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Sample records for male greater cane

  1. Male greater sage-grouse detectability on leks

    Aleshia L. Fremgen; Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; R. Scott Gamo; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2016-01-01

    It is unlikely all male sage-grouse are detected during lek counts, which could complicate the use of lek counts as an index to population abundance. Understanding factors that influence detection probabilities will allow managers to more accurately estimate the number of males present on leks. We fitted 410 males with global positioning system and very high...

  2. Relationships among cane fitting, function, and falls.

    Dean, E; Ross, J

    1993-08-01

    Although canes are among the most commonly used mobility aids, little is known about the relationship between cane prescription and effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among cane fitting (ie, cane fitter, cane band, and cane length), reported improvements in function, and reduction in falls. Cane users living in the community (86 women and 58 men with a median age distribution of 61 to 80 years) and sampled from seven urban shopping centers in British Columbia, Canada, participated in the study. The primary reasons cited for using a cane were joint problems (39%), general balance difficulties (30%), and a combination of joint and balance problems (15%). Measures included appropriateness of cane length and responses to closed-ended questions related to qualifications of the cane fitter, cane band, functional ability with a cane, and falling frequency. Overall, cane use was associated with improved confidence and functional ability. Canes fitted by health care workers approximated the clinically recommended length compared with canes fitted by non-health care workers, which tended to be greater than this length. There was no relationship, however, between cane fitting (cane fitter, cane hand, and appropriateness of cane length) and functional ability with a cane and falling frequency [corrected]. We concluded that health care workers may need to reconsider the variables for optimal cane prescription and their specifications for a given individual. The notion of a correct length and cane hand, for example, may be less important than factors such as the indications for cane use, comfort, and enhanced confidence.

  3. The effect of sugar cane molasses on the immune and male reproductive systems using in vitro and in vivo methods

    Farzana Rahiman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Sugar cane molasses is a commonly used ingredient in several food products. Contrasting reports suggest that molasses may have potential adverse or beneficial effects on human health. However, little evidence exists that examines the effects of molasses on the different physiological systems. This study investigated the effects of sugar cane molasses on various physiological systems using in vivo and in vitro methods. Materials and Methods: Molasses was administered orally to BALB/c, male mice and animals were randomly assigned into either a treatment or control group. General physiological changes, body weight and molasses intake of animals were monitored. At the end of the exposure period, collected blood samples were evaluated for potential toxicity using plasma biomarkers and liver enzyme activity. Immunised treated and untreated mice were evaluated for antibody titre to determine the effect of molasses on the immune response. To investigate the impact of molasses on testicular steroidogenesis, testes from both treated and control groups were harvested, cultured and assayed for testosterone synthesis.  Results: Findings suggest that fluid intake by molasses-treated animals was significantly increased and these animals showed symptoms of loose faeces. Molasses had no significant effect on body weight, serum biomarkers or liver enzyme activity (P>0.05.  Immunoglobulin-gamma anti-antigen levels were significantly suppressed in molasses-treated groups (P=0.004. Animals subjected to molasses exposure also exhibited elevated levels of testosterone synthesis (P=0.001. Conclusion: Findings suggests that molasses adversely affects the humoral immune response. The results also promote the use of molasses as a supplement to increase testosterone levels.

  4. Male Astronauts Have Greater Bone Loss and Risk of Hip Fracture Following Long Duration Spaceflights than Females

    Ellman, Rachel; Sibonga, Jean; Bouxsein, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews bone loss in males and compares it to female bone loss during long duration spaceflight. The study indicates that males suffer greater bone loss than females and have a greater risk of hip fracture. Two possible reason for the greater male bone loss are that the pre-menopausal females have the estrogen protection and the greater strength of men max out the exercise equipment that provide a limited resistance to 135 kg.

  5. CYTOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF MALE BREAST LESIONS IN GREATER GWALIOR : A FIVE YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Jagannath

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS: Fine needle aspiration cytology is an effective modality for diagnosis of breast lesions. Usually male breast lesions are benign and affect the young male. Most common lesion is gynaecomastia. Male breast cancer accounts for a small proportion of breast cancers. Male breast cancer usually presents at an advanced age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the nature of male breast lesions and to determine the cytomorphologic patterns of these lesions. MET HODS: five year retrospective study was conducted in our institution and in that 112 patients underwent fine needle aspiration cytology of the palpable breast lump after thorough physical examination. The cytological diagnosis was classified as benign, inf lammatory, malignant and others. RESULTS: In 112 male patients diagnosed with breast lesions, the most common lesion was gynecomastia (103/112, 91.9%, followed by breast cancer (6/112, 5.4%, inflammatory (2/112, 1.8% and apocrine metaplasia (01/112, 0.9 %. Gynecomastia was commonly found in male patients less than 40 years of age, while breast cancer is seen in male patients over 40 years of age

  6. Spatial heterogeneity in response of male greater sage-grouse lek attendance to energy development.

    Andrew J Gregory

    Full Text Available Landscape modification due to rapidly expanding energy development, in particular oil and gas, in the westernUSA, have prompted concerns over how such developments may impact wildlife. One species of conservation concern across much of the Intermountain West is the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercusurophasianus. Sage-grouse have been petitioned for listing under provisions of the Endangered Species Act 7 times and the state of Wyoming alone represents 64% of the extant sage-grouse population in the eastern portion of their range. Consequently, the relationship between sage-grouse populations and oil and gas development in Wyoming is an important component to managing the long-term viability of this species. We used 814 leks from the Wyoming Game and Fish Department's lek survey database and well pad data from the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission to evaluate changes in sage-grouse lek counts as a function of oil and gas development since 1991.From 1991-2011 we found that oil and gas well-pad density increased 3.6-fold across the state and was associated with a 24% decline in the number of male sage-grouse. Using a spatial and temporally structured analysis via Geographically Weighted Regression, we found a 1-to-4 year time lag between development density and lek decline. Sage-grouse also responded to development densities at multiple spatial neighborhoods surrounding leks, including broad scales of 10 km. However, sage-grouse lek counts do not always decline as a result of oil and gas development. We found similar development densities resulting in different sage-grouse lek count responses, suggesting that development density alone is insufficient to predict the impacts that oil and gas development have on sage-grouse. Finally, our analysis suggests a maximum development density of 1 well-pad within 2 km of leks to avoid measurable impacts within 1 year, and <6 well-pads within 10 km of leks to avoid delayed impacts.

  7. Reproductive history of cane rat: a review of the reproduction and ...

    This study evaluates in a review the reproduction and reproductive performance of cane rat. Breeding time in cane rat depends on which part of Africa the Animal is found and the weather. In the wild, cane rat lives in groups of males and females during the breeding season. The wet season of the year is the usual breeding ...

  8. Do ewes born with a male co-twin have greater longevity with lambing over time?

    Based on a recent analysis of historical records, ewes born co-twin to a ram had greater lifetime reproductive performance than ewes born co-twin to a ewe. We are interested in determining what component(s) of lifetime reproductive performance may be associated with a ewe’s co-twin sex. As an initi...

  9. Lek ecology of male greater sage-grouse in Carbon County, Wyoming

    Aleshia Lynn Fremgen

    2014-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter "sage-grouse") have experienced range-wide population declines for several decades, and as a result they were considered warranted for listing under the Endangered Species Act in 2010. Therefore, wildlife managers need to understand how sage-grouse breeding behavior influences long-term reproductive...

  10. IGF1 stimulates greater muscle hypertrophy in the absence of myostatin in male mice.

    Hennebry, Alexander; Oldham, Jenny; Shavlakadze, Tea; Grounds, Miranda D; Sheard, Philip; Fiorotto, Marta L; Falconer, Shelley; Smith, Heather K; Berry, Carole; Jeanplong, Ferenc; Bracegirdle, Jeremy; Matthews, Kenneth; Nicholas, Gina; Senna-Salerno, Mônica; Watson, Trevor; McMahon, Christopher D

    2017-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and myostatin have opposing roles in regulating the growth and size of skeletal muscle, with IGF1 stimulating, and myostatin inhibiting, growth. However, it remains unclear whether these proteins have mutually dependent, or independent, roles. To clarify this issue, we crossed myostatin null ( Mstn -/- ) mice with mice overexpressing Igf1 in skeletal muscle ( Igf1 + ) to generate six genotypes of male mice; wild type ( Mstn +/+ ), Mstn +/- , Mstn -/- , Mstn +/+ :Igf1 + , Mstn +/- :Igf1 + and Mstn -/- :Igf1 + Overexpression of Igf1 increased the mass of mixed fibre type muscles (e.g. Quadriceps femoris ) by 19% over Mstn +/+ , 33% over Mstn +/- and 49% over Mstn -/- ( P  Myostatin regulated the number, while IGF1 regulated the size of myofibres, and the deletion of Mstn and Igf1 + independently increased the proportion of fast type IIB myosin heavy chain isoforms in T. anterior (up to 10% each, P  myostatin is absent and IGF1 is in excess. Finally, we show that myostatin and IGF1 regulate skeletal muscle size, myofibre type and gonadal fat through distinct mechanisms that involve increasing the total abundance and phosphorylation status of AKT and rpS6. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. The risk of cirrhosis in non-alcohol drinkers is greater in female than male betel nut chewers.

    Chu, Yu-Hua; Wang, Lee; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Lan, Shou-Jen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2018-02-02

    The association of betel nut with liver cirrhosis among alcohol drinkers has been clearly shown. However, very few studies have shown such an association among non-alcohol drinkers. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between betel nut chewing and cirrhosis among non-alcohol drinkers. This study retrospectively analyzed data retrieved from the 2012 Adult Preventive Medical Services and the National Health Insurance Research Datasets in Taiwan. Participants' information included physical examination and lifestyle, alongside laboratory tests. Betel nut chewers were grouped into three categories: never, occasional and frequent. Diseases were diagnosed using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). Initially, 1573024 adults aged 40 years and above who engaged in the free adult preventive medical services in 2012 were recruited. However, only 1065246 of them were included in the analysis. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for the analyses. After multivariable adjustments, there were significant relationships between cirrhosis and betel nut chewing in both sexes (P-trend betel nut chewing and cirrhosis in both male and female non-alcohol drinkers. The risk of cirrhosis was greater in female than male chewers.

  12. Sex-specific automatic responses to infant cries: TMS reveals greater excitability in females than males in motor evoked potentials

    Irene eMessina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging reveals that infant cries activate parts of the premotor cortical system. To validate this effect in a more direct way, we used event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Here, we investigated the presence and the time course of modulation of motor cortex excitability in young adults who listened to infant cries. Specifically, we recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs from the biceps brachii (BB and interosseus dorsalis primus (ID1 muscles as produced by TMS delivered from 0 to 250 ms from sound onset in six steps of 50 ms in 10 females and 10 males. We observed an excitatory modulation of MEPs at 100 ms from the onset of the infant cry specific to females and to the ID1 muscle. We regard this modulation as a response to natural cry sounds because it was delayed, attenuated to stimuli increasingly different from natural cry, and was absent in a separate group of females who listened to non-cry stimuli physically matched to natural infant cries. Furthermore, the 100-ms latency of this modulation is not compatible with a voluntary reaction to the stimulus but suggests an automatic, bottom-up audiomotor association. The brains of adult females appear to be tuned to respond to infant cries with automatic motor excitation. This effect may reflect the greater and longstanding burden on females in caregiving infants.

  13. Differential metabolism of acrylonitrile to cyanide is responsible for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice: role of CYP2E1 and epoxide hydrolases

    Chanas, Brian; Wang, Hongbing; Ghanayem, Burhan I.

    2003-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN) is a potent toxicant and a known rodent carcinogen. AN epoxidation to cyanoethylene oxide (CEO) via CYP2E1 and its subsequent metabolism via epoxide hydrolases (EH) to yield cyanide is thought to be responsible for the acute toxicity and mortality of AN. Recent reports showed that male mice are more sensitive than females to the acute toxicity/mortality of AN. The present work was undertaken to assess the metabolic and enzymatic basis for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice to AN toxicity. Male and female wild-type and CYP2E1-null mice received AN at 0, 2.5, 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg by gavage. Cyanide concentrations were measured at 1 or 3 h after dosing. Current data demonstrated that cyanide levels in blood and tissues of AN-treated wild-type mice of both sexes were significantly greater than in vehicle-treated controls and increased in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, cyanide levels in AN-treated CYP2E1-null mice were not statistically different from those measured in vehicle-treated controls. Furthermore, higher levels of cyanide were detected in male wild-type mice vs females in association with greater sensitivity of males to the acute toxicity/mortality of this chemical. Using Western blot analysis, negligible difference in CYP2E1 expression with higher levels of soluble and microsomal EH (sEH and mEH) was detected in the liver of male vs female mice. In kidneys, male mice exhibited higher expression of both renal CYP2E1 and sEH than did female mice. In conclusion, higher blood and tissue cyanide levels are responsible for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice to AN. Further, higher expression of CYP2E1 and EH in male mice may contribute to greater formation of CEO and its subsequent metabolism to yield cyanide, respectively

  14. Smart Cane-Assistive Cane for Visually-impaired People

    Mohd Helmy Abd Wahab; Amirul A Talib; Herdawatie A Kadir; Ayob Johari; A Noraziah; Roslina M Sidek; Ariffin A Mutalib

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that helps visually-impaired people to walk more confidently. The study hypothesizes that a smart cane that alerts visually-impaired people over obstacles in front could help them in walking with less accident. The aim of the paper is to address the development work of a cane that could communicate with the users through voice alert and vibration, which is named Smart Cane. The development work involves coding and physical installation. A series of tests have bee...

  15. Effects of premature birth on the risk for alcoholism appear to be greater in males than females

    Manzardo, Ann M; Madarasz, Wendy V; Penick, Elizabeth C

    2011-01-01

    A large Danish birth cohort was used to test the independent and joint effects of perinatal measures associated with premature birth as predictors of the development of alcoholism in male and female subjects.......A large Danish birth cohort was used to test the independent and joint effects of perinatal measures associated with premature birth as predictors of the development of alcoholism in male and female subjects....

  16. Effect of a cane on sit-to-stand transfer in subjects with hemiparesis.

    Hu, Po-Ting; Lin, Kwan-Hwa; Lu, Tung-Wu; Tang, Pei-Fang; Hu, Ming-Hsia; Lai, Jin-Shin

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of using a cane on movement time, joint moment, weight symmetry, and muscle activation patterns during sit-to-stand (STS) transfer in healthy subjects and subjects who have had a stroke. Nine subjects with hemiparesis (mean [SD] age, 61.11 [12.83] yrs) and nine healthy adults (mean [SD] age, 63.11 [10.54] yrs) were included. The subjects with hemiparesis performed STS transfer in two randomly assigned conditions: (1) without a cane and (2) with a cane. The healthy subjects performed only STS transfer without a cane. A three-dimensional motion system, force plates, and eletromyography were used to examine STS transfer. The symmetry index between the two limbs was calculated. The movement time of the subjects with hemiparesis in both conditions without a cane and with a cane was longer than that of the healthy subjects without a cane (P hemiparesis resulted in shorter movement time, greater knee extensor moment of the paretic limb, and more symmetry of weight bearing than in those without a cane (P hemiparesis. Cane use may promote more symmetrical STS transfers rather than compensation by the unaffected limb.

  17. Do women CEOs face greater threat of shareholder activism compared to male CEOs? A role congruity perspective.

    Gupta, Vishal K; Han, Seonghee; Mortal, Sandra C; Silveri, Sabatino Dino; Turban, Daniel B

    2018-02-01

    We examine the glass cliff proposition that female CEOs receive more scrutiny than male CEOs, by investigating whether CEO gender is related to threats from activist investors in public firms. Activist investors are extraorganizational stakeholders who, when dissatisfied with some aspect of the way the firm is being managed, seek to change the strategy or operations of the firm. Although some have argued that women will be viewed more favorably than men in top leadership positions (so-called "female leadership" advantage logic), we build on role congruity theory to hypothesize that female CEOs are significantly more likely than male CEOs to come under threat from activist investors. Results support our predictions, suggesting that female CEOs may face additional challenges not faced by male CEOs. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Sex matters: females in proestrus show greater diazepam anxiolysis and brain-derived neurotrophin factor- and parvalbumin-positive neurons than males.

    Ravenelle, Rebecca; Berman, Ariel K; La, Jeffrey; Mason, Briana; Asumadu, Evans; Yelleswarapu, Chandra; Donaldson, S Tiffany

    2018-04-01

    In humans and animal models, sex differences are reported for anxiety-like behavior and response to anxiogenic stimuli. In the current work, we studied anxiety-like behavior and response to the prototypical anti-anxiety drug, diazepam. We used 6th generation outbred lines of adult Long Evans rats with high and low anxiety-like behavior phenotypes to investigate the impact of proestrus on the baseline and diazepam-induced behavior. At three doses of diazepam (0, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), we measured anxiogenic responses on the elevated plus maze of adult male and female rats. We assessed parvalbumin and brain-derived neurotrophin protein levels in forebrain and limbic structures implicated in anxiety/stress using immunohistochemistry. At baseline, we saw significant differences between anxiety lines, with high anxiety lines displaying less time on the open arms of the elevated plus maze, and less open arm entries, regardless of sex. During proestrus, high anxiety females showed less anxiety-like behavior at 0.1 mg/kg, while low anxiety females displayed less anxiety-like behavior at 0.1 and 1.0 doses, relative to males. Brain-derived neurotrophin protein was elevated in females in the medial prefrontal cortex and central amygdala, while parvalbumin-immunoreactive cells were greater in males in the medial prefrontal cortex. Parvalbumin-positive cells in high anxiety females were higher in CA2 and dentate gyrus relative to males from the same line. In sum, when tested in proestrus, females showed greater anxiolytic effects of diazepam relative to males, and this correlated with increases in neurotrophin and parvalbumin neuron density in corticolimbic structures. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Philippines sugar cane ethanol plant

    1981-03-06

    The Philippines' National Alcohol Commission has called for international tenders for the construction of ethanol from sugar cane plants. Interested companies have been asked to quote for capacities of 60,000, 120,000 and 180,000 litre per day. The initial tender calls for three plants but the figure could rise to ten which would then be worth about $20 million.

  20. Smut resistance in sugar cane

    1989-01-01

    Full text: From a mutation breeding programme with the popular early maturing sugar cane variety CoC 671 fourteen clones could be selected which were found to be free of smut infection after three successive years of artificial testing. Smut resistance was also found after in-vitro culture propagation of susceptible cultivars G80-454 and CoC 671. (author)

  1. Seasonal variation of prices of sugar cane, ethanol and electric power

    Melo, Carmem Ozana de; Silva, Gerson Henrique da; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal price of sugar cane, fuel alcohol (hydrated and anhydrous) and electricity tariffs as a way of aiding tool for optimization of energy generation, using biomass originating from cane sugar. Using the method of moving average centered was concluded that cane and electricity rates were close to seasonal average, with low range of prices, suggesting the non-occurrence of seasonal variation in prices. Unlike the seasonal indices of ethanol showed seasonal variation of prices with greater amplitude of seasonal index. Thus, the results suggest that the utilization of by-products of sugar cane to produce electrical power points to the prospect of reducing risks associated with variations in the price of ethanol, thereby contributing to greater stability and possibility to those involved in planning alcohol sector. (author)

  2. Higher body mass index is associated with greater severity of alopecia in men with male-pattern androgenetic alopecia in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study.

    Yang, Chao-Chun; Hsieh, Fu-Nien; Lin, Li-Yu; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Chen, WenChieh

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for multiple health problems, but its association with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) remains controversial. We sought to determine the association between body mass index (BMI) and alopecia severity in men with AGA and early-onset AGA. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The medical charts and photographs of men with a clinical diagnosis of AGA were reviewed. In all, 189 men were enrolled with a mean age of 30.8 years. In male-pattern AGA (n = 142), men with severe alopecia (grade V-VII) had higher BMI than those with mild to moderate alopecia (grade I-IV) (25.1 vs 22.8 kg/m(2), P = .01). After multivariate adjustments, the risk for severe alopecia was higher in the overweight or obese (BMI ≥24 kg/m(2)) subjects with male-pattern AGA (odds ratio 3.52, P < .01). In early-onset male-pattern AGA (n = 46), the risk for having severe alopecia was also higher in the overweight or obese subjects (odds ratio 4.97, P = .03). Parameters used to evaluate obesity were limited because of the retrospective nature of the study. Higher BMI was significantly associated with greater severity of hair loss in men with male-pattern AGA, especially in those with early-onset AGA. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Greater sexual risk-taking in female and male recreational MDMA/ecstasy users compared with alcohol drinkers: a questionnaire study.

    May, Aimee L; Parrott, Andrew C

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have shown increased sexual risk-taking in experienced MDMA/ecstasy users. The main objectives of this study were to compare levels of sexual risk-taking between a young student sample of predominantly heterosexual MDMA users and alcohol-drinker controls and investigate potential gender differences. Recreational drug use and sexual risk questionnaires were completed by 20 MDMA users (10 females, 10 males) and 20 non-user controls (10 females, 10 males). They were predominantly university students, aged between 20-22 years, mainly heterosexual (n = 37), with three bisexual participants. MDMA users displayed significantly greater levels of sexual risk-taking than the alcohol-drinker controls. It involved significantly higher rates of casual sex, non-condom use during sex, and penetrative sexual risks. This increase in sexual riskiness occurred to a similar extent in males and females. These findings indicate that both female and male ecstasy/MDMA users reported more risky sexual behaviours, than the non-user controls. Further research into the sexual behaviour and sexual risk-taking of heterosexual MDMA users should be conducted because much of the past literature has focused on homosexual participants. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

  5. Sugar cane fresh or ensiled with or without bacterial additive in diets for dairy cows

    Jeruzia Vitória Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of using fresh sugar cane, sugar cane silage with or without Lactobacillus buchneri, and burnt sugar cane silage with or without L. buchneri on ingestive behavior, nitrogen balance and synthesis of microbial nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Five ¾ Holstein x Gir crossbred cows, assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square design, were given diets with a 60:40 forage: concentrate ratio on a dry matter basis, to meet an average body weight of 550 kg and production of 15 kg of milk per day. The treatment with fresh sugar cane showed higher values (p 0.05 the nitrogen intake and balance, but led to a greater (p 0.05, and showed an average value of 204.32 g microbial crude protein kg-1 total digestible nutrients.

  6. Deterioration and fermentability of energy cane juice

    Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The main interest in the energy cane is the bioenergy production from the bagasse. The juice obtained after the cane milling may constitute a feedstock for the first-generation ethanol units; however, little attention has been dedicated to this issue. In order to verify the feasibility of the energy cane juice as substrate for ethanol production, the objectives of this research were first to determine the microbiological characteristics and deterioration along the time of the juices from two clones of energy cane (Type I and second, their fermentability as feedstock for utilization in ethanol distilleries. There was a clear differentiation in the bacterial and yeast development of the sugarcane juices assayed, being much faster in the energy canes than in sugarcane. The storage of juice for 8 hours at 30oC did not cause impact in alcoholic fermentation for any sample analyzed, although a significant bacterial growth was detected in this period. A decrease of approximately seven percentage points in the fermentative efficiency was observed for energy cane juice in relation to sugarcane in a 24-hour fermentation cycle with the baking yeast. Despite the faster deterioration, the present research demonstrated that the energy cane juice has potential to be used as feedstock in ethanol-producing industries. As far as we know, it is the first research to deal with the characteristics of deterioration and fermentability of energy cane juices.

  7. Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera:Muscidae biology in byproducts of sugar cane industry

    Camila de Oliveira Ferreira Mendes

    2016-11-01

    the emergence of flies started more rapidly in Group 3 (17.33 days. The viability in Experiment I was lower in all groups in which vinasse was added in sugarcane, ranging from 20.66-34%, when compared to its controls (26.66-34.66%. In Experiment II, the onset of emergence of the flies was at seven days in all groups, lasting between 12.33 and 14 days on average, being lower for the groups that contained ashes in the diet. The viability in Experiment II was high in all groups with ashes (above 74% and in the control, which presented greater viability (87%. When evaluating the emergence of males and females in Experiment I and II, it was observed that in all treated and control groups more females than males occurred. The evaluation of the data in the Experiment I allows the conclusion that vinasse can cause an early onset of the emergence of adults, but this emergency has a short duration. In Experiment II, ashes did not influence the onset of adult emergence, where the treated groups began their emergence at the same time as their control, while reducing the emergency period. Vinasse and ashes can interfere negatively in the development of immature stages of S. calcitrans, causing lower viability values for this insect.

  8. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  9. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  10. Organic solvents from sugar cane molasses

    Oeser, H

    1970-01-01

    The production of organic solvents by fermentation of low priced cane molasses is discussed. Processes described and illustrated in detail include the production of acetone, butanol, ethanol, acetic acid, ethyl acetate and butyl acetate.

  11. Giant cane propagation techniques for use in restoration of riparian forest ecosystems

    Rebecca L. Sexton; James J. Zaczek; John W. Groninger; Stephen D. Fillmore; Karl W. J. Williard

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated to determine factors important for rhizome cutting propagation of giant cane for use in canebreak restoration. Experiment I showed that greater numbers of culms were produced for rhizomes with more internodes especially when surface planted rather than buried. Experiment II determined that 76 percent of the 435 rhizomes tested produced at least...

  12. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  13. Di-pentyl phthalate dosing during sexual differentiation disrupts fetal testis function and postnatal development of the male Sprague dawley rat with greater relative potency than other phthalates

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of plasticizer compounds that are widely used for many consumer product applications. Ten or more members of the PE class of compounds have been shown to induce male fetal endocrine toxicity and postnatal reproductive malformations ...

  14. The sustainability of small scale cane growers through youth ...

    Cane farming makes an important contribution to the socio-economic development of the rural areas where it takes place. These cane growing areas are characterised by high levels of poverty and youth unemployment. The current crop of cane growers is ageing and there is a need to prepare to handover the baton to the ...

  15. Residual effect of sugar cane ratoon of urea nitrogen foliar application to plant cane

    Trivelin, P.C.O.; Lara Cabezas, W.A.R.; Coleti, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    The residual effect of urea - N, foliar applied to plant cane, on sugar cane ratoon is studied. Setts grown in drums containing washed sand are used. 180 days from planting, foliar fertilizer (43.5% urea solution) labelled with 3.95 atom % 15 N is applied. The first harvest is made 7 days after application and final harvest of resprouting at 123 days. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services (CANES)

    2016-03-01

    Information Assurance IATO - Interim Authority to Operate ICD - Initial Capability Document IEA - Information Enterprise Architecture IOC - Initial...2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services (CANES) Defense Acquisition Management...Executive DoD - Department of Defense DoDAF - DoD Architecture Framework FD - Full Deployment FDD - Full Deployment Decision FY - Fiscal Year IA

  17. CANE WEAVING IN ONITSHA: PROCESSES, TECHNIQUES AND ...

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    reveals that the local craft industry of cane weaving possesses latent potentialities in terms of skill and market ... Great care and efforts are usually taken to collect them from the jungle. A very sharp knife is needed to be able to cut the tough flexible stems covered with spikes, which can easily tear one‟s skin. The stems are ...

  18. CANE WEAVING IN ONITSHA: PROCESSES, TECHNIQUES AND ...

    printserver

    generally are “hollow or pith filled and are usually slender and flexible plants which grow ... This local cane industry provides jobs for the jobless and local .... of Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP), when there was a ban on the importation ...

  19. Longevity of Cane Corso Italiano dog breed and its relationship with hair colour

    Evžen Korec

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cane Corso Italiano belongs among the new dog breeds that were fully recognised by Federation Cynologique Internationale (FCI in 2007. For the first time, this study describes a median lifespan using the data of 232 dogs of the Cane Corso Italiano breed collected from kennels and individual owners from 25 countries. The median lifespan of the whole examined group is 9.29 years (IQR 6.98-11.12, IQR = Interquartile Range. This paper is the first to describe the possible relationship between median lifespan and hair colour within one breed. The longest living group is formed by black brindle coloured dogs, with a median of 10.30 years (IQR 8.33-13.00, and brindle coloured dogs, with a median of 10.13 years (IQR 7.12-11.25. The median lifespan of black brindle dogs exceeded the overall median lifespan of all dogs by 1.01 year and the median lifespan of other colour dogs by 2.21 years. Our results suggest a possible way for a prolongation of age at death of the Cane Corso Italiano breed using appropriate breeding. The median lifespan of male Cane Corso Italiano dogs is 9.25 years (IQR 6.97-11.00 and female Cane Corso Italiano dogs 9.33 years (IQR 7.00-11.31. The statistical analysis using the Independent Samples Student’s t test confirmed that the lifespan of female dogs did not exceed the median lifespan of male dogs (P>0.01.

  20. Indicator Amino Acid-Derived Estimate of Dietary Protein Requirement for Male Bodybuilders on a Nontraining Day Is Several-Fold Greater than the Current Recommended Dietary Allowance.

    Bandegan, Arash; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Rafii, Mahroukh; Pencharz, Paul B; Lemon, Peter Wr

    2017-05-01

    Background: Despite a number of studies indicating increased dietary protein needs in bodybuilders with the use of the nitrogen balance technique, the Institute of Medicine (2005) has concluded, based in part on methodologic concerns, that "no additional dietary protein is suggested for healthy adults undertaking resistance or endurance exercise." Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the dietary protein requirement of healthy young male bodybuilders ( with ≥3 y training experience) on a nontraining day by measuring the oxidation of ingested l-[1- 13 C]phenylalanine to 13 CO 2 in response to graded intakes of protein [indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique]. Methods: Eight men (means ± SDs: age, 22.5 ± 1.7 y; weight, 83.9 ± 11.6 kg; 13.0% ± 6.3% body fat) were studied at rest on a nontraining day, on several occasions (4-8 times) each with protein intakes ranging from 0.1 to 3.5 g · kg -1 · d -1 , for a total of 42 experiments. The diets provided energy at 1.5 times each individual's measured resting energy expenditure and were isoenergetic across all treatments. Protein was fed as an amino acid mixture based on the protein pattern in egg, except for phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were maintained at constant amounts across all protein intakes. For 2 d before the study, all participants consumed 1.5 g protein · kg -1 · d -1 On the study day, the protein requirement was determined by identifying the breakpoint in the F 13 CO 2 with graded amounts of dietary protein [mixed-effects change-point regression analysis of F 13 CO 2 (labeled tracer oxidation in breath)]. Results: The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of protein and the upper 95% CI RDA for these young male bodybuilders were 1.7 and 2.2 g · kg -1 · d -1 , respectively. Conclusion: These IAAO data suggest that the protein EAR and recommended intake for male bodybuilders at rest on a nontraining day exceed the current recommendations of the Institute of Medicine by ∼2.6-fold

  1. Seasonal variation of prices of sugar cane, ethanol and electric power; Variacao estacional dos precos da cana-de-acucar, alcool combustivel e energia eletrica

    Melo, Carmem Ozana de; Silva, Gerson Henrique da; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Francisco Beltrao, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal price of sugar cane, fuel alcohol (hydrated and anhydrous) and electricity tariffs as a way of aiding tool for optimization of energy generation, using biomass originating from cane sugar. Using the method of moving average centered was concluded that cane and electricity rates were close to seasonal average, with low range of prices, suggesting the non-occurrence of seasonal variation in prices. Unlike the seasonal indices of ethanol showed seasonal variation of prices with greater amplitude of seasonal index. Thus, the results suggest that the utilization of by-products of sugar cane to produce electrical power points to the prospect of reducing risks associated with variations in the price of ethanol, thereby contributing to greater stability and possibility to those involved in planning alcohol sector. (author)

  2. Studies on microbiological treatment and utilization of cane molasses distillery wastes. Part 1. Screening of useful yeast strains

    Akaki, M.; Takahashi, T.; Ishiguro, K.

    1981-01-01

    Cane molasses distillation slops were used as substrate for the cultivation of 203 strains of yeast. Most yeast strains, especially Hansenula, Debaryomyces, and Rhodotorula, assimilated the molasses distillation wastes. Yeast cell dry weight reached 0.9 grams/100 mL, and yeasts removed greater than 30% of the COD of the waste material.

  3. Ergonomic factors related to drop-off detection with the long cane: effects of cane tips and techniques.

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert S Wall; Curtis, Amy B

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the effect of cane tips and cane techniques on drop-off detection with the long cane. Blind pedestrians depend on a long cane to detect drop-offs. Missing a drop-off may result in falls or collision with moving vehicles in the street. Although cane tips appear to affect a cane user's ability to detect drop-offs, few experimental studies have examined such effect. A repeated-measures design with block randomization was used for the study. Participants were 17 adults who were legally blind and had no other disabilities. Participants attempted to detect the drop-offs of varied depths using different cane tips and cane techniques. Drop-off detection rates were similar between the marshmallow tip (77.0%) and the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) when both tips were used with the constant contact technique, p = .294. However, participants detected drop-offs at a significantly higher percentage when they used the constant contact technique with the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) than when they used the two-point touch technique with the marshmallow tip (63.2%), p marshmallow roller tip (perceived as a less advantageous tip) was more effective than the two-point touch technique used with a marshmallow tip (perceived as a more advantageous tip) in detecting drop-offs. The findings of the study may help cane users and orientation and mobility specialists select appropriate cane techniques and cane tips in accordance with the cane user's characteristics and the nature of the travel environment.

  4. Sugar Cane Genome Numbers Assumption by Ribosomal DNA FISH Techniques

    Thumjamras, S.; Jong, de H.; Iamtham, S.; Prammanee, S.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional cytological method is limited for polyploidy plant genome study, especially sugar cane chromosomes that show unstable numbers of each cultivar. Molecular cytogenetic as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were used in this study. A basic chromosome number of sugar cane

  5. Canes Implementation: Analysis of Budgetary, Business, and Policy Challenges

    2014-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT CANES IMPLEMENTATION: ANALYSIS OF BUDGETARY, BUSINESS...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED December 2014 MBA Professional Rep01t 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS CANES IMPLEMENTATION: ANALYSIS OF...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Naval Postgraduate School REPORT NUMBER Monterey, CA 93943-5000 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10

  6. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments... of 325,000 short tons, raw value, of the cane sugar allotment. (b) A new entrant cane State will receive an allotment to accommodate a new processor's allocation under 1435.308. (c) Subject to paragraphs...

  7. Sugar cane juice as a retarding admixture in concrete production ...

    Sugar cane juice (SCJ) was investigated as a retarding agent in concrete production. Slump values and compressive strength of concrete with partial replacement of water by sugar cane juice was also investigated. The concrete cubes were prepared by replacing water with SCJ in the following proportions 0, 3, 5, 10 and ...

  8. "RecognizeCane" : The new concept of a cane which recognizes the most common objects and safety clues.

    Scherlen, Anne-Catherine; Dumas, Jean Claude; Guedj, Benjamin; Vignot, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the new concept of an electronic cane for blind people. While some systems inform the subject only of the presence of the object and its relative distance, RecognizeCane is also able to recognize most common objects and environment clues to increase the safety and confidence of the navigation process. The originality of RecognizeCane is the use of simple sensors, such as infrared, brilliance or water sensors to inform the subject of the presence, for example, of a stairway, a water puddle, a zebra crossing or a trash can. This cane does not use an embedded vision system. RecognizeCane is equipped with several sensors and microprocessors to collect sensor data and extract the desired information about the close environment by means of a dynamic analysis of output signals.

  9. Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water

    D. Abril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental design at temperatures of 150-190ºC and times of 60-90 min, showed that it is possible to perform the hot water prehydrolysis process between 180-190ºC in times of 60-82 min, yielding concentrations of xylose > 35 g/L, furfural < 2.5 g/L, phenols from soluble lignin < 1.5 g/L, and concentrations < 3.0 g/L of hemicelluloses in the cellolignin residue. These parameters of temperature and prehydrolysis time could be used for the study of the later hydrolysis and fermentation stages of ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse.

  10. Basic analysis of sugar cane lead and cane fields of an AIC

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Saunders, M.; Herrerra, E.; Rodriguez, R.; Mendoza, A.; Meneses, N.; Griffith, J.; Mesa, S.; Zhuk, L.I.; Danilova, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    The concentration of minor and trace elements in sugar cane leaves and soils samples from a cuban sugar factory were determine by means of thermal reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The samples were taken according to the methodology of Sugar Minister for leaves and soils analysis. The concentration of 28 elements was determinate. the concentration values obtained by NAA, XRFA and previous analysis are compared

  11. Crescimento da parte aérea de cana crua e queimada Shoot growth of green and burned canes

    Ivan André Alvarez

    1999-01-01

    following biometric indexes were used: number of tillers, number of leaves, dry matter of stalks, and leaves and leaf area index (LAI. For each treatment, 4 areas were used, each one being considered a replication. Polynomial regression and non-linear regression were used to adjust the data to the growth curves. The growth in the first cycle was similar for the green and the burned canes. At the beginning of the second cycle the green cane growth was greater, while at the end, the growth was greater for the burned cane. Tillering of the green cane did not present significant differences that confirm the negative influence of the straw in the ratoon cane crop. The climatological factors, separately, did not promote changes in the growth cycles, that could identify a general tendency. The differences in the development expressed on the curve of growth from the 1st to the 2nd year are due to the climatological factors, for both, the green and the burned cane.

  12. Assessment of TS-1, a thick cane mutant

    Shama Rao, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    A true breeding thick cane mutant TS-1, induced by radiations, was obtained in variety Co-419. TS-1 was found to be superior to Co-419 with respect to cane size, weight, yield and juice quality. The thick canes of TS-1 were found to be solid even at 14 months age and so also their ratoons. The tillering habit of TS-1 has a definite advantage over other varieties with respect to easy intercultural field operations. TS-1 is now being tested under various agroclimatic zones in Karnataka, Maharashtra and U.P. (auth.)

  13. Dirt in cane removal influenced by soil characteristics

    Fernandes, E.A.N.

    1997-01-01

    Dirt level in sugar cane consignments delivered to the factory is dependent on soil type, in association with harvesting system and weather conditions. Efforts for reducing soil in harvested cane have been made by sugar cane millers, especially improving the washing system installed before crushing. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has shown its potential for assessing dirt reductions in the washed material. Knowledge of elemental concentrations in the different soil fractions highlights the reliability of such measurements especially when taking into account the soil characteristics. (author)

  14. Composition of sugar cane, energy cane, and sweet sorghum suitable for ethanol production at Louisiana sugar mills.

    Kim, Misook; Day, Donal F

    2011-07-01

    A challenge facing the biofuel industry is to develop an economically viable and sustainable biorefinery. The existing potential biorefineries in Louisiana, raw sugar mills, operate only 3 months of the year. For year-round operation, they must adopt other feedstocks, besides sugar cane, as supplemental feedstocks. Energy cane and sweet sorghum have different harvest times, but can be processed for bio-ethanol using the same equipment. Juice of energy cane contains 9.8% fermentable sugars and that of sweet sorghum, 11.8%. Chemical composition of sugar cane bagasse was determined to be 42% cellulose, 25% hemicellulose, and 20% lignin, and that of energy cane was 43% cellulose, 24% hemicellulose, and 22% lignin. Sweet sorghum was 45% cellulose, 27% hemicellulose, and 21% lignin. Theoretical ethanol yields would be 3,609 kg per ha from sugar cane, 12,938 kg per ha from energy cane, and 5,804 kg per ha from sweet sorghum.

  15. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum

    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the exploitation scheme. The machine´s working parameters were determined to meet the water needs, and increase crop´s overall yields. The evaluations and results achieved have contributed to new proposals for management and operation of coil irrigation, and they are important to increase its efficiency.

  16. Histology and ultrastructure of the adrenal gland of the greater cane ...

    The results showed variations in the thickness of the zones of the cortex and medulla. Histological detail did not differ significantly from that of other rodents. Ultrastructural features showed typical adrenal gland zonation with capsule, cortical cells and medulla. In the cortex copious lipid droplets and myelin bodies were ...

  17. Optimisation of power generation in the Local Cane Sugar Factories ...

    ) system by investing in high pressure boilers and generating on a firm basis throughout the year. However, it is shown that by using bagasse and cane tops and leaves and investing in high pressure boilers and condensing-extraction ...

  18. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes

    Zulema Piñeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5 for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries.

  19. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes.

    Piñeiro, Zulema; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Serrano, Maria Jose; Palma, Miguel

    2016-06-16

    An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5) for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries.

  20. Factors associated with cane use among community dwelling older adults.

    Aminzadeh, F; Edwards, N

    2000-01-01

    Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), this study examined factors associated with cane use among community dwelling older adults. Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 106 community residing older adults in Ottawa, Canada. Using a stepwise discriminant analysis, subjective norms, attitudes, and age surfaced as the key variables associated with cane use in this sample. The discriminant function accounted for 67% of the variance in cane use and correctly classified 91% of cases (Wilks's lambda = 0.33, lambda2 = 110.12, df = 3, p cane use behaviors of older persons and have important implications for the design of theory-based fall prevention interventions to enhance the acceptance and effective use of mobility aids.

  1. Analysis of Calorific Value of Tibarau Cane Briquette

    Nurdin, H.; Hasanuddin, H.; Darmawi, D.; Prasetya, F.

    2018-04-01

    The development of product diversification through tibarau cane briquettes as an effort in obtaining alternative fuels. Tibarau cane is one of the potential materials of renewable energy sources that can be processed into briquette. So as to reduce dependence on energy fuel oil, which for the middle to lower class is the main requirement. Efforts and innovations tibarau cane briquettes in producing fuel that has quality and performance can be measured with calorific value. Prior to development of this potential required the existence of test and evaluation stages according to the order of the flow of new material product development. Through process technology of briquette product making with compaction and optimization of composition content on tapioca adhesive and mesh particles suitable to get optimum calorific value. The results obtained in this research are the development of tibarau cane briquette model which is recommended as replacement fuel. Where the calorific value of tibarau cane briquette is 11.221,72 kJ / kg at composition percentage 80: 20 and its density is 0,565 gr/cm3. The comparison of mass tibarau with tapioca, particle size, pressure force (compaction), can affect the calorific value and density of tibarau cane briquette.

  2. Sugar cane stillage: a potential source of natural antioxidants.

    Caderby, Emma; Baumberger, Stéphanie; Hoareau, William; Fargues, Claire; Decloux, Martine; Maillard, Marie-Noëlle

    2013-11-27

    Biorefinery of sugar cane is the first economic activity of Reunion Island. Some sugar cane manufactured products (juice, syrup, molasses) have antioxidant activities and are sources of both phenolic compounds and Maillard Reaction Products (MRP). The study aimed to highlight the global antioxidant activity of sugar cane stillage and understand its identity. Chromatographic fractionation on Sephadex LH-20 resin allowed the recovery of a MRP-rich fraction, responsible for 58 to 66% of the global antioxidant activity according to the nature of the sugar cane stillage (DPPH test), and a phenolic compounds-rich fraction for 37 to 59% of the activity. A good correlation was recorded between the antioxidant activity of the sugar cane stillage and its content in total reducing compounds amount (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), among them 2.8 to 3.9 g/L of phenolic compounds (in 5-caffeoylquinic acid equivalent). Preliminary experiments by HPLC-DAD-MS allowed to identify several free phenolic acids and gave clues to identify esters of quinic acids.

  3. Soil-plant relation in Cuban sugar cane by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Diaz Riso, O.; Griffith Martinez, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows the result of soil-plant relation in samples from Cuban sugar canes of different soil types and cane varieties, using the INAA from thermal reactor. The behaviour of minor and trace elements in sugar cane leaves is uniform and independent of sugar cane variety or type of soil. The soil-plant relation shows four principal groups of micro elements, according to their absorption by the plant

  4. Natural radionuclides as dirt tracers in sugar cane consignments

    Bacchi, M.A.; Fernandes, E.A.N.

    1998-01-01

    Soil is usually carried out to the mills, as an impurity in sugar cane, leading to economic drawbacks for the industry. The quantification of this dirt is important to identify its causes and for routine quality control. Several methods have been used for this purpose, however, no single one has been pointed out as an industrial standard. The use of a γ-ray emitting radionuclide of natural occurence was investigated and, after several soil and cane radioactivity analyses, 212 Pb was chosen as the best tracer. Calibration curves developed with the addition of soil in clean cane, from 0 to 10% (dry mass), demonstrated the linearity of the method. Analyses of eleven samples taken from consignments showed that the procedure was consistent and reliable when compared to the traditional ash method. (author)

  5. Assessment of canes used by older adults in senior living communities.

    Liu, Hao Howe; Eaves, Joshua; Wang, Wen; Womack, Jill; Bullock, Paige

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to provide basic but essential information about how older cane users obtain their canes and how they use these canes for their daily mobility, since there is still lack of information on these areas. Ninety-three older (≥65 years old) subjects who use canes for daily activities were recruited from four assisted living facilities and five retirement centers for this cross-sectional study. The assessment involved interviewing cane users with a questionnaire, examining their canes, and investigating how these canes were used by their owners during ambulation. The commonly used canes are (from most to least): adjustable single-tip, un-adjustable (wooden), small quad, and large quad. Five major problems from data analysis were identified: lack of medical consultation for device selection/use, incorrect cane height/maintenance, placement of cane in improper hand, inability to maintain the proper reciprocal gait pattern, and improper posture during ambulation. Only forward-leaning posture during ambulation might be associated with increased falls among the older cane users. Knowledge of these problems could assist health professionals to implement appropriate interventions in clinical settings and to provide community service to address all problems related to cane use. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Regional-based estimates of water use for commercial sugar-cane ...

    derived by Thompson in 1976 is applied in conjunction with regional cane production records in South Africa. These were used to provide regional estimates of water use of commercial rain-fed and irrigated sugar-cane as affected by environmental limitations. The mean water use of sugar-cane at an industry scale was 598 ...

  7. Effects of emissions from sugar cane burning on the trachea and lungs of Wistar rats

    Verena Sampaio Barbosa Matos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effects of exposure to emissions from sugar cane burning on inflammatory mechanisms in tissues of the trachea and lung parenchyma in Wistar rats after different periods of exposure. Methods: This was an experimental open randomized study. The animals were divided into four groups: a control group (CG underwent standard laboratory conditions, and three experimental groups were exposed to emissions from sugar cane burning over different periods of time, in days-1 (EG1, 7 (EG7, and 21 (EG21. After euthanasia with 200 mg/kg of ketamine/xylazine, fragments of trachea and lung were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. Histological analyses were performed with H&E and picrosirius red staining. Results: No inflammatory infiltrates were found in the tissues of CG rats. The histological examination of tissues of the trachea and lung parenchyma revealed that the inflammatory process was significantly more intense in EG7 than in the CG (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively. In comparison with the CG and EG1, angiogenesis in the lung parenchyma and collagen deposition in tracheal tissues were significantly greater only in EG21 (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively. Conclusions: In this sample, emissions from sugar cane burning induced acute focal and diffuse inflammation in the lamina propria of tracheal tissues, with no loss of ciliated epithelial tissue. In the lung parenchyma of the animals in the experimental groups, there was interstitial and alveolar edema, together with polymorphonuclear cell infiltrates.

  8. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  9. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S., E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: aline_sd_timao@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lizmarybueno@gmail.com, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  10. Characteristics of fermentation of refined cane sugar syrup for alcohol

    Raev, Z A; Bazilevich, K K

    1956-01-01

    Technological properties of cane sugar syrup, obtained on refining of raw cane sugar, were investigated. Its poor fermentation is caused by the lack of nitrous substances (1/10 as much as in sugar beet) necessary for the nutrition of yeast. It is necessary to introduce into the mixture of yeast and must 0.8% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ based on weight of syrup (at a permanent aeration the assimilability of N from (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ by the yeast will be higher and the dosage has to be increased), 1% of superphosphate or 0.12% of a 70% phosphoric acid solution, and 0.5% of a yeast autolyst. For the fermentation of cane sugar syrup the mixture of yeast and must has to be prepared with a concentration of 10 to 11/sup 0/ by the saccharometer scale, but the average initial concentration of the fermentive must has to be 17 to 18/sup 0/ with the intention to keep the alcohol content of the ripe must at 8.7 to 8.8% by volume. Considering the low buffer ability of the syrup from cane sugar, the acidity of the must, mixed with yeast, has to be kept less than or equal to 0.4 to 0.5/sup 0/, the pH at 4.6 to 4.8; on a higher acidity the pH drops to a value which inhibits the fission of the yeast cells. On a joint fermentation of syrup from sugar cane and sugar beets 1% of superphosphate in the form of an aqueous extract and an autolyst of yeast in an amount of 0.5% of the weight of syrup was introduced into the must; the yield of alcohol from cane sugar syrup increased compared with the yield on separate processing.

  11. Nitrogen dynamics in a soil-sugar cane system

    Oliveira, Julio Cesar Martins de; Reichardt, Klaus; Bacchi, Osny O.S.; Timm, Luis Carlos; Tominaga, Tania Toyomi; Castro Navarro, Roberta de; Cassaro, Fabio Augusto Meira; Dourado-Neto, Durval; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuse; Piccolo, Marisa de Cassia

    2000-01-01

    Results of an organic matter management experiment of a sugar cane crop are reported for the first cropping year. Sugar cane was planted in October 1997, and labeled with a 15 N fertilizer pulse to study the fate of organic matter in the soil-plant system. A nitrogen balance is presented, partitioning the system in plant components (stalk, tip and straw), soil components (five soil organic matter fractions) and evaluating leaching losses. The 15 N label permitted to determine, at the end of the growing season, amounts of nitrogen derived from the fertilizer, present in the above mentioned compartments. (author)

  12. Sugar cane manufacturing is associated with tuberculosis in an indigenous population in Brazil.

    Sacchi, Flávia Patussi Correia; Croda, Mariana Garcia; Estevan, Anderson Oliveira; Ko, Albert I; Croda, Julio

    2013-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among indigenous peoples in Brazil, and identifying the risk factors for TB in this population secondary to specific epidemiological conditions is essential for recommending interventions aimed at disease control. This case-control study was conducted with an indigenous population between June 2009 and August 2011 in Dourados, Brazil. Tuberculosis cases reported to the national disease surveillance programme were paired with two control cases matched by age and geographic location. There were 63 cases included in this study, and the annual incidence of TB in the indigenous communities examined was 222 (95% CI, 148-321) per 100 000 inhabitants. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the variables associated with TB infection included male gender (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.3-5.3), not owning a home (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.2-10.1), illiteracy (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.1-5.0), TB contact (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.2-4.8) and work performed in a sugar cane factory (OR 6.8; 95% CI 1.2-36.9). There is a potential relationship between exposure to sugar cane manufacturing processes and tuberculosis infection among indigenous populations.

  13. EFFECT OF SUGAR CANE JUICE ON SLUMP VALUES FFECT OF ...

    eobe

    different percentages of unfermented sugar cane juice replacing some proportion of water in the concrete mix. .... the fruit market in D/Line area of Port Harcourt. .... [16] Neville A.M. 2006 . Properties of concrete. 4th ed.,. Dorling Kindersley, New Delhi, India. [17] NIS 235 (1987). Nigerian Industrial Standards. Standards for ...

  14. Corrosion of Modified Concrete with Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash

    R. E. Núñez-Jaquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a porous material and the ingress of water, oxygen, and aggressive ions, such as chlorides, can cause the passive layer on reinforced steel to break down. Additives, such as fly ash, microsilica, rice husk ash, and cane sugar bagasse ash, have a size breakdown that allows the reduction of concrete pore size and, consequently, may reduce the corrosion process. The objective of this work is to determine the corrosion rate of steel in reinforced concrete by the addition of 20% sugar cane bagasse ash by weight of cement. Six prismatic specimens (7×7×10 cm with an embedded steel rod were prepared. Three contained 20% sugar cane bagasse ash by weight of cement and the other three did not. All specimens were placed in a 3.5% NaCl solution and the corrosion rate was determined using polarization resistance. The results showed that reinforced concrete containing sugar cane bagasse ash has the lowest corrosion rates in comparison to reinforced concrete without the additive.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Sugar Cane Wax Microspheres ...

    ... and characterize indomethacin (IM) microspheres prepared with sugar cane wax microsperes. Methods: Microspheres were prepared by melt-emulsified dispersion and cooling-induced solidification method. The microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differntial scanning calorimetry ...

  16. Anaerobic Treatment of Cane Sugar Effluent from Muhoroni Sugar ...

    It was therefore concluded that anaerobic treatment, particularly with pH control and seeding shows potential in first stage management of sugar mill wastewater. Keywords: cane sugar mill effluent, anaerobic treatment, batch reactor, waste stabilization ponds. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.

  17. Estimation of fruit weight by cane traits for various raspberries ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... each cultivar and determine the cane trait(s) with the positive and negative effect among these ... potassium (K2O) with soil pH of 7.2 in distilled water (1.5 v/v). Agronomic observations were recorded for ... Multiple Regression Model must be the highest determination coefficient, but the lowest RMSE value.

  18. Assessment of Cane Yields on Well-drained Ferralsols in the Sugar-cane Estate of Central Cameroon

    Van Ranst, E.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential yields of irrigated and of rainfed sugar-cane on three ferrallitic soil series, well represented in the Nkoteng sugar-cane estate of Central Cameroon, are estimated following different methods. The potential yield of irrigated sugar-cane is estimated from the total maximum evapotranspiration during the crop cycle. The potential yield of rainfed sugar-cane is estimated following two methods for the establishment of a water balance and for the determination of a yield reduction as a result of a water deficit. The calculated potential yields are higher than the observed ones. The yield reduction due to rain fed cropping can mainly be attributed to water shortage during the late yield formation and the ripening periods. A supplementary yield decline is due to a combined action of an acid soil reaction, a possible Al-toxicity a low base saturation, an inadequate CEC, organic matter content and P-availability which may adequately explain the actual yield level.

  19. Use of a cane for recovery from backward balance loss during treadmill walking.

    Hyodo, Masaki; Saito, Mayumi; Ushiba, Junichi; Tomita, Yutaka; Masakado, Yoshihisa

    2013-06-01

    To study whether a cane improved balance recovery after perturbation during walking. This study was a crossover comparison comparing the effect of walking with and without a cane for balance recovery after perturbation during treadmill walking. Five normal young volunteers participated. The velocity and acceleration of a marker sited on the seventh cerebral vertebra (C7) and vertical hand motion were measured by a motion analysis system. When using a cane, C7 backward velocity increased by approximately 15% (413 SD 95 mm/s with cane vs. 358 SD 88 mm/s without). In addition, C7 backward acceleration increased by approximately 23% (3.2 SD 0.7 m/s(2) with cane vs. 2.6 SD 0.8 m/s(2) without) and the vertical motion of the right hand decreased (187 SD 98 mm with cane vs. 372 SD 260 mm without). Additionally, no subject was able to use a cane to broaden their base of support. The ability to limit trunk extension is crucial for preventing falls. Therefore, using a cane jeopardizes recovery from backward balance loss. The results encourage further research on the risk of a cane on balance recovery for the elderly population and habitual cane users.

  20. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse ash as raw material for the production of ceramics

    Fredericci, C.; Indelicato, R.L.; Ferreira Neto, J.B.; Ribeiro, T.R.; Landgraf, F.J.G.; Silva, G.F.B. Lenz e

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the sugar cane bagasse ash from three Sugar and Alcohol Plant of the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. We intend to show the discrepancies between them, so that this raw material could be used with greater quality control in ceramic industries. The bagasse were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and scanning electron microscopy. The ashes were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and granulometric separation. The results indicated that the content of SiO 2 ranging from 50-80% by weight depends on the granulometry of the bagasse and on the region where it was collected. The analyses of X-ray diffraction indicate SiO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 , K 2 SO 4 and Mg 2 P 2 O 7 as crystalline phases. (author)

  1. Butanol-acetone fermentation of sugar-cane juice

    Perdomo, E V

    1958-01-01

    Sixteen new varieties of Clostridium acetobutylicum of varying activity were isolated from different sources. The most active one was obtained from sugar-cane roots. The effects of 86 additives were studied. The following formulation gave a 32% yield (with respect to sucrose) of solvent mixture (73% BuOH, 19 to 23% acetone, and 3 to 4% EtOH) sugar-cane juice (I) (20/sup 0/ Brix) 250 ml, ground Vicia sativa 1 g, KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ 2.5 g, CaCO/sub 3/ 4 g, H/sub 2/O 1000 ml; the pH of this solution was 5.6 to 6.0. Unclarified, it was inverted by invertase; the other components were added and the mixture was sterilized (20 minutes, 15 pounds).

  2. Work and health conditions of sugar cane workers in Brazil.

    Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Hong, Oi-Saeng

    2010-12-01

    This is an exploratory research, with a quantitative approach, developed with the objective of analyzing the work and of life situations that can offer risks to the workers' health involved in the manual and automated cut of the sugar cane. The sample was composed by 39 sugar cane cutters and 16 operators of harvesters. The data collection occurred during the months of July and August of 2006, by the technique of direct observation of work situations and workers' homes and through interviews semi-structured. The interviews were recorded and later transcribed. Data were analyzed according to Social Ecological Theory. It was observed that the workers deal with multiple health risk situations, predominantly to the risks of occurrence of respiratory, musculoskeletal and psychological problems and work-related accidents due to the work activities. The interaction of individual, social and environmental factors can determine the workers' tendency to falling ill.

  3. Smoking, caning, and delinquency in a secondary modern school.

    Palmer, J W

    2015-02-01

    This study was designed in 1962 to investigate the reformative effect of a particular punishment (caning) for a particular offence (smoking by schoolboys). In 1964, in the course of a larger study of juvenile offences, delinquency records were obtained from the police, and the relationship between smoking and delinquency is also discussed in this paper. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  4. Minerais em melados e em caldos de cana Minerals in sugar cane syrup and cane juice

    Fernanda dos Santos Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar está entre as culturas que apresenta larga escala de adaptações às condições climáticas, sendo utilizada para a fabricação de diversos produtos. Dentre os produtos derivados da cana-de-açúcar, o melado é tido popularmente como um alimento rico em ferro. Este trabalho objetivou conhecer a concentração de alguns minerais em melados comerciais e em melados preparados com equipamentos de aço inoxidável. Ao todo foram 20 amostras, 10 de cada tipo. As amostras foram preparadas para análise por oxidação da matéria orgânica por via úmida e os teores de Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe foram determinados por espectroscopia de absorção atômica, Na e K por fotometria de chama e P por colorimetria. Concluiu-se, com este trabalho, que os teores médios dos minerais Fe, P, Na e Mg foram significativamente mais elevados nos melados comerciais do que nos melados feitos com equipamentos inox. O contrário foi encontrado para o mineral cálcio, que apresentou teor mais elevado nos melados feitos no laboratório, mas condizentes com os teores encontrados nos caldos de cana. Não houve diferença significativa nos teores dos demais minerais.Sugar cane is an easily adaptable crop to diverse climate conditions, and it is used in the manufacturing of many different products. Among those products is the syrup, which is popularly known to be good sources of iron. In this work, we aimed to measure the concentration of some minerals in commercial sugar cane syrup brands and syrup prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. A total of 20 samples were analyzed, 10 of commercial brands and ten prepared in the laboratory. The samples were prepared by wet-air oxidation of organic matter and the contents of Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe were determined by atomic absorption. Na and K were determined by photometry and P by colorimetry. It was found that the mean concentration of Fe, P, Na, and Mn were higher in the commercial

  5. Antioxidant Effects of Grape Vine Cane Extracts from Different Chinese Grape Varieties on Edible Oils

    Min, Zhuo; Guo, Zemei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ang; Li, Hua; Fang, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was si...

  6. Greater autonomy at work

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2004-01-01

    In the past 10 years, workers in the Netherlands increasingly report more decision-making power in their work. This is important for an economy in recession and where workers face greater work demands. It makes work more interesting, creates a healthier work environment, and provides opportunities

  7. Regional based estimates of water use for commercial sugar-cane ...

    The water use of rain-fed sugar-cane has come under the spotlight in South Africa, largely as a result of changes in legislation and a focus on streamflow reduction activities. In this study a robust relationship between sugar-cane yield and evapotranspiration derived by Thompson in 1976 is applied in conjunction with ...

  8. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section 890.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a) Identification. Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads are rubber...

  9. Soil water nitrate concentrations in giant cane and forest riparian buffer zones

    Jon E. Schoonover; Karl W. J. Williard; James J. Zaczek; Jean C. Mangun; Andrew D. Carver

    2003-01-01

    Soil water nitrate concentrations in giant cane and forest riparian buffer zones along Cypress Creek in southern Illinois were compared to determine if the riparian zones were sources or sinks for nitrogen in the rooting zone. Suction lysimeters were used to collect soil water samples from the lower rooting zone in each of the two vegetation types. The cane riparian...

  10. Sugar cane wastes drier and pellet plant; Instalacao de secagem e peletizacao de bagaco de cana

    Ferres, Juan Diego; Macias, Eduardo; Rasi, Jose Roberto [Granol Industria, Comercio e Exportacao S.A., Tupa, SP (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This paper shows the design of a sugar cane waste drier and boiler in a alcohol distillery that produce about 65-70% of partially dried wastes to be burned in the distillery boiler with much better thermal efficiency than the one obtained with standard sugar cane wastes. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Study of doping non-PMMA polymer fibre canes with UV photosensitive compounds

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Fasano, Andrea; Janting, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    and hollow-core TOPAS canes were doped with a solution of dopants in acetone/methanol and hexane/methanol, respectively. Doping time, solvent mixture concentration and doping temperature were optimised. A long and stepwise drying process was applied to the doped canes to ensure complete solvent removal...

  12. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  13. Feasible conditions for converting Cuban cane molasses into alcohol

    Luchev, S

    1968-01-01

    Conditions for fermentation of Cuban cane molasses were found: 0.5 to 1.0% yeast, addition of 100g. H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/, 1 to 2 kg urea or (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to 1 ton molasses, and fermentation at high molasses concentrations. During the process, solid residue formed containing mainly CaSO/sub 4/; this was limited when the molasses was clarified before the fermentation, or when it was distilled without the use of acids (particularly H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/), or when fermented molasses with a low alcohol content was distilled.

  14. 76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    2011-04-15

    ...-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice...) for imported raw cane sugar and of country-by-country reallocations of the FY 2011 in-quota quantity...

  15. 76 FR 42160 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    2011-07-18

    ...-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice...) for imported raw cane sugar. USTR is also reallocating a portion of the unused original FY 2011 TRQ... imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C...

  16. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    2011-08-12

    ... for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the... quantity of the tariff-rate quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar...), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar...

  17. 77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    2012-04-26

    ...-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice...) for imported raw cane sugar and of country-by-country reallocations of the FY 2012 in-quota quantity...

  18. 75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    2010-03-25

    ...-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: March 25, 2010. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be... (HTS), the United States maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of...

  19. 75 FR 26316 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    2010-05-11

    ...-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice...) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: May 11, 2010. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed... (HTS), the United States maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of...

  20. 75 FR 39612 - Allocation of Second Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    2010-07-09

    ...) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: July 9, 2010... cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d) (3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. 3601(d)(3...

  1. The sugar cane agro-industry - its contribution to reducing CO2 emissions in Brazil

    Macedo, I. de C.

    1992-01-01

    Production of sugar cane in Brazil is 222 million tonnes (harvested wet weight)/year and is processed to sugar (7.5 million tonnes) and ethanol (11.8 million m 3 ) in 1990. The use of fossil fuels in sugar cane production is 271 MJ/t of cane. Sugar cane bagasse and ethanol substitute for fuel oil in the food and chemical industry (including sugar production) and for gasoline (9.75 million m 3 /year), thus avoiding CO 2 emissions from fossil fuels. Considering the fast carbon cycling in sugar cane production and use, net emissions of 9.45 million tonnes of C/year are avoided; this corresponds roughly to 18% of the total CO 2 emissions from fossil fuels in Brazil. (author)

  2. Greater-confinement disposal

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  3. More features, greater connectivity.

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'.

  4. Greater oil investment opportunities

    Arenas, Ismael Enrique

    1997-01-01

    Geologically speaking, Colombia is a very attractive country for the world oil community. According to this philosophy new and important steps are being taken to reinforce the oil sector: Expansion of the exploratory frontier by including a larger number of sedimentary areas, and the adoption of innovative contracting instruments. Colombia has to offer, Greater economic incentives for the exploration of new areas to expand the exploratory frontier, stimulation of exploration in areas with prospectivity for small fields. Companies may offer Ecopetrol a participation in production over and above royalties, without it's participating in the investments and costs of these fields, more favorable conditions for natural gas seeking projects, in comparison with those governing the terms for oil

  5. Nitrogen derived from fertilization and straw for plant cane nutrition

    Vitti, Andre Cesar; Faroni, Carlos Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the recovery, by plant cane, of the nitrogen ( 15 N) from urea and from sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crop residues - straw and root system - incorporated into the soil. The experiment was settled in 2005/2006 with the sugarcane cultivar SP81 3250. At planting, microplots of 2 m length and 1.5 m width were installed, and N applications were done with 80 kg ha-1 N (urea with 5.05% in 15 N atoms) and 14 Mg ha -1 crop residues - 9 Mg ha -1 of sugarcane straw and 5 Mg ha -1 of root system, labeled with 15 N (1.07 and 0.81% in 15 N atoms, respectively). The total N accumulation by plants was determined during the crop cycle. Although the N use by shoot from crop residue mineralization (PA and SR) increased significantly over time, this source hardly contributed to crop nutrition. The recovery of the 15 N-urea, 15 N-SS and 15 N-RS by plant cane was 30.3 +- 3.7%, 13.9 +- 4.5% and 6.4 +- 0.9%, respectively, representing 15.9, 4.7 and 1.4% of total nitrogen uptake by shoot. (author)

  6. [Walking with canes and forearm-crutches (author's transl)].

    Bergmann, G; Kölbel, R; Rauschenbach, N; Rohlmann, A

    1978-02-01

    Partial weight bearing is frequently prescribed but cannot be controlled adequately. In a previous paper the change of forces at the hip joint as effected by a one sided cane was determined by instrumentation of the cane and a mechanical analysis of gait on a walkway. In the present study we looked at the conditions for control of partial weightbearing when two forearm crutches are used. Instrumented crutches and a forceplate were used. In walking with two forearm crutches the total of the ground reaction forces and the force pattern differ from those in free walking. The total of two crutch forces plus the force at the leg with partial weightbearing exceeds that caused by body weight alone. This is due to mass accelerations in a changed gait pattern. When the maximal leg force is reduced from 100% body weight to zero, the additional dynamic forces exceed those caused by body weight alone by 4%-19%. Only 2% of the additional dynamic forces act on the controlateral crutch while the rest is transmitted through the ipsilateral crutch. The crutch force pattern on the ipsilateral side depends more on individual gait characteristics than does that on the controlateral side. Load reduction is more pronounced in the late stages of the stand phase than in the early ones.

  7. Protective gloves on manual sugar cane cutting are really effective?

    Abrahão, R F; Gonzaga, M C; Braunbeck, O A

    2012-01-01

    Problems related to the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), specially the use of protective gloves for the manual sugar cane cutting, motivated this research, made possible by a tripartite negotiation involving the Ministry of Labor, the Union of Rural Workers and the Employer's Association of sugarcane agribusiness. The main objective was to evaluate, from an ergonomics perspective, the impact of use of the gloves during the manual cane sugar cutting, raising questions on safety, effectiveness and comfort. The research was carried in a sugarcane industry of São Paulo for two seasons involving 47 workers who made a qualitative analysis of acceptance of four models of protective gloves. The methodology included the use of semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and field observations and the experimental determination of the coefficient of static friction developed between the gloves and the surfaces of the machete handle. The main results indicate the general inadequacy of the gloves currently used forcing the employees to improvise. Workers found the glove of leather and nylon scraping the best reported for comfort in use. The overall results highlight the problem of detachment of test standards for the manufacture of PPE, ignoring users and the activity to be performed.

  8. Decomposition of sugar cane crop residues under different nitrogen rates

    Douglas Costa Potrich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of organic residues through mechanical harvesting of cane sugar is a growing practice in sugarcane production system. The maintenance of these residues on the soil surface depends mainly on environmental conditions. Nitrogen fertilization on dry residues tend to retard decomposition of these, providing benefits such as increased SOM. Thus, the object of this research was to evaluate the effect of different doses of nitrogen on sugar cane crop residues, as its decomposition and contribution to carbon sequestration in soil. The experiment was conducted in Dourados-MS and consisted of a randomized complete block design. Dried residues were placed in litter bags and the treatments were arranged in a split plot, being the four nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 N the plots, and the seven sampling times (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 the spit plots. Decomposition rates of residues, total organic carbon and labile carbon on soil were analysed. The application of increasing N doses resulted in an increase in their decomposition rates. Despite this, note also the mineral N application as a strategy to get higher levels of labile carbon in soil.

  9. Effects of Evaporation Pressure and the Variety of Cane on the Quality of Sugar Honey and Panela

    Luz Esperanza Prada Forero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available When multi-effect evaporators (EME are implemented at the process of panela —besides of technological adjustment— to maintain the quality of the product is also required. This state unveiled a technolog y gap, and issues such as the contribution of compositional differences in the varieties of cane on panela. To fill part of this technological gap, the objective of this work is to determine the effect of pressure evaporation and the varieties of cane on quality of honey and panela. To achieve this, the evaporation pressure and sugarcane varieties in one experimental design completely randomized with 4x3 factorial arrangement and four replications was implemented: varieties CC 85-46, RD 75-11 andPR 61-632, without flocculant, without coadjuvant and was evaporated with a heat flux of 27,778 kW/m2 and without antifoam. The results showed a similar behavior for the studied sugarcane varieties. So honeys and panelas in the pressurized system presented dark coloration, reddish tone, high turbidity, a glycoside coefficient between 60 % and 70 % and they did not solidified. Honeys and panelas in vacuum systems presented a greater turbidity, clear colorations, yellowish tones, and good solidification and coefficients glycosides under 12 %.

  10. The "EyeCane", a new electronic travel aid for the blind: Technology, behavior & swift learning.

    Maidenbaum, Shachar; Hanassy, Shlomi; Abboud, Sami; Buchs, Galit; Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Independent mobility is one of the most pressing problems facing people who are blind. We present the EyeCane, a new mobility aid aimed at increasing perception of environment beyond what is provided by the traditional White Cane for tasks such as distance estimation, navigation and obstacle detection. The "EyeCane" enhances the traditional White Cane by using tactile and auditory output to increase detectable distance and angles. It circumvents the technical pitfalls of other devices, such as weight, short battery life, complex interface schemes, and slow learning curve. It implements multiple beams to enables detection of obstacles at different heights, and narrow beams to provide active sensing that can potentially increase the user's spatial perception of the environment. Participants were tasked with using the EyeCane for several basic tasks with minimal training. Blind and blindfolded-sighted participants were able to use the EyeCane successfully for distance estimation, simple navigation and simple obstacle detection after only several minutes of training. These results demonstrate the EyeCane's potential for mobility rehabilitation. The short training time is especially important since available mobility training resources are limited, not always available, and can be quite expensive and/or entail long waiting periods.

  11. Effect of gamma-radiation on sugar cane spirit

    Souza, Maria Djiliah Camargo Alvarenga de

    2000-01-01

    Irradiation has appeared as an alternative technique in food preservation. Besides cold decontamination irradiation can increase the quality of the food through the improvement of technological properties. For alcoholic beverages ionizing radiation has been applied to wines, whiskeys and beers in countries such as Thailand and China. In those cases, the purpose of the technique was to accelerate aging, to improve the sensory characteristics and as sterilization treatment. The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation on the quality of sugar cane spirit by gas chromatography analysis of volatile compounds and sensory analysis. The sugar cane spirit newly distilled samples and commercial samples from different states (SP, CE and RJ) were irradiated either in glass or oak cask (Quercus alba sp) in a 60 Co Gammacell 220 at dose rate of 7.7 kGy/h and total doses of 0; 0.1; 2; 5 and 10 kGy. The analytical determination of esters, acetaldehyde and higher alcohols were performed in a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector employing a Megabore CG-745 column. The alcoholic graduation was measured in a Gay-Lussac alcohometer and the pH was determined using an Analyser 300 pHmeter. The color change was measured by the absorbance at 420 nm in a Shimadzu UV 1601 spectrophotometer. The acceptance tests related to odor, taste, global impression and color were analyzed using Tukey average tests (p ≤0,05), ANOVA and histograms of panelists' scores frequency. A correlation between acetaldeyde, esters, higher alcohols levels and radiation dose was found in the sugar cane spirit newly distilled samples irradiated in oak cask and commercial samples. An increase in methanol concentration was verified, although remaining enough below the permissible limit accepted by the Brazilian Legislation. A decrease in the alcoholic graduation and pH in the irradiated samples was observed. A slight discoloration in the irradiated samples was verified. According to ANOVA

  12. Production of bacterial protein from sugar cane bagasse pith

    Molina, O E; Callieri, D A.S.; Perotti de Galvez, N

    1980-01-01

    Bacterial protein was produced during the fermentation of sugar cane bagasse pith (BP) by a mixture of cellulolytic bacteria, one of them being a species of Cellulomonas. If the BP were treated with 1% NaOH prior to fermentation, the liquor could be used twice more without affecting the yield of bacterial protein. After that, the liquor became too dark and impaired the subsequent washing of BP. If the concentration of N (as NaN0/sub 3/) in the fermentation medium were raised, the conversion factor to protein was lowered, but the amount of protein formed per L per h and the ratio of protein to BP became higher. The evolution of pH, the dry matter content, cellulolytic activity, and protein yield were all affected by the type of N source used. The yield of bacterial protein can probably be increased by automatically controlling the pH and dissolved O levels of the culture.

  13. Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery

    Murillo Villela Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane.

  14. Ergonomics productivity enhancement at government-owned sugar cane factories in east Java, Indonesia.

    Manuaba, A

    1995-06-01

    To cope, both with the increasing demand for sugar and to win the global competition as well, government-owned sugar cane limited number xxi-xxii, has decided to enhance its productivity, among other things, by implementing ergonomics principles within their factories. In the execution, ergonomics application have been carried out since 1992, which resulted in safer, healthier, and more efficient working conditions and environment. Some of the improvements yielded economic gains through higher productivity via increased output, lower cost, faster processing, etc. Improvements related to cane transloading and unloading processes resulted in a higher amount of cane being transferred from the trucks to the lorries as well as from the lorries to the cane table. Fewer clinical visits, lower health care costs, more efficient inspection, and fewer fatigue complaints are also achieved by improvement steps, which increase the productivity as end results. With all those economic gains, full and long lasting management's concern and commitment could be created without a doubt.

  15. Proteomic analysis of Herbaspirillum seropedicae cultivated in the presence of sugar cane extract.

    Cordeiro, Fabio Aparecido; Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Zibetti; Huergo, Luciano Fernandes; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Monteiro, Rose Adele; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi

    2013-03-01

    Bacterial endophytes of the genus Herbaspirillum colonize sugar cane and can promote plant growth. The molecular mechanisms that mediate plant- H. seropedicae interaction are poorly understood. In this work, we used 2D-PAGE electrophoresis to identify H. seropedicae proteins differentially expressed at the log growth phase in the presence of sugar cane extract. The differentially expressed proteins were validated by RT qPCR. A total of 16 differential spots (1 exclusively expressed, 7 absent, 5 up- and 3 down-regulated) in the presence of 5% sugar cane extract were identified; thus the host extract is able to induce and repress specific genes of H. seropedicae. The differentially expressed proteins suggest that exposure to sugar cane extract induced metabolic changes and adaptations in H. seropedicae presumably in preparation to establish interaction with the plant.

  16. Ethanol from sugar cane with simultaneous production of electrical energy and biofertilizer

    Filgueiras, G.

    1981-08-04

    A flexible nonpolluting industrial scheme is described for converting sugar cane into fuel-grade ethanol, fertilizer, and electric power. The cleaned cane is treated in a diffuser to separate the juice, which is enzymically hydrolyze d to ethanol, and bagasse containing 65-85% moisture, which is mechanically ground with the rest of the cane plant (leaves and buds) and biochemically digested to provide liquid and solid fertilizers as well as a methane-containing gas, which is burned in a gas turbine to generate electricity. The vinasse from the ethanol fermentation is also cycled to the digestion step. The process conditions can be varied depending upon the desired product ratio; if fuel is preferred, each ton of cane (dry weight) can produce 135 L ethanol, 50 kW electric power, and 150 kg fertilizer; if electric energy is preferred, each ton can give 75 L ethanol, 115 kW power, and 220 kg fertilizer.

  17. Connected cane: Tactile button input for controlling gestures of iOS voiceover embedded in a white cane.

    Batterman, Jared M; Martin, Vincent F; Yeung, Derek; Walker, Bruce N

    2018-01-01

    Accessibility of assistive consumer devices is an emerging research area with potential to benefit both users with and without visual impairments. In this article, we discuss the research and evaluation of using a tactile button interface to control an iOS device's native VoiceOver Gesture navigations (Apple Accessibility, 2014). This research effort identified potential safety and accessibility issues for users trying to interact and control their touchscreen mobile iOS devices while traveling independently. Furthermore, this article discusses the participatory design process in creating a solution that aims to solve issues in utilizing a tactile button interface in a novel device. The overall goal of this study is to enable visually impaired white cane users to access their mobile iOS device's capabilities navigation aids more safely and efficiently on the go.

  18. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of peracetic acid pretreated sugar cane bagasse

    Teixeira, L.C. [Fundacao Centro Tecnologico de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Linden, J.C.; Schroeder, H.A. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Previous work in our laboratory has demonstrated that peracetic acid improves the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic materials. From the same studies, use of dilute alkali solutions as a pre-pretreatment prior to peracetic acid lignin oxidation increases sugar conversion yields in a synergistic, not additive, manner. Deacetylation of xylan is conducted easily by use of dilute alkali solutions at mild conditions. In this paper, the effectiveness of peracetic acid pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse combined with an alkaline pre-pretreatment, is evaluated through simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) procedures. A practical 92% of theoretical ethanol yield using recombinant Zymomonas mobilis CP4/pZB5 is achieved using 6% NaOH/I5% peracetic acid pretreated substrate. No sugar accumulation is observed during SSCF; the recombinant microorganism exhibits greater glucose utilization rates than those of xylose. Acetate levels at the end of the co-fermentations are less than 0.2% (w/v). Based on demonstrated reduction of acetyl groups of the biomass, alkaline pre-pretreatments help to reduce peracetic acid requirements. The influence of deacetylation is more pronounced in combined pretreatments using lower peracetic acid loadings. Stereochemical impediments of the acetyl groups in hemicellulase on the activity of specific enzymes may be involved. (author)

  19. Influence of gamma radiation on microbiological parameters of the ethanolic fermentation of sugar-cane must

    Alcarde, A.R.; Walder, J.M.M.; Horii, J.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on reducing the population of some bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus that usually contaminate the sugar-cane must and its effects on acidity of the medium and viability of the yeast during fermentation were evaluated. The treatment with gamma radiation reduced the bacterial load of the sugar-cane must. Consequently, the volatile acidity produced during the fermentation of the must decreased and the viability of the yeast afterwards added increased

  20. Production of amino acids by mucor geophillus using sugar cane waste as a substrate

    Almani, F.; Dahot, U.

    2006-01-01

    In this study Mucor geophillus was used for amino acid production from acid/base hydrolysates of sugar cane bagasse. The Effects of substrate as well as influence of hydrolyzing agent on amino acid production by Mucor geophillus were investigated. Result reveals that higher amount of amino acids were accumulated when acid hydrolysates of sugar cane bagasse were used as substrate in comparison to NH/sub 4/OH and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ hydrolysates. (author)

  1. Cane (Rattan) entreprises as family business in Bangladesh : a case study

    Alam, Mahbubul; Furukawa, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    Cane (Calamus spp), also known as rattan, is an important non-timber forest product used extensively all over Bangladesh as a raw material for making furniture, handi-craft and other household articles. The study has attempted to generate information on existing state of cane based family business, identify problems, and recommend solu-tions. Structured questionnaire has been employed in the field survey. During survey it was found that about 80% enterprises are traditionally inherited to the...

  2. Disposition of the iron, influenced by the application of humic acid, extracted of filter cake of sugar cane

    Morales L, Carmen Soledad; Garcia Ocampo, Alvaro

    1995-01-01

    Two extracting (NaOH and KOH) and several acidifying solutions were used to get humic acids from filter cake of sugar cane, composted coffee beans and hen manure. The humic acids obtained were characterized and applied to evaluate their effect on the iron availability to tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown in nutrient solutions. The amount of humic acids extracted from filter cake is between hen manure and composted coffee beans. The nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of the different humic materials indicated that the ones extracted from filter cake have a carboxylic chain larger than the other two materials and an aliphatic chain lower than the leonardite humic acids and also are younger. Application of 40 to 80 mg/L of humic acids to nutrient solutions promote physiological responses on tomato plants due to greater assimilation of N, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu and Mn

  3. Residual of fosforo in ratoon-cane for forage yield in the noth of Mato Grosso

    Tiago de Lisboa Parente

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The sugar cane can be used as bovine supplementation option in the Centro Oeste region during dry periods. However, the low phosphorus availability in the soil becomes a limiting factor in the development of culture, mainly for ratoon cane. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of ratoon cane under different levels of phosphorus, applied in corrective phosphate and of the maintenance in the plant cane. The experiment was conducted in Alta Floresta (MT, end the experimental design was a randomized block with split plots, being four doses of corrective phosphate and five of maintenance. The corrective phosphating was carried out in the entire area with natural reactive phosphate Arad in the doses of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg ha-1 of P2O5, and the maintenance done in the furrow with triple superphosphate, at rates of 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 of P2O5. The fertilization in plant cane promoted residual effect for cane ratoon, however, only the Arad phosphate promoted significant differences in green mass productivity, occurring linear increase for the tested doses.

  4. Development of ice cream based sugar cane juice and sensory evaluation with children

    Vanessa Pedro da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ice cream is a tasty and nutritious source of protein and calcium, but it is deficient in some minerals, as iron, but it is found in sugar cane juice, which is a source of minerals such as iron, phosphorus, calcium, sodium among others. The objective of the present study are: to develop sugar cane juice ice cream, in order to increase the mineral content replacing refined sugar and water during the manufacturing process by sugar cane juice; to analyze its physical-chemical composition; to check your sensory acceptance with children. Three formulations were prepared from sugar cane juice ice cream: sugar cane juice ice cream (SC, sugar cane juice ice cream with molasses (SCM and sugar cane juice ice cream with brown sugar (SCR. Sensory evaluation was conducted with 120 children (62 boys and 58 girls from 8 to 10 years old, students from 3rd to 5th years of primary school. Sensory tests were ordering-preference, intention to use and acceptance with facial hedonic scale of 7 points. The results of physico-chemical and acceptance testing were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, the scores compared by Tukey test (p ? 0.05 and the result of the sensory test ordering-preference were assessed using the Friedman. The ice cream it presents has a reduced fat content because it was formulated with palm trans-fat free. The use of sugar cane juice in the formulation of the ice cream increased the amount of minerals when compared to ordinary ice cream. Therefore, sugar cane juice ice cream demonstrated to be more healthy and nutritious compared with traditional ice cream, besides being source of calcium, iron and phosphorus; serving the needs of the recommended daily intake (IDR for children from 7 to 10 years old. About the sensory evaluation, all formulations of sugar cane juice ice cream obtained great sensory acceptance among children in all sensory attributes evaluated, showing excellent percentages of acceptance and intention to use by

  5. Effect of organic matter and Si liquid fertilizer on growth and yield of sugar cane

    Djajadi Djajadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is known to absorb more Si than any other nutrient from the soil; therefore continuous cropping of the plant at the same soil would bring consequences of more Si and organic matter depletion. Silicon (Si is considered as a beneficial nutrient for sugarcane production while organic matter is well known as soil amendment. Field study was carried out to know the effect of organic and Si liquid fertilizer on growth, Si and N uptake, and yield of cane variety of PSBM 901. The study field was located at Kempleng village, Purwoasri, East Java and the study was done from May 2013 up to September 2014. Split plot design with three replicates was employed to arrange treatments. Organic matter types (no organic matter, Crotalaria juncea and manure were set as main plots while Si liquid fertilizer concentration (0, 15% Si and 30% S were arranged as sub plots. C juncea was planted at 15 days before planting of sugar cane, and after 35 days the C juncea were chopped and mixed into the soil. Manure was added one week before sugar cane was planted. Si liquid fertilizer was sprayed to the whole part of sugar cane plant at 30 and 50 days after sugar cane was planted. All treatments received basal fertilizer of 800 kg ZA/ha, 200 kg SP 36/ha and 300 kg KCl/ha. Results showed that interaction between organic matter and Si liquid fertilizer significantly affected on Si and N absorption, length of stem, yield and rendement of sugar cane. Addition of manure and followed by spraying of 30% Si liquid fertilizer gave the highest value of S and N absorption (869 g SiO2/plant and 720 g N/plant, cane yield (155.74 tons/ha and rendement (8.15%.

  6. Geothermal resource utilization: paper and cane sugar industries. Final report

    Hornburg, C.D.; Morin, O.J.

    1975-03-01

    This study was made as a specific contribution to an overall report by the United States in the area of industrial utilization of geothermal resources. This is part of an overall study in non-electrical uses of geothermal resources for a sub-committee of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. This study was restricted to the geopressured zone along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast. Also, it was limited to utilizing the thermal energy of this ''geoenergy'' resource for process use in the Pulp and Paper Industry and Cane Sugar Industry. For the selected industries and resource area, this report sets forth energy requirements; identifies specific plant and sites; includes diagrams of main processes used; describes process and equipment modifications required; describes energy recovery systems; sets forth waste disposal schemes and problems; and establishes the economics involved. The scope of work included considerable data collection, analysis and documentation. Detailed technical work was done concerning existing processes and modifications to effectively utilize geothermal energy. A brief survey was made of other industries to determine which of these has a high potential for utilizing geothermal energy.

  7. Production of Dextran from Sugar Cane Molasses by Leuconostoc mesenteroides

    M Faramarzi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Dextran is a polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that are widely used in medicine as a blood volume extender. The aim of this study was to produce dextran from cane molasses using Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria. Methods: In this experimental study, for bacterial growth and dextran production, sugarcane molasses was added to the culture medium at different concentrations. Dextran sedimentation was obtained by shaking and centrifugation by adding ethanol after 48 hours. Response surface design was used for qualitative identification of the polarization of dextran and statistical analysis methods. Results: After assessing the separation and interactive effects of the parameters on the optimum amount of dextran produced from sugarcane molasses as 50 g, 35 º C and 5/8 = pH , the Dextran produced was more than 82 g/l. The correlation of the computational model for the dextran produced was 99.5%, which indicated excellent agreement with the experimental and computational models of high accuracy. Conclusion: Dextran produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria and sugarcane molasses as substrate, is a cheap and affordable compared to current methods of dextran production. In addition to producing a clinical product, the molasses pollution could be dramatically decreased. Key words: Dextran, Molasses, Leuconostoc Mesenteroides

  8. Development of Powered Disk Type Sugar Cane Stubble Saver

    Radite P.A.S.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to design, fabricate and test a prototype of sugar cane stubble saver based on powered disk mechanism. In this research, a heavy duty disk plow or disk harrow was used as a rotating knife to cut the sugarcane stubble. The parabolic disk was chosen because it is proven reliable as soil working tools and it is available in the market as spare part of disk plow or disk harrow unit. The prototype was mounted on the four wheel tractor’s three point hitch, and powered by PTO of the tractor. Two kinds of disks were used in these experiments, those were disk with regular edge or plain disk and disk with scalloped edge or scalloped disk. Both disks had diameter of 28 inch. Results of field test showed that powered disk mechanism could satisfy cut sugar cane’s stubble. However, scalloped disk type gave smoother stubble cuts compared to that of plain disk. Plain disk type gave broken stubble cut. Higher rotation (1000 rpm resulted better cuts as compared to lower rotation (500 rpm both either on plain disk and scalloped disk. The developed prototype could work below the soil surface at depth of 5 to 10 cm. With tilt angle setting 20O and disk angle 45O the width of cut was about 25 cm.

  9. Repetibilidade de características agroindustriais em cana-de-açúcar Repeatability of agro-industrial characteristics in sugar cane

    Maria Silvia Monteiro dos Santos

    2004-04-01

    main components. Characteristics lower than 0.5 and determination lower than 74% need a greater number of measures. The methods of main components and analysis of variance evidenced, in five cuts, determination over 80% for fiber, percentage of pol (sucrose in the juice of cane, tons of cane per hectare and tons of pol in the juice of cane per hectare, though the first had been most efficient. Considering tons of cane per hectare and tons of pol in the juice of cane per hectare, the clones RB9371, RB9350 and RB9364 are the best.

  10. Rice polishings as a supplement in sugar cane diets: effect of giving it as a separate meal or mixed with sugar cane

    Lopez, J M; Priego, A; Wilson, A; Preston, T R

    1977-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out. In the first, 40 Zebu bulls in groups of 5 were used in a 2 x 2 factorial design to study the following main treatments in a basal feed of chopped whole sugar cane and urea: (1) 500 or 1000 g/day of rice polishings; (2) mixing the supplement with the sugar cane or giving it as a separate meal before the cane was offered. In the second experiment, a changeover design was used with 3 rumen - cannulated Zebu bulls to study the effect on rumen fermentation of giving the rice polishings (500 g/day) mixed with the sugar cane or as a separate meal. In experiment 1, the rate of liveweight gain was increased from 421 to 559 g/day by the higher level of supplementation with rice polishings but there were no differences due to the method of giving this supplement. Voluntary dry matter intake was increased by the higher level of supplementation and there was an improvement in feed conversion. Neither of these parameters was affected by the method of giving the rice polishings. In the second experiment, there was an indication of slightly lower values for pH of rumen fluid between 11:00 am and 5:00 pm, but no effects on the molar proportion of the VFA (volatile fatty acids), when rice polishings were given as a separate meal rather than mixed in the cane. There were significant changes in molar proportions of VFA with time of sampling, with increases in C/sub 3/ and decreases in C/sub 2/ after feeding; C/sub 4/ molar proportions did not change.

  11. Electronic white cane with GPS radar-based concept as blind mobility enhancement without distance limitation

    Halim, Suharsono; Handafiah, Finna; Aprilliyani, Ria; Udhiarto, Arief

    2018-02-01

    The Indonesian Ministry of Social Affairs, in July 2012, informed that the number of blind in Indonesia has been the largest among to the people with other disabilities. The most common tools utilized to help the blind was a conventional cane which has limited features and therefore it was difficult to be used as a mobilization tools. Moreover, the conventional cane cannot assist them or their family when the blind gets lost. In this research, we designed and implemented an electronic white cane with the concept of radar and global positioning system (GPS). The purpose of this research was to design and develop an electronic white cane which can enhance the mobility of the blind without distance coverage limitation. Utilizing ultrasonic sensors as a distance measurement and a servo motor as an actuator, the produced radar system is able to map an area with maximum distance and coverage angle of 5 meters and 180° respectively. The blind senses the obstacle around them from the vibration generated by five vibration motors. The vibration becomes more intense when the obstacle is detected closer. In addition, we implemented a GPS to monitor the blind's position and allow their family to find them easily when the blind need a help. Based on the tests performed, we have successfully developed an electronic white cane that can be a solution to improve the blind's mobility.

  12. DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGES

    Watkins, R; Jason Varble, J

    2008-01-01

    Cane-based Celotex(trademark) has been used extensively in various Department of Energy (DOE) packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard was only manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new shipping packages requiring the material as a component. Current consolidation plans for the DOE Complex require the procurement of several thousand new Model 9975 shipping packages requiring cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard. Therefore, an alternative to cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard is needed. Knight-Celotex currently manufactures Celotex(trademark) fiberboard from other cellulosic materials, such as hardwood and softwood. A review of the relevant literature has shown that softwood-based Celotex(trademark) meets all parameters important to the Model 9975 shipping package

  13. The future of sugar cane in China and India - Supply constraints and expansion potential

    Kostka, Genia; Polzin, Christine; Scharrer, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    The last decade has seen a surging demand for biofuels in the wake of increasing oil prices and rising environmental concerns. The most common biofuel is bio-ethanol accounting for more than 90% of total biofuel usage. It is increasingly produced from sugar cane making cane a strategic crop for biofuels. Given the growing demand for 'green' fuels, bio-ethanol production has been supported by energy policies in the past decade, which have consequently been accused of contributing to the global trend of rising food prices and thus jeopardising food security. However, while biofuel policies are an important driver, prices as much as food security will ultimately be determined by supply constraints of strategic crops. This paper hence investigates drivers of and constraints to sugar cane production in China and India and shows that supply side constraints vary significantly in the two countries. China and India both face serious limitations with regard to suitable available land for the further expansion of sugar cane production. Equally they are both faced with challenges to increasing yield output per hectare, albeit different ones. With regard to productivity, China achieved 2.7% annual yield growth since 1997, while India has seen yield decreases of -0.1% p.a. over the same period. The authors conclude that cane used as a feedstock to meet the rising energy demand will come at the expense of converting fertile land for non-food purposes.

  14. Antioxidant Effects of Grape Vine Cane Extracts from Different Chinese Grape Varieties on Edible Oils

    Zhuo Min

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was significantly reduced under an accelerated storage condition of 70 ± 1 °C in the presence of Vitamin C (VC, which was chosen as a synergist of grape vine cane extract. A 4:1 ratio of Victoria Blanc-ethyl acetate fraction (EAF and VC led to a significant lowering of the peroxide value and indicated a better antioxidant effect. Thus, these results indicated that some varieties of grape vine cane extracts could be applied as natural antioxidants for elevation of the quality of edible oils in the food industry.

  15. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    Minussi Rosana Cristina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL and polygalacturonase (PG by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3 in a rotary shaker (150 rpm for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium promoted higher PL activity and mycelial dry weight when compared to pectin and the use of sugar-cane juice and yeast extract yielded levels of PG activity that were similar to those obtained with sucrose-yeast extract or pectin. The results indicated that, even at low concentrations, sugar-cane juice was capable of inducing pectin lyase and polygalacturonase with no cellulase activity in P. griseoroseum.

  16. The impact of invasive cane toads on native wildlife in southern Australia.

    Jolly, Christopher J; Shine, Richard; Greenlees, Matthew J

    2015-09-01

    Commonly, invaders have different impacts in different places. The spread of cane toads (Rhinella marina: Bufonidae) has been devastating for native fauna in tropical Australia, but the toads' impact remains unstudied in temperate-zone Australia. We surveyed habitat characteristics and fauna in campgrounds along the central eastern coast of Australia, in eight sites that have been colonized by cane toads and another eight that have not. The presence of cane toads was associated with lower faunal abundance and species richness, and a difference in species composition. Populations of three species of large lizards (land mullets Bellatorias major, eastern water dragons Intellagama lesueurii, and lace monitors Varanus varius) and a snake (red-bellied blacksnake Pseudechis porphyriacus) were lower (by 84 to 100%) in areas with toads. The scarcity of scavenging lace monitors in toad-invaded areas translated into a 52% decrease in rates of carrion removal (based on camera traps at bait stations) and an increase (by 61%) in numbers of brush turkeys (Alectura lathami). The invasion of cane toads through temperate-zone Australia appears to have reduced populations of at least four anurophagous predators, facilitated other taxa, and decreased rates of scavenging. Our data identify a paradox: The impacts of cane toads are at least as devastating in southern Australia as in the tropics, yet we know far more about toad invasion in the sparsely populated wilderness areas of tropical Australia than in the densely populated southeastern seaboard.

  17. Fertilization with filter cake and micronutrients in plant cane

    Jaqueline Cristiane Adorna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of sugarcane to application of micronutrients is still not very well known. In view of the need for this information, the aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the micronutrients Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo to plant cane in three soils, with and without application of filter cake. This study consisted of three experiments performed in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, (in Igaraçu do Tiete, on an Oxisol; in Santa Maria da Serra, on an Entisol, both in the 2008/2009 growing season; and in Mirassol, on an Ultisol, in the 2009/2010 growing season in a randomized block design with four replications with a 8 x 2 factorial combination of micronutrients (1 - no application/control, 2 - addition of Zn, 3 - addition of Cu, 4 - addition of Mn 5 - addition of Fe, 6 - addition of B, 7 - addition of Mo, 8 - Addition of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo and filter cake (0 and 30 t ha-1 of filter cake in the furrow at planting. The application of filter cake was more efficient than of Borax in raising leaf B concentration to sufficiency levels for sugarcane in the Entisol, and it increased mean stalk yield in the Oxisol. In areas without filter cake application, leaf concentrations were not affected by the application of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo in the furrow at planting; however, Zn and B induced an increase in stalk and sugar yield in micronutrient-poor sandy soil.

  18. Humidity data for 9975 shipping packages with cane fiberboard

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The 9975 surveillance program is developing a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in K-Area Complex beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Direct measurements of humidity and fiberboard moisture content have been made on two test packages with cane fiberboard and varying internal heat levels from 0 up to 19W. With an internal heat load, a temperature gradient in the fiberboard assembly leads to varying relative humidity in the air around the fiberboard. However, the absolute humidity tends to remain approximately constant throughout the package. The moisture content of fiberboard varies under the influence of several phenomena. Changes in local fiberboard temperature (from an internal heat load) can cause fiberboard moisture changes through absorption or evaporation. Fiberboard degradation at elevated temperature will produce water as a byproduct. And the moisture level within the package is constantly seeking equilibrium with that of the surrounding room air, which varies on a daily and seasonal basis. One indicator of the moisture condition within a 9975 package might be obtained by measuring the relative humidity in the upper air space, by inserting a humidity probe through a caplug hole. However, the data indicate that for the higher internal heat loads (15 and 19 watts), a large variation in internal moisture conditions produces little or no variation in the air space relative humidity. Therefore, this approach does not appear to be sensitive to fiberboard moisture variations at the higher heat loads which are of most interest to maintaining fiberboard integrity.

  19. Carbon 14 absorption and translocation in sugar cane

    Pimentel, R.M.M.; Sampaio, E.V.S.; Salcedo, I.H.

    1990-01-01

    Plant-cane stools were labelled with sup(14) CO sub(2), in the field, at Goiana-PE, Brazil, when 3, 7 and 11 months old. Each stool was enclosed in a chamber with sup(14) CO sub(2) for 90 minutes. The sub(14) C photosynthetic were measured in leaves, stalks, roots and soil 24 hours after labelling. Roots were divided into alive and dead and soil into rhizosphere and outer soil. At the end of the labelling period at 3, 7 and 11 months, 2, 19 and 1% of the initial sup(14) CO sub(2) were recovered in the plant and the soil. The low recovery of sub(14) C at 3 months could be attribute to losses by respiration and lack of sampling of the top growing point. The low CO sub(2) fixation and losses at first sampling in the 7 month old labelling were attributed to low light intensity during the day of labelling. Most of the recovered sub(14) C (>80%) was founded in the leaves but all plant parts received labelled photosynthetic. At 3 months, most of the sub(14) C translocated from the leaves went to the living roots (83%); at 7 and 11 months it went to the stalks (69 and 66%). While the roots received less than 2%. Root masses did not vary consistently along the plant cycle and dead root masses were always less than 10% of the total root mass. Radioactivity in the dead roots was always very low. These results suggest that the root system have a low turnover rate after 3 months old. (author)

  20. Effects and feasibility of a standardised orientation and mobility training in using an identification cane for older adults with low vision: design of a randomised controlled trial

    Zijlstra, G. A. R.; van Rens, G. H. M. B.; Scherder, E. J. A.; Brouwer, D. M.; van der Velde, J.; Verstraten, P. F. J.; Kempen, G. I. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Orientation and mobility training (O&M-training) in using an identification cane, also called symbol cane, is provided to people with low vision to facilitate independent participation in the community. In The Netherlands this training is mainly practice-based because a standardised and validly evaluated O&M-training in using the identification cane is lacking. Recently a standardised O&M-training in using the identification cane was developed. This training consists of tw...

  1. The use of ethanol from sugar cane in the Brazilian transport sector

    Ribeiro, Suzana Kahn

    1999-01-01

    The use of Ethanol as a fuel is a significant contribution to the efforts for reducing greenhouse effect related to gas emissions. The main objective of the present work, is to assess Brazil's performance regarding activities aimed at reducing harmful gas emissions, in the global context of the intensification of the greenhouse effect, assumed as a working hypothesis. Brazil's estimated emissions of greenhouse effect related to gases are far less than those of developed countries. The per capita consumption of energy and of fossil fuels is still quite low in Brazil. However, the means for reducing harmful gas emissions and the initiatives to control the greenhouse effect should not be directed to the maintenance of the present low level of energy consumption, for this would have negative repercussion on the economic development of the country. Developed countries have focused on the more rational uses of energy, i.e. more efficient and less polluting fuels, so as to reduce their own levels of greenhouse effect related to gas emissions. In this connection, the use of ethanol in Brazil for the transportation sector may prove to be an important alternative furthering the efforts to stabilised the actual level of gases in the atmosphere. The energy derived from biomass, and in this case, from a renewable, clean source, i.e., from sugar cane, has the unquestionable advantage of permitting the almost complete reabsorption of Carbon Dioxide emitted through the combustion of fuel alcohol. This closed cycle allows, in principle, to increase the energy supply, essential for sustained economic growth, without hazards to the environment. Furthermore, the Brazilian Fuel Alcohol Program has the potential to attract international interest as an important alternative relative to the efforts for controlling the global dangers of the greenhouse effect, as will be discussed in greater detail further on in this paper. (Author)

  2. Utilization of nitrogen by soybean (Glycine max) influenced by the addition of sugar cane bagasse

    Bonetti, R.; Saito, S.M.T.

    1982-01-01

    N 2 -fixation in soybean and soil-N and 15 N-urea utilization where studied in a glasshouse. Doses of fertilizer were 0, 40 and 80 kgN/ha added either to cultivated - or virgin soil, where sugar cane bagasse was also added (20 ton/ha). Non-nodulating soybean was used as a control to determine the absorption of the three N-sources: soil, fertilizer and N 2 -fixation. The N-immobilization effect caused by bagasse addition was observed even after a pre-incubation period of 40 days, being greater in the cultivated than in the soil without organic matter. Accumulations of N, P and S where also smaller in these plants. Additions of N were not sufficient to equal the values observed in soils without organic matter. Addition of 40 kgN/ha showed a sinergistic and positive effect on treatments that had N-immobilization, reinforcing the idea that starter doses of N are necessary for maximization of nodulation and N 2 -fixation in soybean, in soils with low N. N 2 -fixation contributed with mean values of 54% and 84% N, respectively, in the aerial part and pools in non-treated soil. When bagasse was added, the percentages of N 2 -fixed increased, however in smaller amounts, showing a necessity of different sources of N to increase the total N in plant. The greatest N 2 -fixation (48,6 kgN/ha) was found in the cultivated soil, where only bagasse had been added. (M.A.) [pt

  3. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    2010-08-05

    ... Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars...) 2011 in-quota aggregate quantity of the raw, as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ) as required under the U.S. World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments. The FY 2011 raw cane sugar...

  4. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    2010-04-27

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 200,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

  5. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    2012-09-17

    ... Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States... quantity of the tariff-rate quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar... imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar. Pursuant to Additional U.S. Note 8 to Chapter 17 of the HTS...

  6. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    2010-07-06

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

  7. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    2010-08-30

    ... for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY... August 17, 2010 concerning Fiscal Year 2011 tariff-rate quota allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising the effective date of that notice to...

  8. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    2011-04-12

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 325,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2011 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

  9. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  10. The Acceptability of Caning Children in Singapore: The Fine Line Between Discipline and Physical Maltreatment.

    Ngiam, Xin Ying; Tung, Serena S W

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a worldwide phenomenon with far-reaching negative consequences, and physical abuse is its most visible and widely reported form of maltreatment. There is a fine line between nonabusive physical punishment and physical child abuse, and where this line is drawn is often influenced by prevailing cultural practices and child-rearing beliefs. This article focus on Singapore-a modern Asian society that remains rooted in traditional attitudes and practices-as a case study in exploring the boundaries. In particular, the local practice of caning (hitting with a rattan cane) as a disciplinary measure for children, the ambiguity of the law on the issue of physical abuse, and the influence of judicial caning on the acceptability of this common practice are examined. Finally, the possible means of safeguarding children and discouraging the use of physical punishment in the home are discussed.

  11. The classification of wood chips parameters by crushing of waste cane from different varieties of grapevine

    Patrik Burg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deales with exploitatives parameters monitoring of wood shreder PEZZOLATO 110 Mb by crushing of waste cane of six varieties. The results shows that the wood shreders efficiency, fuel consumption and the wood chips elements size can be influenced by varieties characters of cane. The va­lued machines efficiency was 230–470 kg . h−1 by average volume 40.70 % water in wood. The hig­hest values by cane crushing had the variety Saint Laurent (0.47 t . h−1 and the lowest variety ­Blauer Portugieser (0.23 t . h−1. The specific consumption of petrol Natural 95 was 4.52.10−3–8.12.10−3 l . kg−1. The average middle elements lenght was 6.64 mm by crushed varieties.

  12. Impurities in sugar cane and their influence on industrial processing evaluated by nuclear techniques

    Bacchi, M.A.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1990-01-01

    During the cutting and loading operations, impurities, mainly soil, are added to sugar cane in amounts that can impair industrial processing due to excessive wear of metallic members and contamination of juice and bagasse. Mechanization of loading operation has showed a considerable enhancement of the impurity content, leading to the improvement of cane washing technology. Nevertheless, for a correct understanding of the problem and the process optimization, it is necessary and exact and fast quantification of these impurities as well as of its consequences. Nuclear techniques, in special neutron activation analysis, have been proved to be appropriate for estimating soil level in sugar cane, washing process efficiency and wearing of cases and moving parts. (author)

  13. Distribution and importance of spiders inhabiting a Brazilian sugar cane plantation

    Isabela Maria Piovesan Rinaldi

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The spider fauna (Araneae of a sugar eane plantation was surveyed monthly by hand colteetion and beating vegetation in sugar cane fields across Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Composition and rchness (family and species where identifieation to species was possible microhabitat preferenees were reeorded, and diversity and evenness indices were calculated. A total of 1291 spiders belonging to 73 species and 20 families were collected. The most diverse families were Theridiidae, Salticidae, and Araneidae, and the most abundant ones were Theridiidae, Saltieidae, Anyphaenidae, and Araneidae, Seven species represented 58.6% of the total fauna, with Crysso pulcherrima (Mello-Leitão,1917 (Theridiidae composing 28.2%. About 65% of the spiders occupied the upper part of the plants (above 20 cm. Five spider species were present in the sugar cane throughout crop development. Evidence of spiders feeding on sugar cane pest species was observed.

  14. Design and Installation of Irrigation System for the Expansion of Sugar cane- Industries in Ahvaz, IRAN.

    Afshari, E.; Afshari, S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents achievements of a twelve years ongoing project expansion of sugar cane- industries as a major agricultural development in Ahvaz, IRAN. The entire project is divided in to seven units and each unit provides irrigation water for 30,000 acres of sugar cane farms in Ahwaz. Absou Inc. is one of the consulting firms that is in charge of design and overseeing installation of irrigation system as well as the development of lands for sugar-cane cultivation at one of the units, called Farabi unit .In general, the mission of project is to Pump fresh water from Karoon River and direct it to the sugar cane farm for irrigation. In particular, the task of design and installation include, (1) build a pumping station at Karoon River with capacity of 1271 ft3/sec, (2) transfer water by main channel from Karoon rive to the farm site 19 miles (3) install a secondary pumping stations which direct water from main channel to drainage pipes and provides water for local farms (4) build a secondary channels which carries water with pipe lines with total length of 42 miles and diameter of 16 to 32 inch. (5) install drainage pump stations and collectors (6) level the ground surface and prepare it for irrigation (7) build railroad for carrying sugar canes (23 miles). Thus far, more than 15,000 acres of farm in Farabi unit is under sugar cane cultivation. The presentation will illustrate more details about different aspects of the project including design, installation and construction phases.

  15. Utilization of distillery slop for sugar cane production and environmental pollution reduction

    Tasanee Thitakamol

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to study the effect of distillery slop and chemical fertilizer on soil fertility, growth and yield of sugar cane. The field experiment was conducted on Mahasarakam soil series, using the K 88-92 variety of sugar cane. The results showed that distillery slop significantly increased some nutrients in soil, particularly potassium, magnesium, sulfur and chloride. The results also showed that application of distillery slop did not affect most of the physical properties of soil. Only the saturated hydraulic conductivity was significantly decreased under non-application of fertilizer. Under the application of distillery slop, chemical fertilizer had no significant effect on the yield and the juice quality of sugar cane for both crop years. However, under non-application of distillery slop in the first crop year, application of 21-0-0 and 20-20-0 fertilizer had a significant effect on cane yield. With the application of chemical fertilizer, distillery slop had an influence on the yield of sugar cane in both crop years while different doses of slop did not make any significant difference on cane yield. The average yields of the first crop year were 126.7, 195.6, 203.0 and 187.2 ton/hectare and those of the second crop year were 85.0, 150.0, 150.8 and 142.4 ton/hectare after the application of 0, 187.5, 375 and 562.5 m3/hectare, respectively. The results also showed that application of distillery slop did not have any significant effect on juice quality for both crop years. Investigation of slop trace under the ground surface indicated that application of distillery slop did not affect the quality of underground water as the deepest level of trace was only 50 centimeters.

  16. Production of Microbial Transglutaminase on Media Made from Sugar Cane Molasses and Glycerol

    Manuel Vázquez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Transglutaminase is an enzyme that catalyses an acyl transfer reaction between γ-carboxamide groups of glutaminyl residues and lysine residues in proteins. Due to this property, this enzyme is used for enhancing textural properties of protein-rich food. The transglutaminase used as food additive is obtained by microorganisms, mainly by Streptoverticillium ladakanum. On the other hand, sugar cane molasses is a viscous liquid rich in noncrystallized carbohydrates (saccharose, glucose and fructose. In this work, the feasibility of using sugar cane molasses as a carbon source for the production of microbial transglutaminase by Streptoverticillium ladakanum NRRL 3191 has been studied. Carbon sources including sugar cane molasses (60 g of total sugars per L, glycerol (60 g/L and their mixture in a ratio of 1:1 (30 g/L of each were evaluated. Time course of microbial growth, transglutaminase activity and carbon source consumption were determined every 24 h during 120 h of fermentations at three agitation speeds (200, 300 or 400 rpm. The results showed that with the increase in agitation speed, the biomass concentration increased up to 8.39 g/L in the medium containing sugar cane molasses alone or the mixture of molasses and glycerol. The highest transglutaminase activity was obtained at 400 rpm in the medium containing a mixture of molasses and glycerol, reaching 0.460 U/mL, while in the medium containing sugar cane molasses alone, the activity was 0.240 U/mL, and using glycerol alone it was 0.250 U/mL. These results show that sugar cane molasses is a suitable medium for transglutaminase production when it is combined with glycerol.

  17. Can use of walkers or canes impede lateral compensatory stepping movements?

    Bateni, Hamid; Heung, Evelyn; Zettel, John; McLlroy, William E; Maki, Brian E

    2004-08-01

    Although assistive devices, such as walkers and canes are often prescribed to aid in balance control, recent studies have suggested that such devices may actually increase risk of falling. In this study, we investigated one possible mechanism: the potential for walkers or canes to interfere with, or constrain, lateral movement of the feet and thereby impede execution of compensatory stepping reactions during lateral loss of balance. Lateral stepping reactions were evoked, in 10 healthy young adults (ages 22-27 years), by means of sudden unpredictable medio-lateral support surface translation. Subjects were tested while holding and loading a standard pickup walker or single-tip cane or while using no assistive device (hands free or holding an object). Results supported the hypothesis that using a walker or cane can interfere with compensatory stepping. Collisions between the swing-foot and mobility aid were remarkably frequent when using the walker (60% of stepping reactions) and also occurred in cane trials (11% of stepping reactions). Furthermore, such collisions were associated with a significant reduction (26-37%) in lateral step length. It appeared that subjects were sometimes able to avoid collision by increasing the forward or backward displacement of the swing-foot or by moving the cane; however, attempts to lift the walker out of the way occurred rarely and were usually impeded due to collision between the contralateral walker post and stance foot. The fact that compensatory stepping behavior was altered significantly in such a healthy cohort clearly demonstrates some of the safety limitations inherent to these assistive devices, as currently designed. Copyright 2003 Elsevier B.V.

  18. The sugar cane and the coconut palm: research and development sources for environmental improvement

    Laine, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes two plants that were important in the past for the human development in tropical areas: the sugar cane and the coconut palm, being considered now as possible solution for environmental problems. The sugar cane can be considered as a precursor plant to obtaine recyclable combustible, able to correct along the time the hothouse effect happening at global level. As for the coconut palm, it has been demonstrated that the shell of the coconut palm is one of the best raw materials for the preparation of activated coal, an absorbent material used in environmental protection applications [es

  19. Haptic Cues for Balance: Use of a Cane Provides Immediate Body Stabilization

    Stefania Sozzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Haptic cues are important for balance. Knowledge of the temporal features of their effect may be crucial for the design of neural prostheses. Touching a stable surface with a fingertip reduces body sway in standing subjects eyes closed (EC, and removal of haptic cue reinstates a large sway pattern. Changes in sway occur rapidly on changing haptic conditions. Here, we describe the effects and time-course of stabilization produced by a haptic cue derived from a walking cane. We intended to confirm that cane use reduces body sway, to evaluate the effect of vision on stabilization by a cane, and to estimate the delay of the changes in body sway after addition and withdrawal of haptic input. Seventeen healthy young subjects stood in tandem position on a force platform, with eyes closed or open (EO. They gently lowered the cane onto and lifted it from a second force platform. Sixty trials per direction of haptic shift (Touch → NoTouch, T-NT; NoTouch → Touch, NT-T and visual condition (EC-EO were acquired. Traces of Center of foot Pressure (CoP and the force exerted by cane were filtered, rectified, and averaged. The position in space of a reflective marker positioned on the cane tip was also acquired by an optoelectronic device. Cross-correlation (CC analysis was performed between traces of cane tip and CoP displacement. Latencies of changes in CoP oscillation in the frontal plane EC following the T-NT and NT-T haptic shift were statistically estimated. The CoP oscillations were larger in EC than EO under both T and NT (p < 0.001 and larger during NT than T conditions (p < 0.001. Haptic-induced effect under EC (Romberg quotient NT/T ~ 1.2 was less effective than that of vision under NT condition (EC/EO ~ 1.5 (p < 0.001. With EO cane had little effect. Cane displacement lagged CoP displacement under both EC and EO. Latencies to changes in CoP oscillations were longer after addition (NT-T, about 1.6 s than withdrawal (T-NT, about 0.9 s of haptic

  20. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L

    Soural, I.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, J.; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2015), s. 6093-6112 ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14038 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : Vitis vinifera L * grape cane * stilbenes * accelerated solvent extraction ( ASE ) * microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) * LC-MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.465, year: 2015

  1. Turning Javanese: The Domination of Cuba's Sugar Industry by Java Cane Varieties (1880-1950)

    Bosma, U.; Curry Machado, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    By the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth, two islands had come to dominate global cane-sugar production. For most of the sixty-year period between 1870 and 1930, around half of the world's internationally traded crop came from Cuba and Java. The two islands had many

  2. Genetic diversity analysis of nine chewing cane varieties (lines) and construction of their DNA fingerprints

    In order to provide theoretical basis for variety identification and parental selection during sugarcane breeding process, the present study was conducted to analyze genetic diversity of nine chewing cane varieties (lines) and construct their DNA fingerprints. Combining twenty-one SSR molecular mark...

  3. Hydraulic conductivity in sugar cane cultivated in soils previous vin aza application

    Musso, M.; Pereira, S.; Fajardo, L.

    2012-01-01

    This work analyzes the hydraulic conductivity in soil clay loams developed in Libertad formation in Bella Union where grows sugar cane with vinaza. In the agricultural activities are used different chemical additives such as organic and inorganic fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides, which interact with the biotic (roots, soil microbiology) and abiotic (clay, soil solution, etc.) elements

  4. Cane molasses and NaOH teated bagacillo diets for lambs | Chicco ...

    Cane molasses and NaOH teated bagacillo diets for lambs. C.F. Chicco, G Garcia, C Fernandez, C.R. Prays. Abstract. The eftect of alkali-treated bag acillo in diets varying in proportion of bagacillo and mollasses was studied in lambs. The bagacillo was treated with a concentration solution of NaOH in a horizontald rum-type ...

  5. Spectroscopic characterization of D-003 obtained from the sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax

    Marrero Delange, David; Cora Medina, Miriam; Laguna Granja, Abilio; Gonzalez Canavaciolo Victor L

    2013-01-01

    D-003, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) purified from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax with cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects, is composed of a mixture of free saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), each within specific relative concentration ranges as determined by the gas chromatography (GC). However, the spectroscopic characterization of D-003 had not been previously reported

  6. Varietal Distributions of Stilbenes in Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Soural, I.; Balík, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2017), s. 11-14 ISSN 1335-2563 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14038 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Vitis vinifera L. * varieties * grape canes * stilbenes * distribution Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  7. 3 CFR 8439 - Proclamation 8439 of October 15, 2009. White Cane Safety Day, 2009

    2010-01-01

    ... Proclamation All Americans deserve the freedom to participate in every aspect of our society and pursue their full measure of happiness. For blind Americans, the white cane is a potent symbol of that freedom... productivity. In recent years, refreshable Braille displays and speech synthesis devices have given these...

  8. WHITE PAPER: DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR 9975 PACKAGING

    Varble, J

    2007-01-01

    Cane-based Celotex(trademark) has been used extensively in various DOE packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex(trademark) for the 9975 was manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex(trademark) is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new 9975 packages. Knight-Celotex Fiberboard has Celotex(trademark) manufacturing plants in Danville, VA and Sunbury, PA that use softwood and hardwood, respectively, as a raw material in the manufacturing of Celotex(trademark). The purpose of this White Paper is to demonstrate that softwood-based Celotex(trademark) from the Knight-Celotex Danville Plant has performance equivalent to cane-based Celotex(trademark) from the Knight-Celotex Marrero Plant for transportation in a 9975 package

  9. Nancay "blind" 21 cm line survey of the Canes Venatici group region

    Kraan-Korteweg, RC; van Driel, W; Briggs, F; Binggeli, B; Mostefaoui, TI

    A radio spectroscopic driftscan survey in the 21 cm line with the Nancay decimetric radio telescope of 0.08 steradians of sky in the direction of the constellation Canes Venatici covering a heliocentric velocity range of -350

  10. Breeding Energy Cane Cultivars as a Biomass Feedstock for Coal Replacement

    Research and advanced breeding have demonstrated that energy cane possesses all of the attributes desirable in a biofuel feedstock: extremely good biomass yield in a small farming footprint; negative/neutral carbon footprint; maximum outputs from minimum inputs; well-established growing model for fa...

  11. Spectroscopic characterization of Simultaneous determination of Albendazol from the sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax

    Marrero Delange, David; Cora Medina, Miriam; Laguna Granja, Abilio; Gonzalez Canavaciolo, Victor L

    2013-01-01

    D-003, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) purified from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax with cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects, is composed of a mixture of free saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), each within specific relative concentration ranges as determined by the gas chromatography (GC). However, the spectroscopic characterization of D-003 had not been previously reported

  12. Growth of Pediococcus acidilactici on sugar cane blackstrap molasses

    Ernani S. Sant’Anna

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Pediococcus acidilactici (IL01 has grown in MRS (Man, Rogosa and Sharpe broth modified by substitution of glucose by 2.0% (MRS-2, 3.0% (MRS-3, 4.0% (MRS-4 and 5.0% (MRS-5 sugar cane blackstrap molasses. The highest acid production was obtained in MRS-5 broth maintained at a constant pH of 5.0. The highest biomass production was obtained when P. acidilactici was grown in MRS-5 broth at initial pH 6.5, while productivity was higher in MRS-2 broth (28.16%. When the MRS-2 broth was utilized at initial pH 6.5 for a 20-hour fermentation period, the highest growth rate (dx/dt was found in a period of 8 to 16 hours (0.290 g cells/L.h, while the specific growth rate (µ was 0.175 (h-1 for that period, differently from the 0.441 (h-1 obtained for the period comprising the 4th to the 12th hour. The growth in MRS broth was 5.08% (2.95 g/l higher than in MRS-2 broth (2.80 g/l. The data obtained have shown that P. acidilactici has had a significant growth in molasses as the main carbon source, and that it is possible to substitute MRS glucose by this carbon source with the purpose of obtaining a more economical growth medium for the potential large scale productions.Pediococcus acidilactici (IL01 cresceu em caldo MRS (Man, Rogosa and Sharpe modificado por adição de 2,0% (MRS-2, 3,0% (MRS-3, 4,0% (MRS-4 and 5,0% (MRS-5 de melaço de cana de açúcar, em substituição à glicose. A maior produção de ácido ocorreu em caldo MRS-5 com pH constante 5,0. A produção de biomassa foi mais acentuada em caldo MRS-5 com pH inicial de 6,5, embora a produtividade tenha sido maior em caldo MRS-2 (28,16%. Em caldo MRS-2 e em pH inicial de 6,5 durante uma fermentação de 20 horas, a velocidade de crescimento (dx/dt foi maior entre a 8ª e 16ª hora (0,290 g celulas/L.h enquanto a velocidade específica de crescimento µ foi 0,175 (h-1 para este período, diferente de 0,441 (h-1 obtido no período compreendido entre a 4ª e 12ª hora. O crescimento em caldo MRS foi 5

  13. Queima e aditivos químicos e bacterianos na ensilagem de cana-de-açúcar Burning and chemical and bacterial additives in sugar cane silage

    Gustavo Rezende Siqueira

    2010-01-01

    (DMR were determined. Greater DMR was observed in the burned sugar cane silage (77.3% compared to the crude silage (73.1%. Among the additives, greater DM recovery was observed in the silages treated with the NaOH or L. buchneri silage, that showed 84.0% DMR, and the control silage with 69.0%. After opening, an important aspect is the inhibition of pH elevation, in this case, measured by the variation in the pH values (VpH. Sodium benzoate and L. buchneri were efficient inhibitors of the VpH, showing values of 0.05 and 0.18 per pH unit, respectively. Ensiled sugar cane without additives, raw or burned, is a strategy that presents high quantitative losses. L. buchneri effectively reduces losses during the fermentation and post-opening phases of raw or burned sugar cane silage.

  14. Effects of gamma radiation on the behaviour of the sugar cane borer Diatrea saccharalis (Fabr., 1794) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Contreras Duran, J.V.

    1980-08-01

    Some effects of gamma radiation on the behaviour of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr., 1794) (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae) were studied under controlled conditions of temperature (28 +- 2 0 C) and relative humidity (75 +- 10%). The insects were reared in an artificial diet and the adults were irradiated at 24 hour age, in each treatment, to observe the effects of the gamma radiation on the sugar cane borer, in order to provide data for future researches in the Sterile Insect Technique. Cobalt-60 was used as a source of radiation with a dose-rate of 353 krad/hour. Also an activi-meter and climatized room were used. The effects of radiation under cooling (5 +- 1 0 C) and normal conditions were determined concerning the insect activity, oviposition, competitiveness, mating and longevity. These data were obtained for both sexes and the conclusions were as follows: a) The sterilizing dosis of gamma radiation do not affect the sexual behaviour of the insect, even under cooling conditions; b) the percentages of egg unviability are directly proportional to the dosis either for the females or the males; c) D. saccharalis is active only in the scotophase and therefore it can be characterized as a nocturnal insect. (Author) [pt

  15. Evaluating the effects of heavy sugar cane truck operations on repair cost of low volume highways : technical summary report.

    2008-10-01

    Current Louisiana state laws allow truck operators hauling certain agricultural commodities to purchase : overweight permits and haul at gross vehicle weights (GVW) in excess of the legislated GVW limit of : 80,000 lb. For instance, sugar cane trucke...

  16. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    2011-10-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation... the fiscal year (FY) 2012 State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and...

  17. "Candy cane syndrome:" an underappreciated cause of abdominal pain and nausea after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Aryaie, Amir H; Fayezizadeh, Mojtaba; Wen, Yuxiang; Alshehri, Mohammed; Abbas, Mujjahid; Khaitan, Leena

    2017-09-01

    "Candy cane" syndrome (a blind afferent Roux limb at the gastrojejunostomy) has been implicated as a cause of abdominal pain, nausea, and emesis after Roux-n-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) but remains poorly described. To report that "candy cane" syndrome is real and can be treated effectively with revisional bariatric surgery SETTING: All patients underwent "candy cane" resection at University Hospitals of Cleveland. All patients who underwent resection of the "candy cane" between January 2011 and July 2015 were included. All had preoperative workup to identify "candy cane" syndrome. Demographic data; pre-, peri-, and postoperative symptoms; data regarding hospitalization; and postoperative weight loss were assessed through retrospective chart review. Data were analyzed using Student's t test and χ 2 analysis where appropriate. Nineteen patients had resection of the "candy cane" (94% female, mean age 50±11 yr), within 3 to 11 years after initial RYGB. Primary presenting symptoms were epigastric abdominal pain (68%) and nausea/vomiting (32%), particularly with fibrous foods and meats. On upper gastrointestinal study and endoscopy, the afferent blind limb was the most direct outlet from the gastrojejunostomy. Only patients with these preoperative findings were deemed to have "candy cane" syndrome. Eighteen (94%) cases were completed laparoscopically. Length of the "candy cane" ranged from 3 to 22 cm. Median length of stay was 1 day. After resection, 18 (94%) patients had complete resolution of their symptoms (Psyndrome is a real phenomenon that can be managed safely with excellent outcomes with resection of the blind afferent limb. A thorough diagnostic workup is paramount to proper identification of this syndrome. Surgeons should minimize the size of the blind afferent loop left at the time of initial RYGB. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dynamic of N fertilizers: urea (15 N) and aqua ammonia (15 N) incorporated to the sugar cane soil. Final report

    Trivelin, P.C.O.

    1988-05-01

    The dynamic of N fertilizers, urea and aqua ammonia, in the soil of sugar cane crops are studied with an emphasis on the horizontal and vertical moving. The nitrogen routing from urea and aqua ammonia sources, by isotopic technique with 15 N in relation to the leaching, volatilization and extraction by the cultivation and residue of N immobilized manure in the soil with sugar cane plantation is also analysed. (C.G.C.)

  19. Male depression in females?

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete

    2010-02-01

    Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; p<0.05). Overall, prototypic depressive symptoms as well as externalizing symptoms were more pronounced in females. In the subgroup of those at risk for male depression, biological sex and kind of symptoms were unrelated. Principal component analyses revealed a similar symptom structure for males and females. Low scores on masculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not

  20. First steps in translating human cognitive processes of cane pruning grapevines into AI rules for automated robotic pruning

    Saxton Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cane pruning of grapevines is a skilled task for which, internationally, there is a dire shortage of human pruners. As part of a larger project developing an automated robotic pruner, we have used artificial intelligence (AI algorithms to create an expert system for selecting new canes and cutting off unwanted canes. A domain and ontology has been created for AI, which reflects the expertise of expert human pruners. The first step in the creation of an expert system was to generate virtual vines, which were then ‘pruned’ by human pruners and also by the expert system in its infancy. Here we examined the decisions of 12 human pruners, for consistency of decision, on 60 virtual vines. 96.7% of the 12 pruners agreed on at least one cane choice after which there was diminishing agreement on which further canes to select for laying. Our results indicate that techniques developed in computational intelligence can be used to co-ordinate and synthesise the expertise of human pruners into a best practice format. This paper describes first steps in this knowledge elicitation process, and discusses the fit between cane pruning expertise and the expertise that can be elicited using AI based expert system techniques.

  1. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  2. Planning for greater confinement disposal

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Preparation and characterization of sugar cane bagasse fiber modified with nanoparticles of zirconium oxide

    Carvalho, K.C.C. de; Mulinari, D.R.; Voorwald, H.C.J.; Cioffi, M.O.H.

    2010-01-01

    The sugar cane bagasse fiber are renewable materials and have great application potential when used as reinforcement in a polymer matrix to give rise to composite materials and as supports for adsorption of heavy metals. This paper therefore describes the preparation and characterization of bleached and hydrated zirconium oxide modified sugar cane bagasse fiber by conventional precipitation method. Through the technique of electron microscopy we observed the presence of oxide nanoparticles on the fiber surface, proving the efficiency of the conventional precipitation method. With the X-ray diffraction analysis it was determined a decrease of 6.2% in the crystallinity index of modified fibers when compared to the bleached fibers showing the deposition of amorphous zirconium oxide on the fiber surface. (author)

  4. Characterisation of sugar cane straw waste as pozzolanic material for construction: Calcining temperature and kinetic parameters

    Frias, Moises; Villar-Cocina, E.; Valencia-Morales, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the influence of calcining temperature (800 and 1000 deg. C) on the pozzolanic activation of sugar cane straw (SCS). The reaction kinetics of SCS ash-lime mixtures were inferred from physicochemical characteristics (X-ray diffraction patterns and thermogravimetry analysis. The fitting of a kinetic-diffusive model to the experimental data (fixed lime versus time) allowed the computing of the kinetic parameters (reaction rate constant) of the pozzolanic reaction. Results obtained confirm that the sugar cane straw ash (SCSA) calcined at 800 and 1000 deg. C have properties indicative of very high pozzolanic activity. No influence of calcining temperature on the pozzolanic activity was observed. Also, no crystalline compounds during the pozzolanic reaction were identified up to 90 days of reaction. Environmental durability and strength of the consequential mortars remain to be assessed

  5. Biomass-gasifier steam-injected gas turbine cogeneration for the cane sugar industry

    Larson, E.D.; Williams, R.H.; Ogden, J.M.; Hylton, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    Steam injection for power and efficiency augmentation in aeroderivative gas turbines has been commercially established for natural gas-fired cogeneration since 1980. Steam-injected gas turbines fired with coal and biomass are being developed. A performance and economic assessment of biomass integrated-gasifier steam-injected gas turbine (BIG/STIG) cogeneration systems is carried out here. A detailed economic case study is presented for the second largest sugar factory in Jamaica, with cane residues as the fuel. BIG/STIG cogeneration units would be attractive investments for sugar producers, who could sell large quantities of excess electricity to the utility, or for the utility, as a low-cost generating option. Worldwide, the cane sugar industry could support some 50,000 MW of BIG/STIG electric generation capacity. The relatively modest development effort required to commercialize the BIG/STIG technology is discussed in a companion paper prepared for this conference

  6. [The sugar cane blight of the 1860s: science applied to agriculture].

    Bediaga, Begonha

    2012-12-01

    The Imperial Instituto Fluminense de Cultura (Fluminense Imperial Institute of Agriculture) encouraged debate with a view to eradicating the blight that devastated sugar cane plantations in the State of Bahia. Rural landowners, government officials and men of science participated in the discussions. The article presents the context of the sciences applied to agriculture, especially agricultural chemistry and the repercussions of the 'discoveries' of Justus Liebig in Brazil. The debate at the Imperial Instituto about the sugar cane blight was analyzed, together with the ideas espoused there and the characters involved in the issue. The procedures and solutions presented are studied, as well as the formation of knowledge networks around the agricultural sciences, which was in the process of institutionalization at the time.

  7. Congeners in sugar cane spirits aged in casks of different woods.

    Bortoletto, Aline M; Alcarde, André R

    2013-08-15

    The profile of volatile compounds and aging markers in sugar cane spirits aged for 36 months in casks made of 10 types of wood were studied. The ethanol content, volatile acidity, aldehydes, esters, higher alcohols, and methanol were determined. In addition, gallic, vanilic and syringic acids, siringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, sinapaldehyde, vanillin, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural were identified and quantified. The profile of volatile compounds characterised aging in each type of wood. The beverage aged in oak cask achieved the highest contents of maturation-related congeners. The Brazilian woods, similar to oak, were jequitibá rosa and cerejeira, which presented the highest contents of some maturation-related compounds, such as vanillin, vanilic acid, syringaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. Although oak wood conferred more chemical complexity to the beverage, Brazilian woods, singly or complementarily, present potential for spirit characterisation and for improving the quality of sugar cane spirits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanical behavior of cementitious composites with processed sugar cane bagasse ashes

    Bezerra, Augusto C.S.; Saraiva, Sergio L.C.; Sena, Natalia O.; Pereira, Gabriela M.; Rodrigues, Conrado S.; Ferreira, Maria C.N.F.; Castro, Laurenn W.A.; Silva, Marcos V.M.S.; Gomes, Romero C.; Aguilar, Maria T.P.

    2014-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse is waste from the sugar and ethanol industry and is primarily intended for burning in boilers to generate energy. As waste from the cogeneration of energy, sugar cane bagasse ashes (SCBA) are produced with no honorable destination. This paper studies the use of SCBA to partially replace Portland cement in producing cementitious composites. The ashes were processed by reburning and grinding, and after processing were characterized by a scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, laser granulometry, and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. After characterization, cement compounds were fashioned, replacing 0, 10, 20 and 30% of the cement with SCBA. The composites were mechanically evaluated by means of compression strength tests, tensile strength tests by bending. The results proved significant, indicating the possible use of SCBA when added to the cement on manufacture. (author)

  9. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Sagisaka, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity...... and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while...... proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts...

  10. Indagine retrospettiva sulle neoplasie testicolari del cane in Abruzzo e Molise, Italia

    Anna Rita D’Angelo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Le neoplasie testicolari sono piuttosto frequenti nel cane e condividono alcune caratteristiche con quelle umane, rendendole un potenziale modello in patologia comparata. Si riportano i dati relativi ai tumori testicolari del cane conferiti ed esaminati Istituto G. Caporale nel corso degli ultimi 12 anni, dal 2000 al 2011. In totale, sono stati diagnosticati 183 tumori: 108 seminomi, 37 sertoliomi, 18 tumori a cellule interstiziali del Leydig, 10 tumori misti, 9 neoplasie primitive di diversa natura una metastasi. La raccolta dettagliata di informazioni (segnala-mento, anamnesi, manifestazioni cliniche e follow-up messa in atto, consentirà di valutare al meglio il comportamento biologico delle neoplasie animali il potenziale oncogeno di specifici fattori, sia intrinseci che estrinseci.

  11. Influence of calcination temperature in pozolanicity of gray sugar cane bagasse

    Santos, T.A.; Argolo, R.A.; Andrade, H.M.C.; Ribeiro, D.V.

    2016-01-01

    BCA (Sugar Cane Bagasse) is burned in boilers in the process of electricity cogeneration causing the generation of CBCA (Gray Sugar Cane Bagasse), which is the final residue of sucroalcooeira industry. Currently, several studies seek alternative materials that can replace Portland cement, promoting discussions on the use of pozzolanic materials in cementitious matrices. Thus, this research seeks to analyze the pozzolanicity the CBCA, obtained by calcining the residue at different temperatures, to be determined by TG / DTG and DTA tests. For analysis of pozzolanicity these ashes were used electrical conductivity techniques, chemical titration NP EN 196-5, chapelle modified NBR 15895/2010 and the IAP method (Activity Index pozzolanic NBR:5752). The results obtained during the study demostraramm no difference between the ash calcined at temperatures of 500 ° C, 600 ° C and 700 ° C. (author)

  12. Sugar cane yield response to deficit irrigation at two growth stages

    Pene, C.B.G.

    1995-01-01

    A field study on sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) yield response to deficit irrigation during both tillering and stem elongation stages, in order to increase crop water use efficiency, was carried out at Institut des Savanes (IDESSA) experimental station of Ferkessedougou, in Northern Ivory Coast. This cane crop tested was Co 449, an early - maturing genotype of indian origin. This experiment has been conducted for three consecutive years as virgin crop ( from November, 1991 to December 1992 ), first ratoon crop ( from December 1992 to January 1994 ) and as second ratoon crop ( from January 1994 to January 1995 ). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 10 irrigation treatments in 4 replicates of 54 m sup2 sized plots. Water was applied through an improved furrow irrigation system. Crop water consumption was estimated using the water balance approach based on neutron probe and tensiometer measurements. This field water balance method required the determination of soil hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content and the neutron calibration curve. Data presented are related to the two ratoon crops for which field water balance measurements were investigated. It has been shown in the study that sugar cane growth and yield decline due to water deficit is significantly high during stem elongation as compared to tillering. As a result, the sugar cane tested was much more sensitive to water stress at stem elongation than at tillering. Therefore, deficit irrigation practice as to increase crop water use efficiency might be recommended at tillering rather than stem elongation. The water management strategy to be suggested here may consist of omitting irrigation during tillering ( assuming that the crop is successfully established ), for the benefit of stem elongation. As far as stem elongation is concerned, a moderate water deficit of about 25% with respect to the full irrigation regime appears to increase crop water use efficiency.6 figs

  13. Muscle synergies with Walkaround® postural support vs. “cane/therapist” assistance

    Miljkovic, Nadica; Milovanovic, Ivana; Dragin, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    The main clinical measures of walking recovery in stroke patients were compared for training assisted by Walkaround® postural support (WPS) and conventional (CON) support by a cane/therapist. OBJECTIVE: We attributed the differences between the trainings to modified muscular synergies that occurred...... be the superior training scheme. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that assistance by WPS changed the motor control output relative to CON assistance in most patients....

  14. Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.

    Fairbairn, Eduardo M R; Americano, Branca B; Cordeiro, Guilherme C; Paula, Thiago P; Toledo Filho, Romildo D; Silvoso, Marcos M

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO(2) emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has demonstrated that SCBA maintains, or even improves, the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes. Brazil is the world's largest sugar cane producer and being a developing country can claim carbon credits. A simulation was carried out to estimate the potential of CO(2) emission reductions and the viability to issue certified emission reduction (CER) credits. The simulation was developed within the framework of the methodology established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The State of São Paulo (Brazil) was chosen for this case study because it concentrates about 60% of the national sugar cane and ash production together with an important concentration of cement factories. Since one of the key variables to estimate the CO(2) emissions is the average distance between sugar cane/ethanol factories and the cement plants, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this optimization problem. The results indicated that SCBA blended cement reduces CO(2) emissions, which qualifies this product for CDM projects. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cane toads a threat to West Indian wildlife: mortality of Jamaican boas attributable to toad ingestion

    Byron S. Wilson; Susan E. Koenig; Rick van Veen; Erika Miersma; D. Craig. Rudolph

    2011-01-01

    The notorious ‘‘cane toad’’ (Bufo marinus) is considered to be one of the 100 worst invasive species in the world. A native of South and Central America, Mexico, and the Rio Grande Valley of the United States, this large toad was intentionally introduced to islands in the Caribbean, and subsequently throughout the southern Pacific, as a biological control agent to...

  16. Determination of phosphorus and potassium in sugar cane leaves by 14 MeV neutrons

    Diaz, R.A.; Nagy, A.Z.; Bakos, L.; Soria, J.C.

    1979-04-01

    The possibilities of N, P, K evaluation in samples of sugar cane leaves were discussed. A method for determining P and K content in this samples by 14 MeV neutron activation analysis is described. Corrections for K and Si were taken into account. The limit of detection for P was 0.1 mg and for K it was 4 mg. The precision for P and K was 10% in agreement with the values given by other authors. (author)

  17. Do Canes or Walkers Make Any Difference? NonUse and Fall Injuries.

    Luz, Clare; Bush, Tamara; Shen, Xiaoxi

    2017-04-01

    Examine patterns of cane and walker use as related to falls and fall injuries. Among people who fall at home, most do not have an assistive device with them when they fall. Nonusers who fall sustain more severe injuries. This was a cross-sectional study using a self-administered written survey completed by 262 people aged 60 and older who were community dwelling, cognitively intact, and current cane/walker users with a history of falls. They were recruited through clinical practice sites, churches, and senior housing in central Michigan. Outcomes of interest included patterns of device use, reasons for nonuse, device use at time of fall, and fall-related injuries. Seventy-five percent of respondents who fell were not using their device at the time of fall despite stating that canes help prevent falls. Reasons for nonuse included believing it was not needed, forgetfulness, the device made them feel old, and inaccessibility. Perceived risk was not high enough to engage in self-protective behavior. However, nonuse led to a significantly higher proportion of falls resulting in surgery than among device users. Among respondents requiring surgery, 100% were nonusers. Most respondents never received a home safety evaluation (68%) and only 50% received training on proper device use. Providers must place increased emphasis on the importance of cane/walker use for injury prevention through patient education to promote personal relevance, proper fitting, and training. New strategies are needed to improve device acceptability and accessibility. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Augmenting white cane reliability using smart glove for visually impaired people.

    Bernieri, Giuseppe; Faramondi, Luca; Pascucci, Federica

    2015-08-01

    The independent mobility problem of visually impaired people has been an active research topic in biomedical engineering: although many smart tools have been proposed, traditional tools (e.g., the white cane) continue to play a prominent role. In this paper a low cost smart glove is presented: the key idea is to minimize the impact in using it by combining the traditional tools with a technological device able to improve the movement performance of the visually impaired people.

  19. Economical impact of the BIG/CC technology use on the sugar cane industry

    Queiroz, L.C. de; Nascimento, M.J.M. do [Brascep Engenharia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The use of biomass as primary fuel for power and steam production using modern conversion technology such as the Biomass Integrated Gas Turbine/Combined Cycle (BIG/CC) has both technical and commercial potential. Brazil is implementing a BIG/CC Demonstration Plant to burn wood from eucalyptus short rotation forest and to test sugar cane bagasse as feedstock. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of using biomass as a feedstock for power generation, its suitability for applications in developing countries, and the possibilities it offers for commercial activities in regions which currently have a low level of economic activities. The purpose of this paper is to show the potential applicability of this technology in the sugar cane industries of Developing Countries such as Brazil. The same quantity of sugar cane already processed in each sugar mill can produce sizable quantities of electric power at competitive costs, in addition to the traditional products -- sugar and/or ethanol, which will cause an economical impact, duplicating the revenue of these industries. The application of the BIG/CC technology in the Sugar Cane Industry may lead to the following scenario in developing countries: (1) power shall be produced at very competitive prices by specialized private firms associated with sugar mills; (2) plant sizes will be smaller -- 15 to 100 MW -- when based on biomass, a compared to large fossil fuel plants now prevailing; (3) ethanol and sugar production costs will be reduced due to more efficient and economical processes and due to the additional revenue from power production; (4) becoming more competitive with gasoline, ethanol production tends to increase, which will influence the automobile industry and improve the quality of life in big cities.

  20. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of grape canes extracts from vineyards

    Ju, Y.; Zhang, A.; Fang, Y.; Liu, M.; Zhao, X.; Wang, H.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-11-01

    Grape canes are the main agro-wastes from vineyards. This work studied the antioxidant activities of the defatted methanolic extracts (ME) of canes from 11 genotypes: 5 Vitis vinifera widely known cultivars and 6 Chinese wild varieties from three species (V. amurensis, V. davidii, and V. pentagona) and the antioxidant activities of the ME’s chloroform fractions (CF), ethyl acetate fractions (EAF) and water fractions (WF). Among ME and its three fractions, EAF’s total phenolic contents (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) were the highest, at 586 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent and 320 mg/g of quercetin equivalent, respectively. The antioxidant power of the fractions/extracts was in the order EAF > ME > WF > CF, based on the DPPH radical-scavenging power and ferric-reducing antioxidant activity, while the order was EAF > CF > WF >ME based on the β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching activity. Methanolic extracts demonstrated the strongest Fe2+-chelating activity. The antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions generally correlated with the TPC and TFC in all assays, except with the Fe2+-chelating test. Grape canes from V. davidii had the highest TPC, TFC and antioxidant activities compared with those from other grape species. Catechin, epicatechin and trans-resveratrol were the predominant phenolic components of fractions/extracts. In light of these valuable bioactivities, grape canes from annual pruning practice considered as waste material have good commercial potential for utilization as a promising natural antioxidant in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, given its low cost and availability in large amounts. (Author)

  1. Fast oxidative pyrolysis of sugar cane straw in a fluidized bed reactor

    Mesa-Pérez, Juan Miguel; Rocha, José Dilcio; Barbosa-Cortez, Luis Augusto; Penedo-Medina, Margarita; Luengo, Carlos Alberto; Cascarosa, Esther

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the technical viability evaluation of the fast pyrolysis of sugar cane straw for its energy use. By means of this thermochemical process, the sugar cane straw is converted into bio-fuels (biochar, bio-oil) and non-condensable gases. The bio-fuels obtained could be used as fuel or as raw material in the chemical industry. The fast pyrolysis of sugar cane straw has been developed in a fluidized bed reactor. In order to improve this process to obtain high bio-oil yield, the influence of the operational conditions (equivalence ratio and temperature) on the product yields and on their characteristics was evaluated. The product yields of bio-oil and char were up to 35.5 wt.% and 48.2 wt.% respectively. The maximum bio-oil yield was achieved at temperature and equivalence ratio conditions of 470 °C and 0.14. The bio-oil obtained has low oxygen content (38.48 wt.% dry basis), very low water content, and a lower heating value of 22.95 MJ/kg. The gas chromatographic analyses allowed the identification of oxygenated compounds and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The bio-oil pH ranged between 3.14 and 3.57 due to the presence of acid organic compounds. The char obtained has a high fixed carbon and volatile matter content. Its HHV value is 13.54 MJ/kg. -- Highlights: • Pyrolysis of sugar cane straw was studied in a fluidized bed reactor. • The product yields were evaluated. • The composition of the liquid and solid products obtained was analyzed. • This is an environmentally friendly use for this waste

  2. Estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area from LANDSAT images using the two phase sampling method

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.; Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1982-01-01

    A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions for the estimation of sugar cane cultivated area were developed. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as the ground truth. The estimates, as a mean value of 100 simulated samples, represent 99.3% of the true value with a CV of approximately 1%; the relative efficiency of the two phase design was 157% when compared with a one phase aerial photographs sample.

  3. Differences in the Limits of Stability Between Older Rolling Walker Users and Older Single-Tip-Cane Users - A Preliminary Study.

    Liu, Hao Howe; Quiben, Myles; Holmes, Clayton; Connors, Michael; Salem, Yasser

    To identify the differences in the limits of stability (LOS) between older rolling walker and single-tip-cane users. This was a matched paired t-test design with repeated measure. Eighteen older subjects were matched based on age, gender, and functional level. The subjects were assessed using the multidirectional reach test initially and 5-month later in four directions: forward, backward, leftward, and rightward. Initially, there were no differences between cane users and rolling walker users in the LOS in all directions. However, 5-month later, the cane users who held their canes in their right hand had significantly better stability in forward and rightward reach than the walker users (p walker users demonstrated significantly decreased functional reach in forward reach (p walker users in the forward direction and in the direction toward the side holding the cane. This study may provide guide for clinicians including nurses for selecting appropriate rehabilitative interventions for older adults using walkers and canes.

  4. Male Infertility

    ... hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal problems have a number of possible underlying causes. Defects of tubules that transport sperm. Many ... syndrome — in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one ...

  5. Full chain energy analysis of fuel ethanol from cane molasses in Thailand

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Garivait, Savitri [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2008-08-15

    An analysis of energy performance and supply potential was performed to evaluate molasses utilization for fuel ethanol in Thailand. The Thai government recently has set up a production target of 1.925 million litres a day of sugar-based ethanol. The molasses-based ethanol (MoE) system involves three main segments: sugar cane cultivation, molasses generation, and ethanol conversion. Negative net energy value found for MoE is a consequence of not utilizing system co-products (e.g. stillage and cane trash) for energy. Taking into account only fossil fuel or petroleum inputs in the production cycle, the energy analysis provides results in favour of ethanol. A positive net energy of 5.95 MJ/L which corresponds to 39% energy gain shows that MoE is efficient as far as its potential to replace fossil fuels is concerned. Another encouraging result is that each MJ of petroleum inputs can produce 6.12 MJ of ethanol fuel. Regarding supply potential, if only the surplus molasses is utilized for ethanol, a shift of 8-10% sugar cane produce to fuel ethanol from its current use in sugar industry could be a probable solution. (author)

  6. Toxicity of two effluents from agricultural activity: Comparing the genotoxicity of sugar cane and orange vinasse.

    Garcia, Camila Fernandes H; Souza, Raphael B de; de Souza, Cleiton Pereira; Christofoletti, Cintya Ap; Fontanetti, Carmem S

    2017-08-01

    Vinasse, produced by several countries as a by-product of agricultural activity, has different alternatives for its reuse, mainly fertirrigation. Several monocultures, such as sugar cane and orange crops, produce this effluent. Sugar cane vinasse is already widely used in fertirrigation and orange vinasse has potential for this intention. However, its use as a fertilizer has caused great concern. Thus, ecotoxicological evaluation is extremely important in order to assess the possible effects on the environment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of vinasse of two different crops: sugar cane and orange. For this purpose, bioassays with Allium cepa as a test organism were performed with two vinasse dilutions (2.5% and 5%) to detect chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus induction. The results showed that both types of vinasse are able to induce chromosomal aberrations in meristematic cells, mainly nuclear and anaphasic bridges, suggesting genotoxic potential. The induction of micronuclei in cells of the F 1 region suggests that the two residues have mutagenic potential. Thus, caution is advised when applying these effluents in the environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Study On Ethanol Production From Sugar Cane Molasses By Using Irradiated Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    Botros, H.W.; Armed, A.S.; Farag, S.S.; Hassan, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    In commercial ethanol production procedures often use sugar cane molasses as a raw material due to- their abundance and low costs. The most employed microorganisms used for fermentation is Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts due to their ability to hydrolyze sucrose from sugar cane molasses into glucose and fructose; two easily assimilable hexoses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of S. cerevisiae in the ethanol production yeast cells exposed to different doses of gamma rays (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 KGy. The sugar cane substrate was optimized after maintaining deferent levels of sugar concentrations (12-21%), medium ph (4.0-5.5), incubation temperature (25-40 degree C) and rate of fermentation (24-168 h). The data showed that the rate of ethanol production reached its maximum by using the irradiated S. cerevisiae cells at 0.1 kGy dose at fermentation conditions as 15% sugar concentration, ph 4.5, incubation temperature 30 degree C, fermentation time 96 h at a fermentation medium volume 250 ml found in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flasks.

  8. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Ivo Soural

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w. for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w. were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol.

  9. Genetic improvement of sugar cane for bioenergy: the Brazilian experience in network research with RIDESA

    Luiz Alexandre Peternelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is presented RIDESA’s model for sugar cane breeding to ethanol, and its scientific, technological and human resources training contributions. RIDESA is an inter-university network for the development of sugar cane industry in Brazil, and was formed by a technical cooperation agreement between ten public universities. The model of network management is presented in this study, which involves, among other things, the public-private partnership (Universities-Mills for the development of cultivars. RIDESA has produced 59 cultivars since 1990 and is now responsible for 59% of the total area cultivated with this plant in Brazil. In the last five years, 286 agronomists were trained in breeding programs at universities that comprise RIDESA. In this same period, the network formed 35 professors, 24 doctors and 7 post-docs in researches with this crop. It is also presented a conceptual approach on methods of sugar cane breeding involving families and genome-wide selection.

  10. Wearable Gait Measurement System with an Instrumented Cane for Exoskeleton Control

    Modar Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research we introduce a wearable sensory system for motion intention estimation and control of exoskeleton robot. The system comprises wearable inertial motion sensors and shoe-embedded force sensors. The system utilizes an instrumented cane as a part of the interface between the user and the robot. The cane reflects the motion of upper limbs, and is used in terms of human inter-limb synergies. The developed control system provides assisted motion in coherence with the motion of other unassisted limbs. The system utilizes the instrumented cane together with body worn sensors, and provides assistance for start, stop and continuous walking. We verified the function of the proposed method and the developed wearable system through gait trials on treadmill and on ground. The achievement contributes to finding an intuitive and feasible interface between human and robot through wearable gait sensors for practical use of assistive technology. It also contributes to the technology for cognitively assisted locomotion, which helps the locomotion of physically challenged people.

  11. Study on Ethanol Production from Sugar Cane Molasses by Using Irradiated Saccharomyces cervisiae

    Botros, H.W.; Ahmed, A.S.; Farag, S.S.; Hassan, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    In commercial ethanol production procedures often use sugar cane molasses as a raw material due to their abundance and low costs. The most employed microorganisms used for fermentation is Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts due to its ability to hydrolyze sucrose from sugar cane molasses into glucose and fructose, two easily assimilable hexoses.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of S. cerevisiae in the ethanol production yeast cells exposed to different doses of gamma rays (0.05, 0.10, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 kGy. The sugar cane substrate was optimized after maintaining deferent levels of sugar concentrations (12-21%), medium ph (4.0-5.5), incubation temperature (25-40 degree C) and rate of fermentation (24-168) h. Data showed that rate of ethanol production was maximum by using the irradiated S. cerevisiae cells at 0.1 kGy. dose at fermentation conditions as 15% sugar concentration, initial ph 4.5, incubation temperature 30 degree C, fermentation time 96 h at a fermentation medium volume 250 ml found in 500 ml erlenmyer flasks.

  12. Modelling the costs of energy crops. A case study of US corn and Brazilian sugar cane

    Mejean, Aurelie; Hope, Chris

    2010-01-01

    High crude oil prices, uncertainties about the consequences of climate change and the eventual decline of conventional oil production raise the prospects of alternative fuels, such as biofuels. This paper describes a simple probabilistic model of the costs of energy crops, drawing on the user's degree of belief about a series of parameters as an input. This forward-looking analysis quantifies the effects of production constraints and experience on the costs of corn and sugar cane, which can then be converted to bioethanol. Land is a limited and heterogeneous resource: the crop cost model builds on the marginal land suitability, which is assumed to decrease as more land is taken into production, driving down the marginal crop yield. Also, the maximum achievable yield is increased over time by technological change, while the yield gap between the actual yield and the maximum yield decreases through improved management practices. The results show large uncertainties in the future costs of producing corn and sugar cane, with a 90% confidence interval of 2.9-7.2$/GJ in 2030 for marginal corn costs, and 1.5-2.5$/GJ in 2030 for marginal sugar cane costs. The influence of each parameter on these supply costs is examined. (author)

  13. Locomotor performance of cane toads differs between native-range and invasive populations.

    Kosmala, Georgia; Christian, Keith; Brown, Gregory; Shine, Richard

    2017-07-01

    Invasive species provide a robust opportunity to evaluate how animals deal with novel environmental challenges. Shifts in locomotor performance-and thus the ability to disperse-(and especially, the degree to which it is constrained by thermal and hydric extremes) are of special importance, because they might affect the rate that an invader can spread. We studied cane toads ( Rhinella marina ) across a broad geographical range: two populations within the species' native range in Brazil, two invasive populations on the island of Hawai'i and eight invasive populations encompassing the eastern, western and southern limits of the toad invasion in Australia. A toad's locomotor performance on a circular raceway was strongly affected by both its temperature and its hydration state, but the nature and magnitude of those constraints differed across populations. In their native range, cane toads exhibited relatively low performance (even under optimal test conditions) and a rapid decrease in performance at lower temperatures and hydration levels. At the other extreme, performance was high in toads from southern Australia, and virtually unaffected by desiccation. Hawai'ian toads broadly resembled their Brazilian conspecifics, plausibly reflecting similar climatic conditions. The invasion of Australia has been accompanied by a dramatic enhancement in the toads' locomotor abilities, and (in some populations) by an ability to maintain locomotor performance even when the animal is cold and/or dehydrated. The geographical divergences in performance among cane toad populations graphically attest to the adaptability of invasive species in the face of novel abiotic challenges.

  14. Square baler field test under different sugar cane crop residue conditions

    Mello, Arthur Miola de; Ripoli, Tomaz Caetano Cannavan; Gadanha Junior, Casimiro [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: ammello@esalq.usp.br; Ripoli, Marco Lorezzo Cunali [John Deere, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The energy demand increase of the country allows the sugar cane business sector to be a major player in production and commercialization areas of electric energy using cogeneration powered by bagasse and sugar cane residues. The objective of the study was to evaluate some of the performance parameters of an Express 5040 baler, brand Nogueira, used to collect residues. The tests were conducted in a sugar cane mechanized harvest area. The baler was submitted to three different conditions of residues windrowing: 'in natura', under single and double raking operations. For all treatments soil sampling analyzes were done to find out ground homogeneity conditions were the test took place. The simple raking operation offered better conditions for the machine: Effective Capacity of 8.21 t.{sup h}-{sup 1} and 0.88 ha.h{sup -1}; average bale weight of 22.33 kg (SD=3.58, CV=16.01 %); costs of 7.45 R$.t{sup -1} of baled residue; 0.17 R$.fardo{sup -1} and 69.47 R$.ha{sup -1}. (author)

  15. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS: calibration and validation

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Sugarcane is currently the most efficient bioenergy crop with regards to the energy produced per hectare. With approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005, and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Dynamic global vegetation models coupled with agronomical models are powerful and novel tools to tackle many of the environmental issues related to biofuels if they are carefully calibrated and validated against field observations. Here we adapt the agro-terrestrial model ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane simulations. Observation data of LAI are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to parameters of nitrogen absorption and phenology, which are calibrated in a systematic way for six sites in Australia and La Reunion. We find that the optimal set of parameters is highly dependent on the sites' characteristics and that the model can reproduce satisfactorily the evolution of LAI. This careful calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane biomass production for different locations and technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of bioenergy-related land use change on carbon cycle budgets. As a next step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the uncertainty of the model in biomass and carbon flux simulation due to its parameterization.

  16. Quantification of natural populations of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum spp. In sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) Using differente polyclonal antibodies

    da Silva-Froufe, Lúcia Gracinda; Boddey, Robert Michael; Reis, Veronica Massena

    2009-01-01

    The species Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and H. rubrisubalbicans are endophytic N2-fixing [diazotrophic] bacteria which colonise not only roots, but also the aerial tissue of sugar cane. However, the technique most commonly used to quantify the populations of these microbes in plants is by culturing serial dilutions of macerates of plant tissues in N free semi-solid media which are only semi-selective for the species/genera [the Most Probable Number (MPN) Technique] and each culture must be further subjected to several tests to identify the isolates at the species level. The use of species-specific polyclonal antibodies with the indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) can be an alternative which is rapid and specific to quantify these populations of bacteria. This study was performed to investigate the viability of adapting the indirect ELISA technique to quantify individually the populations of these three species of diazotroph within the root and shoot tissues of sugarcane. The results showed that species-specific polyclonal antibodies could be obtained by purifying sera in protein-A columns which removed non-specific immuno-globulins. It was possible to quantify the three bacterial species in the Brazilian sugarcane variety SP 70-1143 in numbers above 105 cells per g fresh weight in roots, rhizomes and leaves. The numbers of the different bacterial species evaluated using the ELISA technique were found to be higher than when the same populations were evaluated using the MPN technique, reaching 1400 times greater for G. diazotrophicus and 225 times greater for Herbaspirillum spp. These results constitute the first quantification of Herbaspirillum using immunological techniques. PMID:24031435

  17. Quantification of natural populations of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum spp. In sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) Using differente polyclonal antibodies.

    da Silva-Froufe, Lúcia Gracinda; Boddey, Robert Michael; Reis, Veronica Massena

    2009-10-01

    The species Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and H. rubrisubalbicans are endophytic N2-fixing [diazotrophic] bacteria which colonise not only roots, but also the aerial tissue of sugar cane. However, the technique most commonly used to quantify the populations of these microbes in plants is by culturing serial dilutions of macerates of plant tissues in N free semi-solid media which are only semi-selective for the species/genera [the Most Probable Number (MPN) Technique] and each culture must be further subjected to several tests to identify the isolates at the species level. The use of species-specific polyclonal antibodies with the indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) can be an alternative which is rapid and specific to quantify these populations of bacteria. This study was performed to investigate the viability of adapting the indirect ELISA technique to quantify individually the populations of these three species of diazotroph within the root and shoot tissues of sugarcane. The results showed that species-specific polyclonal antibodies could be obtained by purifying sera in protein-A columns which removed non-specific immuno-globulins. It was possible to quantify the three bacterial species in the Brazilian sugarcane variety SP 70-1143 in numbers above 10(5) cells per g fresh weight in roots, rhizomes and leaves. The numbers of the different bacterial species evaluated using the ELISA technique were found to be higher than when the same populations were evaluated using the MPN technique, reaching 1400 times greater for G. diazotrophicus and 225 times greater for Herbaspirillum spp. These results constitute the first quantification of Herbaspirillum using immunological techniques.

  18. Quantification of natural populations of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum spp. In sugar cane (Saccharum spp. Using differente polyclonal antibodies

    Lúcia Gracinda da Silva-Froufe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The species Gluconacetobacterdiazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and H. rubrisubalbicans are endophytic N2-fixing [diazotrophic] bacteria which colonise not only roots, but also the aerial tissue of sugar cane. However, the technique most commonly used to quantify the populations of these microbes in plants is by culturing serial dilutions of macerates of plant tissues in N free semi-solid media which are only semi-selective for the species/genera [the Most Probable Number (MPN Technique] and each culture must be further subjected to several tests to identify the isolates at the species level. The use of species-specific polyclonal antibodies with the indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay can be an alternative which is rapid and specific to quantify these populations of bacteria. This study was performed to investigate the viability of adapting the indirect ELISA technique to quantify individually the populations of these three species of diazotroph within the root and shoot tissues of sugarcane. The results showed that species-specific polyclonal antibodies could be obtained by purifying sera in protein-A columns which removed non-specific immuno-globulins. It was possible to quantify the three bacterial species in the Brazilian sugarcane variety SP 70-1143 in numbers above 10(5 cells per g fresh weight in roots, rhizomes and leaves. The numbers of the different bacterial species evaluated using the ELISA technique were found to be higher than when the same populations were evaluated using the MPN technique, reaching 1400 times greater for G. diazotrophicus and 225 times greater for Herbaspirillum spp. These results constitute the first quantification of Herbaspirillum using immunological techniques.

  19. Waste management in Greater Vancouver

    Carrusca, K. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Richter, R. [Montenay Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Veolia Environmental Services, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An outline of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) waste-to-energy program was presented. The GVRD has an annual budget for solid waste management of $90 million. Energy recovery revenues from solid waste currently exceed $10 million. Over 1,660,00 tonnes of GVRD waste is recycled, and another 280,000 tonnes is converted from waste to energy. The GVRD waste-to-energy facility combines state-of-the-art combustion and air pollution control, and has processed over 5 million tonnes of municipal solid waste since it opened in 1988. Its central location minimizes haul distance, and it was originally sited to utilize steam through sales to a recycle paper mill. The facility has won several awards, including the Solid Waste Association of North America award for best facility in 1990. The facility focuses on continual improvement, and has installed a carbon injection system; an ammonia injection system; a flyash stabilization system; and heat capacity upgrades in addition to conducting continuous waste composition studies. Continuous air emissions monitoring is also conducted at the plant, which produces a very small percentage of the total air emissions in metropolitan Vancouver. The GVRD is now seeking options for the management of a further 500,000 tonnes per year of solid waste, and has received 23 submissions from a range of waste energy technologies which are now being evaluated. It was concluded that waste-to-energy plants can be located in densely populated metropolitan areas and provide a local disposal solution as well as a source of renewable energy. Other GVRD waste reduction policies were also reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Museum material reveals a frog parasite emergence after the invasion of the cane toad in Australia

    Phalen David N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A parasite morphologically indistinguishable from Myxidium immersum (Myxozoa: Myxosporea found in gallbladders of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus was identified in Australian frogs. Because no written record exists for such a parasite in Australian endemic frogs in 19th and early 20th century, it was assumed that the cane toad introduced this parasite. While we cannot go back in time ourselves, we investigated whether material at the museum of natural history could be used to retrieve parasites, and whether they were infected at the time of their collection (specifically prior to and after the cane toad translocation to Australia in 1935. Results Using the herpetological collection at the Australian Museum we showed that no myxospores were found in any animals (n = 115 prior to the cane toad invasion (1879-1935. The green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea, the Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii, the green tree frog (Litoria caerulea and the striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii were all negative for the presence of the parasite using microscopy of the gallbladder content and its histology. These results were sufficient to conclude that the population was free from this disease (at the expected minimum prevalence of 5% at 99.7% confidence level using the 115 voucher specimens in the Australian Museum. Similarly, museum specimens (n = 29 of the green and golden bell frog from New Caledonia, where it was introduced in 19th century, did not show the presence of myxospores. The earliest specimen positive for myxospores in a gallbladder was a green tree frog from 1966. Myxospores were found in eight (7.1%, n = 112 frogs in the post cane toad introduction period. Conclusion Australian wildlife is increasingly under threat, and amphibian decline is one of the most dramatic examples. The museum material proved essential to directly support the evidence of parasite emergence in Australian native frogs. This parasite can be

  1. Development of a mathematical model for sugar cane borer population, Diatrea sacharalis (Fabr., 1794) and simulation of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    Sgrillo, R.B.

    1979-08-01

    The determination of the theoretical possibility of applying the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) to control sugar cane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794), population in the State of Sao Paulo was aimed at. This has been achieved with the development of a mathematical model of the insect population dynamics after simulation of the SIT. The model was constructed based on a field survey made in 1976 in four sugar cane regions of the State. With the surveys, data relative to insect population density of larvae and pupae was obtained. Data regarding fluctuation of adults and of some predators population were obtained using light traps. Through mathematical analysis of the data from the surveys it was noted that diapause occurred in large larvae. The percentage of larvae in diapause showed correlation with photoperiod and temperature. It was established that the number of degree days necessary for the insect to complement a generation is 954. A method was proposed to utilize the thermic constant concept equally for diapause conditions. A laboratory experiment showed that male adults irradiated at 50 krad gamma radiation ( 60 Co) produced a non-viable generation. Monthly mortality in each stage was estimated. From these data, sub-models were developed, correlating mortality with climatic and biological variables. The sub-models when grouped formed a model that permitted the simulation of the SIT. It was concluded that release of sterile insects in a number equal to those existing in the field, during the first three generations, would be an efficient method to control insect populations. Theoretically, a profit would be obtained if the cost for application of the method was up to Cr$ 1,355 per hectare. Release of sterile insects in a number nine times larger than those existing in the field during the first generation, would be equally efficient and a profit would be obtained if the cost for application of the method was Cr$ 975 per hectare. (Author) [pt

  2. Male Hypogonadism

    ... the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an ... Adulthood In adult males, hypogonadism may alter certain masculine physical characteristics and impair normal reproductive function. Signs ...

  3. Male Infertility

    ... to have a baby? If treatment doesn’t work, what are our other options? Resources National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, What Causes Male Infertility? Last Updated: May 30, 2017 This ...

  4. Male contraception.

    Amory, John K

    2016-11-01

    Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women can not use them because of health conditions or side-effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies, of which 80-90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper briefly reviews the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies and then discusses the research directed toward development of novel methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Condoms - male

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... your health care provider or pharmacy about emergency contraception ("morning-after pills"). PROBLEMS WITH CONDOM USE Some ...

  6. Male contraception

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...

  7. Male sexuality.

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Developing capacities in aging studies in the Middle East: Implementation of an Arabic version of the CANE IV among community-dwelling older adults in Lebanon.

    AbiHabib, Laurie E; Chemaitelly, Hiam S; Jaalouk, Lina Y; Karam, Nadim E

    2011-07-01

    To assess the feasibility, reliability, and construct validity of the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE) in identifying needs among community-dwelling older adults in South Lebanon with a view towards expanding ageing research in the country. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 322 individuals, using the CANE, the EQ5d and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Reliability was determined through measuring internal consistency of the CANE. Construct validity was performed through examining CANE inter-item correlations, and comparing correlations with the EQ5d and socio-demographic indicators. A factor analysis was conducted using varimax orthogonal rotation. Cronbach alpha was 0.71. For construct validity, correlations were highest in items measuring needs in looking after the house and food (r = 0.557); company and intimate relationships (r = 0.572); and medication and written/verbal information (r = 0.586). Moderate correlations were found with EQ5d items assessing the same measure, including: EQ5d 'problems taking care of self' and CANE self-care (r = 0.578) and daytime activities (r = 0.523); EQ5d 'problems performing usual activities' and CANE daytime activities (r = 0.553), self-care (r = 0.511) and mobility (r = 0.500); and EQ5d 'problems while walking' and CANE mobility/falls (r = 0.509). Corresponding items of the CANE and EQ-5d were significantly correlated with similar socio-demographic variables. The factor analysis supported results obtained in the CANE inter-item correlations. The Arabic version of the CANE appears acceptable in assessing needs of older adults in South Lebanon. Given that the CANE is an interesting tool that promotes the integration of older persons' perspectives for appropriate interventions, further research is recommended to establish its validity and applicability in other communities in Lebanon and the region.

  9. Effects of cane girdling on yield, fruit quality and maturation of (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Flame Seedless

    Soltekin Oguzhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of cane girdling on coloration, maturation, yield and some quality characteristics of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Flame Seedless table grape variety. Cane girdling practices were treated at pea-size stage (G2 and veraison period (G1 over two growing seasons, 2013–2014, at the facility of Manisa Viticultural Research Institute in Turkey. Cane girdling was performed on the canes after first shoot was left from the bottom and 4 mm-wide ring of bark was completely removed with a doubleded knife. On the other hand control vines were left untouched. Statistical analyses showed that TSS, berry length, colour parameters, CIRG index and anthocyanin content of Flame Seedless was significantly affected by the cane girdling treatments in both years, 2013 and 2014. In addition it was detected that any effect of girdling treatments cannot be determined statistically significant on total yield, marketable yield, titrable acidity and 50 berry weight. Total and marketable yields of girdled vines had higher value than control vines although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore it was observed 9 and 12 days earliness with G2 treatments compare to the control vines in 2013 and 2014, respectively.

  10. Male baldness.

    Clarke, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Male baldness is very common. Its effect on individuals is extremely variable, and in some people it will have a significant adverse effect on their quality of life. The objectives of this article are to help general practitioners (GPs) be aware of potential health problems related to male baldness, to have an approach to assessing hair loss and to be aware of treatment options. Male baldness is, most often, a normal occurrence, but it may have significant effects on a man's health. It may also be a pointer to other potential health issues. The GP is in the ideal position to conduct an initial evaluation, consider other health issues and advise on treatment options.

  11. Assessment of virally vectored autoimmunity as a biocontrol strategy for cane toads.

    Pallister, Jackie A; Halliday, Damien C T; Robinson, Anthony J; Venables, Daryl; Voysey, Rhonda D; Boyle, Donna G; Shanmuganathan, Thayalini; Hardy, Christopher M; Siddon, Nicole A; Hyatt, Alex D

    2011-01-25

    The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus) marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs), developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin) and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels) measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach.

  12. Comparison of Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Copper in Sugar Cane Spirit.

    Soares, Sarah Adriana R; Costa, Silvânio Silvério L; Araujo, Rennan Geovanny O; Teixeira, Leonardo Sena Gomes; Dantas, Alailson Falcão

    2018-05-01

    Three spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of copper (Cu) in sugar cane spirit using the chromogenic reagents neocuproine, cuprizone, and bathocuproine. Experimental conditions, such as reagent concentration, reducer concentration, pH, buffer concentration, the order of addition of reagents, and the stability of the complexes, were optimized. The work range was established from 1.0 to 10.0 µg/mL, with correlation coefficients of >0.999 for all three optimized methods. The methods were evaluated regarding accuracy by addition and recovery tests at five concentration levels, and the obtained recoveries ranged from 91 to 105% (n = 3). Precision was expressed as RSD (relative standard deviation), with values ranging from 0.01 to 0.17% (n = 10). The method using the chromogenic reagent cuprizone presented the greatest molar absorptivity, followed by bathocuproine and neocuproine. The methods were applied for the determination of Cu in sugar cane spirit, and the results were compared with a reference method by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Calibration curve solutions for FAAS analysis were prepared in a 40% (v/v) alcohol medium in a range of concentrations from 0.5 up to 5 µg/mL. Measurements for Cu determination were carried out at a wavelength of 324.7 nm. The concentrations obtained for Cu in sugar cane spirit samples from Brazil were between 1.99 and 12.63 µg/mL, and about 75% of the samples presented Cu concentrations above the limit established by Brazilian legislation (5.0 µg/mL or 5.0 mg/L).

  13. Study of Sugar Cane Management Systems in Brazil Using Laser Induced Fluorescence

    Cabral, Jader; Villas-Boas, Paulino; Carvalho, Camila; Corá, José Eduardo; Milori, Débora

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is the largest producer of cane sugar, consequently, is a leader in the production of bio-ethanol, a clean and renewable energy that fits the model of sustainable economy as discussed and pursued by our society. Our state of São Paulo concentrates 60% of national production, representing a sizeable share in the range of world production. All this economic potential is closely monitored by the scientific community, which develops numerous studies seeking an improvement in production efficiency and reduced environmental impacts caused by the planting. However, the study of soil samples, in plantation areas, demands results about the content and structural forms of organic matter (OM). Also, the soil carbon stocks depend on the type of management. Our goal is to study OM of soil samples from four sugar cane management systems: (i) unburned cane harvest, (ii) preharvest burned, (iii) addition of sugarcane bagasse ash and (iv) addition of residue from the extraction of sucrose, using Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of solid state. All the emission spectra were acquired using the system called LIFS-405, which consists of a diode laser Coherent, model cube with excitation at 405 nm, maximum output power of 50mJ and a mini-spectrometer, Ocean Optics USB2000-high sensitivity, with range of 194-894 nm and a fiber-optic bundle design (six excitation fibers in a circular path and one central fiber the collect the fluorescence). In this work, we will present the preliminary results evolving the humification index (HLIFS) of soil OM and total carbon amount (TC) for the different types of management. HLIFS shows a close correlation with the humification index of humic acid in solution obtained by means 2D conventional fluorescence spectroscopy.

  14. Soil, water and nutrient losses by interrill erosion from green cane cultivation

    Gilka Rocha Vasconcelos da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Interrill erosion occurs by the particle breakdown caused by raindrop impact, by particle transport in surface runoff, by dragging and suspension of particles disaggregated from the soil surface, thus removing organic matter and nutrients that are essential for agricultural production. Crop residues on the soil surface modify the characteristics of the runoff generated by rainfall and the consequent particle breakdown and sediment transport resulting from erosion. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum amount of mulch that must be maintained on the soil surface of a sugarcane plantation to reduce the soil, water and nutrient losses by decreasing interrill erosion. The study was conducted in Pradópolis, São Paulo State, in 0.5 x 1.0 m plots of an Oxisol, testing five treatments in four replications. The application rates were based on the crop residue production of the area of 1.4 kg m-2 (T1- no cane trash; T2-25 % of the cane trash; T3- 50 % trash; T4-75 % trash; T5-100 % sugarcane residues on the surface, and simulated rainfall was applied at an intensity of 65 mm h-1 for 60 min. Runoff samples were collected in plastic containers and soon after taken to the laboratory to quantify the losses of soil, water and nutrients. To minimize soil loss by interrill erosion, 75 % of the cane mulch must be maintained on the soil, to control water loss 50 % must be maintained and 25 % trash controls organic matter and nutrient losses. This information can contribute to optimize the use of this resource for soil conservation on the one hand and the production of clean energy in sugar and alcohol industries on the other.

  15. Assessment of virally vectored autoimmunity as a biocontrol strategy for cane toads.

    Jackie A Pallister

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs, developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach.

  16. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.60 Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii in the State of Hawaii. [40 FR 8504, Feb. 27, 1975] ...

  17. Effects and feasibility of a standardised orientation and mobility training in using an identification cane for older adults with low vision: design of a randomised controlled trial

    Zijlstra, G. A.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Brouwer, D. M.; van der Velde, J.; Verstraten, P. F.; Kempen, G.I.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Orientation and mobility training (O&M-training) in using an identification cane, also called symbol cane, is provided to people with low vision to facilitate independent participation in the community. In The Netherlands this training is mainly practice-based because a standardised and

  18. Effects and feasibility of a standardised orientation and mobility training in using an identification cane for older adults with low vision : design of a randomised controlled trial

    Zijlstra, G. A. R.; van Rens, G. H. M. B.; Scherder, E. J. A.; Brouwer, D. M.; van der Velde, J.; Verstraten, P. F. J.; Kempen, G. I. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Orientation and mobility training (O&M-training) in using an identification cane, also called symbol cane, is provided to people with low vision to facilitate independent participation in the community. In The Netherlands this training is mainly practice-based because a standardised and

  19. Sugar cane consumption on Rapanui (Easter Island) and the indicence of caries : evidence from stable isotope values of human bone

    Leach, B.F.; Quinn, C.J.; Seelenfreund, A.

    2017-01-01

    Pre-European people on Rapanui are known to have had a high rate of dental caries. One proposed explanation for this is that the people consumed a considerable amount of sugar cane, as a thirst quencher, since fresh water is scarce on the island. Human bone samples were analysed by isotope analysis to see if this explanation could be sustained. Results for three isotopes δ"1"3C, δ"1"5N and δ"3"4S were then used in a stochastic model to estimate the proportions of five main food types in the diet of these people. This indicated that daily consumption of dry raw sugar cane was only about 32 to 42 g per day. This is very low and sugar cane consumption is therefore unlikely to be the only cause of the high rate of dental caries. (author).

  20. Chemometric characterization of alembic and industrial sugar cane spirits from cape verde and ceará, Brazil.

    Pereira, Regina F R; Vidal, Carla B; de Lima, Ari C A; Melo, Diego Q; Dantas, Allan N S; Lopes, Gisele S; do Nascimento, Ronaldo F; Gomes, Clerton L; da Silva, Maria Nataniela

    2012-01-01

    Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate); copper; and sulfates.

  1. Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil

    Regina F. R. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate; copper; and sulfates.

  2. Optimization of solid state fermentation of sugar cane by Aspergillus niger considering particles size effect

    Echevarria, J.; Rodriguez, L.J.A.; Delgado, G. (Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar (ICIDCA), La Habana (Cuba)); Espinosa, M.E. (Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas, La Habana (Cuba))

    1991-01-01

    The protein enrichment of sugar cane by solid state fermentation employing Aspergillus niger was optimized in a packed bed column using a two Factor Central Composit Design {alpha} = 2, considering as independent factors the particle diameter corresponding to different times of grinding for a sample and the air flow rate. It was significative for the air flow rate (optimum 4.34 VKgM) and the particle diameter (optimum 0.136 cm). The average particle size distribution, shape factor, specific surface, volume-surface mean diameter, number of particles, real and apparent density and holloweness for the different times of grinding were determined, in order to characterize the samples. (orig.).

  3. Relation between climate and diesel fuel rate consumption for sugar cane agriculture

    Fonte Hernandez, Aramis; Rivero Vega, Roger

    2005-01-01

    In the present work, some results are shown of a study carried out within the ENERCLIMA project. The principal objective was to establish the relationship between diesel fuel rate consumption by agricultural equipment in activities related to sugar cane production and simple climatic variables. Through a statistical analysis, we show the possibility of obtaining statistical models of an acceptable confidence level, as applied to some of these activities, which could be used in order to plan more rationally the level of fuel consumption of the agricultural companies with access to meteorological stations located nearby

  4. Potential of Trichoderma species on Helminthosporium causing leaf spot on cane palm, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens.

    Jegathambigai, V; Karunaratne, M D S D; Svinningen, A; Mikunthan, G

    2008-01-01

    The cane palm, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens is one among the plant material of the export industries in Sri Lanka. The export quality of C. lutescens was declined due to the repeated occurrence of a leaf spot caused by Helminthosporium. Widespread occurrence of the leaf spot affected the cane palm production and succumb it to a huge setback in the floriculture industry in Sri Lanka. Being an export industry eco-friendly means of disease control was the prime focus for a better management of such vulnerable disease. Trichoderma is a potential bio agent, which has definite role in suppressing the inoculum of Helminthosporium sp. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of Trichoderma species to control naturally established leaf spot in cane palm under field conditions. Three isolates of T. viride and two isolates of T. harzianum were evaluated. All the Trichoderma species performed significantly in reducing the disease incidence. T. viride + T. harzianum combination (1 x 10(10) cfu/ml) was the best compared to chemical in decreasing the mean disease severity index and improving the frequency of healthy plants. The colour of the leaves regained due to the application of Trichoderma sp. The results revealed that leaf spot incidence was lowered significantly in cane palms treated with Trichoderma species followed by treatment with combination of Trichoderma sp. and fungicides. The fungicide mixture (hexaconozole 50 g/l + Isoprothiolane 400 g/l) failed to lower the disease incidence and had no effect in suppressing the inocula of Helminthosporium, although recommended. Mixing of Trichoderma species with fungicide did not exhibit any additive effect. The combination of different species of Trichoderma would target species of Helminthosporium that exist as a complex group under field conditions. The results also proved that the existence of heterogeneity in Helminthosporium that could be tackled and effectively controlled by a combination of different species of the bio

  5. Cyclic AMP regulates the biosynthesis of cellobiohydrolase in Cellulomonas flavigena growing in sugar cane bagasse.

    Herrera-Herrera, Jesús Antonio; Pérez-Avalos, Odilia; Salgado, Luis M; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa

    2009-10-01

    Cellulomonas flavigena produces a battery of cellulase components that act concertedly to degrade cellulose. The addition of cAMP to repressed C. flavigena cultures released catabolic repression, while addition of cAMP to induced C. flavigena cultures led to a cellobiohydrolase hyperproduction. Exogenous cAMP showed positive regulation on cellobiohydrolase production in C. flavigena grown on sugar cane bagasse. A C. flavigena cellobiohydrolase gene was cloned (named celA), which coded for a 71- kDa enzyme. Upstream, a repressor celR1, identified as a 38 kDa protein, was monitored by use of polyclonal antibodies.

  6. Kinetics of volatile metabolites during alcoholic fermentation of cane molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Cachot, T; Mueller, M; Pons, M N [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 54 - Nancy (France). Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique

    1991-07-01

    The kinetics of ethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and fusel alcohols during alcoholic fermentations on cane molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been obtained via an in-situ gas membrane sensor connected to a gas chromatograph. Various operation parameters have been investigated such as inoculum rate, molasses concentration, operation mode (batch, fed-batch). The modification of fusel alcohols kinetics in response to addition of amino acids has been studied as well as the assimilation of two intermediary aldehydes (isovaleraldehyde and isobutyraldehyde) in the fusel alcohol synthesis pathway. (orig.).

  7. Unintentional fall injuries associated with walkers and canes in older adults treated in U.S. emergency departments.

    Stevens, Judy A; Thomas, Karen; Teh, Leesia; Greenspan, Arlene I

    2009-08-01

    To characterize nonfatal, unintentional, fall-related injuries associated with walkers and canes in older adults. Surveillance data of injuries treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs), January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2006. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program, which collects data from a nationally representative stratified probability sample of 66 U.S. hospital EDs. People aged 65 and older treated in EDs for 3,932 nonfatal unintentional fall injuries and whose records indicated that a cane or a walker was involved in the fall. Sex, age, whether the fall involved a cane or walker, primary diagnosis, part of the body injured, disposition, and location and circumstances of the fall. An estimated 47,312 older adult fall injuries associated with walking aids were treated annually in U.S. EDs: 87.3% with walkers, 12.3% with canes, and 0.4% with both. Walkers were associated with seven times as many injuries as canes. Women's injury rates exceeded those for men (rate ratios=2.6 for walkers, 1.4 for canes.) The most prevalent injuries were fractures and contusions or abrasions. Approximately one-third of subjects were hospitalized for their injuries. Injuries and hospital admissions for falls associated with walking aids were frequent in this highly vulnerable population. The results suggest that more research is needed to improve the design of walking aids. More information also is needed about the circumstances preceding falls, both to better understand the contributing fall risk factors and to develop specific and effective fall prevention strategies.

  8. Effect of the presence of initial ethanol on ethanol production in sugar cane juice fermented by Zymomonas mobilis

    Tano,Marcia Sadae; Buzato,João Batista

    2003-01-01

    Ethanol production in sugar cane juice in high initial sugar concentration, fermented by Z. mobilis in the presence and absence of ethanol, was evaluated. Ethanol production was low in both media. The presence of initial ethanol in the sugar cane juice reduced ethanol production by 48.8%, biomass production by 25.0% and the total sugar consumption by 28.3%. The presence of initial ethanol in the medium did not affect significantly levan production and biomass yield coefficient (g biomass/g su...

  9. A cane reduces loss of balance in patients with peripheral neuropathy: results from a challenging unipedal balance test.

    Ashton-Miller, J A; Yeh, M W; Richardson, J K; Galloway, T

    1996-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that use of a cane in the nondominant hand during challenging balance tasks would significantly decrease loss of balance in patients with peripheral neuropathy while transferring from bipedal to unipedal stance on an unsteady surface. Nonrandomized control study. Tertiary-care institution. Eight consecutive patients with peripheral neuropathy (PN) and eight age- and gender-matched controls (C) with a mean (SD) age of 65 (8.2) years. Subjects were asked to transfer their weight onto their right foot, despite a rapid +/- 2 degrees or +/- 4 degrees frontal plane tilt of the support surface at 70% of weight transfer, and balance unipedally for at least 3 seconds. The efficacy of their weight transfer was evaluated over 112 consecutive randomized and blocked trials by calculating loss of balance as failure rates (%FR) with and without visual feedback, and with and without use of a cane in the nondominant (left) hand. Results were analyzed using a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance (rm-ANOVA) and post hoc t tests. The rm-ANOVA showed that the FR of the PN subjects (47.6% [18.1%]) was significantly higher than C (29.2% [15.2%], p = .036). Removing visual feedback, simulating the dark of night, increased the FR fourfold (p = .000). Use of a cane in the contralateral nondominant hand significantly reduced the FR (p = .000), particularly in the PN group (cane x disease interaction: p = .055). Post hoc t tests showed that with or without visual feedback, the cane reduced the FR of the PN group fourfold and enabled them to perform more reliably than matched controls not using a cane (p = .011). An inversion perturbation resulted in a higher FR than an eversion perturbation (p = .007). The PN group employed larger mean peak cane forces (21.9% BW) than C (13.6% BW) in restoring their balance (p = .000). Use of a cane by PN patients significantly reduced their risk of losing balance on unstable surfaces, especially under low

  10. Environmental impact estimation of the sugar cane cultivation, using the methodology of the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)

    Saavedra D, Juan Felipe; Vargas V, Olga Rocio

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the results of a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) for traditional and organic cultivation of sugar cane in Valle del Cauca. Eco-scores obtained for each case, shown that organic cultivation is less harmful, in environmental terms, than traditional one. In the last one, the biomass burning process, made to facilitate the crop, is the principal environmental problem, while in the first one, it is the use of pollinaza, an organic fertilizer based on these results recommendations were made to obtain significant reduction in the impact of the sugar cane cultivation

  11. SOURCES OF GROWTH OF SUGAR CANE PRODUCTION IN WEST CENTRAL AND SOUTHEAST OF BRAZIL

    Geraldo Moreira Bittencourt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing the determinants of variations in the production of sugar cane in Southeast and Midwest of the Brazil, between 1990 and 2009, measuring the effects area, productivity and composition. The theoretical framework consists of the conceptualization of the modernization of agriculture and the description of the theory of induced innovation. The empirical analysis is based on the work of the Shift-Share model, also known as a differential structure. In the results from 1990 to 2009 (total period, there is the hypothesis of the higher average yield of sugarcane in the Southeast and of the pattern of growth production by area in the Midwest. On the other hand, in the period 2005 to 2009, where the two regions in question had the highest growth rates of production of sugar cane, the composition effect revealed the most significant values, showing that the expansion of sugarcane production has occurred in these regions, mainly by substituting other crops by land less profitable.

  12. Evaluation of Sugar Cane Genotypes in different Environments in Ingenio Ofelina, Republic of Panama

    Héctor Jorge Suárez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and classification of the different test sites and their evaluation for the study of the genotypes becomes obligatory, in the breeding programs, also the knowledge of the adaptability of the cultivars allows to maximize their production. The objective of the work was to determine the adaptability and phenotypic stability of new cultivars introduced in CALESA by means of the Twodimensional Representation method (Biplot, in two crops, as well as recommending those with the best agroproductive behavior under soil and climate conditions, of the Ingenio Ofelina. Twenty cultivars were planted in red Ferralitic, Brown without carbonate and Ferralitic quartzitic soils. The crop variables studied were: cane yield, pol yield and percentage of pol in cane. The environmental effect and the genotype-environment interaction were superior to that of the genotypes in the contribution to the total phenotypic variation. The cultivars E07-04, E07-09, BT84102 and Na56-42 in the three agrosugar characters were stable and adapted to the different environmental conditions and showed a sugar content similar or superior to the controls. The main component’s analysis offered the formation of six different groups which correspond to the environments evaluated, there being a small approach between environment 2 and 4.

  13. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse ash as supplementary material for Portland cement

    Janneth Torres Agredo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar Cane Bagasse is a by-product of the sugar agroindustry; it is partly used as fuel. However, bagasse ash (SCBA is considered waste, which creates a disposal problem. Furthermore, if sugar cane bagasse is burned under controlled conditions, the SCBA can be potentially reused. This paper considers the technical viability of using SCBA as a partial replacement for cement. Two samples of SCBA from a Colombian sugar industry were characterized. The chemical composition of the samples shows high percentages of silica, 76.3% and 63.2%. The mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the waste were determined by X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD, thermal analysis (TG/DTA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The pozzolanic activity of SCBA was evaluated using the Frattini test and the strength activity index test (SAI. The ASTM C618 defines an SAI of at least 75% as a requirement for classifying material as a pozzolan. This condition was achieved in the experiments performed. The results indicate that SCBA produced in the manufacture of commercial cements can be recycled for use as pozzolanic material. This supplementary material can partially replace cement and therefore reduce CO2 emissions.

  14. Formation of Polyphenol-Denatured Protein Flocs in Alcohol Beverages Sweetened with Refined Cane Sugars.

    Eggleston, Gillian; Triplett, Alexa

    2017-11-08

    The sporadic appearance of floc from refined, white cane sugars in alcohol beverages remains a technical problem for both beverage manufacturers and sugar refiners. Cane invert sugars mixed with 60% pure alcohol and water increased light scattering by up to ∼1000-fold. Insoluble and soluble starch, fat, inorganic ash, oligosaccharides, Brix, and pH were not involved in the prevailing floc-formation mechanism. Strong polynomial correlations existed between the haze floc and indicator values (IVs) (color at 420 nm pH 9.0/color at pH 4.0-an indirect measure of polyphenolic and flavonoid colorants) (R 2 = 0.815) and protein (R 2 = 0.819) content of the invert sugars. Ethanol-induced denaturation of the protein exposed hydrophobic polyphenol-binding sites that were further exposed when heated to 80 °C. A tentative mechanism for floc formation was advanced by molecular probing with a haze (floc) active protein and polyphenol as well as polar, nonpolar, and ionic solvents.

  15. Rudimentary, low tech incinerators as a means to produce reactive pozzolan out of sugar cane straw

    Martirena, Fernando; Middendorf, Bernhard; Day, Robert L.; Gehrke, Matthias; Roque, Pablo; Martinez, Lesday; Betancourt, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    The ashes of agricultural wastes from the processing of sugar cane are recognized as having pozzolanic properties. Burning of these wastes under controlled conditions, e.g. temperature and residence time results in significant improvement in reactivity. There are many reports of low-tech incinerators that have been successfully used to produce reactive rice husk ash in Asia. The paper presents the results of the evaluation of a rudimentary incinerator where sugar cane straw is burnt in order to obtain a reactive ash. The incinerator is designed and constructed according to state-of-the-art recommendations for this kind of device. Various burning trials were performed in order to obtain ash for the experiment. X-ray diffraction analysis performed on powdered ash shows significant presence of amorphous (glassy) material. Lime-pozzolana pastes were prepared. The pastes were subjected to X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, chemical titration, and SEM observation, as a means to examine the pozzolanicity of the ash via the progress with time of calcium hydroxide consumption, and changes in the pore size distribution and strength. Calcium silicate hydrate phases are the main reaction product of the pozzolanic reaction. The long residence time of the ash in the burning chamber seems to be the reason for the fairly low reactivity of the ash; the reactivity of the ash was not significantly improved in comparison with that of the ash burnt in uncontrolled conditions in the open air

  16. Development and application of a thermophysical property model for cane fiberboard subjected to high temperatures

    Hensel, S.J.; Gromada, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    A thermophysical property model has been developed to analytically determine the thermal response of cane fiberboard when exposed to temperatures and heat fluxes associated with the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident condition (HAC) and associated post fire cooling. The complete model was developed from high temperature cane fiberboard 1-D test results and consists of heating and cooling sub-models. The heating property model accounts for the enhanced heat transfer of the hot gases in the fiberboard, the loss of energy via venting, and the loss of mass from venting during the heating portion of the test. The cooling property model accounts for the degraded material effects and the continued heat transfer associated with the hot gases after removal of the external heating source. Agreement between the test results of a four inch thick fiberboard sample with the analytical application of the complete property model is quite good and will be presented. A comparison of analysis results and furnace test data for the 9966 package suggests that the property model sufficiently accounts for the heat transfer in an actual package

  17. Response of “Red Globe” (Vitis vinifera L. to cane girdling

    Soltekin Oğuzhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cane girdling on skin colour, harvest date, yield, and some quality characteristics of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Red Globe table grape variety, was measured over two growing seasons, 2013–2014, at the facility of Manisa Viticulture Research Station in Turkey. Cane girdling was performed on the spurs after first bud was left from the bottom and 4 mm-wide ring of bark was completely removed with a doubleded knife at veraison period. Statistical analyses showed that total soluble solid content, berry width, berry length, colour parameters, CIRG index and anthocyanin content of the Red Globe was significantly affected by the girdling treatment in both years, 2013 and 2014. In addition it was detected that any effect of girdling treatments cannot be determined statistically significant on total yield, marketable yield, total phenolics, titrable acidity, pH and 50 berry weight. Total and marketable yields of girdled vines had higher value although they weren’t statistically significant. Furthermore it was observed on girdled vines 7 and 11 days earliness compare to the control vines in 2013 and 2014, respectively.

  18. Multiscale Alterations in Sugar Cane Bagasse and Straw Submitted to Alkaline Deacetylation

    Lima, Cleilton S. [Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Biotechnology, Engineering College of Lorena, University of São Paulo, 12602-810 Lorena, São Paulo, Brazil; Rabelo, Sarita C. [Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Ciesielski, Peter N. [Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Roberto, Inês C. [Department of Biotechnology, Engineering College of Lorena, University of São Paulo, 12602-810 Lorena, São Paulo, Brazil; Rocha, George J. M. [Department of Biotechnology, Engineering College of Lorena, University of São Paulo, 12602-810 Lorena, São Paulo, Brazil; Driemeier, Carlos [Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    2018-01-31

    Alkaline deacetylation has emerged as a promising chemistry for pretreatments performed prior to enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass. This process avoids complex pressurized reactors and opens new opportunities for lignin covalorization. In this work, we evaluate the chemical and morphological response of sugar cane bagasse and straw submitted to alkaline treatments. Alkaline solutions for deacetylation (0.4% w/w NaOH, 70 degrees C, 3 h) as well as proximal conditions (0.1-0.7% NaOH, 55-85 degrees C, 1-5 h) chosen by 23 experimental design were evaluated. The deacetylation treatment removes ~90% of the acetyl groups and 20-30% of the lignin from both bagasse and straw, while removal of ~20% of the xylan and glucan is observed in straw, but not in bagasse. Considering nanoscale structural alterations, neither cellulose cocrystallization (evaluated by X-ray diffraction) nor formation of lignin aggregates (evaluated by thermoporometric signature) are observed after the alkaline conditions, in contrast to observations after hydrothermal treatments. Furthermore, calorimetric thermoporometry as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopies show substantial introduction of nanoscale porosity and loosening of the tissue and cell wall structures, indicating desirable mechanical weakening and gains in enzyme accessibility. These results provide fundamental and practical knowledge for biorefineries based on alkaline deacetylation of sugar cane bagasse and straw.

  19. Effect of partial replacement with thermally processed sugar cane bagasse on the properties of mortars

    Bezerra, Augusto Cesar da Silva; Saraiva, Sergio Luis Costa; Lara, Luis Felipe dos Santos; Rodrigues, Conrado de Souza; Ferreira, Maria Cecilia Novaes Firmo, E-mail: augustobezerra@des.cefetmg.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Castro, Laurenn Wolochate Aracema de, E-mail: laurenn@cemig.com [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Gomes, Romero Cesar, E-mail: romero@nugeo.ufop.br [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil); Aguilar, Maria Teresa Paulino, E-mail: teresa@ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Sugar cane bagasse is a residue of the sugar-alcohol industry, and its main destination is represented by burning boilers for power generation. The bagasse cogeneration of power produces a sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) residue that does not have a useful destination. Ashes are commonly studied as pozzolan in Portland cement production. International Standards indicate the use of pozzolan with up to 50% substitution. In the present work, we investigate the use of SCBA as an addition in Portland cement. For this purpose, Portland cement was prepared by substituting cement with 0, 10, 20, and 30% processed SCBA in volume. The ashes were processed by re-burning and grinding and were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Xray diffraction, laser granulometry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, the Chapelle method, and pozollanic activity. To evaluate the cement with substitution, we used the mortar recommended by NBR 7215. The mechanical properties of the cements with replacement were analysed through tests of the compressive strength and flexural strength of mortars. The results appear interesting and support the possible use of SCBA in the production of cement from the aspect of mechanical properties evaluated. (author)

  20. Performance of dairy goats fed diets with dry yeast from sugar cane as protein source

    Luciano Soares de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inactive dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae from sugar cane were studied in 18 primiparus Saanen dairy goats (51.07±1.43 on dry matter intake and digestibility, milk production and quality. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design during 90 days (from day 60 of milking. Diets were composed of soybean meal; soybean meal + dry yeast; or dry yeast, as protein sources, and ground corn, mineral supplement and corn silage (40%. Animals fed the dry yeast diet showed lower intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein, ether extract and neutral detergent fiber. Diets did not influence milk yield; however the milk production efficiency (kg of milk produced/kg of crude protein ingested was better in goats fed the dry yeast diet. Acidity, somatic cell counts and milk urea nitrogen values were not affected by treatments. Animals fed the soybean + dry yeast diet had higher fat and total solids than those fed the dry yeast diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and total carbohydrate was lower for soybean only and soybean + dry yeast diets. Total digestible nutrients were higher for dry yeast and soy bean diets than soybean + dry yeast diet. Dry yeast from sugar cane is a good alternative protein source for feeding lactating dairy goats and can be recommended because it maintains the production performance.

  1. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Hermansen, John E. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); Sagisaka, Masayuki [Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source. (author)

  2. Cane molasses fermentation for continuous ethanol production in an immobilized cells reactor by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Ghorbani, Farshid; Younesi, Habibollah; Esmaeili Sari, Abbas [Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, P.O. Box: 64414-356 (Iran); Najafpour, Ghasem [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol (Iran)

    2011-02-15

    Sodium-alginate immobilized yeast was employed to produce ethanol continuously using cane molasses as a carbon source in an immobilized cell reactor (ICR). The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was performed by entrapment of the cell cultured media harvested at exponential growth phase (16 h) with 3% sodium alginate. During the initial stage of operation, the ICR was loaded with fresh beads of mean diameter of 5.01 mm. The ethanol production was affected by the concentration of the cane molasses (50, 100 and 150 g/l), dilution rates (0.064, 0.096, 0.144 and 0.192 h{sup -1}) and hydraulic retention time (5.21, 6.94, 10.42 and 15.63 h) of the media. The pH of the feed medium was set at 4.5 and the fermentation was carried out at an ambient temperature. The maximum ethanol production, theoretical yield (Y{sub E/S}), volumetric ethanol productivity (Q{sub P}) and total sugar consumption was 19.15 g/l, 46.23%, 2.39 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 96%, respectively. (author)

  3. Effect of partial replacement with thermally processed sugar cane bagasse on the properties of mortars

    Bezerra, Augusto Cesar da Silva; Saraiva, Sergio Luis Costa; Lara, Luis Felipe dos Santos; Rodrigues, Conrado de Souza; Ferreira, Maria Cecilia Novaes Firmo; Castro, Laurenn Wolochate Aracema de; Gomes, Romero Cesar; Aguilar, Maria Teresa Paulino

    2017-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse is a residue of the sugar-alcohol industry, and its main destination is represented by burning boilers for power generation. The bagasse cogeneration of power produces a sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) residue that does not have a useful destination. Ashes are commonly studied as pozzolan in Portland cement production. International Standards indicate the use of pozzolan with up to 50% substitution. In the present work, we investigate the use of SCBA as an addition in Portland cement. For this purpose, Portland cement was prepared by substituting cement with 0, 10, 20, and 30% processed SCBA in volume. The ashes were processed by re-burning and grinding and were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Xray diffraction, laser granulometry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, the Chapelle method, and pozollanic activity. To evaluate the cement with substitution, we used the mortar recommended by NBR 7215. The mechanical properties of the cements with replacement were analysed through tests of the compressive strength and flexural strength of mortars. The results appear interesting and support the possible use of SCBA in the production of cement from the aspect of mechanical properties evaluated. (author)

  4. Continuous ethanol production using yeast immobilized on sugar-cane stalks

    Vasconcelos, J.N. de [Alagoas Univ., Maceio, AL (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: jnunes@ctec.ufal.br; Lopes, C.E. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos; Franca, F.P. de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Dept. de Engenharia Bioquimica

    2004-09-01

    Sugar-cane stalks, 2.0 cm long, were used as a support for yeast immobilization envisaging ethanol production. The assays were conducted in 38.5 L fermenters containing a bed of stalks with 50% porosity. The operational stability of the immobilized yeast, the efficiency and stability of the process, as well as the best dilution rate were evaluated. Molasses from demerara sugar production was used in the medium formulation. It was diluted to obtain 111.75 {+-} 1.51 g/L without any further treatment. Sulfuric acid was used to adjust the pH value to around 4.2. Every two days Kamoran HJ (10 ppm) or with a mixture containing penicillin (10 ppm) and tetracycline (10 ppm), was added to the medium. Ethanol yield and efficiency were 29.64 g/L.h and 86.40%, respectively, and the total reducing sugars conversion was 74.61% at a dilution rate of 0.83 h{sup -1}. The yeast-stalk system was shown to be stable for over a 60 day period at extremely variable dilution rates ranging from 0.05 h{sup -1} to 3.00 h{sup -1}. The concentration of immobilized cell reached around 109 cells/gram of dry sugar-cane stalk when the fermenter was operating at the highest dilution rate (3.00 h{sup -1}). (author)

  5. INAA and AAS of different products from sugar cane industry in Pakistan. Toxic trace elements for nutritional safety

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, S.; Gill, K.P.

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) have been used to determine As, Br, Hg, Sb and Se in combination with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) as a complementary technique for the quantification of Cd and Pb in jaggery, brown sugar, white sugar and molasses. All sugar cane products were collected from the local sugar cane industry of Pakistan. The highest concentration of these potentially toxic elements was quantified in molasses; however, molasses together with jaggery, brown sugar and white sugar contains trace amounts of all of these elements. Due to very low concentration of Cd it could only be detected in molasses. To evaluate the percentage contribution of these elements in the sugar cane products to the weekly recommended values, intakes on weekly consumption of 100 g of each item have also been calculated which follow the pattern Br>Se>Pb>Hg>As>Sb. The elevated Br contents may be attributed to the use of Br-containing chemicals for fumigation; however, these contents are well within the tolerance levels. The estimated weekly intake of all toxic elements is very low indicating that sugar cane products can be safely ingested as part of the diets. (author)

  6. A Seamless Approach to Transitioning Cane Skills from the Diagonal to the Two-Point Touch Technique

    Penrod, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The profession of orientation and mobility (O&M) is replete with literature describing specific cane techniques, strategies for teaching O&M to specific populations and age groups, rationales, and appropriate settings. These strategies and techniques are also addressed in many university preparation programs. In this article, the author discusses…

  7. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    2010-10-01

    ... marketing allotment and the associated production history will be transferred from MDFC to WSG, effective... Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY: Commodity Credit... publish the modifications to the fiscal year 2010 (FY 2010) State sugar marketing allotments and company...

  8. Impact of financial environmental incentives in the potential of electric power generation on the sugar cane plants

    Pinto, Claudio Plaza; Walter, Arnaldo

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the work is to present the electric power generation from biomass and the economic potential from sugar cane plants in Brazil. Computerized electricity costs simulation are presented and several financial incentives and external market effects are considered. The results are also presented and criticized

  9. The German version of the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE): evaluation of content validity and adaptation to the German-speaking context.

    Stein, Janine; Luppa, Melanie; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2015-11-01

    The Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE) was developed for the assessment of physical-, psychological-, and environment-related needs in the elderly. The aim of this study was to revise and adapt the German version of the CANE with regard to the content validity of the instrument. Following a multistage approach, face-to-face interviews using the CANE, an expert survey and a multidisciplinary consensus conference were conducted in order to evaluate the frequency and relevance of met and unmet needs in the German elderly population, and to modify the content of the CANE for the German-speaking countries. In Germany, unmet physical needs including physical health, medication, eyesight/hearing/communication, mobility/falls, self-care, and continence were found to have top priority closely followed by social needs (company, intimate relationships, daytime activities, information, and abuse/neglect). Psychological needs were the lowest ranked care category. Experts' proposals for the improvement of the German version of the CANE were collected. All findings were discussed and integrated in the multidisciplinary consensus conference with the result of a revised and adapted CANE that is applicable in the German-speaking context. The provision of an adapted and improved German version of the CANE may substantially contribute to a comprehensive and valid assessment of needs in the elderly population. The results of this study represent an important basis for comprehensive needs assessment in the elderly in the theoretical and practical field of healthcare and health services research.

  10. Impacts of harvesting methods of sugar cane on the soil macrofauna in production area in Espírito Santo – Brazil

    Eloísa dos Santos Benazzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of harvesting methods on the macrofauna, a known indicator of soil quality that detects changes in the system and indicates management alternatives. The experimental design was randomized blocks with six replications, with each block consisting of four parcels that corresponded to treatments green cane (CC, burnt cane (CQ, green cane – burnt cane (CC-Q and burnt cane – green cane (CQ-C. Samples were collected in February and July 2010. The animals were divided into major taxonomic groups and accounted. Were evaluated ecological indexes (Shannon, Pielou and richness and average total density of individuals and groups. Data were analyzed by the nonparametric statistical tools by Friedman or Signal test at 5%. To check relationships between soil fauna and environmental variables, was used a multivariate conditional ordination method, the redundancy analysis (RDA. The index richness was more efficient than the total average density to evaluate the influence of cane harvesting systems, with the highest values related to areas harvested without burning. Further, the occurrence of key groups in the areas harvested without burning configures the establishment of a trophic web. There was dominance of the social group Formicidae in all treatments

  11. Character & Cane

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2009-01-01

    They say first impressions can be deceiving. The difficulty of getting to know someone increases when that person is mostly fictional. Whatever the author writes is all readers can know. Whatever they read about the character is all they have to go on. Now take it another step back, and imagine a portrait drawing, painting or print of that…

  12. Mineralization and volatilization of nitrogen from vinasse-15 N in the presence or absence of urea and sugar cane straw

    Silva, Vilma Maria; Colaco, Waldeciro; Encarnacao, Fernando Antonio Franco da; Cabezas, Waldo Alejandro Ruben Lara

    1999-01-01

    The mineralized and volatilized nitrogen derived from vinasse labelled with 15 N were determined in a laboratory experiment, using samples of two soils [a sandy Red-Yellow-Podzolic-PV and a clayey Latosol - LR (Oxisol)], collected in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. The experiment consisted of four treatments: application of vinasse (V * ); vinasse with urea (V * +U); vinasse with sugar cane straw (V * +P); and vinasse with urea and sugar cane straw (V * +U+P). Vinasse, labelled with 15 N (V * ) was applied at a rate of 100 mg.kg -1 of N-vinasse. All treatments, were incubated for 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days. N-urea and sugar cane straw were incorporated in the soil at rates of 220 mg.kg -1 and 22 g.kg -1 , respectively. N H 4 + -N and NO 3 - -N concentrations, as a result of the vinasse addition, were affected by soil type. A larger availability of N H 4 + -N and NO 3 - -N derived from vinasse were observed, when urea was added. Sugar cane straw plus vinasse did not alter the concentrations of N H 4 + - N and NO 3 - - N derived from vinasse. Urea plus sugar cane straw did not affect N H 4 + -N concentrations, and affected the NO 3 - -N concentration in LR soil over time. Losses of vinasse-N, due to volatilization, increased with time for all treatments, and were larger for PV (14%) than for LR(5%); but such losses were similar in LR soil. (author)

  13. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate

  14. Cane pruning on Chardonnay grapevine in the high-altitude regions of Southern Brazil

    Filho José Luiz Marcon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude regions of southern Brazil, located above 900 m above sea level, the cordon training with spur pruning is widely used because of easier application. In these regions, Chardonnay wine grape shows potential to produce quality wines, however, in commercial vineyards, the training system used has not provided productivities that makes economically viable the cultivation of this variety. Given this, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different cane-pruning systems on the vegetative, productive and enological potential of Chardonnay grapevines grown in the high-altitude region of Southern Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a commercial Chardonnay vineyard, located in São Joaquim – Santa Catarina State (28o17 ′39”S and 49∘ 55′56” W, to 1230 m a.s.l during 2015 and 2016 vintages. Chardonnay vines (grafted on 1103 Paulsen were planted in 2010, with a 3.0 m (row × 1.0 m (vine spacing. The treatments consisted of different cane-pruning systems: Cordon spur-pruning (control; Sylvoz; Cazenave; Capovolto; single Guyot and double Guyot. Pruning was performed in August of each year when the buds were in the green tip developmental stage. Data was analyzed by Scott Knott test (p < 0.05 following a randomized block design with four replicates, each consisting of 12 vines per plot. We observed higher yield in the Cazenave and double Guyot training system with three and two more tons of grapes than spur-pruning respectively. The bud fertility was higher in plants trained in double Guyot. Vines spur-pruned showed higher relation of leaf area: production, with values above 100 cm2 g−1 grape at 2016 vintage. Commercial maturity of grapes (soluble solids, acidity and polyphenols did not differ among training systems studied. The results suggest that cane-pruning systems could be an alternative to increase production efficiency of Chardonnay in high-altitude region of southern Brazil.

  15. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2010-12-01

    With 4 million ha currently grown for ethanol in Brazil only, approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005 (Smeets 2008), and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Indeed, ethanol made from biomass is currently the most widespread option for alternative transportation fuels. It was originally promoted as a carbon neutral energy resource that could bring energy independence to countries and local opportunities to farmers, until attention was drawn to its environmental and socio-economical drawbacks. It is still not clear to which extent it is a solution or a contributor to climate change mitigation. Dynamic Global Vegetation models can help address these issues and quantify the potential impacts of biofuels on ecosystems at scales ranging from on-site to global. The global agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE describes water, carbon and energy exchanges at the soil-atmosphere interface for a limited number of natural and agricultural vegetation types. In order to integrate agricultural management to the simulations and to capture more accurately the specificity of crops' phenology, ORCHIDEE has been coupled with the agronomical model STICS. The resulting crop-oriented vegetation model ORCHIDEE-STICS has been used so far to simulate temperate crops such as wheat, corn and soybean. As a generic ecosystem model, each grid cell can include several vegetation types with their own phenology and management practices, making it suitable to spatial simulations. Here, ORCHIDEE-STICS is altered to include sugar cane as a new agricultural Plant functional Type, implemented and parametrized using the STICS approach. An on-site calibration and validation is then performed based on biomass and flux chamber measurements in several sites in Australia and variables such as LAI, dry weight, heat fluxes and respiration are used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the specific

  16. Environmental factors affecting sporulation of Fuligo septica (Myxomycetes on sugar cane bagasse

    Chiappeta Alda de Andrade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environmental factors on sporulation of Fuligo septica (L. Wigg. and the abundance of this species on sugar cane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum L., stored outdoors was studied.In Northeastern Brazil, between January/1997 and January/1998, a total of 29 specimens were collected through monthly collections of aethalia. The relationships between the abundance of aethalia and rainfall, temperature, relative humidity of the air and insolation were studied. Results indicated that on the substrate analyzed, F. septica was an abundant species. Sporulation occurred in all seasons of the year, with a well-defined peak at the end of winter and beginning of spring (August/September,which was strongly influenced by rainfall.

  17. Cogeneration/auto production influences form sugar cane bagasse for the electric power market in Northeast

    Rocha, P.G. da; Fiscina, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    This work intends to evaluate to what extent the co-generation/auto production influences the electric power market. For that purpose, two sceneries have been developed considering sugar cane bagasse remains, taking as a basis the historic content (per Northeast state) and the energy policy for PROALCOOL. The installed potential in plants/distilleries for utilization of the bagasse industrial remains has also been considered. It has been determined the investments required for new facilities, enabling the use of all bagasse remains for electric energy, the benefits for the North/Northeast electric system resulting from such measures (as the decrease in deficit risks), and the value of energy sale by the system auto producers/co-generators. (author)

  18. Growth Indicators of a 48-Clone Sugar Cane Population (Saccharum spp. with Forage Potential

    Yoslen Fernández Gálvez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine growth indicators in a 48-clone sugar cane population, with promising phenotypical features for forage production. The following indicators were assessed: leaf area (A, leaf area index (LA1; leaf area ratio (LAR; specific leaf area (SLA; leaf weight ratio (LWR; crop growth rate (CGR; net assimilation rate (NAR; relative growth rate in weight (RGR; biomass production speed (G; leaf area duration (LAD; and biomass duration (Z, monthly (187 - 370 days. The minimum, the mean, the maximum values, and the population variance were determined for all cutting ages and the variables assessed. The results achieved have provided quantitative values that can be used as reference for selection and assessment of forage genotypes for ruminant nutrition.

  19. Identification and dosage by HRGC of minor alcohol and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit

    Boscolo, Mauricio; Bezerra, Cicero W.B.; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Lima Neto, Benedito S.; Franco, Douglas W.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of 51 volatile compounds, among alcohols and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit (cachaca), were investigated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The following alcohols and esters were identified and quantified: methanol, 1,4-butanodiol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, cynamic alcohol, n-decanol, geraniol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, menthol, n-butanol, n-dodecanol, n-propanol, n-tetradecanol, amyl propionate, ethyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, ethyl heptanoate, isoamyl valerate, methyl propionate, propyl butyrate. The average higher alcohols content (262 mg/100 mL in anhydrous alcohol a.a) and total esters content (24 mg/100 mL a.a) in cachacas, are smaller than in other spirits. The average methanol content in cachacas (6 mg/100 mL a.a) is the same as in rum, but smaller than in wine spirit. No qualitative differences of chemical profile among cachacas have been observed. (author)

  20. Fluidized bed gasification of sugar cane bagasse. Influence on gas composition

    Esperanza, E.; Aleman, Y. [Univ. of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba). Biomass Thermoconversion group/CETA; Arauzo, J.; Gea, G. [Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1999-07-01

    Air and steam gasification of biomass has been studied at different temperatures. The experiments have been carried out in a bench scale plant. It consists of an atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed gasifier heated by an electric furnace. The gasification process have been carried out at high heating rates and low residence time of the gases. The biomass used has been Cuban sugar cane bagasse. Three operating parameters have been evaluated to improve the gas composition: Equivalence Ratio (E.R.) in the range of 0.15 to 0.55; the bed temperature from 780 to 920 deg C; and steam/biomass ratio (S/B) from 0.1 g/g to 0.5 g/g. The results obtained show the effect of these operating parameters in gas composition and the conditions to obtain higher yield to gas and else the maximum energy.

  1. Identification and dosage by HRGC of minor alcohol and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit

    Boscolo, Mauricio; Bezerra, Cicero W.B.; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Lima Neto, Benedito S.; Franco, Douglas W. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2000-02-01

    The presence of 51 volatile compounds, among alcohols and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit (cachaca), were investigated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The following alcohols and esters were identified and quantified: methanol, 1,4-butanodiol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, cynamic alcohol, n-decanol, geraniol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, menthol, n-butanol, n-dodecanol, n-propanol, n-tetradecanol, amyl propionate, ethyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, ethyl heptanoate, isoamyl valerate, methyl propionate, propyl butyrate. The average higher alcohols content (262 mg/100 mL in anhydrous alcohol a.a) and total esters content (24 mg/100 mL a.a) in cachacas, are smaller than in other spirits. The average methanol content in cachacas (6 mg/100 mL a.a) is the same as in rum, but smaller than in wine spirit. No qualitative differences of chemical profile among cachacas have been observed. (author)

  2. System expansion for handling co-products in LCA of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to establish a procedure for handling co-products in life cycle assessment (LCA) of a typical sugar cane system. The procedure is essential for environmental assessment of ethanol from molasses, a co-product of sugar which has long been used mainly for feed. We compare system...... expansion and two allocation procedures for estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of molasses ethanol. As seen from our results, system expansion yields the highest estimate among the three. However, no matter which procedure is used, a significant reduction of emissions from the fuel stage...... in the abatement scenario, which assumes implementation of substituting bioenergy for fossil-based energy to reduce GHG emissions, combined with a negligible level of emissions from the use stage, keeps the estimate of ethanol life cycle GHG emissions below that of gasoline. Pointing out that indirect land use...

  3. A spectrophotometric method for the determination of Hydrogen Sulphide sugar cane juice and water

    Mahadeviah, S.; Galil, Mansour S.; Kumar, M.S. Yogender; Suresha, M.S.; Nagendrappa, G.

    2006-01-01

    A sensitive spectrophotometric is developed for the determination of hydrogen sulphide in water and sugarcane juice. The method is based on the reaction of hydrogen sulphide with phospomolybdate (ammonium molybdate and phosphate) in sulphuric acid medium. The system obeys Lambert-Beer's law at 715 nm in the concentration range of 0.284-5.68 ug ml. Molar absorptivity, correlation coefficient and Sandell sensitivity values were found to be 5x10 l mol cm, 0.9995 and 0.0494 ug cm respectively. The method was employed for the determination of hydrogen sulphide in sugar cane juice and in water samples. The results obtained were reproducible with acceptable standard deviation 0.1140-0.1337 and relative standard deviation varies from 0.0797-0.6038%. For comparison, hydrogen sulphide present in sugarcane juice and water samples were also determined separately following the methylene blue official method. The results of the proposed method compare well with the official method. (author)

  4. Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spirits

    Fernandes, Andrea P.; Santos, Mirian C.; Lemos, Sherlan G.; Ferreira, Marcia M.C.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.; Nobrega, Joaquim A.

    2005-01-01

    Aluminium, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, and Zn were determined in coffee and sugar-cane spirit (cachaca) samples by axial viewing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Pattern recognition techniques such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied to data sets in order to characterize samples with relation to their geographical origin and production mode (industrial or homemade and organically or conventionally produced). Attempts to correlate metal ion content with the geographical origin of coffee and the production mode (organic or conventional) of cachaca were not successful. Some differentiation was suggested for the geographical origin of cachaca of three regions (Northeast, Central, and South), and for coffee samples, related to the production mode. Clear separations were only obtained for differentiation between industrial and homemade cachacas, and between instant soluble and roasted coffees

  5. Bioconversion of sugar cane molasses into glutamic acid by gamma irradiated corynebacterium glutamicum

    El-Batal, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum (ATCC 13058) was used for glutamic acid production from sugar cane molasses which contain sufficient. The addition of 5 units ml 4 of penicillin G was superior in glutamic acid production (11.5 g L 4 ). Tweens and their saturated fatty acids were effective on the accumulation of glutamic acid in the culture medium and the maximum yield (16.6 g L 4 ) was the addition of 5 mg ml 4 Tween 40. Gamma irradiation prior to Tween-40 treatment of bacterial cells resulted in an obvious increase in glutamic acid production and it was maximum (23.72 g L 4 ) at 0.1 k Gy exposure dose of inocula. 5 tabs

  6. Feasibility analysis of the use of sugar cane bagasse ash as mineral addition to cementitious mortars

    Fazzan, J.V.; Pereira, A.M.; Moraes, M.J.B. de; Akasaki, J.L.; Sanches, A.O.; Malmonge, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, Brazil is experiencing an expansion of sugarcane plantations, which makes the country the world's largest producer of sugarcane. With the bagasse generated during the process, is generated the bagasse ash cane sugar (CBC) which consists mainly of silicon dioxide (SiO_2) and presents as potential alternative raw material for the production of cement composites. In this context, the objective of this study is to evaluate the reactivity of the CBC through physical and chemical analysis, for the production of mortars. The study of the CBC was performed by means of XRF testing, XRD, SEM and ADL. Mortar specimens with different percentages of CBC in partial replacement of Portland cement, for analysis of compressive strength were also produced. Despite the mixtures with additions have lower resistance to conventional mortars, the results showed the potential of the CBC as reactive mineral addition. (author)

  7. Utilization of cane molasses as a source of energy in the diet of young pigs

    Garg, A.K.; Pathak, N.N.; Anjaneyulu, A.S.R.; Lakshmanan, V.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of addition of different levels of cane molasses in the diet of young pigs was studied. During early periods (0-7 weeks) growth rate was depressed by above 10% levels of molasses but in later periods (7-19 weeks) compensatory growth in the high molasses groups (20, 40% levels) resulted in no overall (0-19 weeks) difference in growth performance among different groups. While feed efficiency was reduced in high molasses groups, there was no effect on carcass quality. It was concluded that more than 10% molasses was not safe for young pigs, but adult, or near-adult, pigs could tolerate up to 47.5% of molasses in their diets. 6 references.

  8. Improvement on sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis using enzymatic mixture designed cocktail.

    Bussamra, Bianca Consorti; Freitas, Sindelia; Costa, Aline Carvalho da

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study cocktail supplementation for sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis, where the enzymes were provided from both commercial source and microorganism cultivation (Trichoderma reesei and genetically modified Escherichia coli), followed by purification. Experimental simplex lattice mixture design was performed to optimize the enzymatic proportion. The response was evaluated through hydrolysis microassays validated here. The optimized enzyme mixture, comprised of T. reesei fraction (80%), endoglucanase (10%) and β-glucosidase (10%), converted, theoretically, 72% of cellulose present in hydrothermally pretreated bagasse, whereas commercial Celluclast 1.5L converts 49.11%±0.49. Thus, a rational enzyme mixture designed by using synergism concept and statistical analysis was capable of improving biomass saccharification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrical, thermal and electrochemical properties of disordered carbon prepared from palygorskite and cane molasses

    Alvarez, Edelio Danguillecourt, E-mail: edelioalvarez42@gmail.com [Instituto Superior Minero Metalúrgico (ISMM), Moa 83300 (Cuba); Laffita, Yodalgis Mosqueda, E-mail: yodalgis@imre.uh.cu [Institute of Materials Science and Technology-Havana University, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Montoro, Luciano Andrey, E-mail: landrey.montoro@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 31270-901 (Brazil); Della Santina Mohallem, Nelcy, E-mail: nelcydsm@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 31270-901 (Brazil); Cabrera, Humberto, E-mail: hcabrera@ictp.it [SPIE-ICTP Anchor Research in Optics Program Laboratory, International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34151 (Italy); Centro Multidisciplinario de Ciencias, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), 5101 Mérida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Pérez, Guillermo Mesa, E-mail: guille@ceaden.edu.cu [National Center for Technological Research (CEADEN), La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Frutis, Miguel Aguilar, E-mail: mafrutis@yahoo.es [CICATA-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, Del., Miguel Hidalgo CP 11500 (Mexico); Cappe, Eduardo Pérez, E-mail: cappe@imre.uh.cu [Institute of Materials Science and Technology-Havana University, La Habana 10400 (Cuba)

    2017-02-15

    We have synthesized and electrochemically tested a carbon sample that was suitable as anode for lithium secondary battery. The synthesis was based on the use of the palygorskite clay as template and sugar cane molasses as carbon source. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) measurements and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) analysis showed that the nanometric carbon material has a highly disordered graphene-like wrinkled structure and large specific surface area (467 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}). The compositional characterization revealed a 14% of heteroatoms-containing groups (O, H, N, S) doping the as-prepared carbon. Thermophysical measurements revealed the good thermal stability and an acceptable thermal diffusivity (9·10{sup −7} m{sup 2} s{sup −1}) and conductivity (1.1 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1}) of this carbon. The electrical properties showed an electronic conductivity of hole-like carriers of approximately one S/cm in a 173–293 K range. The testing of this material as anodes in a secondary lithium battery displayed a high specific capacity and excellent performance in terms of number of cycles. A high reversible capacity of 356 mA h g{sup −1} was reached. - Graphical abstract: TEM image and electrochemistry behavior of a new graphene oxide-like carbon. - Highlights: • A high disordered graphene oxide-like conducting carbon is reported. • The synthesis was based on palygorskite and sugar cane molasses as precursors. • The disordered conducting carbon is composed of doped- graphene heterogeneous domains. • This material combines a large specific surface area and high electric conductivity. • The thermophysical and electrochemical properties of this material reveal adequate behavior.

  10. Dissolved organic carbon in rainwater from areas heavily impacted by sugar cane burning

    Coelho, C. H.; Francisco, J. G.; Nogueira, R. F. P.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    This work reports on rainwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from Ribeirão Preto (RP) and Araraquara over a period of 3 years. The economies of these two cities, located in São Paulo state (Brazil), are based on agriculture and related industries, and the region is strongly impacted by the burning of sugar cane foliage before harvesting. Highest DOC concentrations were obtained when air masses traversed sugar cane fields burned on the same day as the rain event. Significant increases in the DOC volume weighted means (VWM) during the harvest period, for both sites, and a good linear correlation ( r = 0.83) between DOC and K (a biomass burning marker) suggest that regional scale organic carbon emissions prevail over long-range transport. The DOC VWMs and standard deviations were 272 ± 22 μmol L -1 ( n = 193) and 338 ± 40 μmol L -1 ( n = 80) for RP and Araraquara, respectively, values which are at least two times higher than those reported for other regions influenced by biomass burning, such as the Amazon. These high DOC levels are discussed in terms of agricultural activities, particularly the large usage of biogenic fuels in Brazil, as well as the analytical method used in this work, which includes volatile organic carbon when reporting DOC values. Taking into account rainfall volume, estimated annual rainwater DOC fluxes for RP (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1) and Araraquara (5.4 g C m -2 yr -1) were close to that previously found for the Amazon region (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1). This work also discusses whether previous calculations of the global rainwater carbon flux may have been underestimated, since they did not consider large inputs from biomass combustion sources, and suffered from a possible analytical bias.

  11. Sugar cane/sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock in Louisiana and Piedmont

    Marsh, L.S.; Cundiff, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Cost to provide readily fermentable feedstock for a year round sweet sorghum-to-ethanol production facility, up to the point at which fermentation begins, was determined. It was assumed that sweet sorghum is produced on marginal crop lands in the Southeastern Piedmont, and is purchased, standing in the field by a central ethanol production facility. Feedstock cost varied from $1.96 to $2.98/gal of ethanol potential depending on harvest system and use of by-products. Major contributors to feedstock cost were field production, harvest/field processing, and cost to evaporate juice to a storable syrup. Cost to transport feedstock to a central production facility, and cost of storage were relatively minor components of total cost, contributing only $0.05 and $0.06/gal ethanol potential, respectively. For a point of comparison, cost of producing ethanol feedstock from sugar cane, based on current processing practices in Louisiana sugar mills, was determined to be $2.50/gal ethanol potential. This cost is higher than determined for most options in the Piedmont for two reasons: (1) sugar cane demands a higher price in Louisiana than was assumed for sweet sorghum in the Piedmont, and (2) little market exists in Louisiana for by-products of sugar milling, consequently, no by-product credit was assigned. Current market value of ethanol must approximately double before a sweet sorghum-to-ethanol industry in the Piedmont could be economically viable, as no opportunity was identified for a significant reduction in feedstock cost

  12. Effect of pH on the Removal of Chromium (Cr (VI by Sugar Cane Bagasse

    Nasim Ahmed Khan

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The industrial estates in India are dominated by small and medium scale industries, which are posing a serious threat to the environment by virtue of discharging effluents of a polluting nature. The problems become severe due to the presence of heavy metals in the effluents. Chromium is widely used in a number of industries such as electroplating, metal finishing, cooling towers, dyes, paints, anodising and leather tanning industries. The toxicity of chromium (VI is well known and is considered a hazard to the health of humans and animals. The presence of chromium (VI in aquatic environments at high concentrations is also lethal to marine species. The treatment of chromium bearing effluents have been reported through several methods, such as chemical reduction,  precipitation, ion exchange, electrochemical reduction, evaporation, reverse osmosis and adsorption. However among these, adsorption is found to be highly effective, inexpensive and an easy method to operate. India is an agricultural country and generates a considerable amount of agricultural wastes such as sugar cane bagassess, coconut jute, nut shell, rice straw, rice husk, waste tea leaves, ground nut husk, crop wastes, peanut hulls and fertilizer wastes. Successful studies on these materials could be beneficial to developing countries and could be easily applied as adsorbents for the removal of chromium from wastewater. Most of the previous work highlights the use of commercial activated carbon but these adsorbents are relatively expensive and less feasible to be used in developing countries. Keeping these in view batch experiments have been designed to study the feasibility of sugar cane bagasse to remove chromium (VI from the aqueous solutions. While evaluationg the impact of various parameters, such as adsorbent does, contact time, initial concentration and pH on chromium removal efficiency, the results indicate a prominent effect of pH on the chromium reduction by the adsorbent

  13. Electrical, thermal and electrochemical properties of disordered carbon prepared from palygorskite and cane molasses

    Alvarez, Edelio Danguillecourt; Laffita, Yodalgis Mosqueda; Montoro, Luciano Andrey; Della Santina Mohallem, Nelcy; Cabrera, Humberto; Pérez, Guillermo Mesa; Frutis, Miguel Aguilar; Cappe, Eduardo Pérez

    2017-01-01

    We have synthesized and electrochemically tested a carbon sample that was suitable as anode for lithium secondary battery. The synthesis was based on the use of the palygorskite clay as template and sugar cane molasses as carbon source. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) measurements and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) analysis showed that the nanometric carbon material has a highly disordered graphene-like wrinkled structure and large specific surface area (467 m 2 g −1 ). The compositional characterization revealed a 14% of heteroatoms-containing groups (O, H, N, S) doping the as-prepared carbon. Thermophysical measurements revealed the good thermal stability and an acceptable thermal diffusivity (9·10 −7 m 2 s −1 ) and conductivity (1.1 W m −1 K −1 ) of this carbon. The electrical properties showed an electronic conductivity of hole-like carriers of approximately one S/cm in a 173–293 K range. The testing of this material as anodes in a secondary lithium battery displayed a high specific capacity and excellent performance in terms of number of cycles. A high reversible capacity of 356 mA h g −1 was reached. - Graphical abstract: TEM image and electrochemistry behavior of a new graphene oxide-like carbon. - Highlights: • A high disordered graphene oxide-like conducting carbon is reported. • The synthesis was based on palygorskite and sugar cane molasses as precursors. • The disordered conducting carbon is composed of doped- graphene heterogeneous domains. • This material combines a large specific surface area and high electric conductivity. • The thermophysical and electrochemical properties of this material reveal adequate behavior.

  14. Los otros noruegos de Caneliñas: la campaña ballenera de 1929

    Valdés Hansen, Felipe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A previously unknown document from the Compañía Ballenera Española (Spanish Whaling Company, ceded to the author of this article, reveals new facts about the Norwegian whalers´ activity in Galicia in the 20th. century. Therefore an updating of what we know about their activity at the Caneliñas factory becomes unavoidable. This activity was interrupted in the year 1927 due to the decreasing number of captures, especially in the Straits of Gibraltar, with a decrease in the Company´s benefits and an increase in production costs, and the interest shown by the Norwegian management to relocate their activity in the Antarctic area. The 1928 failure on the part of the International Whaling Company to keep the factory open sealed the short term destiny of the Caneliñas factory. However, in 1929 the factory was briefly reopened again for a short period, when the newly acquired fleet that same year by S. Foyn Bruun and A. von der Lippe anchored there before joining their new floating factory, the Pontos, in their course to the Antarctic Ocean. This new documental source –the salaries register of CBE for the year 1929– provides a most valuable and previously unavailable information such as the work organization, a list of the company´s payroll, specifying salaries and production and capture bonuses, and many other facts. These are «he other Norwegian whalers», of whom nothing was known up to this moment, as the present article is going to show.El préstamo al autor de un documento inédito de la Compañía Ballenera Española, el libro de salarios de 1929, ha revelado nuevos datos sobre la actividad de los balleneros noruegos en Galicia en el siglo XX. Ello exige actualizar lo que sabíamos sobre su presencia en la factoría de Caneliñas, donde interrumpieron la actividad en 1927 ante la disminución de capturas (sobre todo en el estrecho de Gibraltar, la consiguiente caída de los beneficios y el aumento de los costos de explotación; adem

  15. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of the use of molasses and efficient microorganisms, over the rate of decomposition of the sugar cane leaf (Saccharum officinarum

    Óscar Eduardo Sanclemente Reyes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The rate of decomposition of sugar cane leaves mixed with an organic fertilizer compost type was evaluated, using a finite accelerator (molasses and an infinity accelerator (effective microorganisms. The trial was conducted in the greenhouse facilities of the National University of Colombia in Palmira. The results showed that molasses is a decomposition accelerator of the wastes of sugar cane leaf, since it shows a marked influence on the initial decomposition rate of the waste, but once the carbohydrates that constitute it are consumed, the rate of decomposition decreases significantly. Then the potential is evident on the waste of sugar cane leaf elements for the maintenance and/or biophysical capital improvement in the productive system of the sugar cane, as the result of their high photosynthetic efficiency.

  17. The potential of sugar cane juice as the liquid supplement and phytase enzyme carrier for poultry by in vitro

    Ermin Widjaja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the components of poultry feed (80% of grains and meal that contains phytic acid which has anti-nutritional factor because it can bind minerals and reduce its availability. Phytic acid can be hydrolyzed by the enzyme phytase. Phytase enzyme naturally found in sugar cane juice, but its use as poultry feed supplements have not been done. The study was conducted using sugar cane juice PS 851 from Jatiroto PTPN XI, Lumajang, East Java in order to get the information potential of sugar cane juice as a liquid supplement and phytase enzyme carrier for poultry viewed from the aspect of nutrient content of sugarcane juice and phytase activity in the release rate of phosphorus. Research conducted at the Faculty of Animal IPB for 10 months. The rate of hydrolysis of phytase on P was tested using rice bran as a substrate. Sugar cane juice is added to the 2.5% level, using 4-level incubation (1, 2, 3 and 4 hours, each level consisting of 37°C and 42°C; pH 2; pH 4.5 and pH 5 with three replications. Study using a Two Factors Experiments in Completely Randomized Design and it was continued by DMRT test. P release rate was measured by spectrophotometry. The results showed that the sugar cane juice has a phytase activity of 0.0766 U / ml, brix level of 22.15%, containing water 73.03%, protein 0.47%, crude fiber 6.43%, minerals Ca 0.03%, P 0,02%, Co 0.14 mg / l, Fe 1.8 mg/l, Mn 1.55 mg/l, Zn 1.37 mg/ l, Cu 0.19 mg/ l, Se 12.63 mcg/100 g, vitamins B3 5.26 mg/100 g, C 0.72 mg/100 g, E 0.08 mg/100 g, sucrose 32.42%, fructose 2.41%, galactose 2% and glucose 1.58%. Supplementation of 2.5% sugar cane juice can increase the P release rate of 112-235% at optimum conditions of pH 5, at 37°C with a long incubation period of 1-4 hours.

  18. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse ash as raw material for the production of ceramics; Caracterizacao de cinzas de bagaco de cana como materia prima para producao de ceramica

    Fredericci, C.; Indelicato, R.L.; Ferreira Neto, J.B.; Ribeiro, T.R.; Landgraf, F.J.G., E-mail: catiaf@ipt.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Metalurgia e Materiais Ceramicos; Silva, G.F.B. Lenz e [Universidade de Sao Paulo (Poli/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the sugar cane bagasse ash from three Sugar and Alcohol Plant of the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. We intend to show the discrepancies between them, so that this raw material could be used with greater quality control in ceramic industries. The bagasse were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and scanning electron microscopy. The ashes were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and granulometric separation. The results indicated that the content of SiO{sub 2} ranging from 50-80% by weight depends on the granulometry of the bagasse and on the region where it was collected. The analyses of X-ray diffraction indicate SiO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Mg{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} as crystalline phases. (author)

  19. Approximated empirical correlations to the characterization of physical and geometrical properties of solid particulate biomass: case studies of the elephant grass and sugar cane trash

    Olivares Gomez, Edgardo; Cortez, Luis A. Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Lab. de Termodinamica e Energia; Alarcon, Guillermo A. Rocca; Perez, Luis E. Brossard [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    Two types of biomass solid particles, elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. variety) and sugar cane trash, were studied in laboratory in order to obtain information about several physical and geometrical properties. In the both case, the length, breadth, and thickness of fifty particles selected randomly from each fraction of the size class, obtained by mechanical fractionation through sieves, were measured manually given their size. A geometric model of type rectangular base prism was adopted because based on observations it was demonstrated that the most of particles that were measured exhibited length which was significantly greater that width ( l >> a ). From these measurements average values for other properties were estimated, for example, characteristic dimension of particle, projected area of the rectangular prism, area of the prism rectangular section, volume of the rectangular prism, shape factors, sphericity, particles specific superficial area and equivalent diameter. A statistical analysis was done and proposed empirical and semi-empirical mathematical correlation models obtained by lineal regression, which show a goodness of fit of these equations to the reported experimental data. (author)

  20. A suspected parasite spill-back of two novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea causing disease in Australian endemic frogs found in the invasive Cane toad.

    Ashlie Hartigan

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa, in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis. We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo marinus, syn. Rhinella marina and demonstrated their association with disease. Our study tested the identity of Myxidium spp. within native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (brought to Australia in 1935, via Hawaii to resolve the question whether the Cane toad introduced them to Australia. We showed that the Australian brain and liver Myxidium spp. differed 9%, 7%, 34% and 37% at the small subunit rDNA, large subunit rDNA, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, but were distinct from Myxidium cf. immersum from Cane toads in Brazil. Plotting minimum within-group distance against maximum intra-group distance confirmed their independent evolutionary trajectory. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the brain stages localize inside axons. Myxospores were morphologically indistinguishable, therefore genetic characterisation was necessary to recognise these cryptic species. It is unlikely that the Cane toad brought the myxosporean parasites to Australia, because the parasites were not found in 261 Hawaiian Cane toads. Instead, these data support the enemy-release hypothesis predicting that not all parasites are translocated with their hosts and suggest that the Cane toad may have played an important spill-back role in their emergence and facilitated their dissemination. This work emphasizes the importance of accurate species identification of pathogens relevant to wildlife management and disease control. In our case it is paving the road for the spill-back role of the Cane toad and the parasite emergence.

  1. Distribution of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soils and sugar cane crops at Corumbatai river basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Tomazini da Conceicao, Fabiano; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Jimenez-Rueda, Jairo Roberto; Frutuoso Roveda, Jose Arnaldo

    2009-01-01

    The common use of phosphate fertilizers NPK and amendments in sugar cane crops in Brazilian agriculture may increase the 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K activity concentrations in soils and their availability for plants and human food chain. Thus, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in soils and sugar cane crops in the Corumbatai river basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The gamma spectrometry was utilized to measure the 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K activity concentration in all samples. The soil-to-sugar cane transfer factors (TF) were quantified using the ratio between the radionuclide activity concentration in sugar cane and its activity concentration in soil. The results show that, although radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added in the sugar cane crops, if utilized in accordance with the recommended rates, their use does not lead to hazards levels in soils. The soil-to-sugar cane transfer of radionuclides occurred in the following order 40 K> 226 Ra> 232 Th. Therefore, under these conditions, radionuclides intake through consumption of sugar is not hazardous to human health.

  2. Comparative evaluation of hybrid systems of natural gas cogeneration and sugar cane bagasse; Avaliacao comparativa de sistemas hibridos de cogeracao a gas natutral e bagaco de cana

    Zamboni, Leonardo Moneci; Tribess, Arlindo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: leonardo.zamboni@poli.usp.br; atribess@usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The consumption of electricity in Brazil and mainly in the State of Sao Paulo is increasing gradually. On the other hand, the hydraulic potential is practically exhausted and the government has no resources for such new investments. One solution is the construction of thermo electrical plants with the use of the natural gas and sugar cane bagasse. The natural gas has the advantage of being available in great amount and less pollutant. And the sugar cane bagasse, besides being a by-product of low value, does not cause a global pollution. The work consists of the determination of the best option considering criterion of minimum cost for kWh of energy produced. For such, thermo economic analysis with electricity and steam production costs evaluation in exergetic basis, was accomplished. In the evaluations the consumption of natural gas and the costs of the sugar cane bagasse were varied. The results show that the cogeneration plant with combined cycle using natural gas and burning sugar cane bagasse in the recovery boiler presents the smallest cost of electricity and steam generation (even not being the cycle with larger exergetic efficiency). On the other hand, for a natural gas cost of 140 US$/t and a cost of sugar cane bagasse superior to 10,50 US$/t the cogeneration plant with combined cycle using only natural gas (and, therefore not burning or gasifying sugar cane bagasse) presented the smallest cost of electricity and steam generation. (author)

  3. Patient expectations predict greater pain relief with joint arthroplasty.

    Gandhi, Rajiv; Davey, John Roderick; Mahomed, Nizar

    2009-08-01

    We examined the relationship between patient expectations of total joint arthroplasty and functional outcomes. We surveyed 1799 patients undergoing primary hip or knee arthroplasty for demographic data and Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index scores at baseline, 3 months, and 1 year of follow-up. Patient expectations were determined with 3 survey questions. The patients with the greatest expectations of surgery were younger, male, and had a lower body mass index. Linear regression modeling showed that a greater expectation of pain relief with surgery independently predicted greater reported pain relief at 1 year of follow-up, adjusted for all relevant covariates (P relief after joint arthroplasty is an important predictor of outcomes at 1 year.

  4. Determination of Fe, Cu and Zn in sugar-cane spirits commercialized in Southeastern Brazil by TXRF

    Cunha e Silva, R.M.; Almeida, E.; Valencia, E.P.E.; Nascimento Filho, V.F.

    2004-01-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to determine simultaneously the concentration of Cu, Fe and Zn in seven sugar-cane spirit samples ('aguardente'), a processed alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation and distillation of sugar-cane juice. The limits of detection ranged from 35 to 8 ng x ml -1 for V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Se. Excluding Fe, Cu and Zn, the concentrations were below their limits. Two samples showed Cu concentrations higher than the value allowed by Brazilian legislation (5 μg x ml -1 ), and concerning Fe and Zn, no sample were above the limits permitted by WHO for drinking water (2 and 3 μg x ml -1 , respectively). (author)

  5. The use of C-14 as tracer in the carbon flow assimilated by the plants (maize, sugar cane, bean)

    Paula Eduardo, B. de; Cerri, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    The flow of carbon in three different crops (maize, beans and sugar cane) was studied by use of C-14. The plants were exposed to an atmosphere with a constant concentration of the tracer for 12 hours in a biosynthesis chamber. The detection of the isotope permitted the distribution and concentration of the photosynthetates in the various organs of the plants to be followed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  6. IN VITRO FERMENTATION EFFICIENCY OF MIXTURES OF Cynodon nlemfuensis, Leucaena leucocephala AND TWO ENERGY SOURCES (MAIZE OR SUGAR CANE MOLASSES

    Juan Martin Estrada-Liévano

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro fermentation efficiency of Cynodon nlemfuensis forage (star grass and Leucaena leucocephala foliage (leucaena and two energy sources (i.e. maize and sugar cane molasses mixture was evaluated. Mixture samples (1 g DM were incubated for 24 h. All the mixtures were added with 500 mg of polyetilenglycol (PEG. Adding molasses to star grass increased dry matter true digestibility and carbohydrate fermentation (P

  7. RESEARCH OF KINETIC AND DIFFUSIVE MECHANISMS IN THE ADSORPTION OF Cu (II IN SUGAR CANE BAGASSE ASH

    Julio Omar Prieto García

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a kinetic and diffusive study regarding adsorption of ions Cu (II on a sample of sugar cane bagasse ash is made. The results show that the second-order kinetic model better adjusts the experimental data than the Elovich and first-order kinetic model. The diffusive mechanism study shows that the diffusion in the liquid pellicle and in the micro-pores of the adsorbent prevail in the adsorption phenomenon.

  8. Fiber degradability of sugar cane bagasse treated by alkaline solutions, through the “in situ” nylon bag technique

    Sérgio Carlo Franco Morgulis

    1996-09-01

    treated bagasse (A was higher than in B or C treatments; degradability of B was higher than in C at 72h and 96h of incubation time. NDF degradability at 48 hour incubation time showed the following results: A = 74.0%; B = 41.6% and C = 35.7%. In conclusion, alkaline (NaOH and wood ash treated sugar cane bagasse improves ruminal degradability, and NaOH is better than wood ash.

  9. Commercial electric energy generation in sugar cane industry; Geracao comercial de energia eletrica no setor sucro-alcooleiro

    Koblitz, Luiz Otavio Gomes [Koblitz Ltda., Recife, PE (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    The sugar cane has been cultivated in Brazil since 400 years ago. It is a crop that can be used in extensive way and features the most efficient solar energy conversion process in the world: the photosynthesis. Unfortunately, despite of the elapsed time, only 50% of this solar energy has been effectively used. Now, because the crisis in the electric power production in Brazil today we have possibility to exploit this wasted energy, converting it into electric energy. (author) 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. Corrosion inhibitors for neutral aqueous media based on the products on sugar cane processing. 1.Furfural derivatives as inhibitors

    Ledovskikh, V.M.; Kamekho Khinnebra, Kh.Kh.

    1993-01-01

    A series of carboxy-, nitrogen- and nitroderivaties of furfural - the main product of sugar cane processing (furancasboxylic acid, 5-nitrofurancarboxylic acid and its salts, furfurine, furfurylamine) was studied as inhibitors of iron and copper, corrosion in aqueous-salt media. Nitrofuroates of sodium and ammonium, which decelerate anode process, intensity cathode one and provide the stable passive state, are considered to be the most effective

  11. 77 FR 55451 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    2012-09-10

    ... amended, the sugar beet sector was allotted 5,278,064 STRV (54.35 percent of the OAQ), and the cane sugar sector was allotted 4,433,186 STRV (45.65 percent of the OAQ). CCC will distribute the sector allotments... tranches will each be equal to 20,003 MTRV, with the third opening on January 11, 2013; the fourth, on...

  12. Preliminary evaluation of organosolv pre-treatment of sugar cane bagasse for glucose production: Application of 23 experimental design

    Mesa, Leyanis; Gonzalez, Erenio; Ruiz, Encarnacion; Romero, Inmaculada; Cara, Cristobal; Felissia, Fernando; Castro, Eulogio

    2010-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse was submitted to ethanol organosolv pre-treatment using a 50 L pilot scale reactor. The influence of catalyst type (H 2 SO 4 or NaOH), catalyst concentration (1.25-1.50% w/w on dry fiber) and process time (60-90 min) on total solid recovery and solid composition (glucan, xylan and lignin contents) was evaluated by performing a 2 3 full factorial experimental design. Pretreated sugar cane bagasse was further submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis using a commercial enzyme complex formed by cellulases and β-glucosidases. Glucose concentration in the hydrolysates and glucose yield referred to initial raw material (g glucose/100 g sugar cane bagasse) were used to select the best operational conditions. Concerning the enzymatic hydrolysis, the resulting glucose concentration was found to be dependent on xylan contents of the pretreated material. The modelling equations for glucose concentration and glucose yield as a function of the pre-treatment variables and the statistical analysis are also discussed in this work.

  13. Use of Slag/Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) Blends in the Production of Alkali-Activated Materials.

    Castaldelli, Vinícius N; Akasaki, Jorge L; Melges, José L P; Tashima, Mauro M; Soriano, Lourdes; Borrachero, María V; Monzó, José; Payá, Jordi

    2013-07-25

    Blast furnace slag (BFS)/sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) blends were assessed for the production of alkali-activated pastes and mortars. SCBA was collected from a lagoon in which wastes from a sugar cane industry were poured. After previous dry and grinding processes, SCBA was chemically characterized: it had a large percentage of organic matter ( ca. 25%). Solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as activating reagents. Different BFS/SCBA mixtures were studied, replacing part of the BFS by SCBA from 0 to 40% by weight. The mechanical strength of mortar was measured, obtaining values about 60 MPa of compressive strength for BFS/SCBA systems after 270 days of curing at 20 °C. Also, microstructural properties were assessed by means of SEM, TGA, XRD, pH, electrical conductivity, FTIR spectroscopy and MIP. Results showed a good stability of matrices developed by means of alkali-activation. It was demonstrated that sugar cane bagasse ash is an interesting source for preparing alkali-activated binders.

  14. Engineering and economic analysis for the utilization of geothermal fluids in a cane sugar processing plant. Final report

    Humme, J.T.; Tanaka, M.T.; Yokota, M.H.; Furumoto, A.S.

    1979-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of geothermal resource utilization at the Puna Sugar Company cane sugar processing plant, located in Keaau, Hawaii. A proposed well site area was selected based on data from surface exploratory surveys. The liquid dominated well flow enters a binary thermal arrangement, which results in an acceptable quality steam for process use. Hydrogen sulfide in the well gases is incinerated, leaving sulfur dioxide in the waste gases. The sulfur dioxide in turn is recovered and used in the cane juice processing at the sugar factory. The clean geothermal steam from the binary system can be used directly for process requirements. It replaces steam generated by the firing of the waste fibrous product from cane sugar processing. The waste product, called bagasse, has a number of alternative uses, but an evaluation clearly indicated it should continue to be employed for steam generation. This steam, no longer required for process demands, can be directed to increased electric power generation. Revenues gained by the sale of this power to the utility, in addition to other savings developed through the utilization of geothermal energy, can offset the costs associated with hydrothermal utilization.

  15. Reduction in plasma leucine after sprint exercise is greater in males than in females

    Esbjörnsson, M; Rooyackers, O; Norman, B

    2012-01-01

    There is a pronounced gender difference in the accumulation of plasma ammonia after sprint exercise. Ammonia is a key intermediate in amino acid metabolism, which implies that gender-related differences in plasma and muscle amino acid concentrations after sprint exercise exist. To study this, three...

  16. IGF1 stimulates greater muscle hypertrophy in the absence of myostatin in male mice

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and myostatin have opposing roles in regulating the growth and size of skeletal muscle, with IGF1 stimulating, and myostatin inhibiting, growth. However, it remains unclear whether these proteins have mutually dependent, or independent, roles. To clarify this issue...

  17. Simultaneous bilateral isolated greater trochanter fracture

    Maruti Kambali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old woman sustained simultaneous isolated bilateral greater trochanteric fracture, following a road traffic accident. The patient presented to us 1 month after the injury. She presented with complaints of pain in the left hip and inability to walk. Roentgenograms revealed displaced comminuted bilateral greater trochanter fractures. The fracture of the left greater trochanter was reduced and fixed internally using the tension band wiring technique. The greater trochanter fracture on the right side was asymptomatic and was managed conservatively. The patient regained full range of motion and use of her hips after a postoperative follow-up of 6 months. Isolated fractures of the greater trochanter are unusual injuries. Because of their relative rarity and the unsettled controversy regarding their etiology and pathogenesis, several methods of treatment have been advocated. Furthermore, the reports of this particular type of injury are not plentiful and the average textbook coverage afforded to this entity is limited. In our study we discuss the mechanism of injury and the various treatment options available.

  18. Book review, Principi di video-otoendoscopia nel cane e nel gatto, Giovanni Ghibaudo

    Manuel Graziani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Per il veterinario libero professionista le malattie auricolari dei cani e dei gatti sono il pane quotidiano, ciò nonostante il loro studio è progredito lentamente anche perché molti veterinari trovavano difficoltà nell’effettuare l’otoscopia e nel riconoscere la patologia otologica. L’avvento del video-otoscopio ha permesso di rilevare le malattie e i cambiamenti dell’orecchio. L'autore ha pertanto sentito la necessità di sviluppare i principi di video-otoendoscopia nel cane e nel gatto e inserirli in un’opera, unica in Italia nel suo genere, basandosi sulla propria esperienza clinica e sul materiale iconografico presente in letteratura. Nell’agile libro ci sono 94 figure video-otoscopiche che fanno comprendere visivamente la normale anatomia e le malattie dell’orecchio. Sono presentati 68 casi in cui è visibile l’immagine dell’orecchio esterno, sempre accompagnata da visioni video-otoscopiche di ciò che sta succedendo nel canale uditivo più in profondità. Nella prima parte del volume viene descritta l’anatomia dell’orecchio esterno e medio, sono fornite le informazioni essenziali per un corretto approccio e per la gestione delle otiti, per la preparazione del paziente e, infine, vengono indicati strumenti e metodiche di video-otoendoscopia. La seconda parte, attraverso immagini endoscopiche, illustra l’aspetto dell’orecchio normale del cane e del gatto. Successivamente, immagini endoscopiche chiare ed esemplificative accompagnano la descrizione delle lesioni presenti in corso di otiti acute, croniche e neoplastiche. Lo stesso schema è stato seguito nell’illustrare l’aspetto normale e alterato della membrana timpanica e dell’orecchio medio. Per ogni causa di otite sono state affiancate, a un testo essenziale d’immediata comprensione, immagini endoscopiche per una collezione iconografica il più possibile completa. Inoltre, Giovanni Ghibaudo fornisce utili consigli per esempio sull’utilizzo di spugne

  19. Parameters-related uncertainty in modeling sugar cane yield with an agro-Land Surface Model

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Ruget, F.; Gabrielle, B.

    2012-12-01

    Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the coupling of specific crop models and large-scale generic vegetation models. They aim at accounting for the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum with a particular emphasis on how crop phenology and agricultural management practice influence the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty in these models is related to the many parameters included in the models' equations. In this study, we quantify the parameter-based uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS on a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Reunion and Brazil. First, the main source of uncertainty for the output variables NPP, GPP, and sensible heat flux (SH) is determined through a screening of the main parameters of the model on a multi-site basis leading to the selection of a subset of most sensitive parameters causing most of the uncertainty. In a second step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out on the parameters selected from the screening analysis at a regional scale. For this, a Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used. First, we quantify the sensitivity of the output variables to individual input parameters on a regional scale for two regions of intensive sugar cane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. Then, we quantify the overall uncertainty in the simulation's outputs propagated from the uncertainty in the input parameters. Seven parameters are identified by the screening procedure as driving most of the uncertainty in the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS model output at all sites. These parameters control photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate), radiation interception (extinction coefficient), root

  20. Effects of emissions from sugar cane burning on the trachea and lungs of Wistar rats.

    Matos, Verena Sampaio Barbosa; Gomes, Felipe da Silva; Oliveira, Tarcio Macena; Schulz, Renata da Silva; Ribeiro, Lídia Cristina Villela; Gonzales, Astria Dias Ferrão; Lima, Januário Mourão; Guerreiro, Marcos Lázaro da Silva

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of exposure to emissions from sugar cane burning on inflammatory mechanisms in tissues of the trachea and lung parenchyma in Wistar rats after different periods of exposure. This was an experimental open randomized study. The animals were divided into four groups: a control group (CG) underwent standard laboratory conditions, and three experimental groups were exposed to emissions from sugar cane burning over different periods of time, in days-1 (EG1), 7 (EG7), and 21 (EG21). After euthanasia with 200 mg/kg of ketamine/xylazine, fragments of trachea and lung were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. Histological analyses were performed with H&E and picrosirius red staining. No inflammatory infiltrates were found in the tissues of CG rats. The histological examination of tissues of the trachea and lung parenchyma revealed that the inflammatory process was significantly more intense in EG7 than in the CG (p edema, together with polymorphonuclear cell infiltrates. Avaliar os efeitos da exposição à fumaça da queima da cana-de-açúcar sobre mecanismos inflamatórios em tecidos de traqueia e de parênquima pulmonar de ratos Wistar após diferentes períodos de exposição. Estudo experimental, randomizado, não cego. Os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos: controle (GC), sob condições padrão de laboratório e os demais expostos à fumaça da queima da cana-de-açúcar por diferentes períodos: em 1 (GE1), 7 (GE7) e 21 (GE21) dias. Após a eutanásia com 200 mg/kg de ketamina/xilazina, foram coletados fragmentos de traqueia e pulmão e fixadas em formol 10%. Análises histológicas foram realizadas com coloração com H&E e picrosírius. Não houve infiltrado inflamatório nos tecidos no GC. O processo inflamatório na análise histológica de tecidos de traqueia e de parênquima pulmonar foi significativamente mais intenso no GE7 quando comparado ao GC (p pulmonar e aumento significativo de depósitos de colágeno em tecido de

  1. Assessing met and unmet needs in the oldest-old and psychometric properties of the German version of the Camberwell assessment of need for the elderly (CANE)--a pilot study.

    Stein, Janine; Luppa, Melanie; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2014-02-01

    The current demographic and social developments in our society will lead to a significant increase in treatment and healthcare needs in the future, particularly in the elderly population. The Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE) was developed in the United Kingdom to measure physical-, psychological-, and environment-related treatment as well as healthcare needs of older people in order to identify their unmet needs. So far, the German version of the CANE has not been established in health services research. Major reasons for this are a lack of publications of CANE's German version and the missing validation of the instrument. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the currently available German version of the CANE in a sample of older primary care patients. Descriptive statistics and inference-statistical analyses were calculated. Patients reported unmet needs mostly in CANE's following sections: mobility/falls, physical health, continence, company, and intimate relationships. Agreement level between patients' and relatives' ratings in CANE was moderate to low. Evidence for the construct validity of CANE was found in terms of significant associations between CANE and other instruments or scores. The study results provide an important basis for studies aiming at the assessment of met and unmet needs in the elderly population. Using the German version of the CANE may substantially contribute to an effective and good-quality health and social care as well as an appropriate allocation of healthcare resources in the elderly population.

  2. Greater trochanteric fracture with occult intertrochanteric extension.

    Reiter, Michael; O'Brien, Seth D; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Alderete, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Proximal femoral fractures are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Prompt diagnosis is paramount as delay will exacerbate the already poor outcomes associated with these injuries. In cases where radiography is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice as it has the capability to depict fractures which are occult on other imaging modalities. Awareness of a particular subset of proximal femoral fractures, namely greater trochanteric fractures, is vital for both radiologists and clinicians since it has been well documented that they invariably have an intertrochanteric component which may require surgical management. The detection of intertrochanteric or cervical extension of greater trochanteric fractures has been described utilizing MRI but is underestimated with both computed tomography (CT) and bone scan. Therefore, if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated, the diagnosis of an isolated greater trochanteric fracture should be met with caution. The importance of avoiding this potential pitfall is demonstrated in the following case of an elderly woman with hip pain and CT demonstrating an isolated greater trochanteric fracture who subsequently returned to the ED with a displaced intertrochanteric fracture.

  3. Butterfly valves: greater use in power plants

    McCoy, M.

    1975-01-01

    Improvements in butterfly valves, particularly in the areas of automatic control and leak tightness are described. The use of butterfly valves in nuclear power plants is discussed. These uses include service in component cooling, containment cooling, and containment isolation. The outlook for further improvements and greater uses is examined. (U.S.)

  4. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    Zoppi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost...

  5. Dispersion index of aggregates in a Rhodic Ferrasol cultivated with cane under stillage application

    Eber Augusto Ferreira do Prado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The sugar and alcohol plants generate waste stillage one that needs proper destination. One alternative is the application of this residue to improve soil properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of stillage in the aggregation and productivity of sugar cane grown in three seasons of the soil sampling. The study was conducted in an Red dystrophic Latosol, sandy clay frank, at the BUNGE Monte Verde plant in the municipality of Ponta Porã, MS, Brasil. Cultivated with sugarcane third year. We used the (4x4 factorial design, evaluated 4 applications of stillage (0, 450, 600 and 750 m3 ha-1 and their soil characteristics measured at four depths (0,0-0,5; 0,5-0,10; 0,10-0,20; 0,20-0,40 m with five repetitions. To determine the rate of dispersion of aggregates (ID sample were obtained undisturbed soil at 38, 75 and 111 days after application of stillage. With increasing doses of stillage were increased concentrations of potassium and organic matter and reduce the rate of dispersion and increased stability of soil aggregates.

  6. The growth of Micrococcus varians by utilizing sugar cane blackstrap molasses as substrate

    Miranda Luís A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on the growth of Micrococcus varians were carried out in BHI culture medium (control as well as in a culture medium with 2% diluted sugar cane blackstrap molasses, enriched with 0.1% yeast extract. The experiment was conducted with three samples of the experimental and control media in a 5 liter fermentor with working volume of 3.5 liters, continuous agitation (150 rpm, 35 ± 0.1°C temperature, 0.7 L air. l-1 medium. min -1, initial pH 7.0 ± 0.2, 24 hour fermentation period, and approximate inoculum of 6.0 log10 CFU/ml. Samples were collected at 2-hour intervals. Micrococcus varians grew in the two culture media studied, which confirms the experimental medium viability for the growth of this species. The final average concentration of biomass was higher in the control medium than in the experimental medium: 0.99 g.l-1 and 0.78 g.l-1, respectively. The final number of viable cells at the end of fermentation was 20.65 log10 CFU/ml for the control medium (BHI, while in the experimental medium the number of viable cells was 19.43 log10 CFU/ml. The consumption of total sugars was higher for the biomass in the control medium (79.78%, while only 50.53% was consumed for the experimental medium.

  7. Techno-economic comparison of biojet fuel production from lignocellulose, vegetable oil and sugar cane juice.

    Diederichs, Gabriel Wilhelm; Ali Mandegari, Mohsen; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a techno-economic comparison was performed considering three processes (thermochemical, biochemical and hybrid) for production of jet fuel from lignocellulosic biomass (2G) versus two processes from first generation (1G) feedstocks, including vegetable oil and sugar cane juice. Mass and energy balances were constructed for energy self-sufficient versions of these processes, not utilising any fossil energy sources, using ASPEN Plus® simulations. All of the investigated processes obtained base minimum jet selling prices (MJSP) that is substantially higher than the market jet fuel price (2-4 fold). The 1G process which converts vegetable oil, obtained the lowest MJSPs of $2.22/kg jet fuel while the two most promising 2G processes- the thermochemical (gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) and hybrid (gasification and biochemical upgrading) processes- reached MJSPs of $2.44/kg and $2.50/kg jet fuel, respectively. According to the economic sensitivity analysis, the feedstock cost and fixed capital investment have the most influence on the MJSP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Agronomic performance of green cane fertilized with ammonium sulfate in a coastal tableland soil

    Ana Paula Pessim Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The recent approach of eliminating the usage of fire for sugarcane harvesting resulted in managing the crop on a trashblanketed soil, to which a proper recommendation of N fertilization is lacking, a problem that remains in the coastal tablelands of the Espírito Santo State, Brazil. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of increasing N rates on stalk and sugar yields and the N use efficiency by the crop. The experimental area planted with sugarcane, at the first ratoon, is located in Linhares, Espírito Santo State. The treatments consisted of N rates varying from 80 to 160 kg N∙ha−1 as ammonium sulphate, and a control without N, in a completely randomized blocks experimental design. Stalk yield increased with the N rate, and fitting the results to a quadratic function suggests no response to fertilizer rates above 130 kg N∙ha−1. The highest margin of agricultural contribution was obtained at the rate of 100 kg N∙ha−1. The N use efficiency decreased from almost 49 to 38%, when the N rate increased from 100 to 160 kg N∙ha−1. There was no effect of increasing N rates on the sugar concentration, although the sugar yield response was positive and strongly influenced by the stalk production. Results showed the importance of reassessing the adequate N rate for maximizing yield in green cane production systems.

  9. Sugar cane leaf: a potential raw material for cheap grades of paper and board

    Tiwary, K. N.; Kulkarni, A. Y.

    1980-03-15

    About 6 to 7 million tons of sugar cane leaves are available per year as agricultural residue and can be utilized for manufacture of cheap grades of paper and board. An unbleached yield of 56% could be obtained using 10% NaOH at a temperature of 170/sup 0/C with a bath ratio of 1 to 4 and cooking time of 10 min. Sulfate pulping with equivalent conditions gave a bleached pulp with comparatively higher brightness values, other properties remaining almost same. Bleaching of 10% soda pulp with 10 and 12% chlorine have given 42 and 40% yields at 71 to 72 and 77 to 78% Elrepho brightness, respectively. In case of 9% sulfate pulp the yields are 36 to 37% at 77 to 79% brightness when bleached with the same sequence as above with 10 to 10.5% chlorine. The pulps are strong for preparation of cheap grades of bleached as well as unbleached varieties of paper. Double fold and tear are however medium to low and hence need long fibered pulp blending to improve these characteristics.

  10. Book review. Anestesia e analgesia locoregionale del cane e del gatto. Francesco Staffieri

    Manuel Graziani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Il volume di anestesia e analgesia locoregionale del cane e del gatto è pensato per essere un testo "da sala operatoria" – come afferma l'autore – perché consente un rapido, ma allo stesso tempo dettagliato, consulto per il libero professionista che si trova a gestire un'anestesia. Si tratta di un piccolo libro, tascabile, che può essere considerato un punto di partenza per gli studenti e per tutti quei medici veterinari che intendono avvicinarsi in maniera specialistica all'arte dell'anestesiologia veterinaria. L'anestesia locoregionale costituisce, infatti, uno strumento insostituibile per la gestione del dolore perioperatorio in medicina veterinaria. Nel volume si forniscono le nozioni di base per praticare i principali blocchi nervosi centrali e periferici. Per ogni blocco sono riportate le tecniche alla cieca (mediante l'ausilio dei punti di repere anatomici e quelle con l'impiego dello stimolatore nervoso periferico. Il volume, corredato da immagini foto e grafici, per un totale di 65 figure, si apre con i capitoli relativi ai farmaci, agli strumenti e alle complicanze dell'anestesia locoregionale. Prosegue con i blocchi nervosi centrali (anestesia epidurale e spinale e si conclude con i blocchi periferici (testa, arto anteriore, torace, arto posteriore. L'autore, Francesco Staffieri, è un medico veterinario che svolge il dottorato di ricerca nel Dipartimento delle Emergenze e dei Trapianti di Organi, Sezioni di Cliniche Veterinarie e Produzioni Animali dell'Università degli Studi Aldo Moro di Bari.

  11. Stereo camera based virtual cane system with identifiable distance tactile feedback for the blind.

    Kim, Donghun; Kim, Kwangtaek; Lee, Sangyoun

    2014-06-13

    In this paper, we propose a new haptic-assisted virtual cane system operated by a simple finger pointing gesture. The system is developed by two stages: development of visual information delivery assistant (VIDA) with a stereo camera and adding a tactile feedback interface with dual actuators for guidance and distance feedbacks. In the first stage, user's pointing finger is automatically detected using color and disparity data from stereo images and then a 3D pointing direction of the finger is estimated with its geometric and textural features. Finally, any object within the estimated pointing trajectory in 3D space is detected and the distance is then estimated in real time. For the second stage, identifiable tactile signals are designed through a series of identification experiments, and an identifiable tactile feedback interface is developed and integrated into the VIDA system. Our approach differs in that navigation guidance is provided by a simple finger pointing gesture and tactile distance feedbacks are perfectly identifiable to the blind.

  12. Stereo Camera Based Virtual Cane System with Identifiable Distance Tactile Feedback for the Blind

    Donghun Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new haptic-assisted virtual cane system operated by a simple finger pointing gesture. The system is developed by two stages: development of visual information delivery assistant (VIDA with a stereo camera and adding a tactile feedback interface with dual actuators for guidance and distance feedbacks. In the first stage, user’s pointing finger is automatically detected using color and disparity data from stereo images and then a 3D pointing direction of the finger is estimated with its geometric and textural features. Finally, any object within the estimated pointing trajectory in 3D space is detected and the distance is then estimated in real time. For the second stage, identifiable tactile signals are designed through a series of identification experiments, and an identifiable tactile feedback interface is developed and integrated into the VIDA system. Our approach differs in that navigation guidance is provided by a simple finger pointing gesture and tactile distance feedbacks are perfectly identifiable to the blind.

  13. Estudio preliminar de leptospirosis en roedores y canes en salitral, Piura-1999

    Rosa Sacsaquispe C

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar serológica y bacteriológicamente la presencia de Leptospira en muestras de suero y riñón de carnes y roedores, del distrito de Salitral, departamento de Piura (norte del Perú.Materiales y métodos: Estudio realizado en octubre de 1999. Se capturaron roedoresutilizando trampas tomahawk en las localidades de Salitral y Malacasi. Se utilizó la prueba de aglutinación microscópica (MAT para la detección de anticuerpos y el cultivo de tejido de riñón para el estudio bacteriológico. Asimismo, se evaluaron muestras de suero de canes de la localidad del Salitral.Resultados: 2 de 12 roedores identificados como Rattus rattus (16,6% reaccionaron con Leptospira serovar grypotyphosa a un título de 1/200 y 1/400, en tanto que una de las 3 muestras de suero de can colectadas reaccionó con Leptospira serovar canicola. De los 12 cultivos de las muestras de riñón de roedores ninguno fue positivo a Leptospira. Conclusiones: La detección de anticuerpos contra Leptospira en el distrito de Salitral sugiere ampliar los estudios de Leptospira en la zona.

  14. Optimization of ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis in sugar cane molasses fermentation

    Marcos Roberto Oliveira

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at the optimization of the ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis CP4, during the fermentation of sugar cane molasses. As for the optimization process, the response surface methodology was applied, using a 33 incomplete factorial design, being the independent variables: total reducing sugar (TRS concentration in the molasses from 10, 55 and 100 g/L (x1; yeast extract concentration from 2, 11 and 20 g/L (x2, and fermentation time from 6, 15 and 24 hours (x3. The dependant variables or answers were the production and productivity of ethanol. By the analysis of the results, a good adjustment of the model to the experimental data was obtained. In the levels studied, the best condition for the production of ethanol was with 100 g/L TRS in the syrup, 2.0 g/L of yeast extract and the fermentation time between 20 and 24 hours, producing 30 g/L of ethanol.

  15. [Preliminary results of an herpetology investigation in sugar cane plantation in Democratic Republic of Congo].

    Malukisa, J; Collet, M; Bokata, S; Odio, W

    2005-11-01

    Out of the 3,000 species of snakes described in the world, 163 are currently known from D.R. of Congo. We performed a systematic survey in sugar-cane plantations of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo (Bas-Congo), located at 160 km South-West from Kinshasa and exploiting nearly 10,000 ha. The plantation is divided into 3 sectors in the middle of which we deposited barrels filled of formaldehyde. All the employees of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo were requested to collect encountered snakes and put them in the nearest barrel. Between August 9th and September 21st, 2004, we collected 36 snakes in two different sites, revealing the presence of 3 families and 12 species. The most abundant species in Causus maculatus (47% in the first site--Point 8--and 29% in the second site--Point 13). The most poisonous and dangerous species were captured only in the first site--point 8, and were Dendroaspis jamesoni and Naja melanoleuca, both young.

  16. Effect of additives on the physical and chemical characteristics of sugar cane silage

    Patricia do Rosario Rodrigues

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the efficiency of different additives on chemical composition, pH, ethanol production, content of volatile fatty acids (VFAs, nutritional losses during fermentation, and changes in fibrous fractions, in the levels of non-fibrous and total carbohydrates during the sugar cane silage fermentation process with different additives. The treatments consisted of control (no additive; corn meal, at 10% of natural matter; molasses, at 10% of natural matter; urea, at 2% of natural matter; and microbial inoculant for sugarcane silage (Lactobacillus plantarum, Kera-Sil® in a proportion of 2 g L-1 of water using a 2 liter solution per ton of ensilage. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replications. The urea treatment provided the best preparation of silage, taking into account the pH and bromatological composition when compared to silages made with the other tested additives, and the control. The sugarcane silage showed a loss of 5.86% on average of dry matter, not differing from others additives used. There was an increase in crude protein content when urea was used. There was no difference between the treatment for fiber losses in neutral detergent and total digestible nutrients.

  17. Assessment of Ethyl Carbamate Contamination in Cachaça (Brazilian Sugar Cane Spirit

    Aline M. Bortoletto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cachaça is a sugar cane spirit produced in Brazil. Ethyl carbamate (EC, a potential carcinogenic compound, may be present in cachaça above the limit established by law. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of ethyl carbamate in cachaças recently produced in Brazil in order to verify their compliance with the law. The concentration of ethyl carbamate was determined in 376 samples of cachaça through gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS. The mean value of ethyl carbamate in the cachaças analyzed was 145 µg/L, and 24% of them were not in compliancy with the law (EC < 210 µg/L. However, compared to previous studies, advances have been observed regarding the adjustment of cachaças to the legal limit. Cachaças produced in large distilleries through continuous column distillation presented a mean value of 200 µg/L of ethyl carbamate. Cachaças produced in small distilleries using pot still distillation presented a mean content of 74 µg/L. Small producers have been more engaged in using good manufacturing practices to guarantee the quality of cachaças.

  18. Influence of the saline formulation in the conservation of in vitro plants of sugar cane

    Leyanis García-Águila

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work had as aim to determine the saline formulation and its ideal concentration, as well as the culture temperature for the conservation of in vitro plants of sugar cane fran the variaty somaclonal IBP 87-100. Different concentrations of the saline formulations were studied MS (25, 50, 75, 100% and White (75, 100, 125% associated with two culture temperatures, 18 and 26 ±2ºC. The percentage of survival and the physiological condition of the plants during the period of conservation were decided. The conservation of the plants during six consecutive months was obtained as result when using the formulation MS reduced to 25 and 50%, associated with a culture temperature at 18ºC. This way the growth of the plants was slow and minor the physiological hurts, with values of survival between 58.3 and 69.2%. Whereas the formulation White did not favour the prolongation of conservation period and the plants only could be supported during two months with more than 50% of the foliate area dried. This behaviour could response due to the low levels of nitrogen that contains this formulation. Key words: culture temperature, in vitro conservation, saline concentration, survival

  19. Distribution of (14 C) photosynthates in 3 periods during the plant-cane cycle

    Pimentel, R.M.M.

    1989-04-01

    Plant-cane stools were labelled with 14 CO 2 in the field, at Goiana-PE, Brazil, when 3,7 and 11 months old. Each stool was enclosed in a chamber with 14 CO 2 for 90 minutes. The 14 C photosynthates were measured in leaves, stalks, roots and soil 1, 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days after labelling. Roots were divided into alive and dead and soil into rizosphere and outer soil. The soil was incubated for 10 days to measure C mineralization. At end of the labelling period at 3,7 and 11 months, 2, 19 and 1% of the initial 14 CO 2 were recovered in the plant and the soil. The low recovery of 14 C at 3 months could be attributed to losses by respiration and lack of sampling of the top growing point. The low CO 2 fixation and losses by respiration at first sampling in the 7 months old labelling were attributed to low light intensity during the day of labelling. In the following sampling, total 14 C recoveries varied little and there was little change in the proportion of 14 C in each part, indicating that the 14 C was already incorporated in stable organic fractions. Most of the recovered 14 C C>80%) was founded in the leaves but all plant parts received labelled photosynthates. (author)

  20. Radiometric research in soils cultivated with sugar cane in Pernambuco - Brazil

    Santos Junior, Otavio P. dos; Santos Junior, Jose A. dos; Amaral, Romilton dos S.; Menezes, Romulo S.C.; Santos, Josineide M.N. dos; Silva, Arykerne N.C. da; Fernandez, Zahily H.; Rojas, Lino A.V.; Damascena, Kennedy F.R.; Silva, Rafael R.; Milan, Marvic O., E-mail: rodriguesrs19@gmail.com, E-mail: otavio.santos@vitoria.ifpe.edu.br, E-mail: lino.valcarcel@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil); Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba); Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas Quinta de los Molinos, La Habana (Cuba)

    2017-11-01

    The state of Pernambuco is representative of Northeastern Brazil, with respect to the variability of climatic conditions, soil types, soil cover, as well as land use. The state is subdivided into five regions: Recife Metropolitan Region, Sao Francisco, Sertao, Agreste and Zona da Mata (Atlantic Forest Region). Each region presents peculiar climatic and economic activities. The Atlantic Forest region, the focus of this study, presents a humid tropical climate and is characterized by large farms and the monoculture of sugarcane. In this scenario, a radioecological investigation was carried out to determine the radiometric potential from the analysis of forty-five soil samples, collected in five soil profiles, to a depth of 60 cm. A non-destructive method was adopted for the radiometric analysis, using High- Resolution Gamma Spectrometry with an HPGe-Be type detector. This method allowed the determination of specific activities of U-238, Th-232 and K-40 in the soil samples. The results will be used as a basis for the determination of a reference value for the natural radioactivity of these soils, to predict the existence of possible environmental impacts resulting from their use for the cultivation of sugar cane, as well as to contribute to guarantee the safety of food crops cultivated in this region. (author)

  1. Indo-Pacific ENSO modes in a double-basin Zebiak-Cane model

    Wieners, Claudia; de Ruijter, Will; Dijkstra, Henk

    2016-04-01

    We study Indo-Pacific interactions on ENSO timescales in a double-basin version of the Zebiak-Cane ENSO model, employing both time integrations and bifurcation analysis (continuation methods). The model contains two oceans (the Indian and Pacific Ocean) separated by a meridional wall. Interaction between the basins is possible via the atmosphere overlaying both basins. We focus on the effect of the Indian Ocean (both its mean state and its variability) on ENSO stability. In addition, inspired by analysis of observational data (Wieners et al, Coherent tropical Indo-Pacific interannual climate variability, in review), we investigate the effect of state-dependent atmospheric noise. Preliminary results include the following: 1) The background state of the Indian Ocean stabilises the Pacific ENSO (i.e. the Hopf bifurcation is shifted to higher values of the SST-atmosphere coupling), 2) the West Pacific cooling (warming) co-occurring with El Niño (La Niña) is essential to simulate the phase relations between Pacific and Indian SST anomalies, 3) a non-linear atmosphere is needed to simulate the effect of the Indian Ocean variability onto the Pacific ENSO that is suggested by observations.

  2. Electrical, thermal and electrochemical properties of disordered carbon prepared from palygorskite and cane molasses

    Alvarez, Edelio Danguillecourt; Laffita, Yodalgis Mosqueda; Montoro, Luciano Andrey; Della Santina Mohallem, Nelcy; Cabrera, Humberto; Pérez, Guillermo Mesa; Frutis, Miguel Aguilar; Cappe, Eduardo Pérez

    2017-02-01

    We have synthesized and electrochemically tested a carbon sample that was suitable as anode for lithium secondary battery. The synthesis was based on the use of the palygorskite clay as template and sugar cane molasses as carbon source. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) analysis showed that the nanometric carbon material has a highly disordered graphene-like wrinkled structure and large specific surface area (467 m2 g-1). The compositional characterization revealed a 14% of heteroatoms-containing groups (O, H, N, S) doping the as-prepared carbon. Thermophysical measurements revealed the good thermal stability and an acceptable thermal diffusivity (9·10-7 m2 s-1) and conductivity (1.1 W m-1 K-1) of this carbon. The electrical properties showed an electronic conductivity of hole-like carriers of approximately one S/cm in a 173-293 K range. The testing of this material as anodes in a secondary lithium battery displayed a high specific capacity and excellent performance in terms of number of cycles. A high reversible capacity of 356 mA h g-1 was reached.

  3. Identification and dosage by HRGC of minor alcohols and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit

    Boscolo Maurício

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of 51 volatile compounds, among alcohols and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit (cachaça, were investigated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC. The following alcohols and esters were identified and quantified: methanol, 1,4-butanodiol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, cynamic alcohol, n-decanol, geraniol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, menthol, n-butanol, n-dodecanol, n-propanol, n-tetradecanol, amyl propionate, ethyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, ethyl heptanoate, isoamyl valerate, methyl propionate, propyl butyrate. The average higher alcohols content (262 mg/100 mL in anhydrous alcohol a.a. and total esters content (24 mg/100 mL a.a. in cachaças, are smaller than in other spirits. The average methanol content in cachaças (6 mg/100 mL a.a. is the same as in rum, but smaller than in wine spirit. No qualitative differences of chemical profile among cachaças have been observed.

  4. Radiometric research in soils cultivated with sugar cane in Pernambuco - Brazil

    Santos Junior, Otavio P. dos; Santos Junior, Jose A. dos; Amaral, Romilton dos S.; Menezes, Romulo S.C.; Santos, Josineide M.N. dos; Silva, Arykerne N.C. da; Fernandez, Zahily H.; Rojas, Lino A.V.; Damascena, Kennedy F.R.; Silva, Rafael R.; Milan, Marvic O.

    2017-01-01

    The state of Pernambuco is representative of Northeastern Brazil, with respect to the variability of climatic conditions, soil types, soil cover, as well as land use. The state is subdivided into five regions: Recife Metropolitan Region, Sao Francisco, Sertao, Agreste and Zona da Mata (Atlantic Forest Region). Each region presents peculiar climatic and economic activities. The Atlantic Forest region, the focus of this study, presents a humid tropical climate and is characterized by large farms and the monoculture of sugarcane. In this scenario, a radioecological investigation was carried out to determine the radiometric potential from the analysis of forty-five soil samples, collected in five soil profiles, to a depth of 60 cm. A non-destructive method was adopted for the radiometric analysis, using High- Resolution Gamma Spectrometry with an HPGe-Be type detector. This method allowed the determination of specific activities of U-238, Th-232 and K-40 in the soil samples. The results will be used as a basis for the determination of a reference value for the natural radioactivity of these soils, to predict the existence of possible environmental impacts resulting from their use for the cultivation of sugar cane, as well as to contribute to guarantee the safety of food crops cultivated in this region. (author)

  5. A digital image method of spot tests for determination of copper in sugar cane spirits

    Pessoa, Kenia Dias; Suarez, Willian Toito; dos Reis, Marina Ferreira; de Oliveira Krambeck Franco, Mathews; Moreira, Renata Pereira Lopes; dos Santos, Vagner Bezerra

    2017-10-01

    In this work the development and validation of analytical methodology for determination of copper in sugarcane spirit samples is carried out. The digital image based (DIB) method was applied along with spot test from the colorimetric reaction employing the RGB color model. For the determination of copper concentration, it was used the cuprizone - a bidentate organic reagent - which forms with copper a blue chelate in an alkaline medium. A linear calibration curve over the concentration range from 0.75 to 5.00 mg L- 1 (r2 = 0.9988) was obtained and limits of detection and quantification of 0.078 mg L- 1 and 0.26 mg L- 1 were acquired, respectively. For the accuracy studies, recovery percentages ranged from 98 to 104% were obtained. The comparison of cooper concentration results in sugar cane spirits using the DIB method and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry as reference method showed no significant differences between both methods, which were performed using the paired t-test in 95% of confidence level. Thus, the spot test method associated with DIB allows the use of devices as digital cameras and smartphones to evaluate colorimetric reaction with low waste generation, practicality, quickness, accuracy, precision, high portability and low-cost.

  6. Quality evaluation of compost produced from agro-industrialbyproducts of sugar cane

    Alexander Bohórquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh by products of the sugar industry (sugarcane sludge, bagasse and vinasse incorporated into the soil generate a negative impact on plants. Therefore, compost is an alternative solution to the use of sugarcane byproducts, which must meet the requirements of the Colombian technical standard 5167 for use as biofertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of compost made from different combinations of products of the milling process of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.. Composting piles were established in the Ingenio Riopaila-Castilla, Valle del Cauca, Colombia, using a complete randomized block design with five treatments and four replications. 100% sugarcane sludge (T1, 75% sugarcane sludge and 25% bagasse (T2, 50% bagasse and 50% sugarcane sludge (T3, 25% sugarcane sludge and 75% bagasse (T4 and 100% bagasse (T5, all supplemented with 2 m3 of vinasse. The response variables: pH, electrical conductivity, moisture, ash, organic matter, moisture retention, the carbon-nitrogen ratio, the total oxidizable organic carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, manganese and zinc, were evaluated at the time when the initial compost piles were prepared, and the 42, 51, 59, 73 and 90 days after beginning the process. The results showed that the carbon-nitrogen mixtures initial ratio is critical for obtaining a good quality of compost. The T3 provided the best quality with the highest content of nutrients. The composting time ensuring adequate maturation levels for nutrients in the compost was 90 days.

  7. UNSAPONIFIABLE MATTER FROM SUGAR CANE FILTER CAKE USING ETHANOL AS SOLVENT

    Inés María San Anastacio Rebollar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a methodology for the obtaining of unsaponificable matter starting from the sugar cane filter cake, in the one that only ethanol 96 °GL is used as solvent. The wax is extracted of the mud with ethanol (with a purity of 96 ºGL by means of a leaching out process using a mud/ethanol ratio of 0.05 kg/L to 70 ºC, atmospheric pressure, agitation speed of 700 rpm and extraction time of 2,5 hours. Under these conditions 86.21 % of extraction is obtained. Then, the obtained extract reacts with alcoholic NaOH to 70 ºC during 75 minutes to atmospheric pressure and shaking to 200 rpm. The employment of the proposed methodology allows to obtain 1.942 g of impure unsaponifiable matter starting from 50 g of mud and 1.05 L of ethanol 96 °GL.

  8. Nutrient digestibility and ruminal characteristics of buffaloes and bovine fed additived sugar cane silages

    C.U. Cecato

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated nutrients total digestibility (TD and dry matter (DM intake, pH and NH3 ruminal concentration in buffaloes and bovine, fed sugar cane silages treated with Lactobacillus buchneri (SSL, plus 10% - cassava by-product meal (SSLC, plus 10% - soybean hulls (SSLS or plus 1% - urea (SSLU. The experimental design was a double 4x4 Latin squares with a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. There was no interaction between species x treatment for evaluated parameters except for TD of CP, NDF and ADF. The soybean hulls addition increased (P<0.05 TD of DM, OM and total carbohydrate (TC while the urea addition reduced (P<0.05 DM intake and TD of DM, OM, TC and no fiber carbohydrate (NFC. Buffaloes showed the highest (P<0.05 TD of CP with SSL and the highest TD of NDF and ADF with SSLS. Bovines showed the highest (P<0.05 TD of CP with the SSL and SSLS; the last increased TD of NDF and ADF. The rumen pH in buffalo was higher than in cattle (6.62 vs. 6.48, respectively. The NH3 ruminal concentration did not differ between species and SSLU treatment presented the highest values (12.9 mg / 100 mL.

  9. How do users design? The case of sugar cane harvester machines.

    Narimoto, Lidiane Regina; Camarotto, João Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Design in use and inventiveness are key concepts in ergonomics. It is well-known that users design but is not explored in the literature how they manage to do that. This paper aims to contribute to the discussion of how users actually design, by showing a research conducted in sugar cane harvesting in Brazil and in Australia. Through the methodology of the Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA), the design modifications made by the harvesting teams were identified as well as their elaboration process. Three categories of modifications in machines' design were identified: structural, functional and operational and they were more numerous in Brazilian situations. It is proposed that two theories underlying the theme are intertwined: the instrument-mediated activity approach and the design as bricolage. It is argued that users design through the articulation of: a) the operators' activity, b) the mechanical technicians' inventory to practice bricolage as a way of designing and c) the work organisation and the existence of social spaces of interaction between these two subjects.

  10. Effects of invasion history on physiological responses to immune system activation in invasive Australian cane toads

    Daniel Selechnik

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The cane toad (Rhinella marina has undergone rapid evolution during its invasion of tropical Australia. Toads from invasion front populations (in Western Australia have been reported to exhibit a stronger baseline phagocytic immune response than do conspecifics from range core populations (in Queensland. To explore this difference, we injected wild-caught toads from both areas with the experimental antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS, to mimic bacterial infection and measured whole-blood phagocytosis. Because the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is stimulated by infection (and may influence immune responses, we measured glucocorticoid response through urinary corticosterone levels. Relative to injection of a control (phosphate-buffered saline, LPS injection increased both phagocytosis and the proportion of neutrophils in the blood. However, responses were similar in toads from both populations. This null result may reflect the ubiquity of bacterial risks across the toad’s invaded range; utilization of this immune pathway may not have altered during the process of invasion. LPS injection also induced a reduction in urinary corticosterone levels, perhaps as a result of chronic stress.

  11. Produtividade e qualidade de cana-de-açúcar cultivada em solo tratado com lodo de esgoto, vinhaça e adubos minerais Yield and quality of sugar cane cultivated in sewage sludge, vinasse and mineral fertilization supplied soil

    Luiz C. Tasso Júnior

    2007-04-01

    consecutive years (cane-plant and first ratoon cane. The experiment was conducted on a Haplustox, in Pontal county, São Paulo state, Brazil. The sugarcane variety was SP 81-3250. The results were organized in a factorial scheme 3x2x2+1: three residue types (sewage sludge + KCl, vinasse + urea and sewage sludge + vinasse; two application mode (planting line and total area; two doses (100 and 200% of N and K for sugarcane crop and an additional treatment (mineral fertilization. The experimental design was a randomized blocks with three replications. The analyzed parameters were productivity and technological variables (juice brix, juice sucrose contents, reducing sugars juice contents, purity, cane sucrose contents, and recoverable total sugar (RTS cane contents and RTS productivity. The stalks and the sugar yields of cane-plant did not change while the N and K were suplyied by the sludge and by vinasse, respectively. The first ratoon cane presented greater stalks and sugar yield when residue were used separated complemented by mineral fertilization. In relation to application mode, no differences were observed for all paremeters.

  12. Utilization of wind energy in greater Hanover

    Sahling, U.

    1993-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Eighties, the association of communities of Greater Hanover has dealt intensively with energy and ecopolitical questions in the scope of regional planning. Renewable energy sources play a dominant role in this context. This brochure is the third contribution to the subject ''Energy policy and environmental protection''. Experts as well as possibly interested parties are addressed especially. For all 8 contributions contained, separate entries have been recorded in this database. (BWI) [de

  13. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    Frank, Morgan R.; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2017-01-01

    The city has proven to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: How will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across U.S. urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content su...

  14. The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY outreach project.

    Gregersen, Nerine; Lampret, Julie; Lane, Tony; Christianson, Arnold

    2013-07-01

    The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY Outreach Project was undertaken in a rural district in Limpopo, South Africa, as part of the European Union-funded CAPABILITY programme to investigate approaches for capacity building for the translation of genetic knowledge into care and prevention of congenital disorders. Based on previous experience of a clinical genetic outreach programme in Limpopo, it aimed to initiate a district clinical genetic service in Greater Sekhukhune to gain knowledge and experience to assist in the implementation and development of medical genetic services in South Africa. Implementing the service in Greater Sekhukhune was impeded by a developing staff shortage in the province and pressure on the health service from the existing HIV/AIDS and TB epidemics. This situation underscores the need for health needs assessment for developing services for the care and prevention of congenital disorders in middle- and low-income countries. However, these impediments stimulated the pioneering of innovate ways to offer medical genetic services in these circumstances, including tele-teaching of nurses and doctors, using cellular phones to enhance clinical care and adapting and assessing the clinical utility of a laboratory test, QF-PCR, for use in the local circumstances.

  15. Operational technology for greater confinement disposal

    Dickman, P.T.; Vollmer, A.T.; Hunter, P.H.

    1984-12-01

    Procedures and methods for the design and operation of a greater confinement disposal facility using large-diameter boreholes are discussed. It is assumed that the facility would be located at an operating low-level waste disposal site and that only a small portion of the wastes received at the site would require greater confinement disposal. The document is organized into sections addressing: facility planning process; facility construction; waste loading and handling; radiological safety planning; operations procedures; and engineering cost studies. While primarily written for low-level waste management site operators and managers, a detailed economic assessment section is included that should assist planners in performing cost analyses. Economic assessments for both commercial and US government greater confinement disposal facilities are included. The estimated disposal costs range from $27 to $104 per cubic foot for a commercial facility and from $17 to $60 per cubic foot for a government facility. These costs are based on average site preparation, construction, and waste loading costs for both contact- and remote-handled wastes. 14 figures, 22 tables

  16. Lymph flux rates from various lymph sacs in the cane toad Rhinella marina: an experimental evaluation of the roles of compliance, skeletal muscles and the lungs in the movement of lymph.

    Hillman, Stanley S; Hedrick, Michael S; Drewes, Robert C; Withers, Philip C

    2010-09-15

    A new method for quantitatively determining lymph flux from various lymphatic sacs of an anuran, the cane toad, was developed. This method used the dye dilution principle of C(i)V(i)=C(f)V(f) following injection of Evans Blue into specific lymph sacs and measuring its appearance in the venous circulation. The apparent lymph volume was 57 ml kg(-1). The greatest rate of lymph return (0.5-0.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) and best linear fit of Evans Blue appearance in the circulation with time followed injections into the subvertebral lymph sac, which has direct connections to both the anterior and posterior pairs of lymphatic hearts. Rate of lymph flux from the pair of posterior lymph hearts was three times greater than the anterior pair. Rates of lymph flux were only influenced by injection volume in the crural lymph sacs, implicating lymph sac compliance as the source of the pressure for lymph movement from these sacs. Femoral lymph sac fluxes were decreased by 60% following ablation of the tendons of the sphincter ani cloacalis, abdominal crenators and piriformis. This supports a role for these muscles in generating the pressure for vertical lymph movement. Femoral lymph sac fluxes were also decreased by 70% by the insertion of a coil in the subvertebral lymph sac, preventing normal compression and expansion of this sac by the lungs. This supports a role for lung ventilation in generating the pressure for vertical movement of lymph. Contrary to previous hypotheses, fluxes from the brachial sac were not influenced by insertion of the coil into the subvertebral sac. A haemorrhage equivalent to 50% of the blood volume did not change lymph flux rates from the femoral lymph sacs. These data provide the first experimental evidence that actual lymph fluxes in the cane toad Rhinella marina depend on lymph sac compliance, contraction of specific skeletal muscles and lung ventilation to move lymph laterally and vertically to the dorsally located lymphatic hearts.

  17. The effects of fasting and cold exposure on metabolic rate and mitochondrial proton leak in liver and skeletal muscle of an amphibian, the cane toad Bufo marinus.

    Trzcionka, M; Withers, K W; Klingenspor, M; Jastroch, M

    2008-06-01

    Futile cycling of protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane contributes significantly to standard metabolic rate in a variety of ectothermic and endothermic animals, but adaptations of the mitochondrial bioenergetics to different environmental conditions have rarely been studied in ectotherms. Changes in ambient temperature and nutritional status have a great effect on the physiological demands of ectothermic amphibians and may require the adjustment of mitochondrial efficiency. In order to investigate the effect of temperature and nutritional status on the mitochondrial level, we exposed male cane toads to either 10 degrees C or 30 degrees C and fasted half of the animals in each group. Cold exposure resulted in a fourfold reduction of the resting metabolic rate whereas nutritional status had only minor effects. The mitochondrial adjustments to each condition were observed by comparing the proton leak kinetics of isolated liver and skeletal muscle mitochondria at 25 degrees C. In response to cold exposure, liver mitochondria showed a decrease in proton conductance while skeletal muscle mitochondria were unchanged. Additional food deprivation had minor effects in skeletal muscle, but in liver we uncovered surprising differences in energy saving mechanisms between the acclimation temperatures: in warm-acclimated toads, fasting resulted in a decrease of the proton conductance whereas in cold-acclimated toads, the activity of the respiratory chain was reduced. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying mitochondrial proton leakage, we determined the adenine-nucleotide transporter (ANT) content, which explained tissue-specific differences in the basal proton leak, but neither the ANT nor uncoupling protein (UCP) gene expression correlated with alterations of the proton leak in response to physiological stimuli.

  18. Male pattern baldness

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  19. Genital sores - male

    Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...

  20. Effects of sexual dimorphism and landscape composition on the trophic behavior of Greater Prairie-Chicken.

    Beatriz Blanco-Fontao

    Full Text Available Partitioning of ecological niche is expected in lekking species that show marked sexual size dimorphism as a consequence of sex-specific ecological constraints. However, niche partitioning is uncertain in species with moderate sexual dimorphism. In addition, the ecological niche of a species may also be affected by landscape composition; particularly, agricultural fragmentation may greatly influence the trophic behavior of herbivores. We studied trophic niche variation in Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido, a grouse species that shows moderate sex-dimorphism. Greater Prairie-Chickens are native to tallgrass prairies of North America, although populations persist in less natural mosaics of cropland and native habitats. We used stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen in blood, claws and feathers to assess seasonal differences in trophic niche breadth and individual specialization between male and female Greater Prairie-Chickens, and between birds living in continuous and fragmented landscapes. We found that females showed broader niches and higher individual specialization than males, especially in winter and autumn. However, differences between females and males were smaller in spring when birds converge at leks, suggesting that females and males may exhibit similar feeding behaviors during the lekking period. In addition, we found that birds living in native prairies showed greater annual trophic variability than conspecifics in agricultural mosaic landscapes. Native habitats may provide greater dietary diversity, resulting in greater diversity of feeding strategies.

  1. Utilization of agricultural sugar cane wastes as fuel in modern cogeneration systems applied in sugar cane mills; Aprovechamiento de los residuos agricolas caneras como combustible en sistemas de cogeneracion modernos aplicados a ingenios

    Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de la Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Considering the new legal frame on cogeneration in Mexico, the possibility of heat and electricity supply required by the sugar mills to be made by an independent cogenerator of the sugar mill, operating with the sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, has been evaluated. Such modern cogenerator would be characterized, besides operating in an independent way of the sugar mill, by the use of high efficiency equipment in its process of heat and electricity generation. In this sense the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) through its Coordination Program and the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) carried out a joint project to determine the technical and economical viability that the sugar industry maintains the present sugar production without the need of burning fuel oil, installing adjacent to every sugar mill, a modern cogeneration system, operated by independent producers, that using sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, allows the supply of all the steam and electricity required by the sugar mill, and additionally can add firm capacity and the supply of electric power to the national grid, during the grinding season as well as out of grinding season. [Espanol] En consideracion al nuevo marco juridico de la cogeneracion en Mexico se ha evaluado la posibilidad de que el suministro de calor y electricidad requerido por los ingenios azucareros sea proporcionado por un cogenerador independiente de la planta de azucar, el cual opere utilizando el bagazo y residuos agricolas caneras (biomasa canera). Dicho cogenerador moderno se caracterizaria, ademas de operar de manera independiente a la planta de azucar, por el uso de equipos de alta eficiencia en su proceso de produccion de calor y electricidad. En este sentido la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) a traves de la Coordinacion de Programacion y el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) realizaron un trabajo en conjunto para determinar

  2. Utilization of agricultural sugar cane wastes as fuel in modern cogeneration systems applied in sugar cane mills; Aprovechamiento de los residuos agricolas caneras como combustible en sistemas de cogeneracion modernos aplicados a ingenios

    Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de la Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    Considering the new legal frame on cogeneration in Mexico, the possibility of heat and electricity supply required by the sugar mills to be made by an independent cogenerator of the sugar mill, operating with the sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, has been evaluated. Such modern cogenerator would be characterized, besides operating in an independent way of the sugar mill, by the use of high efficiency equipment in its process of heat and electricity generation. In this sense the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) through its Coordination Program and the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) carried out a joint project to determine the technical and economical viability that the sugar industry maintains the present sugar production without the need of burning fuel oil, installing adjacent to every sugar mill, a modern cogeneration system, operated by independent producers, that using sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, allows the supply of all the steam and electricity required by the sugar mill, and additionally can add firm capacity and the supply of electric power to the national grid, during the grinding season as well as out of grinding season. [Espanol] En consideracion al nuevo marco juridico de la cogeneracion en Mexico se ha evaluado la posibilidad de que el suministro de calor y electricidad requerido por los ingenios azucareros sea proporcionado por un cogenerador independiente de la planta de azucar, el cual opere utilizando el bagazo y residuos agricolas caneras (biomasa canera). Dicho cogenerador moderno se caracterizaria, ademas de operar de manera independiente a la planta de azucar, por el uso de equipos de alta eficiencia en su proceso de produccion de calor y electricidad. En este sentido la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) a traves de la Coordinacion de Programacion y el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) realizaron un trabajo en conjunto para determinar

  3. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Austria?

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the happiness of the great number could not be measured

  4. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible? If so how? (Arabic)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); E. Samuel (Emad)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time, the happiness of the great number could not be

  5. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible in Germany?

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWhat is the final goal of public policy? Jeremy Bentham (1789) would say: greater happiness for a greater number. He thought of happiness as subjective enjoyment of life; in his words as “the sum of pleasures and pains”. In his time the Happiness of the great number could not be measured

  6. Influence of Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stael) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) injury on the quality of cane juice

    Madaleno, Leonardo L.; Ravaneli, Gisele C.; Presotti, Leandro E.; Mutton, Marcia J.R. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Tecnologia; Mutton, Miguel A. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Producao Vegetal; Fernandes, Odair A. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade

    2008-01-15

    Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stael) is an important pest in Latin America and causes significant reduction in sugarcane productivity. There is no information regarding the effect of this pest on the quality of cane juice used for sugar and alcohol production. This work aimed at evaluating the quality of sugarcane juice from plants attacked by spittlebugs. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with 15 replications, and comprised two treatments: control and chemical treatment with thiamethoxam. An average of 9.2 {+-} 4.44 spittlebug nymphs m-1 were found in the plots prior to insecticide application. Nymphs were counted 18, 35, 55, and 82 days after the initial sampling (december/2003). During the mid growing season (July 2004), the juice was extracted from stalks and analyzed for Brix, Pol, RS, pH, fiber, purity, TRS, dextran, starch, and total phenolic compounds. Stalk yield was also measured. Chemical treatment was efficient in reducing spittlebug population, and elevated both stalk yield and juice pH. The accumulated infestation expressed as insect-days was significantly and negatively correlated to yield, Pol, pH, and purity. The concentration of phenolic compounds increased with pest infestation, while dextran and starch levels were not affected. The infestation of 2.4 and 7.3 nymphs m-1 day-1 caused reductions of 8.3% and 29.8% in yield; 1.9% and 5.8% in Pol; 0.4% and 1.1% in pH and 0.4% and 1.2% in purity, respectively, in comparison to areas where the pest population was extremely low (< 0.1 nymphs m-1). (author)

  7. Book review, Patologie articolari nel cane e nel gatto, Filippo Maria Martini

    Manuel Graziani

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Con il cambiare dei tempi, sono cambiate anche le priorità nell’ambito sempre più vasto degli animali da compagnia. Se, infatti, fino allo scorso decennio chi si occupava di ortopedia veterinaria aveva a che fare esclusivamente con pazienti traumatizzati, ora l’ortopedia e la traumatologia veterinaria devono fare i conti sempre più spesso con le patologie articolari. I motivi di questa inversione di tendenza sono molti e di diverso genere, certamente i più influenti riguardano la diffusione di soggetti atleti che sviluppano specifiche patologie, l’allungamento della vita media che espone i pazienti a malattie articolari degenerative un tempo prerogativa dell’uomo e la presenza di razze canine particolarmente predisposte a tali patologie. A ciò si aggiunga l’esigenza crescente dei proprietari degli animali, di comprendere a fondo quali siano le migliori cure per i propri compagni. Per questi motivi lo specialista in Ortopedia degli animali domestici, Filippo Maria Martini, ha redatto Patologie articolari nel cane e nel gatto: un volume che non vuole essere un manuale sulle tecniche chirurgiche (nonostante al suo interno vengano comunque descritte, piuttosto un manuale pratico in grado da una parte di fornire gli strumenti necessari per comprendere, interpretare e diagnosticare le patologie articolari; dall’altra di dare le basi teoriche per impostare un protocollo terapeutico in modo corretto ed emettere una prognosi adeguata. Tutto ciò nella convinzione che un buon clinico non possa limitarsi ad eseguire una visita e ad impostare una terapia, ma debba necessariamente stilare un elenco di esami utili ai fini della definizione della diagnosi, discuterne con il proprietario e consigliare il più adeguato protocollo diagnostico e terapeutico.

  8. Influence of Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stael) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) injury on the quality of cane juice

    Madaleno, Leonardo L.; Ravaneli, Gisele C.; Presotti, Leandro E.; Mutton, Marcia J.R.; Mutton, Miguel A.; Fernandes, Odair A.

    2008-01-01

    Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stael) is an important pest in Latin America and causes significant reduction in sugarcane productivity. There is no information regarding the effect of this pest on the quality of cane juice used for sugar and alcohol production. This work aimed at evaluating the quality of sugarcane juice from plants attacked by spittlebugs. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with 15 replications, and comprised two treatments: control and chemical treatment with thiamethoxam. An average of 9.2 ± 4.44 spittlebug nymphs m-1 were found in the plots prior to insecticide application. Nymphs were counted 18, 35, 55, and 82 days after the initial sampling (december/2003). During the mid growing season (July 2004), the juice was extracted from stalks and analyzed for Brix, Pol, RS, pH, fiber, purity, TRS, dextran, starch, and total phenolic compounds. Stalk yield was also measured. Chemical treatment was efficient in reducing spittlebug population, and elevated both stalk yield and juice pH. The accumulated infestation expressed as insect-days was significantly and negatively correlated to yield, Pol, pH, and purity. The concentration of phenolic compounds increased with pest infestation, while dextran and starch levels were not affected. The infestation of 2.4 and 7.3 nymphs m-1 day-1 caused reductions of 8.3% and 29.8% in yield; 1.9% and 5.8% in Pol; 0.4% and 1.1% in pH and 0.4% and 1.2% in purity, respectively, in comparison to areas where the pest population was extremely low (< 0.1 nymphs m-1). (author)

  9. Changes in cholesterol kinetics following sugar cane policosanol supplementation: a randomized control trial

    Jones Peter JH

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar cane policosanols (SCP have been shown to exert cholesterol-modulating properties in various studies conducted in Cuba by substantially reducing cholesterol synthesis. Independent research examining changes in cholesterol kinetics in response to SCP is limited to few studies, none of which was able to replicate findings of the original research. Moreover, no data are available on the effect of SCP on cholesterol absorption to date. The present study was undertaken to determine effects on cholesterol kinetics, namely synthesis and absorption, within hypercholesterolemic individuals consuming a SCP treatment. Twenty-one otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic subjects participated in a randomized double-blind crossover study where they received 10 mg/day of policosanols or a placebo incorporated in margarine as an evening snack for a period of 28 days. The last week of the study phase, subjects were given 13C labelled cholesterol and deuterated water for the measurement of cholesterol absorption and synthesis respectively. Blood was collected on the first two and last five days of the trial. Cholesterol absorption and synthesis were determined by measuring red cell cholesterol 13C and deuterium enrichment, respectively. Results There was no significant change in LDL cholesterol levels as compared to control. In addition, the area under the curve for red cell cholesterol 13C enrichment across 96 hours was not significantly different in the SCP group as compared to control. Similarly, no difference was observed in the fractional rate of cholesterol synthesis over the period of 24 hours between the two treatment groups. Conclusion The findings of the present study fail to support previous research concerning efficacy and mechanism of action for policosanols.

  10. Aqua ammonia 15 N obtaining and application with vainness for sugar-cane fertilization

    Vitti, Andre Cesar; Trivellin, Paulo Cesar O.; Oliveira, Claudineia R. de; Bendassoli, Jose A.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen compounds marked with the isotope 15 N are continuously being used in agronomic studies and, when associated to the isotopic dilution technique, they constitute an important tool in clarifying the N cycle. At the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), it was obtained ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 enhanced at 3,5% of 15 N atoms, by means of the ionic exchange chromatography technique, which made possible to produce aqua ammonia ( 15 NH 3 aq). Four repetitions were taken to the aqua ammonia production process to use the nitrogen compound in the field experiment. In each process 150g of ammonium sulfate enhanced at 3,5% of 15 N atoms was used, obtaining 31,0 ± 1,6 g of aqua ammonia on the average (80% yield), with the same enhancement. The incidence of isotopic dilution has not been observed during the procedure, what made the use of such methodology possible. After obtaining the aqua ammonia 15 N through this procedure, it was added to the vinasse (an equivalent to 50 m 3 ha -1 ) in doses that corresponded to 70 kg ha -1 of N-NH 3 aq. The mixture was applied to the sugar-cane straw on the soil's surface, aimed to the crop's fertilization. The compound's isotopic composition was analyzed by means of a spectrometer of masses ANCA-SL Europe Scientific, while the total-N volatilized, by the micro-Kjeldahl. Method. In accordance to the low NH 3 (6,4 ± 1,9 kg ha -1 ) volatilization results, it could be concluded that the application of vinasse and aqua ammonia mixture to the straw on the soil's surface was efficient, due to the vinasse's acid character, which allowed the NH 3 , in presence of the ion H + , to stay in the NH 4 + form in solution. (author)

  11. Geology of the Cane Branch and Helton Branch watershed areas, McCreary County, Kentucky

    Lyons, Erwin J.

    1957-01-01

    Cane Branch and Helton Branch in McCreary County, Kentucky, are about 1.4 miles apart (fig. 1). Can Branch, which is about 2.1 miles long, emptied into Hughes Fork of Beaver Creek. Its watershed area of about 1.5 square miles lies largely in the Wiborf 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (SW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle), but the downstream part of the area extends northward into the Hail 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (NW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle). Helton Branch, which is about 1.1 miles long, has two tributaries and empties into Little Hurricane Fork of Beaver Creek. It drains an area of about 0.8 square mile of while about 0.5 square mile is in the Hail quadrangle and the remainder in the Wilborg quadrangle. The total relief in the Can Branch area is about 500 feet and in the Helton Branch area about 400 feet. Narrow, steep-sided to canyon-like valley and winding ridges, typical of the Pottsville escarpment region, are characteristic of both areas. Thick woods and dense undergrowth cover much of the two areas. Field mapping was done on U.S. Geological Survey 7 1/2-minute maps having a scale of 1:24,000 and a contour interval of 20 feet. Elevations of lithologic contacts were determined with a barometer and a hand level. Aerial photographs were used principally to trace the cliffs formed by sandstone and conglomerate ledges. Exposures, except for those of the cliff- and ledge-forming sandstone and conglomerates, are not abundant. The most complete stratigraphic sections (secs. 3 and 4, fig. 2) in the two areas are exposed in cuts of newly completed Forest Service roads, but the rick in the upper parts of the exposures is weathered. To supplement these sections, additional sections were measured in cuts along the railroad and main highways in nor near the watersheds.

  12. Introduction of sugar cane bagasse pellets in diets devoid of long fiber for feedlots finished steers

    Mikael Neumann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of diets without roughage in beef feedlot has become common in recent years due to practicality, feasibility and availability of inputs. However, the introduction of roughage that does not harm the operation of the feeding management can bring health benefits to animals and economic gain. This study aimed to evaluate the productive and economic performance of steers finished in feedlot, fed three levels of sugar cane bagasse pellets (SBP in diets without long-fiber. The treatments consisted of 0%, 7% and 14% of SBP in a mixture of concentrate, comprising 80% whole corn grain plus 20% of a protein core. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications. The diet with 0% of SBP promoted lower dry matter intake and weight gain. Feed conversion was similar between treatments, with an average of 6.21 kg-1. The lower dry matter digestibility was found in the diet with 14% of SBP. The introduction of SBP did not change the rumination, averaging 1.9 hours day-1. Animals fed 7% of SBP showed higher fat thickness. Due to the numerical differences between treatments for feed conversion in housing and daily cost of food, the profit margin was maximal in the diet with 0% of SBP, with values of R$ 338.1; R$ 311.6 and R$ 305,1 per animal, respectively 0%, 7% and 14% of SBP. The introduction of SBP promoted improvements in production performance, but did not improve the economic results of steers finished in feedlot.

  13. Energy and GHG balances of ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia

    Khatiwada, Dilip; Venkata, Bharadwaj K.; Silveira, Semida; Johnson, Francis X.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This study performs LCA analysis of sugarcane-based bioethanol production. • Energy and GHG balances are evaluated in the entire production chain. • Sensitivity analysis is performed to identify key influencing parameters. • Efficient cogeneration and biogas recovery enhances energy and climate gains. • Results of LCA studies and issues related to land use change impact are discussed. - Abstract: This study analyses the sustainability of fuel ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed to evaluate the net emissions (climate change impact) and energy inputs (resource consumption) in the production chain. The lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the production and use of ethanol are estimated at 29 gCO 2eq per MJ of ethanol produced which is a 67% reduction in comparison to gasoline emissions. Net Energy Value (NEV) and Net Renewable Energy Value (NREV) are −7 MJ/l and 17.7 MJ/l, while the energy yield ratio (ER) is 6.1. Economic allocation is chosen for dividing environmental burdens and resource consumption between sugar (i.e. main product) and molasses (i.e. co-product used for fuel production). Sensitivity analysis of various parameters is performed. The emissions and energy values are highly sensitive to sugarcane yield, ethanol yield, and the price of molasses. The use of sugarcane biomass residues (bagasse/trash) for efficient cogeneration, and different waste management options for the treatment of spent wash (effluent of distilleries) are also explored. Surplus bioelectricity generation in the efficient cogeneration plant, biogas recovery from wastewater treatment plant, and their use for fossil fuel substitution can help improve energy and environmental gains. The study also compares important results with other relevant international studies and discusses issues related to land use change (LUC) impact.

  14. Search for greater stability in nuclear regulation

    Asselstine, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    The need for greater stability in nuclear regulation is discussed. Two possible approaches for dealing with the problems of new and rapidly changing regulatory requirements are discussed. The first approach relies on the more traditional licensing reform initiatives that have been considered off and on for the past decade. The second approach considers a new regulator philosophy aimed at the root causes of the proliferation of new safety requirements that have been imposed in recent years. For the past few years, the concepts of deregulation and regulatory reform have been in fashion in Washington, and the commercial nuclear power program has not remained unaffected. Many look to these concepts to provide greater stability in the regulatory program. The NRC, the nuclear industry and the administration have all been avidly pursuing regulatory reform initiatives, which take the form of both legislative and administrative proposals. Many of these proposals look to the future, and, if adopted, would have little impact on currently operating nuclear power plants or plants now under construction

  15. Greater Sudbury fuel efficient driving handbook

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    Reducing the amount of fuel that people use for personal driving saves money, improves local air quality, and reduces personal contributions to climate change. This handbook was developed to be used as a tool for a fuel efficient driving pilot program in Greater Sudbury in 2009-2010. Specifically, the purpose of the handbook was to provide greater Sudbury drivers with information on how to drive and maintain their personal vehicles in order to maximize fuel efficiency. The handbook also provides tips for purchasing fuel efficient vehicles. It outlines the benefits of fuel maximization, with particular reference to reducing contributions to climate change; reducing emissions of air pollutants; safe driving; and money savings. Some tips for efficient driving are to avoid aggressive driving; use cruise control; plan trips; and remove excess weight. Tips for efficient winter driving are to avoid idling to warm up the engine; use a block heater; remove snow and ice; use snow tires; and check tire pressure. The importance of car maintenance and tire pressure was emphasized. The handbook also explains how fuel consumption ratings are developed by vehicle manufacturers. refs., figs.

  16. Women at greater risk of HIV infection.

    Mahathir, M

    1997-04-01

    Although many people believe that mainly men get infected with HIV/AIDS, women are actually getting infected at a faster rate than men, especially in developing countries, and suffer more from the adverse impact of AIDS. As of mid-1996, the Joint UN Program on AIDS estimated that more than 10 million of the 25 million adults infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic are women. The proportion of HIV-positive women is growing, with almost half of the 7500 new infections daily occurring among women. 90% of HIV-positive women live in a developing country. In Asia-Pacific, 1.4 million women have been infected with HIV out of an estimated total 3.08 million adults from the late 1970s until late 1994. Biologically, women are more vulnerable than men to infection because of the greater mucus area exposed to HIV during penile penetration. Women under age 17 years are at even greater risk because they have an underdeveloped cervix and low vaginal mucus production. Concurrent sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of HIV transmission. Women's risk is also related to their exposure to gender inequalities in society. The social and economic pressures of poverty exacerbate women's risk. Prevention programs are discussed.

  17. Vinasse application to sugar cane fields. Effect on the unsaturated zone and groundwater at Valle del Cauca (Colombia).

    Ortegón, Gloria Páez; Arboleda, Fernando Muñoz; Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Valdes-Abellan, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Extensive application of vinasse, a subproduct from sugar cane plantations for bioethanol production, is currently taking place as a source of nutrients that forms part of agricultural management in different agroclimatic regions. Liquid vinasse composition is characterised by high variability of organic compounds and major ions, acid pH (4.7), high TDS concentration (117,416-599,400mgL(-1)) and elevated EC (14,350-64,099μScm(-1)). A large-scale sugar cane field application is taking place in Valle del Cauca (Colombia), where monitoring of soil, unsaturated zone and the aquifer underneath has been made since 2006 to evaluate possible impacts on three experimental plots. For this assessment, monitoring wells and piezometers were installed to determine groundwater flow and water samples were collected for chemical analysis. In the unsaturated zone, tensiometers were installed at different depths to determine flow patterns, while suction lysimeters were used for water sample chemical determinations. The findings show that in the sandy loam plot (Hacienda Real), the unsaturated zone is characterised by low water retention, showing a high transport capacity, while the other two plots of silty composition presented temporal saturation due to La Niña event (2010-2011). The strong La Niña effect on aquifer recharge which would dilute the infiltrated water during the monitoring period and, on the other hand dissolution of possible precipitated salts bringing them back into solution may occur. A slight increase in the concentration of major ions was observed in groundwater (~5% of TDS), which can be attributed to a combination of factors: vinasse dilution produced by water input and hydrochemical processes along with nutrient removal produced by sugar cane uptake. This fact may make the aquifer vulnerable to contamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Increasing accessibility to the blind of virtual environments, using a virtual mobility aid based on the "EyeCane": feasibility study.

    Shachar Maidenbaum

    Full Text Available Virtual worlds and environments are becoming an increasingly central part of our lives, yet they are still far from accessible to the blind. This is especially unfortunate as such environments hold great potential for them for uses such as social interaction, online education and especially for use with familiarizing the visually impaired user with a real environment virtually from the comfort and safety of his own home before visiting it in the real world. We have implemented a simple algorithm to improve this situation using single-point depth information, enabling the blind to use a virtual cane, modeled on the "EyeCane" electronic travel aid, within any virtual environment with minimal pre-processing. Use of the Virtual-EyeCane, enables this experience to potentially be later used in real world environments with identical stimuli to those from the virtual environment. We show the fast-learned practical use of this algorithm for navigation in simple environments.

  19. Climatic factors and populational dynamics of Mahanarva posticata (Stal-1855) (Homoptera-Cercopidae) as a contribution to a possible regional implantation of the sterile male technique

    Oliveira, M.L. de

    1981-01-01

    A field study on the population dynamics of M. posticata (STAL, 1855) (Homoptera-Cercopidae) was carried out from 1971 to 1978 under the ecological conditions prevailing in the Litoral-Mata-Sul Zone of Pernambuco, Brazil. The results indicated that maximal infestation of the sugar cane crops by the insect generally occured in June and in July, and it was dependent on rainfall, temperature and relative humidity. The population density of adults was decreased markedly during the months of January, February and March. Technical and economical viability of the insect control by the male-sterilization-techniques through radiation was also demonstrated. The technique is to be used isolated or with other conventional procedures in the combat of froghopper infestations in the sugar cane growing in Pernambuco, Brazil. (Author) [pt

  20. Semi-pilot scale production of citric acid in cane molasses by gamma-ray induced mutants of Aspergillus niger

    Islam, M.S.; Begum, R.; Choudhury, N.

    1986-08-01

    Utilizing cane molasses as substrate, semi-pilot scale production of citric acid was investigated in fermentation trays (40 x 35 cm) with several gamma-ray induced mutants of Aspergillus niger. Of the mutants tested, two were found to have high yield efficiency (14/20, 51.06%; 79/20, 50.35%) of sugar to citric acid. The yield of other mutants (HB3, 10/20, 164/20, 277/30 and 112/40) ranged between 30 to 42%. The prospect of utilizing the high yielding mutants for commercial production of citric acid has been discussed.

  1. Semi-pilot scale production of citric acid in cane molasses by gamma-ray induced mutants of Aspergillus niger

    Islam, M.s.; Begum, R.; Choudhury, N.

    1986-01-01

    Utilizing cane molasses as substrate, semi-pilot scale production of citric acid was investigated in fermentation trays (40 x 35 cm) with several gamma-ray induced mutants of Aspergillus niger. Of the mutants tested, two were found to have high yield efficiency (14/20, 51.06%; 79/20, 50.35%) of sugar to citric acid. The yield of other mutants (HB3, 10/20, 164/20, 277/30 and 112/40) ranged between 30 to 42%. The prospect of utilizing the high yielding mutants for commercial production of citric acid has been discussed. (author)

  2. Diet of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata, Aves, Columbidae in a sugar-cane colony in South-eastern Brazil

    R. RANVAUD

    Full Text Available Farmers in the Paranapanema Valley (São Paulo, Brazil have reported problems with flocks of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata eating sprouting soybeans. In this region these birds breed colonially in sugar-cane, and eat four crop seeds, using 70% of the dry weight, in the following order of importance: maize, wheat, rice, and soybeans. Three weeds (Euphorbia heterophylla, Brachiaria plantaginea, and Commelina benghalensis were important. This information suggests that the doves adapted particularly well to the landscape created by the agricultural practices in the region, exploiting many available foods.

  3. Study of the agroindustrial alterations induced by the irradiated tissue culture in sugar cane, variety NA 56-79

    Figueiredo Junior, O.

    1991-01-01

    The use of plant tissue culture and the application of gamma radiation as mutation inducing agents, in the sugar cane plant, variety NA 5679, are studied. The variation in the contents of brix, pol, fiber, purity, extraction, phosphorus, nitrogen, reducing sugars as well as the morphological characteristics are analysed. The 'callus' obtained by the tissue culture were irradiated with 20, 40, and 60 Gy doses. The statistical analysis indicated that the method of tissue culture may, eventually, increase the contents of the technological parameters and the dosages of gamma radiation were not efficient for such purpose. (M.A.C.)

  4. ELISA-seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in draught horses in Greater Cairo, Egypt.

    Haridy, Fouad M; Shoukry, Nahla M; Hassan, Aly Awad; Morsy, Tosson A

    2009-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the important zoonotic parasites of worldwide. In this paper the seroprevalence of T. gondii in draught horses (3-15 years) including 90 males and 10 females in the first half of the year 2009 was studied. The result showed that the overall ELISA-T. gondii antibodies were 25% of the horses in Greater Cairo, 50% (females) and 22.2% (males).

  5. Ocorrência de bactérias diazotróficas em diferentes genótipos de cana-de-açúcar Occurrence of diazotrophic bacteria in different sugar cane genotypes

    FÁBIO BUENO DOS REIS JUNIOR

    2000-05-01

    survey were Azospirillum lipoferum, A. brasilense, A. amazonense, Herbaspirillum spp. and Acetobacter diazotrophicus. All these bacteria were present in the four genotypes and were found in all parts of the plants, except A. amazonense which was not isolated from leaf samples. The quantification of Herbaspirillum spp. and A. diazotrophicus showed that there were no significant differences among the sugar cane genotypes and, generally, the bacteria were in greater number in roots. While number of Herbaspirillum spp. remained stable during the life-cycle of the culture, the population of A. diazotrophicus suffer a decrease with the approach of the end of the commercial cycle. It is suggested that the differences in the rates of BNF found in sugar cane genotypes are not caused by differences in the presence or the number of the bacterial species studied here.

  6. [Male sexual and reproductive rights].

    Diaz, A M

    1998-06-01

    In late 1997, PROFAMILIA began a study of the role of male sexual and reproductive rights as part of the construction of new masculine identities. The work was approached from the disciplines of law and sociology. Patriarchy, as a system of domination, permeated most cultures, giving men a position of power in relation to women and leading to a series of violent and self-destructive male behaviors. The patriarchal system imposed aggressive, promiscuous, risky, and irresponsible behaviors on men, which created a climate for sexual abuse, unwanted pregnancy, propagation of sexually transmitted diseases, and violence against women. Changes in female roles have created the need for changes in male roles. The most visible sexual and reproductive needs of men were studied through literature reviews and semistructured questionnaires with PROFAMILIA clients. Among the needs identified were a new type of male participation in family and domestic life, a new content for male sexual freedom, greater participation of men in reproductive decisions and in raising their children, and new ways of relating to others and sharing feelings and emotions. The need to avoid behaviors that put health at risk was also identified. A review of the evolution of existing sexual and reproductive rights and of the documents that constitute their ethical and juridical framework led to the conclusion that the construction of new rights specifically for men is not necessary, or juridically possible, in the current historical context.

  7. Small cities face greater impact from automation.

    Frank, Morgan R; Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Youn, Hyejin; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-02-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. © 2018 The Authors.

  8. Small cities face greater impact from automation

    Sun, Lijun; Cebrian, Manuel; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-01-01

    The city has proved to be the most successful form of human agglomeration and provides wide employment opportunities for its dwellers. As advances in robotics and artificial intelligence revive concerns about the impact of automation on jobs, a question looms: how will automation affect employment in cities? Here, we provide a comparative picture of the impact of automation across US urban areas. Small cities will undertake greater adjustments, such as worker displacement and job content substitutions. We demonstrate that large cities exhibit increased occupational and skill specialization due to increased abundance of managerial and technical professions. These occupations are not easily automatable, and, thus, reduce the potential impact of automation in large cities. Our results pass several robustness checks including potential errors in the estimation of occupational automation and subsampling of occupations. Our study provides the first empirical law connecting two societal forces: urban agglomeration and automation's impact on employment. PMID:29436514

  9. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references

  10. Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics

  11. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objecties and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 refs

  12. Determination of the watering scheme for naturally grown cane sugar cultures during the maturing period in the north of the Ivory Coast

    Langellier, P.

    1980-01-01

    In order to produce sugar canes of optimum richness at the time of harvesting, it is necessary to determine the duration of the weaning period and the water requirements prior to this period. This problem was studied for a naturally grown cane with a NCo 376 cycle grown in the north of the Ivory coast. Water balances were determined using neutronic and tensiometric methods. It was thus possible to confirm the practical usefulness of tensiometers and to establish a weaning period of one month and a half and to determine a vegetation coefficient K=0.5 [fr

  13. Preparation of the teacher for the blind and visually impaired for teaching the techniques of the use of the white cane

    Lakota, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Due to the loss of vision an individual needs to acquire specific skills for a safe and effective travel, which he can gain through a systematic orientation and mobility training and the training of long cane techniques. Knowledge of the filed of orientation and mobility and long cane travel goes deep into history, but the systematic teaching only emerged after the Second World War, due to the needs of the blind war veterans. The safety and quality of life of an individual depend on the outco...

  14. The expansion of sugar cane cultivation in the Sao Paulo state, Brazil; A expansao da cultura canavieira no estado de Sao Paulo

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lora, Beatriz Acquaro; Monteiro, Maria Beatriz C.A.

    2008-07-01

    The present work aimed at analyze the sugar cane culture expansion in substitution to the other cultures in the Sao Paulo state from available georeferred and statistical data. The results had evidenced clear expansion of the sugar cane culture in the state, having totalized a growth of 26.04% in the period from 2003 to 2006, with expressive increase in the regions of President Prudente, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Barretos and Marilia that had, each one, more than 40% of increase in the period. Concomitantly it had reduction of the maize areas in the studied region and pasture areas stability, followed of a small increase of the cattle heads number. (author)

  15. Both male and female identity influence variation in male signalling effort

    Svensson P Andreas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male sexual displays play an important role in sexual selection by affecting reproductive success. However, for such displays to be useful for female mate choice, courtship should vary more among than within individual males. In this regard, a potentially important source of within male variation is adjustment of male courtship effort in response to female traits. Accordingly, we set out to dissect sources of variation in male courtship effort in a fish, the desert goby (Chlamydogobius eremius. We did so by designing an experiment that allowed simultaneous estimation of within and between male variation in courtship, while also assessing the importance of the males and females as sources of courtship variation. Results Although males adjusted their courtship depending on the identity of the female (a potentially important source of within-male variation, among-male differences were considerably greater. In addition, male courtship effort towards a pair of females was highly repeatable over a short time frame. Conclusion Despite the plasticity in male courtship effort, courtship displays had the potential to reliably convey information about the male to mate-searching females. Our experiment therefore underscores the importance of addressing the different sources contributing to variation in the expression of sexually-selected traits.

  16. Urban acid deposition in Greater Manchester

    Lee, D.S.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E. (Manchester Polytechnic, Manchester (UK). Acid Rain Information Centre)

    1989-08-01

    Data are presented from a monitoring network of 18 bulk precipitation collectors and one wet-only collector in the urban area of Greater Manchester, in the north west of England. Weekly samples were analysed for all the major ions in precipitation along with gaseous nitrogen dioxide concentrations from diffusion tubes. Statistical analysis of the data shows significant spatial variation of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity and calcium concentrations, and nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Calcium is thought to be responsible for the buffering of acidity and is of local origin. Wet deposition is the likely removal process for calcium in the atmosphere and probably by below cloud scavenging. Nitrate and ammonium concentrations and depositions show close spatial, temporal and statistical association. Examination of high simultaneous episodes of nitrate and ammonium deposition shows that these depositions cannot be explained in terms of trajectories and it is suggested that UK emissions of ammonia may be important. Statistical analysis of the relationships between nitrate and ammonium depositions, concentrations and precipitation amount suggest that ammonia from mesoscale sources reacts reversibly with nitric acid aerosol and is removed by below cloud scavenging. High episodes of the deposition of non marine sulphate are difficult to explain by trajectory analysis alone, perhaps suggesting local sources. In a comparison between wet deposition and bulk deposition, it was shown that only 15.2% of the non marine sulphur was dry deposited to the bulk precipitation collector. 63 refs., 86 figs., 31 tabs.

  17. Comportamento ingestivo em caprinos alimentados com dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar tratada com óxido de cálcio Ingestive behavior in goats fed diets containing sugar cane treated with calcium oxide

    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do tratamento da cana-de-açúcar com óxido de cálcio (CaO sobre o comportamento ingestivo em caprinos. Foram utilizados oito caprinos da raça Saanen, machos castrados, com peso corporal médio de 22,6 kg e 4 meses de idade, distribuídos em dois quadrados latinos 4 × 4, com quatro períodos experimentais de 14 dias. Os animais foram mantidos em baias individuais de 1,2 m², com piso ripado de madeira, providas de comedouros e bebedouros individuais. As dietas foram formuladas para ser isoproteicas e conter 14% de proteína bruta (PB e apresentaram 70% de cana-de-açúcar tratada com 0; 0,75; 1,5 ou 2,25% de óxido de cálcio (com base na matéria natural corrigida com 1% de ureia e 30% de concentrado fornecidas a vontade. A cana-de-açúcar com a adição das doses de óxido de cálcio, foi triturada em desintegradora estacionária, pesada e acondicionada em baldes plásticos de 50 L, tratada com o óxido de cálcio e fornecida aos animais após 24 horas de armazenamento. Os tempos despendidos em alimentação, ruminação (min/dia, min/kg MS e min/kg FDN e ócio (min/dia não foram afetados pela adição de óxido de cálcio à cana-de-açúcar. A adição de óxido de cálcio à cana-de-açúcar não influenciou a eficiência em alimentação e ruminação, mas provocou redução do tempo médio despendido por período de alimentação. O comportamento ingestivo de caprinos em crescimento não é afetado pela utilização de dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar tratada com até 2,25% de óxido de cálcio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of sugar cane treated with calcium oxide (CaO on ingestive behavior in goats. It was used eight castrated male Saanen goats, with 22.6 kg average body weight and at four months of age, distributed in two 4 × 4 Latin squares, with four 14-day experimental periods. The animals were kept in individual 1.2-m² stalls, with wood battened floor, provided with

  18. Mutation breeding in sugar-cane (Saccharum sp. hybrid) by gamma irradiation of cuttings and tissue cultures

    Siddiqui, S.H.; Javed, M.

    1982-01-01

    The sugar-cane variety Co 547, which is highly susceptible to smut disease (Ustilago scitaminea Syd.) and is also late maturing, was exposed to different doses of gamma radiation to study its radiosensitivity and to induce smut disease resistance and early maturity. The radiosensitivity of the variety showed that an optimum dose (LD 50 ) was 2.0 kR and the working dose range was found to be 1.5-3.0 kR, whereas doses higher than 4.0 kR drastically affected the growth and germination. A broad spectrum of variability in reaction to disease resistance was observed after radiation exposure. This facilitated the isolation of disease-resistant mutants. Twenty-three mutants showing varied reaction to smut under field infection conditions were tested for two years by artificial inoculation using the dip method. From these studies 15 stable mutants were isolated. Of 15 mutants, seven showed promising performance in cane yield and sucrose contents. The tissue culture technique was used to determine the potential of different commercial clones for callusing. In test explants callusing was achieved readily and proliferation of callus was fairly good in all the clones. (author)

  19. Evaluation of sugar-cane bagasse as bioadsorbent in the textile wastewater treatment contaminated with carcinogenic congo red dye

    Aline Sartório Raymundo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A methodology involving sugar cane bagasse bioadsorbent was developed in order to remove the carcinogenic congo red dye from aqueous medium. The results showed high efficiency with retention of 64 ± 6% in synthetic congo red solution and 94 ± 5% in effluent enriched with congo red, at 10.0 g of the bioadsorbent. The adsorption system provided a maximum adsorption capacity of 4.43 mg/g. Tests showed independence adsorption properties, when compared with the column flow rates. The treatment units could be operated with flexibility. From the results, it was possible to conclude that sugar cane bagasse could be an adequate bioadsorbent.Neste trabalho foi desenvolvida uma metodologia de remoção do corante carcinogênico congo red de sistemas aquosos. Os resultados mostraram uma elevada eficiência de remoção sendo de 64 ± 6% para soluções sintéticas de vermelho congo, e 94 ± 5% para efluente industrial enriquecido com vermelho congo utilizando 10 g de bioadsorvente. A capacidade máxima adsotiva encontrada foi de 4,43 mg/g. Os testes de percolação revelaram independência das porcentagens adsortivas em relação às vazões das colunas. Estes resultados indicam viabilidade de uso do bagaço de cana-de-açucar no tratamento de efluentes contendo o congo red.

  20. “Standardization of the pre cleaning of sugar cane juice for farms sugarcane san marcos-sucre”

    Adolfo Javier De Oro Torres

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Panela production in Colombia is 1'587 .893 tons / year, which represents 538.905 million pesos for 2002, figures that make this country the second largest producer of panela. Changing eating habits and lifestyle of the population, and the rapid social and technological developments that humanity is experiencing, are a threat to the survival of this agro-industry, which is still at an early stage of development, despite being the backbone of the economy of several regions of Colombia. The new trends in society towards natural food have created a potential market for the agroindustry. To this end it is hoped that this research may become an important tool to maintain and increase the consumption of traditional sugar cane, improving important aspects of the pre juice as one of the reasons the process of Panela production is slow, due to the deficiency that exists to send a clean cooking juice. For this purpose cane juice characterized and tested with models established by the CIMPA precleaning (Centre for Research and Improvement panelera Agribusiness to measure its speed precleaning and choose the best design. The information was tabulated and used to apply an experimental design that helped to interpret all the data, reaching conclusions and recommendations of this research.

  1. In vitro degradability and total gas production of biodiesel chain byproducts used as a replacement for cane sugar feed

    Milenna Nunes Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the in vitro degradability of dry matter and the total gas production of oil seed press cake from biodiesel production (Gossypium hirsutum L., Helianthus annuus L., Ricinus communis, Moringa oleífera L. and Pinhão manso curcas L. at four different levels of replacement (0, 30, 50, and 70% for cane sugar (Saccharum officinarum RB. in ruminant feed. Inocula were prepared using the ruminal fluid of three Holstein cows, and data were collected after 48 hours of incubation. The byproducts of Moringa had the highest degradability, and castor presented the lowest values at all evaluated levels of replacement. Castor bean byproduct showed the highest total gas production, cotton showed the lowest production, and the byproduct of Moringa at the 70% level showed the best ruminal fermentation results. These results demonstrate that the use of oil seed press cake from biodiesel production (Helianthus annuus L. and Ricinus communis can replace cane sugar in ruminant feed.

  2. Production, optimization and characterization of lactic acid by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NCIM 2025 from utilizing agro-industrial byproduct (cane molasses).

    Srivastava, Abhinay Kumar; Tripathi, Abhishek Dutt; Jha, Alok; Poonia, Amrita; Sharma, Nitya

    2015-06-01

    In the present work Lactobacillus delbrueckii was used to utilize agro-industrial byproduct (cane molasses) for lactic acid production under submerged fermentation process. Screening of LAB was done by Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR). Effect of different amino acids (DL-Phenylalanine, L-Lysine and DL-Aspartic acid) on the fermentation process was done by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to optimize the levels of three parameters viz. tween 80, amino acid and cane molasses concentration during fermentative production of lactic acid. Under optimum condition lactic acid production was enhanced from 55.89 g/L to 84.50 g/L. Further, validation showed 81.50 g/L lactic acid production. Scale up was done on 7.5 L fermentor. Productivity was found to be 3.40 g/L/h which was higher than previous studies with reduced fermentation time from 24 h to 12 h. Further characterization of lactic acid was done by FTIR.

  3. Characteristics and properties of sugar cane trash; Caracteristicas e propriedades do palhico de cana-de-acucar

    Innocente, Andreia F. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Saglietti, Jose R. C. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (IBB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias de Botucatu], E-mail: jroberto@ibb.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    The sugar cane processing wastes (bagasse and trash) became an important energy source which may be used in the electrical energy co-generation. This work is aimed to determine the trash physical properties, define its energetic value and ideal combination of bagasse + trash to use in conventional boilers. The trash productivity (20 t/ha), green (14.9%) and dry (71.3%) leaves, and remaining material (8.3%) was found one day after the cane crop. The trash moisture content was measured for each component and the final average value was 28.7%. The bagasse showed a 49.81% moisture average content. The higher heating value (HHV) was found for the bagasse (19.27 MJ/kg), trash (17.90 MJ/kg) and bagasse + trash mixtures in different proportions. For the lower heating value (LHV), we observed that the released energy in the trash (12.11 MJ/kg) was higher than the one in the bagasse (8.55 MJ/kg). This result was expected due to the higher bagasse moisture content. From the analysed mixtures, the 50%-50% one had the highest LHV (10.08 MJ/kg), showing that the trash left in the field after the crop may be efficient for the energy production mixed to the bagasse in 50% proportion. (author)

  4. Factors affecting aggressive behaviour of spawning migratory males towards mature male parr in masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou.

    Watanabe, M; Maekawa, K

    2010-07-01

    This study examined whether dominant migratory males (adopting fighter tactics) of the masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou would more aggressively attack large mature male parr (adopting sneaker tactics) as large mature male parr are expected to have the potential to cause a greater decrease in fertilization success. The frequency of aggressive behaviour was not related to the body size of males, and it increased with the frequency of interactions with mature male parr. The fertilization success of mature male parr was much lower than migratory males, and no relationship was observed between fertilization success and aggressive behaviour. The low fertilization success of mature male parr, despite infrequent aggressive behaviour by migratory males, indicates that there might be little benefit for migratory males to attack mature male parr more aggressively according to their body size.

  5. Grooming reciprocity in male Tibetan macaques.

    Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua; Garber, Paul A; Matheson, Megan D; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong

    2013-10-01

    In several primate species, adult males are reported to compete for access to reproductive partners as well as forming affiliative and cohesive social bonds based on the exchange of goods or services. We hypothesized that among a broad set of fitness-maximizing strategies, grooming can be used by individual adult males to enhance social relationships through reciprocity and/or through the interchange of grooming for a different but equivalent good or service. We used focal animal sampling and continuously recorded dyadic grooming and agonistic interactions to test a series of predictions regarding male social interactions in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China. During the non-mating season or between males of similar rank throughout the year, grooming effort given was matched by grooming effort received. However, lower ranking males groomed higher ranking males at a greater rate and/or for a longer duration during both the mating and non-mating periods. We found that higher ranking males directed less aggression towards males with whom they formed a frequent grooming partnership, indicating that grooming received was interchanged for increased social tolerance. These data suggest that individual male Tibetan macaques employ alternative social strategies associated with grooming reciprocity or interchange depending on dominance rank and rates of aggression, and highlight the importance of both biological markets and grooming reciprocity as behavioral mechanisms used by resident adult males to form and maintain affiliative social bonds. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Lifestyle causes of male infertility

    Damayanthi Durairajanayagam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the potential effects of lifestyle factors on male reproductive health. Evidence of a global decline in human sperm quality over recent decades has been accumulating. Environmental, occupational, and modifiable lifestyle factors may contribute to this decline. This review focuses on key lifestyle factors that are associated with male infertility such as smoking cigarettes, alcohol intake, use of illicit drugs, obesity, psychological stress, advanced paternal age, dietary practices, and coffee consumption. Other factors such as testicular heat stress, intense cycling training, lack of sleep and exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone use are briefly discussed. Materials and method: A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify and synthesise all relevant information, mainly from within the last decade, on the major lifestyle factors associated with male infertility and semen quality. Database searches were limited to reports published in English only. A manual search of bibliographies of the reports retrieved was conducted to identify additional relevant articles. Results: In all, 1012 articles were identified from the database search and after reviewing the titles and abstract of the reports, 104 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 30 reports were excluded as the full-text could not be retrieved and the abstract did not have relevant data. The remaining 74 reports were reviewed for data on association between a particular lifestyle factor and male infertility and were included in the present review. Conclusion: The major lifestyle factors discussed in the present review are amongst the multiple potential risk factors that could impair male fertility. However, their negative impact may well be mostly overcome by behaviour modification and better lifestyle choices. Greater awareness and recognition of the possible impact of these lifestyle factors are important amongst couples seeking

  7. Balanço de nitrogênio, concentrações de ureia e síntese de proteína microbiana em caprinos alimentados com dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar tratada com óxido de cálcio Nitrogen balance, urea concentrations and microbial protein synthesis in goats fed diets containing sugar cane treated with calcium oxide

    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da hidrólise da cana-de-açúcar com óxido de cálcio (CaO sobre o balanço de nitrogênio, as concentrações de ureia na urina e no plasma e a síntese na proteína microbiana em caprinos. Foram utilizados oito caprinos da raça Saanen, machos castrados, com peso corporal médio de 22,6 kg e 4 meses de idade, distribuídos em dois quadrados latinos 4 õ 4, em quatro períodos experimentais de 14 dias. As rações, formuladas para ser isoproteicas, com 14% de proteína bruta (PB, foram compostas de 70% de cana-de-açúcar (tratada com 0; 0,75; 1,5 ou 2,25% de óxido de cálcio na matéria natural e corrigida com 1% de ureia e 30% de concentrado e fornecidas à vontade. A cana-de-açúcar com óxido de cálcio foi picada em desintegrador estacionário, pesada, acondicionada em baldes plásticos de 50 litros e tratada com o óxido de cálcio para ser fornecida aos animais após 24 horas de armazenamento. O balanço de nitrogênio, as concentrações de ureia na urina e no plasma e as excreções de ureia na urina não foram influenciadas pelo tratamento da cana-de-açúcar com óxido de cálcio. A concentração de alantoína (% das purinas totais foi maior e a de ácido úrico menor nas dietas com cana-de-açúcar hidrolisada com óxido de cálcio em relação à cana in natura. A produção e a eficiência microbiana não foram afetadas pela adição de óxido de cálcio à cana-de-açúcar em dietas para caprinos em crescimento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of sugar cane hydrolysis with calcium oxide (CaO on nitrogen balance, concetrations of urea in the urine and in the plasma and synthesis in microbial protein in goats. Eight castrated male Saanen breed goats, with 22.6 kg average body weight and at four months of age were used distributed in two 4 õ 4 Latin squares, during four 14-day experimental periods. The rations which were formulated to be isoprotein, with 14% crude protein (CP

  8. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  9. [Male urinary incontinence

    Boer, T.A. de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment

  10. Self catheterization - male

    ... male; CIC - male Images Catheterization References Davis JE, Silverman MA. Urologic procedures. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  11. Prostatitis and male infertility.

    Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in the physicochemical characteristics, including flavour components and Maillard reaction products, of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar during storage.

    Asikin, Yonathan; Kamiya, Asahiro; Mizu, Masami; Takara, Kensaku; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji

    2014-04-15

    Changes in the quality attributes of non-centrifugal cane brown sugar represented by physicochemical characteristics as well as flavour components and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were monitored every 3 months over 1 year of storage. Stored cane brown sugar became darker, and its moisture content and water activity (a(w)) increased during storage. Fructose and glucose levels decreased as non-enzymatic browning via the Maillard reaction occurred in the stored sample, and a similar trend was also discovered in aconitic and acetic acids. Stored cane brown sugar lost its acidic and sulfuric odours (58.70-39.35% and 1.85-0.08%, respectively); subsequently, the nutty and roasted aroma increased from 26.52% to 38.59% due to the volatile MRPs. The browning rate of stored cane brown sugar was positively associated with the development of volatile MRPs (Pearson's coefficient = 0.860), whereas the amount of 3-deoxyglucosone, an intermediate product of the Maillard reaction, had a lower association with the brown colour due to its relatively slow degradation rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    2013-09-13

    ... Secretary Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... sugar at 1,117,195 metric tons raw value (MTRV). The Secretary also announces the establishment of the...

  14. Conversion of grazed pastures to energy cane as a biofuel feedstock alters the emission of GHGs from soils in Southeastern United States

    The cultivation of energy cane throughout the Southeastern United States may displace grazed pastures on organic soil (Histosols) to meet growing demands for biofuels. We combined results from a field experiment with a biogeochemical model to improve our understanding of how the conversion of pastur...

  15. Biogas production from waste water of sugar cane washing; Producao de biogas a partir de vinhoto e agua de lavagem de cana

    Rocha, Bruno Barbosa Moura [NATT Cooperativa Regional dos Produtores de Acucar e Alcool de Alagoas, Maceio, (Brazil); Viana, Cicero Eloi [Destilaria Paisa, Penedo, AL (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    Pilot and full scale experimental results ascertain the feasibility of anaerobic digestion of sugar cane liquid wastes and other effluents. In this paper the possibility of increasing the ethanol distilleries energy output with the utilization of anaerobic digestion is discussed. An analysis of the prospects of a wide use of this technology is also made. (author) 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Effect of the addition of sugar cane bagasse fibers in the composite with the copolymer vinyl ethylene-acetate (EVA) by solid state NMR

    Stael, Giovanni Chaves; D'Almeida, Jose Roberto Moraes; Menezes, Sonia M.C. de; Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno

    1997-01-01

    Natural fibers composites obtained form sugar cane bagasse and ethylene-vinyl-acetate copolymer were prepared with different compositions and analysed by solid state Carbon-13 NMR aiming the observation of molecular mobility, compatibility, and chemical structure of the different obtained composites. One objective of this work was to enable the future commercial application of these materials

  17. Strategies Needed to Maximize Industry Support for Breeding of Energy Cane as a Biomass Feedstock for Coal and other Co-Products

    Research and advanced breeding have demonstrated that energy cane possesses all of the attributes desirable in a biofuel feedstock: extremely good biomass yield in a small farming footprint; negative/neutral carbon footprint; maximum outputs from minimum inputs; well-established growing model for fa...

  18. Effect of Different Pretreatment of Sugar Cane Bagasse on Cellulase and Xylanases Production by the Mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 Grown in Submerged Culture

    Marli Camassola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main limitation to the industrial scale hydrolysis of cellulose is the cost of cellulase production. This study evaluated cellulase and xylanase enzyme production by the cellulolytic mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 using pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source. Most cultures grown with pretreated bagasse showed similar enzymatic activities to or higher enzymatic activities than cultures grown with cellulose or untreated sugar cane bagasse. Higher filter paper activity (1.253 ± 0.147 U·mL−1 was detected in the medium on the sixth day of cultivation when bagasse samples were pretreated with sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide, and anthraquinone. Endoglucanase enzyme production was also enhanced by pretreatment of the bagasse. Nine cultures grown with bagasse possessed higher β-glucosidase activities on the sixth day than the culture grown with cellulose. The highest xylanase activity was observed in cultures with cellulose and with untreated sugar cane bagasse. These results indicate that pretreated sugar cane bagasse may be able to serve as a partial or total replacement for cellulose in submerged fermentation for cellulase production using P. echinulatum, which could potentially reduce future production costs of enzymatic complexes capable of hydrolyzing lignocellulosic residues to form fermented syrups.

  19. Response of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tepritidae) to white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugar solutions with varying degrees of fermentation

    We measured the EAG response of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), the Caribbean fruit fly to six different sugars (white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugars). Wild and lab female flies of different physiological states (immature and mature) were tested in dry crystals and 10% su...

  20. Varicocele and male infertility

    Jensen, Christian Fuglesang S.; Østergren, Peter; Dupree, James M.

    2017-01-01

    The link between varicoceles and male infertility has been a matter of debate for more than half a century. Varicocele is considered the most common correctable cause of male infertility, but some men with varicoceles are able to father children, even without intervention. In addition, improvements...... if the male partner has a clinically palpable varicocele and affected semen parameters....

  1. Physical-chemical evaluation of commercial sugar cane spirits and the study about the quality and influence of the irradiation on the beverage and on the oak barrels

    Miranda, Mariana Branco de

    2005-01-01

    It was performed in this study a survey on the quality of commercial sugar cane spirits. The problems that the cachaca faces, mainly in the international market, are due to its low quality and to the lack of standardization of the drink. Commercial samples of sugar cane spirits were analyzed according to the standards of the identity and quality established by the Brazilian law (physical-chemical and chromatographic analyses). There was a great variation in the concentration of the compounds, except in alcoholic content, indicating that the Brazilian sugar cane spirit presents a great variability in the chemical composition among the brands. Among the 94 analyzed brands, 48% did not answer at least one of the standards. Another study performed was the influence of oak wood and the gamma radiation on the sugar cane spirits aging. The aging or maturation process of the drink improves the sensorial characteristics of the product, making it a qualified drink with a higher economical value. The traditional maturation method of the drinks is their interaction with the wood, but the irradiation can accelerate this aging process up. The sugar cane spirit and the oak barrels with 20 liters capacity were subjected to gamma irradiation treatments (150 Gy). Physical-chemical and chromatographic analyses were performed constantly for 390 days during the drink aging period. The sugar cane spirit and barrel irradiation didn't change most of volatile components of the same type coefficient such as volatile acidity, esters, superior alcohols and furfural during the 390 days. There are evidences, however, that some components parameters like aldehydes, tannin, color and copper concentration are in some way influenced, resulting in partial acceleration of the aging or maturing process. At the end of the aging period, a sensorial analysis was made using 30 non-trained people who tasted the drink. The aging process acceleration was confirmed by the sensorial evaluation, where the sugar

  2. Effects and feasibility of a standardised orientation and mobility training in using an identification cane for older adults with low vision: design of a randomised controlled trial

    van der Velde J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orientation and mobility training (O&M-training in using an identification cane, also called symbol cane, is provided to people with low vision to facilitate independent participation in the community. In The Netherlands this training is mainly practice-based because a standardised and validly evaluated O&M-training in using the identification cane is lacking. Recently a standardised O&M-training in using the identification cane was developed. This training consists of two face-to-face sessions and one telephone session during which, in addition to usual care, the client's needs regarding mobility are prioritised, and cognitive restructuring techniques, action planning and contracting are applied to facilitate the use of the cane. This paper presents the design of a randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate this standardised O&M-training in using the identification cane in older adults with low vision. Methods/design A parallel group randomised controlled trial was designed to compare the standardised O&M-training with usual care, i.e. the O&M-training commonly provided by the mobility trainer. Community-dwelling older people who ask for support at a rehabilitation centre for people with visual impairment and who are likely to receive an O&M-training in using the identification cane are included in the trial (N = 190. The primary outcomes of the effect evaluation are ADL self care and visual functioning with respect to distance activities and mobility. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, feelings of anxiety, symptoms of depression, fear of falling, and falls history. Data for the effect evaluation are collected by means of telephone interviews at baseline, and at 5 and 17 weeks after the start of the O&M-training. In addition to an effect evaluation, a process evaluation to study the feasibility of the O&M-training is carried out. Discussion The screening procedure for eligible participants started in November

  3. Effects and feasibility of a standardised orientation and mobility training in using an identification cane for older adults with low vision: design of a randomised controlled trial.

    Zijlstra, G A R; van Rens, G H M B; Scherder, E J A; Brouwer, D M; van der Velde, J; Verstraten, P F J; Kempen, G I J M

    2009-08-27

    Orientation and mobility training (O&M-training) in using an identification cane, also called symbol cane, is provided to people with low vision to facilitate independent participation in the community. In The Netherlands this training is mainly practice-based because a standardised and validly evaluated O&M-training in using the identification cane is lacking. Recently a standardised O&M-training in using the identification cane was developed. This training consists of two face-to-face sessions and one telephone session during which, in addition to usual care, the client's needs regarding mobility are prioritised, and cognitive restructuring techniques, action planning and contracting are applied to facilitate the use of the cane. This paper presents the design of a randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate this standardised O&M-training in using the identification cane in older adults with low vision. A parallel group randomised controlled trial was designed to compare the standardised O&M-training with usual care, i.e. the O&M-training commonly provided by the mobility trainer. Community-dwelling older people who ask for support at a rehabilitation centre for people with visual impairment and who are likely to receive an O&M-training in using the identification cane are included in the trial (N = 190). The primary outcomes of the effect evaluation are ADL self care and visual functioning with respect to distance activities and mobility. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, feelings of anxiety, symptoms of depression, fear of falling, and falls history. Data for the effect evaluation are collected by means of telephone interviews at baseline, and at 5 and 17 weeks after the start of the O&M-training. In addition to an effect evaluation, a process evaluation to study the feasibility of the O&M-training is carried out. The screening procedure for eligible participants started in November 2007 and will continue until October 2009. Preliminary findings

  4. Energy balances in sugar cane, coffee and natural vegetation in the northeastern side of the São Paulo state, Brazil

    de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Leivas, Janice F.; Ronquim, Carlos C.; Bayma-Silva, Gustavo; de C. Victoria, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Under land and climate change scenarios, agriculture has experienced water competitions among other sectors in the São Paulo state, Brazil. On the one hand, in several occasions, in the northeastern side of this state, nowadays sugar-cane is expanding, while coffee plantations are losing space. On the other hand, both crops have replaced the natural vegetation composed by Savannah and Atlantic Coastal Forest species. Under this dynamic situation, geosciences are valuable tools for evaluating the large-scale energy and mass exchanges between these different agro-ecosystems and the lower atmosphere. For quantification of the energy balance components in these mixed agro-ecosystems, the bands 1 and 2 from the MODIS product MOD13Q1 were used throughout SAFER (Surface Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving) algorithm, which was applied together with a net of 12 automatic weather stations, during the year 2015 in the main sugar cane and coffee growing regions, located at the northeastern side of the state. The fraction of the global solar radiation (RG) transformed into net radiation (Rn) was 52% for sugar cane and 53% for both, coffee and natural vegetation. The respective annual fractions of Rn used as λE were 0.68, 0.87 and 0.77, while for the sensible heat (H) fluxes they were 0.27, 0.07 and 0.16. From April to July, heat advection raised λE values above Rn promoting negative H, however these effects were much and less strong in coffee and sugar cane crops, respectively. The smallest daily Rn fraction for all agro-ecosystems was for the soil heat flux (G), with averages of 5%, 6% and 7% in sugar cane, coffee and natural vegetation. From the energy balance analyses, we could conclude that, sugar-cane crop presented lower annual water consumption than that for coffee crop, what can be seen as an advantage in situations of water scarcity. However, the replacement of natural vegetation by sugar cane can contribute for warming the environment, while when this

  5. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications.

  6. Effect of gamma-radiation on sugar cane spirit; Efeito da radiacao gama sobre a aguardente de cana de acucar

    Souza, Maria Djiliah Camargo Alvarenga de

    2000-07-01

    Irradiation has appeared as an alternative technique in food preservation. Besides cold decontamination irradiation can increase the quality of the food through the improvement of technological properties. For alcoholic beverages ionizing radiation has been applied to wines, whiskeys and beers in countries such as Thailand and China. In those cases, the purpose of the technique was to accelerate aging, to improve the sensory characteristics and as sterilization treatment. The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation on the quality of sugar cane spirit by gas chromatography analysis of volatile compounds and sensory analysis. The sugar cane spirit newly distilled samples and commercial samples from different states (SP, CE and RJ) were irradiated either in glass or oak cask (Quercus alba sp) in a {sup 60}Co Gammacell 220 at dose rate of 7.7 kGy/h and total doses of 0; 0.1; 2; 5 and 10 kGy. The analytical determination of esters, acetaldehyde and higher alcohols were performed in a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector employing a Megabore CG-745 column. The alcoholic graduation was measured in a Gay-Lussac alcohometer and the pH was determined using an Analyser 300 pHmeter. The color change was measured by the absorbance at 420 nm in a Shimadzu UV 1601 spectrophotometer. The acceptance tests related to odor, taste, global impression and color were analyzed using Tukey average tests (p {<=}0,05), ANOVA and histograms of panelists' scores frequency. A correlation between acetaldeyde, esters, higher alcohols levels and radiation dose was found in the sugar cane spirit newly distilled samples irradiated in oak cask and commercial samples. An increase in methanol concentration was verified, although remaining enough below the permissible limit accepted by the Brazilian Legislation. A decrease in the alcoholic graduation and pH in the irradiated samples was observed. A slight discoloration in the irradiated samples was verified

  7. Phosphorus in chronosequence of burnt sugar cane in Brazilian cerrado: humic acid analysis by {sup 31}P NMR; Fosforo em cronossequencia de cana-de-acucar queimada no cerrado goiano: analise de acidos humicos por RMN de {sup 31}P

    Rossi, Celeste Q.; Pereira, Marcos G.; Garcia, Andreas C., E-mail: mgervasiopereira@gmail.com [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Perin, Adriano; Gazolla, Paulo R. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia Goiano, Rio Verde, GO (Brazil); Gonzalez, Antonio P. [Universidade de Coruna, ES (Spain). Faculdad de Ciencias

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify, with the use of {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy, organic P species in humic acids (HA) in samples from Oxisol cultivated in chronosequence with sugar cane, pasture and Cerrado. The main forms of P-type found were orthophosphate, monoester-P (phosphate sugars) and P-diester (orthophosphate). The {sup 31}P NMR technique proved capable of identifying changes in the areas studied as a function of sugar cane burning time. In areas with 1 and 5 years of burnt cane, a decrease in recalcitrant organic P in humic acids indicated the need for use of P-humic substances for plant nutrition (author)

  8. Lifestyle causes of male infertility.

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

    2018-03-01

    To examine the potential effects of lifestyle factors on male reproductive health. Evidence of a global decline in human sperm quality over recent decades has been accumulating. Environmental, occupational, and modifiable lifestyle factors may contribute to this decline. This review focuses on key lifestyle factors that are associated with male infertility such as smoking cigarettes, alcohol intake, use of illicit drugs, obesity, psychological stress, advanced paternal age, dietary practices, and coffee consumption. Other factors such as testicular heat stress, intense cycling training, lack of sleep and exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone use are briefly discussed. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify and synthesise all relevant information, mainly from within the last decade, on the major lifestyle factors associated with male infertility and semen quality. Database searches were limited to reports published in English only. A manual search of bibliographies of the reports retrieved was conducted to identify additional relevant articles. In all, 1012 articles were identified from the database search and after reviewing the titles and abstract of the reports, 104 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 30 reports were excluded as the full-text could not be retrieved and the abstract did not have relevant data. The remaining 74 reports were reviewed for data on association between a particular lifestyle factor and male infertility and were included in the present review. The major lifestyle factors discussed in the present review are amongst the multiple potential risk factors that could impair male fertility. However, their negative impact may well be mostly overcome by behaviour modification and better lifestyle choices. Greater awareness and recognition of the possible impact of these lifestyle factors are important amongst couples seeking conception.

  9. Comparative analysis of different whole cell immobilized Aspergillus niger catalysts for gluconic acid fermentation using pretreated cane molasses

    Subba Rao, D. (Div. of Biochemical Engineering, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India)); Panda, T. (Div. of Biochemical Engineering, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India))

    1994-10-01

    To compare the efficiency of various whole cell immobilization techniques for the production of gluconic acid by Aspergillus niger were investigated using potassium ferrocyanide-treated cane molasses as the substrate. The techniques followed were: (1) Calcium alginate entrapment, (2) cross-linking with glutaraldehyde after cell permeabilization with (a) acetone, (b) toluene and (c) isopropanol and (3) development of granular catalyst. A comparative analysis of yield has revealed that calcium alginate entrapment was the most suitable technique as it had given the maximum product yield (0.40 g gluconic acid/g total reducing sugar supplied). The properties of immobilized A. niger in sodium alginate gel have been thoroughly investigated and compared with those of free cells under most suitable conditions of fermentation. (orig.)

  10. Binding of nickel and zinc ions with activated carbon prepared from sugar cane fibre (Saccharum officinarum L.

    E.U. Ikhuoria

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon was prepared from sugar cane fibre by carbonizing at 500 oC for 30 minutes. This was followed by activation with ammonium chloride. The activated carbon was characterised in terms of pH, bulk density, ash content, surface area and surface charge. Equilibrium sorption of nickel and zinc ions by the activated carbon was studied using a range of metal ion concentrations. The sorption data was observed to have an adequate fit for the Langmuir isotherm equation. The level of metal ion uptake was found to be of the order: Ni2+ > Zn2+. The difference in the removal efficiency could be explained in terms of the hydration energy of the metal ions. The distribution coefficient for a range of concentration of the metal ions at the sorbent water interface is found to be higher than the concentration in the continuous phase.

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site's tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site

  12. Use of sugar cane molasses and vinasse for proteic and lipidic biomass production by yeast and bacteria

    Marcia Luciana Cazetta

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the lipid and protein growth and synthesis capacity by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotoruda mucilaginosa, Candida lipolytica, a yeast isolated from vinasse lakes and Corynebacterium glutamicum in 10% molasses and sugar cane crude vinasse. All microorganisms grew both in molasses and vinasse. The highest growth in crude vinasse was performed by R. mucilaginosa (7.05 g/L, and in 10% molasses, by C. lipolytica, yielding 6,09 g/L. In vinasse, the highest protein content in the biomass was produced by S. cerevisiae (50.35% and in 10% molasses, by C. glutamicum (46,16%. C. lipolytica and R. mucilaginosa showed the best lipid production, above 20% and 18%, respectively, both in vinasse and in molasses.

  13. Improved glycerol production from cane molasses by the sulfite process with vacuum or continuous carbon dioxide sparging during fermentation

    Kalle, G.P.; Naik, S.C.; Lashkari, B.Z.

    1985-01-01

    The conventional sulfite process for glycerol production from molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. Hansen was modified to obtain product concentrations of up to 230 g/l and productivity of 15 g/l.d by fermenting under vacuum (80 mm) or with continuous sparging of CO2 (0.4 vvm). Under these conditions the requirement of sulfite for optimum production of glycerol was reduced by two thirds (20 g/l), the ethanol concentration in the medium was kept below 30 g/l and the competence of yeast cells to ferment was conserved throughout the fermentation period for up to 20 days. In addition to the above, the rate of incorporation of sulfite had a significant effect on glucose fermentation and glycerol yields. There was an optimal relationship between glycerol yields and the molar ratio of sulfite to glucose consumed, which for cane molasses was 0.67. This ratio was characteristic of the medium composition.

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

  15. Bioinspired electronic white cane implementation based on a LIDAR, a tri-axial accelerometer and a tactile belt.

    Pallejà, Tomàs; Tresanchez, Marcel; Teixidó, Mercè; Palacin, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    This work proposes the creation of a bioinspired electronic white cane for blind people using the whiskers principle for short-range navigation and exploration. Whiskers are coarse hairs of an animal's face that tells the animal that it has touched something using the nerves of the skin. In this work the raw data acquired from a low-size terrestrial LIDAR and a tri-axial accelerometer is converted into tactile information using several electromagnetic devices configured as a tactile belt. The LIDAR and the accelerometer are attached to the user's forearm and connected with a wire to the control unit placed on the belt. Early validation experiments carried out in the laboratory are promising in terms of usability and description of the environment.

  16. Bioinspired Electronic White Cane Implementation Based on a LIDAR, a Tri-Axial Accelerometer and a Tactile Belt

    Jordi Palacin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the creation of a bioinspired electronic white cane for blind people using the whiskers principle for short-range navigation and exploration. Whiskers are coarse hairs of an animal's face that tells the animal that it has touched something using the nerves of the skin. In this work the raw data acquired from a low-size terrestrial LIDAR and a tri-axial accelerometer is converted into tactile information using several electromagnetic devices configured as a tactile belt. The LIDAR and the accelerometer are attached to the user’s forearm and connected with a wire to the control unit placed on the belt. Early validation experiments carried out in the laboratory are promising in terms of usability and description of the environment.

  17. Radiation survey of dwellings in Cane Valley, Arizona and Utah, for use of uranium mill tailings. Final technical note

    Hans, J.M. Jr; Douglas, R.L.

    1975-08-01

    A radiation survey was conducted in the Cane Valley area of Monument Valley, on the Navajo Reservation, to identify dwellings in which uranium mill tailings had been used and to assess the resulting radiation exposures. Sixteen of the 37 dwellings surveyed were found to have tailings and/or uranium ore used in their construction. Tailings were used in concrete floors, exterior stucco, mortar for stone footings, cement floor patchings, and inside as cement 'plaster'. Uranium ore was found in footings, walls, and in one fireplace. Other structures, not used as dwellings, were also identified as having tailings and ore use. Gamma ray exposure rates were measured inside dwellings and structures identified as having tailings and/or ore used in their construction. Indoor radon progeny samples were collected in occupied dwellings where practical

  18. Parâmetros físico-químicos e cromatográficos em aguardentes de cana queimada e não queimada Physicochemical and chromatographic parameters in sugar cane brandies from burnt and non-burnt cane

    José Masson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar as concentrações de furfural, álcoois superiores, ésteres, aldeídos, cobre, acidez volátil, metanol e grau alcoólico de aguardentes obtidas de cana, com e sem queima prévia. Foram utilizadas amostras de aguardente artesanal de cana queimada e não queimada, fermentadas com a mesma levedura e destiladas no mesmo destilador; amostras de produtor de aguardente industrial de cana queimada e amostras obtidas de outro produtor artesanal de cana não queimada. As análises físico-químicas e cromatográficas (CG foram realizadas no Laboratório de Análise Físico-Química de Aguardente - LAFQA/DQI na Universidade Federal de Lavras. As concentrações de furfural apresentaram diferença significativa (PThis work was intended to evaluate the concentrations of furfural, higher alcohols, esters, aldehydes, copper, volatile acidity methanol and alcoholic degree of sugar cane brandies obtained from sugar cane both with and without previous burning. Samples of artisanal brandies from burnt and non-burnt cane, fermented with the same yeast and distilled in the same still, samples of burnt cane from an industrial brandy producer and samples of non-burnt cane obtained from another artisanal producer were utilized. The physicochemical and chromatographic (CG analyses were accomplished in the Sugar Cane Brandy Physicochemical Analysis Laboratory at the Federal University of Lavras. The concentrations of furfural showed significant differences (P<0.01 among the groups of artisanal brandies obtained from sugar cane with and without previous burning, coming from the same manufacturing process with means of 1.48 mg.100mL-1 ethanol and 0.63mg.100mL-1 ethanol, respectively, although they have been bellow the maximum limit (5.0 mg.100mL-1 ethanol allowed. The other components of the brandies studied were not affected significantly by the previous burning of sugar cane.

  19. Acute thermal stressor increases glucocorticoid response but minimizes testosterone and locomotor performance in the cane toad (Rhinella marina.

    Edward J Narayan

    Full Text Available Climatic warming is a global problem and acute thermal stressor in particular could be considered as a major stressor for wildlife. Cane toads (Rhinella marina have expanded their range into warmer regions of Australia and they provide a suitable model species to study the sub-lethal impacts of thermal stressor on the endocrine physiology of amphibians. Presently, there is no information to show that exposure to an acute thermal stressor could initiate a physiological stress (glucocorticoid response and secondly, the possible effects on reproductive hormones and performance. Answering these questions is important for understanding the impacts of extreme temperature on amphibians. In this study, we experimented on cane toads from Queensland, Australia by acclimating them to mildly warm temperature (25°C and then exposing to acute temperature treatments of 30°, 35° or 40°C (hypothetical acute thermal stressors. We measured acute changes in the stress hormone corticosterone and the reproductive hormone testosterone using standard capture and handling protocol and quantified the metabolites of both hormones non-invasively using urinary enzyme-immunoassays. Furthermore, we measured performance trait (i.e. righting response score in the control acclimated and the three treatment groups. Corticosterone stress responses increased in all toads during exposure to an acute thermal stressor. Furthermore, exposure to a thermal stressor also decreased testosterone levels in all toads. The duration of the righting response (seconds was longer for toads that were exposed to 40°C than to 30°, 35° or 25°C. The increased corticosterone stress response with increased intensity of the acute thermal stressor suggests that the toads perceived this treatment as a stressor. Furthermore, the results also highlight a potential trade-off with performance and reproductive hormones. Ultimately, exposure acute thermal stressors due to climatic variability could impact

  20. Acute thermal stressor increases glucocorticoid response but minimizes testosterone and locomotor performance in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    Narayan, Edward J; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Climatic warming is a global problem and acute thermal stressor in particular could be considered as a major stressor for wildlife. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) have expanded their range into warmer regions of Australia and they provide a suitable model species to study the sub-lethal impacts of thermal stressor on the endocrine physiology of amphibians. Presently, there is no information to show that exposure to an acute thermal stressor could initiate a physiological stress (glucocorticoid) response and secondly, the possible effects on reproductive hormones and performance. Answering these questions is important for understanding the impacts of extreme temperature on amphibians. In this study, we experimented on cane toads from Queensland, Australia by acclimating them to mildly warm temperature (25°C) and then exposing to acute temperature treatments of 30°, 35° or 40°C (hypothetical acute thermal stressors). We measured acute changes in the stress hormone corticosterone and the reproductive hormone testosterone using standard capture and handling protocol and quantified the metabolites of both hormones non-invasively using urinary enzyme-immunoassays. Furthermore, we measured performance trait (i.e. righting response score) in the control acclimated and the three treatment groups. Corticosterone stress responses increased in all toads during exposure to an acute thermal stressor. Furthermore, exposure to a thermal stressor also decreased testosterone levels in all toads. The duration of the righting response (seconds) was longer for toads that were exposed to 40°C than to 30°, 35° or 25°C. The increased corticosterone stress response with increased intensity of the acute thermal stressor suggests that the toads perceived this treatment as a stressor. Furthermore, the results also highlight a potential trade-off with performance and reproductive hormones. Ultimately, exposure acute thermal stressors due to climatic variability could impact amphibians at

  1. Energetic, ecologic and fluid-dynamic analysis of a fluidized bed gasifier operating with sugar cane bagasse

    Diniz Filho, Paulo Tasso; Silveira, Jose Luz; Tuna, Celso Eduardo; Lamas, Wendell de Queiroz

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to study the thermodynamic, ecological and fluid-dynamic aspects of a circulating fluidized bed gasifier using sugar cane bagasse as biomass, in order to estimate a model of its normal operation. In the initial stage was analysed the composition of biomass selected (sugar cane bagasse) and its lower heating value (LHV) was calculated. The energy balance of the gasifier was done, being the volumetric flow of air, synthesis gas and biomass estimated. Also the power produced by this gasifier was theoretically estimated. Then the circulating fluidized bed gasifier was designed for operation with approximately 100 kg/h of processed biomass. Cross-sectional area of the reactor, feeder size, diameter of the exit zone of the gases and minimum height of the expanded bed were selected. Some bed gasifier hydrodynamic factors were also studied. The minimum fluidization velocity, fluidization terminal velocity, and average fluidizing velocity were calculated, in order to understand the fluid-dynamic behaviour of gasification of this fuel. It was obtained a theoretical model that can support a possible prototype of circulating fluidized bed gasifier biomass. Finally, there were studied the ecological aspects of the gasifier, through an overall methodology. Ecological efficiencies were estimated for two scenarios: first considering the carbon cycle and thereafter disregarding the carbon cycle. In both cases, it can be proved the ecological viability of the project. -- Highlights: • we develop a methodology to size a fluidized bed gasifier. • we validate this methodology comparing to a fixed bed gasifier values. • we aggregate ecological efficiency to this methodology

  2. Simultaneous Determination of 14 Phenolic Compounds in Grape Canes by HPLC-DAD-UV Using Wavelength Switching Detection

    Ang Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper described a novel chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds such as gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric and salicylic acid, (+-catechin, (‒-epicatechin, rutin, morin, quercetin, coumarin and trans-resveratrol at their maximum absorbance wavelengths (MAW employing reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography combined with DAD and UV detection via detection wavelength switching. The method was based on MAW acquisition by DAD and quantification by UV. The separation process was performed on a Shim-Pack VP-ODS C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm held at 30 °C, utilizing 3.0% acetic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min in the gradient elution mode. The method was fully validated in terms of linearity (r2 > 0.9990, 10‒350 mg/L, precision (both intra-day and inter-day RSD < 4.22%, accuracy (97.31%‒104.66%, specificity, robustness (0.59% < RSD < 2.86%, limit of detection and quantification. The switching method significantly improved the sensitivities of most phenolics studied in comparison with the standard constant wavelength detection (280 nm. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of 14 phenolic compounds in 89 varieties of one-year-old Chinese grape one-year-canes. Grape canes contain many phenolics, especially trans-resveratrol, (‒-epicatechin, and (+-catechin.

  3. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  4. Male mating biology

    Howell, Paul I.; Knols, Bart G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings

  5. Male breast cancer

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980-2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  6. Leptin levels in infertile males

    Jahan, S.; Bibi, R.; Ahmed, S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the leptin levels in the serum of normal, sub fertile and infertile men. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Sciences Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad and Dr. Salma and Kafeel Medical Centre, Islamabad, from April to December 2009. Methodology: Serum leptin levels hormonal concentrations (LH, FSH and testosterone) were determined by EIA in 154 males including 24 (15.58%) fertile, 19 (12.34%) polyzoospermic (PZs), 26 (16.88%) teratozoospermic (TZs), 27 (17.53%) astheno-teratozoospermic (ATZs), 18 (11.69%) oligozoospermic (OZs), 18 (11.69%) oligo-astheno-teratozoospermic (OATZs), 11 (7.14%) obstructive azoospermic (OBST-AZOOs) and 11 (7.14%) non-obstructive azoospermic (NON-OBST-AZOOs). BMI was also determined, divided into groups of greater than 24. Hormonal concentrations were compared by ANOVA and correlation was performed by using Graph pad prism version 5. Results: Significantly high levels of leptin concentrations were found in fertile (p 24 compared to fertile and infertile male patients with BMI 24. Leptin showed a significant positive correlation with LH (p < 0.01) and FSH (p < 0.002) and a significant negative correlation with testosterone (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Abnormal leptin level was significantly associated with fertility problems in males. Providing a link between leptin and reproduction factors contributing in control of testosterone and gonadotropins secretion in many aspects depending on fertility status in male subjects. BMI appears to have significant association with serum leptin levels. (author)

  7. Demand for male contraception.

    Dorman, Emily; Bishai, David

    2012-10-01

    The biological basis for male contraception was established decades ago, but despite promising breakthroughs and the financial burden men increasingly bear due to better enforcement of child support policies, no viable alternative to the condom has been brought to market. Men who wish to control their fertility must rely on female compliance with contraceptives, barrier methods, vasectomy or abstinence. Over the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned most of its investment in the field, leaving only nonprofit organisations and public entities pursuing male contraception. Leading explanations are uncertain forecasts of market demand pitted against the need for critical investments to demonstrate the safety of existing candidate products. This paper explores the developments and challenges in male contraception research. We produce preliminary estimates of potential market size for a safe and effective male contraceptive based on available data to estimate the potential market for a novel male method.

  8. Male depression and suicide.

    Wålinder, J; Rutzt, W

    2001-03-01

    Based on the experiences of the Gotland Study that education of general practitioners about depressive illness resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the number of female suicides, leaving the rate of male suicides almost unaffected, we propose the concept of a male depressive syndrome. This syndrome comprises a low stress tolerance, an acting-out behavior, a low impulse control, substance abuse and a hereditary loading of depressive illness, alcoholism and suicide. This notion is supported by data from The Amish study as well as the concept of van Praag of a stress-precipitated, cortisol-induced, serotonin-related and anxiety-driven depressive illness most often seen in males. In order to identify depressed males, the Gotland Male Depression Scale has been developed. Some preliminary data using the scale in a group of alcohol-dependant patients are presented.

  9. BILATERAL ANTERIOR DISLOCATION OF SHOULDER WITH GREATER TUBEROSITY FRACTURE DUE TO HYPONATREMIA : A RARE PRESENTATION

    Sivananda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We here report a rare presentation of bilateral anterior dislocation of shoulder with associated fracture of greater tuberosity in a 38 year old male due to minor trauma which he sustained secondary to hyponatremia induced irritability. There was no associ ated rotator cuff tear which is often associated with BADS which makes this presentation unique. Unilateral dislocation of shoulder is a common condition which is frequently encountered in emergency trauma department. Anterior dislocation is more common th an posterior dislocation. However, simultaneous bilateral shoulder dislocations are usually posterior. Bilateral anterior dislocations with fractures of the greater tuberosity are even rarer and are usually associated with trauma or seizures

  10. Mechanical behavior of cementitious composites with processed sugar cane bagasse ashes; Comportamento mecanico de cimento Portland com cinza de bagaco de cana-de-acucar processada

    Bezerra, Augusto C.S.; Saraiva, Sergio L.C.; Sena, Natalia O.; Pereira, Gabriela M.; Rodrigues, Conrado S.; Ferreira, Maria C.N.F., E-mail: augustobezerra@des.cefetmg.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), MG (Brazil); Castro, Laurenn W.A.; Silva, Marcos V.M.S. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais, MG (Brazil); Gomes, Romero C. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil); Aguilar, Maria T.P. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), MG (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Sugar cane bagasse is waste from the sugar and ethanol industry and is primarily intended for burning in boilers to generate energy. As waste from the cogeneration of energy, sugar cane bagasse ashes (SCBA) are produced with no honorable destination. This paper studies the use of SCBA to partially replace Portland cement in producing cementitious composites. The ashes were processed by reburning and grinding, and after processing were characterized by a scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, laser granulometry, and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. After characterization, cement compounds were fashioned, replacing 0, 10, 20 and 30% of the cement with SCBA. The composites were mechanically evaluated by means of compression strength tests, tensile strength tests by bending. The results proved significant, indicating the possible use of SCBA when added to the cement on manufacture. (author)

  11. Improvement of the supply chain for the sugar cane exportation process employing discrete events simulation techniques - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.17468

    Maria Alejandra Guerrero Hernandez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Current paper proposes a reduction on all logistic costs involved in the sugar cane exportation process for an important medium-size cargo harbor in South America. The strategy consisted in studying and improving the efficiency of the logistics transportation flow of merchandise between the sugar cane mills and the cargo ports by employing discrete events simulation as a methodology and the ProModel software as a simulation platform. The simulated scenarios show 89% reductions in additional costs for inventory management; 50% of the resources used for loading the containers; and an 11.4% increment in the efficiency of operations. In addition, the new planning strategy was also evaluated with either a positive or negative variation of the demand. It should be underscored that the improved scenarios (out of those simulated do not involve investments in facilities or in machinery purchasing.  

  12. Influence of calcination temperature in pozolanicity of gray sugar cane bagasse; Influencia da temperatura de calcinacao na pozolanicidade da cinza de bagaco de cana-de-acucar (CBCA))

    Santos, T.A.; Argolo, R.A.; Andrade, H.M.C.; Ribeiro, D.V., E-mail: tiagoassuncao@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    BCA (Sugar Cane Bagasse) is burned in boilers in the process of electricity cogeneration causing the generation of CBCA (Gray Sugar Cane Bagasse), which is the final residue of sucroalcooeira industry. Currently, several studies seek alternative materials that can replace Portland cement, promoting discussions on the use of pozzolanic materials in cementitious matrices. Thus, this research seeks to analyze the pozzolanicity the CBCA, obtained by calcining the residue at different temperatures, to be determined by TG / DTG and DTA tests. For analysis of pozzolanicity these ashes were used electrical conductivity techniques, chemical titration NP EN 196-5, chapelle modified NBR 15895/2010 and the IAP method (Activity Index pozzolanic NBR:5752). The results obtained during the study demostraramm no difference between the ash calcined at temperatures of 500 ° C, 600 ° C and 700 ° C. (author)

  13. New process for the simultaneous manufacture of sugar alcohol, and paper pulp from sugar cane fiber in a self-sufficient factory: soda, potash, silica, and recovery

    Vazquez, E A

    1960-01-01

    Details of the process of bagasse digestion with potash to form paper pulp are discussed. The pulp is washed, after digestion, with a small quantity of warm water and after separation of the pulp vinasse residues from the alcohol fermentation of molasses are added. Silica is precipitated as silicates by the addition of Ca and Mg hydroxides; this prevents difficulties due to incrustration in further processing. The black liquor is concentrated in a sextuple-effect evaporator from 15 to 20% solids to 50 to 60% solids. The mass is mixed with bagacillo, cane leaves, etc., and burned in a furnace with a movable gridiron. The temperature in the furnace should be under 1000/sup 0/ to prevent fusion of the ash. The ash, containing mainly potash and some soluble silicates, is mixed with lime and recycled. The use of silica in cane growing is briefly discussed.

  14. Determination of trace elements in Egyptian cane sugar (Deshna Factories) by neutron activation, atomic absorption spectrophotometric and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric analysis

    Awadallah, R.M.; Sherif, M.K.; Mohamed, A.E.; Grass, F.

    1986-01-01

    Multielement instrumental neutron activation (INAA), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) and atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) analyses were utilized for the determination of Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, W and Zn in sugar cane plant, raw juice, juice in different stages, syrup, deposits, molasses, A, B and C sugar, refinery 1 and 2 sugar, and in soil samples picked up from the immediate vicinity of the cane plant roots at surface, 30 and 60 cm depth, respectively. (author)

  15. In situ determination of K, Ca, S and Si in fresh sugar cane leaves by handheld Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    Guerra, Marcelo B.B.; Adame, Andressa; Almeida, Eduardo de; Brasil, Marcos A.S.; Krug, Francisco J., E-mail: fjkrug@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Schaefer, Carlos E.G.R. [Departamento de Solos, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, MG (Brazil)

    2018-05-01

    A portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was evaluated in the in situ analysis of fresh sugar cane leaves for real time plant nutrition diagnosis. Fresh leaf fragments (n = 10 sugar cane varieties; 20 fragments per leaf; 2 measurement sites per fragment) were irradiated and the averaged data from X-ray characteristic emission lines intensities (for K, Ca, S and Si Kα lines) were in close agreement with mass fraction data obtained by a validated comparative method. The linear correlation coefficients (r) ranged from 0.9575 for Ca to 0.9851 for Si. The obtained limits of detection were at least two-fold lower than the critical nutrient levels. Manganese can also be properly determined, but validation still requires more robust calibration models. The proposed method is a straightforward approach towards the fast evaluation of the nutritional profile of plants avoiding time-consuming steps, which involve drying, grinding, weighing, and acid digestion. (author)

  16. Male Body Practices.

    Lefkowich, Maya; Oliffe, John L; Hurd Clarke, Laura; Hannan-Leith, Madeline

    2017-03-01

    The pressure on boys and men to engage in extensive body practices (e.g., closely monitored eating and exercise habits) and achieve ideal male bodies has grown significantly over the past 20 years. Central to the depiction of ideal male bodies and body practices are both the pursuit and achievement of lean and well-defined muscles. The labels "pitches," "purchases," and "performativities" were inductively derived from the literature, and used to describe the multifaceted connections between masculinities, muscularity, and idealized male body practices. "Pitches" distil how popular culture posture norms of masculinity, and manly bodies and behaviors attainable and necessary. "Purchases" refer to men's diverse buy-in to dominant discourses about acceptable male bodies and practices. "Performativities" chronicle how men embody and navigate gender norms as they evaluate their own bodies, behaviors, and eating habits and those of their peers. Based on findings from the current scoping review, future research could benefit from fully linking masculinities with the drive for muscularity to address health and social risks associated with the pursuit of the idealized male body. In highlighting the plurality of masculinities and the complexity of men's diverse identities, health care providers can better reach and support men. Focusing on, and celebrating, a wider range of male bodies could help recenter dominant discourses about how and whose bodies and experiences are idealized. The current scoping review article offers an overview of how masculinities and muscularity have been linked to male body practices, and recommendations to advance this emergent field.

  17. Wastewater use in agriculture: irrigation of sugar cane with effluents from the Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant in Cali, Colombia.

    Madera, C A; Silva, J; Mara, D D; Torres, P

    2009-09-01

    In Valle del Cauca, south-west Colombia, surface and ground waters are used for sugar cane irrigation at a rate of 100 m3 of water per tonne of sugar produced. In addition large quantities of artificial fertilizers and pesticides are used to grow the crop. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using effluents from the Cañaveralejo primary wastewater treatment plant in Cali. Sugar cane variety CC 8592 was planted in 18 box plots, each 0.5 m2. Six were irrigated with conventional primary effluent, six with chemically enhanced primary effluent and six with groundwater. For each set of six box plots, three contained local soil and three a 50:50 mixture of sand and rice husks. The three irrigation waters were monitored for 12 months, and immediately after harvest the sugar content of the sugar cane juice determined. All physico-chemical quality parameters for the three irrigation waters were lower than the FAO guideline values for irrigation water quality; on the basis of their sodium absorption ratios and electrical conductivity values, both wastewater effluents were in the USDA low-to-medium risk category C2S1. There was no difference in the sugar content of the cane juice irrigated with the three waters. However, the microbiological quality (E. coli and helminth numbers) of the two effluents did not meet the WHO guidelines and therefore additional human exposure control measures are required in order to minimize any resulting adverse health risks to those working in the wastewater-irrigated fields.

  18. Detección de coproantígenos de Echinococcus granulosus en canes de trabajadores de camales y comercializadores de vísceras en Lima metropolitana

    Veronika Merino

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Objetivo Demostrar la presencia de Echinoccocus granulosus en el hospedero definitivo en la ciudad de Lima, Perú, mediante la detección de antígenos del parásito en heces de canes pertenecientes a trabajadores y comercializadores de vísceras de centros de beneficio autorizados en Lima metropolitana. Métodos Se recolectaron muestras de heces de 58 canes, que fueron evaluadas utilizando la técnica coproELISA para detectar antígenos secretorio/excretorio de E. granulosus. Mediante una encuesta se obtuvo información sobre las prácticas de alimentación y el manejo de las mascotas. Resultados El 13,8% (8/58 de canes fue positivo a E. granulosus. En 27,8% (5/18 de los hogares se encontró al menos un animal positivo y se estimó que en las familias que tenían más de cuatro canes las posibilidades de encontrar al menos uno positivo eran mayores. En todos los hogares con al menos un can positivo sus mascotas se alimentaban con vísceras. El 94,4% (17 de los participantes no tenía conocimiento de las formas de contagio de la equinococosis. Conclusiones Los resultados muestran la presencia de hospederos definitivos en la zona urbana de Lima y subrayan la necesidad de aumentar la difusión de las prácticas para evitar la transmisión del parasito.

  19. Cellulase production by Penicillium funiculosum and its application in the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for second generation ethanol production by fed batch operation.

    Maeda, Roberto Nobuyuki; Barcelos, Carolina Araújo; Santa Anna, Lídia Maria Melo; Pereira, Nei

    2013-01-10

    This study aimed to produce a cellulase blend and to evaluate its application in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for second generation ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse. The sugar cane bagasse was subjected to pretreatments (diluted acid and alkaline), as for disorganizing the ligocellulosic complex, and making the cellulose component more amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis. The residual solid fraction was named sugar cane bagasse partially delignified cellulignin (PDC), and was used for enzyme production and ethanol fermentation. The enzyme production was performed in a bioreactor with two inoculum concentrations (5 and 10% v/v). The fermentation inoculated with higher inoculum size reduced the time for maximum enzyme production (from 72 to 48). The enzyme extract was concentrated using tangential ultrafiltration in hollow fiber membranes, and the produced cellulase blend was evaluated for its stability at 37 °C, operation temperature of the simultaneous SSF process, and at 50 °C, optimum temperature of cellulase blend activity. The cellulolytic preparation was stable for at least 300 h at both 37 °C and 50 °C. The ethanol production was carried out by PDC fed-batch SSF process, using the onsite cellulase blend. The feeding strategy circumvented the classic problems of diffusion limitations by diminishing the presence of a high solid:liquid ratio at any time, resulting in high ethanol concentration at the end of the process (100 g/L), which corresponded to a fermentation efficiency of 78% of the maximum obtainable theoretically. The experimental results led to the ratio of 380 L of ethanol per ton of sugar cane bagasse PDC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Salts, sodium and heavy metals, in residual waters not purified, used for the watering in the cultivation of the sugar cane

    Mendez Romero, Franky Jose; Gisbert-Banquert, Juan Manuel

    2003-01-01

    In a farm located in the Valencia Lake Basin at northeast of Guacara city (Venezuelan country) and cultivated with sugar cane crop was evaluated during the period of July of 1996 to June of 1997 the salinity, sodicity and heavy metals concentration In municipal wastewater using to gravity Irrigated the sugar cane crop. The salinity was determinate by EC direct measure In Irrigation water (standardized at 25 Celsius degrade, Sodium by flame photometer Calcium and Magnesium by titulation with EDTA Cd, Cu, Fe Mn, Ni and Zn, were determinate by AAS before water samples preserve with NO 3 H. The wastewater quality employ to Irrigated the sugar cane crop was evaluated by mean of the Venezuelan official water Laws (1995) and compare too with the directives mentioned by Pratt and Suarez (1990), Crook and Bastian (1992) and the Mexican official wastewater irrigation laws NOM-CAA-032-ECOL/93 (1993. The results showed than the wastewater using to Irrigated the sugar cane field crop could to bring light and strong problems by salinity and sodium so much the soil as the crop The concentration of Cd, Fe and Cu are outside Limits proposals the Venezuelan official water laws (1995) Also when comparing the results with the other directives all the heavy metal concentration are outside the proposed Limits In each one of them except the Zn. In any case, the continuous use of the wastewater treated in this research could generate potential contamination and toxicity problems by heavy metals, salts and sodium In the crop, soils, groundwater and the people

  1. Direct Zinc Determination in Brazilian Sugar Cane Spirit by Solid-Phase Extraction Using Moringa oleifera Husks in a Flow System with Detection by FAAS

    Alves, Vanessa N.; Borges, Simone S. O.; Coelho, Nivia M. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a method for the determination of zinc in Brazilian sugar cane spirit, (cachaça in Portuguese), using solid-phase extraction with a flow injection analysis system and detection by FAAS. The sorbent material used was activated carbon obtained from Moringa oleifera husks. Flow and chemical variables of the proposed system were optimized through multivariate designs. The factors selected were sorbent mass, sample pH, sample flow rate, and eluent concentration. The optimum extr...

  2. Technical paradigm and power cogeneration with bagasse from sugar cane in Goias, Brazil; Paradigma tecnico e cogeracao de energia com bagaco de cana-de-acucar em Goias

    Alves, Josias Manoel [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Goias, Goiania, GO (Brazil). Coord. de Saneamento Ambiental

    2006-07-01

    The article shows, through technical elements, the experience of producing electrical energy, generated in some sugar industrial plants of Goias state, by burning sugar cane husks in boilers. This production has supplied the state concessionaires, but the supply has declined in the past years, due to several issues, of economic, technical and political order. Despite of this, government has done some effort in reactivating the supply, by modifying the energy politics. (author)

  3. Male-Male Mounting Behaviour in Free-Ranging Golden Snub-Nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana).

    Fang, Gu; Dixson, Alan F; Qi, Xiao-Guang; Li, Bao-Guo

    2018-01-01

    An all-male band of golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) was observed for 3 months in the Qinling Mountains of China, in order to collect data on the frequencies and contextual significance of male-male mounting behaviour. Mounts occurred in a variety of affiliative, dominance-related and sexual contexts, which differed depending upon the ages of the males involved. Mounting behaviour in this group was mainly initiated by adults. Juveniles mounted each other in affiliative contexts (during play and prior to grooming). Adult males mounted subadult and juvenile partners in a greater variety of sociosexual contexts (dominance/rank-related interactions; reconciliation following agonistic encounters, and sometimes as a prelude to receiving grooming). However, subadults and juveniles were never observed to mount adults. In one dyad, involving an adult male and a subadult partner, mounting was more frequent and prolonged, and included bouts of deep pelvic thrusting. Two mounts resulted in anal intromissions and, in 1 case, the subadult partner exhibited seminal emission. Given that the study took place during the annual mating peak period of R. roxellana, it is possible that this unusual male-male sexual activity was related to the absence of mating opportunities for those adults that were excluded from 1-male units. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Discovering the desirable alleles contributing to the lignocellulosic biomass traits in Saccharum germplasm collections for energy cane improvement

    Wang, Jianping [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sandhu, Hardev [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-03-23

    1) The success in crop improvement programs depends largely on the extent of genetic variability available. Germplasm collections assembles all the available genetic resources and are critical for long-term crop improvement. This world sugarcane germplasm collection contains enormous genetic variability for various morphological traits, biomass yield components, adaptation and many quality traits, prospectively imbeds a large number of valuable alleles for biofuel traits such as high biomass yield, quantity and quality of lignocelluloses, stress tolerance, and nutrient use efficiency. The germplasm collection is of little value unless it is characterized and utilized for crop improvement. In this project, we phenotypically and genotypically characterized the sugarcane world germplasm collection (The results were published in two papers already and another two papers are to be published). This data will be made available for public to refer to for germplasm unitization specifically in the sugarcane and energy cane breeding programs. In addition, we are identifying the alleles contributing to the biomass traits in sugarcane germplasm. This part of project is very challenging due to the large genome and highly polyploid level of this crop. We firstly established a high throughput sugarcane genotyping pipeline in the genome and bioinformatics era (a paper is published in 2016). We identified and modified a software for genome-wide association analysis of polyploid species. The results of the alleles associated to the biomass traits will be published soon, which will help the scientific community understand the genetic makeup of the biomass components of sugarcane. Molecular breeders can develop markers for marker assisted selection of biomass traits improvement. Further, the development and release of new energy cane cultivars through this project not only improved genetic diversity but also improved dry biomass yields and resistance to diseases. These new cultivars

  5. Air pollution and respiratory hospital admissions in greater Paris: exploring sex differences.

    Granados-Canal, D J; Chardon, B; Lefranc, A; Gremy, I

    2005-01-01

    The subject of sex and gender differences is relevant to the study of health effects of environmental exposures. In this study the authors aim at assessing the differences that may exist between males and females regarding short-term air pollution health effects. They studied the short-term relationships between air pollution levels and respiratory hospital admissions in greater Paris area for patients older than 15 years between 2000 and 2003. They also conducted time series analyses by using generalized additive models. For an increase of 10 microg/m3 in the air pollutant levels, the increase in relative risk of hospitalization was higher for males than for females and was significant only for males. These differences may not result solely from differences in biological susceptibility to air pollution because other factors related to gender (differences in individual exposures, in health care management, and so on) may play a role.

  6. Thermoelectric power plant selection using natural gas and sugar cane bagasse; Selecao de centrais termoeletricas utilizando gas natural e bagaco de cana

    Leite, Caio de Paula [UNIFei - Faculdade de Engenharia Industrial, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: cleite@edu.fei.br; Tribess, Arlindo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: atribess@usp.br

    2003-07-01

    The electric power consumption in Brazil is growing about 4.2% a year, according to ELETROBRAS Decenal Plan in 1999. The capacity of installed electrical power is approximately 50000 MW, of the which 75% are in the Southern, South eastern and Middle western regions of the country. The growth rate indicates the need of an increase of the installed capacity of 2100 MW a year to avoid the risk of the lack of energy. On the other hand, the hydraulic potential sources of the region are practically exhausted and the government budget is low for this kind of investment. Therefore the solution would be the construction of new thermoelectric plants, with the possibility using natural gas and cane bagasse. The present work consists of the evaluation of the best option considering criterion of minimum cost for kWh of energy produced for the thermo electrical plants selection. Thermo economic analysis was made evaluating the production costs of steam and electricity in exergetic basis. The results show that the power cycles and cogeneration plants that use natural gas and cane bagasse are much more economical than the ones that just use natural gas, with 48% reduction of steam cost, 40% reduction of electricity cost generated b the steam turbine in the power cycle and 37% reduction of electricity cost generated by the steam turbine in the cogeneration plant, for cane bagasse price at 4 US$ /t and natural gas price at 140 US$/t. (author)

  7. Study of the effect of gamma irradiation (60CO) on the quality of sugar cane spirit and on the cask of maturation

    Miranda, M.B. de; Horii, J.; Alcarde, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    The ageing or maturing process of drink improves the sensorial characteristics of the product making it a qualified drink with higher economical value. The traditional maturing method of drinks involves their interaction with wood and irradiation can accelerate this ageing process. Sugar cane spirit and oak barrels with a 20 L capacity were treated using gamma irradiation (150 Gy). Physical-chemical and chromatographic analyses were constantly performed for 390 days during the drink ageing period. The sugar cane spirit and barrel irradiation did not change most volatile components of the same type coefficient such as volatile acidity, esters, superior alcohols and furfural throughout the 390 days. There is evidence, however, that some component parameters like aldehydes, tannin, color and copper concentration are in some way influenced resulting in partial acceleration of the ageing or maturing process. At the end of the ageing period, a sensorial analysis was made using 30 non-trained people who tasted the drink. The ageing process acceleration was confirmed by the sensorial evaluation, where the irradiated sugar cane spirit and/or barrel had higher approval regarding all parameters analyzed (scent, flavor and appearance) [pt

  8. Preliminary evaluation of organosolv pre-treatment of sugar cane bagasse for glucose production: Application of 2{sup 3} experimental design

    Mesa, Leyanis; Gonzalez, Erenio [Centro de Analisis de Procesos, Facultad de Quimica-Farmacia, Universidad Central de Las Villas, Villa Clara (Cuba); Ruiz, Encarnacion; Romero, Inmaculada; Cara, Cristobal; Castro, Eulogio [Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Felissia, Fernando [Programa de Celulosa y Papel, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Misiones (Argentina)

    2010-01-15

    Sugar cane bagasse was submitted to ethanol organosolv pre-treatment using a 50 L pilot scale reactor. The influence of catalyst type (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or NaOH), catalyst concentration (1.25-1.50% w/w on dry fiber) and process time (60-90 min) on total solid recovery and solid composition (glucan, xylan and lignin contents) was evaluated by performing a 2{sup 3} full factorial experimental design. Pretreated sugar cane bagasse was further submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis using a commercial enzyme complex formed by cellulases and {beta}-glucosidases. Glucose concentration in the hydrolysates and glucose yield referred to initial raw material (g glucose/100 g sugar cane bagasse) were used to select the best operational conditions. Concerning the enzymatic hydrolysis, the resulting glucose concentration was found to be dependent on xylan contents of the pretreated material. The modelling equations for glucose concentration and glucose yield as a function of the pre-treatment variables and the statistical analysis are also discussed in this work. (author)

  9. Simulation of the maximum yield of sugar cane at different altitudes: effect of temperature on the conversion of radiation into biomass

    Martine, J.F.; Siband, P.; Bonhomme, R.

    1999-01-01

    To minimize the production costs of sugar cane, for the diverse sites of production found in La Réunion, an improved understanding of the influence of temperature on the dry matter radiation quotient is required. Existing models simulate poorly the temperature-radiation interaction. A model of sugar cane growth has been fitted to the results from two contrasting sites (mean temperatures: 14-30 °C; total radiation: 10-25 MJ·m -2 ·d -1 ), on a ratoon crop of cv R570, under conditions of non-limiting resources. Radiation interception, aerial biomass, the fraction of millable stems, and their moisture content, were measured. The time-courses of the efficiency of radiation interception differed between sites. As a function of the sum of day-degrees, they were similar. The dry matter radiation quotient was related to temperature. The moisture content of millable stems depended on the day-degree sum. On the other hand, the leaf/stem ratio was independent of temperature. The relationships established enabled the construction of a simple model of yield potential. Applied to a set of sites representing the sugar cane growing area of La Réunion, it gave a good prediction of maximum yields. (author) [fr

  10. Study of the effect of gamma irradiation (60 Co) on the quality of sugar cane spirit and on the cask of maturation

    Miranda, Mariana Branco de; Horii, Jorge; Alcarde, Andre Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    The ageing or maturing process of drink improves the sensorial characteristics of the product making it a qualified drink with higher economical value. The traditional maturing method of drinks involves their interaction with wood and irradiation can accelerate this ageing process. Sugar cane spirit and oak barrels with a 20 L capacity were treated using gamma irradiation (150 Gy). Physical-chemical and chromatographic analyses were constantly performed for 390 days during the drink ageing period. The sugar cane spirit and barrel irradiation did not change most volatile components of the same type coefficient such as volatile acidity, esters, superior alcohols and furfural throughout the 390 days. There is evidence, however, that some component parameters like aldehydes, tannin, color and copper concentration are in some way influenced resulting in partial acceleration of the ageing or maturing process. At the end of the ageing period, a sensorial analysis was made using 30 non-trained people who tasted the drink. The ageing process acceleration was confirmed by the sensorial evaluation, where the irradiated sugar cane spirit and/or barrel had higher approval regarding all parameters analyzed (scent, flavor and appearance). (author)

  11. Cytogenetic of Male Infertility

    Lutfiye Ozpak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Infertility by definition, is not to get pregnant within one year of regular sexual relationship without protection, affects 15-20% of reproductive age couples. Approximately 30% of infertility cases are male originated. Male infertility is caused by endocrine-related genetic defects affecting urogenital system function. These defects adversely affect subsequent spermatogenesis, sexual function, fertility, early embryonic stage of sexual maturation. Autosomal and gonosomal, numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities and related syndromes rank at the top causes of male infertility. Similar chromosome abnormalities are detected in male infertility and as the rate of these abnormalities increase, it was found to reduce sperm count especially in azospermic and oligozoospermic men. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(4.000: 230-245

  12. Males and Eating Disorders

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  13. Male hypogonadism (Part 1)

    Ye.V. Luchytskyy; V.Yе. Luchytskyy; M.D. Tronko

    2017-01-01

    The first part of the review presents the current data on the prevalence of male hypogonadism, methods of diagnosing different forms of hypogonadism, describes the clinical manifestations of the most common forms of this disease.

  14. Male hypogonadism (Part 1

    Ye.V. Luchytskyy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the review presents the current data on the prevalence of male hypogonadism, methods of diagnosing different forms of hypogonadism, describes the clinical manifestations of the most common forms of this disease.

  15. Factors underlying male and female use of violent video games

    Hartmann, T.; Möller, I.; Krause, C.

    2015-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that males play violent video games more frequently than females, but factors underlying this gender gap have not been examined to date. This approach examines the assumption that males play violent video games more because they anticipate more enjoyment and less guilt from engaging in virtual violence than females. This may be because males are less empathetic, tend to morally justify physical violence more and have a greater need for sensation and aggression ...

  16. BECCS potential in Brazil: Achieving negative emissions in ethanol and electricity production based on sugar cane bagasse and other residues

    Moreira, José Roberto; Romeiro, Viviane; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Pacca, Sérgio A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Demonstrates the cost competitiveness of sugarcane based bioenergy carbon capture and storage (BECCS). • Evaluates BECCS based on emissions from sugar fermentation, which is the low hanging fruit technology available. • Determines the BECCS cost premium of CO_2, ethanol and electricity. • Determines the full mitigation potential of this BECCS technology in Brazil. • Discusses polices to enable BECCS deployment by society. - Abstract: Stabilization at concentrations consistent with keeping global warming below 2 °C above the pre-industrial level will require drastic cuts in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the century; net negative emissions approaching 2100 are required in the vast majority of current emission scenarios. For negative emissions, the focus has been on bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), where carbon-neutral bioenergy would be combined with additional carbon capture thus yielding emissions lower than zero. Different BECCS technologies are considered around the world and one option that deserves special attention applies CCS to ethanol production. It is currently possible to eliminate 27.7 million tonnes (Mt) of CO_2 emissions per year through capture and storage of CO_2 released during fermentation, which is part of sugar cane-based ethanol production in Brazil. Thus, BECCS could reduce the country’s emissions from energy production by roughly 5%. Such emissions are additional to those due to the substitution of biomass-based electricity for fossil-fueled power plants. This paper assesses the potential and cost effectiveness of negative emissions in the joint production system of ethanol and electricity based on sugar cane, bagasse, and other residues in Brazil. An important benefit is that CO_2 can be captured twice along the proposed BECCS supply chain (once during fermentation and once during electricity generation). This study only considers BECCS from fermentation because capturing

  17. Qualidade operacional do plantio de cana-de-açúcar Operational quality of sugar cane planting

    Fernando Ferraz Barros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O bom preparo e a correção do solo associados à boa qualidade no plantio são necessários para proporcionar o desenvolvimento adequado da cultura da cana-de-açúcar e garantir a longevidade das soqueiras. A importância das operações para o desenvolvimento na cultura e os custos associados a essas operações foram os fatores que determinaram o desenvolvimento deste trabalho cujo objetivo é o de identificar os fatores críticos e analisar o processo de melhoria contínua no plantio da cana-de-açúcar. Para tanto, o trabalho foi dividido em três etapas: definição dos itens críticos; avaliação dos itens e propostas de melhorias; início e avaliação das melhorias. Para a definição dos itens críticos aplicou-se o método FMEA e a avaliação foi realizada por meio de histogramas e carta de controle. No início das melhorias, utilizaram-se os princípios do ciclo PDCA. Obtiveram-se dezesseis itens críticos (potenciais de falha e desses, dois foram avaliados. Com as melhorias, observou-se aumento dos valores dentro dos limites desejados, porém os itens analisados foram considerados como instáveis.The association of a good soil correction and tillage, to the good quality on planting provides the proper development for sugar cane crop and guarantees the ratoon longevity. Cost and importance of these operations for the crop development determined the execution of this work, which is to identify the critical factors and to analyze the process of successive improvement on sugar cane planting. For that the work was divided in three steps: the definition of critical items; the evaluation of these items and purposes of improvement; establishment and evaluation of these improvements. FMEA method was applied for the definition of critical items and the evaluation was conducted by histograms and a control chart. Principles of PDCA circle were used for the establishment of these improvements. There were sixteen items (potentials of failures

  18. E-CANES: A Research Network dedicated to Electromagnetic Coupling of the Atmosphere With Near-Earth Space

    Hanuise, C.; Blanc, E.; Crosby, N.; Ebert, U.; Mareev, E.; Neubert, T.; Rothkaehl, H.; Santolik, O.; Yair, Y.; Gille, P.

    2008-12-01

    (GDRE) dubbed E-CANES (Electromagnetic Coupling of the Atmosphere with the Near-Earth Space). It complements in a synergistic way the former EU Research Training Network 'Coupling of Atmospheric Layers', the existing COST action on 'The physics of lightning flash and its effects', the ASIM Topical Team, and other programs. The main objective of E-CANES is to initiate and promote coordination activities towards a global research community on the subject. The first actions include the establishment of an organization for coordinating ground, balloon and aircraft observation campaigns, the creation of a community-wide mailing list and website, and the promotion and coordination of joint activities with other structures - to include new communities and to avoid the duplication of meetings and workshops.

  19. Male breast lesions

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Andrade, L.G. de; Carregal, E.; Marimatsu, R.I.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Roentgenographic examination of the male breast is an important aspect of the continued, intensive investigation of the radiologic morphology of the normal and diseased breast conducted in 17 cases examined at the Instituto Nacional do Cancer - RJ. It is purpose of this report to present the Roentgen appearance of various lesions of the male breast as they have been found in our practice and also to stress some of the difficulties in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. (author) [pt

  20. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  1. Efecto de la aplicación de la vacuna antirrábica en canes vacunados durante la campaña de vacunación antirrábica masiva en Lima, Perú en 1993

    Augusto Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se determinó la respuesta inmune posterior a las campañas de vacunación antirrábica masiva realizadas en 19 distritos de la ciudad de Lima. El método utilizado fue la titulación de anticuerpos antirrábicos mediante la prueba de seroneutralización en ratón, técnica que fue aplicado a un muestreo significativo de sueros sanguíneos de la población de canes vacunados. Se tomaron al azar 54 muestras de canes mordedores que ingresaron al Centro Antirrábico de Lima para ser observados clínicamente por un periodo de 10 días. De las 54 muestras de suero que se sometieron a la prueba, 28 (52% fueron positivos (títulos de 0,5-8,39 UI/ml, mientras que las 26 (48% muestras restantes dieron títulos inferiores a 0,5 UI/ml y otros fueron negativos a la prueba. El grupo etáreo de mayor muestreo correspondió a la población de canes de más riesgo (1-3 años de edad. En este grupo etáreo, 14 canes (26% presentaron sueros con títulos de protección, mientras que en 18 canes (33% la prueba fue negativa. En lo referente al sexo, el grupo de canes machos (considerados de mayor riesgo presentaron mayor número de individuos (44 canes respecto al grupo de hembras (10 canes y solo en 24 canes machos (45% dieron títulos de protección antirrábica. En conclusión, podemos decir que el 52% de canes vacunados durante las anteriores campañas de vacunación antirrábica masiva en la ciudad de Lima, en 1993, tuvieron títulos de anticuerpos protectores contra el virus de la rabia.

  2. Semen proteomics and male infertility.

    Jodar, Meritxell; Soler-Ventura, Ada; Oliva, Rafael

    2017-06-06

    Semen is a complex body fluid containing an admixture of spermatozoa suspended in secretions from the testes and epididymis which are mixed at the time of ejaculation with secretions from other accessory sex glands such as the prostate and seminal vesicles. High-throughput technologies have revealed that, contrary to the idea that sperm cells are simply a silent delivery vehicle of the male genome to the oocyte, the sperm cells in fact provide both a specific epigenetically marked DNA together with a complex population of proteins and RNAs crucial for embryogenesis. Similarly, -omic technologies have also enlightened that seminal fluid seems to play a much greater role than simply being a medium to carry the spermatozoa through the female reproductive tract. In the present review, we briefly overview the sperm cell biology, consider the key issues in sperm and seminal fluid sample preparation for high-throughput proteomic studies, describe the current state of the sperm and seminal fluid proteomes generated by high-throughput proteomic technologies and provide new insights into the potential communication between sperm and seminal fluid. In addition, comparative proteomic studies open a window to explore the potential pathogenic mechanisms of infertility and the discovery of potential biomarkers with clinical significance. The review updates the numerous proteomics studies performed on semen, including spermatozoa and seminal fluid. In addition, an integrative analysis of the testes, sperm and seminal fluid proteomes is also included providing insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate the generation, maturation and transit of spermatozoa. Furthermore, the compilation of several differential proteomic studies focused on male infertility reveals potential pathways disturbed in specific subtypes of male infertility and points out towards future research directions in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Multi-constituent identification in Australian cane toad skin extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry.

    Zulfiker, Abu Hasanat Md; Sohrabi, Mohsen; Qi, Ji; Matthews, Ben; Wei, Ming Q; Grice, I Darren

    2016-09-10

    Toad skins and venom glandular secretions have been widely used for centuries in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as cancer, sores, toothache, local inflammation and pain. The active chemical constituents from traditional oriental medicines have demonstrated potential in the development of effective therapeutic pharmaceuticals. Our primary focus in this research was to identify and characterise 'active' compounds or groups of compounds for their potential as neuropsychiatric disorder therapeutics. For this aim, we utilised a variety of solvents, i.e., the aqueous, 60% ethanol (aqueous) and acetic acid (aq) (at two different pHs) for extractions of Australian cane toad skins to identify chemical constituents. The identification of compounds was carried out using HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS based on the accurate mass measurement for molecular ions and MS/MS analysis, whereby accurate mass pseudo-molecular ions and characteristic fragment ions were compared to published reference data, including mass bank and NIST. As a result, we have to date identified 42 major constituents including alkaloids, amino acids, bufadienolides, fatty acids, nucleobases, nucleosides and vitamins mostly from the aqueous and 60% ethanol extracts. Of the 42 constituents identified, 29 were found in the aqueous extract, 35 were found in the ethanol (aq) extract and only 10 in the pH 1.78 acetic acid extract and 11 in the pH 2.17 acetic acid extract of the cane toad skins. Therefore, the aqueous and 60% ethanolic extracts present the greatest potential for ongoing development in our assays. There have been no previous reports on the identification of many of the constituents we have here identified in Australian cane toad skins. These findings, while somewhat consistent with findings in toad skins in other countries, identifies the presence of potential bioactive constituents. Our results showed that HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS is an effective method to

  4. The outcome of endoscopy for recalcitrant greater trochanteric pain syndrome.

    Drummond, James; Fary, Camdon; Tran, Phong

    2016-11-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS), previously referred as trochanteric bursitis, is a debilitating condition characterised by chronic lateral hip pain. The syndrome is thought to relate to gluteal tendinopathy, with most cases responding to non-operative treatment. A number of open and endoscopic surgical techniques targeting the iliotibial band, trochanteric bursa and gluteal tendons have, however, been described for severe recalcitrant cases. We report the outcomes of one such endoscopic approach here. We retrospectively reviewed 49 patients (57 operations) who had undergone endoscopic longitudinal vertical iliotibial band release and trochanteric bursectomy. Inclusion criteria included diagnosed GTPS with a minimum of six months of non-operative treatment. Exclusion criteria included concomitant intra- or extra-articular hip pathology and previous hip surgery including total hip arthroplasty. Outcomes were assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale, Oxford hip Score and International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33). The series included 42 females and 7 males with a mean age of 65.0 years (26.7-88.6). Mean follow-up time was 20.7 months (5.3-41.2). Eight patients had full thickness gluteal tendon tears, of which 7 were repaired. Adjuvant PRP was injected intraoperatively in 38 of 57 operations (67.2 %). At follow-up, overall mean Visual Analogue Scale values had decreased from 7.8 to 2.8 (p < 0.001), Oxford hip Scores had increased from 20.4 to 37.3 (p < 0.001) and iHOT-33 scores had increased from 23.8 to 70.2 (p < 0.001). Of the 57 operations performed, patients reported feeling very satisfied with the surgical outcome in 28 operations (49.1 %), satisfied in 17 operations (29.8 %) and less than satisfied in 12 operations (21.1 %). While the majority of patients with GTPS will improve with non-operative management, endoscopic iliotibial band release, trochanteric bursectomy and gluteal tendon repair is a safe and effective treatment for severe

  5. Sugar cane burning pollution and respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren in Monte Aprazível, Southeastern Brazil.

    Riguera, Denise; André, Paulo Afonso; Zanetta, Dirce Maria Trevisan

    2011-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and to analyze associated factors as well as peak expiratory flow measurements in schoolchildren. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with schoolchildren aged 10-14 from the city of Monte Aprazível (Southeastern Brazil). Questionnaires containing the asthma and rhinitis components of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood were administered. The questionnaires also approached sociodemographic characteristics, predisposing factors, and family and personal medical history. Repeated measures of peak expiratory flow in the children, and of black carbon and particulate matter (PM2,5) concentration levels were carried out. The prevalence of asthma and rhinitis symptoms was 11% and 33.2%, respectively. Among asthmatic children, 10.6% presented four or more wheezing attacks in the past 12 months. Past family history of bronchitis and rhinitis was associated with presence of asthma (p=0.002 and p PM2,5 concentration. The prevalence of asthma symptoms is below and that of rhinitis is above the national average. Although within acceptable levels, pollution in the cane trash burn season may contribute to the exacerbation of asthma and rhinitis episodes.

  6. GHG emissions from sugar cane ethanol, plug-in hybrids, heavy duty gasoline vehicles and hybrids, and materials review

    2006-01-01

    This report provided updates of new work and new pathways added to the GHGenius model. The model was developed to analyze lifecycle emissions of contaminants associated with the production and use of alternative and traditional fuels, and is continually updated with new information on existing processes and new innovations. The report described the addition of a new table that showed fossil energy consumption per km driven. New information on energy requirements to remove sulphur from gasoline and diesel fuel in Canada were provided. The report also outlined a new pathway for plug-in hybrid battery-powered electric and gasoline vehicles. Vehicle weight was included as part of the user inputs for modelling gasoline powered heavy duty vehicles and gasoline hybrid heavy duty vehicles. Information on the production processes of ethanol from sugar cane were also added to the model. Amounts of energy consumed during the manufacture of materials for vehicles were also incorporated into the model. 34 refs., 39 tabs., 6 figs

  7. Effect of trash mulch and nitrogen application on the cane yield and quality of sugarcane variety thatta

    Junejo, S.S.; Talpur, R.N.; Panhwar, M.

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the effect of trash mulching and nitrogen application on the growth, yield and quality of sugarcane variety Thatta-10 at NSCRI, farm Thatta during 2008-09. The data revealed that the plots received 225 N kg ha-1+ trash mulch showed better results for cane yield, yield components and quality. It was further observed that that the plots with mulching and varying doses of nitrogen application had low weed occurrence as compared to control plots receiving 175 N kg ha-1 + no mulch. Economic analysis data revealed that there could be no additional income from the control treatment, which received low levels of N fertilizer (175 N kg/ha) with no mulching. However, all fertilizer levels with trash mulching proved profitable over control. Moreover, better response was observed at 225 N kg/ha+ trash mulch. It is recommended that 225 N kg ha-1 application with trash mulch was profitable for obtaining maximum production of sugarcane. (author)

  8. Improved glycerol production from cane molasses by the sulfite process with vacuum or continuous carbon dioxide sparging during fermentation

    Kalle, G.P.; Naik, S.C.; Lashkari, B.Z.

    1985-01-01

    The conventional sulfite process for glycerol production from molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. Hansen was modified to obtain product concentrations of up to 230 g/l and productivity of 15 g/l x d by fermenting under vacuum (80 mm) or with continuous sparging of CO/sub 2/ (0.4 vvm). Under these conditions the requirement of sulfite for optimum production of glycerol was reduced by two thirds (20 g/l), the ethanol concentration in the medium was kept below 30 g/l and the competence of yeast cells to ferment was conserved throughout the fermentation period for up to 20 days. In addition to the above, the rate of incorporation of sulfite had a significant effect on glucose fermentation and glycerol yields. There was an optimal relationship between glycerol yields and the molar ratio of sulfite to glucose consumed, which for cane molasses was 0.67. This ratio was characteristic of the medium composition. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Mathematical Modeling of the Sugar Cane Bagasse'Sprotein Enrichment Processes, in a Packed-Bed Bioreactor

    Julián-Ricardo, María Caridad; Ramos-Sánchez, Luís Beltrán; Gómez-Atanay, Angel Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    The residues of the sugar industry have been used usually, natural or processed in the animal alimentation and have been developed a lot of investigations that are allowed obtain protein enrichment products by solid state fermentation (SSF). However, the technologies employed in the production have limitations that are restraining their commercialization. This investigation was directed to find solutions to the problems that are presented and was planted like objective: to obtain a mathematical model for the scale-up of the sugar cane bagasse´s protein enrichment process, using the Candida utilis yeast, in a packed-bed bioreactor. The experimental work was realized in a pilot plant that have an installation for the air accommodation that is supply for the bioreactor, with a temperature of 30 ºC and more than 95 % of relative humidity. Was used a mathematical model compose by a pseudohomogenous energy balance and the mass balances for the biomass overgrowth and the substrate consumption. The validation studies, was realized by the temperatures comparisons axially measure in 10 L and 100 L bioreactor and the temperatures calculated by simulation. The statistic treatment demonstrate that doesn´t exist big differences between the middle temperatures, for a confidence level of 95 %. The analysis realized to characterize the obtained product, allowed establish that it is accord to quality specifications of the protein enrichment feed. (author)

  10. Effects of rearing environment and population origin on responses to repeated behavioural trials in cane toads (Rhinella marina).

    Gruber, Jodie; Whiting, Martin J; Brown, Gregory; Shine, Richard

    2018-05-02

    Behavioural response to repeated trials in captivity can be driven by many factors including rearing environment, population of origin, habituation to captivity/trial conditions and an individual's behavioural type (e.g., bold versus shy). We tested the effect of rearing environment (captive raised common-garden versus wild-caught) and population origin (range-edge versus range-front) on the responses of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) to repeated exploration and risk-taking assays in captivity. We found that behavioural responses to identical assays performed on two occasions were complex and showed few consistent patterns based on rearing environment or population of origin. However, behavioural traits were repeatable across Trial Blocks when all sample populations were grouped together, indicating general consistency in individual toad behaviour across repeated behavioural assays. Our findings exemplify the complexity and unpredictability of behavioural responses and their effects on the repeatability and interpretation of behavioural traits across repeated behavioural assays in captivity. To meaningfully interpret the results from repeated behavioural assays, we need to consider how multiple factors may affect behavioural responses to these tests and importantly, how these responses may affect the repeatability of behavioural traits across time. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Liver histopathology in the cane toad, Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae), induced by Ortleppascaris sp. larvae (Nematoda: Ascarididae).

    Silva, Jefferson P E; da Silva, Djane C B; Melo, Francisco T V; Giese, Elane G; Furtado, Adriano P; Santos, Jeannie N

    2013-04-01

    Exposure to parasites is considered to be an important factor in the development of many diseases and histopathologies which are the result of the parasite-host interaction. The present study evaluated the impact of natural infection by larvae of Ortleppascaris sp. (Nematoda: Ascaridida) in the liver of the cane toad Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758). Larvae were encysted in nodules delimited by collagenous fibers and fibroblasts or freely within the hepatic parenchyma, provoking a clear response from the host. The histological examination of the liver revealed viable larvae in a number of different developmental stages, as well as cysts filled with amorphous material and cell residues and surrounded by dense fibrotic tissue. The infection of the liver by these larvae induces a significant increase in the area occupied by melanomacrophages and a reduction or deficit in the vascularization of the liver, hypertrophy of the hepatocytes, vacuolar bodies, and cytoplasmatic granules. Focal concentrations of inflammatory infiltrates were observed enclosing the unencapsulated early-stage larvae. These results indicate that infection by Ortleppascaris sp. induces severe physiological problems and histopathological lesions in the liver of R. marina .

  12. Compressive strength and interfacial transition zone of sugar cane bagasse ash concrete: A comparison to the established pozzolans

    Hussein, Asma Abd Elhameed; Shafiq, Nasir; Nuruddin, Muhd Fadhil

    2015-05-01

    Agricultural and industrial by-products are commonly used in concrete production as cement replacement materials (CRMs) or as admixtures to enhance both fresh and hardened properties of concrete as well as to save the environment from the negative effects caused by their disposal. Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) is one of the promising CRMs, it is used as a partial replacement of cement for producing concrete; properties of such concrete depend on the chemical composition, fineness, and burning temperature of SCBA. Approximately 1500 Million tons of sugarcane are annually produced over all the world which leave about 40-45% bagasse after juice crushing for sugar industry giving an average annual production of about 600 Million tons of bagasse as a waste material. This paper presents some findings on the effect of SCBA on workability, compressive strength and microstructure of interfacial zone of concrete and its performance is compared to some of the established CRMs namely Densified Silica Fume, Fly Ash and Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash.

  13. Energy advantage of the cane bagasse in the sugar industry; Aprovechamiento energetico del bagazo de cana en la industria azucarera

    Hernandez Alarcon, Luis Alfredo

    1987-07-01

    The present study makes an analysis of the production and bagasse consumption in Mexico related to those indicators that orient and affect the energy advantage of the fiber within the energy structure and global sugar energy balance of the subsector. This global analysis is at the end concentrated on the evaluation of the steam generators of a sugar mill, that like Casasano, went from burning fuel oil only until 1984, to use bagasse and fuel oil simultaneously, in an attempt to reduce its specific consumption of energy, one of highest of the country. In 1985, 534 thousand hectares of sugar cane were cultivated, with field yields of 68.8 t/ha; of the 36.7 million tons of sugar cane produced, 35.7 million were ground to obtain, in the 69 sugar mills of the country 3.2 million tons of sugar, satisfying again the national consumption. In the respective grinding season 12 million tons of humid bagasse, were produced, representing the 34.5% of the total of the ground sugar cane; this bagasse was dedicated in 86.5% to the steam generation, with an average ratio of 1.87 kg of steam per kg of bagasse, contributing to the own energy balance the equivalent of 17.6 trillions of kilo-calories that correspond to the 66.2% of the total energy consumed by the sector, being left 33.8% contributed by the fuel oil. In order to generate steam in 1985 it had installed 543859 HP used with a weighed efficiency of 56.4%, of which the 91.5% used, in simultaneous form bagasse and fuel oil, the 6.38% only fuel oil and the 2.1% only bagasse. In the Casasano sugar mill a similar analysis is made, ending with the evaluation of the energy advantage of the bagasse in their boilers and of the factors that influence the specific energy consumption. In this form one settles down that the bagasse consumed in the last grinding season was burned generating 1.4 kg of steam per kg of bagasse in boilers working with an efficiency of 60% and consuming 1,090 kg of steam per ton of ground sugar cane

  14. Genetically conditioned male sterility

    Gottschalk, W.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given of two different types of genetically controlled male sterility in higher plants. 'Functional' male sterility is due to the action of mutated genes causing a misdifferentiation of the growing points in different specific ways. Under the influence of the genes of this group either the stamens or the archespore tissues are not differentiated. In other mutants functionable male germ cells are produced but cannot be used for fertilizing the egg cells because the anthers remain closed or anthers and stigma become spatially separated from each other. Other genes of the group are responsible for the transformation of stamens into carpels, i.e. for a change of the hermaphrodite flower into a unisexually female one. A second type of male sterility is due to the action of ms genes influencing the course of micro-sporogenesis directly. They cause the breakdown of this process in a specific meiotic stage characteristic for each gene of the group. This breakdown is introduced by the degeneration of PMCs, microspores, or pollen grains preventing the production of male germ cells. The female sex organs remain uninfluenced. (author)

  15. Male sterility in chestnuts

    Omura, Mitsuo; Akihama, Tomoya

    1982-01-01

    A tentative plan was proposed for chestnuts based on their pollination system, male sterility and restoration. The studies on the male sterility of 1,063 cultivars and clones suggested that there were three types of male sterility. The first type (S-1) was characterized by antherless florets. In the second type (S-2), the catkins fell before anthesis, and the third type (S-3) appeared to develop normally in gross floral morphology, but the pollen grains were abnormal in shape and did not have germinating power. In an interspecific hybrid clone CS which belonged to S-1, fertility was restored in an open pollinated progeny. The use of CS and CSO-3 with its restored fertility, permitted the planning of breeding the chestnut hybrid cultivars propagated by seeds. The inbred clones with either male sterility or restorer genes are first bred mainly by back crossing with parents with favorable pollen. The clones are selected individually for early bearing, wasp and disease resistance, and restoration. Then, the hybrid seedling lines between male sterile and restorer inbreds are evaluated for homogenity in nut characters and tree habits. Next, the hybrid seedling lines selected will be examined for crop yield, vigor and cross compatibility. The superior seedling lines are finally selected, and the parental inbreds are grafted to be propagated for seed production orchards. (Kaihara, S.)

  16. Grizzly bear denning chronology and movements in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Haroldson, Mark A.; Ternent, Mark A.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2002-01-01

    Den entrance and emergence dates of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem are important to management agencies that wish to minimize impacts of human activities on bears. Current estimates for grizzly bear denning events use data that were collected from 1975–80. We update these estimates by including data obtained from 1981–99. We used aerial telemetry data to estimate week of den entry and emergence by determining the midpoint between the last known active date and the first known date denned, as well as the last known date denned and the first known active date. We also investigated post emergence movement patterns relative to den locations. Mean earliest and latest week of den entry and emergence were also determined. Den entry for females began during the fourth week in September, with 90% denned by the fourth week of November. Earliest den entry for males occurred during the second week of October, with 90% denned by the second week of December. Mean week of den entry for known pregnant females was earlier than males. Earliest week of den entry for known pregnant females was earlier than other females and males. Earliest den emergence for males occurred during the first week of February, with 90% of males out of dens by the fourth week of April. Earliest den emergence for females occurred during the third week of March; by the first week of May, 90% of females had emerged. Male bears emerged from dens earlier than females. Denning period differed among classes and averaged 171 days for females that emerged from dens with cubs, 151 days for other females, and 131 days for males. Known pregnant females tended to den at higher elevations and, following emergence, remained at higher elevation until late May. Females with cubs remained relatively close (grizzly bear populations in the southern Rocky Mountains. 

  17. Male gametogenesis without centrioles.

    Riparbelli, Maria Giovanna; Callaini, Giuliano

    2011-01-15

    The orientation of the mitotic spindle plays a central role in specifying stem cell-renewal by enabling interaction of the daughter cells with external cues: the daughter cell closest to the hub region is instructed to self-renew, whereas the distal one starts to differentiate. Here, we have analyzed male gametogenesis in DSas-4 Drosophila mutants and we have reported that spindle alignment and asymmetric divisions are properly executed in male germline stem cells that lack centrioles. Spermatogonial divisions also correctly proceed in the absence of centrioles, giving rise to cysts of 16 primary spermatocytes. By contrast, abnormal meiotic spindles assemble in primary spermatocytes. These results point to different requirements for centrioles during male gametogenesis of Drosophila. Spindle formation during germ cell mitosis may be successfully supported by an acentrosomal pathway that is inadequate to warrant the proper execution of meiosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A tortoiseshell male cat

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells....... Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  19. How Effective Is Male Contraception?

    ... Twitter Pinterest Email Print How effective is male contraception? Not all contraceptive methods are appropriate for all ... is best for them. For men, methods of contraception include male condoms and sterilization (vasectomy). Male condoms. ...

  20. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

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