts to reduce it, violence continues to increase. The purpose of this review study is to verify what the above-mentioned sciences have to say about violence in soccer. The literature suggests that there are two big theories about this problem: an internal and psychological one, and an external and sociological one. Therefore, data analyses suggest...
Furley, Philip; Dicks, Matt; Memmert, Daniel
In the present article, we investigate the effects of specific nonverbal behaviors signaling dominance and submissiveness on impression formation and outcome expectation in the soccer penalty kick situation. In Experiment 1, results indicated that penalty takers with dominant body language are perceived more positively by soccer goalkeepers and players and are expected to perform better than players with a submissive body language. This effect was similar for both video and point-light displays. Moreover, in contrast to previous studies, we found no effect of clothing (red vs. white) in the video condition. In Experiment 2, we used the implicit association test to demonstrate that dominant body language is implicitly associated with a positive soccer player schema whereas submissive body language is implicitly associated with a negative soccer player schema. The implications of our findings are discussed with reference to future implications for theory and research in the study of person perception in sport.
Luiz Fernando Novack
Full Text Available This study analyzed classical and developed novel mathematical models to predict body fat percentage (%BF in professional soccer players from the South Brazilian region using skinfold thicknesses measurement. Skinfolds of thirty one male professional soccer players (age of 21.48 ± 3.38 years, body mass of 79.05 ± 9.48 kg and height of 181.97 ± 8.11 cm were introduced into eight mathematical models from the literature for the prediction of %BF; these results were then compared to Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA. The classical equations were able to account from 65% to 79% of the variation of %BF in DXA. Statistical differences between most of the classical equations (seven of the eight classic equations and DXA were found, rendering their widespread use in this population useless. We developed three new equations for prediction of %BF with skinfolds from: axils, abdomen, thighs and calves. Theses equations accounted for 86.5% of the variation in %BF obtained with DXA.
Hammami, Amri; Zois, James; Slimani, Maamer; Russel, Mark; Bouhlel, Ezdine
This review aimed 1) to evaluate the current research that examines the efficacy of warm-up (WU) and re-warm-up (RWU) on physical performance; and 2) to highlight the WU and RWU characteristics that optimise subsequent performance in soccer players. A computerized search was performed in the PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar (from 1995 to December 2015) for English-language, peer-reviewed investigations using the terms "soccer" OR "football" AND "warm-up" OR "stretching" OR "post-activation potentiation" OR "pre-activity" OR "re-warm-up" AND "performance" OR "jump" OR "sprint" OR "running". Twenty seven articles were retrieved. Particularly, 22 articles examined the effects of WU on soccer performance and 5 articles focused on the effects of RWU. Clear evidence exists supporting the inclusion of dynamic stretching or postactivation potentiation-based exercises within a WU as acute performance enhancements were reported (pooled estimate changes of +3.46% and +4.21%, respectively). The FIFA 11+ WU also significantly increases strength, jump, speed and explosive performances (changes from 1% to 20%). At half-time, active RWU protocols including postactivation potentiation practices and multidirectional speed drills attenuate temperature and performance reductions induced by habitual practice. The data obtained in the present review showed that the level of play did not moderate the effectiveness of WU and RWU on soccer performance. This review demonstrated that a static stretching WU reduced acute subsequent performance, while WU activities that include dynamic stretching, PAP-based exercises, and the FIFA 11+ can elicit positive effects in soccer players. The efficacy of an active RWU during half-time is also justified.
Rafn, Bolette S; Tang, Lars; Nielsen, Martin P; Branci, Sonia; Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian
To investigate whether self-reported pain during hip strength testing correlates to a large degree with hip muscle strength in soccer players with long-standing unilateral hip and groin pain. Cross-sectional study. Clinical assessments at Sports Orthopaedic Research Center-Copenhagen (SORC-C), Arthroscopic Centre Amager, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. Twenty-four male soccer players with unilateral long-standing hip and groin pain. The soccer players performed 5 reliable hip muscle strength tests (isometric hip flexion, adduction, abduction, isometric hip flexion-modified Thomas test, and eccentric hip adduction). Muscle strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer, and the players rated the pain during testing on a numerical rating scale (0-10). In 4 tests (isometric hip adduction, abduction, flexion, and eccentric adduction), no significant correlations were found between pain during testing and hip muscle strength (Spearman rho = -0.28 to 0.06, P = 0.09-0.39). Isometric hip flexion (modified Thomas test position) showed a moderate negative correlation between pain and hip muscle strength (Spearman rho = -0.44, P = 0.016). Self-reported pain during testing does not seem to correlate with the majority of hip muscle strength tests used in soccer players with long-standing hip and groin pain.
Martin, Louise; Lambeth, Anneliese; Scott, Dawn
The aim of the study was to establish the nutritional practices and activity patterns of elite female soccer players. The nutritional intake of 16 female England Soccer players was self-reported over a seven-day period. Participants were provided with written and verbal guidelines for the completion of the diaries. Training details were also recorded, and used in combination with BMR predictions to calculate daily energy expenditure. Energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intakes were determined using DietMaster 4.0 software. Results suggest that energy intake was low (1904 ± 366.3 kcal) in relation to previous recommendations for soccer players. Energy expenditure (2153.5 ± 596.2 kcal) was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from intake, suggesting energy balance was achieved. Carbohydrate (53.8 ± 6.8%), protein (16.8 ± 2.1%) and fat (28.8 ± 6.6%) intakes were in line with recommendations. Fluid intake (2466 ± 1350.5ml·day-1) was sufficient to meet baseline recommendations, but would need to be higher to meet the additional requirement of training and competition. With the exception of vitamin A and iron, all micronutrient intakes were higher than the DRI. In conclusion, recommendations for female soccer players are to encourage consumption of carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages to enhance carbohydrate intake and increase fluid intake, and ensure sufficient iron rich foods are included in the diet to meet the DRI. Key points Female soccer players demonstrate a low energy intake in relation to predicted requirements, but were in energy balance in this study. Increased carbohydrate intake may be beneficial to both training and competition performance of elite female soccer players Fluid requirements should be addressed on an individual basis and matched to player requirements. The iron status of female soccer players may be compromised due to insufficient dietary intake to meet the DRV. PMID:24198690
Martin, Louise; Lambeth, Anneliese; Scott, Dawn
The aim of the study was to establish the nutritional practices and activity patterns of elite female soccer players. The nutritional intake of 16 female England Soccer players was self-reported over a seven-day period. Participants were provided with written and verbal guidelines for the completion of the diaries. Training details were also recorded, and used in combination with BMR predictions to calculate daily energy expenditure. Energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intakes were determined using DietMaster 4.0 software. Results suggest that energy intake was low (1904 ± 366.3 kcal) in relation to previous recommendations for soccer players. Energy expenditure (2153.5 ± 596.2 kcal) was not significantly different (p > 0.05) from intake, suggesting energy balance was achieved. Carbohydrate (53.8 ± 6.8%), protein (16.8 ± 2.1%) and fat (28.8 ± 6.6%) intakes were in line with recommendations. Fluid intake (2466 ± 1350.5ml·day(-1)) was sufficient to meet baseline recommendations, but would need to be higher to meet the additional requirement of training and competition. With the exception of vitamin A and iron, all micronutrient intakes were higher than the DRI. In conclusion, recommendations for female soccer players are to encourage consumption of carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages to enhance carbohydrate intake and increase fluid intake, and ensure sufficient iron rich foods are included in the diet to meet the DRI. Key pointsFemale soccer players demonstrate a low energy intake in relation to predicted requirements, but were in energy balance in this study.Increased carbohydrate intake may be beneficial to both training and competition performance of elite female soccer playersFluid requirements should be addressed on an individual basis and matched to player requirements.The iron status of female soccer players may be compromised due to insufficient dietary intake to meet the DRV.
Jordet, Geir; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen A P M
The soccer "penalty shootout" in the knock-out phase of major international tournaments is one of the most dramatic events in international soccer. The outcome of these kicks is typically attributed to factors such as psychology (e.g. coping with stress), skill (e.g. kicking technique), physiology (e.g. overcoming the fatigue of 120 min play), and chance (e.g. in what direction the goalkeeper moves). The purpose of this study was to use internet game record data to estimate the relative importance of these performance components for the outcome of penalty kicks in international matches. Data were collected from soccer statistics internet sites on all 41 penalty shootouts and 409 kicks taken in the World Cup, European Championships, and Copa America between 1976 and 2004. The results showed that the importance of the kicks (indicative of stress) was negatively related to the outcomes of the kicks, whereas skill and fatigue were less, or not, related to outcome. It was concluded that psychological components are most influential for the outcome of penalty kicks. We recommend that practitioners work with players to reduce the perceived importance of each kick.
Dellal, Alexandre; Lago-Penas, Carlos; Wong, Del P; Chamari, Karim
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the number of ball touches authorized per possession on the physical demands, technical performances and physiological responses throughout the bouts within 4 vs. 4 soccer small-sided games (SSGs). Twenty international soccer players (27.4 ± 1.5 y, 180.6 ± 2.3 cm, 79.2 ± 4.2 kg, body fat 12.7 ± 1.2%) performed three different 4 vs. 4 SSGs (4 × 4 min) in which the number of ball touches authorized per possession was manipulated (1 touch = 1T; 2 touches = 2T; Free Play = FP). The SSGs were divided in 4 bouts (B1, B2, B3 and B4) separated by 3 min of passive recovery. The physical performances, technical activities, heart rate responses, blood lactate and RPE were analyzed. The FP rule presented greater number of duels, induced the lowest decreases of the sprint and high-intensity performances, and affected less the technical actions (successful passes and number of ball losses) from B1 to B4 as compared with 1T and 2T forms. Moreover, the SSG played in 1T form led to reach higher solicitation of the high-intensity actions while players presented more difficulty to perform a correct technical action. The modification of the number of ball touches authorized per possession affects the soccer player activity from the first to the last bout of SSG, indicating that the determination of this rule has to be precisely planned by the coach according to the objectives of the training.
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of additional in-season speed endurance production versus speed endurance maintenance training regimes on performance in competitive male soccer players. In a randomised controlled trial 18 male sub-elite players were exposed to additional speed endurance production (SEP or speed endurance maintenance (SEM training (two additional sessions/wk for 4 weeks during the competitive season. Players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test (YYIR2 and a repeated sprint test (RST pre- and post-intervention. Yo-Yo IR2 performance increased (p<0.001 by 50 ± 8% and 26 ± 5% in SEP and SEM, respectively, with greater (p=0.03 improvement in SEP. RST performance improved by 2.1 ± 0.3% and 1.3 ± 0.4% in SEP and SEM, respectively, while the RST fatigue index decreased (4.4 ± 0.8 to 3.4 ± 0.5%; p<0.04 in SEP only. Peak and average speed during training were higher (p<0.001 in SEP than in SEM (24.5 ± 0.3 vs 19.2 ± 0.3 and 15.5 ± 0.1 km·h-1 vs 9.4 ± 0.1 km·h-1. Additional in-season anaerobic speed endurance production and maintenance training improves high-intensity exercise performance in competitive soccer players with superior effects of speed endurance production training.
Yáñez-Silva, Aquiles; Buzzachera, Cosme F; Piçarro, Ivan Da C; Januario, Renata S B; Ferreira, Luis H B; McAnulty, Steven R; Utter, Alan C; Souza-Junior, Tacito P
To determine the effects of a low dose, short-term Creatine monohydrate (Cr) supplementation (0.03 g.kg.d -1 during 14 d) on muscle power output in elite youth soccer players. Using a two-group matched, double blind, placebo-controlled design, nineteen male soccer players (mean age = 17.0 ± 0.5 years) were randomly assigned to either Cr ( N = 9) or placebo ( N = 10) group. Before and after supplementation, participants performed a 30s Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) to assess peak power output (PPO), mean power output (MPO), fatigue index (FI), and total work. There were significant increases in both PPO and MPO after the Cr supplementation period ( P ≤ 0.05) but not the placebo period. There were also significant increases in total work, but not FI, after the Cr supplementation and placebo periods ( P ≤ 0.05). Notably, there were differences in total work between the Cr and placebo groups after ( P ≤ 0.05) but not before the 14 d supplementation period. There is substantial evidence to indicate that a low-dose, short-term oral Cr supplementation beneficially affected muscle power output in elite youth soccer players.
Andrade-Souza, Victor Amorim; Bertuzzi, Romulo; de Araujo, Gustavo Gomes; Bishop, David; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo
This study aimed to investigate whether isolated or combined carbohydrate (CHO) and caffeine (CAF) supplementation have beneficial effects on performance during soccer-related tests performed after a previous training session. Eleven male, amateur soccer players completed 4 trials in a randomized, double-blind, and crossover design. In the morning, participants performed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST). Then, participants ingested (i) 1.2 g·kg(-1) body mass·h(-1) CHO in a 20% CHO solution immediately after and 1, 2, and 3 h after the LIST; (ii) CAF (6 mg·kg(-1) body mass) 3 h after the LIST; (iii) CHO combined with CAF (CHO+CAF); and (iv) placebo. All drinks were taste-matched and flavourless. After this 4-h recovery, participants performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) test, a Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT), and a repeated-sprint test. There were no main effects of supplementation for CMJ, LSPT total time, or best sprint and total sprint time from the repeated-sprint test (p>0.05). There were also no main effects of supplementation for heart rate, plasma lactate concentration, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), pleasure-displeasure, and perceived activation (p>0.05). However, there were significant time effects (psoccer-related performance tests when performed after a previous training session.
Tounsi, Mohamed; Jaafar, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Souissi, Nizar
This study aimed to examine the combined effects of menstrual cycle phase and moment of day on female soccer players' performances in the five-jump test (5JT), the repeated shuttle-sprint ability test (RSSA), and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIRT1). Eleven eumenorrheic Tunisian high-level soccer players volunteered to participate. Each subject individually participated in three testing periods: one in the early follicular phase (menses), one in the late follicular phase, and another in the luteal phase. In each period, two test sessions were conducted: one at 07:30 and another at 17:30. The testing routines included the 5JT, the RSSA, and the YYIRT1. None of the measured variables were altered due to menstrual cycle phase (all P>0.05). Mean time during RSSA was significantly lower in the afternoon session compared to the morning session (8.48±0.27 s and 8.77±0.34 s, respectively, P<0.001), while 5JT performance was significantly higher in the afternoon compared to the morning (9.08±0.58 m and 8.60±0.56 m, respectively, P<0.001). Soccer-specific endurance as well as jumping and repeated sprinting ability of Tunisian female high-level soccer players are not affected due to menstrual cycle phase neither in the morning nor in the afternoon.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Soccer is a form of exercise that induces inflammatory response, as well as an increase in free radicals potentially leading to muscle injury. Balanced nutritional intake provides important antioxidant vitamins, including vitamins A, C and E, which may assist in preventing exercise-related muscle damage. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of macro/micronutrient intake on markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage, inflammatory and immune response in female soccer players. Methods Twenty-eight female players belonging to two soccer teams of the same professional soccer club participated in this study after being informed about the aims and procedures and after delivering written consent. Each team completed an 8-day dietary record and played one competition match the same week.