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Sample records for male endurance athletes

  1. Within-Day Energy Deficiency and Metabolic Perturbation in Male Endurance Athletes.

    Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Fahrenholtz, Ida; Stenqvist, Thomas B; Sylta, Øystein; Melin, Anna

    2018-06-26

    Endurance athletes are at increased risk of relative energy deficiency associated with metabolic perturbation and impaired health. We aimed to estimate and compare within-day energy balance in male athletes with suppressed and normal resting metabolic rate (RMR) and explore whether within-day energy deficiency is associated with endocrine markers of energy deficiency. A total of 31 male cyclists, triathletes, and long-distance runners recruited from regional competitive sports clubs were included. The protocol comprised measurements of RMR by ventilated hood and energy intake and energy expenditure to predict RMR ratio (measured RMR/predicted RMR), energy availability, 24-hr energy balance and within-day energy balance in 1-hr intervals, assessment of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and blood plasma analysis. Subjects were categorized as having suppressed (RMR ratio   0.90, n = 11) RMR. Despite there being no observed differences in 24-hr energy balance or energy availability between the groups, subjects with suppressed RMR spent more time in an energy deficit exceeding 400 kcal (20.9 [18.8-21.8] hr vs. 10.8 [2.5-16.4], p = .023) and had larger single-hour energy deficits compared with subjects with normal RMR (3,265 ± 1,963 kcal vs. -1,340 ± 2,439, p = .023). Larger single-hour energy deficits were associated with higher cortisol levels (r = -.499, p = .004) and a lower testosterone:cortisol ratio (r = .431, p = .015), but no associations with triiodothyronine or fasting blood glucose were observed. In conclusion, within-day energy deficiency was associated with suppressed RMR and catabolic markers in male endurance athletes.

  2. Within-day energy deficiency and metabolic perturbation in male endurance athletes

    Torstveit, Monica K; Fahrenholtz, Ida Lysdahl; Stenqvist, Thomas B

    2018-01-01

    ) or normal RMR (RMRratio> 0.90, n=11). Despite no observed differences in 24-hour EB or EA between the groups, subjects with suppressed RMR spent more time in an energy deficit exceeding 400 kcal (20.9 [18.8 - 21.8] hours vs. 10.8 [2.5 - 16.4], P=0.023), and had larger single-hour energy deficits compared......Endurance athletes are at increased risk of relative energy deficiency associated with metabolic perturbation and impaired health. We aimed to estimate and compare within-day energy balance (WDEB) in male athletes with suppressed and normal resting metabolic rate (RMR) and explore if within...... to subjects with normal RMR (3265 ± 1963 kcal vs. -1340 ± 2439, P=0.023). Larger single-hour energy deficits were associated with higher cortisol levels (r = -0.499, P=0.004) and a lower testosterone:cortisol ratio (r = 0.431, P=0.015), but no associations with T3or fasting blood glucose were observed...

  3. Hypertension in master endurance athletes.

    Hernelahti, M; Kujala, U M; Kaprio, J; Karjalainen, J; Sarna, S

    1998-11-01

    To determine whether long-term very vigorous endurance training prevents hypertension. Cohort study of master orienteering runners and controls. Finland. In 1995, a health questionnaire was completed by 264 male orienteering runners (response rate 90.4%) who had been top-ranked in competitions among men aged 35-59 years in 1984, and by 388 similarly aged male controls (response rate 87.1%) who were healthy at the age of 20 years and free of overt ischemic heart disease in 1985. Self-report of medication for hypertension. In the endurance athlete group, the crude prevalence (8.7%) of subjects who had used medication for hypertension was less than a third of that in the control group (27.8%). Even after adjusting for age and body mass index, the difference between the groups was still significant (odds ratio for athletes 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.25-0.76). Long-term vigorous endurance training is associated with a low prevalence of hypertension. Some of the effect can be explained by a lower body mass, but exercise seems to induce a lower rate of hypertension by other mechanisms than by decreasing body weight

  4. Can persistence hunting signal male quality? A test considering digit ratio in endurance athletes.

    Daniel Longman

    Full Text Available Various theories have been posed to explain the fitness payoffs of hunting success among hunter-gatherers. 'Having' theories refer to the acquisition of resources, and include the direct provisioning hypothesis. In contrast, 'getting' theories concern the signalling of male resourcefulness and other desirable traits, such as athleticism and intelligence, via hunting prowess. We investigated the association between androgenisation and endurance running ability as a potential signalling mechanism, whereby running prowess, vital for persistence hunting, might be used as a reliable signal of male reproductive fitness by females. Digit ratio (2D:4D was used as a proxy for prenatal androgenisation in 439 males and 103 females, while a half marathon race (21km, representing a distance/duration comparable with that of persistence hunting, was used to assess running ability. Digit ratio was significantly and positively correlated with half-marathon time in males (right hand: r = 0.45, p<0.001; left hand: r = 0.42, p<0.001 and females (right hand: r = 0.26, p<0.01; left hand: r = 0.23, p = 0.02. Sex-interaction analysis showed that this correlation was significantly stronger in males than females, suggesting that androgenisation may have experienced stronger selective pressure from endurance running in males. As digit ratio has previously been shown to predict reproductive success, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that endurance running ability may signal reproductive potential in males, through its association with prenatal androgen exposure. However, further work is required to establish whether and how females respond to this signalling for fitness.

  5. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  6. Reproductive function in male endurance athletes: sperm analysis and hormonal profile.

    Lucía, A; Chicharro, J L; Pérez, M; Serratosa, L; Bandrés, F; Legido, J C

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of endurance exercise on male reproductive function (sex hormones and seminograms). Professional cyclists [n = 12; mean age 24 +/- 2 (SD) yr], elite triathletes (n = 9; 26 +/- 3 yr), recreational marathon runners (n = 10; 32 +/- 6 yr), and sedentary subjects (control group; n = 9; 30 +/- 4 yr) were selected as subjects. for each group, the following parameters were measured three times during the sports season (training period: winter; competition period: spring; resting period: fall): percentage of body fat, hormonal profile (resting levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, total and free testosterone, and cortisol), and seminograms (quantitative parameters sperm volume and sperm count; qualitative parameters: sperm motality and morphology). The following comparisons were made in the measured parameters: 1) within groups (longitudinal design) and 2) between groups in each of the three periods (cross-sectional design) and over time (mixed design). In addition, both the volume and the intensity of training of each subject during the season (except for the control group) were quantified. Despite significant differences in training characteristics and in body fat percent, in general no significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in hormonal profiles or in semen characteristics between or within groups. A lower sperm motility (46.2 +/- 19.5%), however, was observed in the cyclists during the competition period when compared either with the other groups during this same period (P < 0.05) or with themselves during the other two periods of study (P < 0.01). In any case, the later phenomenon was attributed to physical factors associated with cycling, such as mechanical trauma to the testis and/or increased gonadal temperature. In conclusion, our findings suggest that endurance exercise does not adversely affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis.

  7. Mental toughness latent profiles in endurance athletes.

    Zeiger, Joanna S; Zeiger, Robert S

    2018-01-01

    Mental toughness in endurance athletes, while an important factor for success, has been scarcely studied. An online survey was used to examine eight mental toughness factors in endurance athletes. The study aim was to determine mental toughness profiles via latent profile analysis in endurance athletes and whether associations exist between the latent profiles and demographics and sports characteristics. Endurance athletes >18 years of age were recruited via social media outlets (n = 1245, 53% female). Mental toughness was measured using the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire (SMTQ), Psychological Performance Inventory-Alternative (PPI-A), and self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). A three-class solution emerged, designated as high mental toughness (High MT), moderate mental toughness (Moderate MT) and low mental toughness (Low MT). ANOVA tests showed significant differences between all three classes on all 8 factors derived from the SMTQ, PPI-A and the RSE. There was an increased odds of being in the High MT class compared to the Low MT class for males (OR = 1.99; 95% CI, 1.39, 2.83; Pathletes who were over 55 compared to those who were 18-34 (OR = 2.52; 95% CI, 1.37, 4.62; Pathletes. High MT is associated with demographics and sports characteristics. Mental toughness screening in athletes may help direct practitioners with mental skills training.

  8. Mental toughness latent profiles in endurance athletes.

    Joanna S Zeiger

    Full Text Available Mental toughness in endurance athletes, while an important factor for success, has been scarcely studied. An online survey was used to examine eight mental toughness factors in endurance athletes. The study aim was to determine mental toughness profiles via latent profile analysis in endurance athletes and whether associations exist between the latent profiles and demographics and sports characteristics. Endurance athletes >18 years of age were recruited via social media outlets (n = 1245, 53% female. Mental toughness was measured using the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire (SMTQ, Psychological Performance Inventory-Alternative (PPI-A, and self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE. A three-class solution emerged, designated as high mental toughness (High MT, moderate mental toughness (Moderate MT and low mental toughness (Low MT. ANOVA tests showed significant differences between all three classes on all 8 factors derived from the SMTQ, PPI-A and the RSE. There was an increased odds of being in the High MT class compared to the Low MT class for males (OR = 1.99; 95% CI, 1.39, 2.83; P<0.001, athletes who were over 55 compared to those who were 18-34 (OR = 2.52; 95% CI, 1.37, 4.62; P<0.01, high sports satisfaction (OR = 8.17; 95% CI, 5.63, 11.87; P<0.001, and high division placement (OR = 2.18; 95% CI, 1.46,3.26; P<0.001. The data showed that mental toughness latent profiles exist in endurance athletes. High MT is associated with demographics and sports characteristics. Mental toughness screening in athletes may help direct practitioners with mental skills training.

  9. Endurance running performance in athletes with asthma.

    Freeman, W; Williams, C; Nute, M G

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory assessment was made during maximal and submaximal exercise on 16 endurance trained male runners with asthma (aged 35 +/- 9 years) (mean +/- S.D.). Eleven of these asthmatic athletes had recent performance times over a half-marathon, which were examined in light of the results from the laboratory tests. The maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) of the group was 61.8 +/- 6.3 ml kg-1 min-1 and the maximum ventilation (VEmax) was 138.7 +/- 24.7 l min-1. These maximum cardio-respiratory responses to exercise were positively correlated to the degree of airflow obstruction, defined as the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (expressed as a percentage of predicted normal). The half-marathon performance times of 11 of the athletes ranged from those of recreational to elite runners (82.4 +/- 8.8 min, range 69-94). Race pace was correlated with VO2max (r = 0.863, P less than 0.01) but the highest correlation was with the running velocity at a blood lactate concentration of 2 mmol l-1 (r = 0.971, P less than 0.01). The asthmatic athletes utilized 82 +/- 4% VO2max during the half-marathon, which was correlated with the %VO2max at 2 mmol l-1 blood lactate (r = 0.817, P less than 0.01). The results of this study suggest that athletes with mild to moderate asthma can possess high VO2max values and can develop a high degree of endurance fitness, as defined by their ability to sustain a high percentage of VO2max over an endurance race. In athletes with more severe airflow obstruction, the maximum ventilation rate may be reduced and so VO2max may be impaired. The athletes in the present study have adapted to this limitation by being able to sustain a higher %VO2max before the accumulation of blood lactate, which is an advantage during an endurance race. Therefore, with appropriate training and medication, asthmatics can successfully participate in endurance running at a competitive level.

  10. Bioavailability of orange juice (poly)phenols: the impact of short-term cessation of training by male endurance athletes.

    Pereira-Caro, Gema; Polyviou, Thelma; Ludwig, Iziar A; Nastase, Ana-Maria; Moreno-Rojas, José Manuel; Garcia, Ada L; Malkova, Dalia; Crozier, Alan

    2017-09-01

    Background: Physical exercise has been reported to increase the bioavailability of citrus flavanones. Objective: We investigated the bioavailability of orange juice (OJ) (poly)phenols in endurance-trained males before and after cessation of training for 7 d. Design: Ten fit, endurance-trained males, with a mean ± SD maximal oxygen consumption of 58.2 ± 5.3 mL · kg -1 · min -1 , followed a low (poly)phenol diet for 2 d before drinking 500 mL of OJ containing 398 μmol of (poly)phenols, of which 330 μmol was flavanones. After the volunteers stopped training for 7 d the feeding study was repeated. Urine samples were collected 12 h pre- and 24 h post-OJ consumption. Bioavailability was assessed by the quantitative analysis of urinary flavanone metabolites and (poly)phenol catabolites with the use of high-pressure liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Results: During training, 0-24-h urinary excretion of flavanone metabolites, mainly hesperetin-3'- O -glucuronide, hesperetin-3'-sulfate, naringenin-4'- O -glucuronide, naringenin-7- O -glucuronide, was equivalent to 4.2% of OJ flavanone intake. This increased significantly to 5.2% when OJ was consumed after the volunteers stopped training for 7 d. Overall, this trend, although not significant, was also observed with OJ-derived colonic catabolites, which, after supplementation in the trained state, were excreted in amounts equivalent to 51% of intake compared with 59% after cessation of training. However, urinary excretion of 3 colonic catabolites of bacterial origin, most notably, 3-(3'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)hydracrylic acid, did increase significantly when OJ was consumed postcessation compared with precessation of training. Data were also obtained on interindividual variations in flavanone bioavailability. Conclusions: A 7-d cessation of endurance training enhanced, rather than reduced, the bioavailability of OJ flavanones. The biological significance of these differences and whether they

  11. Effects of hypobaric Endurance Training on Graded Exercise Induced Lymphocyte Mobilization, Senescence and Their Surface Thiol Levels in Elite Male Athletes

    Karim - Azali Alamdari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of each hypoxemic exercise session or overall training period still remains to be more elucidated in elite athletes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hypobaric endurance training on lymphocytes mobilization and senescence and also their surface Thiol levels following to graded exercise test (GXT in elite male athletes. Fourty six volunteer subjects were randomized into normobaric control (NC, hypobaric control (HC, normobaric exercise (NE and hypobaric exercise (HE groups. The NE and HE groups were exposed to homeland (700 mmHg and 2800 meters above sea level (570 mmHg simulated barometric pressures respectively, while HC and NC groups were remained sedentary at the same conditions. The training was included on treadmill running for four weeks, five sessions/week, 45 min/ session. Each session was consisted of three-min warmed up period, three cycles of 10-min running at 65% maximal heart rate reserve (HRRmax interspersed with a three-min active recovery and three-min cool-down running period. Two GXTs were performed before (baseline and after the interventions and blood samples were collected three times at both occasions. In all groups, mobilization of CD8+lymphocytes and senescent phenotype population of their both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets were increased after both GXTs, however; these changes were reversed following to recovery period(P<0.05. Moreover, HE were decreased lymphocytes surface thiol levels before and after the second GXT (P<0.05.it can be concluded that HE has no additional benefits for elite athletes regarded to lymphocytes mobilization and senescence, however; it may render them to oxidative stress.  

  12. The Effects of 8 Eight Weeks Resistance Versus Endurance Training on Lipocalin-2 level in Non-Athlete Male Students

    A Mohammadi Domiyeh

    2012-12-01

    Resistance training performed 3 three d/wk at an intensity corresponding to 65–80% of one-repetition maximum, 8-12 repetitions and 2-4 sets for 8 weeks. Endurance training group, underwent an 8-week intervention with a frequency of 3 d/wk at an intensity corresponding to 65, – 80% maximum heart rate for 20- – 38 minutes. Expressing lipocalin-2 plasma levels in samples were measured before and after intervention. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Plasma expressing level of lipocalin 2 in the control group before and after intervention, were respectively 11./1 ± 4./5 & 13./05 ± 2/.04, µg/L, respectively. The plasma level of lipocalin 2 and in the endurance training group, were 22./7 ± 8/.3 & and 17/.7 ± 6/.8 , and while these level werein the resistance training group 22/.2 ± 6/.2 & 19/.9 ± 6/.5 in the resistance training group. micrograms per liter, which was not statistically different.The differences between three groups were not statistically significant (p>0/.05. Conclusion: This study showed that 8 eight weeks of endurance & and resistance exercise training has no effect on lipocalin-2 plasma levels. Key words: Resistance training, Endurance training, Lipocalin-2, Insulin Resistance

  13. Effect of salbutamol on neuromuscular function in endurance athletes.

    Decorte, Nicolas; Bachasson, Damien; Guinot, Michel; Flore, Patrice; Levy, Patrick; Verges, Samuel; Wuyam, Bernard

    2013-10-01

    The potential ergogenic effects of therapeutic inhaled salbutamol doses in endurance athletes have been controversially discussed for decades. We hypothesized that salbutamol inhalation may increase peripheral muscle contractility, reduce fatigability, and improve force recovery after a localized exercise in endurance athletes. Eleven healthy, nonasthmatic male athletes with high aerobic capacities were recruited to be compared in a double-blinded, randomized crossover study of two dose levels of salbutamol (200 and 800 μg) and a placebo administered by inhalation before a quadriceps fatigue test. Subjects performed an incremental exercise protocol consisting in sets of 10 intermittent isometric contractions starting at 20% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) with 10% MVC increment until exhaustion. Femoral nerve magnetic stimulation was used during and after MVC to evaluate neuromuscular fatigue after each set, at task failure, and after 10 and 30 min of recovery. Initial MVC and evoked muscular responses were not modified with salbutamol (P > 0.05). The total number of submaximal contractions until task failure significantly differed between treatments (placebo, 72 ± 7; 200 µg, 78 ± 8; and 800 µg, 82 ± 7; P 0.05). Voluntary activation was unaffected by the fatiguing task and treatments (P > 0.05). Supratherapeutic inhaled doses of β2-agonists increased quadriceps endurance during an incremental and localized fatiguing task in healthy endurance-trained athletes without significant effect on neuromuscular fatigue. Further studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms.

  14. Master athletes are extending the limits of human endurance

    Romuald Lepers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased participation of master athletes (i.e. > 40 years old in endurance and ultra-endurance events (> 6h duration over the past few decades has been accompanied by an improvement in their performances at a much faster rate than their younger counterparts. Ageing does however result in a decrease in overall endurance performance. Such age-related declines in performance depend upon the modes of locomotion, event duration and gender of the participant. For example, smaller age-related declines in cycling performance than in running and swimming have been documented. The relative stability of gender differences observed across the ages suggests that the age-related declines in physiological function did not differ between males and females. Among the main physiological determinants of endurance performance, the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max appears to be the parameter that is most altered by age. Exercise economy and the exercise intensity at which a high fraction of VO2max can be sustained (i.e. lactate threshold, seem to decline to a lesser extent with advancing age. The ability to maintain a high exercise-training stimulus with advancing age is emerging as the single most important means of limiting the rate of decline in endurance performance. By constantly extending the limits of (ultra-endurance, master athletes therefore represent an important insight into the ability of humans to maintain physical performance and physiological function with advancing age.

  15. Nutritional habits among high-performance endurance athletes

    Marius Baranauskas

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The diet of highly trained endurance athletes does not fully meet their requirements and in this situation cannot ensure maximum adaptation to very intense and/or long-duration physical loads. The diet of highly trained endurance athletes must be optimized, adjusted and individualized. Particular attention should be focused on female athletes.

  16. Maximal power output during incremental exercise by resistance and endurance trained athletes.

    Sakthivelavan, D S; Sumathilatha, S

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the maximal power output by resistance trained and endurance trained athletes during incremental exercise. Thirty male athletes who received resistance training (Group I) and thirty male athletes of similar age group who received endurance training (Group II) for a period of more than 1 year were chosen for the study. Physical parameters were measured and exercise stress testing was done on a cycle ergometer with a portable gas analyzing system. The maximal progressive incremental cycle ergometer power output at peak exercise and carbon dioxide production at VO2max were measured. Highly significant (P biofeedback and perk up the athlete's performance.

  17. Masked hypertension and cardiac remodeling in middle-aged endurance athletes

    Trachsel, Lukas; Carlen, Frederic; Brugger, Nicolas Jacques; Seiler, Christian; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Extensive endurance training and arterial hypertension are established risk factors for atrial fibrillation. We aimed to assess the proportion of masked hypertension in endurance athletes and the impact on cardiac remodeling, mechanics, and supraventricular tachycardias (SVT). METHODS: Male participants of a 10-mile race were recruited and included if office blood pressure was normal (

  18. Urine concentrations of oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate urine concentrations of 8 mg oral salbutamol in samples collected after intense exercise in endurance athletes. Nine male endurance athletes with a VO2max of 70.2 ± 5.9 mL/min/kg (mean ± SD) took part in the study. Two hours after administration of 8 mg oral...

  19. Characterisation of baroreflex sensitivity of recreational ultra-endurance athletes.

    Foulds, Heather J A; Cote, Anita T; Phillips, Aaron A; Charlesworth, Sarah A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Burr, Jamie F; Drury, Chipman Taylor; Ngai, Shirley; Fougere, Renee J; Ivey, Adam C; Warburton, Darren E R

    2014-01-01

    Altered autonomic function has been identified following ultra-endurance event participation among elite world-class athletes. Despite dramatic increases in recreational athlete participation in these ultra-endurance events, the physiological effects on these athletes are less known. This investigation sought to characterise changes in surrogate measures of autonomic function: heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability (BPV) and baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) following ultra-endurance race participation. Further, we sought to compare baseline measures among ultra-endurance athletes and recreationally active controls not participating in the ultra-endurance race. Recreational ultra-endurance athletes (n = 25, 44.6 ± 8.2 years, 8 females) and recreationally active age, sex and body mass index matched controls (n = 25) were evaluated. Measurements of HRV, BPV and BRS were collected pre- and post-race for recreational ultra-endurance athletes and at baseline, for recreationally active controls. Post-race, ultra-endurance athletes demonstrated significantly greater sympathetic modulation [low frequency (LF) power HRV: 50.3 ± 21.6 normalised units (n.u.) to 65.9 ± 20.4 n.u., p = 0.01] and significantly lower parasympathetic modulation [high frequency (HF) power HRV: 45.0 ± 22.4 n.u. to 23.9 ± 13.1 n.u., p HRV and BPV measures. Recreational ultra-endurance athletes experienced increased sympathetic tone and declines in BRS post-race, similar to previously reported elite world-class ultra-endurance athletes, though still within normal population ranges.

  20. Bone health in endurance athletes: runners, cyclists, and swimmers.

    Scofield, Kirk L; Hecht, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Weight-bearing exercise has been recognized widely to be beneficial for long-term bone health. However inherent differences in bone-loading characteristics and energy expenditure during participation in endurance sports place many endurance athletes at a relative disadvantage with regard to bone health compared with other athletes. Adolescents and adults who participate in endurance sports, such as running, and non-weight-bearing sports, such as biking and swimming, often have lower bone mineral density (BMD) than athletes participating in ball and power sports, and sometimes their BMD is lower than their inactive peers. Low BMD increases the risk of stress and fragility fractures, both while an athlete is actively competing and later in life. This article reviews the variable effects of distance running, cycling, swimming, and triathlons on bone health; the evaluation of stress and fragility fractures; and the diagnosis, management, and prevention of low BMD in endurance athletes.

  1. Prevalence of Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease in Masters Endurance Athletes With a Low Atherosclerotic Risk Profile.

    Merghani, Ahmed; Maestrini, Viviana; Rosmini, Stefania; Cox, Andrew T; Dhutia, Harshil; Bastiaenan, Rachel; David, Sarojini; Yeo, Tee Joo; Narain, Rajay; Malhotra, Aneil; Papadakis, Michael; Wilson, Mathew G; Tome, Maite; AlFakih, Khaled; Moon, James C; Sharma, Sanjay

    2017-07-11

    Studies in middle-age and older (masters) athletes with atherosclerotic risk factors for coronary artery disease report higher coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores compared with sedentary individuals. Few studies have assessed the prevalence of coronary artery disease in masters athletes with a low atherosclerotic risk profile. We assessed 152 masters athletes 54.4±8.5 years of age (70% male) and 92 controls of similar age, sex, and low Framingham 10-year coronary artery disease risk scores with an echocardiogram, exercise stress test, computerized tomographic coronary angiogram, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging with late gadolinium enhancement and a 24-hour Holter. Athletes had participated in endurance exercise for an average of 31±12.6 years. The majority (77%) were runners, with a median of 13 marathon runs per athlete. Most athletes (60%) and controls (63%) had a normal CAC score. Male athletes had a higher prevalence of atherosclerotic plaques of any luminal irregularity (44.3% versus 22.2%; P =0.009) compared with sedentary males, and only male athletes showed a CAC ≥300 Agatston units (11.3%) and a luminal stenosis ≥50% (7.5%). Male athletes demonstrated predominantly calcific plaques (72.7%), whereas sedentary males showed predominantly mixed morphology plaques (61.5%). The number of years of training was the only independent variable associated with increased risk of CAC >70th percentile for age or luminal stenosis ≥50% in male athletes (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.15; P =0.016); 15 (14%) male athletes but none of the controls revealed late gadolinium enhancement on cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Of these athletes, 7 had a pattern consistent with previous myocardial infarction, including 3(42%) with a luminal stenosis ≥50% in the corresponding artery. Most lifelong masters endurance athletes with a low atherosclerotic risk profile have normal CAC scores. Male athletes are more likely to have a CAC

  2. Faculty Perceptions of Division I Male Student-Athletes: The Relationship between Student-Athlete Contact, Athletic Department Involvement, and Perceptions of Intercollegiate Athletics

    Tovar, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    It has been widely recognized that student-athletes, especially in the sports of men's basketball and football, endure stereotyping (Bowen & Levin, 2003; Simons, Bosworth, Fujita, & Jensen, 2007, Baucom & Lantz, 2001). Although stereotypes about male basketball and football student-athletes academic behaviors are expressed by many sectors of the…

  3. Charlie's Words: Supporting Gifted Male Athletes Using Athletes' Journals

    Kent, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A gifted student-athlete, Charlie Bloomfield is introduced to athlete's journals by his coaches at Burke Mountain Academy (Vermont), an elite American ski school. Used by Olympians and professionals alike, journals provide athletes with ways to organize and reflect on training and competitions. Athlete's journals help gifted male athletes address…

  4. Effects of strength training on endurance capacity in top-level endurance athletes

    Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Jesper L

    2010-01-01

    The effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on adaptive changes in aerobic capacity, endurance performance, maximal muscle strength and muscle morphology is equivocal. Some data suggest an attenuated cardiovascular and musculoskeletal response to combined E and S training......, while other data show unimpaired or even superior adaptation compared with either training regime alone. However, the effect of concurrent S and E training only rarely has been examined in top-level endurance athletes. This review describes the effect of concurrent SE training on short-term and long......-term endurance performance in endurance-trained subjects, ranging from moderately trained individuals to elite top-level athletes. It is concluded that strength training can lead to enhanced long-term (>30 min) and short-term (...

  5. Training-related modulations of the autonomic nervous system in endurance athletes: is female gender cardioprotective?

    Fürholz, Monika; Radtke, Thomas; Roten, Laurent; Tanner, Hildegard; Wilhelm, Ilca; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Saner, Hugo; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    The risk of sudden death is increased in athletes with a male predominance. Regular physical activity increases vagal tone, and may protect against exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias. We investigated training-related modulations of the autonomic nervous system in female and male endurance athletes. Runners of a 10-mile race were invited. Of 873 applicants, 68 female and 70 male athletes were randomly selected and stratified according to their average weekly training hours in a low (≤4 h) and high (>4 h) volume training group. Analysis of heart rate variability was performed over 24 h. Spectral components (high frequency [HF] and low frequency [LF] power in normalized units) were analyzed for hourly 5 min segments and averaged for day- and nighttime. One hundred and fourteen athletes (50 % female, mean age 42 ± 7 years) were included. No significant gender difference was observed for training volume and 10-mile race time. Over the 24-h period, female athletes exhibited a higher HF and lower LF power for each hourly time-point. Female gender and endurance training hours were independent predictors of a higher HF and lower LF power. In female athletes, higher training hours were associated with a higher HF and lower LF power during nighttime. In male athletes, the same was true during daytime. In conclusion, female and male athletes showed a different circadian pattern of the training-related increase in markers of vagal tone. For a comparable amount of training volume, female athletes maintained their higher markers of vagal tone, possibly indicating a superior protection against exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias.

  6. Galectin-3 increase in endurance athletes

    Haettasch, Robert; Spethmann, Sebastian; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Ruifrok, Willem P. T.; Schattke, Sebastian; Wagner, Moritz; Schroeckh, Sabrina; Durmus, Tahir; Schimke, Ingolf; Sanad, Wasiem; Baumann, Gert; Borges, Adrian C.; Knebel, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Background Galectin-3 is a new and promising biomarker for heart failure and myocardial fibrosis. Although endurance exercise is a crucial element in cardiovascular disease prevention, the relationship between exercise and plasma levels of galectin-3 is still unknown. To date, the relationship

  7. Supplementation strategies for gastrointestinal distress in endurance athletes

    Vivian Ximeno Duarte

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in the endurance athlete is about 25% to 70%. Even though it is recognized that the etiology of exercise-induced gastrointestinal distress is multifactorial, blood flow redistribution during physical activity and therefore gastrointestinal ischemia is often acknowledged as the main pathophysiology mechanism for the onset of symptoms. This review will provide an overview to the recent research on gastrointestinal function during strenuous exercise. In addition, we consider different nutritional interventions that could be evaluated for preventive or treatment interventions founding that ever though there is some research in the area, the scientific evidence does not support its use in athlete population.

  8. Alterations in redox homeostasis in the elite endurance athlete.

    Lewis, Nathan A; Howatson, Glyn; Morton, Katie; Hill, Jessica; Pedlar, Charles R

    2015-03-01

    The production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) is a fundamental feature of mammalian physiology, cellular respiration and cell signalling, and essential for muscle function and training adaptation. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise results in alterations in redox homeostasis (ARH) in untrained, trained and well trained athletes. Low to moderate doses of ROS and RNS play a role in muscle adaptation to endurance training, but an overwhelming increase in RNS and ROS may lead to increased cell apoptosis and immunosuppression, fatigued states and underperformance. The objectives of this systematic review are: (a) to test the hypotheses that ARH occur in elite endurance athletes; following an acute exercise bout, in an endurance race or competition; across a micro-, meso- or macro-training cycle; following a training taper; before, during and after altitude training; in females with amenorrhoea versus eumenorrhoea; and in non-functional over-reaching (NFOR) and overtraining states (OTS); (b) to report any relationship between ARH and training load and ARH and performance; and (c) to apply critical difference values for measures of oxidative stress/ARH to address whether there is any evidence of ARH being of physiological significance (not just statistical) and thus relevant to health and performance in the elite athlete. Electronic databases, Embase, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus were searched for relevant articles. Only studies that were observational articles of cross-sectional or longitudinal design, and included elite athletes competing at national or international level in endurance sports were included. Studies had to include biomarkers of ARH; oxidative damage, antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant vitamins and nutrients in urine, serum, plasma, whole blood, red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs). A total of 3,057 articles were identified from the electronic searches. Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria

  9. Sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes.

    Campbell, Jamonn; Cothren, Denise; Rogers, Ross; Kistler, Lindsay; Osowski, Anne; Greenauer, Nathan; End, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sport fans' impressions of gay male athletes. Participants formed impressions of a fictional athlete from their favorite team after reading a short scenario about the player. The scenarios described the athlete as being gay or straight, and either becoming a distraction or not causing a distraction to the team. While males' ratings of the athlete did not significantly differ, female fans formed significantly more positive impressions of the gay male player than the straight athlete. These results are discussed in terms of the ingroup bias and the shifting culture of homophobia in sport.

  10. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 �� 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval du...

  11. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval dur...

  12. Prevalence of Stress Urinary Incontinence in Elite Female Endurance Athletes

    Poświata Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to assess the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in a group of elite female endurance athletes, as professional sport is one of the risk factors for stress urinary incontinence. SUI rates in the groups of female cross-country skiers and runners were compared to determine whether the training weather conditions like temperature and humidity influenced the prevalence of urinary incontinence. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed among 112 elite female athletes ie., 57 cross-country skiers and 55 runners. We used a short form of the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6 to assess the presence of SUI symptoms and the level of urogenital distress. Only women who had been practicing sport professionally for at least 3 years, on an international and national level, were included in the research. The study group consisted of 76% nulliparous and 24% parous women. 45.54% of all participants reported leakage of urine associated with sneezing or coughing which indicates stress urinary incontinence. 29.46% were not bothered by the urogenital distress symptoms. 42.86% of the participants were slightly bothered by the symptoms, 18.75% were moderately bothered, 8.04% were significantly bothered and 0.89% were heavily bothered. The absence of statistically significant differences between both groups seems to indicate that training weather conditions did not influence the prevalence of SUI in elite female endurance athletes.

  13. Sensing Athletes: Sensory Dimensions of Recreational Endurance Sports

    Stefan Groth

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport has become increasingly popular with recreational athletes over the last couple of decades. This has only gained minimal attention so far from scholars interested in the relations between recreational sports and everyday culture. With this paper, we seek to contribute to this field by scrutinising the sensory dimensions of recreational sport. Rather than probing into or highlighting isolated senses, we look at sensory dimensions understood as a combination of different, non-separable sensory experiences featured in recreational endurance sports. We are interested in how senses play a role for recreational endurance athletes in running, triathlon and cycling both in training and competition. We start by examining how cultural and social dimensions are inextricably linked to doing sports. Secondly, we show how different configurations of the senses and their communicative mediation are contingent on sport disciplines, specific settings, technology, development and change as sensory careers over time. Thirdly, we discuss the kinaesthetic dimensions of doing sports in relation to the senses and the role of atmospheres. We conclude by arguing that highlighting specific senses by athletes is a cultural practice that calls for a holistic analysis of senses in sport, and outline some methodological implications for research on the senses.

  14. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes.

    Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s), long HIIT (3min) and constant load exercise (CE). The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇ O 2 , RER) and metabolic (lactate) variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h) in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes) and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin) were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE) or largely (both HIIT modes) higher mean V̇ O 2 . These differences were trivial/small when V̇ O 2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇ O 2max . Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes.

  15. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years participating in endurance (n = 8 or sprint (n = 8 sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s, long HIIT (3min and constant load exercise (CE. The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇O2, RER and metabolic (lactate variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE or largely (both HIIT modes higher mean V̇O2. These differences were trivial/small when V̇O2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇O2max. Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes.

  16. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s), long HIIT (3min) and constant load exercise (CE). The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇O2, RER) and metabolic (lactate) variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h) in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes) and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin) were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE) or largely (both HIIT modes) higher mean V̇O2. These differences were trivial/small when V̇O2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇O2max. Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes. Key points The manner in which each training background (endurance vs. sprint) influences the response to HIIT is not well known. Despite the identical exercise intensity in relative terms, endurance

  17. Muscle Glycogen Content Modifies SR Ca2 + Release Rate in Elite Endurance Athletes

    Gejl, Kasper Degn; Hvid, Lars G; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of muscle glycogen content on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and peak power output (Wpeak) in elite endurance athletes.......The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of muscle glycogen content on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and peak power output (Wpeak) in elite endurance athletes....

  18. Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) in improving cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy athletic adults.

    Choudhary, Bakhtiar; Shetty, A; Langade, Deepak G

    2015-01-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) has been traditionally used for various actions ranging from vitalizer, improve endurance and stamina, promote longevity, improve immunity, and male and female fertility. However, clinical studies are needed to prove the clinical efficacy of this herb, especially in cardiovascular endurance and physical performance. This prospective, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of Ashwagandha roots extract in enhancing cardiorespiratory endurance and improving the quality of life (QOL) in 50 healthy male/female athletic adults. Cardiorespiratory endurance was assessed by measuring the oxygen consumption at peak physical exertion (VO2 max) levels during a 20 m shuttle run test. The World Health Organization self-reported QOL questionnaire (physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environmental factors) was used to assess the QOL. Student's t-test was used to compare the differences in a mean and change from baseline VO2 max levels, whereas Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess changes in QOL scores from baseline in the two groups. There was a greater increase from baseline (P < 0.0001) in the mean VO2 max with KSM-66 Ashwagandha (n = 24) compared to placebo (n = 25) at 8 weeks (4.91 and 1.42, respectively) and at 12 weeks (5.67 and 1.86 respectively). The QOL scores for all subdomains significantly improved to a greater extent in the Ashwagandha group at 12 weeks compared to placebo (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that Ashwagandha root extract enhances the cardiorespiratory endurance and improves QOL in healthy athletic adults.

  19. No Evidence of a Common DNA Variant Profile Specific to World Class Endurance Athletes

    Wolfarth, Bernd; Wang, Guan; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Ahmetov, Ildus I.; Boulay, Marcel R.; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Eynon, Nir; Filipenko, Maxim L.; Garton, Fleur C.; Generozov, Edward V.; Govorun, Vadim M.; Houweling, Peter J.; Kawahara, Takashi; Kostryukova, Elena S.; Kulemin, Nickolay A.; Larin, Andrey K.; Maciejewska-Karłowska, Agnieszka; Miyachi, Motohiko; Muniesa, Carlos A.; Murakami, Haruka; Ospanova, Elena A.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pavlenko, Alexander V.; Pyankova, Olga N.; Santiago, Catalina; Sawczuk, Marek; Scott, Robert A.; Uyba, Vladimir V.; Yvert, Thomas; Perusse, Louis; Ghosh, Sujoy; Rauramaa, Rainer; North, Kathryn N.; Lucia, Alejandro; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Bouchard, Claude

    2016-01-01

    There are strong genetic components to cardiorespiratory fitness and its response to exercise training. It would be useful to understand the differences in the genomic profile of highly trained endurance athletes of world class caliber and sedentary controls. An international consortium (GAMES) was established in order to compare elite endurance athletes and ethnicity-matched controls in a case-control study design. Genome-wide association studies were undertaken on two cohorts of elite endurance athletes and controls (GENATHLETE and Japanese endurance runners), from which a panel of 45 promising markers was identified. These markers were tested for replication in seven additional cohorts of endurance athletes and controls: from Australia, Ethiopia, Japan, Kenya, Poland, Russia and Spain. The study is based on a total of 1520 endurance athletes (835 who took part in endurance events in World Championships and/or Olympic Games) and 2760 controls. We hypothesized that world-class athletes are likely to be characterized by an even higher concentration of endurance performance alleles and we performed separate analyses on this subsample. The meta-analysis of all available studies revealed one statistically significant marker (rs558129 at GALNTL6 locus, p = 0.0002), even after correcting for multiple testing. As shown by the low heterogeneity index (I2 = 0), all eight cohorts showed the same direction of association with rs558129, even though p-values varied across the individual studies. In summary, this study did not identify a panel of genomic variants common to these elite endurance athlete groups. Since GAMES was underpowered to identify alleles with small effect sizes, some of the suggestive leads identified should be explored in expanded comparisons of world-class endurance athletes and sedentary controls and in tightly controlled exercise training studies. Such studies have the potential to illuminate the biology not only of world class endurance performance but

  20. No Evidence of a Common DNA Variant Profile Specific to World Class Endurance Athletes.

    Tuomo Rankinen

    Full Text Available There are strong genetic components to cardiorespiratory fitness and its response to exercise training. It would be useful to understand the differences in the genomic profile of highly trained endurance athletes of world class caliber and sedentary controls. An international consortium (GAMES was established in order to compare elite endurance athletes and ethnicity-matched controls in a case-control study design. Genome-wide association studies were undertaken on two cohorts of elite endurance athletes and controls (GENATHLETE and Japanese endurance runners, from which a panel of 45 promising markers was identified. These markers were tested for replication in seven additional cohorts of endurance athletes and controls: from Australia, Ethiopia, Japan, Kenya, Poland, Russia and Spain. The study is based on a total of 1520 endurance athletes (835 who took part in endurance events in World Championships and/or Olympic Games and 2760 controls. We hypothesized that world-class athletes are likely to be characterized by an even higher concentration of endurance performance alleles and we performed separate analyses on this subsample. The meta-analysis of all available studies revealed one statistically significant marker (rs558129 at GALNTL6 locus, p = 0.0002, even after correcting for multiple testing. As shown by the low heterogeneity index (I2 = 0, all eight cohorts showed the same direction of association with rs558129, even though p-values varied across the individual studies. In summary, this study did not identify a panel of genomic variants common to these elite endurance athlete groups. Since GAMES was underpowered to identify alleles with small effect sizes, some of the suggestive leads identified should be explored in expanded comparisons of world-class endurance athletes and sedentary controls and in tightly controlled exercise training studies. Such studies have the potential to illuminate the biology not only of world class endurance

  1. Left Ventricular Function After Prolonged Exercise in Equine Endurance Athletes

    Flethøj, M.; Schwarzwald, C. C.; Haugaard, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Doppler imaging, and two-dimensional speckle tracking. Correlation between echocardiographic variables and cardiac troponin I was evaluated. Results: Early diastolic myocardial velocities decreased significantly in longitudinal (baseline: −17.4 ± 2.4cm/s; end of ride: −15.8 ± 3.2cm/s (P = .013); morning......Background: Prolonged exercise in human athletes is associated with transient impairment of left ventricular (LV) function, known as cardiac fatigue. Cardiac effects of prolonged exercise in horses remain unknown. Objectives :To investigate the effects of prolonged exercise on LV systolic...... and diastolic function in horses. Animals: Twenty-six horses competing in 120–160 km endurance rides. Methods: Cross-sectional field study. Echocardiography was performed before and after rides, and the following morning, and included two-dimensional echocardiography, anatomical M-mode, pulsed-wave tissue...

  2. Pre-participation and follow-up screening of athletes for endurance sport.

    Leischik, Roman; Dworrak, Birgit; Foshag, Peter; Strauss, Markus; Spelsberg, Norman; Littwitz, Henning; Horlitz, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Physical activity increases life expectancy and sport is a priori not harmful. Exhausted sporting activity (e.g. endurance running, triathlon, cycling or competitive sport) can lead under individual conditions to negative cardiac remodelling (pathological enlargement/function of cardiac cavities/structures) or in worst case to cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). This individually disposition can be genetically determined or behaviourally/environmentally acquired. Overall competitive young male athletes suffer five-fold higher than non-competitive athletes from sudden death and athletes aged over 30 bear a potential for arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation or a 20-fold higher possibility for SCD as female athletes. Patients with diabetes, coronary disease, obesity or hypertension require different special managements. Screening of cardiorespiratory health for sport activities has a lot of faces. Basically there is a need for indicated examinations or possible preventive measures inside or outside of pre-competition screening. The costs of screening compared to expenditure of whole effort for sporting activities are acceptable or even negligible, but of course dependent on national/regional settings. The various causes and possibilities of screening will be discussed in this article as basic suggestion for an open discussion beyond national borders and settings.

  3. Increased Blood Lactate Level Deteriorates Running Economy in World Class Endurance Athletes.

    Hoff, Jan; Støren, Øyvind; Finstad, Arnstein; Wang, Eivind; Helgerud, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Blood lactate accumulation is associated with development of muscle fatigue and negatively correlated to endurance performance. No research has quantified the effects of lactate presence at moderate levels of lactate accumulation. The purpose of this study was to test whether 2 moderate blood lactate concentration levels affect running economy (RE) when running at the individual lactate threshold (LT). Seven male world class endurance athletes with an average V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of 80.7 ± 2.7 ml·kg·min or 5.8 ± 0.5 L·min participated in this study. After the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max test, the subjects were resting or walking and in a random order tested for RE at their LT velocity when the blood lactate level reached either 3 mmol·L or 5 mmol·L. After a new 5-minute exercising period at maximal aerobic velocity, the crossover lactate value RE testing was performed. Running economy was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) deteriorated from 0.668 ± 0.044 to 0.705 ± 0.056 ml·kg·m or 5.5% (p ≤ 0.05) for blood lactate level of 3 mmol·L compared with 5 mmol·L, respectively. Increased lactate level from 3 to 5 mmol·L is thus accompanied by deteriorated RE at LT running velocity. The deteriorated RE at moderate levels of lactate concentration emphasizes the importance of avoiding intensities above LT in the early parts of a dominantly aerobic endurance competition. It also emphasizes the importance of a high V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for aerobic endurance athletes and may partly explain the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 slow component as impaired RE.

  4. Development of A Sensor For Measuring Endurance Athletes While Doing A Kick in Tae Kwon Do

    Muhamad Faozan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to design and know the effectiveness of tools developed to measure endurance athletes when kicking in Taekwondo. The approach used in this research is Research and Development (R & D method. Research subjects were athletes and coach. The subjects of the study were athletes and experts. Taekwondo expert validation results are good with a total score above 83, Expert validation Electro one is good with a total score of 86, For the two Electro experts stated both with a total score of 85. And also from the results of small-scale trials I obtained data that the product has not been effectively used. In large-scale trials the product is declared effective and can be used to measure the endurance of the athlete when kicking. The conclusions of this study resulted in an athlete endurance sensor product during a kick in Taekwondo, And also this product can be used for measuring endurance athletes when kicking. For trainers and athletes it is recommended to try the product as a tool to measure the endurance of the athlete while kicking in Taekwondo.

  5. Total Energy Expenditure, Energy Intake, and Body Composition in Endurance Athletes Across the Training Season: A Systematic Review.

    Heydenreich, Juliane; Kayser, Bengt; Schutz, Yves; Melzer, Katarina

    2017-12-01

    significantly higher during the competition phase than during the preparation phase (p phases (p phase, both body mass and fat-free mass were significantly higher compared to other seasonal training phases (p training phases and thus low explanatory power of single parameters. Additionally, the classification of the different seasonal training phases has to be discussed. Male and female endurance athletes show important training seasonal fluctuations in TEE, energy intake, and body composition. Therefore, dietary intake recommendations should take into consideration other factors including the actual training load, TEE, and body composition goals of the athlete.

  6. Keto-adaptation enhances exercise performance and body composition responses to training in endurance athletes.

    McSwiney, Fionn T; Wardrop, Bruce; Hyde, Parker N; Lafountain, Richard A; Volek, Jeff S; Doyle, Lorna

    2018-04-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets have recently grown in popularity among endurance athletes, yet little is known about the long-term (>4wk) performance implications of consuming a low-carbohydrate high fat ketogenic diet (LCKD) in well-trained athletes. Twenty male endurance-trained athletes (age 33±11y, body mass 80±11kg; BMI 24.7±3.1kg/m 2 ) who habitually consumed a carbohydrate-based diet, self-selected into a high-carbohydrate (HC) group (n=11, %carbohydrate:protein:fat=65:14:20), or a LCKD group (n=9, 6:17:77). Both groups performed the same training intervention (endurance, strength and high intensity interval training (HIIT)). Prior to and following successful completion of 12-weeks of diet and training, participants had their body composition assessed, and completed a 100km time trial (TT), six second (SS) sprint, and a critical power test (CPT). During post-intervention testing the HC group consumed 30-60g/h carbohydrate, whereas the LCKD group consumed water, and electrolytes. The LCKD group experienced a significantly greater decrease in body mass (HC -0.8kg, LCKD -5.9kg; P=0.006, effect size (ES): 0.338) and percentage body fat percentage (HC -0.7%, LCKD -5.2%; P=0.008, ES: 0.346). Fasting serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) significantly increased from 0.1 at baseline to 0.5mmol/L in the LCKD group (P=0.011, ES: 0.403) in week 12. There was no significant change in performance of the 100km TT between groups (HC -1.13min·s, LCKD -4.07min·s, P=0.057, ES: 0.196). SS sprint peak power increased by 0.8 watts per kilogram bodyweight (w/kg) in the LCKD group, versus a -0.1w/kg reduction in the HC group (P=0.025, ES: 0.263). CPT peak power decreased by -0.7w/kg in the HC group, and increased by 1.4w/kg in the LCKD group (P=0.047, ES: 0.212). Fat oxidation in the LCKD group was significantly greater throughout the 100km TT. Compared to a HC comparison group, a 12-week period of keto-adaptation and exercise training, enhanced body composition, fat oxidation during

  7. Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes

    Iaia, F. M.; Bangsbo, Jens

    2010-01-01

    the oxidative capacity and improve intense short-duration/repeated high-intensity exercise performance lasting 30 s to 4 min, as it occurs in a number of sports. When combined with a basic volume of training including some aerobic high-intensity sessions, speed endurance training is also useful in enhancing......The present article reviews the physiological and performance effects of speed endurance training consisting of exercise bouts at near maximal intensities in already trained subjects. Despite a reduction in training volume, speed endurance training of endurance-trained athletes can maintain...... performance during longer events, e.g. 40 K cycling and 10 K running. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects can also benefit from performing speed endurance training. These improvements don't appear to depend on changes in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), muscle...

  8. Effects of recombinant human erythropoietin injections on physical self in endurance athletes.

    Ninot, Grégory; Connes, Philippe; Caillaud, Corrine

    2006-04-01

    This study examined the time course of mean self-esteem and physical self scores in three groups: male endurance athletes treated with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO group, n = 6), a placebo group (n = 5) injected with a sodium chloride solution and a control group who did not receive any injection (n = 6). Each participant completed the Physical Self Inventory twice a day (between 07.00 and 09.00 h and between 19.00 and 21.00 h). Using a 10 cm visual analog scale, the participants assessed global self-esteem, physical self-worth and the sub-domains of physical condition, sport competence, attractive body and physical strength (Fox & Corbin, 1989). This was conducted over three consecutive periods: in the 2 weeks before the course of injections, during the 6 weeks of injections and for 4 weeks after the injections. Aerobic capacity was assessed before and after 4 weeks of treatment. The results showed a significant increase in aerobic physical fitness in the rHuEPO group and a significant increase in perceived physical condition and physical strength scores at the end of treatment. The main psychological result was that endurance athletes were highly sensitive to the effects of rHuEPO on physical fitness. The perception of increased physical condition may lead to a stronger commitment to training. The rHuEPO injections presented a dangerous hedonic effect linked to endurance training. These results confirm the need to tackle rHuEPO abuse at any time during the training season.

  9. Cardiorespiratory screening in elite endurance sports athletes: the Quebec study.

    Turmel, Julie; Poirier, Paul; Bougault, Valérie; Blouin, Evelyne; Belzile, Mireille; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2012-09-01

    Cardiorespiratory disorders are common in athletes. However, these conditions are often underdiagnosed, which potentially results in impaired performance and increased health risks. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a research setting, the prevalence of cardiorespiratory disorders in athletes in order to determine the potential value of a screening program. One hundred thirty-three athletes were studied. Each subject underwent a physical examination. A eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) test and a methacholine inhalation test were performed to confirm the diagnosis of asthma. A cardiovascular evaluation was also performed, including maximal exercise test with electrocardiogram, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, 24-hour Holter monitoring, and blood sampling. Seventy-four (56%) athletes had airway hyperresponsiveness to EVH or the methacholine inhalation test. Among those with airway hyperresponsiveness, 45 (61%) athletes were only hyperresponsive to EVH, and 10 (14%) were only hyperresponsive to the methacholine inhalation test (using the criteria of a PC20 ≤ 4 mg/mL). Thirty-two (24%) athletes had a known diagnosis of asthma, while 34 (26%) athletes received a new asthma diagnosis. Ninety-seven (73%) athletes were sensitized to common airborne allergens. Forty-seven (35%) athletes completed the cardiovascular evaluation. Three (6%) and 7 (15%) athletes had a previous or new diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, respectively. Resting systemic hypertension was documented in 2 (4%) athletes and exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise was found in 12 (26%) athletes. This cardiorespiratory screening data set in athletes showed a high prevalence of exercise-induced asthma and exercise hypertension, which in many cases were not previously diagnosed.

  10. The human endurance athlete: heterogeneity and adaptability of ...

    In human subjects, large variations between individuals (up to 3-fold) exist in the capacity for endurance exercise performance. In a heterogeneous population, endurance performance is strongly related to whole body maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). This is in part genotype dependent (~25%) but is adaptable with ...

  11. Effects of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on Cardiorespiratory Endurance in Athletes. A Systematic Review

    Raúl Domínguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Athletes use nutritional supplementation to enhance the effects of training and achieve improvements in their athletic performance. Beetroot juice increases levels of nitric oxide (NO, which serves multiple functions related to increased blood flow, gas exchange, mitochondrial biogenesis and efficiency, and strengthening of muscle contraction. These biomarker improvements indicate that supplementation with beetroot juice could have ergogenic effects on cardiorespiratory endurance that would benefit athletic performance. The aim of this literature review was to determine the effects of beetroot juice supplementation and the combination of beetroot juice with other supplements on cardiorespiratory endurance in athletes. A keyword search of DialNet, MedLine, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases covered publications from 2010 to 2016. After excluding reviews/meta-analyses, animal studies, inaccessible full-text, and studies that did not supplement with beetroot juice and adequately assess cardiorespiratory endurance, 23 articles were selected for analysis. The available results suggest that supplementation with beetroot juice can improve cardiorespiratory endurance in athletes by increasing efficiency, which improves performance at various distances, increases time to exhaustion at submaximal intensities, and may improve the cardiorespiratory performance at anaerobic threshold intensities and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max. Although the literature shows contradictory data, the findings of other studies lead us to hypothesize that supplementing with beetroot juice could mitigate the ergolytic effects of hypoxia on cardiorespiratory endurance in athletes. It cannot be stated that the combination of beetroot juice with other supplements has a positive or negative effect on cardiorespiratory endurance, but it is possible that the effects of supplementation with beetroot juice can be undermined by interaction with other supplements such as caffeine.

  12. Masked hypertension and cardiac remodeling in middle-aged endurance athletes.

    Trachsel, Lukas D; Carlen, Frederik; Brugger, Nicolas; Seiler, Christian; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    Extensive endurance training and arterial hypertension are established risk factors for atrial fibrillation. We aimed to assess the proportion of masked hypertension in endurance athletes and the impact on cardiac remodeling, mechanics, and supraventricular tachycardias (SVT). Male participants of a 10-mile race were recruited and included if office blood pressure was normal (hypertension and normotension group by ambulatory blood pressure. Primary endpoint was diastolic function, expressed as peak early diastolic mitral annulus velocity (E'). Left ventricular global strain, left ventricular mass/volume ratio, left atrial volume index, signal-averaged P-wave duration (SAPWD), and SVT during 24-h Holter monitoring were recorded. From 108 runners recruited, 87 were included in the final analysis. Thirty-three (38%) had masked hypertension. The mean age was 42 ± 8 years. Groups did not differ with respect to age, body composition, cumulative training hours, and 10-mile race time. Athletes with masked hypertension had a lower E' and a higher left ventricular mass/volume ratio. Left ventricular global strain, left atrial volume index, SAPWD, and SVT showed no significant differences between the groups. In multiple linear regression analysis, masked hypertension was independently associated with E' (beta = -0.270, P = 0.004) and left ventricular mass/volume ratio (beta = 0.206, P = 0.049). Cumulative training hours was the only independent predictor for left atrial volume index (beta = 0.474, P hypertension, associated with a lower diastolic function and a higher left ventricular mass/volume ratio, but unrelated to left ventricular systolic function, atrial remodeling, or SVT.

  13. Altitude training for elite endurance athletes: A review for the travel medicine practitioner.

    Flaherty, Gerard; O'Connor, Rory; Johnston, Niall

    2016-01-01

    High altitude training is regarded as an integral component of modern athletic preparation, especially for endurance sports such as middle and long distance running. It has rapidly achieved popularity among elite endurance athletes and their coaches. Increased hypoxic stress at altitude facilitates key physiological adaptations within the athlete, which in turn may lead to improvements in sea-level athletic performance. Despite much research in this area to date, the exact mechanisms which underlie such improvements remain to be fully elucidated. This review describes the current understanding of physiological adaptation to high altitude training and its implications for athletic performance. It also discusses the rationale and main effects of different training models currently employed to maximise performance. Athletes who travel to altitude for training purposes are at risk of suffering the detrimental effects of altitude. Altitude illness, weight loss, immune suppression and sleep disturbance may serve to limit athletic performance. This review provides an overview of potential problems which an athlete may experience at altitude, and offers specific training recommendations so that these detrimental effects are minimised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy Availability and Reproductive Function in Female Endurance Athletes

    Melin, Anna Katarina

    and reduced EA, as well as those with oligomenorrhea/FHA, had lower RMR compared to those with either current optimal EA or eumenorrheic athletes. Furthermore, athletes with secondary FHA had increased work efficiency compared to eumenorrheic subjects, indicating a more profound metabolic adaptation in female...... athletes with clinical menstrual dysfunction. All three Triad conditions were common in this group of athletes, despite a normal BMI range and body composition. Furthermore, issues and physiological symptoms related to current low and reduced EA and oligomenorrhea/FHA were not limited to impaired bone...... health, but also included hypoglycaemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hypotension. The results indicated that diets lower in energy density, fat content, compact carbohydrate-rich foods and energy-containing drinks, together with higher fibre content, were associated with current low and reduced EA...

  15. Protein Requirements Are Elevated in Endurance Athletes after Exercise as Determined by the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Method.

    Hiroyuki Kato

    Full Text Available A higher protein intake has been recommended for endurance athletes compared with healthy non-exercising individuals based primarily on nitrogen balance methodology. The aim of this study was to determine the estimated average protein requirement and recommended protein intake in endurance athletes during an acute 3-d controlled training period using the indicator amino acid oxidation method. After 2-d of controlled diet (1.4 g protein/kg/d and training (10 and 5km/d, respectively, six male endurance-trained adults (28±4 y of age; Body weight, 64.5±10.0 kg; VO2peak, 60.3±6.7 ml·kg-1·min-1; means±SD performed an acute bout of endurance exercise (20 km treadmill run prior to consuming test diets providing variable amounts of protein (0.2-2.8 g·kg-1·d-1 and sufficient energy. Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acid mixture based on the composition of egg protein with [1-13C]phenylalanine provided to determine whole body phenylalanine flux, 13CO2 excretion, and phenylalanine oxidation. The estimated average protein requirement was determined as the breakpoint after biphasic linear regression analysis with a recommended protein intake defined as the upper 95% confidence interval. Phenylalanine flux (68.8±8.5 μmol·kg-1·h-1 was not affected by protein intake. 13CO2 excretion displayed a robust bi-phase linear relationship (R2 = 0.86 that resulted in an estimated average requirement and a recommended protein intake of 1.65 and 1.83 g protein·kg-1·d-1, respectively, which was similar to values based on phenylalanine oxidation (1.53 and 1.70 g·kg-1·d-1, respectively. We report a recommended protein intake that is greater than the RDA (0.8 g·kg-1·d-1 and current recommendations for endurance athletes (1.2-1.4 g·kg-1·d-1. Our results suggest that the metabolic demand for protein in endurance-trained adults on a higher volume training day is greater than their sedentary peers and current recommendations for athletes based

  16. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

    Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. A 10-week crossover, ...

  17. Many non-elite multisport endurance athletes do not meet sports nutrition recommendations for carbohydrates.

    Masson, Geneviève; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-07-01

    Little is known regarding the dietary intake of non-elite athletes involved in multisport endurance events. The primary objective of this observational study was to characterize the dietary intake of non-elite athletes participating in winter triathlon (snowshoeing, skating, and cross-country skiing), winter pentathlon (winter triathlon sports + cycling and running), Ironman (IM: swimming, cycling, running), and half-distance Ironman (IM 70.3) in relation with current sports nutrition recommendations. A total of 116 non-elite athletes (32 women and 84 men) who had participated in one of those events in 2014 were included in the analyses. Usual dietary intake was assessed using a validated online food frequency questionnaire. Participants (22-66 years old) trained 14.8 ± 5.3 h/week, on average (±SD). Only 45.7% [95% confidence interval, 36.4%-55.2%] of all athletes reported consuming the recommended intake for carbohydrates, with the highest proportion (66.7%) seen in IM athletes. On the other hand, 87.1% [79.6%-92.6%] of all athletes reported consuming at least 1.2 g protein·kg(-1)·day(-1), while 66.4% [57.0%-74.9%] reported consuming more than 1.6 g protein·kg(-1)·day(-1). The proportion of athletes consuming the recommended amount of protein was highest (84.6%) among IM athletes. There was no difference in the proportion of athletes achieving the recommended carbohydrate and protein intakes between men and women. These findings suggest that many non-elite multisport endurance athletes do not meet the current recommendations for carbohydrates, emphasizing the need for targeted nutritional education. Further research is needed to examine how underreporting of food intake may have affected these estimates.

  18. Pulmonary O2 uptake on-kinetics in endurance- and sprint-trained master athletes.

    Berger, N J A; Rittweger, J; Kwiet, A; Michaelis, I; Williams, A G; Tolfrey, K; Jones, A M

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterise the VO2 kinetic response to moderate intensity cycle exercise in endurance-trained (END) and sprint or power-trained (SPR) track and field master athletes ranging in age from 45 to 85 years. We hypothesised that the time constant (tau) describing the Phase II VO2 on-response would be smaller in the END compared to the SPR athletes, and that the tau would become greater with increasing age in both groups. Eighty-four master athletes who were competing at either the British or European Veteran Athletics Championships acted as subjects, and were classified as either END (800 m - marathon; n = 41), or SPR (100 - 400 m and field events; n = 43) specialists. Subjects completed two 6 minute "step" transitions to a work rate of moderate intensity on a cycle ergometer and pulmonary gas exchange was measured breath-by-breath. Analysis of variance revealed that SPR athletes had slower VO2 on-kinetics (i.e., greater tau) compared to END athletes at each of the age groups studied: 46 - 55 yrs (END: 25 +/- 6 vs. SPR: 36 +/- 9 s; p kinetics became slower with advancing age in the SPR athletes (p kinetics in SPR compared to END master athletes is consistent both with differences in physiology (e.g., muscle fibre type, oxidative/glycolytic capacity) and training between these specialist athletes. Master END athletes have similar tau values to their younger counterparts (approximately 25 s) suggesting that participation in endurance exercise training limits the slowing of VO2 on-kinetics with age in this population.

  19. Research of hands' strength and endurance indications of arm sport athletes having different levels of skills

    L.V. Podrigalo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : comparative study of indicators of hands’ strength and endurance at athletes of arm sport of different skill levels. Material : the study involved 50 athletes. Athletes were divided into two groups: 1 - 15 athletes with high skill levels (age 25,25 ± 0,62 years and 2 - 35 athletes and fans of mass categories (age 22,21 ± 0,35 years. Results : it is shown that the results of carpal dynamometry right and left hands were significantly higher in group 1 (respectively: 60,50 ± 0,91 kg and 53,75 ± 0,83 kg against 52,35 ± 0,51 kg and 48 53 ± 0,46 kg. Strength endurance was significantly higher in group 2 (respectively: 32,97 ± 0,61 sec 33,09 ± 0,62 sec against 23,78 ± 0,85 sec and 24,66 ± 0,78 sec. Found that carpal dynamometry has a maximum contribution to the system (in group 1 for the right hand - 18.17, for the left - 23.50, in group 2 - 7.44 and 7.10. Correlation coefficients dynamometry in group 1 were significantly higher. Strength endurance had almost no connection with the study of reliable performance. Conclusions : it is proved that the level of carpal dynamometry is an important informative and adequate criterion. This indicator is characterized by a maximum contribution backbone.

  20. Resting sympatho-vagal balance is related to 10 km running performance in master endurance athletes

    Angelo Cataldo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between heart rate recovery after exercise (HRR, baseline heart rate variability measures (HRV, and time to perform a 10Km running trial (t10Km were evaluated in "master" athletes of endurance to assess whether the measured indexes may be useful for monitoring the training status of the athletes. Ten “master” athletes of endurance, aged 40-60 years, were recruited. After baseline measures of HRV, the athletes performed a graded maximal test on treadmill and HRR was measured at 1 and 2 minutes from recovery. Subsequently they performed a 10Km running trial and t10Km was related to HRV and HRR indexes. The time to perform a 10Km running trial was significantly correlated with baseline HRV indexes. No correlation was found between t10Km and HRR. Baseline HRV measures, but not HRR, were significantly correlated with the time of performance on 10km running in “master” athletes. The enhanced parasympathetic function at rest appears to be a condition to a better performance on 10km running. HRV can be simple and useful measurements for monitoring the training stratus of athletes and their physical condition in proximity of a competition.

  1. Reduced neuromuscular performance in amenorrheic elite endurance athletes

    Tornberg, Åsa B; Melin, Anna; Manderson Koivula, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    sampling performed on the 3rd-5th day of the menstrual cycle, and 7-day assessment of energy availability. RESULTS: SFHA athletes had lower estrogen (0.12 ±0.03 vs. 0.17 ±0.09 nmol/L, ptriiodothyronine (T3) (1.4 ±0.2 vs. 1.7 ±0.3 nmol/L, p

  2. Comparison of Body Image between Disabled Athletes, Disabled Non-Athletes and Non-Disable Non-Athletes Males

    Abdollah Ghasemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this research was to compare the body image between disabled athletes with disabled and non-disabled non- athletes. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional and comparative study, fifty disabled athletes from the handicapped sports club, fifty disabled non athletes from Kahrizak disabled rest house and fifty non athlete healthy persons from governmental administrations were selected randomly by classified clustered method and their body image were compared. Data collection tools included a personal information questionnaire and a physical self description questionnaire (PSDQ which included 11 sub-scales such as power, endurance, coordination, general health, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, fat, body appearance, body activity and the global physical. The statistical procedures used in this study comprised one way ANOVA and the Newman-keuls test. Results: Body image of disabled athletes in the sub-scales of power, endurance, coordination, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, body activity were higher than disabled and non-disabled individuals who were not athletes (P&le0.001. In addition the sub-scales of the body fat (P=0.012, body appearance (P=0.002 and general health (P=0.001, the results showed that a higher significance for the disabled athletes, however, there wasn’t significant difference for the non-disabled athletes. Conclusion: Thus the result showed that the attitude of the disabled and non-disabled individual in due to their continuous physical activity in that the disabled athletes have got better body images as compared to the disabled and non-disabled individual who have not physical activity.

  3. The Development of Functional Overreaching Is Associated with a Faster Heart Rate Recovery in Endurance Athletes.

    Anaël Aubry

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate whether heart rate recovery (HRR may represent an effective marker of functional overreaching (f-OR in endurance athletes.Thirty-one experienced male triathletes were tested (10 control and 21 overload subjects before (Pre, and immediately after an overload training period (Mid and after a 2-week taper (Post. Physiological responses were assessed during an incremental cycling protocol to exhaustion, including heart rate, catecholamine release and blood lactate concentration. Ten participants from the overload group developed signs of f-OR at Mid (i.e. -2.1 ± 0.8% change in performance associated with concomitant high perceived fatigue. Additionally, only the f-OR group demonstrated a 99% chance of increase in HRR during the overload period (+8 ± 5 bpm, large effect size. Concomitantly, this group also revealed a >80% chance of decreasing blood lactate (-11 ± 14%, large, plasma norepinephrine (-12 ± 37%, small and plasma epinephrine peak concentrations (-51 ± 22%, moderate. These blood measures returned to baseline levels at Post. HRR change was negatively correlated to changes in performance, peak HR and peak blood metabolites concentrations.These findings suggest that i a faster HRR is not systematically associated with improved physical performance, ii changes in HRR should be interpreted in the context of the specific training phase, the athletes perceived level of fatigue and the performance response; and, iii the faster HRR associated with f-OR may be induced by a decreased central command and by a lower chemoreflex activity.

  4. No Superior Adaptations to Carbohydrate Periodization in Elite Endurance Athletes

    Gejl, Kasper Degn; Thams, Line Bork; Hansen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    endurance training, while matched and randomized into two groups training with (Low) or without (High) carbohydrate (CHO) manipulation three days a week. The CHO manipulation days consisted of a 1-hr high intensity bike session in the morning, recovery for 7 hrs while consuming isocaloric diets containing...... either high CHO (414±2.4 g) or low CHO (79.5±1.0 g), and a 2-hr moderate bike session in the afternoon with or without CHO. VO2max, maximal fat oxidation and power output during a 30-min time trial (TT) were determined before and after the training period. The TT was undertaken after 90 mins...

  5. Former male elite athletes and risk of hypertension in later life.

    Laine, Merja K; Kujala, Urho M; Eriksson, Johan G; Wasenius, Niko S; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bäckmand, Heli M; Peltonen, Markku; Heinonen, Olli; Jula, Antti; Sarna, Seppo

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether a former career as an elite athlete protects from hypertension in later life. We hypothesized that vigorous physical activity during young adulthood protects against hypertension later in life. The study population (n = 3440) consists of 2037 former male elite athletes and 1403 matched controls. Of those, 599 (392 former athletes, 207 controls) participated in a clinical study in 2008. The athletes were divided into three groups: endurance, mixed and power sports. Assessment of hypertension was based on athletes' entitlement to reimbursable antihypertensive medication from the Finnish Social Insurance Institution; among the clinical study participants, this was also based on self-reported current use of antihypertensive drugs or measured hypertension. The current volume of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) was determined by questionnaires. Among the participants, the former athletes had lower age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension than the controls [odds ratio (OR) 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.98] and the endurance athletes had the lowest OR (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.23-0.80). OR for the prevalence of hypertension decreased (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84-0.96 per 10 metabolic equivalent hours/week) when there was an increase in the volume of LTPA. The former athletes without blood pressure-lowering medication had significantly lower SBP than the controls [139.2 mmHg (SD 18.7) vs. 144.2 mmHg (SD 19.5)] (P = 0.027). A former career as an elite athlete seems to be associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension in later life. The volume of current LTPA was inversely related to prevalence of hypertension.

  6. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Intake on Endurance Exercise Performance and Anti-fatigue in Student Athletes.

    Terasawa, Naoko; Okamoto, Ken; Nakada, Kenta; Masuda, Kazumi

    2017-07-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) intake has been reported to reduce body fat mass or increase lean body mass and to improve exercise outcome by modulating testosterone in humans. These reports have studied mostly overweight subjects; few were athletes. Therefore, in this study, the effect of CLA intake on endurance performance and anti-fatigue in student athletes was investigated. A double-blind, crossover study was conducted with 10 male student athletes. Each subject was administered with either CLA (net 0.9 g/day) or a placebo for 14 days. They were subjected to an exercise tolerance test (steady loading) using a cycle ergometer on days 0 and 14. Peak VO 2 was determined for each subject using a graded loading test. The steady loading test was performed with a pedaling exercise load of 50% peak VO 2 for 40 min and then with a load of 70% peak VO 2 until exhaustion. Blood sampling and measurement of critical flicker frequency (CFF) were performed before and after exercise. The rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured serially during exercise. In the results, amount of body weight variation significantly increased and amount of body fat percentage variation tended to decrease by CLA intake, it might have an effect by increase in muscle mass. In addition, amount of exercise time variation significantly increased, amount of variation of CFF before and after exercise tended to increase, that of RPE during exercise tended to decrease, and that of creatine phosphokinase before and after exercise tended to decrease in the CLA group. These results suggested that CLA intake for 14 days might have an effect on endurance performance and anti-fatigue in student athletes.

  7. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Peak Torque Differences between Vegetarian and Omnivore Endurance Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Heidi M. Lynch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of well-documented health benefits of vegetarian diets, less is known regarding the effects of these diets on athletic performance. In this cross-sectional study, we compared elite vegetarian and omnivore adult endurance athletes for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max and strength. Twenty-seven vegetarian (VEG and 43 omnivore (OMN athletes were evaluated using VO2 max testing on the treadmill, and strength assessment using a dynamometer to determine peak torque for leg extensions. Dietary data were assessed using detailed seven-day food logs. Although total protein intake was lower among vegetarians in comparison to omnivores, protein intake as a function of body mass did not differ by group (1.2 ± 0.3 and 1.4 ± 0.5 g/kg body mass for VEG and OMN respectively, p = 0.220. VO2 max differed for females by diet group (53.0 ± 6.9 and 47.1 ± 8.6 mL/kg/min for VEG and OMN respectively, p < 0.05 but not for males (62.6 ± 15.4 and 55.7 ± 8.4 mL/kg/min respectively. Peak torque did not differ significantly between diet groups. Results from this study indicate that vegetarian endurance athletes’ cardiorespiratory fitness was greater than that for their omnivorous counterparts, but that peak torque did not differ between diet groups. These data suggest that vegetarian diets do not compromise performance outcomes and may facilitate aerobic capacity in athletes.

  8. DIFFERENT ENDURANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF FEMALE AND MALE GERMAN SOCCER PLAYERS

    C. Baumgart

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to assess gender differences regarding lactate threshold and intermittent shuttle run performance in female and male soccer players as well as to investigate the relationships between both endurance characteristics in both genders. Fourteen female (1st division and thirteen male (4th division soccer players completed an incremental test (IT to determine running velocities at 2 and 4 mmol · l-1 blood lactate (v2 and v4 and maximum velocity (vmax as well as an interval shuttle run test (ISRT to determine running distance. Based on v2 and v4 and their percentages in relation to vmax, three intensity zones were calculated: a low lactate zone (v4. Female soccer players have a lower v4 (8.2%, vmax (11.3% and ISRT distance (31.6%. No gender difference was found in v2. In contrast to males, ISRT distance correlates with vmax as well as with v2 and v4 in female soccer players. The intensity zones v4 differ between genders. The present study revealed that gender differences increase when the running performance is intermittent including change of directions. In both genders, different relationships between lactate threshold and intermittent shuttle run performance exist. During incremental testing, the running performances of female and male players reflect different distributions of aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways. The revealed gender differences should be considered for soccer endurance training.

  9. Differences in muscle mechanical properties between elite power and endurance athletes: a comparative study.

    Loturco, Irineu; Gil, Saulo; Laurino, Cristiano Frota de Souza; Roschel, Hamilton; Kobal, Ronaldo; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Nakamura, Fabio Y

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare muscle mechanical properties (using tensiomyography-TMG) and jumping performance of endurance and power athletes and to quantify the associations between TMG parameters and jumping performance indices. Forty-one high-level track and field athletes from power (n = 22; mean ± SD age, height, and weight were 27.2 ± 3.6 years; 180.2 ± 5.4 cm; and 79.4 ± 8.6 kg, respectively) and endurance (endurance runners and triathletes; n = 19; mean ± SD age, height, and weight were 27.1 ± 6.9 years; 169.6 ± 9.8 cm; 62.2 ± 13.1 kg, respectively) specialties had the mechanical properties of their rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) assessed by TMG. Muscle displacement (Dm), contraction time (Tc), and delay time (Td) were retained for analyses. Furthermore, they performed squat jumps (SJs), countermovement jumps (CMJs), and drop jumps to assess reactive strength index (RSI), using a contact platform. Comparisons between groups were performed using differences based on magnitudes, and associations were quantified by the Spearman's ρ correlation. Power athletes showed almost certain higher performance in all jumping performance indices when compared with endurance athletes (SJ = 44.9 ± 4.1 vs. 30.7 ± 6.8 cm; CMJ = 48.9 ± 4.5 vs. 33.6 ± 7.2 cm; RSI = 2.19 ± 0.58 vs. 0.84 ± 0.39, for power and endurance athletes, mean ± SD, respectively; 00/00/100, almost certain, p ≤ 0.05), along with better contractile indices reflected by lower Dm, Tc, and Td (Tc BF = 14.3 ± 2.3 vs. 19.4 ± 3.3 milliseconds; Dm BF = 1.67 ± 1.05 vs. 4.23 ± 1.75 mm; Td BF = 16.8 ± 1.6 vs. 19.6 ± 1.3 milliseconds; Tc RF = 18.3 ± 2.8 vs. 22.9 ± 4.0 milliseconds; Dm RF = 4.98 ± 3.71 vs. 8.88 ± 3.45 mm; Td RF = 17.5 ± 1.0 vs. 20.9 ± 1.6 milliseconds, for power and endurance athletes, mean ± SD, respectively; 00/00/100, almost certain, p ≤ 0.05). Moderate correlations (Spearman's ρ between -0.61 and -0.72) were found between TMG and jumping

  10. Acetabular stress fractures in military endurance athletes and recruits: incidence and MRI and scintigraphic findings

    Williams, T.R.; Puckett, M.L.; Shin, A.Y.; Gorman, J.D.; Denison, G.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the incidence and the MRI and scintigraphic appearance of acetabular stress (fatigue) fractures in military endurance athletes and recruits. Design and patients: One hundred and seventy-eight active duty military endurance trainees with a history of activity-related hip pain were evaluated by both MRI and bone scan over a 2-year period. Patients in the study ranged in age from 17 to 45 years. They had hip pain related to activity and had plain radiographs of the hip and pelvis that were interpreted as normal or equivocal. The study was originally designed to evaluate the MRI and scintigraphic appearance of femoral neck stress fractures. Patients had scintigraphy and a limited MRI examination (coronal imaging only) within 48 h of the bone scan. Twelve patients demonstrated imaging findings compatible with acetabular stress fractures. Results: Stress fractures are common in endurance athletes and in military populations; however, stress fracture of the acetabulum is uncommon. Twelve of 178 patients (6.7%) in our study had imaging findings consistent with acetabular stress fractures. Two patterns were identified. Seven of the 12 (58%) patients had acetabular roof stress fractures. In this group, two cases of bilateral acetabular roof stress fractures were identified, one with a synchronous tensile sided femoral neck stress fracture. The remaining five of 12 (42%) patients had anterior column stress fractures, rarely occurring in isolation, and almost always occurring with inferior pubic ramus stress fracture (4 of 5, or 80%). One case of bilateral anterior column stress fractures was identified without additional sites of injury. Conclusions: Stress fractures are commonplace in military populations, especially endurance trainees. Acetabular stress fractures are rare and therefore unrecognized, but do occur and may be a cause for activity-related hip pain in a small percentage of military endurance athletes and recruits. (orig.)

  11. Electrocardiographic patterns in African University strength and endurance athletes of Zulu descent.

    Grace, J; Duvenage, E; Jordaan, J P

    2015-11-01

    There is concern over the effect of training on heart function of athletes as recorded by 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG). Although ECG abnormalities with respect to ethnic origin of black athletes from the Caribbean, West Africa and East Africa have been reported, black athletes from southern Africa, specifically participating in different sports, have never been investigated before. The purpose of this study was to analyze the ECG patterns in South African students of Zulu descent, who represented our university in boxing (endurance modality) and body building (resistance modality) at a regional level. Fifteen subjects each were assigned to an endurance (E), resistance (R) or control (C) group, respectively. ECG patterns were recorded with a 12-lead ECG. Our subjects indicated no significant differences in ECG patterns in relation to whether they participate in strength or endurance related sport. However, 80% of the endurance group and 67% of the resistance displayed ECG criteria indicative of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), group E displays higher R5/S1-wave voltages (E=43.3 mm; R=36.8 mm; C=37.1 mm) as well distinctly abnormal ECG patterns (E=87%; R=73%; C=53%), raising clinical suspicion of structural heart disease. Our cohort presented with non-significant, marked ST-segment elevation (53% of both the E and R groups) and inverted T-waves in 27% of the E group. Similar to findings in other ethnic Africans, a large proportion of our Zulu study population displayed ECG criteria indicative of LVH on the evidence of a marked increase of R5/S1-wave voltage and ST/T-segment changes with no differences in relation to whether they participate in strength or endurance related sport.

  12. Endurance Sport and “Cardiac Injury”: A Prospective Study of Recreational Ironman Athletes

    Roman Leischik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Participation in triathlon competitions has increased in recent years. Many studies have described left or right ventricular injury in endurance athletes. The goal of this study was to examine the right and left ventricular cardiac structures and function and dynamic cardio-pulmonary performance in a large cohort of middle- and long-distance triathletes. Methods: 87 triathletes (54 male and 33 female were examined using spiroergometry and echocardiography. The inclusion criterion was participation in at least one middle- or long distance triathlon. Results: Male triathletes showed a maximum oxygen absorption of 58.1 ± 8.6 mL/min/kg (female triathletes 52.8 ± 5.7 mL/min/kg, maximum ergometer performance of 347.8 ± 49.9 W (female triathletes 264.5 ± 26.1 W. Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF was normal (male triathletes EF: 61.9% ± 3%, female triathletes EF: 63.0% ± 2.7% and systolic right ventricular area change fraction (RV AFC% showed normal values (males RV AFC%: 33.5% ± 2.2%, females 32.2% ± 2.8%. Doppler indices of diastolic function were normal in both groups. With respect to the echocardiographic readings the left ventricular mass for males and females were 217.7 ± 41.6 g and 145.9 ± 31.3 g, respectively. The relative wall thickness for males was 0.50 ± 0.07, whereas it was 0.47 ± 0.09 for females. The probability of left ventricular mass >220 g increased with higher blood pressure during exercise (OR: 1.027, CI 1.002–1.052, p = 0.034 or with higher training volume (OR: 1.23, CI 1.04–1.47, p = 0.019. Conclusions: Right or left ventricular dysfunction could not be found, although the maximal participation in triathlon competitions was 29 years. A left ventricular mass >220 g is more likely to occur with higher arterial pressure during exercise and with a higher training volume.

  13. Endurance sport and "cardiac injury": a prospective study of recreational ironman athletes.

    Leischik, Roman; Spelsberg, Norman

    2014-09-03

    Participation in triathlon competitions has increased in recent years. Many studies have described left or right ventricular injury in endurance athletes. The goal of this study was to examine the right and left ventricular cardiac structures and function and dynamic cardio-pulmonary performance in a large cohort of middle- and long-distance triathletes. 87 triathletes (54 male and 33 female) were examined using spiroergometry and echocardiography. The inclusion criterion was participation in at least one middle- or long distance triathlon. Male triathletes showed a maximum oxygen absorption of 58.1 ± 8.6 mL/min/kg (female triathletes 52.8 ± 5.7 mL/min/kg), maximum ergometer performance of 347.8 ± 49.9 W (female triathletes 264.5 ± 26.1 W). Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) was normal (male triathletes EF: 61.9% ± 3%, female triathletes EF: 63.0% ± 2.7%) and systolic right ventricular area change fraction (RV AFC%) showed normal values (males RV AFC%: 33.5% ± 2.2%, females 32.2% ± 2.8%). Doppler indices of diastolic function were normal in both groups. With respect to the echocardiographic readings the left ventricular mass for males and females were 217.7 ± 41.6 g and 145.9 ± 31.3 g, respectively. The relative wall thickness for males was 0.50 ± 0.07, whereas it was 0.47 ± 0.09 for females. The probability of left ventricular mass >220 g increased with higher blood pressure during exercise (OR: 1.027, CI 1.002-1.052, p = 0.034) or with higher training volume (OR: 1.23, CI 1.04-1.47, p = 0.019). Right or left ventricular dysfunction could not be found, although the maximal participation in triathlon competitions was 29 years. A left ventricular mass >220 g is more likely to occur with higher arterial pressure during exercise and with a higher training volume.

  14. Endurance Sport and “Cardiac Injury”: A Prospective Study of Recreational Ironman Athletes

    Leischik, Roman; Spelsberg, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Participation in triathlon competitions has increased in recent years. Many studies have described left or right ventricular injury in endurance athletes. The goal of this study was to examine the right and left ventricular cardiac structures and function and dynamic cardio-pulmonary performance in a large cohort of middle- and long-distance triathletes. Methods: 87 triathletes (54 male and 33 female) were examined using spiroergometry and echocardiography. The inclusion criterion was participation in at least one middle- or long distance triathlon. Results: Male triathletes showed a maximum oxygen absorption of 58.1 ± 8.6 mL/min/kg (female triathletes 52.8 ± 5.7 mL/min/kg), maximum ergometer performance of 347.8 ± 49.9 W (female triathletes 264.5 ± 26.1 W). Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) was normal (male triathletes EF: 61.9% ± 3%, female triathletes EF: 63.0% ± 2.7%) and systolic right ventricular area change fraction (RV AFC%) showed normal values (males RV AFC%: 33.5% ± 2.2%, females 32.2% ± 2.8%). Doppler indices of diastolic function were normal in both groups. With respect to the echocardiographic readings the left ventricular mass for males and females were 217.7 ± 41.6 g and 145.9 ± 31.3 g, respectively. The relative wall thickness for males was 0.50 ± 0.07, whereas it was 0.47 ± 0.09 for females. The probability of left ventricular mass >220 g increased with higher blood pressure during exercise (OR: 1.027, CI 1.002–1.052, p = 0.034) or with higher training volume (OR: 1.23, CI 1.04–1.47, p = 0.019). Conclusions: Right or left ventricular dysfunction could not be found, although the maximal participation in triathlon competitions was 29 years. A left ventricular mass >220 g is more likely to occur with higher arterial pressure during exercise and with a higher training volume. PMID:25192145

  15. Training adaptation and heart rate variability in elite endurance athletes: opening the door to effective monitoring.

    Plews, Daniel J; Laursen, Paul B; Stanley, Jamie; Kilding, Andrew E; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) is often considered a convenient non-invasive assessment tool for monitoring individual adaptation to training. Decreases and increases in vagal-derived indices of HRV have been suggested to indicate negative and positive adaptations, respectively, to endurance training regimens. However, much of the research in this area has involved recreational and well-trained athletes, with the small number of studies conducted in elite athletes revealing equivocal outcomes. For example, in elite athletes, studies have revealed both increases and decreases in HRV to be associated with negative adaptation. Additionally, signs of positive adaptation, such as increases in cardiorespiratory fitness, have been observed with atypical concomitant decreases in HRV. As such, practical ways by which HRV can be used to monitor training status in elites are yet to be established. This article addresses the current literature that has assessed changes in HRV in response to training loads and the likely positive and negative adaptations shown. We reveal limitations with respect to how the measurement of HRV has been interpreted to assess positive and negative adaptation to endurance training regimens and subsequent physical performance. We offer solutions to some of the methodological issues associated with using HRV as a day-to-day monitoring tool. These include the use of appropriate averaging techniques, and the use of specific HRV indices to overcome the issue of HRV saturation in elite athletes (i.e., reductions in HRV despite decreases in resting heart rate). Finally, we provide examples in Olympic and World Champion athletes showing how these indices can be practically applied to assess training status and readiness to perform in the period leading up to a pinnacle event. The paper reveals how longitudinal HRV monitoring in elites is required to understand their unique individual HRV fingerprint. For the first time, we demonstrate how

  16. Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy in an Endurance Athlete Presenting with Ventricular Tachycardia and Normal Right Ventricular Function.

    Hedley, Jeffrey S; Al Mheid, Ibhar; Alikhani, Zoubin; Pernetz, Maria A; Kim, Jonathan H

    2017-08-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, a genetically inherited disease that results in fibrofatty replacement of normal cardiac myocytes, has been associated with sudden cardiac death in athletes. Long-term participation in endurance exercise hastens the development of both the arrhythmic and structural arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy phenotypes. We describe the unusual case of a 34-year-old, symptomatic, female endurance athlete who had arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in the presence of a structurally normal right ventricle. Clinicians should be aware of this infrequent presentation when evaluating athletic patients who have ventricular arrhythmias and normal findings on cardiac imaging studies.

  17. Concurrent Development of Endurance Capacity and Explosiveness: Training Characteristics of World-Class Nordic-Combined Athletes.

    Tønnessen, Espen; Rasdal, Vegard; Svendsen, Ida S; Haugen, Thomas A; Hem, Erlend; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2016-07-01

    Performing at an elite level in Nordic combined (NC) requires both the explosiveness required for ski jumping performance and the endurance capacity required for cross-country skiing. To describe the characteristics of world-class NC athletes' training and determine how endurance and non-endurance (ie, strength, power, and ski jumping) training is periodized. Annual training characteristics and the periodization of endurance and non-endurance training were determined by analyzing the training diaries of 6 world-class NC athletes. Of 846 ± 72 annual training hours, 540 ± 37 h were endurance training, with 88.6% being low-, 5.9% moderate-, and 5.5% high-intensity training. While training frequency remained relatively constant, the total training volume was reduced from the general preparatory to the competition phase, primarily due to less low- and moderate-intensity training (P ski-jump-specific training (908 ± 165 ski jumps and ski-jump imitations). The proportion of non-endurance training increased significantly toward the competition phase (P ski-jump training. These data provide novel insight on how successful athletes execute their training and may facilitate more-precise coaching of future athletes in this sport. In addition, this information is of high relevance for the training organization of other sports that require optimization of 2 fundamentally different physical capacities.

  18. African American Male College Athletes' Narratives on Education and Racism

    Singer, John N.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents narrative case study vignettes of three elite African American male football athletes at a major historically White institution of higher education with a big-time athletics department. More specifically, I draw from critical race theory to garner insight into their secondary schooling background, what education means to them,…

  19. Creatine and the Male Adolescent Athlete

    Schumaker, Shauna; Eyers, Christina; Cappaert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    As the level of competition in youth sports increases, so does athletes' vulnerability to experimenting with performance-enhancing aids (PEAs) at alarmingly young ages. One of the more commonly used PEAs is a supplement called creatine, which has the ability to generate muscular energy, allowing athletes to train at higher intensities for longer…

  20. The training intensity distribution among well-trained and elite endurance athletes

    Stöggl, Thomas L.; Sperlich, Billy

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have retrospectively analyzed the training intensity distribution (TID) of nationally and internationally competitive athletes in different endurance disciplines to determine the optimal volume and intensity for maximal adaptation. The majority of studies present a “pyramidal” TID with a high proportion of high volume, low intensity training (HVLIT). Some world-class athletes appear to adopt a so-called “polarized” TID (i.e., significant % of HVLIT and high-intensity training) during certain phases of the season. However, emerging prospective randomized controlled studies have demonstrated superior responses of variables related to endurance when applying a polarized TID in well-trained and recreational individuals when compared with a TID that emphasizes HVLIT or threshold training. The aims of the present review are to: (1) summarize the main responses of retrospective and prospective studies exploring TID; (2) provide a systematic overview on TIDs during preparation, pre-competition, and competition phases in different endurance disciplines and performance levels; (3) address whether one TID has demonstrated greater efficacy than another; and (4) highlight research gaps in an effort to direct future scientific studies. PMID:26578968

  1. Male and Female: Career Development of African American College Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Alexander, Jamie Dowdy

    2015-01-01

    Tendency to foreclose on careers, vocational exploration, and career commitment were examined in relationship to racial-ethnic socialization, parental responsiveness, and career-related verbal encouragement and emotional support among 228 African American male and female college athletes and non-athletes. A number of tests were conducted to test…

  2. Left ventricular mass in male adolescent athletes and non-athletes

    Erling David Kaunang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Systematic exercise leads to increased left ventricular mass, which may be misleading in a differential diagnosis of heart disease in athletes (physiologic hypertrophy versus pathologic hypertrophy. T he cause of left ventricular hypertrophy is an important risk factor in the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases. Objective To compare left ventricular mass and left ventricular hypertrophy in male adolescent athletes and non-athletes. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, analytic study, from September to December 2012 in male adolescents aged 15-18 years. The case group included athletes from the Bina Taruna Football Club Manado, while the control group included non-athlete adolescents. All subjects underwent history-taking, physical examinations and further supporting examinations. Left ventricular mass was measured by cardiovascular echocardiography (Esaote Mylab 4.0 and calculated based on a formula. Left ventricular hypertrophy was defined as left ventricular mass of > 134 g/m2 body surface area. Results Subjects' mean left ventricular masses were 359.69 (SD 188.4; 95%CI 283.58 to 435.81 grams in the athlete group and 173.04 (SD 50.69; 95%CI 152.56 to 103.51 grams in the non· athlete group, a statistically significant difference (P=0.0001. Ventricular hypertrophy was found 76.9% compared to 11.5% in  the non-athlete group (P= 0.0001. Conclusion Left ventricular mass in athletes is bigger than in non-athletes. In addition, left ventricular hypertrophy is more cornmon in male adolescent athletes than in non-athletes.

  3. Postexercise Dietary Protein Strategies to Maximize Skeletal Muscle Repair and Remodeling in Masters Endurance Athletes: A Review.

    Doering, Thomas M; Reaburn, Peter R; Phillips, Stuart M; Jenkins, David G

    2016-04-01

    Participation rates of masters athletes in endurance events such as long-distance triathlon and running continue to increase. Given the physical and metabolic demands of endurance training, recovery practices influence the quality of successive training sessions and, consequently, adaptations to training. Research has suggested that, after muscle-damaging endurance exercise, masters athletes experience slower recovery rates in comparison with younger, similarly trained athletes. Given that these discrepancies in recovery rates are not observed after non-muscle-damaging exercise, it is suggested that masters athletes have impairments of the protein remodeling mechanisms within skeletal muscle. The importance of postexercise protein feeding for endurance athletes is increasingly being acknowledged, and its role in creating a positive net muscle protein balance postexercise is well known. The potential benefits of postexercise protein feeding include elevating muscle protein synthesis and satellite cell activity for muscle repair and remodeling, as well as facilitating muscle glycogen resynthesis. Despite extensive investigation into age-related anabolic resistance in sedentary aging populations, little is known about how anabolic resistance affects postexercise muscle protein synthesis and thus muscle remodeling in aging athletes. Despite evidence suggesting that physical training can attenuate but not eliminate age-related anabolic resistance, masters athletes are currently recommended to consume the same postexercise dietary protein dose (approximately 20 g or 0.25 g/kg/meal) as younger athletes. Given the slower recovery rates of masters athletes after muscle-damaging exercise, which may be due to impaired muscle remodeling mechanisms, masters athletes may benefit from higher doses of postexercise dietary protein, with particular attention directed to the leucine content of the postexercise bolus.

  4. Effects of oral sodium supplementation on indices of thermoregulation in trained, endurance athletes.

    Earhart, Elizabeth L; Weiss, Edward P; Rahman, Rabia; Kelly, Patrick V

    2015-03-01

    Guidelines recommend the consumption of sodium during exercise to replace losses in sweat; however, the effects of sodium on thermoregulation are less clear. To determine the effects of high-dose sodium supplementation on indices of thermoregulation and related outcomes, 11 endurance athletes participated in a double-blind, randomized-sequence, crossover study in which they underwent 2-hrs of endurance exercise at 60% heart rate reserve with 1800 mg of sodium supplementation (SS) during one trial and placebo (PL) during the other trial. A progressive intensity time-to-exhaustion test was performed after the 2-hr steady state exercise as an assessment of exercise performance. Sweat rate was calculated from changes in body weight, accounting for fluid intake and urinary losses. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and heat stress were assessed using verbal numeric scales. Cardiovascular drift was determined from the rise in HR during the 2-hr steady state exercise test. Skin temperature was measured with an infrared thermometer. Dehydration occurred in both SS and PL trials, as evidenced by substantial weight loss (2.03 ± 0.43% and 2.27 ± 0.70%, respectively; p = 0.261 between trials). Sweat rate was 1015.53 ± 239.10 ml·hr(-1) during the SS trial and 1053.60±278.24 ml/hr during the PL trial, with no difference between trials (p = 0.459). Heat stress ratings indicated moderate heat stress ("warm/hot" ratings) but were not different between trials (p = 0.825). Time to exhaustion during the SS trial was 6.88 ± 3.88 minutes and during the PL trial averaged 6.96 ± 3.61 minutes, but did not differ between trials (p = 0.919). Cardiovascular drift, skin temperature, and RPE did not differ between trials (all p > 0.05). High-dose sodium supplementation does not appear to impact thermoregulation, cardiovascular drift, or physical performance in trained, endurance athletes. However, in light of the possibility that high sodium intakes might have other adverse effects

  5. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in male athletes

    Fernanda Reistenbach Goltz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF, among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh; the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results: Disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction were found in 43 (27.6% and 23 athletes (14.7%, respectively, and an association was detected between the two variables (p < 0.001. Athletes with and without disordered eating behaviors did not differ in %BF (11.0±5.2% and 9.8±4.0%, respectively; p = 0.106. However, athletes with body image dissatisfaction had higher %BF than those who were satisfied (12.6±5.9% and 9.7±3.9%, respectively; p = 0.034. There were no differences in BF, frequency of disordered eating behaviors, and body image dissatisfaction between sports categories. Conclusion: Nearly one-quarter of athletes showed disordered eating behaviors, which was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Athletes with higher %BF were more likely to be dissatisfied with body image. There was no difference in eating behavior and body image between athletes from different sports categories.

  6. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders among Male Adolescent Athletes.

    Pustivšek, Suzana; Hadžić, Vedran; Dervišević, Edvin

    2015-03-01

    Eating disorders (ED) are an important and increasing problem in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the risk factors and the prevalence of risk for ED among male adolescent elite athletes and nonathletic controls. Differences between male athletes competing in aerobic, anaerobic and aerobic-anaerobic sports were examined as well. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted on 351 adolescents (athletes n = 228; controls n = 123). All participants were aged 15-17 at the time of measuring. Risk for ED was determined using a SCOFF questionnaire. The overall prevalence of the risk for ED in male adolescents was 24.8%, with no significant differences among athletes and controls or different subgroups of athletes (p>0.05), although the highest prevalence (37.2%) was registered in aerobic subgroup of athletes. Higher number of attempts to lose weight was associated with increased risk of ED in each group (athletes and controls). Other predictors referred to lack of breakfast and body composition in aerobic subgroup of athletes and number of meals and training frequency in anaerobic subgroup. The most common reasons for dieting were improvement of sport results (19.6-44.2%) and better self-esteem (41.5%) in athletes and controls respectively. Participation in the competitive sport itself is not associated with the increased risk for ED. It seems that risk factors for ED for adolescent athletes competing in aerobic and anaerobic sports represent a subject that deserves consideration and further investigation in the future.

  7. Sympatho-adrenergic activation by endurance exercise: Effect on metanephrines spillover and its role in predicting athlete's performance.

    Danese, Elisa; Tarperi, Cantor; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Guzzo, Alessandra; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Festa, Luca; Bertinato, Luciano; Montagnana, Martina; Schena, Federico; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2018-03-20

    The sympatho-adrenergic activation during exercise is implicated in many cardiovascular respiratory and metabolic adaptations which have been thought to partially explain the different levels of performance observed between trained and untrained subjects. To date, no evidence exists about the association between competition performance and markers of "acute stress response". We designed this study to investigate; (i) the acute sympatho-adrenergic activation during endurance exercise in recreational runners by measuring plasma levels of free metanephrine (MN) and normethanephrine (NMN) before and after a half-marathon run; (ii) the association between the metanephrines levels and the running time. 26 amateur runners (15 males, 11 females) aged 30 to 63 years were enrolled. The quantification of MN and NMN was performed by LC-MS/MS. Anthropometric ergonomic and routine laboratory data were recorded. Statistical analyses included paired T -test, univariate and multivariate regressions. The post-run values of MN and NMN displayed a nearly 3.5 and 7 fold increase respectively compared to the baseline values ( p performance. No correlations were found for MN values. NMN is a reliable marker of sympatho-adrenergic activation by exercise and can predict endurance performance in the individual athlete. Adaptation phenomenon occurring not only in the adrenal medulla might represent the biological mechanism underlying this association. Further studies on sympatho-adrenergic activation, competition performance and training status should contemplate the measurement of these metabolites instead of their unstable precursors.

  8. Mirror Electromyografic Activity in the Upper and Lower Extremity: A Comparison between Endurance Athletes and Non-Athletes.

    Maudrich, Tom; Kenville, Rouven; Lepsien, Jöran; Villringer, Arno; Ragert, Patrick; Steele, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    During unimanual motor tasks, muscle activity may not be restricted to the contracting muscle, but rather occurs involuntarily in the contralateral resting limb, even in healthy individuals. This phenomenon has been referred to as mirror electromyographic activity (MEMG). To date, the physiological (non-pathological) form of MEMG has been observed predominately in upper extremities (UE), while remaining sparsely described in lower extremities (LE). Accordingly, evidence regarding the underlying mechanisms and modulation capability of MEMG, i.e., the extent of MEMG in dependency of exerted force during unilateral isometric contractions are insufficiently investigated in terms of LE. Furthermore, it still remains elusive if and how MEMG is affected by long-term exercise training. Here, we provide novel quantitative evidence for physiological MEMG in homologous muscles of LE (tibialis anterior (TA), rectus femoris (RF)) during submaximal unilateral dorsiflexion in healthy young adults. Furthermore, endurance athletes (EA, n = 11) show a higher extent of MEMG in LE compared to non-athletes (NA, n = 11) at high force demands (80% MVC, maximum voluntary contraction). While the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of MEMG still remain elusive, our study indicates, at least indirectly, that sport-related long-term training might affect the amount of MEMG during strong isometric contractions specifically in trained limbs. To support this assumption of exercise-induced limb-specific MEMG modulation, future studies including different sports disciplines with contrasting movement patterns and parameters should additionally be performed.

  9. Mirror Electromyografic Activity in the Upper and Lower Extremity: A Comparison between Endurance Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Tom Maudrich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During unimanual motor tasks, muscle activity may not be restricted to the contracting muscle, but rather occurs involuntarily in the contralateral resting limb, even in healthy individuals. This phenomenon has been referred to as mirror electromyographic activity (MEMG. To date, the physiological (non-pathological form of MEMG has been observed predominately in upper extremities (UE, while remaining sparsely described in lower extremities (LE. Accordingly, evidence regarding the underlying mechanisms and modulation capability of MEMG, i.e., the extent of MEMG in dependency of exerted force during unilateral isometric contractions are insufficiently investigated in terms of LE. Furthermore, it still remains elusive if and how MEMG is affected by long-term exercise training. Here, we provide novel quantitative evidence for physiological MEMG in homologous muscles of LE (tibialis anterior (TA, rectus femoris (RF during submaximal unilateral dorsiflexion in healthy young adults. Furthermore, endurance athletes (EA, n = 11 show a higher extent of MEMG in LE compared to non-athletes (NA, n = 11 at high force demands (80% MVC, maximum voluntary contraction. While the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms of MEMG still remain elusive, our study indicates, at least indirectly, that sport-related long-term training might affect the amount of MEMG during strong isometric contractions specifically in trained limbs. To support this assumption of exercise-induced limb-specific MEMG modulation, future studies including different sports disciplines with contrasting movement patterns and parameters should additionally be performed.

  10. Basal metabolic rate and body composition of elite Japanese male athletes.

    Koshimizu, Takako; Matsushima, Yoshiko; Yokota, Yukari; Yanagisawa, Kae; Nagai, Satsuki; Okamura, Koji; Komatsu, Yutaka; Kawahara, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The estimated energy requirement is important for adequate nutritional management in athletes. The energy requirement can be estimated from the basal metabolic rate (BMR). However, there is little data regarding the BMR of Japanese athletes. This study measured the BMR and body composition of 81 elite Japanese male athletes in different sports categories: endurance (E), strength, power and sprint (S) and ball game (B). The factors influencing the BMR were also investigated. The BMR and body composition were measured by indirect calorimetry and an air-displacement plentysmograph device (the BOD POD), respectively. The BMR per lean body mass (LBM) differed significantly among the three groups. The BMR was significantly correlated with the body weight (BW) and LBM in all groups. A multiple-regression analysis showed that the LBM was the most powerful predictor in the E and S groups, whereas the BW was the most powerful predictor in the B group. The BW appears to become an important predictor as the BW of athletes increases. Additionally, height was the second explanatory variable in the S and B groups, thus suggesting that height needs to be considered for the BMR in these groups. Therefore, the BMR in elite athletes needs to be estimated according to their body composition.

  11. HIIT produces increases in muscle power and free testosterone in male masters athletes.

    Herbert, P; Hayes, L D; Sculthorpe, N F; Grace, F M

    2017-10-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves peak power output (PPO) in sedentary aging men but has not been examined in masters endurance athletes. Therefore, we investigated whether a six-week program of low-volume HIIT would (i) improve PPO in masters athletes and (ii) whether any change in PPO would be associated with steroid hormone perturbations. Seventeen male masters athletes (60 ± 5 years) completed the intervention, which comprised nine HIIT sessions over six weeks. HIIT sessions involved six 30-s sprints at 40% PPO, interspersed with 3 min active recovery. Absolute PPO (799 ± 205 W and 865 ± 211 W) and relative PPO (10.2 ± 2.0 W/kg and 11.0 ± 2.2 W/kg) increased from pre- to post-HIIT respectively ( P  HIIT (7.0 ± 1.2 ng/dL to 7.5 ± 1.1 ng/dL pre- to post-HIIT ( P  = 0.050, Cohen's d  = 0.40)). Six weeks' HIIT improves PPO in masters athletes and increases free testosterone. Taken together, these data indicate there is a place for carefully timed HIIT epochs in regimes of masters athletes. © 2017 The authors.

  12. Endurance training enhances skeletal muscle interleukin-15 in human male subjects

    Rinnov, Anders; Yfanti, Christina; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Regular endurance exercise promotes metabolic and oxidative changes in skeletal muscle. Overexpression of interleukin-15 (IL-15) in mice exerts similar metabolic changes in muscle as seen with endurance exercise. Muscular IL-15 production has been shown to increase in mice after weeks of regular...... endurance running. With the present study we aimed to determine if muscular IL-15 production would increase in human male subjects following 12 weeks of endurance training. In two different studies we obtained plasma and muscle biopsies from young healthy subjects performing: (1) 12 weeks of ergometer...... weeks of regular endurance training induced a 40% increase in basal skeletal muscle IL-15 protein content (p...

  13. Comparative Structural and functional changes in the heart and aorta of retire active and non- active endurance and bodybuilder athletes

    Eskandar Rahimi

    2016-06-01

    We concluded that the BA had a greater thickness of LV posterior wall than EI and also they had a significant difference in aortic wall elasticity than BI and EI. This may be due to the Valsalva maneuver or differences in breathing of bodybuilder. We also found that the structure changes of heart in spite of detraining remain for years. Keywords: former endurance athletes, former bodybuilder athletes, Aortic elasticity, cardiac structure and function

  14. Physiological and bodily changes associated with endurance athletic activities and challenges during peri-operative period

    Umesh K Dash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletic activities, which requires top level cardio respiratory system fitness are recently becoming popular in the various parts of the country. Armed Forces are forefront in participation of those sporting activities, like marathon running, prolonged swimming or cycling. It has been found to have various long term beneficial effect in body function as a result of prolonged endurance activities, but it has also found that there are various bodily changes which may affect in anaesthetising the individual during emergency and elective surgeries. Literature review of various journals related to endurance sporting activities has described those bodily changes and effects of anaesthesia and pain on those changes. Based upon the available literature a guideline has been formulated for perioperative management of those patients. Most of those available literatures are from countries other than our country. The time has come for venturing in for carrying out further studies in our scenario, especially in Armed Forces in this new horizon of anaesthesia and critical care

  15. Within-day energy deficiency and reproductive function in female endurance athletes

    Fahrenholtz, Ida Lysdahl; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Benardot, Dan

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to estimate and compare within-day energy balance (WDEB) in athletes with eumenorrhea and menstrual dysfunction (MD) with similar 24-hour energy availability/energy balance (EA/EB). Furthermore, to investigate whether within-day energy deficiency is associated with resting metabolic rate...... (RMR), body-composition, S-cortisol, estradiol, T3, and fasting blood glucose. We reanalyzed 7-day dietary intake and energy expenditure data in 25 elite endurance athletes with eumenorrhea (n=10) and MD (n=15) from a group of 45 subjects where those with disordered eating behaviors (n=11), MD......-hour intervals. Subjects with MD spent more hours in a catabolic state compared to eumenorrheic athletes; WDEB vs 21.1 hour (4.7–22.3), P=0.048; WDEB vs 17.6 hour (3.9–20.9), P=0.043, although similar 24-hour EA: 35.6 (11.6) vs 41.3 (12...

  16. Within-day energy deficiency and reproductive function in female endurance athletes.

    Fahrenholtz, I L; Sjödin, A; Benardot, D; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, S; Faber, J; Sundgot-Borgen, J K; Melin, A K

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to estimate and compare within-day energy balance (WDEB) in athletes with eumenorrhea and menstrual dysfunction (MD) with similar 24-hour energy availability/energy balance (EA/EB). Furthermore, to investigate whether within-day energy deficiency is associated with resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, S-cortisol, estradiol, T 3 , and fasting blood glucose. We reanalyzed 7-day dietary intake and energy expenditure data in 25 elite endurance athletes with eumenorrhea (n = 10) and MD (n = 15) from a group of 45 subjects where those with disordered eating behaviors (n = 11), MD not related to low EA (n = 5), and low dietary record validity (n = 4) had been excluded. Besides gynecological examination and disordered eating evaluation, the protocol included RMR measurement; assessment of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, blood plasma analysis, and calculation of WDEB in 1-hour intervals. Subjects with MD spent more hours in a catabolic state compared to eumenorrheic athletes; WDEB energy deficiency was associated with clinical markers of metabolic disturbances. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  18. Effects of Oral Sodium Supplementation on Indices of Thermoregulation in Trained, Endurance Athletes

    Elizabeth L. Earhart, Edward P. Weiss, Rabia Rahman, Patrick V. Kelly

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines recommend the consumption of sodium during exercise to replace losses in sweat; however, the effects of sodium on thermoregulation are less clear. To determine the effects of high-dose sodium supplementation on indices of thermoregulation and related outcomes, 11 endurance athletes participated in a double-blind, randomized-sequence, crossover study in which they underwent 2-hrs of endurance exercise at 60% heart rate reserve with 1800 mg of sodium supplementation (SS during one trial and placebo (PL during the other trial. A progressive intensity time-to-exhaustion test was performed after the 2-hr steady state exercise as an assessment of exercise performance. Sweat rate was calculated from changes in body weight, accounting for fluid intake and urinary losses. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and heat stress were assessed using verbal numeric scales. Cardiovascular drift was determined from the rise in HR during the 2-hr steady state exercise test. Skin temperature was measured with an infrared thermometer. Dehydration occurred in both SS and PL trials, as evidenced by substantial weight loss (2.03 ± 0.43% and 2.27 ± 0.70%, respectively; p = 0.261 between trials. Sweat rate was 1015.53 ± 239.10 ml·hr-1 during the SS trial and 1053.60±278.24 ml/hr during the PL trial, with no difference between trials (p = 0.459. Heat stress ratings indicated moderate heat stress (“warm/hot” ratings but were not different between trials (p = 0.825. Time to exhaustion during the SS trial was 6.88 ± 3.88 minutes and during the PL trial averaged 6.96 ± 3.61 minutes, but did not differ between trials (p = 0.919. Cardiovascular drift, skin temperature, and RPE did not differ between trials (all p > 0.05. High-dose sodium supplementation does not appear to impact thermoregulation, cardiovascular drift, or physical performance in trained, endurance athletes. However, in light of the possibility that high sodium intakes might have other adverse

  19. Enhanced Right-Chamber Remodeling in Endurance Ultra-Trail Athletes Compared to Marathon Runners Detected by Standard and Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography

    Kristian Ujka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strenuous and endurance exercise training have been associated with morphological and functional heart remodeling. Two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE is a novel technique that allows an accurate quantification of global myocardium deformation. Our aim was to evaluate together left and right cardiac remodeling in different long-distance running athletes: marathon runners (42 km (M and endurance mountain runners (>300 Km (UT.Methods: A total of 92 athletes (70 males, 76% including 47 M [age 45 ± 7 years; training: 18 (9–53 years*days/week], 45 UT [age 42 ± 9, training: 30 (15–66 years*days/week] underwent conventional echocardiography and STE (Beyond Diogenes 2.0, AMID during the agonistic season.Results: Right ventricle (RV end-diastolic area (p = 0.026, fractional area changing (FAC (p = 0.008 and RV global longitudinal strain (GLS were significantly increasedin UT athletes. Furthermore, UT showed larger right atrium (RA volume (p = 0.03, reduced RA GLS and significantly increased RA global circumferential strain (GCS compared to M. After adjustment for age, sex, and HR as covariates, UT showed a reduced RA GLS (OR 0.907; CI 0.856–0.961 and increased RV FAC (OR 1.172; CI: 1.044–1.317 compared to M.Conclusion: Athletes enrolled in UT endurance activities showed RV and RA morphological and functional remodeling to increased preload in comparison with M runners characterized by increased RV FAC and reduced RA GLS. Follow-up studies are needed to better assess the long-term clinical impact of these modifications. 2D STE is a useful tool for investigating the deformation dynamic in different sports specialties.

  20. Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes.

    Cox, Pete J; Kirk, Tom; Ashmore, Tom; Willerton, Kristof; Evans, Rhys; Smith, Alan; Murray, Andrew J; Stubbs, Brianna; West, James; McLure, Stewart W; King, M Todd; Dodd, Michael S; Holloway, Cameron; Neubauer, Stefan; Drawer, Scott; Veech, Richard L; Griffin, Julian L; Clarke, Kieran

    2016-08-09

    Ketosis, the metabolic response to energy crisis, is a mechanism to sustain life by altering oxidative fuel selection. Often overlooked for its metabolic potential, ketosis is poorly understood outside of starvation or diabetic crisis. Thus, we studied the biochemical advantages of ketosis in humans using a ketone ester-based form of nutrition without the unwanted milieu of endogenous ketone body production by caloric or carbohydrate restriction. In five separate studies of 39 high-performance athletes, we show how this unique metabolic state improves physical endurance by altering fuel competition for oxidative respiration. Ketosis decreased muscle glycolysis and plasma lactate concentrations, while providing an alternative substrate for oxidative phosphorylation. Ketosis increased intramuscular triacylglycerol oxidation during exercise, even in the presence of normal muscle glycogen, co-ingested carbohydrate and elevated insulin. These findings may hold clues to greater human potential and a better understanding of fuel metabolism in health and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aerobic endurance in young female athletes in respect to sexual maturation, age and growth

    Maria Tereza Silveira Böhme

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were, in young female athletes: a to describe the development of aerobic endurance in relation to different sexual maturation stages by each chronological age; b to verify the existence of significant differences among the sexual maturation stages in each age; c to describe the development of aerobic endurance in relation to different ages by each sexual stage; d to verify the existence of significant differences among the ages by each sexual stage; e to verify the influence of chronological age, sexual maturation, adiposity, muscularity, physical growth and kind of sport on aerobic endurance. The sample comprised 305 female young athletes from 10 to 17 years of age, of basketball, handball, soccer and track and field, who were measured for their physical growth, adiposity, muscularity, sexual maturation stage and aerobic endurance. The variance and multiple regression analyses indicated that sexual maturation had no significant influence on the aerobic endurance of these female young athletes. RESUMO Este trabalho de pesquisa teve por objetivos, com relação a jovens atletas do sexo feminino: a descrever o desenvolvimento da resistência geral aeróbia considerando-se os diferentes níveis de maturação biológica em cada idade cronológica; b verificar a existência de diferenças significativas entre os níveis de maturação em cada idade cronológica; c descrever o desenvolvimento da resistência geral aeróbia considerando-se as diferentes idades cronológicas em cada nível de maturação biológica; d verificar a existência de diferenças significativas entre as idades cronológicas de mesmo estágio maturacional; e verificar a influência da maturação biológica, crescimento físico, adiposidade subcutânea, muscularidade, idade cronológica e o tipo de modalidade esportiva praticada sobre a resistência geral aeróbia. Para isso, uma amostra de 305 jovens atletas mulheres na faixa etária de 10 a 17 anos das

  2. Knowledge and awareness of heat-related morbidity among adult recreational endurance athletes

    Shendell, Derek G.; Alexander, Melannie S.; Lorentzson, Lauren; McCarty, Frances A.

    2010-07-01

    Adults have been increasingly motivated to compete in recreational endurance sports events. Amateurs may lack a complete understanding of recommended strategies for handling heat and humidity, making heat-related illnesses increasingly possible. This is compounded by global climate change and increasing average surface and air temperatures, especially in urban areas of industrialized nations in Europe and North America that have hosted most events to date. We conducted an on-line, secure survey at the 2nd Annual ING Georgia Marathon and Half-Marathon in Atlanta, Georgia, in 2008. We included previously validated questions on participant socio-demographics, training locations, and knowledge and awareness of heat-related illnesses. Participants were aware of heat illnesses, and of heat stroke as a serious form of heat stress. However, the majority, across age and gender, did not understand the potential severity of heat stroke. Furthermore, 1-in-5 participants did not understand the concept of heat stress as a form of heat-related illness, and how heat stress may result from buildup of muscle-generated heat in the body. Adult recreational endurance athletes are another susceptible, vulnerable population sub-group for applied research and public health educational interventions, especially in urban areas of industrialized nations in Europe and North America.

  3. Strength profile in young male athletes from different sports

    Buśko Krzysztof

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of the present study was to determine a strength profile which characterizes young male athletes from different sports and to use the method of allometry to synthetically evaluate the muscular strength with respect to body mass.

  4. Protective Effect of Curcumin Supplementation and Light Resistance Exercises on Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme Activity and Malondialdehyde Levels in a Severe Endurance Training Period in Male Wistar Rats

    A Gorzi

    2017-07-01

    Background and aim: Extreme endurance exercises lead to oxidative stress in athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of curcumin supplement supplementation and light resistance training on the activity of SOD and MDA levels of male Wistar rats during a 8-week endurance training. Methods: In the present experimental study, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into one of six control groups, curcumin, endurance training, exercise, after one week of information (age 9 weeks and weight 255.62 ± 19.69 grams. Endurance + resistance, endurance training + curcumin and endurance training + curcumin + resistance. Incremental endurance training (8 weeks, 5 sessions per week was performed on a special treadmill. Speed ​​and running time in the last week reached 35 m / min and 70 minutes. Resistance training (8 weeks, 2 sessions per week was performed on vertical ladder by closing the rat's weight to the tail. Rats received supplemental curcumin by intraperitoneal injection (8 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 30 mg / kg body weight. SOD activity of the muscle was measured using ELISA kits and serum MDA levels using Tobartic acid (TBARS method. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (ANOVA.   Results: The antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD in the endometrial muscle of endurance group (1.08 ± 0.222 μg / ml was significantly lower than control group (22.2 ± 0.481 kg (P = 0.043, and SOD activity in the endurance + resistance group (1.87 ± 0.172, p = 0.44, endurance + curcumin (2.24 ± 0.222; P = 0.039, and endurance + curcumin + resistance (0.202 ± 0.15, p = 0.029 was significantly higher than endurance group. The levels of malondialdehyde in the endurance group (4.27 ± 0.438 nmol / ml protein were significantly higher in comparison with the control group (3.42 ± 0.350 (0.331 and Also, serum MDA levels in endurance + resistance groups (± 3.03 ± 0.342, p = 0.003, endurance + curcumin (p = 0.001, p <0.001, and endurance + curcumin

  5. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Peak Torque Differences between Vegetarian and Omnivore Endurance Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Lynch, Heidi M; Wharton, Christopher M; Johnston, Carol S

    2016-11-15

    In spite of well-documented health benefits of vegetarian diets, less is known regarding the effects of these diets on athletic performance. In this cross-sectional study, we compared elite vegetarian and omnivore adult endurance athletes for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and strength. Twenty-seven vegetarian (VEG) and 43 omnivore (OMN) athletes were evaluated using VO2 max testing on the treadmill, and strength assessment using a dynamometer to determine peak torque for leg extensions. Dietary data were assessed using detailed seven-day food logs. Although total protein intake was lower among vegetarians in comparison to omnivores, protein intake as a function of body mass did not differ by group (1.2 ± 0.3 and 1.4 ± 0.5 g/kg body mass for VEG and OMN respectively, p = 0.220). VO2 max differed for females by diet group (53.0 ± 6.9 and 47.1 ± 8.6 mL/kg/min for VEG and OMN respectively, p vegetarian endurance athletes' cardiorespiratory fitness was greater than that for their omnivorous counterparts, but that peak torque did not differ between diet groups. These data suggest that vegetarian diets do not compromise performance outcomes and may facilitate aerobic capacity in athletes.

  6. Cardiovascular Risk and Disease Among Masters Endurance Athletes: Insights from the Boston MASTER (Masters Athletes Survey To Evaluate Risk) Initiative.

    Shapero, Kayle; Deluca, James; Contursi, Miranda; Wasfy, Meagan; Weiner, Rory B; Lewis, Gregory D; Hutter, Adolph; Baggish, Aaron L

    2016-12-01

    Masters athletes (MAs), people over the age of 35 that participate in competitive sports, are a rapidly growing population that may be uniquely at risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive clinical CV profile of MA. An electronic Internet-based survey (survey response rate = 66 %) was used to characterize a community cohort of MAs residing in Eastern Massachusetts, USA. Clinical and lifestyle factors associated with prevalent CV disease were determined using logistic regression. Among 591 MAs (66 % men, age = 50 ± 9 years) with 21.3 ± 5.5 years of competitive endurance sport exposure, at least one CV risk factor was present in 64 % including the following: family history of premature atherosclerosis (32 %), prior/current tobacco exposure (23 %), hypertension (12.0 %), and dyslipidemia (7.4 %). There was a 9 % (54/591) prevalence of established CV disease which was accounted for largely by atrial fibrillation (AF) and coronary atherosclerosis (CAD). Prevalent AF was associated with years of exercise exposure [adjusted odds ratio, OR (95 % confidence intervals); OR = 1.10 (1.06, 1.21)] and hypertension [OR = 1.05 (1.01, 1.10)] while CAD was associated with dyslipidemia [OR = 9.09 (2.40, 34.39)] and tobacco use [OR = 1.78 (1.34, 3.10)] but was independent of exercise exposure. Among MAs, AF is associated with prior exercise exposure whereas CAD is associated with typical risk factors including dyslipidemia and prior tobacco use. These findings suggest that there are numerous opportunities to improve disease prevention and clinical care in this population.

  7. HIIT produces increases in muscle power and free testosterone in male masters athletes

    P Herbert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity interval training (HIIT improves peak power output (PPO in sedentary aging men but has not been examined in masters endurance athletes. Therefore, we investigated whether a six-week program of low-volume HIIT would (i improve PPO in masters athletes and (ii whether any change in PPO would be associated with steroid hormone perturbations. Seventeen male masters athletes (60 ± 5 years completed the intervention, which comprised nine HIIT sessions over six weeks. HIIT sessions involved six 30-s sprints at 40% PPO, interspersed with 3 min active recovery. Absolute PPO (799 ± 205 W and 865 ± 211 W and relative PPO (10.2 ± 2.0 W/kg and 11.0 ± 2.2 W/kg increased from pre- to post-HIIT respectively (P < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.32−0.38. No significant change was observed for total testosterone (15.2 ± 4.2 nmol/L to 16.4 ± 3.3 nmol/L (P = 0.061, Cohen’s d = 0.32, while a small increase in free testosterone occurred following HIIT (7.0 ± 1.2 ng/dL to 7.5 ± 1.1 ng/dL pre- to post-HIIT (P = 0.050, Cohen’s d = 0.40. Six weeks’ HIIT improves PPO in masters athletes and increases free testosterone. Taken together, these data indicate there is a place for carefully timed HIIT epochs in regimes of masters athletes.

  8. Metabolic clues regarding the enhanced performance of elite endurance athletes from orchiectomy-induced hormonal changes.

    Atwood, Craig S; Bowen, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the metabolic performance of an elite cyclist, Lance Armstrong, before and after his diagnosis with testicular cancer. Although a champion cyclist in 1-day events prior to his diagnosis of testicular cancer at age 25, he was not a contender in multi-day endurance cycle races such as the 3-week Tour de France. His genetic makeup and physiology (high VO2max, long femur, strong heavy build) coupled with his ambition and motivation enabled him at an early age to become one of the best 1-day cyclists in the world. Following his cancer diagnosis, he underwent a unilateral orchiectomy, brain surgery and four cycles of chemotherapy. After recovering, he returned to cycling and surprisingly excelled in the Tour de France, winning this hardest of endurance events 7 years running. This dramatic transformation from a 1-day to a 3-week endurance champion has led many to query how this is possible, and under the current climate, has led to suggestions of doping as to the answer to this metamorphosis. Physiological tests following his recovery indicated that physiological parameters such as VO2max were not affected by the unilateral orchiectomy and chemotherapy. We propose that his dramatic improvement in recovery between stages, the most important factor in winning multi-day stage races, is due to his unilateral orchiectomy, a procedure that results in permanent changes in serum hormones. These hormonal changes, specifically an increase in gonadotropins (and prolactin) required to maintain serum testosterone levels, alter fuel metabolism; increasing hormone sensitive lipase expression and activity, promoting increased free fatty acid (FFA) mobilization to, and utilization by, muscles, thereby decreasing the requirement to expend limiting glycogen stores before, during and after exercise. Such hormonal changes also have been associated with ketone body production, improvements in muscle repair and haematocrit levels and may facilitate the loss of body weight

  9. Caffeine Supplementation as an Ergogenic Aid for Muscular Strength and Endurance: A Recommendation for Coaches and Athletes

    Brooks, Joseph H.; Wyld, Kevin; Chrismas, Bryna C.R.

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) which can be ubiquitously found in energy drinks, sodas, coffee, and supplements, is one of the principal legal drugs consumed worldwide. Caffeine based ergogenic aids are utilized prolifically within training and competition for an ergogenic benefit to enhance sporting performance by both recreational and elite athletes. The evidence of caffeine's ability to enhance endurance performance is well established, however, evidence of an er...

  10. Predicting athletic success motivation using mental skin and emotional intelligence and its components in male athletes.

    Kajbafnezhad, H; Ahadi, H; Heidarie, A; Askari, P; Enayati, M

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to predict athletic success motivation by mental skills, emotional intelligence and its components. The research sample consisted of 153 male athletes who were selected through random multistage sampling. The subjects completed the Mental Skills Questionnaire, Bar-On Emotional Intelligence questionnaire and the perception of sport success questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regressions. Regression analysis shows that between the two variables of mental skill and emotional intelligence, mental skill is the best predictor for athletic success motivation and has a better ability to predict the success rate of the participants. Regression analysis results showed that among all the components of emotional intelligence, self-respect had a significantly higher ability to predict athletic success motivation. The use of psychological skills and emotional intelligence as an mediating and regulating factor and organizer cause leads to improved performance and can not only can to help athletes in making suitable and effective decisions for reaching a desired goal.

  11. A combination of routine blood analytes predicts fitness decrement in elderly endurance athletes.

    Helmuth Haslacher

    Full Text Available Endurance sports are enjoying greater popularity, particularly among new target groups such as the elderly. Predictors of future physical capacities providing a basis for training adaptations are in high demand. We therefore aimed to estimate the future physical performance of elderly marathoners (runners/bicyclists using a set of easily accessible standard laboratory parameters. To this end, 47 elderly marathon athletes underwent physical examinations including bicycle ergometry and a blood draw at baseline and after a three-year follow-up period. In order to compile a statistical model containing baseline laboratory results allowing prediction of follow-up ergometry performance, the cohort was subgrouped into a model training (n = 25 and a test sample (n = 22. The model containing significant predictors in univariate analysis (alanine aminotransferase, urea, folic acid, myeloperoxidase and total cholesterol presented with high statistical significance and excellent goodness of fit (R2 = 0.789, ROC-AUC = 0.951±0.050 in the model training sample and was validated in the test sample (ROC-AUC = 0.786±0.098. Our results suggest that standard laboratory parameters could be particularly useful for predicting future physical capacity in elderly marathoners. It hence merits further research whether these conclusions can be translated to other disciplines or age groups.

  12. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes

    Connick, Mark J.; Beckman, Emma M.; Tweedy, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances ...

  13. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM CAFFEINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON STRESS RESPONSE AND IMMUNE SYSTEM OF MALE ATHLETES

    Asghar Tofighi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vigorous exercise stress might be leading cause of immune system disorders and appearance of acute and chronic inflammation in human body. Caffeine supplementation prior to exercise can be effective on body immune response. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of short-term caffeine supplementation on immune response and stress index in male athletes after an exhaustive aerobic exercise. Materials and methods : In a double-blind study 24 male athletes (endurance runner and triathlon randomly divided in Caffeine supplementation (CAF and Placebo (CON groups. One hour prior to main exhaustive treadmill test (Bruce test CAF group consumed caffeine (6 Mg/BW and CON group received placebo. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after exercise test from anticubital vein. After supplying serum; Cortisol, leukocyte and serum Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72 concentrations were determined using ELISA method. Paired and independent t student test was used for analysis of inter and intra group differences respectively. Results: serum cortisol and Hsp72 concentrations in CON group was significantly higher than CAF group (P0.05. In addition Mean of variation in CON group was significantly higher than CAF group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Based on study results caffeine supplementation prior to short-term exhaustive aerobic exercise has positive effect on innate immunity and body defensive system.

  14. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM CAFFEINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON STRESS RESPONSE AND IMMUNE SYSTEM OF MALE ATHLETES

    Asghar Tofighi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Vigorous exercise stress might be leading cause of immune system disorders and appearance of acute and chronic inflammation in human body. Caffeine supplementation prior to exercise can be effective on body immune response. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of short-term caffeine supplementation on immune response and stress index in male athletes after an exhaustive aerobic exercise. Materials and methods : In a double-blind study 24 male athletes (endurance runner and triathlon randomly divided in Caffeine supplementation (CAF and Placebo (CON groups. One hour prior to main exhaustive treadmill test (Bruce test CAF group consumed caffeine (6 Mg/BW and CON group received placebo. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after exercise test from anticubital vein. After supplying serum; Cortisol, leukocyte and serum Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72 concentrations were determined using ELISA method. Paired and independent t student test was used for analysis of inter and intra group differences respectively. Results: serum cortisol and Hsp72 concentrations in CON group was significantly higher than CAF group (P0.05. In addition Mean of variation in CON group was significantly higher than CAF group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Based on study results caffeine supplementation prior to short-term exhaustive aerobic exercise has positive effect on innate immunity and body defensive system.

  15. Personality and psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms among male collegiate athletes.

    Galli, Nick; A Petrie, Trent; Greenleaf, Christy; J Reel, Justine; E Carter, Jennifer

    2014-12-01

    Despite a proliferation of research on disordered eating in female athletes, few studies have included male athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine which of five personality and psychological variables of interest (i.e., perfectionism, self-esteem, optimism, reasons for exercise, and appearance orientation) best predicted eating disorder status (i.e., symptomatic or asymptomatic) in male athletes. Two hundred three male athletes (Mage=20.29, SD=1.64) from three National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institutions participated. More athletes were asymptomatic (80.8%) than symptomatic (19.2%). None of the variables significantly predicted symptomatic status. These findings contrast the literature on predictors of disordered eating symptomatology among female athletes, and suggest the need for further research to identify other potential predictors of eating disturbance among male athletes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ketogenic diet benefits body composition and well-being but not performance in a pilot case study of New Zealand endurance athletes.

    Zinn, Caryn; Wood, Matthew; Williden, Mikki; Chatterton, Simon; Maunder, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate, high-fat and ketogenic diets are increasingly adopted by athletes for body composition and sports performance enhancements. However, as yet, there is no consensus on their efficacy in improving performance. There is also no comprehensive literature on athletes' experiences while undertaking this diet. The purpose of this pilot work was two-fold: i. to examine the effects of a non-calorie controlled ketogenic diet on body composition and performance outcomes of endurance athletes, and ii. to evaluate the athletes' experiences of the ketogenic diet during the 10-week intervention. Using a case study design, five New Zealand endurance athletes (4 females, 1 male) underwent a 10-week ketogenic dietary intervention. Body composition (sum of 8 skinfolds), performance indicators (time to exhaustion, VO 2 max, peak power and ventilatory threshold), and gas exchange thresholds were measured at baseline and at 10 weeks. Mean change scores were calculated, and analysed using t-tests; Cohen's effect sizes and 90% confidence limits were applied to quantify change. Individual interviews conducted at 5 weeks and a focus group at 10 weeks assessed athletes' ketogenic diet experiences. Data was transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. All athletes increased their ability to utilise fat as a fuel source, including at higher exercise intensities. Mean body weight was reduced by 4 kg ± SD 3.1 ( p  = 0.046; effect size (ES):0.62), and sum of 8 skinfolds by 25.9 mm ± SD 6.9; ES: 1.27; p  = 0.001). Mean time to exhaustion dropped by ~2 min (±SD 0.7; p  = 0.004; ES: 0.53). Other performance outcomes showed mean reductions, with some increases or unchanged results in two individuals (VO2 Max: -1.69 ml.kg.min ± SD 3.4 ( p  = 0.63); peak power: -18 W ± SD 16.4 ( p  = 0.07), and VT2: -6 W ± SD 44.5 ( p  = 0.77). Athletes reported experiencing reduced energy levels initially, followed by a return of high levels thereafter

  17. Effect of short-term heat acclimation on endurance time and skin blood flow in trained athletes

    Chen TI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsung-I Chen,1,2 Pu-Hsi Tsai,3 Jui-Hsing Lin,4 Ning-Yuean Lee,5 Michael TC Liang61Graduate Institute of Sport Science, National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan, 2Center for Physical Education, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, 3Department of Sport and Leisure, National Quemoy University, Kinmen, 4Department of Physical Education, National Pingtung University of Education, Pingtung, 5College of Living Technology, Tainan University of Technology, Tainan, Taiwan; 6Department of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA, USABackground: To examine whether short-term, ie, five daily sessions, vigorous dynamic cycling exercise and heat exposure could achieve heat acclimation in trained athletes and the effect of heat acclimation on cutaneous blood flow in the active and nonactive limb.Methods: Fourteen male badminton and table tennis athletes (age = 19.6 ± 1.2 years were randomized into a heat acclimation (EXP, n = 7 or nonheat acclimation (CON, n = 7 group. For 5 consecutive days, the EXP group was trained using an upright leg cycle ergometer in a hot environment (38.4°C ± 0.4°C, while the CON group trained in a thermoneutral environment (24.1°C ± 0.3°C. For both groups, the training intensity and duration increased from a work rate of 10% below ventilatory threshold (VT and 25 minutes per session on day 1, to 10% above VT and 45 minutes per session on day 5. Subjects performed two incremental leg cycle exercise tests to exhaustion at baseline and post-training in both hot and thermoneutral conditions. Study outcome measurements include: maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max; exercise heart rate (HR; O2 pulse; exercise time to exhaustion (tmax; skin blood flow in the upper arm (SkBFa and quadriceps (SkBFq; and mean skin (Tsk.Results: The significant heat-acclimated outcome measurements obtained during high-intensity leg cycling exercise in the high ambient environment are: (1 56%–100% reduction in cutaneous

  18. Radial and tibial bone indices in athletes participating in different endurance sports: a pQCT study.

    Oosthuyse, Tanja; McVeigh, Joanne A; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Meiring, Rebecca M

    2017-03-01

    Low magnitude bone-loading sports may benefit bone structure and strength in the exercised limbs. This study compared peripheral quantitative computed tomography measures of radial and tibial diaphyseal strength (strength-strain index, SSI), structure (total area (ToA) and cortical area (CoA), density (CoD) and thickness (CT), and circumferences), muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) and strength (one-repetition maximum, 1-RM) in male endurance athletes taking part in (i) non-weight-bearing and non-impact sports: swimmers (SWIM, n = 13) and road cyclists (RC, n = 10), (ii) non-weight-bearing, impact sport: mountain bikers (MB, n = 10), (iii) weight bearing and impact sport: runners (RUN, n = 9). All athlete groups were also compared to sedentary controls (CON, n = 10). Arm MCSA, 1-RM and radial bone size and strength tended to be greater in SWIM than CON and/or RC (ToA, %difference  ± 95%CI, SWIM-CON: 14.6% ± 12.7%; SWIM-RC: 12.9% ± 10.7%) but not different to MB and RUN. RUN had bigger tibial CoA than CON, SWIM and RC (CoA, RUN-CON: 12.1% ± 10.7%; RUN-SWIM: 10.9% ± 9.4%; RUN-RC: 15.8% ± 9.5%) without marked changes in tibial strength indices, lower-limb MCSA or 1-RM. Both MB and RC failed to display any difference in tibial indices, lower-limb MCSA and 1-RM compared to CON. In swimmers, the bone structure and strength of the primary exercised limbs, the arms, is greater than controls and road cyclists. Conversely, although runners experience impact and weight-bearing loading, tibial structure is greater without a substantial difference in tibial strength compared to controls and non-impact sports. Failure to observe a difference in tibial indices in MB and RC compared to controls is unexpected.

  19. Absence of resting cardiovascular dysfunction in middle-aged endurance-trained athletes with exaggerated exercise blood pressure responses.

    Currie, Katharine D; Sless, Ryan T; Notarius, Catherine F; Thomas, Scott G; Goodman, Jack M

    2017-08-01

    Untrained individuals with exaggerated blood pressure (EBP) responses to graded exercise testing are characterized as having resting dysfunction of the sympathetic and cardiovascular systems. The purpose of this study was to determine the resting cardiovascular state of endurance-trained individuals with EBP through a comparison of normotensive athletes with and without EBP. EBP was defined as a maximal systolic blood pressure (SBP) at least 190 mmHg and at least 210 mmHg for women and men respectively, in response to a graded exercise test. Twenty-two life-long endurance-trained athletes (56 ± 5 years, 16 men) with EBP (EBP+) and 11 age and sex-matched athletes (55 ± 5 years, eight men) without EBP (EBP-) participated in the study. Sympathetic reactivity was assessed using BP responses to a cold pressor test, isometric handgrip exercise, and postexercise muscle ischemia. Resting left ventricular structure and function was assessed using two-dimensional echocardiography, whereas central arterial stiffness was assessed using carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity. Calf vascular conductance was measured at rest and peak postexercise using strain-gauge plethysmography. All sympathetic reactivity, left ventricular, and arterial stiffness indices were similar between groups. There was no between-group difference in resting vascular conductance, whereas peak vascular conductance was higher in EBP+ relative to EBP- (1.81 ± 0.65 vs. 1.45 ± 0.32 ml/100 ml/min/mmHg, P < 0.05). Findings from this study suggest that athletes with EBP do not display the resting cardiovascular state typically observed in untrained individuals with EBP. This response in athletes, therefore, is likely a compensatory mechanism to satisfy peripheral blood-flow demands rather than indicative of latent dysfunction.

  20. Endurance Capacity Is Not Correlated with Endothelial Function in Male University Students

    Wu, Fang; Su, Chen; Fan, Zhen-guo; Zhu, Zhu; Tao, Jun; Huang, Yi-jun

    2014-01-01

    Background Endurance capacity, assessed by 1000-meter (1000 m) run of male university students, is an indicator of cardiovascular fitness in Chinese students physical fitness surveillance. Although cardiovascular fitness is related to endothelial function closely in patients with cardiovascular diseases, it remains unclear whether endurance capacity correlates with endothelial function, especially with circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs), a new sensitive marker of endothelial dysfunction in young students. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between endurance capacity and endothelial function in male university students. Methods Forty-seven healthy male university students (mean age, 20.1±0.6 years; mean height, 172.4±6.3 cm; and mean weight, 60.0±8.2 kg) were recruited in this study. The measurement procedure of 1000 m run time was followed to Chinese national students Constitutional Health Criterion. Endothelium function was assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in the brachial artery measured by ultrasonic imaging, and the level of circulating EMPs was measured by flow cytometry. Cardiovascular fitness indicator - maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) - was also measured on a cycle ergometer using a portable gas analyzer. Results 1000 m run time was correlated with VO2max (r = −0.399, p0.05). Conclusion The correlations between endurance capacity or cardiovascular fitness and endothelial function were not found in healthy Chinese male university students. These results suggest that endurance capacity may not reflect endothelial function in healthy young adults with well preserved FMD and low level of circulating CD31+/CD42-EMPs. PMID:25101975

  1. Effects of macro- and micronutrients on exercise-induced hepcidin response in highly trained endurance athletes.

    Dahlquist, Dylan T; Stellingwerff, Trent; Dieter, Brad P; McKenzie, Donald C; Koehle, Michael S

    2017-10-01

    Iron deficiency has ergolytic effects on athletic performance. Exercise-induced inflammation impedes iron absorption in the digestive tract by upregulating the expression of the iron regulatory protein, hepcidin. Limited research indicates the potential of specific macro- and micronutrients on blunting exercise-induced hepcidin. Therefore, we investigated the effects of postexercise supplementation with protein and carbohydrate (CHO) and vitamins D 3 and K 2 on the postexercise hepcidin response. Ten highly trained male cyclists (age: 26.9 ± 6.4 years; maximal oxygen uptake: 67.4 ± 4.4 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 completed 4 cycling sessions in a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blinded, triple-crossover study. Experimental days consisted of an 8-min warm-up at 50% power output at maximal oxygen uptake, followed by 8 × 3-min intervals at 85% power output at maximal oxygen uptake with 1.5 min at 60% power output at maximal oxygen uptake between each interval. Blood samples were collected pre- and postexercise, and at 3 h postexercise. Three different drinks consisting of CHO (75 g) and protein (25 g) with (VPRO) or without (PRO) vitamins D 3 (5000 IU) and K 2 (1000 μg), or a zero-calorie control drink (PLA) were consumed immediately after the postexercise blood sample. Results showed that the postexercise drinks had no significant (p ≥ 0.05) effect on any biomarker measured. There was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in hepcidin and interleukin-6 following intense cycling intervals in the participants. Hepcidin increased significantly (p < 0.05) from baseline (nmol·L -1 : 9.94 ± 8.93, 14.18 ± 14.90, 10.44 ± 14.62) to 3 h postexercise (nmol·L -1 : 22.27 ± 13.41, 25.44 ± 11.91, 22.57 ± 15.57) in VPRO, PRO, and PLA, respectively. Contrary to our hypothesis, the drink compositions used did not blunt the postexercise hepcidin response in highly trained athletes.

  2. Aortic compliance variation in long male distance triathletes: A new insight into the athlete's artery?

    Dupont, Anne-Charlotte; Poussel, Mathias; Hossu, Gabriela; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Chenuel, Bruno; Felblinger, Jacques; Mandry, Damien

    2017-06-01

    To assess cardiac and vascular adaptations in long-distance male triathletes and the influence of an increased training volume on these parameters. Case-control study using long-distance male triathletes (Tri) (n=12) and an age-matched cohort of sedentary volunteers (Ctrl). All participants gave an informed consent and underwent a Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance imaging (CMR) exam to measure left and right ventricle functional parameters, and aortic parameters (surface, strain, compliance, pulse wave velocity). This exam was repeated in the triathletes' group after an increased training volume of at least 2h/week for six weeks. Compared to control volunteers, triathletes presented at baseline a typical pattern of athlete's heart (higher end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes index, p≤0.009, and lower cardiac rate, p=0.015) but similar vascular characteristics except a trend towards an enlarged ascending aorta (surface 942±106 vs 812±127mm 2 , p=0.058). Between the two visits, the triathletes increased their weekly training time from 9.67±2.43 (Tri1) to 12.15±3.01h (Tri2): no modifications were found regarding cardiac parameters, but compliance and distensibility of the ascending aorta increased, from 2.60 to 3.34mm 2 /mmHg (p=0.028) and from 3.36 to 4.40×10 -3 mmHg -1 (p=0.048) respectively. Using CMR, we showed that vascular characteristics of the ascending aorta may vary along the sport season in endurance athletes. This remodelling could be considered as a physiological adaptation, but could eventually lead to an adverse vascular remodelling. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Promoting the Academic Engagement and Success of Black Male Student-Athletes

    Harris, Paul C.; Hines, Erik M.; Kelly, Darren D.; Williams, Derick J.; Bagley, Bethany

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to provide a qualitative look at the factors associated with the academic engagement and success of Black male student-athletes in high school. The research team employed a thematic analysis to examine semi-structured interviews conducted with two successful Black male student-athletes, along with their principal,…

  4. Right and Left Ventricular Function and Mass in Male Elite Master Athletes: A Controlled Contrast-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Study.

    Bohm, Philipp; Schneider, Günther; Linneweber, Lutz; Rentzsch, Axel; Krämer, Nadine; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim; Kindermann, Wilfried; Meyer, Tim; Scharhag, Jürgen

    2016-05-17

    It is under debate whether the cumulative effects of intensive endurance exercise induce chronic cardiac damage, mainly involving the right heart. The aim of this study was to examine the cardiac structure and function in long-term elite master endurance athletes with special focus on the right ventricle by contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Thirty-three healthy white competitive elite male master endurance athletes (age range, 30-60 years) with a training history of 29±8 years, and 33 white control subjects pair-matched for age, height, and weight underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, echocardiography including tissue-Doppler imaging and speckle tracking, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Indexed left ventricular mass and right ventricular mass (left ventricular mass/body surface area, 96±13 and 62±10 g/m(2); Pright ventricular mass/body surface area, 36±7 and 24±5 g/m(2); Pleft ventricular end-diastolic volume and right ventricular end-diastolic volume (left ventricular end-diastolic volume/body surface area, 104±13 and 69±18 mL/m(2); Pright ventricular end-diastolic volume/body surface area, 110±22 and 66±16 mL/m(2); PRight ventricular ejection fraction did not differ between athletes and control subjects (52±8 and 54±6%; P=0.26). Pathological late enhancement was detected in 1 athlete. No correlations were found for left ventricular and right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction with N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and high-sensitive troponin was negative in all subjects. Based on our results, chronic right ventricular damage in elite endurance master athletes with lifelong high training volumes seems to be unlikely. Thus, the hypothesis of an exercise-induced arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy has to be questioned. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Macronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Endurance, Team, and Strength Athletes: Does Intake Differ between Sport Disciplines?

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Rooij, Van Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; Vries, De Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according

  6. Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: modelling human energy conversion and metabolism

    van Beek, J.H.G.M.; Supandi, F.B.; Gavai, Anand; de Graaf, A.A.; Binsl, T.W.; Hettling, H.

    2011-01-01

    The human physiological system is stressed to its limits during endurance sports competition events.We describe a whole body computational model for energy conversion during bicycle racing. About 23 per cent of the metabolic energy is used for muscle work, the rest is converted to heat. We

  7. Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: Modelling human energy conversion and metabolism

    Beek, J.H.G.M. van; Supandi, F.; Gavai, A.K.; Graaf, A.A. de; Binsl, T.W.; Hettling, H.

    2011-01-01

    The human physiological system is stressed to its limits during endurance sports competition events.We describe a whole body computational model for energy conversion during bicycle racing. About 23 per cent of the metabolic energy is used for muscle work, the rest is converted to heat. We

  8. Determinants of time trial performance and maximal incremental exercise in highly trained endurance athletes

    Jacobs, Robert Acton; Rasmussen, Peter; Siebenmann, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Human endurance performance can be predicted from maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), lactate threshold, and exercise efficiency. These physiologic parameters, however, are not wholly exclusive from one another and their interplay is complex. Accordingly, we sought to identify more specific me...

  9. Less Is More: The Physiological Basis for Tapering in Endurance, Strength, and Power Athletes

    Kevin A. Murach

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Taper, or reduced-volume training, improves competition performance across a broad spectrum of exercise modes and populations. This article aims to highlight the physiological mechanisms, namely in skeletal muscle, by which taper improves performance and provide a practical literature-based rationale for implementing taper in varied athletic disciplines. Special attention will be paid to strength- and power-oriented athletes as taper is under-studied and often overlooked in these populations. Tapering can best be summarized by the adage “less is more” because maintained intensity and reduced volume prior to competition yields significant performance benefits.

  10. V02 'overshoot' during moderate-intensity exercise in endurance-trained athletes: the influence of exercise modality.

    Kilding, Andrew E; Jones, Andrew M

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of exercise modality on the 'overshoot' in V(O2) that has been reported following the onset of moderate-intensity (below the gas exchange threshold, GET) exercise in endurance athletes. Seven trained endurance cyclists and seven trained endurance runners completed six square-wave transitions to a work-rate or running speed requiring 80% of mode-specific GET during both cycle and treadmill running exercise. The kinetics of V(O2) was assessed using non-linear regression and any overshoot in V(O2) was quantified as the integrated volume (IV) of O(2) consumed above the steady-state requirement. During cycling, an overshoot in V(O2) was evident in all seven cyclists (IV = 136 +/- 41 ml) and in four runners (IV = 81 +/- 94 ml). During running, an overshoot in V(O2) was evident in four runners (IV = 72 +/- 61 ml) but no cyclists. These data challenge the notion that V(O2) always rises towards a steady-state with near-exponential kinetics in this exercise intensity domain. The greater incidence of the V(O2) overshoot during cycling (11/14 subjects) compared to running (4/14 subjects) indicates that the overshoot phenomenon is related to an interaction between high levels of aerobic fitness and exercise modality. We speculate that a transient loss in muscle efficiency as a consequence of a non-constant ATP requirement following the onset of constant-work-rate exercise or an initially excessive recruitment of motor units (relative to the work-rate) might contribute to the overshoot phenomenon.

  11. Transient impairments in single muscle fibre contractile function after prolonged cycling in elite endurance athletes

    Hvid, L G; Gejl, Kasper Degn; Bech, R D

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged muscle activity impairs whole-muscle performance and function. However, little is known about the effects of prolonged muscle activity on the contractile function of human single muscle fibres. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged exercise and subsequent...... recovery on the contractile function of single muscle fibres obtained from elite athletes....

  12. MUSCULAR OXIDATIVE CAPACITY IN OVARIECTOMIZED RATS DISCUSSION ON THE ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE OF FEMALE ATHLETES WITH SPORTS-RELATED-AMENORRHEA

    Natsuo Yasui

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy on intramuscular energy metabolism in adult rats. Based on the results, we discussed the skeletal muscle metabolism in female athlete with sports related amenorrhea. Twenty-five adult (20-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were used. Fifteen rats underwent ovariectomy (OVX group, and the other ten rats were sham-operated (Sham group. One and four weeks after surgery, muscular oxidative capacity was measured using 31P-MR spectra of the gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus (GPS muscles group at rest and during electric stimulation. Wet weight and maximum tension of the whole GPS muscles group were also measured. From the MRS measurements, the muscle oxidative capacity in the OVX group was significantly lower than that in the Sham group (p < 0.05 at both one and four weeks after surgery. The muscle's wet weight one week after surgery in the OVX group was the same as the Sham group, while four weeks after surgery it was significantly greater than that in the Sham group (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in maximum tension among the groups. In conclusion, in adult rats the oxidative capacity decreased due to ovariectomy despite the increase in muscle weight. It is suggested that the muscular endurance capacity in female adult athletes with sports related amenorrhea may deteriorate.

  13. Nutritional Status and Dietary Pattern of Male Athletes in Ibadan ...

    olayemitoyin

    descriptive study, involving 207 athletes aged 17 to 40 years in Ibadan. Nutritional status was ... Keywords: Athletes, Nutritional Status, Dietary Pattern, Ibadan, Nigeria. ©Physiological Society of ..... status, and menstrual function in elite female adolescent ... Gil J. (2005) Nutritional intake in soccer players of different ages.

  14. Macronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Endurance, Team, and Strength Athletes: Does Intake Differ between Sport Disciplines?

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-02-10

    Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566-2985 kcal and 1997-2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively. Between disciplines, small differences in the mean intake of energy and macronutrients were seen for both men and women. Overall, 80% of the athletes met the suggested lower-limit sport nutrition recommendation of 1.2 g·kg -1 of protein per day. The carbohydrate intake of 50%-80% of athletes was between 3 and 5 g·kg -1 bodyweight, irrespective of the category of their discipline. This can be considered as low to moderate, in view of their daily total exercise load (athletes reported on average ~100 minutes per day). In conclusion, only small differences in the mean energy and macronutrient intake between elite endurance, strength, and team sport athletes, were found. The majority of the athletes were able to meet the generally accepted protein recommendation for athletes, of 1.2 g·kg -1 . However, for most athletes, the carbohydrate intake was lower than generally recommended in the existing consensus guidelines on sport nutrition. This suggests that athletes could either optimize their carbohydrate intake, or that average carbohydrate requirements merit a re-evaluation.

  15. Training-induced annual changes in red blood cell profile in highly-trained endurance and speed-power athletes.

    Ciekot-Sołtysiak, Monika; Kusy, Krzysztof; Podgórski, Tomasz; Zieliński, Jacek

    2017-10-24

    An extensive body of literature exists on the effects of training on haematological parameters, but the previous studies have not reported how hematological parameters respond to changes in training loads within consecutive phases of the training cycle in highly-trained athletes in extremely different sport disciplines. The aim of this study was to identify changes in red blood cell (RBC) profile in response to training loads in consecutive phases of the annual training cycle in highly-trained sprinters (8 men, aged 24 ± 3 years) and triathletes (6 men, aged 24 ± 4 years) who competed at the national and international level. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), RBC, haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Ht), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and RBC distribution width (RDW) were determined in four characteristic training phases (transition, general subphase of the preparation phase, specific subphase of the preparation phase and competition phase). Our main findings are that (1) Hb, MCH and MCHC in triathletes and MCV in both triathletes and sprinters changed significantly over the annual training cycle, (2) triathletes had significantly higher values than sprinters only in case of MCH and MCHC after the transition and general preparation phases but not after the competition phase when MCH and MCHC were higher in sprinters and (3) in triathletes, Hb, MCH and MCHC substantially decreased after the competition phase, which was not observed in sprinters. The athletes maintained normal ranges of all haematological parameters in four characteristic training phases. Although highly-trained sprinters and triathletes do not significantly differ in their levels of most haematological parameters, these groups are characterized by different patterns of changes during the annual training cycle. Our results suggest that when interpreting the values of haematological parameters in speed-power and endurance

  16. Left Atrial Enlargement in Young High-Level Endurance Athletes – Another Sign of Athlete’s Heart?

    Król Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement of the left atrium is perceived as a part of athlete’s heart syndrome, despite the lack of evidence. So far, left atrial size has not been assessed in the context of exercise capacity. The hypothesis of the present study was that LA enlargement in athletes was physiological and fitness-related condition. In addition, we tried to assess the feasibility and normal values of left atrial strain parameters and their relationship with other signs of athlete’s heart. The study group consisted of 114 international-level rowers (17.5 ± 1.5 years old; 46.5% women. All participants underwent a cardio-pulmonary exercise test and resting transthoracic echocardiography. Beside standard echocardiographic measurements, two dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography was used to assess average peak atrial longitudinal strain, peak atrial contraction strain and early left atrial diastolic longitudinal strain. Mild, moderate and severe left atrial enlargement was present in 27.2°%, 11.4% and 4.4% athletes, respectively. There were no significant differences between subgroups with different range of left atrial enlargement in any of echocardiographic parameters of the left ventricle diastolic function, filling pressure or hypertrophy. A significant correlation was found between the left atrial volume index and maximal aerobic capacity (R > 0.3; p < 0.001. Left atrial strain parameters were independent of atrial size, left ventricle hypertrophy and left ventricle filling pressure. Decreased peak atrial longitudinal strain was observed in 4 individuals (3.5%. We concluded that LA enlargement was common in healthy, young athletes participating in endurance sport disciplines with a high level of static exertion and was strictly correlated with exercise capacity, therefore, could be perceived as another sign of athlete’s heart.

  17. Motor learning in a complex balance task and associated neuroplasticity: a comparison between endurance athletes and nonathletes.

    Seidel, Oliver; Carius, Daniel; Kenville, Rouven; Ragert, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Studies suggested that motor expertise is associated with functional and structural brain alterations, which positively affect sensorimotor performance and learning capabilities. The purpose of the present study was to unravel differences in motor skill learning and associated functional neuroplasticity between endurance athletes (EA) and nonathletes (NA). For this purpose, participants had to perform a multimodal balance task (MBT) training on 2 sessions, which were separated by 1 wk. Before and after MBT training, a static balance task (SBT) had to be performed. MBT-induced functional neuroplasticity and neuromuscular alterations were assessed by means of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and electromyography (EMG) during SBT performance. We hypothesized that EA would showed superior initial SBT performance and stronger MBT-induced improvements in SBT learning rates compared with NA. On a cortical level, we hypothesized that MBT training would lead to differential learning-dependent functional changes in motor-related brain regions [such as primary motor cortex (M1)] during SBT performance. In fact, EA showed superior initial SBT performance, whereas learning rates did not differ between groups. On a cortical level, fNIRS recordings (time × group interaction) revealed a stronger MBT-induced decrease in left M1 and inferior parietal lobe (IPL) for deoxygenated hemoglobin in EA. Even more interesting, learning rates were correlated with fNIRS changes in right M1/IPL. On the basis of these findings, we provide novel evidence for superior MBT training-induced functional neuroplasticity in highly trained athletes. Future studies should investigate these effects in different sports disciplines to strengthen previous work on experience-dependent neuroplasticity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Motor expertise is associated with functional/structural brain plasticity. How such neuroplastic reorganization translates into altered motor learning processes remains elusive. We

  18. When Virtual Muscularity Enhances Physical Endurance: Masculinity Threat and Compensatory Avatar Customization Among Young Male Adults.

    Lee-Won, Roselyn J; Tang, Wai Yen; Kibbe, Mackenzie R

    2017-01-01

    Masculinity-threatened men attempt to resolve the negative states caused by the threat through compensatory behavior such as public display of muscularity, which constitutes one way in which men physically establish masculinity. Avatars serve as a key means for self-presentation in technology-mediated environments, and compensatory motives can drive avatar customization. Noting this, the present research examined whether masculinity-threatened young men engage in compensatory avatar customization and whether such customization can be self-affirming. Specifically, we conducted a laboratory experiment to investigate the effects of masculinity threat on customization of avatar muscularity and physical endurance on a task that represents behavioral self-regulation. Data from 238 male college students revealed that masculinity-threatened young men customized their avatar to have greater muscle definition than did their nonthreatened counterparts, and greater muscle definition of the customized avatar predicted greater physical endurance on a handgrip task. Furthermore, muscle definition of the customized avatar significantly mediated the relationship between masculinity threat and physical endurance. None of these effects were moderated by masculine norm conformity, which suggested that the effects overrode individual differences in the extent to which participants conformed to masculine norms and expectations. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. The neuromechanical functional contractile properties of the thigh muscles measured using tensiomyography in male athletes and non-athletes

    Toskić Lazar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Involuntary neuromechanical muscle contractile properties, especially of the extensor muscles and knee joint flexors as the largest muscle groups of the caudal part of the body, play an important role in both everyday movement and sport. Based on these data we can obtain important information on the functional properties of muscles. The basic means of evaluation of the functional involuntary neuromechanical muscles contractile properties is the non-invasive tensiomyographic method (TMG. The aim of this study was to determine the differences between the involuntary neuromechanical contractile properties of the thigh muscles measured using the TMG method on a sample of male athletes and non-athletes. The sample of participants was made up of 17 athletes and 10 non-athletes. By applying the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and the t-test, we achieved results which indicate that of the overall 30 variables, a difference was determined among 13 of them. Most of the differences were determined for the extensor muscles of the right knee, especially of the rectus femoris muscle. It was also shown that in addition to the main knee joint extensor muscle (rectus femoris the main knee joint flexor muscle (biceps femoris also takes part in the definition of the difference between athletes and non-athletes. The results have shown that the following variables: contraction time (Tc and delay contraction time (Td are the functional parameters for which the highest difference between athletes and non-athletes were determined (from t = -2.284, p < 0.05 for the vastus lateralis of the right leg to t = -4.018, p < 0.01 for the rectus femoris of the left leg. These results have shown that it is possible to determine the differences in the functional involuntary neuromechanical contractile properties of the thigh muscles among trained and untrained individuals using the tensiomyographic method, but at the same time indicated that these differences were very

  20. Low Vitamin D Levels Do Not Predict Hyperglycemia in Elderly Endurance Athletes (but in Controls.

    Helmuth Haslacher

    Full Text Available Recent studies revealed a link between hypovitaminosis D3 and the risk for hyperglycemia. Further mechanistic and interventional investigations suggested a common reason for both conditions rather than a causal relationship. Exposure to sunlight is the most relevant source of vitamin D3 (25(OHD, whereas adipose tissue is able to store relevant amounts of the lipophilic vitamin. Since running/bicycling leads to increased out-door time and alters physiological response mechanisms, it can be hypothesized that the correlation between hypovitaminosis D3 and hyperglycemia might be disturbed in outdoor athletes.47 elderly marathoners/bicyclists and 47 age/sex matched controls were studied in a longitudinal setting at baseline and after three years. HbA1c as a surrogate for (pre-diabetic states was quantified via HPLC, 25(OHD levels were measured by means of chemiluminescent assays. Physical performance was assessed by ergometry.When adjusted for seasonal variations, 25(OHD was significantly higher in athletes than in controls. 25(OHD levels inversely correlated with triglycerides in both groups, whereas only in controls an association between high BMI or low physical performance with hypovitaminosis D3 had been found. Likewise, the presence of hypovitaminosis D3 at baseline successfully predicted hyperglycemia at the follow up examinations within the control group (AUC = 0.85, 95% CI [0.74, 0.96], p < .001, statistically independent from BMI, but not in athletes.Our data suggest that mechanisms of HbA1c elevation might differ between athletes and controls. Thus, intense physical activity must be taken into account as a potential pre-analytic confounder when it is aimed to predict metabolic risk by vitamin D3 levels.

  1. Academic and Career Advancement for Black Male Athletes at NCAA Division I Institutions

    Baker, Ashley R.; Hawkins, Billy J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the structural arrangements and challenges many Black male athletes encounter as a result of their use of sport for upward social mobility. Recommendations to enhance their preparation and advancement are provided.

  2. Body image perception, satisfaction and somatotype in male and female athletes and non-athletes: results using a novel morphing technique.

    Stewart, Arthur D; Benson, Philip J; Michanikou, Evangelia G; Tsiota, Dimitra G; Narli, Margarita K

    2003-10-01

    Thirty-six adults (24 males, 12 females) were assessed for anthropometric somatotype and body image (perception and satisfaction) by a novel technique using quantitative distortion of a digital still image. Software produced random distortions in nine body regions. The participants manipulated interactive slider controls to adjust each body feature in turn, recreate their perceived image and indicate their desired image. There were no differences in perception between the sexes. However, the ideal-actual differences (i.e. satisfaction) indicated that males desired larger and females smaller features, respectively, in the chest and thighs (P sport (strength, endurance, team-sport and controls), differences were found in the perceived image size in the chest and rib regions (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Strength athletes perceived these areas to be smaller and the control group perceived these areas to be larger than the true values. Somatotype analysis indicated that the physique associated with minimal dissatisfaction was 2.0-5.0-3.0 for males and 3.0-2.5-3.0 for females. Cluster analysis, combining anthropometric and satisfaction data, revealed seven distinct subgroups distinguished by particular attributes of physical appearance. We conclude that the method is reliable and that body image includes sex-specific, anthropometric, perceptual and personality-related components.

  3. In vivo 31P NMR spectroscopic assessment of the endurance and recovery capacity of skeletal muscle: Comparison between the sedentaries and canoe athletes

    Lim, Tae Hawn; Lee, Tae Keun; Seong, Ki Hong; Mun, Chi Woong; Kim, Sang Tae; Shin, Myung Jin

    1992-01-01

    In vivo 3P NMR spectroscopic study of forearm wrist flexor muscles was performed in two groups of volunteers composed respectively of 6 sedentaries and 6 canoe athletes. A continuous isometric contraction of endurance exercise was adopted in order to assess the endurance capacity and recovery potential of skeletal muscles. Differences in high energy phosphorus metabolism between the sedentaries and athletes were evaluated with and emphasis on the intracellular pH and Pi/PCr ratio as indicators of high energy phosphorus metabolism, There were no differences of baseline pH and Pi/ PCr ratio between the two groups. The athletes sustained the exercise at a more acidic intracellular pH and at a higher Pi/ PCr radio of intracellular conditions for an all out than did the sedentaries. The recovery rate of pH showed no difference between the two groups. There was a tendency of faster recovery of Pi/ PCr in athletes showing half recovery time (T 1/2 ) of 39.0 ± 3.0 seconds as compared to that of sedentaries (55.7 ± 7.5 seconds). The recovery rate of Pi/ PCr as a function of Pi/ PCr rate at a given period of time was significantly faster in athletes than in sedentaries (P<0.001). The correlation coefficient of the recovery rate of Pi/ PCr against the Pi/ PCr ratio was 0.985 and 0.914 respectively for the athletes and sedentaries. The pH and the Pi/ PCr ratio at an all-out state can be used as indicators of endurance capacity and the recovery rate of Pi/ PCr, as a recovery potential of skeletal muscles

  4. Enhancing appearance and sports performance: are female collegiate athletes behaving more like males?

    Muller, Susan M; Gorrow, Teena R; Schneider, Sidney R

    2009-01-01

    The authors designed this study to determine if differences exist between male and female collegiate athletes' supplement use and behaviors to modify body appearance. Collegiate athletes who participated in this study were 241 females and 210 males, aged 17 to 28 years. Participants completed a questionnaire about the average number of times each week they performed specific supplementing, exercise, or dietary behaviors. The authors found differences associated with gender for 9 of the 18 behaviors. Specifically, 2 of these 9 behaviors were dietary, 1 was supplementary, 3 were physique concerns, and 3 involved personal motivation for weightlifting. Male athletes reported a higher drive for size, speed, and power, whereas female athletes were more concerned with body fat, more likely to restrict caloric intake, and more prone to consume weight loss supplements. No differences were found by gender regarding supplement use to increase body size.

  5. Responsiveness of the Countermovement Jump and Handgrip Strength to an Incremental Running Test in Endurance Athletes: Influence of Sex.

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Delgado-Floody, Pedro; Martínez-Salazar, Cristian; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2018-03-01

    The present study analyzed the acute effects of an incremental running test on countermovement jump (CMJ) and handgrip strength performance in endurance athletes, considering the effect of post-exercise recovery time and sex. Thirty-three recreationally trained long-distance runners, 20 men and 13 women, participated voluntarily in this study. The participants performed the Léger test, moreover, the CMJ and handgrip strength tests were carried out before and after the running test and during different stages of recovery (at the 1st min of recovery (posttest1), 5th min of recovery (posttest2), and 10th min of recovery (posttest3)). Two-way analysis of variance revealed a significant improvement in the CMJ (pre-posttest1, p = 0.001) and handgrip strength (pre-posttest2, p = 0.017) during recovery time. The Pearson's Chi-2 test showed no significant relationship ( p ≥ 0.05) between sex and post-activation potentiation (PAP). A linear regression analysis pointed to heart rate recovery as a predictive factor of CMJ improvement (PAP). In conclusion, despite significant fatigue reached during the Léger test, the long-distance runners did not experience an impaired CMJ and handgrip strength performance, either men or women, achieving an improvement (PAP) in posttest conditions. The results obtained showed no significant relationship between sex and PAP. Moreover, significant effect of recovery after running at high intensity on CMJ performance and handgrip strength was found. Finally, the data suggest that PAP condition can be predicted by heart rate recovery in endurance runners.

  6. Relationship between Aortic Compliance and Impact of Cerebral Blood Flow Fluctuation to Dynamic Orthostatic Challenge in Endurance Athletes.

    Tomoto, Tsubasa; Imai, Tomoko; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Maeda, Seiji; Sugawara, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Aorta effectively buffers cardiac pulsatile fluctuation generated from the left ventricular (LV) which could be a mechanical force to high blood flow and low-resistance end-organs such as the brain. A dynamic orthostatic challenge may evoke substantial cardiac pulsatile fluctuation via the transient increases in venous return and stroke volume (SV). Particularly, this response may be greater in endurance-trained athletes (ET) who exhibit LV eccentric remodeling. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of aortic compliance to the response of cerebral blood flow fluctuation to dynamic orthostatic challenge in ET and age-matched sedentary (SED) young healthy men. ET ( n = 10) and SED ( n = 10) underwent lower body negative pressure (LBNP) (-30 mmHg for 4 min) stimulation and release the pressure that initiates a rapid regain of limited venous return and consequent increase in SV. The recovery responses of central and middle cerebral arterial (MCA) hemodynamics from the release of LBNP (~15 s) were evaluated. SV (via Modeflow method) and pulsatile and systolic MCA (via transcranial Doppler) normalized by mean MCA velocity (MCAv) significantly increased after the cessation of LBNP in both groups. ET exhibited the higher ratio of SV to aortic pulse pressure (SV/ Ao PP), an index of aortic compliance, at the baseline compared with SED ( P < 0.01). Following the LBNP release, SV was significantly increased in SED by 14 ± 7% (mean ± SD) and more in ET by 30 ± 15%; nevertheless, normalized pulsatile, systolic, and diastolic MCAv remained constant in both groups. These results might be attributed to the concomitant with the increase in aortic compliance assessed by SV/ Ao PP. Importantly, the increase in SV/ Ao PP following the LBNP release was greater in ET than in SED ( P < 0.01), and significantly correlated with the baseline SV/ Ao PP ( r = 0.636, P < 0.01). These results suggest that the aortic compliance in the endurance athletes is able to

  7. Weaker lower extremity muscle strength predicts traumatic knee injury in youth female but not male athletes.

    Ryman Augustsson, Sofia; Ageberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The role of lower extremity (LE) muscle strength for predicting traumatic knee injury in youth athletes is largely unknown. The aim was to investigate the influence of LE muscle strength on traumatic knee injury in youth female and male athletes. 225 athletes (40% females) from sport senior high schools in Sweden were included in this case-control study. The athletes recorded any traumatic knee injury that had occurred during their high-school period in a web-based injury form. A one repetition maximum (1RM) barbell squat test was used to measure LE muscle strength. The 1RM was dichotomised to analyse 'weak' versus 'strong' athletes according to the median (weak median vs strong median ). 63 traumatic knee injuries, including 18 ACL injuries, were registered. The majority of injured female athletes were in the weak group compared with the strong group (p=0.0001). The odds of sustaining a traumatic knee injury and an ACL injury was 9.5 times higher and 7 times higher, respectively, in the weak median group compared with the strong median group in females (p ≤0.011). A relative 1RM squat ≤1.05 kg (105% of bodyweight) was established as the best cut-off value to distinguish high versus low risk of injury in female athletes. No strength-injury relationships were observed for the male athletes (p ≥0.348). Weaker LE muscle strength predicted traumatic knee injury in youth female athletes, but not in males. This suggests that LE muscle strength should be included in injury screening in youth female athletes.

  8. Phosphorylation potential in the dominant leg is lower, and [ADPfree] is higher in calf muscles at rest in endurance athletes than in sprinters and in untrained subjects.

    Zoladz, J A; Kulinowski, P; Zapart-Bukowska, J; Grandys, M; Majerczak, J; Korzeniewski, B; Jasiński, A

    2007-12-01

    It has been reported that various types of mammalian muscle fibers differ regarding the content of several metabolites at rest. However, to our knowledge no data have been reported in the literature, concerning the muscle energetic status at rest in high class athletes when considering the dominant and non-dominant leg separately. We have hypothesised that due to higher mechanical loads on the dominant leg in athletes, the metabolic profile in the dominant leg at rest in the calf muscles, characterized by [PCr], [ADP(free)], [AMP(free)] and DeltaG(ATP), will significantly differ among endurance athletes, sprinters and untrained individuals. In this study we determined the DeltaG(ATP) and adenine phosphates concentrations in the dominant and non-dominant legs in untrained subjects (n = 6), sprinters (n = 10) and endurance athletes (n = 7) at rest. The (mean +/- SD) age of the subjects was 23.4 +/- 4.3 years. Muscle metabolites were measured in the calf muscles at rest, by means of (31)P-MRS, using a 4.7 T superconducting magnet (Bruker). When taking into account mean values in the left and right leg, phosphocreatine concentration ([PCr]) and DeltaG(ATP) were significantly lower (p<0.05, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test), and [ADP(free)] was significantly higher (p = 0.04) in endurance athletes than in untrained subjects. When considering the differences between the left and right leg, [PCr] in the dominant leg was significantly lower in endurance athletes than in sprinters (p = 0.01) and untrained subjects (p = 0.02) (25.91 +/- 2.87 mM; 30.02 +/- 3.12 mM and 30.71 +/- 2.88 mM, respectively). The [ADP(free)] was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in endurance athletes than in sprinters and untrained subjects (p = 0.02) (42.19 +/- 13.44 microM; 27.86 +/- 10.19 microM; 25.35 +/- 10.97 microM, respectively). The DeltaG(ATP) in the dominant leg was significantly lower (p = 0.02) in endurance athletes than in sprinters and untrained subjects (p = 0.01) (-60.53 +/- 2.03 kJ.M(-1

  9. CAFFEINE INTAKE ENHANCES ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE IN SUB-ELITE BUT NOT IN ELITE ATHLETES

    Ondřej Smolka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our contribution is to evaluate the influence of caffeine (CAF ingestion on maximal power output (MPO during endurance performance. Two groups of men – 10 sub-elite cyclists and 8 elite cyclists completed a randomized, crossover, double-blind study. Over the course of three days participants completed three identical experimental tests (60min cycling time trial on 70 % VO2max followed by test to exhaustion. Three experimental meals - a combination of 500ml water, a gel supplement and a specific dose of CAF: a placebo (PLA, no caffeine, CAF2 (2 mg / kg body weight (BW and CAF7 (7 mg / kg BW were administered 45min prior to the start of the experimental tests. Subjective RPE values were determined using the Borg 20-category scale. The results show significant differences between MPOPLA and MPOCAF7 and between MPOCAF2 and MPOCAF7 with p = 0.018 and p = 0.019, respectively, in the sub-elite cyclists group only. The mean MPO during experimental test in sub-elite cyclists, but not in elite cyclists, was significantly enhanced following caffeine ingestion (p = 0.05. These findings indicate that caffeine intake at recommended levels is not associated with improved performance in a professional level cyclist. The results of the comparison of the experimental situations using the Borg scale are not persuasive. We found a significant difference (0.008356 between the PLA and CAF2 experimental measurements (p < 0.05. The level of substantive significance was assessed using Cohen’s coefficient effect and only a small “size of effect” (0.19 was found. It is therefore not possible to determine whether the Borg scale might be used to define the effects of caffeine ingestion on endurance performance, due to the multifactorial effects of caffeine.

  10. Informational feedback and self-esteem among male and female athletes.

    Kamal, A F; Blais, C; McCarrey, M; Laramee, D; Ekstrand, K

    1992-06-01

    The self-esteem of male and female competitive athletes was compared after each was provided either positive or negative (verbal) informational feedback on a nonathletic task, a series of single-solution anagrams. Subjects were 50 men and 50 women, aged 18 to 25 years, who were tested on the semantic differential to estimate athletes' self-esteem before and after receiving the informational feedback. Over-all, female athletes responded more strongly to both feedback conditions, with both groups being more influenced by negative rather than by positive feedback.

  11. The Impact of High School on the Leadership Development of African American Male Scholar-Athletes

    Fuller, Rhema; Harrison, C. Keith; Bukstein, Scott; Martin, Brandon E.; Lawerence, Malia; Parks, Cliff

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how the high school setting assisted the leadership development of African American males. Additionally, we explored how the leadership developed in high school was applied in the post-high school setting. We utilized purposeful sampling to identify and recruit African American male scholar-athletes (N =…

  12. Impact of Energy Availability, Health and Sex on Hemoglobin Mass Responses Following LHTH Altitude Training in Elite Female and Male Distance Athletes.

    Heikura, Ida A; Burke, Louise M; Bergland, Dan; Uusitalo, Arja L T; Mero, Antti A; Stellingwerff, Trent

    2018-02-12

    We investigated the effects of sex, energy availability (EA), and health status on the change in hemoglobin mass (ΔHbmass) in elite endurance athletes over ~3 to 4 weeks of Live-High/Train-High altitude training (Flagstaff, AZ, 2135m; n=27 females; n=21 males; 27% 2016 Olympians). Pre- and post-camp Hbmass (optimized CO re-breathing method) and iron status were measured, EA was estimated via food and training logs and Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q) and a general injury/illness questionnaire was completed. Hypoxic exposure (hours) was calculated with low (600h) groupings. Absolute and relative percentage ΔHbmass (%ΔHbmass) was significantly greater in females (6.2±4.0%, paltitude training, while emphasizing the importance of athlete health and indices of EA on an optimal baseline Hbmass and hematological response to hypoxia.

  13. Body composition and hydration status changes in male and female open-water swimmers during an ultra-endurance event.

    Weitkunat, Tim; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Body mass changes during ultra-endurance performances have been described for running, cycling and for swimming in a heated pool. The present field study of 20 male and 11 female open-water swimmers investigated the changes in body composition and hydration status during an ultra-endurance event. Body mass, both estimated fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, haematocrit, plasma sodium concentration ([Na+]) and urine specific gravity were determined. Energy intake, energy expenditure and fluid intake were estimated. Males experienced significant reductions in body mass (-0.5 %) and skeletal muscle mass (-1.1 %) (P 0.05). Changes in percent body fat, fat mass, and fat-free mass were heterogeneous and did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05) between gender groups. Fluid intake relative to plasma volume was higher in females than in males during the ultra-endurance event. Compared to males, females' average increase in haematocrit was 3.3 percentage points (pp) higher, urine specific gravity decrease 0.1 pp smaller, and plasma [Na+] 1.3 pp higher. The observed patterns of fluid intake, changes in plasma volume, urine specific gravity, and plasma [Na+] suggest that, particularly in females, a combination of fluid shift from blood vessels to interstitial tissue, facilitated by skeletal muscle damage, as well as exercise-associated hyponatremia had occurred. To summarise, changes in body composition and hydration status are different in male compared to female open-water ultra-endurance swimmers.

  14. Endurance Training - Science and Practice

    I have always had an interest in endurance sports and have been fortunate enough to work with endurance athletes while completing my PhD. Professor Mujika is a well-respected scientist who, apart from his research work, consults with many elite endurance athletes. I was surprised at how excited I was to review.

  15. No improvement in race performance by naps in male ultra-endurance cyclists in a 600-km ultra-cycling race.

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-04-30

    Ultra-endurance performance is of increasing popularity. We investigated the associations between anthropometry, training and support during racing, with race performance in 67 male recreational ultra-endurance cyclists participating in the 'Swiss Cycling Marathon' over 600 kilometres, an official qualifier for the cycling ultra-marathon 'Paris-Brest-Paris'. The 54 finishers showed no differences in anthropometry and did not train differently compared to the 13 non-finishers. During the race, the finishers were significantly more frequently racing alone than being followed by a support crew. After bivariate analysis, percent body fat (r = 0.43), the cycling distance per training unit (r = -0.36), the duration per training unit (r = -0.31) and the sleep time during the race (r = 0.50) were related to overall race time. The 23 non-sleepers in the finisher group completed the race within (mean and IQR) 1,567 (1,453-1,606) min, highly significantly faster than the 31 sleepers with 1,934 (1,615-2,033) min (P = 0.0003). No variable of support during the race was associated with race time. After multivariate analysis, percent body fat (P = 0.026) and duration per training unit (P = 0.005) remained predictor variables for race time. To summarize, for a successful finish in a cycling ultra-marathon over 600 kilometres such as the 'Swiss Cycling Marathon', percent body fat and duration per training unit were related to race time whereas equipment and support during the race showed no association. Athletes with naps were highly significantly slower than athletes without naps.

  16. Fatigue shifts and scatters heart rate variability in elite endurance athletes.

    Laurent Schmitt

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This longitudinal study aimed at comparing heart rate variability (HRV in elite athletes identified either in 'fatigue' or in 'no-fatigue' state in 'real life' conditions. METHODS: 57 elite Nordic-skiers were surveyed over 4 years. R-R intervals were recorded supine (SU and standing (ST. A fatigue state was quoted with a validated questionnaire. A multilevel linear regression model was used to analyze relationships between heart rate (HR and HRV descriptors [total spectral power (TP, power in low (LF and high frequency (HF ranges expressed in ms(2 and normalized units (nu] and the status without and with fatigue. The variables not distributed normally were transformed by taking their common logarithm (log10. RESULTS: 172 trials were identified as in a 'fatigue' and 891 as in 'no-fatigue' state. All supine HR and HRV parameters (Beta±SE were significantly different (P<0.0001 between 'fatigue' and 'no-fatigue': HRSU (+6.27±0.61 bpm, logTPSU (-0.36±0.04, logLFSU (-0.27±0.04, logHFSU (-0.46±0.05, logLF/HFSU (+0.19±0.03, HFSU(nu (-9.55±1.33. Differences were also significant (P<0.0001 in standing: HRST (+8.83±0.89, logTPST (-0.28±0.03, logLFST (-0.29±0.03, logHFST (-0.32±0.04. Also, intra-individual variance of HRV parameters was larger (P<0.05 in the 'fatigue' state (logTPSU: 0.26 vs. 0.07, logLFSU: 0.28 vs. 0.11, logHFSU: 0.32 vs. 0.08, logTPST: 0.13 vs. 0.07, logLFST: 0.16 vs. 0.07, logHFST: 0.25 vs. 0.14. CONCLUSION: HRV was significantly lower in 'fatigue' vs. 'no-fatigue' but accompanied with larger intra-individual variance of HRV parameters in 'fatigue'. The broader intra-individual variance of HRV parameters might encompass different changes from no-fatigue state, possibly reflecting different fatigue-induced alterations of HRV pattern.

  17. Genome-wide association study identifies three novel genetic markers associated with elite endurance performance

    Ahmetov, Ii; Kulemin, Na; Popov, Dv

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), aerobic performance and elite endurance athlete status in Russians. By using GWAS approach, we examined the association between 1,140,419 SNPs and relative maximal oxygen consumption rate ([Formula: see text]O2......max) in 80 international-level Russian endurance athletes (46 males and 34 females). To validate obtained results, we further performed case-control studies by comparing the frequencies of the most significant SNPs (with P endurance athletes and opposite cohorts (192...... Russian controls, 1367 European controls, and 230 Russian power athletes). Initially, six 'endurance alleles' were identified showing discrete associations with [Formula: see text]O2max both in males and females. Next, case-control studies resulted in remaining three SNPs (NFIA-AS2 rs1572312, TSHR rs...

  18. Effects of a Lactobacillus salivarius probiotic intervention on infection, cold symptom duration and severity, and mucosal immunity in endurance athletes.

    Gleeson, Michael; Bishop, Nicolette C; Oliveira, Marta; McCauley, Tracey; Tauler, Pedro; Lawrence, Claire

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a probiotic supplement during 4 mo of spring training in men and women engaged in endurance-based physical activities on incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and mucosal immune markers. Sixty-six highly active individuals were randomized to probiotic (n = 33) or placebo (n = 33) groups and, under double-blind procedures, received probiotic (PRO: Lactobacillus salivarius, 2 × 1010 bacterium colony-forming units) or placebo (PLA) daily for 16 wk. Resting blood and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after 8 and 16 wk. Weekly training and illness logs were kept. Fifty-four subjects completed the study (n = 27 PRO, n = 27 PLA). The proportion of subjects on PRO who experienced 1 or more wk with URTI symptoms was not different from that of those on PLA (PRO .58, PLA .59; p = .947). The number of URTI episodes was similar in the 2 groups (PRO 1.6 ± 0.3, PLA 1.4 ± 0.3; p = .710). Severity and duration of symptoms were not significantly different between treatments. Blood leukocyte, neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte counts; saliva IgA; and lysozyme concentrations did not change over the course of the study and were not different on PRO compared with PLA. Regular ingestion of L. salivarius does not appear to be beneficial in reducing the frequency of URTI in an athletic cohort and does not affect blood leukocyte counts or levels of salivary antimicrobial proteins during a spring period of training and competition.

  19. Investigating the use of pre-training measures of autonomic regulation for assessing functional overreaching in endurance athletes.

    Coates, Alexandra M; Hammond, Sarah; Burr, Jamie F

    2018-04-10

    The use of heart rate variability (HRV) to inform daily training prescription is becoming common in endurance sport. Few studies, however, have investigated the use of pre-training HRV to predict decreased performance or altered exercising autonomic response, typical of functional overreaching (FOR). Further, a new cardiac vagal tone (ProCVT) technology purports to eliminate some of the noise associated with daily HRV, and therefore may be better at predicting same-day performance. The purpose of this investigation was to examine if changes to resting HRV and ProCVT were associated with alterations in performance, maximal heart rate (HRmax), or heart rate recovery (HRrec) in FOR athletes. Twenty-eight recreational cyclists and triathletes were assigned to experimental/control conditions and underwent: 1 week of reduced training, 3 weeks of overload (OL) or regular training (CON), and 1 week of recovery. Testing occurred following the reduced training week (T1), post-3 weeks of training (T2), and following the recovery week (T3). Measures of resting HRV/ProCVT were collected each testing session, followed by maximal incremental exercise tests with HRrec taken 60 s post-exercise. Performance decreased from T1 to T2 in the OL group vs. CON (Δ-9 ± 12 vs. Δ9 ± 11 W, P HRV and ProCVT did not change in either group. Same-day resting autonomic measures are insufficient in predicting alterations to performance or exercising HR measures following overload training.

  20. The bases for the differences in the training methodology for male and female athletes

    Владимир Платонов

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The analytical review article presents the data reflecting the need for significant differentiation of the methodology of sports training for male and female athletes, which unfortunately is ignored in sports practice and is not adequately reflected in the vast majority of publications in the field of theory and methodology of sports training. This differentiation can be attributed to the following main components: the physique, strength qualities and flexibility; the energy systems; the peculiarities of the psyche and behavioral reactions; the menstrual cycle; female athlete triad; hyperandrogenism; pregnancy and parturition; and age dependence of sports performance. The clearly insufficient consideration of the peculiarities of the female body not only does not allow to fully use the natural talent of athletes for achieving the highest attainable sports performance, but also may with high probability disturb the normal age-related development and produce serious health problems in female athletes.

  1. Carbohydrate restricted recovery from long term endurance exercise does not affect gene responses involved in mitochondrial biogenesis in highly trained athletes

    Jensen, Line; Gejl, Kasper D; Ørtenblad, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine if the metabolic adaptations, particularly PGC-1α and downstream metabolic genes were affected by restricting CHO following an endurance exercise bout in trained endurance athletes. A second aim was to compare baseline expression level of these genes to untrained. Elite...... endurance athletes (VO2max 66 ± 2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), n = 15) completed 4 h cycling at ~56% VO2max. During the first 4 h recovery subjects were provided with either CHO or only H2O and thereafter both groups received CHO. Muscle biopsies were collected before, after, and 4 and 24 h after exercise. Also......, resting biopsies were collected from untrained subjects (n = 8). Exercise decreased glycogen by 67.7 ± 4.0% (from 699 ± 26.1 to 239 ± 29.5 mmol·kg(-1)·dw(-1)) with no difference between groups. Whereas 4 h of recovery with CHO partly replenished glycogen, the H2O group remained at post exercise level...

  2. Mouth Rinsing with Maltodextrin Solutions Fails to Improve Time Trial Endurance Cycling Performance in Recreational Athletes

    Tuğba Nilay Kulaksız

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The carbohydrate (CHO concentration of a mouth rinsing solution might influence the CHO sensing receptors in the mouth, with consequent activation of brain regions involved in reward, motivation and regulation of motor activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of maltodextrin mouth rinsing with different concentrations (3%, 6% and 12% after an overnight fast on a 20 km cycling time trial performance. Nine recreationally active, healthy males (age: 24 ± 2 years; V ˙ O 2 m a x : 47 ± 5 mL·kg−1·min−1 participated in this study. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study was conducted. Participants mouth-rinsed every 2.5 km for 5 s. Maltodextrin mouth rinse with concentrations of 3%, 6% or 12% did not change time to complete the time trial and power output compared to placebo (p > 0.05. Time trial completion times were 40.2 ± 4.0, 40.1 ± 3.9, 40.1 ± 4.4, and 39.3 ± 4.2 min and power output 205 ± 22, 206 ± 25, 210 ± 24, and 205 ± 23 W for placebo, 3%, 6%, and 12% maltodextrin conditions, respectively. Heart rate, lactate, glucose, and rating of perceived exertion did not differ between trials (p > 0.05. In conclusion, mouth rinsing with different maltodextrin concentrations after an overnight fast did not affect the physiological responses and performance during a 20 km cycling time trial in recreationally active males.

  3. Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in sports. Part I: systematic review of risk factors in male athletes.

    Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Mendiguchía, Jurdan; Samuelsson, Kristian; Musahl, Volker; Karlsson, Jon; Cugat, Ramon; Myer, Gregory D

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report a comprehensive literature review on the risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in male athletes. All abstracts were read and articles of potential interest were reviewed in detail to determine on inclusion status for systematic review. Information regarding risk factors for ACL injuries in male athletes was extracted from all included studies in systematic fashion and classified as environmental, anatomical, hormonal, neuromuscular, or biomechanical. Data extraction involved general characteristics of the included studies (type of study, characteristics of the sample, type of sport), methodological aspects (for quality assessment), and the principal results for each type of risk factor. The principal findings of this systematic review related to the risk factors for ACL injury in male athletes are: (1) most of the evidence is related to environmental and anatomical risk factors; (2) dry weather conditions may increase the risk of non-contact ACL injuries in male athletes; (3) artificial turf may increase the risk of non-contact ACL injuries in male athletes; (4) higher posterior tibial slope of the lateral tibial plateau may increase the risk of non-contact ACL injuries in male athletes. Anterior cruciate ligament injury in male athletes likely has a multi-factorial aetiology. There is a lack of evidence regarding neuromuscular and biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury in male athletes. Future research in male populations is warranted to provide adequate prevention strategies aimed to decrease the risk of this serious injury in these populations.

  4. Application of A Physiological Strain Index in Evaluating Responses to Exercise Stress – A Comparison Between Endurance and High Intensity Intermittent Trained Athletes

    Pokora Ilona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated differences in response to exercise stress between endurance and high-intensity intermittent trained athletes in a thermoneutral environment using a physiological strain index (PSI. Thirty-two subjects participated in a running exercise under normal (23°C, 50% RH conditions. The group included nine endurance trained athletes (middle-distance runners - MD, twelve high-intensity intermittent trained athletes (soccer players - HIIT and eleven students who constituted a control group. The exercise started at a speed of 4 km·h–1 which was increased every 3 min by 2 km·h–1 to volitional exhaustion. The heart rate was recorded with a heart rate monitor and aural canal temperature was measured using an aural canal temperature probe. The physiological strain index (PSI and the contribution of the circulatory and thermal components to the overall physiological strain were calculated from the heart rate and aural canal temperature. The physiological strain index differed between the study and control participants, but not between the MD and HIIT groups. The physiological strain in response to exercise stress in a thermoneutral environment was mainly determined based on the circulatory strain (MD group - 73%, HIIT group – 70%. The contribution of the circulatory and thermal components to the physiological strain did not differ significantly between the trained groups (MD and HIIT despite important differences in morphological characteristics and training-induced systemic cardiovascular and thermoregulatory adaptations.

  5. Body shape indices are predictors for estimating fat-free mass in male athletes

    Aoki, Toru; Komori, Daisuke; Oyamada, Kazuyuki; Murata, Kensuke; Fujita, Eiji; Akamine, Takuya; Urita, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Masayoshi

    2018-01-01

    It is unknown whether body size and body shape parameters can be predictors for estimating whole body fat-free mass (FFM) in male athletes. This study aimed to investigate whether body size and shape variables can be predictors for FFM in male athletes. Using a whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner, whole body fat mass (FM) and FFM were determined in 132 male athletes and 14 sedentary males. The sample was divided into two groups: validation (N = 98) and cross-validation (N = 48) groups. Body height (BH), body mass (BM), and waist circumference at immediately above the iliac crest (W) were measured. BM-to-W and W-to-BH ratios were calculated as indices of body shapes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that BM/W and W/BH were selected as explainable variables for predicting FFM. The equation developed in the validation group was FFM (kg) = 0.883 × BM/W (kg/m) + 43.674 × W/BH (cm/cm)– 41.480 [R2 = 0.900, SEE (%SEE) = 2.3 kg (3.8%)], which was validated in the cross-validation group. Thus, the current results demonstrate that an equation using BM/W and W/BH as independent variables is applicable for predicting FFM in male athletes. PMID:29346452

  6. Working with Male Athletes: The Experiences of U.S. Female Head Coaches

    Blom, Lindsey C.; Abrell, Lura; Wilson, Matthew J.; Lape, Jennifer; Halbrook, Meghan; Judge, Lawrence W.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, men have dominated the athletic arena; as a result, the number of women in sport management positions has been limited (Cashmore, 2000; Coakley, 2010). Even rarer is the opportunity for female coaches to coach male sport teams. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of women who have coached male…

  7. Exploring General and Sports Nutrition and Food Knowledge in Elite Male Australian Athletes.

    Devlin, Brooke L; Belski, Regina

    2015-06-01

    Nutrition knowledge is believed to influence nutritional intake, which in turn influences performance in elite athletes. There is currently no published data on the nutrition knowledge of elite Australian Football (AF) players. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current level of general and sports nutrition knowledge in elite male AF athletes. Forty six elite male AF players (23.5 ± 2.8 years) answered 123 questions relating to five areas of nutrition knowledge: dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, choosing everyday foods, alcohol and sports nutrition. Demographic details and perceptions of nutrition knowledge were collected for all participants. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 74.4 ± 10.9 (60.5%). The highest score was obtained in sports nutrition section (17.9 ± 3.0, 61.7%). The dietitian was selected as the first source of information by 98% of athletes, with club trainer and teammates as second choice for 45.7% and 23.9% of athletes, respectively. The majority of athletes correctly answered questions regarding recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable intake and decrease fat intake (95.6%, 91.1% and 93.3% correct respectively). While 80% of the athletes were aware fat intake should predominately be made up of unsaturated fat, they were less able to identify food sources of unsaturated fats (35.6% and 24.4% correct for statements regarding monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, respectively). Broad nutrition messages and recommendations appear to be well understood; however, gaps in nutrition knowledge are evident. A better understanding of nutrition knowledge in athletes will allow nutrition education interventions to target areas in need of improvement.

  8. Heart rate recovery in elite Spanish male athletes.

    Peinado, A B; Benito, P J; Barriopedro, M; Lorenzo, I; Maffulli, N; Calderón, F J

    2014-06-01

    During postexercise recovery, heart rate (HR) initially falls rapidly, followed by a period of slower decrease, until resting values are reached. The aim of the present work was to examine the differences in the recovery heart rate (RHR) between athletes engaged in static and dynamic sports. The study subjects were 294 federated sportsmen competing at the national and international level in sports classified using the criteria of Mitchell et al. as either prevalently static (N.=89) or prevalently dynamic (N.=205). Within the dynamic group, the subjects who practised the most dynamic sports were assigned to further subgroups: triathlon (N.=20), long distance running (N.=58), cycling (N.=28) and swimming (N.=12). All athletes were subjected to a maximum exertion stress test and their HR recorded at 1, 2, 3 and 4 min (RHR1,2,3,4) into the HR recovery period. The following indices of recovery (IR) were then calculated: IR1=(HRpeak-RHR1,2,3,4)/(HRmax-HRrest)*100, IR2=(HRpeak-RHR1,2,3,4)/(HRmax/HRpeak), and IR3=HRpeak-RHR1,2,3,4. The differences in the RHR and IR for the static and dynamic groups were examined using two way ANOVA. The RHR at minutes 2 (138.7±15.2 vs. 134.8±14.4 beats·min⁻¹) and 3 (128.5±15.2 vs. 123.3±14.4 beats·min⁻¹) were significantly higher for the static group (Group S) than the dynamic group (Group D), respectively. Significant differences were seen between Group D and S with respect to IR1 at minutes 1 (26.4±8.7 vs. 24.8±8.4%), 2 (43.8±8.1 vs. 41.5±7.8%), 3 (52.1±8.3 vs. 49.1±8%) and 4 (56.8±8.6 vs. 55.4±7.4%) of recovery. For IR2, significant differences were seen between the same groups at minutes 2 (59.7±12.5 vs. 55.9±10.8 beats·min⁻¹) and 3 (71.0±13.5 vs. 66.1±11.4 beats·min⁻¹) of recovery. Finally, for IR3, the only significant difference between Group D and S was recorded at minute 3 of recovery (72.2±12.5 vs. 66.2±11.5 beats·min⁻¹). This work provides information on RHR of a large population of elite

  9. Prediction of vertical jump height from anthropometric factors in male and female martial arts athletes.

    Abidin, Nahdiya Zainal; Adam, Mohd Bakri

    2013-01-01

    Vertical jump is an index representing leg/kick power. The explosive movement of the kick is the key to scoring in martial arts competitions. It is important to determine factors that influence the vertical jump to help athletes improve their leg power. The objective of the present study is to identify anthropometric factors that influence vertical jump height for male and female martial arts athletes. Twenty-nine male and 25 female athletes participated in this study. Participants were Malaysian undergraduate students whose ages ranged from 18 to 24 years old. Their heights were measured using a stadiometer. The subjects were weighted using digital scale. Body mass index was calculated by kg/m(2). Waist-hip ratio was measured from the ratio of waist to hip circumferences. Body fat % was obtained from the sum of four skinfold thickness using Harpenden callipers. The highest vertical jump from a stationary standing position was recorded. The maximum grip was recorded using a dynamometer. For standing back strength, the maximum pull upwards using a handle bar was recorded. Multiple linear regression was used to obtain the relationship between vertical jump height and explanatory variables with gender effect. Body fat % has a significant negative relationship with vertical jump height (P martial arts athletes can be predicted by body fat %. The vertical jump for male is higher than for their female counterparts. Reducing body fat by proper dietary planning will help to improve leg power.

  10. A Qualitative Study of Male Student-Athletes and Coaches Attitudes towards Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered Athletes

    VanPatten, Bryn

    2016-01-01

    The success of a team relies as much on the relationship between coaches and players as it does on athletic skill. Coaches, at times, become surrogate parental figures in the lives of their athletes and teammates become siblings who all work together towards a common goal. Athletes at the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I…

  11. Effects of respiratory muscle endurance training on wheelchair racing performance in athletes with paraplegia: a pilot study.

    Muller, G.; Perret, C.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) has been shown to improve both respiratory muscle and cycling exercise endurance in able-bodied subjects. Since effects of RMET on upper extremity exercise performance have not yet been investigated, we evaluated the effects of RMET on 10-km

  12. Physical fitness profile of elite athletes with intellectual disability.

    van de Vliet, P; Rintala, P; Fröjd, K; Verellen, J; van Houtte, S; Daly, D J; Vanlandewijck, Y C

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile of high-performance athletes with intellectual disability (ID) in comparison with able-bodied individuals. Participants were 231 male and 82 female athletes. All evaluations were done using the EUROFIT physical fitness test. In comparison with population data, both male and female athletes with ID score better for flexibility and upper body muscle endurance, but have similar or lower values for running speed, speed of limb movement, and strength measures. Compared with age-matched physical education students, male athletes with ID score better for running speed and flexibility, and worse for strength. Female athletes with ID score not different from able-bodied individuals for flexibility, running speed, and upper body muscle endurance, but worse for strength measures. Athletes with ID also have poorer cardio respiratory endurance capacity compared with sportive peers without ID. Furthermore, male athletes have a more differentiated profile depending upon their sports discipline, compared with female athletes. It can be concluded that high-performance athletes with ID reach physical fitness levels that are equal to or lower than those of able-bodied sportive counterparts. Further research should investigate the importance of reduced muscle strength to be the limiting factor.

  13. Greater muscle damage in athletes with ACTN3 R577X (RS1815739) gene polymorphism after an ultra-endurance race: a pilot study.

    Belli, T; Crisp, A H; Verlengia, R

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of ACTN3 R577X gene polymorphism on muscle damage responses in athletes competing in an ultra-endurance race. Twenty moderate to well-trained ultra-runners who had entered in an official 37.1 km adventure race (22.1 km mountain biking, 10.9 km trekking, 4.1 km water trekking, 30 m rope course, and orienteering) volunteered for the study. Blood samples were collected for genotyping and analysis of muscle protein levels before and after the race. Percentage changes (pre- to post-race) of serum myoglobin [XX = 5,377% vs. RX/RR = 1,666%; P = 0.005, effect size (ES) = 1.73], creatine kinase (XX = 836.5% vs. RX/RR = 455%; P = 0.04, ES = 1.29), lactate dehydrogenase (XX = 82% vs. RX/RR = 65%; P = 0.002, ES = 1.61), and aspartate aminotransferase (XX = 148% vs. RX/RR = 75%; P = 0.02, ES = 1.77) were significantly greater for XX than RX/RR genotypes. ES analysis confirmed a large magnitude of muscle damage in XX genotype ultra-runners. Therefore, athletes with the ACTN3 577XX genotype experienced more muscle damage after an adventure race. This suggests that ultra-runners with alpha-actinin-3 deficiency may be more susceptible to rhabdomyolysis and associated health complications during ultra-endurance competitions.

  14. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athletes

    2014-01-01

    Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified. PMID:25729154

  15. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athlete

    Małgorzata Grabara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified.

  16. Comparison of posture among adolescent male volleyball players and non-athletes

    Małgorzata Grabara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to high training loads and frequently repeated unilateral exercises, several types of sports training can have an impact on the process of posture development in young athletes. The objective of the study was to assess and compare the postures of adolescent male volleyball players and their non-training peers. The study group comprised 104 volleyball players while the control group consisted of 114 non-training individuals aged 14-16 years. Body posture was assessed by the Moiré method. The volleyball players were significantly taller, and had greater body weight and fat-free mass. The analysis of posture relative to symmetry in the frontal and transverse planes did not show any significant differences between the volleyball players and non-athletes. Postural asymmetries were observed in both the volleyball players and the control participants. Lumbar lordosis was significantly less defined in the volleyball players compared to non-training individuals while no difference was observed in thoracic kyphosis. All athletes demonstrated a loss of lumbar lordosis and an increase in thoracic kyphosis. Significant differences in anteroposterior curvature of the spine between the volleyball players and the non-athletes might be associated with both training and body height. Considering the asymmetric spine overloads which frequently occur in sports training, meticulous posture assessment in young athletes seems well justified.

  17. Sex differences in athletic performance emerge coinciding with the onset of male puberty.

    Handelsman, David J

    2017-07-01

    Male performance in athletic events begins to exceed that of age-matched females during early adolescence, but the timing of this divergence relative to the onset of male puberty and the rise in circulating testosterone remains poorly defined. This study is a secondary quantitative analysis of four published sources which aimed to define the timing of the gender divergence in athletic performance and relating it to the rise in circulating testosterone due to male puberty. Four data sources reflecting elite swimming and running and jumping track and field events as well as hand-grip strength in nonathletes were analysed to define the age-specific gender differences through adolescence and their relationship to the rising circulating testosterone during male puberty. The onset and tempo of gender divergence were very similar for swimming, running and jumping events as well as the hand-grip strength in nonathletes, and all closely paralleled the rise in circulating testosterone in adolescent boys. The gender divergence in athletic performance begins at the age of 12-13 years and reaches adult plateau in the late teenage years with the timing and tempo closely parallel to the rise in circulating testosterone in boys during puberty. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Male Student-Athlete Perceptions of University Academic Staff Expectations: A Qualitative Analysis of Perceptions, Value and Academic Motivation

    Verbeck, Teresa A.

    2010-01-01

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 male collegiate student-athletes in a revenue-generating sport in an effort to better inform current academic support practitioners how to best serve this population. The inquiry focused on student-athlete perceptions of two areas: (1) perceptions regarding the expectations academic personnel have…

  19. A socio-sports model of disordered eating among Brazilian male athletes.

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo; de Oliveira, Saulo Melo Fernandes; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a socio-sports model of disordered eating (DE) in Brazilian male athletes. Three hundred and twenty one athletes over 12 years of age from 18 different sports modalities were investigated. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to evaluate DE. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with body fat levels. The Muscularity Concern subscale of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with muscularity levels. To investigate the influence of sociocultural factors on body image, the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) was applied. Body fat was estimated by skinfold measurement. Demographic data were collected (competitive level and training regimen). Structural equation modelling was conducted to analyse the relationships between research variables and the factors that mediate them. The results indicated that the sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction adhered to socio-sports model of DE (X(2) = 18.50, p = .001, RMSEA = .069, GFI = .97, AGFI = .91, TLI = .93). The BSQ accurately predicted the relationship between SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R(2) = .08, p = 0.001) scores. A direct relationship between the SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R(2) = .07, p = 0.01) and BSQ (R(2) = .10, p = 0.001) scores was identified. No relationship was found between structural equation model and Muscularity Concern (R(2) = .02, p = 0.14), competitive level (R(2) = .01, p = 0.19), training regimen (R(2) = .03, p = 0.11) or body fat (R(2) = .02, p = 0.14). The results suggest that sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction follow the socio-sports model of DE in Brazilian male athletes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reference Values of Aortic Root in Male and Female White Elite Athletes According to Sport.

    Boraita, Araceli; Heras, Maria-Eugenia; Morales, Francisco; Marina-Breysse, Manuel; Canda, Alicia; Rabadan, Manuel; Barriopedro, Maria-Isabel; Varela, Amai; de la Rosa, Alejandro; Tuñón, José

    2016-10-01

    There is limited information regarding the aortic root upper physiological limits in all planes in elite athletes according to static and dynamic cardiovascular demands and sex. A cross-sectional study was performed in 3281 healthy elite athletes (2039 men and 1242 women) aged 23.1±5.7 years, with body surface area of 1.9±0.2 m 2 and 8.9±4.9 years and 19.2±9.6 hours/week of training. Maximum end-diastolic aortic root diameters were measured in the parasternal long axis by 2-dimensional echocardiography. Age, left ventricular mass, and body surface area were the main predictors of aortic dimensions. Raw values were greater in males than in females (Pvalues >40 mm and 34 mm, respectively. Raw and corrected aortic measures at all levels were significantly greater in sports, with a high dynamic component in both sexes, except for corrected values of the sinotubular junction in women. Aortic root dimensions in healthy elite athletes are within the established limits for the general population. This study describes the normal dimensions for healthy elite athletes classified according to sex and dynamic and static components of their sports. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Normative data on regional sweat-sodium concentrations of professional male team-sport athletes.

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; Tiller, Nicholas B; Ramchandani, Girish; Jutley, Raj; Blow, Andrew; Tye, Jonny; Drury, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to report normative data on regional sweat sweat-sodium concentrations of various professional male team-sport athletes, and to compare sweat-sodium concentrations among sports. Data to this effect would inform our understanding of athlete sodium requirements, thus allowing for the individualisation of sodium replacement strategies. Accordingly, data from 696 athletes (Soccer, n = 270; Rugby, n = 181; Baseball, n = 133; American Football, n = 60; Basketball, n = 52) were compiled for a retrospective analysis. Regional sweat-sodium concentrations were collected using the pilocarpine iontophoresis method, and compared to self-reported measures collected via questionnaire. Sweat-sodium concentrations were significantly higher ( p soccer (43.2 ± 12.0 mmol·L -1 ) or rugby (44.0 ± 12.1 mmol·L -1 ), but with no differences among the N.American or British sports. There were strong positive correlations between sweat-sodium concentrations and self-reported sodium losses in American football ( r s = 0.962, p soccer ( r s = 0.748, p strategies to meet the sodium demands of professional team-sport athletes. Moreover, these novel data suggest that self-reported measures of sodium loss might serve as an effective surrogate in the absence of direct measures; i.e., those which are more expensive or non-readily available.

  2. New parameters and reference values for monitoring iron status in Middle Eastern adolescent male athletes.

    Voss, S C; Varamenti, E; Elzain Elgingo, M; Bourdon, P C

    2014-04-01

    Hematological and biochemical parameters of 160 Middle Eastern adolescent male athletes (aged from 12-18 years) were tested in order to investigate their iron status and to establish reference values for this population. A focus of this study was also the investigation of Reticulocyte hemoglobin (RetHe) and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR). Complete blood count, reticulocyte and sera parameters were analyzed at the beginning of the training season for these adolescent athletes. As the diagnosis of iron deficiency in adolescents is extremely difficult subjects were subdivided in three age groups (12-13, 14-15, 16-18). For most of the parameters our results confirmed the existing reference values reported in young athletes. Exceptions were however found with lower Mean Cell Volumes (79.9±4.3 fl) in this group when compared to other age matched data. RetHe, ferritin and sTfR levels were monitored for the interpretation of the iron status in this population and reference values for these parameters were also established. Information to help evidence based decision making about the need for supplementation or further investigations is provided to physicians and nutritionists. RetHe with a proposed threshold value of 25 pg expands the list of parameters which can be used to monitor athletes.

  3. A Comparative Study on Emotional Intelligence and Mental Toughness for Visually Impaired Male and Female Athletes

    Robabeh Rostami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays researches find that athlete’s performance is affected not only by physical fitness, technical and tactical factors, but also mental and emotional features can affect sport performance. Objective: Hence, the aim of this study is examined the dimensions of emotional intelligence and mental toughness visually impaired male and female athletes. Methodology: This was a causal-comparative study, where the statistical population included 300 visually impaired male and female athletes taking part in the First National Cultural- Sports Festival featuring goalball, tug-of-war, track and field, swimming, and powerlifting. Using a smaple of convenience, 70 participants completed the Sheard, Golby, and van Wersch-questionnaire on mental toughness in three dimensions of  “confidence” “ control” and “constancy”, and the Petrides and Furnham’s questionnaire in four dimensions of “ understanding emotions”, “ social skills” “ controlling emotions” and “ optimism”. Results: Analysis of variables using an independent t-test showed significant differences in the dimensions of controlling emotions, understanding emotions, and social skills in favor of visually impaired sportswomen. However, there were no significant differences between the genders for optimism in the emotional intelligence questionnaire, and in mental toughness questionnaire. Conclusions: Visually impaired individuals pass through stages of emotional intelligence in a different way compared to those with normal vision. Moreover, motor skills and sports for the visually impaired are of a different kind. Moreover, our results showed that women benefited more from participating in physical and sporting activities than men did. Therefore, we recommend that authorities and people involved in sports for the visually impaired should make more use of exercises in psychological skills, along with technical and tactical ones, for visually impaired male

  4. Short QT interval is unreliable marker of anabolic androgenic steroid abuse in competitive athletes

    Đorđević Vitomir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Previous animal and human studies provided the evidence that testosterone may affect ventricular repolarization by shortening of the QT interval. Synthetic derivatives of testosterone, modified to enhance its anabolic properties, are occasionally abused by some competitive athletes. Objective. We assessed whether the QT interval duration could discriminate androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS-using strength athletes (SA from drug-free endurance athletes (EA, by comparing 25 formulas for QT interval correction. Methods. We recruited 22 elite male athletes involved in long-term strength or endurance training and 20 sedentary controls. All elite

  5. Effects of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance in male and female soccer players.

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Vergara-Pedreros, Marcelo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Martínez-Salazar, Cristian; Alvarez, Cristian; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; De La Fuente, Carlos I; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    In a randomised controlled trial design, effects of 6 weeks of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance performance were compared in male and female soccer players. Young (age 21.1 ± 2.7 years) players with similar training load and competitive background were assigned to training (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) and control (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) groups. Players were evaluated for lower- and upper-body maximal-intensity exercise, 30 m sprint, change of direction speed and endurance performance before and after 6 weeks of training. After intervention, the control groups did not change, whereas both training groups improved jumps (effect size (ES) = 0.35-1.76), throwing (ES = 0.62-0.78), sprint (ES = 0.86-1.44), change of direction speed (ES = 0.46-0.85) and endurance performance (ES = 0.42-0.62). There were no differences in performance improvements between the plyometric training groups. Both plyometric groups improved more in all performance tests than the controls. The results suggest that adaptations to plyometric training do not differ between men and women.

  6. Effects of caffeine on endurance capacity and psychological state in young females and males exercising in the heat.

    Suvi, Silva; Timpmann, Saima; Tamm, Maria; Aedma, Martin; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Ööpik, Vahur

    2017-01-01

    Acute caffeine ingestion is considered effective in improving endurance capacity and psychological state. However, current knowledge is based on the findings of studies that have been conducted on male subjects mainly in temperate environmental conditions, but some physiological and psychological effects of caffeine differ between the sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare the physical performance and psychological effects of caffeine in young women and men exercising in the heat. Thirteen male and 10 female students completed 2 constant-load walks (60% of thermoneutral peak oxygen consumption on a treadmill until volitional exhaustion) in a hot-dry environment (air temperature, 42 °C; relative humidity, 20%) after caffeine (6 mg·kg -1 ) and placebo (wheat flour) ingestion in a double-blind, randomly assigned, crossover manner. Caffeine, compared with placebo, induced greater increases (p exercise in the heat, but it has no impact on thermoregulation or endurance capacity in either gender. Under exercise-heat stress, caffeine reduces ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue in males but not in females.

  7. Greater muscle damage in athletes with ACTN3 R577X (RS1815739 gene polymorphism after an ultra-endurance race: a pilot study

    T Belli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of ACTN3 R577X gene polymorphism on muscle damage responses in athletes competing in an ultra-endurance race. Twenty moderate to well-trained ultra-runners who had entered in an official 37.1 km adventure race (22.1 km mountain biking, 10.9 km trek¬king, 4.1 km water trekking, 30 m rope course, and orienteering volunteered for the study. Blood samples were collected for genotyping and analysis of muscle protein levels before and after the race. Percentage changes (pre- to post-race of serum myoglobin [XX = 5,377% vs. RX/RR = 1,666%; P = 0.005, effect size (ES = 1.73], creatine kinase (XX = 836.5% vs. RX/RR = 455%; P = 0.04, ES = 1.29, lactate dehydrogenase (XX = 82% vs. RX/RR = 65%; P = 0.002, ES = 1.61, and aspartate aminotransferase (XX = 148% vs. RX/RR = 75%; P = 0.02, ES = 1.77 were significantly greater for XX than RX/RR genotypes. ES analysis confirmed a large magnitude of muscle damage in XX genotype ultra-runners. Therefore, athletes with the ACTN3 577XX genotype experienced more muscle damage after an adventure race. This suggests that ultra-runners with alpha-actinin-3 deficiency may be more susceptible to rhabdomyolysis and associated health complications during ultra-endurance com¬petitions.

  8. Factors associated with the presence of patellar tendon abnormalities in male athletes.

    Mendonça, Luciana D; Verhagen, Evert; Bittencourt, Natália F N; Gonçalves, Gabriela G P; Ocarino, Juliana M; Fonseca, Sérgio T

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the association between lower limb alignment, range of motion/flexibility and muscle strength with the presence of patellar tendon abnormalities in male athletes. This was a cross-sectional study. Thirty-one male basketball and volleyball athletes were assessed for ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, shank-forefoot alignment, iliotibial band flexibility, hip external rotators and abductors isometric torque, passive hip internal rotation range of motion and frontal plane knee and patellar alignment (McConnell and Arno angles). Ultrasonographic evaluations of hypoechoic areas of the patellar tendons were performed in longitudinal and transverse planes. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine clinically relevant cut-off point for each variable. When the area under the curve was statistically significant, Prevalence Ratio (PR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to indicate the strength of the association between the independent variable and the presence of patellar tendon abnormalities. Receiver operating characteristic curve showed that iliotibial band flexibility (p=0.006), shank-forefoot alignment (p=0.013) and Arno angle (p=0.046) were associated with patellar tendon abnormalities. Cut-off points were established and only the Prevalence Ratio of iliotibial band flexibility (cut-off point=-0.02°/kg; PR=5.26) and shank-forefoot alignment (cut-off point=24°; PR=4.42) were statistically significant. Athletes with iliotibial band or shank-forefoot alignment above the clinically relevant cut-off point had more chance to have patellar tendon abnormalities compared to athletes under the cut-off point values. These results suggest that such factors could contribute to patellar tendon overload, since patellar tendon abnormalities indicate some level of tissue damage. Both factors might be considered in future prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship between Achilles tendon length and running performance in well-trained male endurance runners.

    Ueno, Hiromasa; Suga, Tadashi; Takao, Kenji; Tanaka, Takahiro; Misaki, Jun; Miyake, Yuto; Nagano, Akinori; Isaka, Tadao

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between Achilles tendon (AT) length and running performance, including running economy, in well-trained endurance runners. We also examined the reasonable portion of the AT related to running performance among AT lengths measured in three different portions. The AT lengths at three portions and cross-sectional area (CSA) of 30 endurance runners were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Each AT length was calculated as the distance from the calcaneal tuberosity to the muscle-tendon junction of the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis (GM AT ), and gastrocnemius lateralis, respectively. These AT lengths were normalized with shank length. The AT CSA was calculated as the average of 10, 20, and 30 mm above the distal insertion of the AT and normalized with body mass. Running economy was evaluated by measuring energy cost during three 4-minutes submaximal treadmill running trials at 14, 16, and 18 km/h, respectively. Among three AT lengths, only a GM AT correlated significantly with personal best 5000-m race time (r=-.376, P=.046). Furthermore, GM AT correlated significantly with energy cost during submaximal treadmill running trials at 14 km/h and 18 km/h (r=-.446 and -.429, respectively, Prunning performance. These findings suggest that longer AT, especially GM AT , may be advantageous to achieve superior running performance, with better running economy, in endurance runners. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Sports-related flow limitations in the iliac arteries in endurance athletes : aetiology, diagnosis, treatment and future developments

    Bender, M.H.M.; Schep, G.; Vries, de W.R.; Hoogeveen, A.R.; Wijn, P.F.F.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately one in five top-level cyclists will develop sports-related flow limitations in the iliac arteries. These flow limitations may be caused by a vascular lumen narrowing due to endofibrotic thickening of the intima and/or by kinking of the vessels. In some athletes, extreme vessel length

  11. Exercise-Induced Immunodepression in Endurance Athletes and Nutritional Intervention with Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat — What Is Possible, What Is Not?

    Elisabeth Pail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavily exercising endurance athletes experience extreme physiologic stress, which is associated with temporary immunodepression and higher risk of infection, particularly upper respiratory tract infections (URTI. The aim of this review is to provide a critical up-to-date review of existing evidence on the immunomodulatory potential of selected macronutrients and to evaluate their efficacy. The results of 66 placebo-controlled and/or crossover trials were compared and analysed. Among macronutrients, the most effective approach to maintain immune function in athletes is to consume ≥6% carbohydrate during prolonged exercise. Because inadequate nutrition affects almost all aspects of the immune system, a well-balanced diet is also important. Evidence of beneficial effects from other macronutrients is scarce and results are often inconsistent. Using a single nutrient may not be as effective as a mixture of several nutritional supplements. Due to limited research evidence, with the exception of carbohydrate, no explicit recommendations to reduce post-exercise URTI symptoms with single macronutrients can be derived.

  12. Decrease in Ionized and Total Magnesium Blood Concentrations in Endurance Athletes Following an Exercise Bout Restores within Hours-Potential Consequences for Monitoring and Supplementation.

    Terink, Rieneke; Balvers, Michiel G J; Hopman, Maria T; Witkamp, Renger F; Mensink, Marco; Gunnewiek, Jacqueline M T Klein

    2017-06-01

    Magnesium is essential for optimal sport performance, generating an interest to monitor its status in athletes. However, before measuring magnesium status in blood could become routine, more insight into its diurnal fluctuations and effects of exercise itself is necessary. Therefore, we measured the effect of an acute bout of exercise on ionized (iMg) and total plasma magnesium (tMg) in blood obtained from 18 healthy well-trained endurance athletes (age, 31.1 ± 8.1 yr.; VO 2max , 50.9 ± 7.5 ml/kg/min) at multiple time points, and compared this with a resting situation. At both days, 7 blood samples were taken at set time points (8:30 fasted, 11:00, 12:30, 13:30, 15:00, 16:00, 18:30). The control day was included to correct for a putative diurnal fluctuation of magnesium. During the exercise day, athletes performed a 90 min bicycle ergometer test (70% VO 2max ) between 11:00 and 12:30. Whole blood samples were analyzed for iMg and plasma for tMg concentrations. Both concentrations decreased significantly after exercise (0.52 ± 0.04-0.45 ± 0.03 mmol/L and 0.81 ± 0.07-0.73 ± 0.06 mmol/L, respectively, p exercise. These findings suggest that timing of blood sampling to analyze Mg status is important. Additional research is needed to establish the recovery time after different types of exercise to come to a general advice regarding the timing of magnesium status assessment in practice.

  13. Ecological validity and reliability of an age-adapted endurance field test in young male soccer players

    Castagna, Carlo; Krustrup, Peter; D'Ottavio, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and the association with relevant match activities (ecological validity) of an age-adapted field test for intermittent high-intensity endurance known as Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children test (YYIR1C) in young male soccer players......-intensity metabolic power (r=0.46) distances. Match total distance was largely associated with YYIR1C (r=0.30). The results of this study showed that YYIR1C may be considered a valid and reliable field test for assessing intermittent high-intensity endurance in young male soccer players. Due to the relevance...... performance showed an excellent relative (ICC=0.94) and a good absolute reliability (TEM as %CV=5.1%). Very large and significant associations were found between YYIR1C performance and match high-intensity activity (r=0.53). Large correlations were found between YYIR1C and match sprinting (r=0.42) and high...

  14. Associations Between Balance and Muscle Strength, Power Performance in Male Youth Athletes of Different Maturity Status.

    Hammami, Raouf; Chaouachi, Anis; Makhlouf, Issam; Granacher, Urs; Behm, David G

    2016-11-01

    Balance, strength and power relationships may contain important information at various maturational stages to determine training priorities. The objective was to examine maturity-specific relationships of static/dynamic balance with strength and power measures in young male athletes. Soccer players (N = 130) aged 10-16 were assessed with the Stork and Y balance (YBT) tests. Strength/power measures included back extensor muscle strength, standing long jump (SLJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and 3-hop jump tests. Associations between balance with strength/power variables were calculated according to peak-height-velocity (PHV). There were significant medium-large sized correlations between all balance measures with back extensor strength (r = .486-.791) and large associations with power (r = .511-.827). These correlation coefficients were significantly different between pre-PHV and circa PHV as well as pre-PHV and post-PHV with larger associations in the more mature groups. Irrespective of maturity-status, SLJ was the best strength/power predictor with the highest proportion of variance (12-47%) for balance (i.e., Stork eyes opened) and the YBT was the best balance predictor with the highest proportion of variance (43-78%) for all strength/power variables. The associations between balance and muscle strength/power measures in youth athletes that increase with maturity may imply transfer effects from balance to strength/power training and vice versa in youth athletes.

  15. Spectral Parameters of HRV In Yoga Practitioners, Athletes And Sedentary Males.

    Peter, Rosemary; Sood, Sushma; Dhawan, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Exercise is considered an acceptable method for improving and maintaining physical and emotional health. Although yoga is historically a spiritual discipline, a growing body of evidence supports the belief that yoga benefits physical and mental health. The objective of this study was to evaluate heart rate variability which reflects autonomic control of heart among yoga practitioners, athletes and individuals with sedentary lifestyle. The study was carried out in the departments of physiology at MAMC Agroha, Hisar and Pt. BD Sharma PGIMS Rohtak, Haryana. The study group comprised of 1200 healthy male volunteers of 16 to 55 years of age. The study group was divided into four age groups: Group A of age 16 to 25 years; Group B of age 26 to 35 years; Group C of age 36 to 45 years and Group D of age 46 to 55 years. All age groups were further divided into three categories i.e athlete (runner), yoga (yoga practitioners) and sedentary in which individuals with sedentary life style were included. The basal recording of ECG in lead II was done for 5 minutes. The Polyrite-D ECG data was used for analysis of heart rate variability by frequency domain method. Two spectral components were recorded namely high frequency (HF) component (0.15-0.4 Hz), an indicator of vagal efferent activity and low frequency (LF) component (0.04-.15 Hz), replicator of composite sympatho-vagal interplay. HF component in normalized unit was found significantly high in age group B and C in yoga practitioners and athletes as compared to sedentary individuals and in age group D significantly high in yoga practitioners as compared to athletes and sedentary individuals. Significantly decreased LF/HF ratio was found in age group B and C in yoga and athlete subjects as compared to sedentary individuals and in age group D in yoga practitioners as compared to athletes and sedentary individuals. This indicates that

  16. Using hegemonic masculinity to explain gay male attraction to muscular and athletic men.

    Lanzieri, Nicholas; Hildebrandt, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews relevant research on male homosexual attraction. Utilizing masculinity as its theoretical frame, the authors use childhood experiences with both fathers and peers, the gay community's inculcation of heteronormative ideologies, and the gay media's adherence to masculine prototypes, to provide causal explanations for the appeal of muscular, lean, and athletic physiques. While the authors acknowledge that not all individuals within the gay community look toward muscularity and athleticism as the primary components of attractiveness, it nonetheless remains important to examine the theoretical perspectives that may explain the appeal of this specific aesthetic.

  17. Proximal Tibial Epiphysis Fracture in a 13-Year-Old Male Athlete

    Ioannis M. Stavrakakis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractures of the proximal epiphysis of the tibia are rare, representing 0.5 to 3.0% of all epiphyseal injuries. These injuries can damage the popliteal vessels and their bifurcation, affecting the blood supply of the lower limb, as well as the nerves below the knee. Epiphyseal growth arrest is also a potential complication, leading to various angular deformities. We present a case of a 13-year-old male athlete with a posteriorly displaced Salter-Harris type II fracture of the proximal epiphysis of the left tibia who was treated conservatively with closed reduction and cast immobilization.

  18. Myocardial response to a triathlon in male athletes evaluated by Doppler tissue imaging and biochemical parameters

    Leetmaa, T H; Dam, A; Glintborg, D

    2008-01-01

    (cTnT) and pro-brain natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP)] and echocardiography. Conventional echocardiography techniques and new Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) modalities were applied before and immediately after the competition. Blood samples were drawn 1 week before, immediately after and 12-24 h post...... and systolic velocities decreased, thus suggesting reversible cardiac fatigue. When using cardiac markers and echocardiographic findings, a triathlon was found to have no significant negative effects on left ventricular function or myocardial tissue in male athletes....

  19. Exercise addiction risk and health in male and female amateur endurance cyclists.

    Mayolas-Pi, Carmen; Simón-Grima, Javier; Peñarrubia-Lozano, Carlos; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Moliner-Urdiales, Diego; Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims To determine the relationship between the risk of exercise addiction (REA) and health status in amateur endurance cyclists. Methods In 859 (751 men and 108 women) cyclists and 718 inactive subjects (307 men and 411 women), we examined the REA (Exercise Addiction Inventory), training status (volume, frequency, experience, and performance), socioeconomic status, quality of life (QoL) (SF-12), quality of sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and cardiometabolic risk: body mass index, physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire), physical condition (International Fitness Scale), adherence to the Mediterranean diet (Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener), alcohol and tobacco consumption. Results In total, 17% of the cyclists showed evidence of REA and 83% showed low REA. REA occurred independent of age, sex, training, and socioeconomic status (all ps > .05). Regardless of REA, the cyclists displayed a better physical QoL and a lower cardiometabolic risk than the inactive subjects (all ps Addiction × Sex interaction in the other analyzed variables. Conclusion Our results suggest that an increased prevalence of REA limits the benefits that amateur endurance cycling has on mental health and quality of sleep.

  20. Effects of pomegranate juice in circulating parameters, cytokines, and oxidative stress markers in endurance-based athletes: A randomized controlled trial.

    Fuster-Muñoz, E; Roche, E; Funes, L; Martínez-Peinado, P; Sempere, J M; Vicente-Salar, N

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of pomegranate juice on the level of oxidative stress in the blood of endurance-based athletes. Pomegranate juice is rich in polyphenols, conferring it a higher antioxidant capacity than other beverages with polyphenolic antioxidants. A randomized double-blind, multicenter trial was performed in athletes from three different sport clubs located in southeastern of Spain. Plasma oxidative stress markers (protein carbonyls and malondialdehyde [MDA]) as well as C-reactive protein and sE-selectin were measured. Thirty-one athletes participated in the study. Participants were divided into three groups. The first group was supplemented with 200 mL/d pomegranate juice (PJ; n = 10) over a 21-d period, the second with 200 mL/d pomegranate juice diluted 1:1 with water (PJD; n = 11), and a control group that did not consume pomegranate juice (C; n = 10). Nine athletes were excluded due to protocol violations (n = 4 in the PJ group and n = 5 in the PJD group) because they did not observe the 24 h of rest before the last blood test. The control group increased levels of carbonyls (+0.7 ± 0.3 nmols/mg protein) and MDA (+3.2 ± 1.0 nmols/g protein), whereas the PJ and PJD groups maintained or decreased their levels, respectively. On the other hand, lactate levels increased in the PJ group (from 10.3 at day 0 to 21.2 mg/dL at day 22). A nonsignificant decrease was detected in sE-selectin and C-reactive protein in the groups consuming pomegranate juice. Consumption of pomegranate juice over a 21-d period improved MDA levels and carbonyls, and thus decreased the oxidative damage caused by exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ‘The engine just started coughing!’ – Exploring endurance athletes’ experience of aging

    Ronkainen, Noora; Ryba, Tatiana; Nesti, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This research examines male endurance athletes’ experience of aging and/or reaching the limits of athletic development. More specifically, the current study aimed to explore how meanings attached to these experiences are connected with athletes’ career decision-making and possible athletic...... retirement. Within athletic career research, aging is conceptualized as a normative factor of athletic retirement and it is related to the discontinuation of competitive sport involvement. The dominant cultural narrative of aging in most Western societies is one of decline and loss of control over...

  2. "I will change the world": The Intersection of Social Change and Male College Athletes' Leadership Perspectives.

    Fuller, Rhema D; Harrison, C Keith; Lawrence, S Malia; Eyanson, Jeff; McArdle, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    Historically, men have been characterized as task-oriented leaders who are motivated by desires for autonomy, wealth, and power (17, 33). However, these "masculine" views of leadership might not accurately capture the leadership motivations of Millennial males as the views were developed in previous generations (4). Given the commitment of many Millennials towards socially responsible attitudes and behaviors (18, 25), we utilized a qualitative research design to examine the influence of social change on the leadership motivations of Millennial male intercollegiate athletes. In doing so, we found participants were motivated to lead in order to affect social change within their communities and within society. Our findings indicate a new perspective, one which includes a commitment to social change, is potentially needed when discussing "masculine" views of leadership.

  3. Tocotrienols and Whey Protein Isolates Substantially Increase Exercise Endurance Capacity in Diet -Induced Obese Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Aguila, Jay; McConell, Glenn K.; McAinch, Andrew J.; Mathai, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Obesity and impairments in metabolic health are associated with reductions in exercise capacity. Both whey protein isolates (WPIs) and vitamin E tocotrienols (TCTs) exert favorable effects on obesity-related metabolic parameters. This research sought to determine whether these supplements improved exercise capacity and increased glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese rats. Methods Six week old male rats (n = 35) weighing 187 ± 32g were allocated to either: Control (n = 9), TCT (n = 9), WPI (n = 8) or TCT + WPI (n = 9) and placed on a high-fat diet (40% of energy from fat) for 10 weeks. Animals received 50mg/kg body weight and 8% of total energy intake per day of TCTs and/or WPIs respectively. Food intake, body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, exercise capacity, skeletal muscle glycogen content and oxidative enzyme activity were determined. Results Both TCT and WPI groups ran >50% longer (2271 ± 185m and 2195 ± 265m respectively) than the Control group (1428 ± 139m) during the run to exhaustion test (Pexercise endurance (2068 ± 104m). WPIs increased the maximum in vitro activity of beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA in the soleus muscle (Pexercise endurance by 50% in sedentary, diet-induced obese rats. These positive effects of TCTs and WPIs were independent of body weight, adiposity or glucose tolerance. PMID:27058737

  4. Wives' Relative Income Production and Household Male Dominance: Examining Violence among Asian American Enduring Couples

    Chung, Grace H.; Tucker, M. Belinda; Takeuchi, David

    2008-01-01

    This study integrates relative resource theory and cultural perspectives on husband-to-wife authority to examine male-to-female physical violence reported by Asian American wives in the National Latino and Asian American Survey. Findings indicated that the association between marital violence and male household dominance is complicated by women's…

  5. Biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics of male athletes: implications for the development of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs.

    Sugimoto, Dai; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Mendiguchía, Jurdan; Samuelsson, Kristian; Karlsson, Jon; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is likely the most effective strategy to reduce undesired health consequences including reconstruction surgery, long-term rehabilitation, and pre-mature osteoarthritis occurrence. A thorough understanding of mechanisms and risk factors of ACL injury is crucial to develop effective prevention programs, especially for biomechanical and neuromuscular modifiable risk factors. Historically, the available evidence regarding ACL risk factors has mainly involved female athletes or has compared male and female athletes without an intra-group comparison for male athletes. Therefore, the principal purpose of this article was to review existing evidence regarding the investigation of biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics that may imply aberrant knee kinematics and kinetics that would place the male athlete at risk of ACL injury. Biomechanical evidence related to knee kinematics and kinetics was reviewed by different planes (sagittal and frontal/coronal), tasks (single-leg landing and cutting), situation (anticipated and unanticipated), foot positioning, playing surface, and fatigued status. Neuromuscular evidence potentially related to ACL injury was reviewed. Recommendations for prevention programs for ACL injuries in male athletes were developed based on the synthesis of the biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics. The recommendations suggest performing exercises with multi-plane biomechanical components including single-leg maneuvers in dynamic movements, reaction to and decision making in unexpected situations, appropriate foot positioning, and consideration of playing surface condition, as well as enhancing neuromuscular aspects such as fatigue, proprioception, muscle activation, and inter-joint coordination.

  6. Using military friendships to optimize postdeployment reintegration for male Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans.

    Hinojosa, Ramon; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna

    2011-01-01

    Social relationships are important to health out comes. The postdeployment family reintegration literature focuses on the role of the civilian family in facilitating the transition from Active Duty military deployment to civilian society. The focus on the civilian family relationship may miss other important personal connections in veterans' lives. One such connection is the relationship many veterans have with former military unit members who served with them when deployed. Drawing on interviews with male Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans conducted from 2008 to 2009, we argue that the members of a military unit, especially during armed conflict, should be considered a resource to help the "family" reintegration process rather than impede it. This research has implications for current reintegration policy and how best to assist veterans transitioning into civilian society.

  7. Validation of a blood marker for plasma volume in endurance athletes during a live-high train-low altitude training camp.

    Lobigs, Louisa M; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Vuong, Victor L; Tee, Nicolin; Gore, Christopher J; Peeling, Peter; Dawson, Brian; Schumacher, Yorck O

    2018-02-19

    Altitude is a confounding factor within the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) due, in part, to the plasma volume (PV) response to hypoxia. Here, a newly developed PV blood test is applied to assess the possible efficacy of reducing the influence of PV on the volumetric ABP markers; haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and the OFF-score. Endurance athletes (n=34) completed a 21-night simulated live-high train-low (LHTL) protocol (14 h.d -1 at 3000 m). Bloods were collected twice pre-altitude; at days 3, 8, and 15 at altitude; and 1, 7, 21, and 42 days post-altitude. A full blood count was performed on the whole blood sample. Serum was analysed for transferrin, albumin, calcium, creatinine, total protein, and low-density lipoprotein. The PV blood test (consisting of the serum markers, [Hb] and platelets) was applied to the ABP adaptive model and new reference predictions were calculated for [Hb] and the OFF-score, thereby reducing the PV variance component. The PV correction refined the ABP reference predictions. The number of atypical passport findings (ATPFs) for [Hb] was reduced from 7 of 5 subjects to 6 of 3 subjects. The OFF-score ATPFs increased with the PV correction (from 9 to 13, 99% specificity); most likely the result of more specific reference limit predictions combined with the altitude-induced increase in red cell production. Importantly, all abnormal biomarker values were identified by a low confidence value. Although the multifaceted, individual physiological response to altitude confounded some results, the PV model appears capable of reducing the impact of PV fluctuations on [Hb]. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback on EEG Alpha Asymmetry and Anxiety Symptoms in Male Athletes: A Pilot Study.

    Dziembowska, Inga; Izdebski, Paweł; Rasmus, Anna; Brudny, Janina; Grzelczak, Marta; Cysewski, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BFB) has been shown as useful tool to manage stress in various populations. The present study was designed to investigate whether the biofeedback-based stress management tool consisting of rhythmic breathing, actively self-generated positive emotions and a portable biofeedback device induce changes in athletes' HRV, EEG patterns, and self-reported anxiety and self-esteem. The study involved 41 healthy male athletes, aged 16-21 (mean 18.34 ± 1.36) years. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: biofeedback and control. Athletes in the biofeedback group received HRV biofeedback training, athletes in the control group didn't receive any intervention. During the randomized controlled trial (days 0-21), the mean anxiety score declined significantly for the intervention group (change-4 p athletes in biofeedback group showed substantial and statistically significant improvement in heart rate variability indices and changes in power spectra of both theta and alpha brain waves, and alpha asymmetry. These changes suggest better self-control in the central nervous system and better flexibility of the autonomic nervous system in the group that received biofeedback training. A HRV biofeedback-based stress management tool may be beneficial for stress reduction for young male athletes.

  9. Polymorphisms in ACE and ACTN3 Genes and Blood Pressure Response to Acute Exercise in Elite Male Athletes from Serbia.

    Durmic, Tijana S; Zdravkovic, Marija D; Djelic, Marina N; Gavrilovic, Tamara D; Djordjevic Saranovic, Slavica A; Plavsic, Jadranka N; Mirkovic, Sanja V; Batinic, Djordje V; Antic, Milena N; Mihailovic, Zoran R; Atanasijevic, Nikola G; Mileusnic, Milan J; Stojkovic, Oliver V

    2017-12-01

    Physiological adaptations to various types of prolonged and intensive physical activity, as seen in elite athletes from different sports, include changes in blood pressure (BP) response to acute exercise. Also, functional polymorphisms of the angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) and alfa-actinin-3 (ACTN3) genes are shown to be associated with BP parameters changes, both in athletes and sedentary population. In this study, an Alu insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism in ACE gene, as well as nonsense mutation in the gene encoding ACTN3 have been scored in 107 elite Serbian athletes classified according to their sporting discipline to power/sprint (short distance runners/swimmers), endurance (rowers, footballers, middle-distance swimmers) or mixed sports (water polo, handball, volleyball players). Presence of nonfunctional allele in ACTN3 is associated with significantly increased maximal systolic BP (SBPmax, p = 0.04). Athletes with Alu insertion in ACE had significantly (p = 0.006) larger decline of systolic BP after 3 minutes of recovery (SBPR3), calculated as the percentage of maximal SBP response during exercise stress testing. Concomitant presence of non-functional variant in ACTN3 gene decreased this beneficiary effect of ACE mutation on SBPR3. Long term enrollment in power/sprint sports significantly increased resting diastolic BP (DBPrest: 74 mmHg) and SBPmax (197 mmHg) and improved SBPR3 (74.8%) compared to enrolment in endurance (72 mmHg; 178 mmHg; 81.1%) and mixed sports (69 mmHg; 185 mmHg; 80.0%). Lack of the effect of genotype by sport interaction on BP parameters suggests that the long-term effects of different disciplines on BP are not mediated by these two genes.

  10. Static versus dynamic stretching: Chronic and acute effects on Agility performance in male athletes

    Iman Taleb-Beydokhti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the acute and chronic effects of static & dynamic stretching protocols on agility performance in amateur handball players. Twelve male amateur handball players (age: 19.66 ± 4.02 years old, weight: 67.12 ± 8.73 kg, height: 178.29 ± 7.81 cm participated in this study. The athletes were randomly allocated into two groups: static stretching or dynamic stretching. All of them underwent an initial evaluation and were submitted to the first intervention. They were evaluated once again and at the end of 12 training sessions. The results analyzed using ANOVA showed that there was a significant decrease in agility time after dynamic stretching against no stretching in the acute phase; but, there were no significant differences between dynamic stretching and no stretching in the chronic phase. In addition, there was no a significant difference between no stretching and static stretching in the acute phase; while, There was a significant decrease in agility time after no stretching against static stretching in the chronic phase. It was concluded that acute dynamic stretching as part of a warm-up may decrease agility time performance, whereas static stretching seems to increase agility time performance. Consequently, the acute and chronic static stretching should not be performed prior to an explosive athletic performance. Keywords: Handball, Agility, Dynamic stretching, Static stretching

  11. A COMPARISON MENTAL HEALTH, PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS, ANXIETY AND SLEEPING DISORDERS AND DISORDERS IN SOCIAL FUNCTION AMONG MALE AND FEMALE ATHLETES AND NONATHLETES STUDENTS

    Nili Ahmadabady Zahra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to comparison mental health, Physical symptoms, Anxiety and sleeping disorders and Disorders in social function among male and female athletes and non-athletes students. Methods: The target population consisted entirely male of female athletes and non-athletes students in University of Guilan. After translate of standard General Health Questionnaires (GHQ, and adjust of some question, questionnaires were evaluated by professors of faculty of physical education and sport sciences. The reliability guided Cronbach Alpha value of (0.83. Among them 90 male athlete and 90 male non-athlete with mean. The collected data was analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA. Result: There were significant difference mean scores between in four mental health scales, physical symptoms, anxiety and sleep disorders and impaired social functioning athlete and non-athlete in both groups. Conclusion: Therefore, with fewer psychological problems in an athlete, physical activity can be purpose strategies as appropriate, easy and inexpensive to improve mental health among male and female non- athlete students.

  12. Relationship Between Change of Direction, Speed and Power in Male and Female National Olympic Team Handball Athletes.

    Pereira, Lucas A; Nimphius, Sophia; Kobal, Ronaldo; Kitamura, Katia; Turisco, Luiz A L; Orsi, Rita C; Cal Abad, César Cs; Loturco, Irineu

    2018-02-22

    The aims of this study were to (1) assess the relationship between selected speed-power related abilities (determined by 20-m sprint, unloaded countermovement and squat jumps [CMJ and SJ] and loaded jump squat [JS]) and performance in two distinct change of direction (COD) protocols (Zigzag and T-Test), and (2) determine the magnitude of difference between female and male Brazilian National Olympic Team handball athletes. Fifteen male and twenty-three female elite handball athletes volunteered to perform the following assessments: SJ and CMJ; Zigzag and T-Test; 20-m sprint with 5-, 10-, and 20-m splits, and mean propulsive power (MPP) in JS. Pearson product moment correlation (Phandball athletes.

  13. A Mismatch Between Athlete Practice and Current Sports Nutrition Guidelines Among Elite Female and Male Middle- and Long-Distance Athletes.

    Heikura, Ida A; Stellingwerff, Trent; Mero, Antti A; Uusitalo, Arja Leena Tuulia; Burke, Louise M

    2017-08-01

    Contemporary nutrition guidelines promote a variety of periodized and time-sensitive recommendations, but current information regarding the knowledge and practice of these strategies among world-class athletes is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate this theme by implementing a questionnaire on dietary periodization practices in national/international level female (n = 27) and male (n = 21) middle- and long-distance runners/race-walkers. The questionnaire aimed to gain information on between and within-day dietary choices, as well as timing of pre- and posttraining meals and practices of training with low or high carbohydrate (CHO) availability. Data are shown as percentage (%) of all athletes, with differences in responses between subgroups (sex or event) shown as Chi-square x 2 when p nutrition recovery recommendations. However, very few athletes deliberately undertake some contemporary dietary periodization approaches, such as training in the fasted state or periodically restricting CHO intake. This study suggests mismatches between athlete practice and current and developing sports nutrition guidelines.

  14. Difference in kinematical behavior between two landing tasks in male volleyball athletes

    Glauber Ribeiro Pereira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries are common in sports. Studies investigating injury mechanisms have demonstrated that most injuries arise from landing tasks. Despite the demonstration of differences between male and female kinematics, there are no studies showing how males behave during different landing tasks. The objective of this study was to compare the angular and temporal kinematics of the lower limbs between two different landing tasks. Double leg and single leg landings were recorded in the frontal and sagittal plane in 15 male volleyball athletes by videogrammetry. Reduced hip and knee flexion and increased knee valgus were observed in the single leg landing task compared to the double leg landing task. No significant difference in landing time was observed between the two tasks. In conclusion, the results support the premise that lower limb kinematics change according to the task performed. Further studies are necessary to explore the impact of these kinematic differences on knee loading and to relate them to ACL injury mechanisms in men.

  15. Effect of a Protein Supplement on the Gut Microbiota of Endurance Athletes: A Randomized, Controlled, Double-Blind Pilot Study

    Diego Moreno-Pérez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional supplements are popular among athletes to improve performance and physical recovery. Protein supplements fulfill this function by improving performance and increasing muscle mass; however, their effect on other organs or systems is less well known. Diet alterations can induce gut microbiota imbalance, with beneficial or deleterious consequences for the host. To test this, we performed a randomized pilot study in cross-country runners whose diets were complemented with a protein supplement (whey isolate and beef hydrolysate (n = 12 or maltodextrin (control (n = 12 for 10 weeks. Microbiota, water content, pH, ammonia, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs were analyzed in fecal samples, whereas malondialdehyde levels (oxidative stress marker were determined in plasma and urine. Fecal pH, water content, ammonia, and SCFA concentrations did not change, indicating that protein supplementation did not increase the presence of these fermentation-derived metabolites. Similarly, it had no impact on plasma or urine malondialdehyde levels; however, it increased the abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum and decreased the presence of health-related taxa including Roseburia, Blautia, and Bifidobacterium longum. Thus, long-term protein supplementation may have a negative impact on gut microbiota. Further research is needed to establish the impact of protein supplements on gut microbiota.

  16. Understanding Black Male Student Athletes' Experiences at a Historically Black College/University: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Cooper, Joseph N.; Hall, Jori

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how a mixed methods approach was employed to acquire a better understanding of Black male student athletes' experiences at a historically Black college/university in the southeastern United States. A concurrent triangulation design was incorporated to allow different data sources to be collected and…

  17. Reading the Defense: Conceptualizations of Literacy by Male Football Student-Athletes

    Segal, Pamela H.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how college football student-athletes conceptualize the academic and athletic literacies they experience inside and outside the classroom. Participants included sophomore, junior, and senior football student-athletes who all attended a large public university in the Mid-Atlantic area. Three distinct research tools…

  18. Physiological Changes Following Competition in Male and Female Physique Athletes: A Pilot Study.

    Trexler, Eric T; Hirsch, Katie R; Campbell, Bill I; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate changes in body composition, metabolic rate, and hormones during postcompetition recovery. Data were collected from natural physique athletes (7 male/8 female) within one week before (T1) competition, within one week after (T2), and 4-6 weeks after (T3) competition. Measures included body composition (fat mass [FM] and lean mass [LM] from ultrasongraphy), resting metabolic rate (RMR; indirect calorimetry), and salivary leptin, testosterone, cortisol, ghrelin, and insulin. Total body water (TBW; bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy) was measured at T1 and T2 in a subsample (n = 8) of athletes. Significant (p T2 > T1), LM (T1 = 57.6 ± 13.9 kg, T2 = 59.4 ± 14.2, T3 = 59.3 ± 14.2; T2 and T3 > T1), and FM (T1 = 7.7 ± 4.4 kg, T2 = 8.0 ± 4.4, T3 = 10.0 ± 6.2; T3 > T1 and T2). TBW increased from T1 to T2 (Δ=1.9 ± 1.3 L, p < .01). RMR increased from baseline (1612 ± 266 kcal/day; 92.0% of predicted) to T2 (1881 ± 329, 105.3%; p < .01) and T3 (1778 ± 257, 99.6%; p < .001). Cortisol was higher (p < .05) at T2 (0.41 ± 0.31 μg/dL) than T1 (0.34 ± 0.31) and T3 (0.35 ± 0.27). Male testosterone at T3 (186.6 ± 41.3 pg/mL) was greater than T2 (148.0 ± 44.6, p = .04). RMR changes were associated (p ≤ .05) with change in body fat percent (ΔBF%; r = .59) and T3 protein intake (r= .60); male testosterone changes were inversely associated (p≤ .05) with ΔBF%, ΔFM, and Δweight (r=-0.81--0.88). TBW increased within days of competition. Precompetition RMR suppression appeared to be variable and markedly reversed by overfeeding, and reverted toward normal levels following competition. RMR and male testosterone increased while FM was preferentially gained 4-6 weeks postcompetition.

  19. The Effect of Hand Dimensions, Hand Shape and Some Anthropometric Characteristics on Handgrip Strength in Male Grip Athletes and Non-Athletes

    Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Jadidian, Ali Akbar

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that athletes with longer fingers and larger hand surfaces enjoy stronger grip power. Therefore, some researchers have examined a number of factors and anthropometric variables that explain this issue. To our knowledge, the data is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hand dimensions, hand shape and some anthropometric characteristics on handgrip strength in male grip athletes and non-athletes. 80 subjects aged between 19 and 29 participated in this study in two groups including: national and collegian grip athletes (n=40), and non-athletes (n=40). Body height and mass were measured to calculate body mass index. The shape of the dominant hand was drawn on a piece of paper with a thin marker so that finger spans, finger lengths, and perimeters of the hand could be measured. The hand shape was estimated as the ratio of the hand width to hand length. Handgrip strength was measured in the dominant and non-dominant hand using a standard dynamometer. Descriptive statistics were used for each variable and independent t test was used to analyze the differences between the two groups. The Pearson correlation coefficient test was used to evaluate the correlation between studied variables. Also, to predict important variables in handgrip strength, the linear trend was assessed using a linear regression analysis. There was a significant difference between the two groups in absolute handgrip strength (p0.05) were significantly different between the groups (ptalent identification in handgrip-related sports and in clinical settings as well. PMID:23486361

  20. Eating disorder pathology in elite adolescent athletes.

    Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Hermann-Werner, Anne; Mayer, Jochen; Diehl, Katharina; Schneider, Sven; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate eating disorder pathology in German elite adolescent athletes. Evidence suggests that eating disorder pathology is more common in adult elite sports, especially in female athletes and in sports emphasizing leanness. There is a scarcity of studies in elite adolescent athletes who are in a vulnerable developmental stage and are affected by general as well as sport-specific risk factors. Our data was derived from the German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL) which conducted a survey in 1138 elite adolescent athletes. In this sample, we assessed body weight, weight control behavior, body acceptance and screened overall for core symptoms of eating disorders, depression and anxiety. We performed a tree analysis to identify high risk groups for eating disorder pathology. High risk groups comprised (a) athletes competing in weight dependent sports, and among athletes competing in disciplines other than weight dependent sports (b) athletes who are high on negative affectivity, (c) female athletes and (d) male athletes competing in endurance, technical or power sports. Athletes competing in weight dependent disciplines reported wide spread use of compensatory behaviors to influence body weight. Athletes reporting eating disorder pathology showed higher levels of depression and anxiety than athletes without eating disorder pathology. Increased psychosocial burden in athletes with eating disorder pathology suggests that eating disorder symptoms should not be accepted as an unproblematic and functional part of elite sports. The prevention and management of eating disorder pathology is especially important in weight dependent sports. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:553-562). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Frequency of exercise-induced ST-T-segment deviations and cardiac arrhythmias in recreational endurance athletes during a marathon race: results of the prospective observational Berlin Beat of Running study.

    Herm, Juliane; Töpper, Agnieszka; Wutzler, Alexander; Kunze, Claudia; Krüll, Matthias; Brechtel, Lars; Lock, Jürgen; Fiebach, Jochen B; Heuschmann, Peter U; Haverkamp, Wilhelm; Endres, Matthias; Jungehulsing, Gerhard Jan; Haeusler, Karl Georg

    2017-08-03

    While regular physical exercise has many health benefits, strenuous physical exercise may have a negative impact on cardiac function. The 'Berlin Beat of Running' study focused on feasibility and diagnostic value of continuous ECG monitoring in recreational endurance athletes during a marathon race. We hypothesised that cardiac arrhythmias and especially atrial fibrillation are frequently found in a cohort of recreational endurance athletes. The main secondary hypothesis was that pathological laboratory findings in these athletes are (in part) associated with cardiac arrhythmias. Prospective observational cohort study including healthy volunteers. One hundred and nine experienced marathon runners wore a portable ECG recorder during a marathon race in Berlin, Germany. Athletes underwent blood tests 2-3 days prior, directly after and 1-2 days after the race. Overall, 108 athletes (median 48 years (IQR 45-53), 24% women) completed the marathon in 249±43 min. Blinded ECG analysis revealed abnormal findings during the marathon in 18 (16.8%) athletes. Ten (9.3%) athletes had at least one episode of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, one of whom had atrial fibrillation; eight (7.5%) individuals showed transient ST-T-segment deviations. Abnormal ECG findings were associated with advanced age (OR 1.11 per year, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.23), while sex and cardiovascular risk profile had no impact. Directly after the race, high-sensitive troponin T was elevated in 18 (16.7%) athletes and associated with ST-T-segment deviation (OR 9.9, 95% CI 1.9 to 51.5), while age, sex and cardiovascular risk profile had no impact. ECG monitoring during a marathon is feasible. Abnormal ECG findings were present in every sixth athlete. Exercise-induced transient ST-T-segment deviations were associated with elevated high-sensitive troponin T (hsTnT) values. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01428778; Results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  2. Performance of high school male athletes on the Functional Movement Screen™.

    Smith, Laura J; Creps, James R; Bean, Ryan; Rodda, Becky; Alsalaheen, Bara

    2017-09-01

    (1) Describe the performance of the Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) by reporting the proportion of adolescents with a score of ≤14 and the frequency of asymmetries in a cross-sectional sample; (2) explore associations between FMS™ to age and body mass, and explore the construct validity of the FMS™ against common postural stability measures; (3) examine the inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the FMS™ in adolescents. Cross-sectional. Field-setting. 94 male high-school athletes. The FMS™, Y-Balance Test (YBT) and Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). The median FMS™ composite score was 16 (9-21), 33% of participants scored below the suggested injury risk cutoff composite score of ≤14, and 62.8% had at least one asymmetry. No relationship was observed between the FMS™ to common static/dynamic balance tests. The inter-rater reliability of the FMS™ composite score suggested good reliability (ICC = 0.88, CI 95%:0.77, 0.94) and test-retest reliability for FMS™ composite scores was good with ICC = 0.83 (CI 95%:0.56, 0.95). FMS™ results should be interpreted cautiously with attention to the asymmetries identified during the screen, regardless of composite score. The lack of relationship between the FMS™ and other balance measures supports the notion that multiple screening tests should be used in order to provide a comprehensive picture of the adolescent athlete. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of 8 weeks of endurance training on hypothalamic Nesfatin-1 gene expression and its concentration in male rats

    Abbas Ghanbari Niaki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypothalamus is mentioned as the major center of appetite and energy balance. Physical activity and the exersice are able to disturb the energy balance to negative. Nesfatin-1 is a regulating neuropeptide that is produced by hypothalamus and has an important role in establishing energy balance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of endurance training regimen on nesfatin-1 gene expression and its concentration in the male rat hypothalamus. Materials and Methods: Eleven adult wistar male rats (8-10 week old, 130-145g assigned into control(C, n=5 and training (E, n=6 groups. Training group was given exercise on a motor-driven treadmill (20m/min, 0% grade, 60 min/session, 5days/week for 8 weeks. Rats were sacrificed 72h after the last training session and then the hypothalamus tissue was excised for determination of nesfatin-1 gene expression and its concentration by RT-PCR & ELIZA methods, respectively. Four hours before the experiment the food not tap water was removed from the animal cages. Data was analyzed by using an independent t-student test. Results: The current results indicated that the levels of nesfatin-1 gene expression and its concentration, ATP, and glycogen concentrations were non-significantly lower in trained group when compared with control group. Conclusion: This research showed for the first time, that a low-intensity exercises, decreases nesfatin-1 expression and concentration in the hypothalamus, which accompanied insignificant reduction in energy source. It seems that in the present research, the exercise has had the same fasting and being hungry like effect on nesfatin-1 expression and concentration in the hypothalamus.

  4. Differences in adolescent relationship abuse perpetration and gender-inequitable attitudes by sport among male high school athletes.

    McCauley, Heather L; Jaime, Maria Catrina D; Tancredi, Daniel J; Silverman, Jay G; Decker, Michele R; Austin, S Bryn; Jones, Kelley; Miller, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    School-based athletic programs remain an important context for violence prevention efforts although a better understanding of how gender attitudes and abuse perpetration differ among athletes is needed. We analyzed baseline survey data from the "Coaching Boys into Men" study-a school-based cluster-randomized trial in 16 high schools in Northern California. We describe relationships among gender-inequitable attitudes, sport type, and recent adolescent relationship abuse perpetration among a sample of male athletes (n = 1,648). Gender-inequitable attitudes (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.56, 4.15), participation in both high school football and basketball (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.37, 3.18), and participation in football only (AOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.02, 2.22) emerged as independently associated with recent ARA perpetration. Findings warrant targeted violence prevention efforts among male high school athletes that incorporate discussions of gender attitudes and healthy relationships, especially among sports teams at greater risk of adolescent relationship abuse perpetration. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison o f Level of Anger between Male and Female Athletes Took Part in Eliminations for Adults Taekwondo National Team

    Muammer CANBAZ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the level of anger of the athletes taking part in A dults N at ional T eam eliminations. The sample group consists of 52 female s , 115 male s , total ly 167 elite athletes took part in the eliminations . The average of age for female s was 20 , 38 , and 20, 99 for male s . In order to identify the level, Spielberg ’s fou r - dimensional Sc hedule whose validity and reliability for our country was adapted to by Özer in 1994, developed by S pielberg in 1983 was used. As a result of analysis made, no outstanding difference of anger level was found between males and females in te rms of permanent anger factor (p=0, 579; similarly no significant difference was discovered in respect to sub factor of anger - out (p=0,315. Also in analysis of anger - in (p=0.673 and anger - out (p=0.290 sub scales, important difference wasn’t pointed out b etween male and female athletes.

  6. Impact of sepak takraw practice on inflammatory markers in male athletes

    Supaporn Silalertdetkul

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of sepak takraw practice on interleukin-6 and creatine kinase concentrations. Twelve male sepak takraw athletes participated in this research. A cross-over design was created consisting of sepak takraw practice and resting trials. Venous blood samples were taken before, immediately after, and one hour after either control or sepak takraw practice trials. Serum interleukin-6 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Creatine kinase, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations were assessed by using enzymatic colorimetric methods. Data was analyzed using two way repeated measures of ANOVA and a paired t-tests. Interleukin-6 and creatine kinase concentrations were increased significantly immediately after and one hour following sepak takraw practice. However, there was no alteration in circulating glucose, triglyceride, and glycogen concentrations. In conclusion, sepak takraw practice contributes to an increase in circulating interleukin-6 and creatine kinase concentrations.Intensity and duration of the practice should be a consideration.

  7. The Effect of Plyometric Training Volume on Athletic Performance in Prepubertal Male Soccer Players.

    Chaabene, Helmi; Negra, Yassine

    2017-10-01

    To assess and compare the effects of 8 wk of in-season (2 sessions/wk) low- and high-volume plyometric training (PT) on measures of physical fitness in prepubertal male soccer players. A total of 25 soccer players were randomly assigned to a low-volume PT group (LPT; n = 13, age 12.68 ± 0.23 y, age at peak height velocity [APHV] 14.25 ± 0.29 y, maturity offset -1.57 ± 0.29 y) or a high-volume PT group (HPT; n = 12, age 12.72 ± 0.27 y, APHV 14.33 ± 0.77 y, maturity offset -1.61 ± 0.76 y). A linear-sprint test (5-m, 10-m, 20-m, and 30-m), change-of-direction (CoD) test, and vertical- (squat-jump [SJ]), countermovement- (CMJ), and horizontal-jump (standing long jump [SLJ]) test were carried out before and after 8 wk of PT. There was a significant main effect of time for sprint outcomes (5-m, P = .005, ES = 0.86; 10-m, P = .006, ES = 0.85; 20-m, P = .03, ES = 0.64, and 30-m, P = .05, ES = 0.57), CoD (P = .002, ES = 0.96), SJ (P = .008, ES = 0.81; CMJ, P = .01, ES = 0.73), and SLJ ability (P = .007, ES = 0.83). There were no significant training group × time interactions in any measured outcomes. After 8 wk of training, results showed similar performance improvement on measures of sprint time, CoD, and jumping ability between LPT and HPT groups. From a time-efficiency perspective, it is recommended to use LPT in prepubertal male soccer players to improve their proxies of athletic performance.

  8. EFFECT OF WOBBLE BOARD BALANCE TRAINING PROGRAM ON STATIC BALANCE, DYNAMIC BALANCE & TRIPLE HOP DISTANCE IN MALE COLLEGIATE BASKETBALL ATHLETE

    Neeraj Panwar, MPT (Sports); Gaurav Kadyan, MPT (Sports); Aseem Gupta, MPT (Sports); Ravinder Narwal, MPT (Ortho,Cardiopulmonary)

    2014-01-01

    Aim & Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of wobble board balance training program on static & dynamic balance & on triple hop distance in male collegiate basketball athletes. Methodology: Fifty healthy basketball players within a age group of 18-22 yrs. were randomly selected with a baseline BESS score between 6 to 14 & modified SEBT score equal to or greater than 94 (till 100) and they randomly divided into control (n-25) & training group (n-25).The training grou...

  9. Self-reported infertility among male and female veterans serving during Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    Katon, Jodie; Cypel, Yasmin; Raza, Mubashra; Zephyrin, Laurie; Reiber, Gayle; Yano, Elizabeth M; Barth, Shannon; Schneiderman, Aaron

    2014-02-01

    Infertility is associated with psychosocial distress and is a growing public health concern. Our objective was to report the prevalence of lifetime history of infertility among men and women Veterans. We used data from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs National Health Study for a New Generation of U.S. Veterans, a nationally representative survey of Veterans serving during Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). The primary dependent variables were self-reported lifetime history of infertility among Veterans and their partners, defined as trying unsuccessfully to become pregnant for at least 12 months, and seeking medical help for infertility. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine whether gender was associated with lifetime history of infertility or seeking medical help for infertility, after adjusting for sociodemographic and military characteristics. All analyses were weighted to account for the complex survey design and nonresponse. Among the 20,370 Veterans (16,056 men; 4,314 women) in our final analytic sample, the prevalence of lifetime history of infertility was 15.8% for women and 13.8% for men. After adjusting for age, ever married, education, race/ethnicity, component, branch of service, and deployment to OEF/OIF, compared with men, women Veterans had similar odds of lifetime history of infertility (odds ratio [OR] 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94, 1.20), but increased odds of seeking medical help for infertility (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.06, 1.72). Women Veterans are more likely than their male counterparts to seek care for infertility, and given their increasing numbers, the demand for infertility evaluation and care within Veterans' Affairs may increase.

  10. The Effects of 6 Weeks of Endurance Training and Consumption of Different Doses of Boldenone on Hematological Factors and Spleen Structure Changes in Male Wistar Rats

    Asieh Abbassi Daloii

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Regardless of how many periods and how long the androgenic-anabolic steroids have been used, they can cause side effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect a 6-week endurance training and using different doses of anabolic steroid boldenone on hematological factors and changes in spleen structure in male Wistar rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 47 male Wistar rats aged 12 weeks, were randomly divided into 7 groups (control, sham, boldenone-1, boldenone-2, endurance training, endurance training+boldenone-1, endurance training+boldenone-2. Increasing endurance training program was performed at the speed of 10-30m/min (Vo2max, 75-80% for 6 weeks and 5 days/week. The drug was injected deeply into the quadriceps and hamstring muscles once a week, on an appointed day. After anesthesia and dissection, the spleen was removed. Finally, the selected microscopic sections, were studied using a light microscope after staining with hematoxylin and eosin. Data were analyzed by dependent t-, one-way ANOVA, and post-hoc LSD tests at α<0.05 level. Results: In this study, boldenone supplementation at different doses led to weight gain, non-significant decrease in spleen weight (p=0.297, increase in white blood cells (p=0.041, and increase in hematocrit level (p=0.017. Also, there was a significant difference between the effect of exercise and boldenone consumption on the extent of damage to white pulp, red pulp, and the spleen sinusoidal space (p=0.001. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed it is likely that short-term consumption of boldenone have negative effects on the spleen structure, followed by negative changes in hematological factors.

  11. Assessment of the bone quality of black male athletes using calcaneal ultrasound: a cross-sectional study

    Sendeht Ayuba J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle, genetics and environmental factors are established determinants of bone density. We aimed to describe the bone characteristics of competitive top-ranked Nigerian male athletes using calcaneal ultrasound and to assess whether intensive training promotes higher bone density in an environment with reportedly low calcium intake; to compare the bone characteristics of footballers with runners and other sportsmen; and to assess the correlation of stiffness index (SI with activity level, since energy expenditure correlates with length of training and by extension, magnitude of skeletal loading. Methods We recruited 102 male athletes: these included football (n = 68, running (n = 15, handball (n = 7, taekwando (n = 6, cycling (n = 2, judo (1, badminton (1 and high jump (1. Anthropometric data were first recorded on a structured form and energy expenditure was indirectly estimated with a validated questionnaire. Bone density was assessed using the Lunar Achilles+ calcaneal ultrasonometer. Results The mean age of athletes was 25 ± 6 years. The means of BMI and energy expenditure were 21.9 ± 2.0 kg/m2 and 35.0 ± 13.7 kcal/kg/day, respectively. Footballers were younger (p Conclusion Repetitive skeletal loading at the heel has the potential to improve bone density in black male athletes. The magnitude of increase may be higher in medium impact sports such as soccer and running compared with low or non-impact sports such as judo or taekwando, and is independent of age and BMI. However, future longitudinal data will be required to support our observations.

  12. Training modalities: impact on endurance capacity.

    Flueck, Martin; Eilers, Wouter

    2010-03-01

    Endurance athletes demonstrate an exceptional resistance to fatigue when exercising at high intensity. Much research has been devoted to the contribution of aerobic capacity for the economy of endurance performance. Important aspects of the fine-tuning of metabolic processes and power output in the endurance athlete have been overlooked. This review addresses how training paradigms exploit bioenergetic pathways in recruited muscle groups to promote the endurance phenotype. A special focus is laid on the genome-mediated mechanisms that underlie the conditioning of fatigue resistance and aerobic performance by training macrocycles and complements. The available data on work-induced muscle plasticity implies that different biologic strategies are exploited in athletic and untrained populations to boost endurance capacity. Olympic champions are probably endowed with a unique constitution that renders the conditioning of endurance capacity for competition particularly efficient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Endurance Training on A12 Acetyl Cholinesterase Activity in Fast and Slow-Twitch Skeletal Muscles of Male Wistar Rats

    Ali Gorzi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endurance training improves the activity of G4 type acetylcholine esterase (AchE in muscle fibres. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of endurance training (ET on activity of A12 type of AchE in Flexor Hallucis Longus (FHL and Soleus (SOL muscles of rats. Materials and Methods: 16 male wistar rats (age: 10 weeks and weight: 172.17±10.080 gr, were randomly divided in 2 groups (control; N=8 and ET; N=8. Training group carried out 8 weeks (5 session/week of endurance training on animal treadmill with speed of 10 m/min for 30 min at the first week which was gradually increased to 30 m/min for 60 min (70-80% of VO2max at the last week. Forty eight hours after last session of training, FHL and Sol muscles of animals were moved out under sterilized situation by cutting on posterio-lateral side of hind limb. For separating AchE subunits, homogenization and electrophoresis (0.06 non-denaturaing polyacrilamide methods were used. AchE activity was measured by Elisa kit.Results: The activity of this protein significantly (p=0.017 increased in SOL muscle of ET group by 119%, but did not changed in FHL. In both groups (ET and Con, FHL muscle had significantly (ET: p=0.028 and Con p=0.01 higher basic levels of AchE activity compared to SOL muscle. This significant increase in AchE of SOL might be indicative of responsiveness of AchE of this muscle following endurance training for improving acetylcholine (Ach cycle in neuromuscular junction.Conclusion: Endurance training might increase the A12 type AchE activity to improve the Ach cycle as part of the adaptation of neuromuscular junction to increased level of physical activity.

  14. IS GNB3 C825T POLYMORPHISM ASSOCIATED WITH ELITE STATUS OF POLISH ATHLETES?

    M. Sawczuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The GNB3 gene encodes the beta 3 subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins that are key components of intracellular signal transduction between G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR and intracellular effectors and might be considered as a potential candidate gene for physical performance. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare frequency distribution of the common C to T polymorphism at position 825 (C825T of the GNB3 gene between athletes and nonathletic controls of the Polish population as well as to compare the genotype distribution and allele frequency of C825T variants within a group of athletes, i.e. between athletes of sports of different metabolic demands and competitive levels. Methods: The study was performed in a group of 223 Polish athletes of the highest nationally competitive standard (123 endurance-oriented athletes and 100 strength/power athletes. Control samples were prepared from 354 unrelated, sedentary volunteers. Results: The χ2 test revealed no statistical differences between the endurance-oriented athletes and the control group or between sprint/strength athletes and the control group across the GNB3 825C/T genotypes. There were no male-female genotype or allele frequency differences in controls or in either strength/power or endurance-oriented athletes. No statistically significant differences in either allele frequencies or genotype distribution were noted between the top-elite, elite or sub-elite of endurance-oriented and strength/power athletes and the control group. Conclusions: No association between elite status of Polish athletes and the GNB3 C825T polymorphic site has been found.

  15. Bone tissue, blood lipids and inflammatory profiles in adolescent male athletes from sports contrasting in mechanical load.

    Agostinete, Ricardo R; Duarte, João P; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J; Tavares, Oscar M; Conde, Jorge M; Fontes-Ribeiro, Carlos A; Condello, Giancarlo; Capranica, Laura; Caires, Suziane U; Fernandes, Rômulo A

    2017-01-01

    Exploring the effect of non-impact and impact sports is particular relevant to understand the interaction between skeletal muscle and bone health during growth. The current study aimed to compare total and regional bone and soft-tissue composition, in parallel to measurements of blood lipid and inflammatory profiles between adolescent athletes and non-athletes. Anthropometry, biological maturity, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, training load and lipid and inflammatory profiles were assessed in a cross-sectional sample of 53 male adolescents (20 non-athletes, 15 swimmers and 18 basketball players) aged 12-19 years. Multiple comparisons between groups were performed using analysis of variance, covariance and magnitude effects (ES-r and Cohen's d). The comparisons of controls with other groups were very large for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (d range: 2.17-2.92). The differences between sports disciplines, regarding tissue outputs obtained from DXA scan were moderate for all variables except fat tissue (d = 0.4). It was possible to determine small differences (ES-r = 0.17) between controls and swimmers for bone area at the lower limbs (13.0%). In parallel, between swimmers and basketball players, the gradient of the differences was small (ES-r range: 0.15-0.23) for bone mineral content (24.6%), bone area (11.3%) and bone mineral density (11.1%) at the lower limbs, favoring the basketball players. These observations highlight that youth male athletes presented better blood and soft tissues profiles with respect to controls. Furthermore, sport-specific differences emerged for the lower limbs, with basketball players presenting higher bone mineral content, area and density than swimmers.

  16. Relative contribution of organs other than brain to resting energy expenditure is consistent among male power athletes.

    Oshima, Satomi; Miyauchi, Sakiho; Asaka, Meiko; Kawano, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Motoko; Torii, Suguru; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that resting energy expenditure (REE) adjusted by fat-free mass (FFM) in male college athletes remains consistent regardless of FFM. The FFM comprises internal organs with high metabolic activity, such as liver and brain, which account for 60 to 80% of REE in adults. The purpose of the present study is to examine the contribution of internal organs to the REE of the FFM fraction among male power athletes. The study included 37 American male college football players. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mass of brain, liver, and kidneys was measured by MRI and mass of heart was estimated by echocardiography. Normal levels of thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine: T3) were confirmed in all subjects prior to the analysis. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the influence of FFM, fat mass (FM), T3, and mass of organs on variance of REE. Average body weight and FFM were 81.2±11.3 kg and 67.7±7.4 kg, respectively. The relative contributions of liver, kidneys, and heart to REE were consistent regardless of FFM, while the REE of brain was negatively correlated with FFM (r=-0.672, pFFM and T3 were found to be independent factors influencing REE. These results suggest that a steady contribution of internal organs other than the brain is the major reason for the consistency of the REE/FFM ratio in male power athletes.

  17. Type 1 diabetes mellitus and exercise in competitive athletes.

    Ratjen, I; Weber, K S; Roden, M; Herrmann, M-E; Müssig, K

    2015-07-01

    The number of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus who are actively participating in competitive sports is increasing. Here, we aimed to assess individual experiences of competitive athletes with type 1 diabetes and to compare these experiences with current recommendations. A survey of 20 competitive athletes with type 1 diabetes, categorized as endurance (n=10) and non-endurance (n=10) athletes, was performed. Endurance and non-endurance athletes did not differ in gender distribution, age, body mass index, and known diabetes duration. Self-reported target blood glucose values prior to exercise were lower in non-endurance than in endurance athletes (195±34 vs. 137±28 mg/dl, P=0.001). The majority of all athletes experienced activity-induced hypo- and hyperglycemic events, independently of exercise type. However, endurance athletes used additional carbohydrate units to prevent activity-induced hypoglycemic events more frequently without monitoring their blood glucose levels than non-endurance athletes (50% vs. 0%, P=0.01). The reduction of the insulin dose on training and competition days compared to days without exercise was similar for endurance and non-endurance athletes. These results point to a very individual adaption of the athlete's therapy during training and competition. However, there are distinct differences in diabetes management between endurance and non-endurance athletes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Validity of Alternative Fitnessgram Upper Body Tests of Muscular Strength and Endurance among Seventh and Eighth Grade Males and Females

    Hobayan, Kalani; Patterson, Debra; Sherman, Clay; Wiersma, Lenny

    2014-01-01

    In a society in which obesity levels have tripled in the past 30 years, the importance of increased fitness levels within the academic setting has become even more critical. The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of alternative Fitnessgram upper body tests of muscular strength and endurance among seventh and eighth grade males…

  19. Intersectionality, critical race theory, and American sporting oppression: examining black and gay male athletes.

    Anderson, Eric; McCormack, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the influence of the racial categories of White and Black and the sexual categories of gay and straight on sporting American men. The effect of the intersection of these cultural categories is discussed by investigating the exclusion of athletes who are both Black and gay, as well as highlighting the culturally perceived differences of (straight) Black and (White) gay men. However, the analysis accounts for more than just difference, examining the commonalities of oppression between these discrete identity groups. We use the research on Black athletes to call for further empirical study on gay athletes. It is argued that critical race theory and intersectionality offer complex and nuanced understandings of these oppressions, which, when theorizing is left solely to the realm of poststructuralism, can otherwise be missed.

  20. The association between sports participation and athletic identity with eating pathology among college-aged males and females.

    Fay, K; Economos, C; Lerner, R M; Becker, A E; Sacheck, J

    2011-06-01

    The current study examined associations among sports participation (SP), athletic identity (AI), weight status, and eating pathology, and whether these relations differed by gender. Data come from male and female first-year college students who participated in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS) between 1999-2007 (N=712). Relations among SP, AI, actual and perceived weight statuses, Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) subscale scores, and indices of body shape concern and restrictive eating were examined with hierarchical ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. Associations between SP and eating pathology among females were moderated by perceived weight status. By contrast, relations between males' EDI subscales scores and SP were moderated by ethnicity, as well as by actual weight status. Our findings support that sports participation alone neither promotes nor protects against eating pathology among males and females.

  1. Does Caffeine Enhance Athletic Performance?

    Marcou Juliana

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Caffeine consumption may enhance athletic endurance, based on strong evidence, but further research needs to be conducted. High caffeine doses than the optimal, 3-6 mg/kg, before exercise does not confer any additional improvement in athletic performance. Additional, higher caffeine doses may cause side effects in athletes.

  2. Comparison of landing biomechanics between male and female dancers and athletes, part 1: Influence of sex on risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Orishimo, Karl F; Liederbach, Marijeanne; Kremenic, Ian J; Hagins, Marshall; Pappas, Evangelos

    2014-05-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries among dancers is much lower than among team sport athletes, and no clear disparity between sexes has been reported in the dance population. Although numerous studies have observed differences in landing biomechanics of the lower extremity between male and female team sport athletes, there is currently little research examining the landing biomechanics of male and female dancers and none comparing athletes to dancers. Comparing the landing biomechanics within these populations may help explain the lower overall ACL injury rates and lack of sex disparity. The purpose was to compare the effects of sex and group (dancer vs team sport athlete) on single-legged drop-landing biomechanics. The primary hypothesis was that female dancers would perform a drop-landing task without demonstrating typical sex-related risk factors associated with ACL injuries. A secondary hypothesis was that female team sport athletes would display typical ACL risk factors during the same task. Controlled laboratory study. Kinematics and kinetics were recorded as 40 elite modern and ballet dancers (20 men and 20 women) and 40 team sport athletes (20 men and 20 women) performed single-legged drop landings from a 30-cm platform. Joint kinematics and kinetics were compared between groups and sexes with a group-by-sex multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) followed by pairwise t tests. Dancers of both sexes and male team sport athletes landed similarly in terms of frontal-plane knee alignment, whereas female team sport athletes landed with a significantly greater peak knee valgus (P = .007). Female dancers were found to have a lower hip adduction torque than those of the other 3 groups (P = .003). Dancers (male and female) exhibited a lower trunk side flexion (P = .002) and lower trunk forward flexion (P = .032) compared with team sport athletes. In executing a 30-cm drop landing, female team sport athletes displayed a greater knee valgus

  3. Age-Related Variation in Male Youth Athletes' Countermovement Jump After Plyometric Training: A Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials.

    Moran, Jason J; Sandercock, Gavin R H; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Meylan, César M P; Collison, Jay A; Parry, Dave A

    2017-02-01

    Moran, J, Sandercock, GRH, Ramírez-Campillo, R, Meylan, CMP, Collison, J, and Parry, DA. Age-related variation in male youth athletes' countermovement jump after plyometric training: A meta-analysis of controlled trials. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 552-565, 2017-Recent debate on the trainability of youths has focused on the existence of periods of accelerated adaptation to training. Accordingly, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to identify the age- and maturation-related pattern of adaptive responses to plyometric training in youth athletes. Thirty effect sizes were calculated from the data of 21 sources with studies qualifying based on the following criteria: (a) healthy male athletes who were engaged in organized sport; (b) groups of participants with a mean age between 10 and 18 years; and (c) plyometric-training intervention duration between 4 and 16 weeks. Standardized mean differences showed plyometric training to be moderately effective in increasing countermovement jump (CMJ) height (Effect size = 0.73 95% confidence interval: 0.47-0.99) across PRE-, MID-, and POST-peak height velocity groups. Adaptive responses were of greater magnitude between the mean ages of 10 and 12.99 years (PRE) (ES = 0.91 95% confidence interval: 0.47-1.36) and 16 and 18 years (POST) (ES = 1.02 [0.52-1.53]). The magnitude of adaptation to plyometric training between the mean ages of 13 and 15.99 years (MID) was lower (ES = 0.47 [0.16-0.77]), despite greater training exposure. Power performance as measured by CMJ may be mediated by biological maturation. Coaches could manipulate training volume and modality during periods of lowered response to maximize performance.

  4. Relationships between cooperation and goal orientation among male professional and semi-professional team athletes.

    Lameiras, João; Almeida, Pedro L; Garcia-Mas, Alexandre

    2014-12-01

    In team sports, athletes' goals may focus on the task (enhancing performance, developing better skills, etc.) or on ego (being better than the others, achieving superiority, etc.). This study investigated the relationships between athletes' goal orientation and their tendency to cooperate with teammates and coaches. 158 professional men (M age = 24.1 yr., SD = 4.6) who played on various sport teams participated in this study. Goal orientation was measured with the Portuguese version of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, and cooperation was measured with the Questionário de Cooperação Desportiva. Cooperation was positively correlated with task orientation, and negatively correlated with ego orientation. Overall, the findings support that in sports, directing the players' focus on task may promote prosocial behavior.

  5. A comparison of muscle stiffness and musculoarticular stiffness of the knee joint in young athletic males and females.

    Wang, Dan; De Vito, Giuseppe; Ditroilo, Massimiliano; Fong, Daniel T P; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the gender-specific differences in peak torque (PT), muscle stiffness (MS) and musculoarticular stiffness (MAS) of the knee joints in a young active population. Twenty-two male and twenty-two female recreational athletes participated. PT of the knee joint extensor musculature was assessed on an isokinetic dynamometer, MS of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle was measured in both relaxed and contracted conditions, and knee joint MAS was quantified using the free oscillation technique. Significant gender differences were observed for all dependent variables. Females demonstrated less normalized PT (mean difference (MD)=0.4Nm/kg, p=0.005, η(2)=0.17), relaxed MS (MD=94.2N/m, pjoint injury incidence and prevalence in females when compared to males. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Endurance training at altitude.

    Saunders, Philo U; Pyne, David B; Gore, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1968 Olympic Games when the effects of altitude on endurance performance became evident, moderate altitude training ( approximately 2000 to 3000 m) has become popular to improve competition performance both at altitude and sea level. When endurance athletes are exposed acutely to moderate altitude, a number of physiological responses occur that can comprise performance at altitude; these include increased ventilation, increased heart rate, decreased stroke volume, reduced plasma volume, and lower maximal aerobic power ((.)Vo(2max)) by approximately 15% to 20%. Over a period of several weeks, one primary acclimatization response is an increase in the volume of red blood cells and consequently of (.)Vo(2max). Altitudes > approximately 2000 m for >3 weeks and adequate iron stores are required to elicit these responses. However, the primacy of more red blood cells for superior sea-level performance is not clear-cut since the best endurance athletes in the world, from Ethiopia (approximately 2000 to 3000 m), have only marginally elevated hemoglobin concentrations. The substantial reduction in (.)Vo(2max) of athletes at moderate altitude implies that their training should include adequate short-duration (approximately 1 to 2 min), high-intensity efforts with long recoveries to avoid a reduction in race-specific fitness. At the elite level, athlete performance is not dependent solely on (.)Vo(2max), and the "smallest worthwhile change" in performance for improving race results is as little as 0.5%. Consequently, contemporary statistical approaches that utilize the concept of the smallest worthwhile change are likely to be more appropriate than conventional statistical methods when attempting to understand the potential benefits and mechanisms of altitude training.

  7. Are sports overemphasized in the socialization process of African American males? A qualitative analysis of former collegiate athletes' perception of sport socialization .

    Beamon, Krystal K

    2010-01-01

    Scholars have noted that an elevated level of sports socialization in the family, neighborhood, and media exists within the African American community, creating an overrepresentation of African American males in certain sports. As a result, African American males may face consequences that are distinctly different from the consequences of those who are not socialized as intensively toward athletics, such as lower levels of academic achievement, higher expectations for professional sports careers as a means to upward mobility, and lower levels of career maturity. This study examines the sport socialization of African American male former collegiate athletes through in-depth ethnographic interviews. The results show that the respondents' perceptions were that their socializing agents and socializing environment emphasized athletics above other roles, other talents, and the development of other skills.

  8. Influence of stress and recovery on endurance performance indicators

    Otter, Ruby; Brink, Michel; Lemmink, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Endurance athletes seek for the optimal balance in stress and recovery so that they can perform at their best. However, it is still largely unknown how psychosocial stress and recovery influence performance indicators of endurance athletes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate how

  9. Effect of Carbohydrate, Caffeine, and Carbohydrate + Caffeine Mouth Rinsing on Intermittent Running Performance in Collegiate Male Lacrosse Athletes.

    Dolan, Patrick; Witherbee, Kyle E; Peterson, Kimi M; Kerksick, Chad M

    2017-09-01

    Dolan, P, Witherbee, KE, Peterson, KM, and Kerksick, CM. Effect of carbohydrate, caffeine, and carbohydrate + caffeine mouth rinsing on intermittent running performance in collegiate male lacrosse athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2473-2479, 2017-Recently, an interest has developed in the potential to rinse the oral cavity with key nutrients to impact various types of exercise and presumably sporting performance. Although multiple studies examining carbohydrate mouth rinsing have been completed, conflicting evidence surrounding caffeine mouth rinsing persists, and no research has explored its ability to impact high-intensity, intermittent running performance. This study investigated the independent and synergistic ability of carbohydrate and caffeine mouth rinsing to improve intermittent running performance. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test-Level 1 (Yo-Yo Level 1) was completed in 10 collegiate (National Collegiate Athletic Association [NCAA] Division II) male lacrosse players after a 10-second mouth rinse with a solution of either carbohydrate (CHO), caffeine (CAF), carbohydrate + caffeine (CHO + CAF), placebo (H2O), or a no rinse control (CON). No significant improvements in Yo-Yo IRT-1 performance were found (p > 0.05). Perceptual indications of effort (i.e., rating of their perceived exertion [RPE]) were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in CHO and CHO + CAF when compared with CON after speed level 11. Interestingly, RPE levels were nonsignificantly lower in all but one level of the Yo-Yo Level 1 for CHO in comparison with other groups. Carbohydrate and caffeine mouth rinsing seems to exert no impact on running performance before maximal intermittent running in a group of male collegiate lacrosse players.

  10. Effect of spotters on state anxiety and self-confidence during maximal squatting among male high school athletes

    Drew Rykert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The ideal performance state is manifested by psychological and physiological efficiency. The psychological effects of anxiety and self-confidence has been shown to alter the efficiency of performance. This study attempted to identify the state anxiety and self-confidence of high school athletes just prior to a one repetition maximum (1-RM back squat and determine if the number of spotters affects an athlete’s level of state anxiety and/or self-confidence. Male high school athletes (10th and 11th grades were randomly separated into two experimental groups who performed the 1-RM back squat (BSQ with either 1 spotter (1SG: n=52 or 3 spotters (3SG: n=54. Following a dynamic warm-up period and several progressive BSQ warm-up sets, and just prior to attempts at a 1-RM BSQ, the participants completed the revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2R. The CSAI-2R included the number of spotters (1 or 3 that would be present during the subsequent 1-RM BSQ attempts. The CSAI-2R is a17-question instrument with three subscales (self-confidence, somatic anxiety, and cognitive anxiety. The subscale scores were compared between the 1SG and 3SG with an independent t-test (alpha≤0.05. None of the subscales (self-confidence, somatic anxiety, and cognitive anxiety were significantly different between the 1SG and 3SG experimental groups (p>0.05. Within the parameters of this study, the number of spotters present during the execution of the 1-RM BSQ had no practical or statistical impact on self-confidence, somatic anxiety, and cognitive anxiety. Coaches and athletes could use this information in the training environment in order to make best use of personnel (assigned to spotting tasks, physical resources (ex. squat racks, and time management.

  11. Effects of Subsensory Noise and Fatigue on Knee Landing and Cross-over Cutting Biomechanics in Male Athletes.

    Qu, Xingda; Jiang, Jianxin; Hu, Xinyao

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of subsensory noise and fatigue on knee biomechanics during the athletic task of landing followed by cross-over cutting. A total of 32 healthy male athletes participated in the study. They were evenly divided into 2 groups: no fatigue group and fatigue group. Fatigue was induced to the lower extremity by a repetitive squatting exercise in the fatigue group. Subsensory noise was generated by linear miniature vibrators bilaterally placed around the knee joints. During data collection, the participants were instructed to perform landing followed by cross-over cutting in both the subsensory on and off conditions. Dependent variables were selected to assess knee biomechanics in the phases of landing and cross-over cutting, separately. Results showed that fatigue resulted in larger knee flexion during landing and larger knee internal rotation during cross-over cutting. Subsensory noise was found to reduce knee rotation impulse during cross-over cutting. These findings suggest that cross-over cutting is more dangerous than landing in the fatigue condition, and subsensory noise may lead to changes in knee biomechanics consistent with reduced risk of anterior cruciate ligament injuries, but the changes may be task-specific.

  12. The Comparison of Aggression between Professional and Semi-Professional Male Taekwondo Athletes in Isfahan, Iran

    Mojtaba Salemi khozani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aggression is one of the general phenomenon that athletes often directly or indirectly deal with. There are rare issues that are significant as much aggression and violence in sport. The explanation for violent behavior in humans is often the subject of research in the science of sociology. Social changes around the world in recent centuries had a significant impact on cultural structure. In this study, the researchers focused on the aggression of professional and semi-professional athletes in Taekwondo in Isfahan, Iran. The cross-sectional method was applied in this study. To analyze, we examined the relationships between predictor variables and the dependent variable or the variance criterion to explain the changes. The results shown that there was no significant difference between terms of anger and physical aggression among professional and semi-professional. On the other hand, there was meaningful differences between verbal aggression and hostility amongst participants. In addition, the amounts of aggression amongst professional players were more than semi-professional players.

  13. Somatic effects of AAS abuse: A 30-years follow-up study of male former power sports athletes.

    Lindqvist Bagge, A S; Rosén, T; Fahlke, C; Ehrnborg, C; Eriksson, B O; Moberg, T; Thiblin, I

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between somatic health and former abuse of AAS in former elite male athletes 30 years after the end of their active sports career. Retrospective follow-up study. N=996 former elite male athletes were sent a questionnaire concerning sociodemographic variables, previous and past sport activity and lifetime prevalence of seeking professional help for health problems. N=683 (68.6%) answered the questionnaire. The lifetime prevalence of AAS-abuse was 21% (n=143), while 79% (n=540) did not admit having ever used AAS. Former AAS-abuse was associated with tendon ruptures (p=0.01), depression (p=0.001), anxiety (p=0.01) and lower prevalence of prostate hypertrophy (p=0.01) and decreased libido (p=0.01). Former advanced AAS-abusers had higher anxiety (p=0.004) compared to the former less advanced AAS-abusers. Moreover, former advanced AAS-abusers, compared to AAS-naïves, reported more psychiatric problems (p=0.002), depression (p=0.003) and anxiety (p=0.00). A former AAS-abuse seems to be associated with some somatic and mental health problem, although a former less advanced AAS-abuse is related to lower incidence of prostate hypertrophy. The results raise the question whether some of these associations might be dose- and frequency dependent. These findings should however be seen as hypothesis generating and further studies are needed. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Athletes at High Altitude.

    Khodaee, Morteza; Grothe, Heather L; Seyfert, Jonathan H; VanBaak, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Athletes at different skill levels perform strenuous physical activity at high altitude for a variety of reasons. Multiple team and endurance events are held at high altitude and may place athletes at increased risk for developing acute high altitude illness (AHAI). Training at high altitude has been a routine part of preparation for some of the high level athletes for a long time. There is a general belief that altitude training improves athletic performance for competitive and recreational athletes. A review of relevant publications between 1980 and 2015 was completed using PubMed and Google Scholar. Clinical review. Level 3. AHAI is a relatively uncommon and potentially serious condition among travelers to altitudes above 2500 m. The broad term AHAI includes several syndromes such as acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). Athletes may be at higher risk for developing AHAI due to faster ascent and more vigorous exertion compared with nonathletes. Evidence regarding the effects of altitude training on athletic performance is weak. The natural live high, train low altitude training strategy may provide the best protocol for enhancing endurance performance in elite and subelite athletes. High altitude sports are generally safe for recreational athletes, but they should be aware of their individual risks. Individualized and appropriate acclimatization is an essential component of injury and illness prevention.

  15. Passion and Pacing in Endurance Performance.

    Schiphof-Godart, Lieke; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2017-01-01

    Endurance sports are booming, with sports passionates of varying skills and expertise battering city streets and back roads on their weekly or daily exercise rounds. The investments required for performing in endurance exercise are nevertheless considerable, and passion for their sport might explain the efforts endurance athletes are willing to make. Passion may be defined as a strong motivational force and as such might be related to the neurophysiological basis underlying the drive to exercise. A complex relationship between the brain and other systems is responsible for athletes' exercise behavior and thus performance in sports. We anticipate important consequences of athletes' short term choices, for example concerning risk taking actions, on long term outcomes, such as injuries, overtraining and burnout. We propose to consider athletes' type of passion, in combination with neurophysiological parameters, as an explanatory factor inunderstanding the apparent disparity in the regulation of exercise intensity during endurance sports. Previous research has demonstrated that athletes can be passionate toward their sport in either a harmonious or an obsessive way. Although both lead to considerable investments and therefore often to successful performances, obsessive passion may affect athlete well-being and performance on the long run, due to the corresponding inflexible exercise behavior. In this perspective we will thus examine the influence of passion in sport on athletes' short term and long term decision-making and exercise behavior, in particular related to the regulation of exercise intensity, and discuss the expected long term effects of both types of passion for sport.

  16. Venous hemogasometry of equines finalists in 90 km endurance races

    Cinthia B.S. Dumont

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Front of exercise, the organic systems may suffer water-electrolyte and acid-base imbalances, particularly in the case of blood gases, demonstrating variations from different causes, whether respiratory and/or metabolic. Understanding the physiological adaptations to exercise is essential in the search for the optimum performance. In this way, this study measured the venous blood gases (pO2, pCO2, as well as the oxygen saturation (SatO2 in healthy equines, Arabian horses finalists in 90km endurance races. A total of fourteen Arabian horses were evaluated, nine males and five females, between six and 12 years old, finalists in 90km endurance races. There was a significant reduction in pO2, pCO2 and SatO2 after the exercise, however, the values remained within the normality range, and did not change the athletic performance of the animals, indicating a temporary alteration, assuming thus a character of physiological response to the exercise performed. The equines, finalists in 90 Km endurance races, demonstrated efficient ventilatory process, without any alterations in the athletic performance, being adapted to the type of exercise imposed.

  17. The Influence of Resistance Training Experience on the Between-Day Reliability of Commonly Used Strength Measures in Male Youth Athletes.

    Weakley, Jonathon J S; Till, Kevin; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Roe, Gregory A B; Phibbs, Padraic J; Read, Dale B; Jones, Ben L

    2017-07-01

    Weakley, JJS, Till, K, Darrall-Jones, J, Roe, GAB, Phibbs, PJ, Read, DB, and Jones, BL. The influence of resistance training experience on the between-day reliability of commonly used strength measures in male youth athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 2005-2010, 2017-The purpose of this study was to determine the between-day reliability of commonly used strength measures in male youth athletes while considering resistance training experience. Data were collected on 25 male athletes over 2 testing sessions, with 72 hours rest between, for the 3 repetition maximum (3RM) front squat, chin-up, and bench press. Subjects were initially categorized by resistance training experience (inexperienced; 6-12 months, experienced; >2 years). The assessment of the between-day reliability (coefficient of variation [CV%]) showed that the front squat (experienced: 2.90%; inexperienced: 1.90%), chin-up (experienced: 1.70%; inexperienced: 1.90%), and bench press (experienced: 4.50%; inexperienced: 2.40%) were all reliable measures of strength in both groups. Comparison between groups for the error of measurement for each exercise showed trivial differences. When both groups were combined, the CV% for the front squat, bench press, and chin-up were 2.50, 1.80, and 3.70%, respectively. This study provides scientists and practitioners with the between-day reliability reference data to determine real and practical changes for strength in male youth athletes with different resistance training experience. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that 3RM front squat, chin-up, and bench press are reliable exercises to quantify strength in male youth athletes.

  18. Endurance exercise after orange ingestion anaphylaxis

    Manu Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise after orange ingestion cause anaphylaxis which is food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA which is a form of exercise-induced anaphylaxis. In this article, an individual develops symptoms such as flushing, itching, urticaria, angioedema, and wheezing after eating a food allergen and proceeds to exercise. Neither the food alone nor exercise alone is sufficient to induce a reaction. This case report describes a 36-year-old asthmatic male athlete who experienced nausea, vomiting, flushing, urticaria, and facial swelling while exercising in a gymnasium after eating oranges. Neither oranges alone nor exercise alone induced the reaction. Total avoidance of suspected food allergens would be ideal. Persons with FDEIA should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids, and adrenaline.

  19. Effect of Aloe vera on some indicators of cell damage after a period of aerobic exercise in male athletes

    Barati Amir-Hosein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aloe vera is a medicinal plant with antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Aloe vera on some indicators of cell damage after a period of aerobic exercise in male athletes of 15-18 years old. Methods: In this clinical trial study, 20 male students with average weight of 64.85 ± 51 and height of 172.05 ± 6.4 were randomly assigned to 2 groups of Aloe vera supplement (n = 10 and placebo (n = 10. Then aerobic training was conducted for 4 weeks. The supplemented group took 3 capsules, each capsule contains 2 g of dried Aloe vera and placebo group took 3 capsules/day containing dextran after every meal. To determine the index of cell injury markers creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and reactive protein C (CRP were determined and blood samples were collected 24 hours before and after each test. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and independent t test. Significance level was considered as P ≤ .05. Results: The use of Aloe vera during aerobic exercise significantly reduced LDH (P = .006 in the supplement group (15% reduction compared to placebo group and CRP with 11% reduction in the supplement group compared to placebo (P = .008. There was no significant reduction in CK. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that Aloe vera reduces cell damage and inflammation indicators. This result may reflect the role of Aloe vera as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent.

  20. Association among practice frequency on depression and stress among competitive US male wheelchair rugby athletes with tetraplegia.

    Silveira, S L; Ledoux, T; Cottingham, M; Hernandez, D C

    2017-10-01

    Cross-sectional. To determine whether frequency of training is related to self-reported lower psychological distress, defined as depressive symptomology and perceived stress, among the US male wheelchair rugby athletes with tetraplegia. United States. Survey data were collected on a convenience sample at wheelchair rugby tournaments from January-April 2016. Participants self-reported depressive symptomology (CES-D-10), perceived stress scale (PSS), and frequency of rugby practice. Covariate-adjusted regression models were conducted among the full sample and a subsample of individuals who reported spinal cord injury (SCI) as the nature of their disability. Participants included 150 males with tetraplegia, and 87% identified the nature of their disability as SCI. Participants were primarily Caucasian with an average age of ~35 years. Participants scored low on measures of depressive symptomology (mean=5.63; s.d.=4.35) and perceived stress (mean=4.63; s.d.=2.73). Sixty-seven percent of the participants practiced two or more times per week. Results of the main analyses indicated that practicing wheelchair rugby two times or more (compared to once a week or less) was significantly associated with lower depressive symptomology and perceived stress among the full sample and subsample of individuals with SCI. Greater frequency of wheelchair rugby participation was associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Future research should examine the directional and mechanistic relationship between frequency of sports participation and psychological distress to inform the benefits of adaptive sport.

  1. The Effects of a Multi-Ingredient Performance Supplement on Hormonal Profiles and Body Composition in Male College Athletes

    Matthew H. Sharp

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Periods of intense training can elicit an acute decline in performance and body composition associated with weakened hormone profiles. This study investigated the effects of a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS on body composition and hormone levels in college athletes following a six-week training protocol. Twenty male college athletes were equally assigned to MIPS and placebo (PLA groups for supplementation (three pills, twice daily in conjunction with resistance training and specialized sports training (e.g., nine total sessions/week for six weeks. Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry determined body composition at weeks 0 and 6. Serum samples collected at weeks 0 and 6 determined free testosterone (FT, total testosterone (TT, IGF-1 and total estrogen (TE levels. PLA experienced a significant decline in lean body mass (LBM (−1.5 kg; p < 0.05 whereas the MIPS sustained LBM. The MIPS increased TT 21.9% (541.5 ± 48.7 to 639.1 ± 31.7 and increased FT 15.2% (13.28 ± 1.1 to 15.45 ± 1.3 ng/dL (p < 0.05. Conversely, PLA decreased TT 7.9% (554.5 ± 43.3 to 497.2 ± 39.1 ng/dL, decreased FT 17.4% (13.41 ± 1.8 to 11.23 ± 2.55 ng/dL, and decreased FT:E 12.06% (p < 0.05. These findings suggest the MIPS can prevent decrements in LBM and anabolic hormone profiles during intense training periods.

  2. Visual feedback attenuates mean concentric barbell velocity loss, and improves motivation, competitiveness, and perceived workload in male adolescent athletes.

    Weakley, Jonathon Js; Wilson, Kyle M; Till, Kevin; Read, Dale B; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Roe, Gregory; Phibbs, Padraic J; Jones, Ben

    2017-07-12

    It is unknown whether instantaneous visual feedback of resistance training outcomes can enhance barbell velocity in younger athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of visual feedback on mean concentric barbell velocity in the back squat, and to identify changes in motivation, competitiveness, and perceived workload. In a randomised-crossover design (Feedback vs. Control) feedback of mean concentric barbell velocity was or was not provided throughout a set of 10 repetitions in the barbell back squat. Magnitude-based inferences were used to assess changes between conditions, with almost certainly greater differences in mean concentric velocity between the Feedback (0.70 ±0.04 m·s) and Control (0.65 ±0.05 m·s) observed. Additionally, individual repetition mean concentric velocity ranged from possibly (repetition number two: 0.79 ±0.04 vs. 0.78 ±0.04 m·s) to almost certainly (repetition number 10: 0.58 ±0.05 vs. 0.49 ±0.05 m·s) greater when provided feedback, while almost certain differences were observed in motivation, competitiveness, and perceived workload, respectively. Providing adolescent male athletes with visual kinematic information while completing resistance training is beneficial for the maintenance of barbell velocity during a training set, potentially enhancing physical performance. Moreover, these improvements were observed alongside increases in motivation, competitiveness and perceived workload providing insight into the underlying mechanisms responsible for the performance gains observed. Given the observed maintenance of barbell velocity during a training set, practitioners can use this technique to manipulate training outcomes during resistance training.

  3. The effect of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on hamstring and quadriceps muscle function outcome ratios in male athletes

    Kadija Marko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Maximal strength ratios such as the limb symmetry index (LSI and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio (HQ may be considered the main outcome measures in the monitoring of recovery after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction. Although explosive strength is much more important than maximal strength, it is generally disregarded in the follow-up of muscle function recovery. Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare ratios between maximal (Fmax and explosive strength (rate of force development - RFD in individuals with ACL reconstruction. Methods. Fifteen male athletes were enrolled and had maximum voluntary isometric quadriceps and hamstring contractions tested (4.0 ± 0.1 months post reconstruction. In addition to Fmax, RFD was estimated (RFDmax, as well as RFD at 50, 100, and 200 ms from onset of contraction and LSI and HQ ratios were calculated. Results. The involved leg demonstrated significant hamstring and quadriceps deficits compared to uninvolved leg (p < 0.01. Deficits were particularly significant in the involved quadriceps, causing higher HQ ratios (average 0.63, compared to the uninvolved leg (0.44. LSI was significantly lower for RFD variables (average 55% than for Fmax (66%. Conclusion. The assessment of RFD may be considered an objective recovery parameter for one’s readiness to return to sports and should be an integral part of standard follow-up protocol for athletes after ACL reconstruction. Moreover, the combination of indices derived from maximal and explosive strength may provide better insight in muscle strength balance, as well as a clear picture of functional implications. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175012 i br. 175037

  4. Response of Estrogen-related Receptor Alpha (ERRα to Endurance Training and its Participation in Endurance Training-induced Adaptations in Lipid Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle of Male Wistar rats

    Soheil Aminizadeh

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: In sum, expression of ERRα is a trainable factor and its changes are parallel with the increase in expression of lipid metabolism indexes; so, it could have a direct role in endurance training-induced adaptation in fat metabolism.

  5. GRAPE EXTRACT IMPROVES ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN ELITE MALE ATHLETES

    Sophie Lafay

    2009-09-01

    .8+/-0.2 vs g·dL-1, p < 0.05, suggesting that GE administration might protect cell damage during exercise. The high variability between sport disciplines did not permit to observe the differences in the effort test. Analyzing each individual group, handball players increased their physical performance by 24% (p < 0.05 and explosive power by 6.4% (p = 0.1 after GE supplementation compared to the placebo. Further analyses showed that CPK and Hb were the only biomarkers correlated with the increase in performance. In conclusion, GE ameliorates the oxidative stress/antioxidant status balance in elite athletes in the competition period, and enhances performance in one category of sportsmen (handball. Our results suggest that the enhancement in performance might be caused by the protective action of GE during physical exercise. These findings encourage conducting further studies to confirm the efficacy and mechanisms of action of GE on elite and occasional athletes

  6. Effects of Resistance Training on Muscle Strength, Endurance, and Motor Unit According to Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Polymorphism in Male College Students

    Ae-Rim Hong, Sang-Min Hong, Yun-A Shin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in muscle mass and strength across the adult age span are variable and related to the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF genotype. In particular, a single CNTF haplotype (1357 G→A is important for neuronal and muscular developments and may be associated with muscle strength response to resistance training. We examined whether CNTF genotype differentially influences the effect of resistance training on neuromuscular improvement in male college students. Resistance training of the upper extremities comprised 3 sets at 75%–85% intensity per 1 repetition maximum, 3 times a week, for a total of 8 weeks. We measured isokinetic muscle function of the elbow joint with regard to strength (60°/s and endurance (180°/s by using an isokinetic dynamometer. The biceps brachii (BB and brachioradialis muscles were studied using surface electromyography with spike-triggered averaging to assess surface-detected motor unit potential (SMUP area. After resistance training, the SMUP of the BB increased significantly at 60°/s (p < 0.05, but no difference in the CNTF genotype was observed. The SMUP of the BB at 180°/s increased significantly in the GG/AA genotype group compared with that in the GA genotype group (p < 0.05. The average power of the elbow flexor at 180°/s increased significantly after resistance training (p < 0.05, but again, no difference in the CNTF genotype was observed. Thus, improvements in muscle strength and endurance may have resulted directly from resistance training rather than from genetic factors related to nerves in muscle tissue.

  7. Mechanisms and management of exercise-induced asthma in elite athletes

    Ali, Zarqa; Norsk, Peter; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is often reported by elite athletes, especially endurance athletes. The aim of this article is to review current knowledge of mechanisms and management of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in adult elite athletes.......Asthma is often reported by elite athletes, especially endurance athletes. The aim of this article is to review current knowledge of mechanisms and management of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in adult elite athletes....

  8. Reliability and validity of a 20-s alternative to the wingate anaerobic test in team sport male athletes.

    Ahmed Attia

    Full Text Available The intent of this study was to evaluate relative and absolute reliability of the 20-s anaerobic test (WAnT20 versus the WAnT30 and to verify how far the various indices of the 30-s Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT30 could be predicted from the WAnT20 data in male athletes. The participants were Exercise Science majors (age: 21.5±1.6 yrs, stature: 0.183±0.08 m, body mass: 81.2±10.9 kg who participated regularly in team sports. In Phase I, 41 participants performed duplicate WAnT20 and WAnT30 tests to assess reliability. In Phase II, 31 participants performed one trial each of the WAnT20 and WAnT30 to determine the ability of the WAnT20 to predict components of the WAnT30. In Phase III, 31 participants were used to cross-validate the prediction equations developed in Phase II. Respective intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC for peak power output (PPO (ICC = 0.98 and 0.95 and mean power output (MPO (ICC 0.98 and 0.90 did not differ significantly between WAnT20 and WAnT30. ICCs for minimal power output (POmin and fatigue index (FI were poor for both tests (range 0.53 to 0.76. Standard errors of the means (SEM for PPO and MPO were less than their smallest worthwhile changes (SWC in both tests; however, POmin and FI values were "marginal," with SEM values greater than their respective SWCs for both tests values. Stepwise regression analysis showed that MPO had the highest coefficient of predictability (R = 0.97, with POmin and FI considerable lower (R = 0.71 and 0.41 respectively. Cross-validation showed insignificant bias with limits of agreement of 0.99±1.04, 6.5±92.7 W, and 1.6±9.8% between measured and predicted MPO, POmin, and FI, respectively. WAnT20 offers a reliable and valid test of leg anaerobic power in male athletes and could replace the classic WAnT30.

  9. Relationships between anthropometric features, body composition, and anaerobic alactic power in elite post-pubertal and mature male taekwondo athletes

    Boraczyński Michał

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper describes the relationships between anthropometric features, body composition, and anaerobic alactic power (AAP in elite post-pubertal and mature male taekwondo athletes. Methods. The sample of 41 taekwondo athletes was divided into two groups: post-pubertal (P-P, n = 19, Mage = 15.6 ± 1.1 years and mature (M, n = 22, Mage = 20.7 ± 2.8 years. Anthropometric features (WB-150, ZPU Tryb-Wag, Poland, body composition (BC-418 MA, Tanita, Japan, maturational status (Pubertal Maturational Observational Scale, and AAP (10-s version of the Wingate Anaerobic Test were assessed. Results. Post-hoc testing revealed significant between-group differences (3.2-20.4%, p < 0.01 in all anthropometric and body composition measures, with effect sizes (ES between −0.79 and −1.25 (p < 0.001, except for fat content and percentage of skeletal muscle mass (SMM (p ≥ 0.05. In group M, the maximal power output (Pmax was greater (ES = −1.15, p < 0.001 and the time of its attainment shorter (ES = 0.59, p < 0.001 than in group P-P. Correlation analyses indicated notably strong associations between body mass (BM and Pmax in group P-P (r = 0.950 [95% CI, 0.85-0.98], p < 0.001 and M (r = 0.926 [95% CI, 0.81-0.97], p < 0.001, and similar-sized strong correlations between fat-free mass (FFM and Pmax in group P-P (r = 0.955 [95% CI, 0.86-0.99], p < 0.001 and M (r = 0.924 [95% CI, 0.82-0.96], p < 0.001. Additionally, a strong correlation was found between body height and Pmax in groups P-P and M (r = 0.805 [95% CI, 0.54-0.92], p < 0.001 and r = 0.819 [95% CI, 0.58-0.93], p < 0.001, respectively. Linear regression analyses demonstrated that FFM, BM, and absolute SMM best explained the variance in Pmax in both groups (r, 0.939-0.951; r2, 0.882-0.909. Conclusions. The strong correlations observed in both groups between BM, FFM, SMM, and Pmax demonstrate the significant effects of body size and composition on AAP. By determining the current levels of these

  10. Do Running Kinematic Characteristics Change over a Typical HIIT for Endurance Runners?

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor M; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2016-10-01

    García-Pinillos, F, Soto-Hermoso, VM, and Latorre-Román, PÁ. Do running kinematic characteristics change over a typical HIIT for endurance runners?. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2907-2917, 2016-The purpose of this study was to describe kinematic changes that occur during a common high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) session for endurance runners. Twenty-eight male endurance runners participated in this study. A high-speed camera was used to measure sagittal-plane kinematics at the first and the last run during a HIIT (4 × 3 × 400 m). The dependent variables were spatial-temporal variables, joint angles during support and swing, and foot strike pattern. Physiological variables, rate of perceived exertion, and athletic performance were also recorded. No significant changes (p ≥ 0.05) in kinematic variables were found during the HIIT session. Two cluster analyses were performed, according to the average running pace-faster vs. slower, and according to exhaustion level reached-exhausted group vs. nonexhausted group (NEG). At first run, no significant differences were found between groups. As for the changes induced by the running protocol, significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were found between faster and slower athletes at toe-off in θhip and θknee, whereas some changes were found in NEG in θhip during toe-off (+4.3°) and θknee at toe-off (-5.2°) during swing. The results show that a common HIIT session for endurance runners did not consistently or substantially perturb the running kinematics of trained male runners. Additionally, although some differences between groups have been found, neither athletic performance nor exhaustion level reached seems to be determinant in the kinematic response during a HIIT, at least for this group of moderately trained endurance runners.

  11. 'The engine just started coughing!' - Limits of physical performance, aging and career continuity in elite endurance sports.

    Ronkainen, Noora J; Ryba, Tatiana V; Nesti, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    This research examines male endurance athletes' experience of aging and/or reaching the perceived limits of physical performance. More specifically, the current study aimed to explore how existential meanings attached to these experiences are connected with athletes' decision-making concerning career continuity and retirement. Life story interviews were conducted with 10 Finnish runners and/or orienteers aged between 25 and 62 and the data was analyzed with an existential-narrative framework. Four major storylines related to aging were identified: The end of an era, putting things in perspective, the attitude has to change and winning was never the only motive. Our results suggest that endurance athletes possess diverse ways of bringing meaning to the experience of aging, both confirming and resisting the dominant cultural narrative of decline. While three athletes' stories confirmed the normativity of retirement when unable to improve their results anymore, other athletes demonstrated career continuity and positive aspects in the late career years, such as lack of competitive anxiety, finding perspective and increased enjoyment in running. We suggest that through awareness of alternative narratives, sport psychology consultants may be able to help their clients to explore new meanings in the potentially challenging and beneficial experiences of aging and athletic retirement. © 2013.

  12. Increased risk of atrial fibrillation among elderly Norwegian men with a history of long-term endurance sport practice

    Myrstad, M; L?chen, M-L; Graff-Iversen, S; Gulsvik, A K; Thelle, D S; Stigum, H; Ranhoff, A H

    2013-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common clinically relevant cardiac arrhythmia. AF is associated with reduced functional capacity and other symptoms, drug use, poor subjective health, increased risk of ischemic stroke and increased mortality. Physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases and has multiple beneficial health effects, but male endurance athletes seem to have an increased risk of AF. Few studies, however, have investigated the association betwee...

  13. The road to gold: Training and peaking characteristics in the year prior to a gold medal endurance performance

    Tønnessen, Espen; Sylta, Øystein; Haugen, Thomas A.; Hem, Erlend; Svendsen, Ida S.; Seiler, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Published version of an article in the journal PLoS ONE. Also available from the publisher at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101796 Open Access Purpose: To describe training variations across the annual cycle in Olympic and World Champion endurance athletes, and determine whether these athletes used tapering strategies in line with recommendations in the literature. Methods: Eleven elite XC skiers and biathletes (4 male; 28±1 yr, 85±5 mL. min-1. kg-1 V̇O2max, 7 female, 25±4 yr, 7...

  14. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial

    Tomas K. Tong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt, by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL. For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n=13 in each group were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH, and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners.

  15. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial.

    Tong, Tomas K; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng; Nie, Jinlei

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners.

  16. No Relative Age Effect in the Birth Dates of Award-Winning Athletes in Male Professional Team Sports

    Ford, Paul R.; Williams, A. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Athletes born early within an annual youth age-group selection year are probably more likely to be selected for sports teams and talent development programs than those born later in that year. Overrepresentation of these relatively older athletes in youth and adult sport is known as the relative age effect (RAE). RAEs were found in these popular…

  17. Asthma in elite athletes

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of ß2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of ß-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of ß2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  18. Asthma in elite athletes

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athletes...... their physical capacity. Elite athletes should undergo comprehensive assessment to confirm an asthma diagnosis and determine its degree of severity. Treatment should be as for any other asthmatic individual, including the use of β2-agonist, inhaled steroid as well as leukotriene-antagonist. It should, however......, be noted that daily use of β-agonists could expose elite athletes to the risk of developing tolerance towards these drugs. Use of β2-agonist should be replaced with daily inhaled corticosteroid treatment, the most important treatment of exercise-induced asthma. All physicians treating asthma should...

  19. INFLUENCE OF MUSIC TYPE LISTENING ON ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE AND SALIVARY CORTISOL IN MALES ATHLETES

    Mohammad Ghaderi.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Music has been widely recommended as a technique to enhance the psychophysical state of participants in sport and exercise. However, there is scant scientific evidence to clarify its proposed benefits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of fast and slow rhythm of music on anaerobic performance and salivary cortisol concentration in trained men. Thirty male physical education college students (ages: 25.66±3.89 yr, height: 176.65 ± 7.66 cm, body mass: 78.45±16.20 kg voluntary participated in this study and divided to three groups: fast music, slow music, and no music(control. All subjects performed the coninghum test following a 20% grate and 14.3km/h speed on the treadmill. For measuring of cortisol, not stimulated samples of saliva collected, 15 minutes befor and immediately 5 and 30 minute after the exercise. No significant differences were found in anaerobic performance among the three groups in pretest indicating homogeneity of the groups. However, salivary cortisol no significant in anaerobic performance 5 and 30 minute after exercise as well. Summarily, Music doed not have a positive effect on performance, this study provided some support for the hypothesis that listening fast and slow music not significantly impacted during supramaximal exercise.

  20. Aortic Dissection in a Healthy Male Athlete: A Unique Case with Comprehensive Literature Review

    Balraj Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A young otherwise healthy 27-year-old male who has been using anabolic steroids for a long time developed Type I aortic dissection associated with heavy weightlifting. The patient did not have a recent history of trauma to the chest, no history of hypertension, and no illicit drug use. He presented with severe chest pain radiating to back and syncopal event with exertion. Initial vitals were significant for blood pressure of 80/50 mmHg, pulse of 80 beats per minute, respirations of 24 per minute, and oxygen saturation of 92% on room air. Physical exam was significant for elevated jugular venous pressure, muffled heart sounds, and cold extremities with diminished pulses in upper and absent pulses in lower extremities. Bedside echocardiogram showed aortic root dilatation and cardiac tamponade. STAT computed tomography (CT scan of chest revealed dissection of ascending aorta. Cardiothoracic surgery was consulted and patient underwent successful repair of ascending aorta. Hemodynamic stress of weightlifting can predispose to aortic dissection. Aortic dissection is a rare but often catastrophic condition if not diagnosed and managed acutely. Although rare, aortic dissection needs to be in the differential when a young weightlifter presents with chest pain as a delay in diagnosis may be fatal.

  1. Myocardial blood flow and its transit time, oxygen utilization, and efficiency of highly endurance-trained human heart.

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kiviniemi, Antti; Noponen, Tommi; Luotolahti, Matti; Luoto, Pauliina; Oikonen, Vesa; Sipilä, Hannu T; Kopra, Jaakko; Mononen, Ilkka; Duncker, Dirk J; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2014-07-01

    Highly endurance-trained athlete's heart represents the most extreme form of cardiac adaptation to physical stress, but its circulatory alterations remain obscure. In the present study, myocardial blood flow (MBF), blood mean transit time (MTT), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and consumption (MVO2), and efficiency of cardiac work were quantified in highly trained male endurance athletes and control subjects at rest and during supine cycling exercise using [(15)O]-labeled radiotracers and positron emission tomography. Heart rate and MBF were lower in athletes both at rest and during exercise. OEF increased in response to exercise in both groups, but was higher in athletes (70 ± 21 vs. 63 ± 11 % at rest and 86 ± 13 vs. 73 ± 10 % during exercise). MTT was longer and vascular resistance higher in athletes both at rest and during exercise, but arterial content of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (oxygen affinity) was unchanged. MVO2 per gram of myocardium trended (p = 0.08) lower in athletes both at rest and during exercise, while myocardial efficiency of work and MVO2 per beat were not different between groups. Arterial levels of free fatty acids were ~twofold higher in athletes likely leading to higher myocardial fatty acid oxidation and hence oxygen cost, which may have blunted the bradycardia-induced decrease in MVO2. Finally, the observed group differences in MBF, OEF, MTT and vascular resistance remained significant also after they were controlled for differences in MVO2. In conclusion, in highly endurance-trained human heart, increased myocardial blood transition time enables higher oxygen extraction levels with a lower myocardial blood flow and higher vascular resistance. These physiological adaptations to exercise training occur independently of the level of oxygen consumption and together with training-induced bradycardia may serve as mechanisms to increase functional reserve of the human heart.

  2. A history of concussions is associated with symptoms of common mental disorders in former male professional athletes across a range of sports.

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Lambert, Michael; Stewart, William; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2017-11-01

    Recent reports suggest that exposure to repetitive concussions in sports is associated with an increased risk of symptoms of distress, anxiety and depression, sleep disturbance or substance abuse/dependence (typically referred as symptoms of common mental disorders[CMD]) and of later development of neurodegenerative disease, in particular chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). The primary aim of this study was to explore the relationship between sports career-related concussions and the subsequent occurrence of symptoms of CMD among former male professional athletes retired from football (soccer), ice hockey and rugby (union). Cross-sectional analyses were performed on baseline electronic questionnaires from three prospective cohort studies among former male professional athletes retired from football (soccer), ice hockey and rugby (union). The number of confirmed concussions was examined through a single question, while symptoms of distress, anxiety and depression, sleep disturbance and adverse alcohol use were assessed using validated questionnaires. From 1,957 former professional athletes contacted, a total of 576 (29%) completed the questionnaire. Of these, 23% had not incurred a concussion during their career, 34% had two or three, 18% four or five, and 11% six or more concussions. The number of sports career-related concussions was a predictor for all outcome measures (β = 0.072-0.109; P ≤ 0.040). Specifically, former professional athletes who reported a history of four or five concussions were approximately 1.5 times more likely to report symptoms of CMD, rising to a two- to five-fold increase in those reporting a history of six or more sports career-related concussions. These data demonstrate an association between exposure to sports concussion and subsequent risk of symptoms of CMD in former professional athletes across a range of contact sports. Further work to explore the association between sports concussion and symptoms of CMD is required; in

  3. Effects of sodium phosphate and caffeine ingestion on repeated-sprint ability in male athletes.

    Kopec, Benjamin J; Dawson, Brian T; Buck, Christopher; Wallman, Karen E

    2016-03-01

    To assess the effects of sodium phosphate (SP) and caffeine supplementation on repeated-sprint performance. Randomized, double-blind, Latin-square design. Eleven team-sport males participated in four trials: (1) SP (50mgkg(-1) of free fat-mass daily for six days) and caffeine (6mgkg(-1) ingested 1h before exercise); SP+C, (2) SP and placebo (for caffeine), (3) caffeine and placebo (for SP) and (4) placebo (for SP and caffeine). After loading, participants performed a simulated team-game circuit (STGC) consisting of 2×30min halves, with 6×20-m repeated-sprint sets performed at the start, half-time and end of the STGC. There were no interaction effects between trials for first-sprint (FS), best-sprint (BS) or total-sprint (TS) times (p>0.05). However, SP resulted in the fastest times for all sprints, as supported by moderate to large effect sizes (ES; d=0.51-0.83) and 'likely' to 'very likely' chances of benefit, compared with placebo. Compared with caffeine, SP resulted in 'possible' to 'likely' chances of benefit for FS, BS and TS for numerous sets and a 'possible' chance of benefit compared with SP+C for BS (set 2). Compared with placebo, SP+C resulted in moderate ES (d=0.50-0.62) and 'possible' to 'likely' benefit for numerous sprints, while caffeine resulted in a moderate ES (d=0.63; FS: set 3) and 'likely' chances of benefit for a number of sets. While not significant, ES and qualitative analysis results suggest that SP supplementation may improve repeated-sprint performance when compared with placebo. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Uzobo, Endurance

    Uzobo, Endurance. Vol 11, No 1 (2016) - Articles Population and development in Nigeria: An assesment of the National Policy on Population and Sustainable Development Abstract PDF · Vol 12, No 1 (2017) - Articles Kin networks and migration in Sagbama Local Government Area of Bayelsa State Abstract PDF.

  5. Effects of Cycling Versus Running Training on Sprint and Endurance Capacity in Inline Speed Skating

    Carolin Stangier, Thomas Abel, Julia Mierau, Wildor Hollmann, Heiko K. Strüder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of running versus cycling training on sprint and endurance capacity in inline speed skating. Sixteen elite athletes (8 male, 8 female, 24 ± 8 yrs were randomly assigned into 2 training groups performing either 2 session per week of treadmill running or ergometer cycling in addition to 3 skating specific sessions (technique, plyometrics, parkour for 8 weeks. Training intensity was determined within non-specific (cycling or running and effects on specific endurance capacity within a specific incremental exercise test. Before and after the intervention all athletes performed a specific (300m and one non-specific (30s cycling or 200m running all-out sprint test according to the group affiliation. To determine the accumulation of blood lactate (BLa and glucose (BGL 20 μl arterialized blood was drawn at rest, as well as in 1 min intervals for 10 min after the sprint test. The sport-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak was significantly increased (+17%; p = 0.01 in both groups and highly correlated with the sprint performance (r = -0.71. BLa values decreased significantly (-18%, p = 0.02 after the specific sprint test from pre to post-testing without any group effect. However, BGL values only showed a significant decrease (-2%, p = 0.04 in the running group. The close relationship between aerobic capacity and sprint performance in inline speed skating highlights the positive effects of endurance training. Although both training programs were equally effective in improving endurance and sprint capacities, the metabolic results indicate a faster recovery after high intensity efforts for all athletes, as well as a higher reliance on the fat metabolism for athletes who trained in the running group.

  6. Sport-specific endurance plank test for evaluation of global core muscle function.

    Tong, Tom K; Wu, Shing; Nie, Jinlei

    2014-02-01

    To examine the validity and reliability of a sports-specific endurance plank test for the evaluation of global core muscle function. Repeated-measures study. Laboratory environment. Twenty-eight male and eight female young athletes. Surface electromyography (sEMG) of selected trunk flexors and extensors, and an intervention of pre-fatigue core workout were applied for test validation. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), and the measurement bias ratio */÷ ratio limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated to assess reliability and measurement error. Test validity was shown by the sEMG of selected core muscles, which indicated >50% increase in muscle activation during the test; and the definite discrimination of the ∼30% reduction in global core muscle endurance subsequent to a pre-fatigue core workout. For test-retest reliability, when the first attempt of three repeated trials was considered as familiarisation, the ICC was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-0.99), CV was 2.0 ± 1.56% and the measurement bias ratio */÷ ratio LOA was 0.99 */÷ 1.07. The findings suggest that the sport-specific endurance plank test is a valid, reliable and practical method for assessing global core muscle endurance in athletes given that at least one familiarisation trial takes place prior to measurement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Altitude training for elite endurance performance: a 2012 update.

    Fudge, Barry W; Pringle, Jamie S M; Maxwell, Neil S; Turner, Gareth; Ingham, Stephen A; Jones, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    Altitude training is commonly used by endurance athletes and coaches in pursuit of enhancement of performance on return to sea level. The purpose of the current review article was to update and evaluate recent literature relevant to the practical application of altitude training for endurance athletes. Consequently, the literature can be considered in either of two categories: performance-led investigations or mechanistic advancements/insights. Each section discusses the relevant literature and proposes future directions where appropriate.

  8. The Efficacy of Wrestling-Style Compression Suits to Improve Maximum Isometric Force and Movement Velocity in Well-Trained Male Rugby Athletes

    Daniel T. McMaster

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The prevalence of compression garment (CG use is increasing with athletes striving to take advantage of the purported benefits to recovery and performance. Here, we investigated the effect of CG on muscle force and movement velocity performance in athletes.Methods: Ten well-trained male rugby athletes wore a wrestling-style CG suit applying 13–31 mmHg of compressive pressure during a training circuit in a repeated-measures crossover design. Force and velocity data were collected during a 5-s isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP and repeated countermovement jump (CMJ, respectively; and time to complete a 5-m horizontal loaded sled push was also measured.Results: IMTP peak force was enhanced in the CG condition by 139 ± 142 N (effect size [ES] = 0.36. Differences in CMJ peak velocity (ES = 0.08 and loaded sled-push sprint time between the conditions were trivial (ES = −0.01. A qualitative assessment of the effects of CG wear suggested that the likelihood of harm was unlikely in the CMJ and sled push, while a beneficial effect in the CMJ was possible, but not likely. Half of the athletes perceived a functional benefit in the IMTP and CMJ exercises.Conclusion: Consistent with other literature, there was no substantial effect of wearing a CG suit on CMJ and sprint performance. The improvement in peak force generation capability in an IMTP may be of benefit to rugby athletes involved in scrummaging or lineout lifting. The mechanism behind the improved force transmission is unclear, but may involve alterations in neuromuscular recruitment and proprioceptive feedback.

  9. The Efficacy of Wrestling-Style Compression Suits to Improve Maximum Isometric Force and Movement Velocity in Well-Trained Male Rugby Athletes.

    McMaster, Daniel T; Beaven, Christopher M; Mayo, Brad; Gill, Nicholas; Hébert-Losier, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The prevalence of compression garment (CG) use is increasing with athletes striving to take advantage of the purported benefits to recovery and performance. Here, we investigated the effect of CG on muscle force and movement velocity performance in athletes. Methods: Ten well-trained male rugby athletes wore a wrestling-style CG suit applying 13-31 mmHg of compressive pressure during a training circuit in a repeated-measures crossover design. Force and velocity data were collected during a 5-s isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) and repeated countermovement jump (CMJ), respectively; and time to complete a 5-m horizontal loaded sled push was also measured. Results: IMTP peak force was enhanced in the CG condition by 139 ± 142 N (effect size [ES] = 0.36). Differences in CMJ peak velocity (ES = 0.08) and loaded sled-push sprint time between the conditions were trivial (ES = -0.01). A qualitative assessment of the effects of CG wear suggested that the likelihood of harm was unlikely in the CMJ and sled push, while a beneficial effect in the CMJ was possible, but not likely. Half of the athletes perceived a functional benefit in the IMTP and CMJ exercises. Conclusion: Consistent with other literature, there was no substantial effect of wearing a CG suit on CMJ and sprint performance. The improvement in peak force generation capability in an IMTP may be of benefit to rugby athletes involved in scrummaging or lineout lifting. The mechanism behind the improved force transmission is unclear, but may involve alterations in neuromuscular recruitment and proprioceptive feedback.

  10. The road to gold: training and peaking characteristics in the year prior to a gold medal endurance performance.

    Tønnessen, Espen; Sylta, Øystein; Haugen, Thomas A; Hem, Erlend; Svendsen, Ida S; Seiler, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    To describe training variations across the annual cycle in Olympic and World Champion endurance athletes, and determine whether these athletes used tapering strategies in line with recommendations in the literature. Eleven elite XC skiers and biathletes (4 male; 28±1 yr, 85±5 mL x min(-1) x kg(-1) VO2max, 7 female, 25±4 yr, 73±3 mL x min(-1) x kg(-1) VO2max) reported one year of day-to-day training leading up to the most successful competition of their career. Training data were divided into periodization and peaking phases and distributed into training forms, intensity zones and endurance activity forms. Athletes trained ∼800 h/500 sessions x year(-1), including ∼500 h x year(-1) of sport-specific training. Ninety-four percent of all training was executed as aerobic endurance training. Of this, ∼90% was low intensity training (LIT, below the first lactate threshold) and 10% high intensity training (HIT, above the first lactate threshold) by time. Categorically, 23% of training sessions were characterized as HIT with primary portions executed at or above the first lactate turn point. Training volume and specificity distribution conformed to a traditional periodization model, but absolute volume of HIT remained stable across phases. However, HIT training patterns tended to become more polarized in the competition phase. Training volume, frequency and intensity remained unchanged from pre-peaking to peaking period, but there was a 32±15% (Pphase. The annual training data for these Olympic and World champion XC skiers and biathletes conforms to previously reported training patterns of elite endurance athletes. During the competition phase, training became more sport-specific, with 92% performed as XC skiing. However, they did not follow suggested tapering practice derived from short-term experimental studies. Only three out of 11 athletes took a rest day during the final 5 days prior to their most successful competition.

  11. The demographic characteristics of high-level and recreational athletes undergoing hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement: a sports-specific analysis.

    Nawabi, Danyal H; Bedi, Asheesh; Tibor, Lisa M; Magennis, Erin; Kelly, Bryan T

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in age, gender, and the need for bilateral surgery between high-level athletes grouped by sports with similar mechanical demands on the hip and recreational athletes undergoing hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). By use of a hip-preservation center registry, a retrospective review of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy for FAI between March 2010 and April 2012 was performed. Athletes were categorized as high level (high school, collegiate, or professional) or recreational. We performed a subgroup analysis for high-level athletes, looking at differences among contact, cutting, impingement, overhead/asymmetric, endurance, and flexibility sports. The study included 288 high-level athletes and 334 recreational athletes. Being a high-level athlete was associated with a younger age (mean age, 20.2 years v 33.0 years; odds ratio, 0.69; P gender (61.5% v 53.6%; odds ratio, 1.75; P = .03). The percentage of high-level athletes undergoing bilateral surgery was higher than that of recreational athletes (28.4% v 15.9%); however, this association was found to be confounded by age on multivariate analysis. The most common sports for high-level athletes were soccer, hockey, and football. Athletes participating in cutting sports were significantly younger than athletes participating flexibility, contact, or impingement sports. When compared with recreational athletes undergoing arthroscopic treatment for FAI, high-level athletes are more likely to be younger, to be male, and to undergo bilateral surgery. When high-level athletes are grouped by the mechanical demands placed on the hip by their sport, athletes participating in cutting sports are more likely to be younger than those in the other groups. Level IV, case series. Copyright © 2014 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Airways inflammatory and atopy-related responses in athletes ...

    Abstract. The prevalence of asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in highly trained endurance athletes is rising. The type of training (i.e. endurance, or speed and power) seems to influence the airway symptoms. High-intensity exercise and training might contribute to the development of asthma or AHR in athletes ...

  13. Isokinetic torque peak and hamstrings/quadriceps ratios in endurance athletes with anterior cruciate ligament laxity Pico de torque isocinético e relação ísquios-tibiais/quadríceps em atletas de endurance com frouxidão do ligamento cruzado anterior

    Eliane Magaieski Portes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate torque and the hamstring/quadriceps ratio of the knee of athletes with and without anterior cruciate ligament laxity. METHODS: Twenty-eight male athletes, 19 without anterior cruciate ligament laxity and 9 with anterior cruciate ligament laxity, were evaluated with an isokinetic machine model Cybex 770. The peak torque of quadriceps and hamstrings was compared, and the hamstring/quadriceps ratio on the constant angular speed of 60º per second were also compared. RESULTS: In athletes with anterior cruciate ligament laxity, the peak torque values (right and left knees of flexors (120 ± 15 and 116 ± 15 Nm and of extensors (218 ± 36 Nm and 207 ± 26 Nm were not different than those of athletes without laxity (109 ± 21 Nm and 111 ± 22 Nm; 191 ± 5 Nm and 188 ± 35 Nm. The hamstring/quadriceps ratio of athletes with laxity (right: 57 ± 6% and left: 56 ± 8% did not differ from those without anterior cruciate ligament laxity (right: 58 ± 9% and left: 58 ± 7%. CONCLUSIONS: The anterior cruciate ligament laxity of long distances running athletes did not significantly alter the peak torque of flexors and of extensors or the hamstring/quadriceps ratio.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o torque e a relação de forças entre ísquios-tibiais/quadríceps dos joelhos de atletas corredores de longas distâncias com e sem frouxidão do ligamento cruzado anterior. METODOLOGIA: Vinte e oito atletas do gênero masculino, 19 sem frouxidão do ligamento cruzado anterior e 9 com frouxidão do ligamento cruzado anterior foram avaliados com aparelho isocinético modelo Cybex 770. Comparou-se o pico de torque dos quadríceps e dos ísquios-tibiais e a relação ísquios-tibiais/quadríceps na velocidade angular constante de 60º por segundo. Os dados obtidos foram comparados por meio dos testes t de Student e para dados pareados (membros direito e esquerdo e o nível de significância estabelecido foi p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Nos atletas com frouxidão do

  14. Carbohydrate Dependence During Prolonged, Intense Endurance Exercise.

    Hawley, John A; Leckey, Jill J

    2015-11-01

    A major goal of training to improve the performance of prolonged, continuous, endurance events lasting up to 3 h is to promote a range of physiological and metabolic adaptations that permit an athlete to work at both higher absolute and relative power outputs/speeds and delay the onset of fatigue (i.e., a decline in exercise intensity). To meet these goals, competitive endurance athletes undertake a prodigious volume of training, with a large proportion performed at intensities that are close to or faster than race pace and highly dependent on carbohydrate (CHO)-based fuels to sustain rates of muscle energy production [i.e., match rates of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis with rates of resynthesis]. Consequently, to sustain muscle energy reserves and meet the daily demands of training sessions, competitive athletes freely select CHO-rich diets. Despite renewed interest in high-fat, low-CHO diets for endurance sport, fat-rich diets do not improve training capacity or performance, but directly impair rates of muscle glycogenolysis and energy flux, limiting high-intensity ATP production. When highly trained athletes compete in endurance events lasting up to 3 h, CHO-, not fat-based fuels are the predominant fuel for the working muscles and CHO, not fat, availability becomes rate limiting for performance.

  15. Relationship of physical self concept and athletic performance in male medical students in Birjand University of Medical Sciences

    Shahnaz Tabiee

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it was found that athletic performance improves physical self-esteem and self-esteem of students. Therefore, health system policy makers can promote the necessary facilities for expanding the culture of sports activities and also create an environment with sufficient facilities in the university.

  16. Effects of Cycling Versus Running Training on Sprint and Endurance Capacity in Inline Speed Skating

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of running versus cycling training on sprint and endurance capacity in inline speed skating. Sixteen elite athletes (8 male, 8 female, 24 ± 8 yrs) were randomly assigned into 2 training groups performing either 2 session per week of treadmill running or ergometer cycling in addition to 3 skating specific sessions (technique, plyometrics, parkour) for 8 weeks. Training intensity was determined within non-specific (cycling or running) and effects on specific endurance capacity within a specific incremental exercise test. Before and after the intervention all athletes performed a specific (300m) and one non-specific (30s cycling or 200m running) all-out sprint test according to the group affiliation. To determine the accumulation of blood lactate (BLa) and glucose (BGL) 20 μl arterialized blood was drawn at rest, as well as in 1 min intervals for 10 min after the sprint test. The sport-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) was significantly increased (+17%; p = 0.01) in both groups and highly correlated with the sprint performance (r = -0.71). BLa values decreased significantly (-18%, p = 0.02) after the specific sprint test from pre to post-testing without any group effect. However, BGL values only showed a significant decrease (-2%, p = 0.04) in the running group. The close relationship between aerobic capacity and sprint performance in inline speed skating highlights the positive effects of endurance training. Although both training programs were equally effective in improving endurance and sprint capacities, the metabolic results indicate a faster recovery after high intensity efforts for all athletes, as well as a higher reliance on the fat metabolism for athletes who trained in the running group. Key points In addition to a highly developed aerobic performance inline speed skaters also require a highly trained anaerobic capacity to be effective in the sprint sections such as the mass start, tactical attacks

  17. Section modulus is the optimum geometric predictor for stress fractures and medial tibial stress syndrome in both male and female athletes.

    Franklyn, Melanie; Oakes, Barry; Field, Bruce; Wells, Peter; Morgan, David

    2008-06-01

    Various tibial dimensions and geometric parameters have been linked to stress fractures in athletes and military recruits, but many mechanical parameters have still not been investigated. Sedentary people, athletes with medial tibial stress syndrome, and athletes with stress fractures have smaller tibial geometric dimensions and parameters than do uninjured athletes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Using a total of 88 subjects, male and female patients with either a tibial stress fracture or medial tibial stress syndrome were compared with both uninjured aerobically active controls and uninjured sedentary controls. Tibial scout radiographs and cross-sectional computed tomography images of all subjects were scanned at the junction of the midthird and distal third of the tibia. Tibial dimensions were measured directly from the films; other parameters were calculated numerically. Uninjured exercising men have a greater tibial cortical cross-sectional area than do their sedentary and injured counterparts, resulting in a greater value of some other cross-sectional geometric parameters, particularly the section modulus. However, for women, the cross-sectional areas are either not different or only marginally different, and there are few tibial dimensions or geometric parameters that distinguish the uninjured exercisers from the sedentary and injured subjects. In women, the main difference between the groups was the distribution of cortical bone about the centroid as a result of the different values of section modulus. Last, medial tibial stress syndrome subjects had smaller tibial cross-sectional dimensions than did their uninjured exercising counterparts, suggesting that medial tibial stress syndrome is not just a soft-tissue injury but also a bony injury. The results show that in men, the cross-sectional area and the section modulus are the key parameters in the tibia to distinguish exercise and injury status, whereas for women, it is the section modulus only.

  18. Ultra-endurance sports have no negative impact on indices of arterial stiffness.

    Radtke, Thomas; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Brugger, Nicolas; Schäfer, Daniela; Saner, Hugo; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Marathon running has been linked with higher arterial stiffness. Blood pressure is a major contributor to pulse wave velocity (PWV). We examined indices of arterial stiffness with a blood pressure-independent method in marathon runners and ultra-endurance athletes. Male normotensive amateur runners were allocated to three groups according to former participation in competitions: group I (recreational athletes), group II (marathon runners) and group III (ultra-endurance athletes). Indices of arterial stiffness were measured with a non-invasive device (VaSera VS-1500N, Fukuda Denshi, Japan) to determine the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI, primary endpoint) and brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV). Lifetime training hours were calculated. Cumulative competitions were expressed as marathon equivalents. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine predictors for CAVI and baPWV. Measurements of arterial stiffness were performed in 51 subjects (mean age 44.6 ± 1.2 years): group I (n = 16), group II (n = 19) and group III (n = 16). No between-group differences existed in age, anthropometric characteristics and resting BP. CAVI and baPWV were comparable between all groups (P = 0.604 and P = 0.947, respectively). In linear regression analysis, age was the only independent predictor for CAVI (R(2) = 0.239, β = 0.455, P = 0.001). Systolic BP was significantly associated with baPWV (R(2) = 0.225, β = 0.403, P = 0.004). In middle-aged normotensive athletes marathon running and ultra-endurance sports had no negative impact on arterial stiffness.

  19. The Effect of Theraband Training on Position Sense of Internal and External Rotator Muscles in Male Athletes with Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

    Ramin Moharrami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the effect of theraband training on Position sense of internal and external rotator muscles in male athletes with shoulder impingement syndrome. Materials & Methods: In this semi-experimental interventional study 30 cases of men with Shoulder syndrome with age range of 20 to 30 years participated. They were divided in test and control groups, each group including 15 people through non-random and purposeful method Biodex System 3 Made in America was used to measure position sense of internal and external rotator muscles. For data analysis independent 7 paired t-test was used in SPSS software (version 21. Results: The experimental group showed significant improvement after six weeks of theraband training in the internal and external rotator muscles in three 90,45,0 degree angle at a significance level of 0.05 (P=0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that of theraband training resulted in improved position sense of internal and external rotator muscles in male athletes with impingement syndrome thus, the benefits of these exercises can be used widely in team sports and also for easy and quick rehabilitation of patients.

  20. Isometric and dynamic strength and neuromuscular attributes as predictors of vertical jump performance in 11- to 13-year-old male athletes.

    McKinlay, Brandon John; Wallace, Phillip J; Dotan, Raffy; Long, Devon; Tokuno, Craig; Gabriel, David A; Falk, Bareket

    2017-09-01

    In explosive contractions, neural activation is a major factor in determining the rate of torque development, while the latter is an important determinant of jump performance. However, the contribution of neuromuscular activation and rate of torque development to jump performance in children and youth is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between the rate of neuromuscular activation, peak torque, rate of torque development, and jump performance in young male athletes. Forty-one 12.5 ± 0.5-year-old male soccer players completed explosive, unilateral isometric and dynamic (240°/s) knee extensions (Biodex System III), as well as countermovement-, squat-, and drop-jumps. Peak torque (pT), peak rate of torque development (pRTD), and rate of vastus lateralis activation (Q 30 ) during the isometric and dynamic contractions were examined in relation to attained jump heights. Isometric pT and pRTD were strongly correlated (r = 0.71) but not related to jump performance. Dynamic pT and pRTD, normalized to body mass, were significantly related to jump height in all 3 jumps (r = 0.38-0.66, p jump performance, while isometric contractions are not. These findings have implications in the choice of training and assessment methods for young athletes.

  1. The Effect of High-intensity Interval Training (HIIT on Plasma Levels of Resistin in Male Non-athlete Students (A Trial Study

    Karim Dehghani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Adipose tissue as a source of energy, is known as an important endocrine organ that releases various hormones including resistin. Resistin plays an important role in regulation of energy homeostasis and metabolism. The effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on resistin concentration in individuals is not clearly defined. The present study aimed to determine the effect of 10-weeks of HIIT on plasma resistin levels in male non-athlete students.   Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 26 male non-athlete students were randomly selected and divided into two groups of experimental and control. The experimental group performed interval trainings, in a 10-week training program (3 times a week according to the training program with the intensity of 85-100% HRmax. Blood samples were taken after 14 hours of fasting at different stages and similar conditions, and plasma levels of resistin were measured using a resistin kit (BOSTER Company, USA. The data were analyzed using independent and dependent t-tests at the significance level of α < 0.05.   Results: In this study, 10 weeks of HIIT caused a significant decrease in the plasma levels of resistin in the experimental group compared to the control group (p≤0.05.   Conclusion: From the obtained results, it can be said that HIIT, as a new and effective training method, has a preventive effect on cardiovascular diseases through a significant reduction of resistin.

  2. Study of speed endurance middle distance runners

    R.V. Golovaschenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To investigate the boost performance speed endurance runners who specialize in middle-distance running . Material and methods : The study involved team members Vinnytsia region in an amount of 44 people, whose average age was 20,2 ± 2,1 years. Classes are held during the 21-day mesocycle, 5 times a week, twice a day. Things were aimed at enhancing the development of indicators of special speed endurance. Results : The dynamics of the running speed of the model segments that characterize speed endurance athletes. Proved that the improved running 400 meter intervals helps reduce travel time competitive distance of 1500 meters. Conclusion : The use of the program contributes to higher speed endurance, which determines the result in the women's 1,500 meters.

  3. Acute effect of a complex training protocol of back squats on 30-m sprint times of elite male military athletes.

    Ojeda, Álvaro Huerta; Ríos, Luis Chirosa; Barrilao, Rafael Guisado; Serrano, Pablo Cáceres

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the acute effect temporal of a complex training protocol on 30 meter sprint times. A secondary objective was to evaluate the fatigue indexes of military athletes. [Subjects and Methods] Seven military athletes were the subjects of this study. The variables measured were times in 30-meter sprint, and average power and peak power of squats. The intervention session with complex training consisted of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 30% 1RM + 4 repetitions at 60% 1RM + 3 repetitions of 30 meters with 120-second rests. For the statistical analysis repeated measures of ANOVA was used, and for the post hoc analysis, student's t-test was used. [Results] Times in 30 meter sprints showed a significant reduction between the control set and the four experimental sets, but the average power and peak power of squats did not show significant changes. [Conclusion] The results of the study show the acute positive effect of complex training, over time, in 30-meter sprint by military athletes. This effect is due to the post activation potentiation of the lower limbs' muscles in the 30 meters sprint.

  4. Comparison of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1 Responses to Different Endurance Training Intensities in Runner Men

    M. Habibian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Blood neurotrophins, such as Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1, mediate exercise- induced health benefits in humans. The purpose of this study was to compare the response of BDNF and IGF-1 to different endurance training intensities in runner men. Materials & Methods: In this semi-experimental study with pre-test-posttest design in 2015, 10 people of male runners from Gorgan were selected through purposeful and accessible sampling. The endurance training protocol was 6 km running with moderate (70-75% of heart rate reserve or severe (80-85% of heart rate reserve intensity, which was performed within a week's interval. Fasting blood samples were collected before and immediately after both acute training sessions and serum levels of BDNF and IGF-1 were measured by ELISA and radioimmunoassay enzyme. Data were analyzed by SPSS 20 software using independent t-test and paired t-test. Findings: Both acute endurance training significantly increased serum levels of BDNF and IGF-1 in runners, but high intensity endurance exercises increased BDNF levels in comparison with moderate intensity (p0.05. Conclusion: Serum BDNF response in endurance athletes is affected by the intensity of exercise, so that the effect of high intensity endurance training on BDNF levels is greater than moderate intensity exercise, but the response of IGF-1 to acute endurance training is independent of the intensity of exercise.

  5. Iron Supplementation during Three Consecutive Days of Endurance Training Augmented Hepcidin Levels

    Aya Ishibashi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Iron supplementation contributes an effort to improving iron status among athletes, but it does not always prevent iron deficiency. In the present study, we explored the effect of three consecutive days of endurance training (twice daily on the hepcidin-25 (hepcidin level. The effect of iron supplementation during this period was also determined. Fourteen male endurance athletes were enrolled and randomly assigned to either an iron-treated condition (Fe condition, n = 7 or a placebo condition (Control condition; CON, n = 7. They engaged in two 75-min sessions of treadmill running at 75% of maximal oxygen uptake on three consecutive days (days 1–3. The Fe condition took 12 mg of iron twice daily (24 mg/day, and the CON condition did not. On day 1, both conditions exhibited significant increases in serum hepcidin and plasma interleukin-6 levels after exercise (p < 0.05. In the CON condition, the hepcidin level did not change significantly throughout the training period. However, in the Fe condition, the serum hepcidin level on day 4 was significantly higher than that of the CON condition (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the hepcidin level was significantly elevated following three consecutive days of endurance training when moderate doses of iron were taken.

  6. Iron Supplementation during Three Consecutive Days of Endurance Training Augmented Hepcidin Levels.

    Ishibashi, Aya; Maeda, Naho; Kamei, Akiko; Goto, Kazushige

    2017-07-30

    Iron supplementation contributes an effort to improving iron status among athletes, but it does not always prevent iron deficiency. In the present study, we explored the effect of three consecutive days of endurance training (twice daily) on the hepcidin-25 (hepcidin) level. The effect of iron supplementation during this period was also determined. Fourteen male endurance athletes were enrolled and randomly assigned to either an iron-treated condition (Fe condition, n = 7) or a placebo condition (Control condition; CON, n = 7). They engaged in two 75-min sessions of treadmill running at 75% of maximal oxygen uptake on three consecutive days (days 1-3). The Fe condition took 12 mg of iron twice daily (24 mg/day), and the CON condition did not. On day 1, both conditions exhibited significant increases in serum hepcidin and plasma interleukin-6 levels after exercise ( p < 0.05). In the CON condition, the hepcidin level did not change significantly throughout the training period. However, in the Fe condition, the serum hepcidin level on day 4 was significantly higher than that of the CON condition ( p < 0.05). In conclusion, the hepcidin level was significantly elevated following three consecutive days of endurance training when moderate doses of iron were taken.

  7. Influence of gender and types of sports training on QT variables in young elite athletes.

    Omiya, Kazuto; Sekizuka, Hiromitsu; Kida, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Ohba, Haruo; Musha, Haruki

    2014-01-01

    Influence of gender and sports training on QT variables such as QT interval and dispersion (QT dispersion: QTD) in young elite athletes were evaluated. Subjects included 104 male and 97 female Japanese elite athletes (mean age 21.6 years). Sports included basketball, fencing, gymnastics, judo, swimming, tennis, track and field and volleyball. Age-matched healthy non-athletes (32 men and 20 women) were enrolled as controls. QT measurements were manually obtained from a 12-lead resting electrocardiogram and QTD was calculated as the difference between the longest and shortest QT intervals. A corrected QT interval (QTc) was obtained using Bazett's formula. Subjects were divided into two groups; an endurance training group and a static training group on the basis of their training types. Maximum and minimum QTc were significantly longer in female athletes than in male athletes (max: 414.2 vs. 404.5 ms, min: 375.1 vs. 359.2 ms, pgender and different characteristics of sports training may affect QT variables even in young elite athletes. Vigorous static exercise training may independently prolong QT variables.

  8. Exercise performance and cardiovascular health variables in 70-year-old male soccer players compared to endurance-trained, strength-trained and untrained age-matched men

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Petersen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent...

  9. Altitude and endurance training.

    Rusko, Heikki K; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Peltonen, Juha E

    2004-10-01

    The benefits of living and training at altitude (HiHi) for an improved altitude performance of athletes are clear, but controlled studies for an improved sea-level performance are controversial. The reasons for not having a positive effect of HiHi include: (1) the acclimatization effect may have been insufficient for elite athletes to stimulate an increase in red cell mass/haemoglobin mass because of too low an altitude (altitude training period (training effect at altitude may have been compromised due to insufficient training stimuli for enhancing the function of the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems; and (3) enhanced stress with possible overtraining symptoms and an increased frequency of infections. Moreover, the effects of hypoxia in the brain may influence both training intensity and physiological responses during training at altitude. Thus, interrupting hypoxic exposure by training in normoxia may be a key factor in avoiding or minimizing the noxious effects that are known to occur in chronic hypoxia. When comparing HiHi and HiLo (living high and training low), it is obvious that both can induce a positive acclimatization effect and increase the oxygen transport capacity of blood, at least in 'responders', if certain prerequisites are met. The minimum dose to attain a haematological acclimatization effect is > 12 h a day for at least 3 weeks at an altitude or simulated altitude of 2100-2500 m. Exposure to hypoxia appears to have some positive transfer effects on subsequent training in normoxia during and after HiLo. The increased oxygen transport capacity of blood allows training at higher intensity during and after HiLo in subsequent normoxia, thereby increasing the potential to improve some neuromuscular and cardiovascular determinants of endurance performance. The effects of hypoxic training and intermittent short-term severe hypoxia at rest are not yet clear and they require further study.

  10. Effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on aerobic and anaerobic performance and perception of fatigue in male elite judo athletes.

    Chaouachi, Anis; Coutts, Aaron J; Chamari, Karim; Wong, Del P; Chaouachi, Mustapha; Chtara, Moktar; Roky, Rachida; Amri, Mohamed

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the Ramadan intermittent fast (RIF) on aerobic and anaerobic exercise performance in elite judo athletes (Judokas) maintaining their usual training loads. Physical performance tests (squat jump [SJ]), countermovement jump [CMJ], 30-second repeated jump, 30-m sprint, and the multistage fitness test) and fatigue scores were measured in 15 elite Judokas on 4 occasions: before Ramadan (T1), at the beginning of Ramadan (T2), at the end of Ramadan (T3) and 3 weeks after Ramadan. Results showed that 30-m sprint performance, multistage shuttle run test, SJ, and CMJ did not change during Ramadan. However, average power during the 30-second repeated jump test was slightly lower at the end of Ramadan (22.4 +/- 2.3 W/kg; P Ramadan (23.4 +/- 2.3 W/kg). There was a minor reduction of 1.3 kg in body mass and an increase in total fatigue scores (T2, 19 +/- 5; T3, 16 +/- 4; both P Ramadan in comparison with the control period (T1, 12 +/- 3). These results show that the RIF has little effect on aerobic performance and on very short duration sprinting and jumping test performance in elite Judokas. Additionally, experienced athletes can maintain both sufficient energy intake and normal training loads during the RIF. The slight reduction in the 30-second jump test may be associated with reduced central drive and body mass. Collectively, these results suggest that the RIF has little effect on the performance of experienced Judokas, but Muslim athletes who train during the RIF should carefully periodize their training load and monitor their food intake and fatigue levels to avoid performance decrements.

  11. Mortality and health-related habits in 900 Finnish former elite athletes and their brothers.

    Kontro, Titta Katariina; Sarna, Seppo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M

    2018-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the associations between participation in vigorous sports, health habits, familial factors and subsequent mortality. We investigated all-cause mortality and health-related behaviour among former elite athletes and their brothers. The mortality of Finnish male former elite athletes, who had represented Finland between 1920 and 1965 (n=900) and their age-matched brothers (n=900), was followed from the time when athlete started an elite athlete career until 31 December 2015. The age-adjusted HRs were calculated by a paired Cox proportional hazards model. In 2001, surviving participants (n=199 athletes and n=199 age-matched brothers) reported their self-rated health (SRH), physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking habits in the questionnaire. During the total follow-up period, 1296 deaths (72% of the cohort) occurred. The age-adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality in former athletes was 0.75 (95% CI 0.65 to 0.87, Ppower sports athletes, and 77.5, 73.7 and 72.2 years for their age-matched brothers, respectively. In 2001, compared with their brothers, former athletes smoked less (P<0.001), were more physically active (P<0.05) and rated their health more often as very good (P<0.05). Former elite athletes are more physically active, smoke less, have better self-rated health and live longer than their brothers. Genetic differences between athletes and brothers, aerobic training for endurance elite sports and a healthier lifestyle may all contribute to reduced mortality. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Awareness and use of caffeine by athletes competing at the 2005 Ironman Triathlon World Championships.

    Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2006-10-01

    This study assessed the knowledge, prevalence, and quantity of caffeine use by athletes competing at the 2005 Ironman Triathlon World Championships. Caffeine-related questionnaires were self-administered to 140 (105 male and 35 female, 40.3 +/- 10.7 y) athletes representing 16 countries. Fifty of these athletes further consented to immediate post-race blood samples for analysis of plasma caffeine and paraxanthine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seventy-two percent of 70 athletes correctly identified caffeine as being an unrestricted substance in triathlon. The majority of athletes [125 (89%)] were planning on using a caffeinated substance immediately prior to or throughout the race. Cola drinks (78%), caffeinated gels (42%), coffee (usually pre-race) (37%), energy drinks (13%), and NoDoz tablets (9%) were the most popular caffeinated choices. Mean +/- standard deviation (and range) post race plasma caffeine and paraxanthine levels were 22.3 +/- 20 micromol/L (1.7 to 98.4) and 9.4 +/- 6 micromol/L (1.8 to 28.9), respectively. Seven athletes (14%) finished with plasma caffeine levels > or = 40 micromol/L. Plasma values from elite athletes did not differ from age group competitors. Despite the prevalence of its consumption and the training experience of this athletic group, over one quarter of athletes remained either confused or uninformed about caffeine's legality. Levels of plasma caffeine taken immediately post race indicated that athletes typically finish with quantities of caffeine that have been shown to improve endurance performance (i.e., approximately 20 micromol/L or a dose of > or = 3 mg/kg body weight).

  13. Self Hypnosis for Elite Athletes.

    Davey, Colin P.

    A summary of the use of hypnosis in sport (Morgan 1980) has suggested that the evidence in this area is equivocal, particularly in strength, endurance, and psychomotor tasks. However, some experiments have demonstrated the potential use of hypnosis. This paper presents examples of two elite Australian athletes who achieve success using hypnosis or…

  14. Effects of In-Season Short-term Plyometric Training Program on Sprint and Jump Performance of Young Male Track Athletes.

    Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Hermassi, Souhail; Shephard, Roy J

    2015-08-01

    We studied the effect of supplementing normal in-season training by a 10-week lower limb plyometric training program (hurdle and depth jumping), examining measures of competitive potential (peak power output [PP], sprint running velocity, squat jump [SJ], countermovement jump [CMJ], drop jump [DJ], and lower limb muscle volume). The subjects (27 male track athletes, aged 11.9 ± 1.0 years; body mass: 39.1 ± 6.1 kg; height: 1.56 ± 0.02 m; body fat: 12.8 ± 4.4%) were randomly assigned between a control (normal training) group (C; n = 13) and an experimental group (E; n = 14) who also performed plyometric training 3 times per week. A force-velocity ergometer test determined PP and SJ, and an Optojump apparatus evaluated CMJ height and DJ (height and power). A multiple-5-bound test assessed horizontal jumping, and video-camera analyses over a 40-m sprint yielded velocities for the first step (VS), the first 5 m (V5m), and between 35 and 40 m (Vmax). Leg muscle volume was estimated anthropometrically. Experimental group showed gains relative to C in SJ height (p plyometric training improved important components of athletic performance relative to standard in-season training in young runners.

  15. Impact of Type of Sport, Gender and Age on Red Blood Cell Deformability of Elite Athletes.

    Tomschi, Fabian; Bloch, Wilhelm; Grau, Marijke

    2018-01-01

    Our objective was to detect possible differences in red blood cell (RBC) deformability of elite athletes performing different types of sports and being of different age and gender.182 athletes were included in this cross-sectional study. RBC deformability was measured using the laser-assisted optical rotational cell-analyzer. Maximal elongation index (EI  max ) and shear stress at half-maximum deformation (SS  1/2 ) were calculated. The ratio SS  1/2  /EI  max  (EI  Ratio ) was calculated with low values representing high RBC deformation. Hematocrit (Hct) and mean cellular volume (MCV) were determined in venous blood. Overall RBC deformability did not differ between male and female athletes but, when separated by age of the subjects, RBC deformability increased with age in male but not in female athletes. RBC deformability was lower in Combat sports compared other sport groups. Hct was higher in male compared to female athletes while no difference was observed for MCV. MCV and Hct increased with increasing age. A negative correlation was found between the EI  Ratio  and MCV and between EI  Ratio  and Hct. RBC deformability is influenced by age and endurance rate of the sport which suggests that the RBC system may adapt to changing conditions such as adolescence with the onset effects of sex hormones or physical exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Relationships between Sprint, Jumping and Strength Abilities, and 800 M Performance in Male Athletes of National and International Levels.

    Bachero-Mena, Beatriz; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Yáñez-García, Juan Manuel; Mora-Custodio, Ricardo; González-Badillo, Juan José

    2017-09-01

    This study analysed the relationships between sprinting, jumping and strength abilities, with regard to 800 m running performance. Fourteen athletes of national and international levels in 800 m (personal best: 1:43-1:58 min:ss) completed sprint tests (20 m and 200 m), a countermovement jump, jump squat and full squat test as well as an 800 m race. Significant relationships (p relationship between the first to the last 50 m interval times and the 800 m time tended to increase (1st 50 m: r = 0.71; 2nd 50 m: r = 0.72; 3rd 50 m: r = 0.81; 4th 50 m: r = 0.85). Performance in 800 m also correlated significantly (p < 0.01-0.05) with strength variables: the countermovement jump (r = -0.69), jump squat (r = -0.65), and full squat test (r = -0.58). Performance of 800 m in high-level athletes was related to sprint, strength and jumping abilities, with 200 m and the latest 50 m of the 200 m being the variables that most explained the variance of the 800 m performance.

  17. Prime Time Light Exposures Do Not Seem to Improve Maximal Physical Performance in Male Elite Athletes, but Enhance End-Spurt Performance

    Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many sports competitions take place during television prime time, a time of the day when many athletes have already exceeded their time of peak performance. We assessed the effect of different light exposure modalities on physical performance and melatonin levels in athletes during prime time. Seventy-two young, male elite athletes with a median (interquartile range age of 23 (21; 29 years and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max of 63 (58; 66 ml/kg/min were randomly assigned to three different light exposure groups: bright light (BRIGHT, blue monochromatic light (BLUE, and control light (CONTROL. Each light exposure lasted 60 min and was scheduled to start 17 h after each individual's midpoint of sleep (median time: 9:17 pm. Immediately after light exposure, a 12-min time trial was performed on a bicycle ergometer. The test supervisor and participants were blinded to the light condition each participant was exposed to. The median received light intensities and peak wavelengths (photopic lx/nm measured at eye level were 1319/545 in BRIGHT, 203/469 in BLUE, and 115/545 in CONTROL. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for individual VO2max, total work performed in 12 min did not significantly differ between the three groups. The amount of exposure to non-image forming light was positively associated with the performance gain during the time trial, defined as the ratio of the work performed in the first and last minute of the time trial, and with stronger melatonin suppression. Specifically, a tenfold increase in the exposure to melanopic light was associated with a performance gain of 8.0% (95% confidence interval: 2.6, 13.3; P = 0.004 and a melatonin decrease of −0.9 pg/ml (95% confidence interval: −1.5, −0.3; P = 0.006. Exposure to bright or blue light did not significantly improve maximum cycling performance in a 12-min all-out time trial. However, it is noteworthy that the estimated difference of 4.1 kJ between BRIGHT and CONTROL might represent

  18. Prime Time Light Exposures Do Not Seem to Improve Maximal Physical Performance in Male Elite Athletes, but Enhance End-Spurt Performance

    Knaier, Raphael; Schäfer, Juliane; Rossmeissl, Anja; Klenk, Christopher; Hanssen, Henner; Höchsmann, Christoph; Cajochen, Christian; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2017-01-01

    Many sports competitions take place during television prime time, a time of the day when many athletes have already exceeded their time of peak performance. We assessed the effect of different light exposure modalities on physical performance and melatonin levels in athletes during prime time. Seventy-two young, male elite athletes with a median (interquartile range) age of 23 (21; 29) years and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) of 63 (58; 66) ml/kg/min were randomly assigned to three different light exposure groups: bright light (BRIGHT), blue monochromatic light (BLUE), and control light (CONTROL). Each light exposure lasted 60 min and was scheduled to start 17 h after each individual's midpoint of sleep (median time: 9:17 pm). Immediately after light exposure, a 12-min time trial was performed on a bicycle ergometer. The test supervisor and participants were blinded to the light condition each participant was exposed to. The median received light intensities and peak wavelengths (photopic lx/nm) measured at eye level were 1319/545 in BRIGHT, 203/469 in BLUE, and 115/545 in CONTROL. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for individual VO2max, total work performed in 12 min did not significantly differ between the three groups. The amount of exposure to non-image forming light was positively associated with the performance gain during the time trial, defined as the ratio of the work performed in the first and last minute of the time trial, and with stronger melatonin suppression. Specifically, a tenfold increase in the exposure to melanopic light was associated with a performance gain of 8.0% (95% confidence interval: 2.6, 13.3; P = 0.004) and a melatonin decrease of −0.9 pg/ml (95% confidence interval: −1.5, −0.3; P = 0.006). Exposure to bright or blue light did not significantly improve maximum cycling performance in a 12-min all-out time trial. However, it is noteworthy that the estimated difference of 4.1 kJ between BRIGHT and CONTROL might represent an

  19. The Effect of 8 Weeks Resistance Training with HMB Supplementary Product on Changes in Growth Hormone and Testosteron Over Un athlete Males

    M.R. Assad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks resistance training program with HMB supplementary product on changes in Growth hormone and testosterone over non athlete males. This  presented research is a semi-experimental research and due to this matter 20 non athlete males participated voluntary  for this research and were divided into 2 groups, experimental groups (n=10 with an average age of 75/28±39/1 years, height 83/179±30/0 centimeters, weight 23/84+-58/3 kilograms and fat percentage 21/29±97/5,2: control group(n=10 with an average of 28+-14/2 years, height 25/180±71/3 centimeters , weight 23/84±58/3 kg and fat percentage 21/29±97/5.both groups performed 8 weeks resistance training  protocol ( 5 moves,3 times per a week, with  an intensity level of 50 to 80% 1RM. The experimental group during the research took 3 gr HMB supplement daily .a drug index is used for the control group. before  the exercise and  48 h after the last training session blood sample was taken from their left  forearm vein while fasting. at last growth hormone and testosterone serum dosage  was analyzed via a micro wells (made in U.S.A. Beside growth hormone and testosterone, fat percentage, BMI and vo2 max  were analyzed before and after the experiment. The analyzed rate via T TEST showed that the usage of HMB supplement doesn’t have a significant effect on GH,TH, FAT PERCENTAGE, BMI, and vo2 max. This presented information doesn’t recommend the HMB supplement dose for increasing level of growth and testosterone serum.

  20. Effect of thyme extract supplementation on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant capacity, PGC-1α content and endurance exercise performance in rats.

    Khani, Mostafa; Motamedi, Pezhman; Dehkhoda, Mohammad Reza; Dabagh Nikukheslat, Saeed; Karimi, Pouran

    2017-01-01

    Athletes have a large extent of oxidant agent production. In the current study, we aimed to determine the influence of thyme extract on the endurance exercise performance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and antioxidant status in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups receiving either normal drinking water (non-supplemented group, n  = 10) or thyme extract, 400 mg/kg, (supplemented group, n  = 10). Rats in both groups were subjected to endurance treadmill training (27 m/min, 10% grade, 60 min, and 5 days/week for 8 weeks). Finally, to determine the endurance capacity, time to exhaustion treadmill running at 36 m/min speed was assessed. At the end of the endurance capacity test, serum and soleus muscle samples were collected and their superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were measured. Protein expression of PGC-1α, as a marker of mitochondrial biogenesis, was also determined in the soleus muscle tissue by immunoblotting assay. Findings revealed that the exhaustive running time in the treatment group was significantly ( p  extract supplemented group (t 18  = 8.11, p  antioxidant capacity between groups. Furthermore, thyme supplementation significantly ( p  extract supplementation increased endurance exercise tolerance in intact animals, although decrease of oxidative stress and regulation of the PGC-1α protein expression are not considered as underlying molecular mechanisms.

  1. Reliability and Sensitivity of the Power Push-up Test for Upper-Body Strength and Power in 6-15-Year-Old Male Athletes.

    Gillen, Zachary M; Miramonti, Amelia A; McKay, Brianna D; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Leutzinger, Todd J; Cramer, Joel T

    2018-01-01

    Gillen, ZM, Miramonti, AA, McKay, BD, Jenkins, NDM, Leutzinger, TJ, and Cramer, JT. Reliability and sensitivity of the power push-up test for upper-body strength and power in 6-15-year-old male athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 83-96, 2018-The power push-up (PPU) test is an explosive upper-body test performed on a force plate and is currently being used in high school football combines throughout the United States. The purpose of this study was to quantify the reliability of the PPU test based on age and starting position (knees vs. toes) in young athletes. Sixty-eight boys (mean ± SD; age = 10.8 ± 2.0 years) were tested twice over 5 days. Boys were separated by age as 6-9 years (n = 16), 10-11 years (n = 26), and 12-15 years (n = 26). The PPU test was performed on a force plate while rotating from the knees vs. the toes. Measurements were peak force (PF, N), peak rate of force development (pRFD, N·s), average power (AP, W), and peak power (PP, W). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2,1), SEMs, coefficients of variation (CVs), and minimum detectable changes (MDCs) were calculated to quantify reliability and sensitivity. Peak force from the knees in 10-15-year-olds, PF from the toes in 12-15-year-olds, and pRFD from the knees and toes in 12-15-year-olds were comparably reliable (ICC ≥ 0.84). Neither power measurements (AP or PP) for any age group, nor any measurements (PF, pRFD, AP, or PP) for the 6-9-year-olds were comparably reliable (ICC ≤ 0.74). When considering the reliable variables, PF was greater in the 12-15-year-olds than in 10-11-year-olds (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, in 12-15-year-olds, PF and pRFD were greater from the knees than from the toes (p ≤ 0.05). For reasons largely attributable to growth and development, the PPU test may be a reliable (ICC ≥ 0.80) and sensitive (CV ≤ 19%) measure of upper-body strength (PF), whereas pRFD was also reliable (ICC ≥ 0.80), but less sensitive (CV = 30-38%) in 10-15-year-old male athletes.

  2. Effects of over-the-counter jaw-repositioning mouth guards on dynamic balance, flexibility, agility, strength, and power in college-aged male athletes.

    Golem, Devon L; Arent, Shawn M

    2015-02-01

    Improvements in muscular power and anaerobic performance have resulted from the use of jaw-repositioning mouth guards designed with advanced dental techniques. The high cost of such techniques has dissuaded the widespread use. Recently, more affordable, over-the-counter (OTC) jaw-repositioning mouth guards have become available. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of 2 OTC jaw-repositioning mouth guards on muscular power and strength performance in college-aged male athletes. It was hypothesized that similar to previous observations with advanced dentistry-designed mouth guards, OTC jaw-repositioning mouth guards would impart positive effects on muscular power but not have any effect on muscular strength. Secondary objectives of this study included the examination of the effects of 2 OTC jaw-repositioning mouth guards on other variables related to athletic performance. Male collegiate athletes (N = 20) participated in 4 separate testing sessions that consisted of assessment of muscular power, dynamic balance, flexibility, agility, and muscular strength. The 4 conditions, 1 per testing session, were assigned in a randomized order and consisted of a no-mouth guard control (CON), a placebo mouth guard, a self-adapted jaw-repositioning mouth guard (SA), and a custom-fitted jaw-repositioning mouth guard (CF). No significant differences were observed between conditions in muscular power (p = 0.78), dynamic balance (p = 0.99), agility (p = 0.22), or muscular strength (p = 0.47). The CF had significantly lower hip flexion than the CON (p = 0.014) and had significantly greater lumbar spine lateral flexion compared with the SA condition (p = 0.054). However, these flexibility differences lack practical relevance as the effect sizes remain very small (ES = -0.27 and -0.14, respectively). In conclusion, the jaw-repositioning technique used in the design of these OTC mouth guards did not affect performance. It is important to note that negative

  3. Difference in kinematical behavior between two landing tasks in male volleyball athletes doi: 10.5007/1980-0037.2010v12n6p464

    Gustavo Leporace

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries are common in sports. Studies investigating injury mechanisms have demonstrated that most injuries arise from landing tasks. Despite the demonstration of differences between male and female kinematics, there are no studies showing how males behave during different landing tasks. The objective of this study was to compare the angular and temporal kinematics of the lower limbs between two different landing tasks. Double leg and single leg landings were recorded in the frontal and sagittal plane in 15 male volleyball athletes by videogrammetry. Reduced hip and knee flexion and increased knee valgus were observed in the single leg landing task compared to the double leg landing task. No significant difference in landing time was observed between the two tasks. In conclusion, the results support the premise that lower limb kinematics change according to the task performed. Further studies are necessary to explore the impact of these kinematic differences on knee loading and to relate them to ACL injury mechanisms in men.

  4. An empirical study of race times in recreational endurance runners.

    Vickers, Andrew J; Vertosick, Emily A

    2016-01-01

    Studies of endurance running have typically involved elite athletes, small sample sizes and measures that require special expertise or equipment. We examined factors associated with race performance and explored methods for race time prediction using information routinely available to a recreational runner. An Internet survey was used to collect data from recreational endurance runners (N = 2303). The cohort was split 2:1 into a training set and validation set to create models to predict race time. Sex, age, BMI and race training were associated with mean race velocity for all race distances. The difference in velocity between males and females decreased with increasing distance. Tempo runs were more strongly associated with velocity for shorter distances, while typical weekly training mileage and interval training had similar associations with velocity for all race distances. The commonly used Riegel formula for race time prediction was well-calibrated for races up to a half-marathon, but dramatically underestimated marathon time, giving times at least 10 min too fast for half of runners. We built two models to predict marathon time. The mean squared error for Riegel was 381 compared to 228 (model based on one prior race) and 208 (model based on two prior races). Our findings can be used to inform race training and to provide more accurate race time predictions for better pacing.

  5. State of the Art Review: Atrial Fibrillation in Athletes.

    Flannery, M Darragh; Kalman, Jonathan M; Sanders, Prashanthan; La Gerche, André

    2017-09-01

    Exercise has substantial health benefits with pleomorphic vascular, metabolic, psychological and anti-neoplastic actions resulting in improved quality of life and longevity. Despite these many benefits, numerous studies have shown that endurance athletes are more likely to develop atrial fibrillation (AF) than non-athletes. The type, intensity and amount of sport appears to influence the risk of developing AF. Several endurance sport activities have been shown to increase the risk of developing AF but an excess in AF has not been shown in non-endurance sports. Furthermore, lifetime hours of participation appear to increase the risk of developing AF. Intriguingly, women appear relatively protected and an association between endurance sport and AF has not been clearly demonstrated amongst female endurance athletes. The mechanisms by which endurance sport promotes the development of AF are unclear. There are, however, a number of pathophysiological mechanisms which are known to increase the risk of AF in non-athletes which have correlates in athletes. These include structural remodelling of the left atrium, elevated left atrial pressure, inflammation, myocardial fibrosis, vagal tone, sinus bradycardia and genetic predisposition. In this article, we explore how some of these mechanisms may contribute to the development of AF in endurance athletes. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. ‘The engine just started coughing!’ — Limits of physical performance, aging and career continuity in elite endurance sports

    Ronkainen, Noora; Ryba, Tatiana; Nesti, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This research examines male endurance athletes' experience of aging and/or reaching the perceived limits of physical performance. More specifically, the current study aimed to explore how existential meanings attached to these experiences are connected with athletes' decision-making concerning...... career continuity and retirement. Life story interviews were conducted with 10 Finnish runners and/or orienteers aged between 25 and 62 and the data was analyzed with an existential-narrative framework. Four major storylines related to aging were identified: The end of an era, putting things...... the normativity of retirement when unable to improve their results anymore, other athletes demonstrated career continuity and positive aspects in the late career years, such as lack of competitive anxiety, finding perspective and increased enjoyment in running. We suggest that through awareness of alternative...

  7. SERUM IGF-I AND HORMONAL RESPONSES TO INCREMENTAL EXERCISE IN ATHLETES WITH AND WITHOUT LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY

    Aleksandra Zebrowska

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the response of insulin-like growth factor (IGF- I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 and some hormones, i.e., testosterone (T, growth hormone (GH, cortisol (C, and insulin (I, to maximal exercise in road cyclists with and without diagnosed left ventricular hypertrophy. M-mode and two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography was performed in 30 professional male endurance athletes and a group of 14 healthy untrained subjects using a Hewlett-Packard Image Point HX ultrasound system with standard imaging transducers. Echocardiography and an incremental physical exercise test were performed during the competitive season. Venous blood samples were drawn before and immediately after the maximal cycling exercise test for determination of somatomedin and hormonal concentrations. The basal concentration of IGF-I was statistically higher (p < 0.05 in athletes with left ventricular muscle hypertrophy (LVH when compared to athletes with a normal upper limit of the left ventricular wall (LVN (p < 0.05 and to the control group (CG (p < 0.01. The IGF-I level increased significantly at maximal intensity of incremental exercise in CG (p < 0.01, LVN (p < 0.05 and LVH (p < 0.05 compared to respective values at rest. Long-term endurance training induced an increase in resting (p < 0.01 and post-exercise (p < 0.05 IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio in athletes with LVH compared to LVN. The testosterone (T level was lower in LVH at rest compared to LVN and CG groups (p < 0.05. These results indicate that resting serum IGF-I concentration were higher in trained subjects with LVH compared to athletes without LVH. Serum IGF- I/IGFBP-3 elevation at rest and after exercise might suggest that IGF-I act as a potent stimulant of left ventricular hypertrophy in chronically trained endurance athletes

  8. A three-week traditional altitude training increases hemoglobin mass and red cell volume in elite biathlon athletes.

    Heinicke, K; Heinicke, I; Schmidt, W; Wolfarth, B

    2005-06-01

    It is well known that altitude training stimulates erythropoiesis, but only few data are available concerning the direct altitude effect on red blood cell volume (RCV) in world class endurance athletes during exposure to continued hypoxia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of three weeks of traditional altitude training at 2050 m on total hemoglobin mass (tHb), RCV and erythropoietic activity in highly-trained endurance athletes. Total hemoglobin mass, RCV, plasma volume (PV), and blood volume (BV) from 6 males and 4 females, all members of a world class biathlon team, were determined on days 1 and 20 during their stay at altitude as well as 16 days after returning to sea-level conditions (800 m, only males) by using the CO-rebreathing method. In males tHb (14.0 +/- 0.2 to 15.3 +/- 1.0 g/kg, p altitude and returned to near sea-level values 16 days after descent. Similarly in females, tHb (13.0 +/- 1.0 to 14.2 +/- 1.3 g/kg, p altitude training period, whereas PV was not altered. In male athletes, plasma erythropoietin concentration increased up to day 4 at altitude (11.8 +/- 5.0 to 20.8 +/- 6.0 mU/ml, p altitude training period, both parameters indicating enhanced erythropoietic activity. In conclusion, we show for the first time that a three-week traditional altitude training increases erythropoietic activity even in world class endurance athletes leading to elevated tHb and RCV. Considering the relatively fast return of tHb and RCV to sea-level values after hypoxic exposure, our data suggest to precisely schedule training at altitude and competition at sea level.

  9. Nutrition for endurance sports: marathon, triathlon, and road cycling.

    Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2011-01-01

    Endurance sports are increasing in popularity and athletes at all levels are looking for ways to optimize their performance by training and nutrition. For endurance exercise lasting 30 min or more, the most likely contributors to fatigue are dehydration and carbohydrate depletion, whereas gastrointestinal problems, hyperthermia, and hyponatraemia can reduce endurance exercise performance and are potentially health threatening, especially in longer events (>4 h). Although high muscle glycogen concentrations at the start may be beneficial for endurance exercise, this does not necessarily have to be achieved by the traditional supercompensation protocol. An individualized nutritional strategy can be developed that aims to deliver carbohydrate to the working muscle at a rate that is dependent on the absolute exercise intensity as well as the duration of the event. Endurance athletes should attempt to minimize dehydration and limit body mass losses through sweating to 2-3% of body mass. Gastrointestinal problems occur frequently, especially in long-distance races. Problems seem to be highly individual and perhaps genetically determined but may also be related to the intake of highly concentrated carbohydrate solutions, hyperosmotic drinks, as well as the intake of fibre, fat, and protein. Hyponatraemia has occasionally been reported, especially among slower competitors with very high intakes of water or other low sodium drinks. Here I provide a comprehensive overview of recent research findings and suggest several new guidelines for the endurance athlete on the basis of this. These guidelines are more detailed and allow a more individualized approach.

  10. Strategies used by South African non-elite athletes to cope with the ...

    The aim of this study was to determine the coping strategies that non-elite athletes use to overcome environmental factors during endurance events. A sample of 53 nonelite endurance athletes completed a questionnaire and interviews were conducted. The research focused on exploring individual experiences as well as ...

  11. Antioxidant responses to an acute ultra-endurance exercise: impact on DNA stability and indications for an increased need for nutritive antioxidants in the early recovery phase.

    Neubauer, Oliver; Reichhold, Stefanie; Nics, Lukas; Hoelzl, Christine; Valentini, Judit; Stadlmayr, Barbara; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2010-10-01

    Antioxidant requirements have neither been defined for endurance nor been defined for ultra-endurance athletes. To verify whether an acute bout of ultra-endurance exercise modifies the need for nutritive antioxidants, we aimed (1) to investigate the changes of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants in response to an Ironman triathlon; (2) to particularise the relevance of antioxidant responses to the indices of oxidatively damaged blood lipids, blood cell compounds and lymphocyte DNA and (3) to examine whether potential time-points of increased susceptibility to oxidative damage are associated with alterations in the antioxidant status. Blood that was collected from forty-two well-trained male athletes 2 d pre-race, immediately post-race, and 1, 5 and 19 d later was sampled. The key findings of the present study are as follows: (1) Immediately post-race, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and levels of the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, the ferric reducing ability of plasma and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays increased significantly. Exercise-induced changes in the plasma antioxidant capacity were associated with changes in uric acid, bilirubin and vitamin C. (2) Significant inverse correlations between ORAC levels and indices of oxidatively damaged DNA immediately and 1 d post-race suggest a protective role of the acute antioxidant responses in DNA stability. (3) Significant decreases in carotenoids and γ-tocopherol 1 d post-race indicate that the antioxidant intake during the first 24 h of recovery following an acute ultra-endurance exercise requires specific attention. Furthermore, the present study illustrates the importance of a diversified and well-balanced diet to maintain a physiological antioxidant status in ultra-endurance athletes in reference to recommendations.

  12. Life-long endurance exercise in humans

    Mikkelsen, U R; Couppé, C; Karlsen, A

    2013-01-01

    Human aging is associated with a loss of skeletal muscle and an increase in circulating inflammatory markers. It is unknown whether endurance training (Tr) can prevent these changes. Therefore we studied 15 old trained (O-Tr) healthy males and, for comparison, 12 old untrained (O-Un), 10 Young.......05). Most importantly, life-long endurance exercise was associated with a lower level of the inflammatory markers CRP and IL-6 (p... physical endurance activity may play a role in reducing some markers of systemic inflammation, even within the normal range, and in maintaining muscle mass with aging....

  13. ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME GENOTYPE AFFECTS SKELETAL MUSCLE STRENGTH IN ELITE ATHLETES

    Aldo Matos Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have associated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE D allele with variability in the skeletal muscle baseline strength, though conclusions have been inconsistent across investigations. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible association between ACE genotype and skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite male and female athletes involved in different event expertise. A group of 58 elite athletes, designated as Olympic candidates, were studied: 35 swimmers (19 males and 16 females, 18.8 ± 3.2 years and 23 triathletes (15 males and 8 females, 18.7 ± 3.0 years. The athletes were classified as: short (< 200m and middle (400m to 1500m distance athletes, respectively. For each subject the grip strength in both hands was measure using an adjustable mechanical hand dynamometer. The maximum height in both squat jump (SJ and counter movement jump (CMJ were also assessed, using a trigonometric carpet (Ergojump Digitime 1000; Digitest, Jyvaskyla, Finland. DNA extraction was obtained with Chelex 100® and genotype determination by PCR-RFLP methods. Both males and females showed significantly higher right grip strength in D allele carriers compared to II homozygote's. We found that allelic frequency differs significantly by event distance specialization in both genders (p < 0.05. In fact, sprinter D allele carriers showed the superior scores in nearly all strength measurements (p < 0.05, in both genders. Among endurance athletes, the results also demonstrated that female D allele carriers exhibited the higher performance right grip and CMJ scores (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the ACE D allele seems associated with skeletal muscle baseline strength in elite athletes, being easily identified in females

  14. The Comparison of Body Image Between Athletes and Non-Athletes Postmenopausal Females

    Abdollah Ghasemi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare and contrastthe sub-scale of the body image of the athletes and nonathlete menopaused females. Methods & Materials: The subjects of the research comprise 60 individuals who were between 43-53 years old. In this study the personalinformation questionnaire and PSDQ test were used.The Personal information questionnaire included the sub-scales of power, endurance, coordination, general health, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, body appearance and, body activity. The Kolmogrov-Smirnov and T test used to analys data . Results: The results showed that the body image of the athletes in all of the sub-scales such as power, endurance, coordination, general health, flexibility, self esteem, athletic competence, fat, body appearance, body activity and whole body was significantly better than individuals who were not athletes. Conclusion: It seems that participation in physical activity programs have a positive effect on menopausal negative side effects.

  15. A case report of a completely displaced stress fracture of the femoral shaft in a middle-aged male athlete - A precursor of things to come?

    Larsen, Peter; Elsoe, Rasmus; Rathleff, Michael S

    2016-05-01

    Displaced stress fractures of the femoral shaft are very uncommon. The proportion of middle-aged and older age groups participating in long-distance running, triathlon and other high intensity sports is increasing. As a consequence stress fracture of the femoral shaft may be on the rise in the future. The patient was 43 years old male caucasian triathlete. The authors met the patient after he was admitted with a displaced femoral shaft fracture. The fracture occurred during running at the national championship in ½ Ironman. The patient reported that his symptoms had gradually developed over the last month before the fracture with pain localized anterior to the thigh. The patient interpreted the symptoms as local muscle damage. A clinical examination was conducted by a physiotherapist and the symptoms were interpreted as a simple muscle injury in the quadriceps. When presented with a patient with non-traumatic, diffuse anterior thigh pain in an individual of this age, who is participating in high-level endurance running; clinicians should consider the possibility that the cause of the symptoms may be a femoral shaft stress fracture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Response of Coagulation Indices to Two Types of Exercise of Eccentric and Isometric in Male Bodybuilding Athletes

    Maryam Azimpour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Although activation of blood coagulation system in response to physical activity has been identified to some extent, but the contribution of eccentric activity in comparison with isometric activity as resistance exercise, is not clear yet. Therefore, this research was carried out with the purpose of investigating the effect of one session of eccentric and isometric resistance exercise on some coagulation factors in male bodybuilders. Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 28 volunteers were randomly selected from male bodybuilders and divided into two experimental groups and one control group. One of the experimental groups performed eccentric exercise [controlled return (extension of the elbow flexion movement involving an eccentric contraction] and another group performed isometric exercises (holding barbell while flexing elbows at 45 degrees. In order to assess coagulation indices, blood sampling was performed 15 minutes before and immediately after the exercise. Results: Thromboplastin and prothrombin times did not significantly change immediately after the exercise, but the number of platelets significantly increased in both isometric and eccentric types of exercise immediately after the exercise. Conclusion: The results of isometric and eccentric acute resistance exercise showed that the exercise had no negative impact on blood coagulation factors, and increased coagulation system activity reflects the increased number of platelets. The difference between the results of researches carried out in this direction can be resulted from the difference between the exercise protocols, methods and measurement time, and level of preparedness of the participants in the research.

  17. Athlete's Heart: Is the Morganroth Hypothesis Obsolete?

    Haykowsky, Mark J; Samuel, T Jake; Nelson, Michael D; La Gerche, Andre

    2018-05-01

    In 1975, Morganroth and colleagues reported that the increased left ventricular (LV) mass in highly trained endurance athletes versus nonathletes was primarily due to increased end-diastolic volume while the increased LV mass in resistance trained athletes was solely due to an increased LV wall thickness. Based on the divergent remodelling patterns observed, Morganroth and colleagues hypothesised that the increased "volume" load during endurance exercise may be similar to that which occurs in patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation while the "pressure" load associated with performing a Valsalva manoeuvre (VM) during resistance exercise may mimic the stress imposed on the heart by systemic hypertension or aortic stenosis. Despite widespread acceptance of the four-decade old Morganroth hypothesis in sports cardiology, some investigators have questioned whether such a divergent "athlete's heart" phenotype exists. Given this uncertainty, the purpose of this brief review is to re-evaluate the Morganroth hypothesis regarding: i) the acute effects of resistance exercise performed with a brief VM on LV wall stress, and the patterns of LV remodelling in resistance-trained athletes; ii) the acute effects of endurance exercise on biventricular wall stress, and the time course and pattern of LV and right ventricular (RV) remodelling with endurance training; and iii) the value of comparing "loading" conditions between athletes and patients with cardiac pathology. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The road to gold: training and peaking characteristics in the year prior to a gold medal endurance performance.

    Espen Tønnessen

    Full Text Available To describe training variations across the annual cycle in Olympic and World Champion endurance athletes, and determine whether these athletes used tapering strategies in line with recommendations in the literature.Eleven elite XC skiers and biathletes (4 male; 28±1 yr, 85±5 mL x min(-1 x kg(-1 VO2max, 7 female, 25±4 yr, 73±3 mL x min(-1 x kg(-1 VO2max reported one year of day-to-day training leading up to the most successful competition of their career. Training data were divided into periodization and peaking phases and distributed into training forms, intensity zones and endurance activity forms.Athletes trained ∼800 h/500 sessions x year(-1, including ∼500 h x year(-1 of sport-specific training. Ninety-four percent of all training was executed as aerobic endurance training. Of this, ∼90% was low intensity training (LIT, below the first lactate threshold and 10% high intensity training (HIT, above the first lactate threshold by time. Categorically, 23% of training sessions were characterized as HIT with primary portions executed at or above the first lactate turn point. Training volume and specificity distribution conformed to a traditional periodization model, but absolute volume of HIT remained stable across phases. However, HIT training patterns tended to become more polarized in the competition phase. Training volume, frequency and intensity remained unchanged from pre-peaking to peaking period, but there was a 32±15% (P<.01 volume reduction from the preparation period to peaking phase.The annual training data for these Olympic and World champion XC skiers and biathletes conforms to previously reported training patterns of elite endurance athletes. During the competition phase, training became more sport-specific, with 92% performed as XC skiing. However, they did not follow suggested tapering practice derived from short-term experimental studies. Only three out of 11 athletes took a rest day during the final 5 days prior to

  19. NUTRIONAL NEEDS OF ATHLETES

    Shruti Pandey

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim – is to provide a comprehensive information regarding the nutritional needs of athletes, followed by female athletes who have a higher necessity for Iron. Sports and nutrition are directly related to each other. Taking into consideration the fact that sports person need more energy to carry out their sporting activity effectively, it becomes of prime importance to take care for sports performance. Athletes must supposedly eat the perfect ratio of Protein, carbohydrate and fat at each meal and snack to control the hormonal systems and thus reach their maximum performance and ideal weight .The carbohydrate/protein/fat ratio of the 40-30-30 diet allegedly maintains the proper balance between the hormones insulin and glucagon. The present review focuses on the intake for a wholesome nutrient and well balanced diet for better performance among male as well as female athletes.

  20. Six Sessions of Sprint Interval Training Improves Running Performance in Trained Athletes.

    Koral, Jerome; Oranchuk, Dustin J; Herrera, Roberto; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2018-03-01

    Koral, J, Oranchuk, DJ, Herrera, R, and Millet, GY. Six sessions of sprint interval training improves running performance in trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 617-623, 2018-Sprint interval training (SIT) is gaining popularity with endurance athletes. Various studies have shown that SIT allows for similar or greater endurance, strength, and power performance improvements than traditional endurance training but demands less time and volume. One of the main limitations in SIT research is that most studies were performed in a laboratory using expensive treadmills or ergometers. The aim of this study was to assess the performance effects of a novel short-term and highly accessible training protocol based on maximal shuttle runs in the field (SIT-F). Sixteen (12 male, 4 female) trained trail runners completed a 2-week procedure consisting of 4-7 bouts of 30 seconds at maximal intensity interspersed by 4 minutes of recovery, 3 times a week. Maximal aerobic speed (MAS), time to exhaustion at 90% of MAS before test (Tmax at 90% MAS), and 3,000-m time trial (TT3000m) were evaluated before and after training. Data were analyzed using a paired samples t-test, and Cohen's (d) effect sizes were calculated. Maximal aerobic speed improved by 2.3% (p = 0.01, d = 0.22), whereas peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) increased by 2.4% (p = 0.009, d = 0.33) and 2.8% (p = 0.002, d = 0.41), respectively. TT3000m was 6% shorter (p training in the field significantly improved the 3,000-m run, time to exhaustion, PP, and MP in trained trail runners. Sprint interval training in the field is a time-efficient and cost-free means of improving both endurance and power performance in trained athletes.

  1. Digital Physical Activity Data Collection and Use by Endurance Runners and Distance Cyclists

    Lee, Victor R.; Drake, Joel

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of sensor technologies to sports has allowed athletes to quantify and track their performance, adding an information-based layer to athletic practices. This information layer is particularly prevalent in practices involving formal competition and high levels of physical endurance, such as biking and running. We interviewed 20…

  2. Markers for Routine Assessment of Fatigue and Recovery in Male and Female Team Sport Athletes during High-Intensity Interval Training

    Wiewelhove, Thimo; Raeder, Christian; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Aim Our study aimed to investigate changes of different markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Methods 22 well-trained male and female team sport athletes (age, 23.0 ± 2.7 years; V̇O2max, 57.6 ± 8.6 mL·min·kg−1) participated in a six-day running-based HIIT-microcycle with a total of eleven HIIT sessions. Repeated sprint ability (RSA; criterion measure of fatigue and recovery), countermovement jump (CMJ) height, jump efficiency in a multiple rebound jump test (MRJ), 20-m sprint performance, muscle contractile properties, serum concentrations of creatinkinase (CK), c-reactive protein (CRP) and urea as well as perceived muscle soreness (DOMS) were measured pre and post the training program as well as after 72 h of recovery. Results Following the microcycle significant changes (p < 0.05) in RSA as well as in CMJ and MRJ performance could be observed, showing a decline (%Δ ± 90% confidence limits, ES = effect size; RSA: -3.8 ± 1.0, ES = -1.51; CMJ: 8.4 ± 2.9, ES = -1.35; MRJ: 17.4 ± 4.5, ES = -1.60) and a return to baseline level (RSA: 2.8 ± 2.6, ES = 0.53; CMJ: 4.1 ± 2.9, ES = 0.68; MRJ: 6.5 ± 4.5, ES = 0.63) after 72 h of recovery. Athletes also demonstrated significant changes (p < 0.05) in muscle contractile properties, CK, and DOMS following the training program and after the recovery period. In contrast, CRP and urea remained unchanged throughout the study. Further analysis revealed that the accuracy of markers for assessment of fatigue and recovery in comparison to RSA derived from a contingency table was insufficient. Multiple regression analysis also showed no correlations between changes in RSA and any of the markers. Conclusions Mean changes in measures of neuromuscular function, CK and DOMS are related to HIIT induced fatigue and subsequent recovery. However, low accuracy of a single or combined use of these markers requires the verification of their applicability on an

  3. Markers for Routine Assessment of Fatigue and Recovery in Male and Female Team Sport Athletes during High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Thimo Wiewelhove

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to investigate changes of different markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT.22 well-trained male and female team sport athletes (age, 23.0 ± 2.7 years; V̇O2 max, 57.6 ± 8.6 mL · min · kg(-1 participated in a six-day running-based HIIT-microcycle with a total of eleven HIIT sessions. Repeated sprint ability (RSA; criterion measure of fatigue and recovery, countermovement jump (CMJ height, jump efficiency in a multiple rebound jump test (MRJ, 20-m sprint performance, muscle contractile properties, serum concentrations of creatinkinase (CK, c-reactive protein (CRP and urea as well as perceived muscle soreness (DOMS were measured pre and post the training program as well as after 72 h of recovery.Following the microcycle significant changes (p < 0.05 in RSA as well as in CMJ and MRJ performance could be observed, showing a decline (%Δ ± 90% confidence limits, ES = effect size; RSA: -3.8 ± 1.0, ES = -1.51; CMJ: 8.4 ± 2.9, ES = -1.35; MRJ: 17.4 ± 4.5, ES = -1.60 and a return to baseline level (RSA: 2.8 ± 2.6, ES = 0.53; CMJ: 4.1 ± 2.9, ES = 0.68; MRJ: 6.5 ± 4.5, ES = 0.63 after 72 h of recovery. Athletes also demonstrated significant changes (p < 0.05 in muscle contractile properties, CK, and DOMS following the training program and after the recovery period. In contrast, CRP and urea remained unchanged throughout the study. Further analysis revealed that the accuracy of markers for assessment of fatigue and recovery in comparison to RSA derived from a contingency table was insufficient. Multiple regression analysis also showed no correlations between changes in RSA and any of the markers.Mean changes in measures of neuromuscular function, CK and DOMS are related to HIIT induced fatigue and subsequent recovery. However, low accuracy of a single or combined use of these markers requires the verification of their applicability on an individual basis.

  4. Intramyocellular lipids of muscle type in athletes of different sport disciplines

    Nakagawa Y

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Yoshinao Nakagawa,1 Masaaki Hattori2 1Human Performance Lab, Otaru University, Otaru, Hokkaido, 2Department of Community Development, Tokai University, Sapporo, Japan Abstract: The present study used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS to examine quantitative differences in intramyocellular lipid (IMCL contents in various muscle types at rest for individual athletes from different sport disciplines. Five groups consisting of sprinters, alpine skiers, cross-country skiers, endurance runners and untrained healthy male subjects volunteered for this study. Data were acquired using 1H-MRS from the tibialis anterior (TA, medial gastrocnemius (MG and soleus (SOL muscles. No significant difference was found in the cross-sectional area (CSA of the TA, MG and SOL muscles, whereas the CSA of subcutaneous fat was significantly lower (p<0.01 for each athlete group compared with untrained subjects. In both TA and MG, IMCL concentrations in endurance runners were significantly higher than those of alpine skiers (p<0.01, sprinters (p<0.01 and untrained subjects (p<0.05. The IMCL concentrations in TA and MG of cross-country skiers were significantly higher than those of alpine skiers (p<0.05 and sprinters (TA, p<0.01; MG, p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the IMCL concentrations of TA and MG between alpine skiers or sprinters and untrained subjects. The IMCL concentration in SOL was significantly greater in endurance runners and showed no difference in cross-country skiers compared with that in alpine skiers and sprinters. There was no significant difference in the IMCL concentration of SOL between athletes and untrained subjects. These results suggest that differences in IMCL contents stored in various muscle types for athletes at rest are associated with the muscle cellular adaptation for differences in the type of exercise training and/or muscle fiber composition. Keywords: IMCL, alpine ski, skeletal muscle, sports

  5. Multidimensional Physical Self-Concept of Athletes with Physical Disabilities

    Shapiro, Deborah R.; Martin, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this investigation were first to predict reported PA (physical activity) behavior and self-esteem using a multidimensional physical self-concept model and second to describe perceptions of multidimensional physical self-concept (e.g., strength, endurance, sport competence) among athletes with physical disabilities. Athletes (N =…

  6. Dynamics of salivary proteins and metabolites during extreme endurance sports - a case study.

    Zauber, Henrik; Mosler, Stephan; von Heßberg, Andreas; Schulze, Waltraud X

    2012-07-01

    As noninvasively accessible body fluid, saliva is of growing interest in diagnostics. To exemplify the diagnostic potential of saliva, we used a mass spectrometry-based approach to gain insights into adaptive physiological processes underlying long-lasting endurance work load in a case study. Saliva was collected from male and female athlete at four diurnal time points throughout a 1060 km nonstop cycling event. Total sampling time covered 180 h comprising 62 h of endurance cycling as well as reference samples taken over 3 days before the event, and over 2 days after. Altogether, 1405 proteins and 62 metabolites were identified in these saliva samples, of which 203 could be quantified across the majority of the sampling time points. Many proteins show clear diurnal abundance patterns in saliva. In many cases, these patterns were disturbed and altered by the long-term endurance stress. During the stress phase, metabolites of energy mobilization, such as creatinine and glucose were of high abundance, as well as metabolites with antioxidant functions. Lysozyme, amylase, and proteins with redox-regulatory function showed significant increase in average abundance during work phase compared to rest or recovery phase. The recovery phase was characterized by an increased abundance of immunoglobulins. Our work exemplifies the application of high-throughput technologies to understand adaptive processes in human physiology. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Radiocardiographic determination of the stroke volume and of the heart minute volume in athletes

    Sattler, R; Stoll, W [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik

    1981-11-01

    Radiocardiography, a novel radioisotope method for the problemless determination of many cardiodynamic parameters which can be applied also at given physical exercise is presented. On the basis of stroke volume and heart minute volume values from 35 athletes practising different sports and of a comparison with normal values reported in the literature, differences in the cardiac adaptation and the function of athletic hearts and so-called normal hearts are pointed out. The stroke volume of endurance-trained athletes exceeds that of untrained individuals by 30-40 ml. Under exercise the increase of the stroke volume is considerably greater in endurance athletes than in individuals practising other sports or in untrained subjects. At rest the values of the heart minute volume are almost the same in athletes and untrained individuals. Under exercise the heart minute volume of endurance athletes (40 l/min) is nearly twice that of untrained individuals (volume reserve of the athlete).

  8. Vitamin supplementation benefits in master athletes.

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Louis, Julien

    2014-03-01

    Master athletes are more than 35 years of age and continue to train as hard as their young counterparts despite the aging process. All life long, they are capable of accomplishing exceptional sporting performances. For these participants in endurance events, matching energy intake and expenditure is critical to maintain health and performance. The proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein must be optimized to provide enough calories to sustain the energy requirements of competition or training, and for recovery. In addition, endurance athletes must include adequate vitamins and minerals in their diets to maintain healthy immune function. Vitamins and minerals may be sufficient in the diets of endurance athletes, who have a high energy intake. This would make it unnecessary to use vitamin and mineral supplements. Furthermore, one major limitation for these athletes is the management of oxidative stress, which, when in excess, can be deleterious for the organism. For individuals exposed to oxidative stress, micronutritional supplementations rich in vitamins and minerals can be also an alternative strategy. Although these supplementations are increasingly used by master athletes, very few data are available on their effects on oxidative stress, muscle recovery, and physical performance. The potential benefits of supplement use in athletes are thus questionable. Some studies indicate no benefits, while others highlight potential negative side effects of vitamin supplementation. Additional studies are warranted in order to design adapted prescriptions in antioxidant vitamins and minerals.

  9. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation.

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in "Gran Fondo" cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress.

  10. Use of nutritional supplements by Danish elite athletes and fitness customers.

    Solheim, S A; Nordsborg, N B; Ritz, C; Berget, J; Kristensen, A H; Mørkeberg, J

    2017-08-01

    The nutritional supplement (NS) industry is one of the fastest growing in the world, and NS use in Denmark is among the highest in Europe. However, the exact use in elite athletes and fitness customers targeted for doping control is unknown. Information from 634 doping control forms obtained in 2014 was evaluated (elite athletes: n = 361; fitness customers: n = 273). The majority of female (92.6%) and male (85.0%) elite athletes and female (100.0%) and male (94.0%) fitness customers declared using one or more NS. The use of non-ergogenic NS was more prevalent in women than in men and in younger (15-34 years) compared with older (35-49 years) subjects, but it was less prevalent in intermittent compared with endurance and power/strength sports. Additionally, fitness customers who tested positive for doping also reported using more NS than subjects testing negative, indicating an association between NS and doping abuse. The present results demonstrate a very high prevalence of NS usage in both elite athletes and fitness customers. This highlights the importance of a strong national regulation of NS to avoid contamination of NS with doping substances. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Physical fitness and anthropometric profile of mixed martial arts athletes

    Bruno Ferreira Marinho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the physical fitness and anthropometric profile of mixed martial arts (MMA athletes and the correlations between these variables.Subjects and methods: Thirteen male MMA athletes (30 ± 4 years-old participated in this study. They were submitted to anthropometric measurements and the following tests: adapted flexitest, sit-ups, push-ups, long jump, flexed arm hang, 1RM bench press and squat.Results: Main results are as follows: body mass (kg: 82.1 ± 10.9; body fat (%: 11.87 ± 5.11; flexibility (score: 18.38 ± 4.07; sit-ups (rep: 43 ± 11; push-ups (rep: 41 ± 9; long jump (m: 2.19 ± 0.25; flexed arm hang (s: 34 ± 11, 1RM bench- press (kg: 76 ± 23; 1RM squat (kg: 73 ± 15. Furthermore we observed results showed significant correlations between anthropometric variables and physical fitness: body fat and long jump (R = -0.75; body fat and flexed arm hang (R= -0.67; height and squat 1RM (R = 0.67; arm circumference and bench press 1RM (R = 0.77.Conclusion: MMA athletes involved in this investigation have showed poor neuromuscular performance. Body fat was negatively correlated with both power and strength endurance performance, while arm circumference was positively related to upper body maximum strength.

  12. Branched-Chain Amino Acids and Arginine Improve Performance in Two Consecutive Days of Simulated Handball Games in Male and Female Athletes: A Randomized Trial

    Chang, Chen-Kang; Chang Chien, Kun-Ming; Chang, Jung-Hsien; Huang, Mei-Hsuan; Liang, Ya-Chuan; Liu, Tsung-Han

    2015-01-01

    The central nervous system plays a crucial role in the development of physical fatigue. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of combined supplementation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and arginine on intermittent sprint performance in simulated handball games on 2 consecutive days. Methods: Fifteen male and seven female handball players consumed 0.17 g/kg BCAA and 0.04 g/kg arginine together (AA trial), or placebo (PB trial) before exercise. Each trial contained two 60-min simulated handball games on consecutive days. The game was consisted of 30 identical 2-min blocks and a 20 m all-out sprint was performed at the end of each block. The performance, measured by percentage changes of sprint time between day 1 and 2, was significantly better in the AA trial (first half: AA trial: -1.34±0.60%, PB trial: -0.21±0.69%; second half: AA trial: -1.68±0.58%, PB trial: 0.49±0.42%). The average ratings of perceive exertion throughout the 2-day trial was significantly lower in the AA trial (14.2±0.3) than the PB trial (15.1±0.4). Concurrently, post-exercise tryptophan/BCAA ratio on both days in the AA trial was significantly lower than the baseline. This study showed that BCAA and arginine supplementation could improve performance in intermittent sprints on the second consecutive day of simulated handball games in well-trained athletes by potentially alleviating central fatigue. PMID:25803783

  13. Branched-chain amino acids and arginine improve performance in two consecutive days of simulated handball games in male and female athletes: a randomized trial.

    Chen-Kang Chang

    Full Text Available The central nervous system plays a crucial role in the development of physical fatigue. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of combined supplementation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA and arginine on intermittent sprint performance in simulated handball games on 2 consecutive days.Fifteen male and seven female handball players consumed 0.17 g/kg BCAA and 0.04 g/kg arginine together (AA trial, or placebo (PB trial before exercise. Each trial contained two 60-min simulated handball games on consecutive days. The game was consisted of 30 identical 2-min blocks and a 20 m all-out sprint was performed at the end of each block. The performance, measured by percentage changes of sprint time between day 1 and 2, was significantly better in the AA trial (first half: AA trial: -1.34 ± 0.60%, PB trial: -0.21 ± 0.69%; second half: AA trial: -1.68 ± 0.58%, PB trial: 0.49 ± 0.42%. The average ratings of perceive exertion throughout the 2-day trial was significantly lower in the AA trial (14.2 ± 0.3 than the PB trial (15.1 ± 0.4. Concurrently, post-exercise tryptophan/BCAA ratio on both days in the AA trial was significantly lower than the baseline. This study showed that BCAA and arginine supplementation could improve performance in intermittent sprints on the second consecutive day of simulated handball games in well-trained athletes by potentially alleviating central fatigue.

  14. Effect of six weeks of endurance exercise and following detraining on serum brain derived neurotrophic factor and memory performance in middle aged males with metabolic syndrome.

    Babaei, P; Azali Alamdari, K; Soltani Tehrani, B; Damirchi, A

    2013-08-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and physical inactivity contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Aerobic training has been reported to improve MetS, however less attention has been directed toward the role of training and detraining on cognitive function in MetS. Twenty one healthy middle-aged males and 21 with MetS were distributed into four groups: MetS exercise (ME), MetS control (MC), Healthy exercise (HE) and healthy control (HC). Both ME and HE, followed a 6-week aerobic training program (3 sessions/week). Digit Span memory test and blood sampling were conducted pre training, post training and also following a six weeks detraining. Data were analyzed using spearman, pearson and repeated measure ANOVA tests. Baseline serum BDNF level was positively correlated with waist circumference (r=0.383, P=0.012) and showed significant elevation in MetS compared with healthy subjects (1101.66±61.34 vs. 903.72±46.57 pg/mL, P=0.014). After aerobic exercise BDNF level significantly increased in HE, but decreased in ME group (P=0.001). Both short and mid term memory significantly increased (PExercise induced cognitive improvement might be mediated via BDNF-linked mechanisms in healthy people. However, the health status of individuals should be considered.

  15. Research Note: Athletic Graduation Rates and Simpson’s Paradox

    Victor Matheson

    2005-01-01

    Graduation rates for male athletes overall as well as men’s football and basketball players lag behind those of male non-athletes at Division I colleges and universities. Scholarship athletes, however, are much more likely to be drawn from racial and ethnic groups with lower average graduation rates. After accounting for differences in racial composition, graduation rates for male athletes overall as well football players match or exceed those of their peers, and racial differences account fo...

  16. Upper Body Muscular Endurance Among Children 2-5 Years.

    Gabbard, Carl P.; And Others

    The upper body muscular endurance of males and females 2-5 years of age was assessed, and relationships relative to sex, age, endurance and selected anthropometric measures were investigated. None of the relationships were found to be of practical predicative value; while upper body muscular strength increased with age, no significant differences…

  17. Effects of acute supplementation of Panax ginseng on endurance running in a hot & humid environment

    Ping, Fadzel Wong Chee; Keong, Chen Chee; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Athletes in Malaysia need to perform in a hot and humid environment due to the climatic nature of the country. c0 hronic supplementation of Panax ginseng (PG) (a deciduous perennial plant belonging to the Araliaceae family) enhances physical performance. As the ergogenic effect of acute supplementation of PG on endurance performance has not been explored in the Malaysian population especially in a hot and humid condition this study was taken up. Methods: Nine heat adapted recreational runners (age : 25.4 ± 6.9 yr, body mass : 57.6 ± 8.4 kg; body height : 168.3 ± 7.6 cm) were recruited in this placebo-controlled double-blind randomized study. Subjects ingested 200 mg of PG one hour before the exercise test on treadmill at 70 per cent of their VO2max in a laboratory environment of 31 °C and 70 per cent relative humidity. They drank 3 ml/kg body weight of cool water every 20 min during the exercise to prevent adverse effects of dehydration. Blood samples were drawn every 20 min for the analysis of glucose, lactate, insulin and free fatty acids. Oxygen uptake was determined every 20 min while heart rate, body and skin temperatures, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every 10 min during the trials. Results: Endurance running time to exhaustion did not differ between PG and placebo trials. Heart rate, skin temperature, core body temperature, oxygen uptake, RPE, plasma insulin, glucose, free fatty acid and lactate levels during the endurance exercise did not show any significant differences between the trials. Interpretation & conclusions: We conclude that acute supplementation of 200 mg of PG did not affect the endurance running performance of the heat-adapted male recreational runners in the heat. PMID:21321426

  18. Radiocardiographic determination of the stroke volume and of the heart minute volume in athletes

    Sattler, R.; Stoll, W.

    1981-01-01

    Radiocardiography, a novel radioisotope method for the problemless determination of many cardiodynamic parameters which can be applied also at given physical exercise is presented. On the basis of stroke volume and heart minute volume values from 35 athletes practising different sports and of a comparison with normal values reported in the literature, differences in the cardiac adaptation and the function of athletic hearts and so-called normal hearts are pointed out. The stroke volume of endurance-trained athetes exceed that of untrained individuals by 30-40 ml. Under exercise the increase of the stroke volume is considerably greater in endurance athletes than in individuals practising other sports or in untrained subjects. At rest the values of the heart minute volume are almost the same in athletes and untrained individuals. Under exercise the heart minute volume of endurance athletes (40 l/min) is nearly twice that of untrained individuals (volume reserve of the athlete). (author)

  19. Research Note: Athletic Graduation Rates and Simpson's Paradox

    Matheson, Victor A.

    2007-01-01

    Graduation rates for male athletes overall as well as men's football and basketball players lag behind those of male non-athletes at Division I colleges and universities. Scholarship athletes, however, are much more likely to be drawn from racial and ethnic groups with lower average graduation rates. After accounting for differences in racial…

  20. Effects of resistance training on endurance capacity and muscle fiber composition in young top-level cyclists

    Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L; Bennekou, M

    2011-01-01

    Equivocal findings exist on the effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on endurance performance and muscle morphology. Further, the influence of concurrent SE training on muscle fiber-type composition, vascularization and endurance capacity remains unknown in top......-level endurance athletes. The present study examined the effect of 16 weeks of concurrent SE training on maximal muscle strength (MVC), contractile rate of force development (RFD), muscle fiber morphology and composition, capillarization, aerobic power (VO(2max) ), cycling economy (CE) and long....../short-term endurance capacity in young elite competitive cyclists (n=14). MVC and RFD increased 12-20% with SE (P...

  1. Effects of resistance training on endurance capacity and muscle fiber composition in young top-level cyclists

    Aagaard, P; Andersen, J L; Bennekou, M

    2011-01-01

    Equivocal findings exist on the effect of concurrent strength (S) and endurance (E) training on endurance performance and muscle morphology. Further, the influence of concurrent SE training on muscle fiber-type composition, vascularization and endurance capacity remains unknown in top......-level endurance athletes. The present study examined the effect of 16 weeks of concurrent SE training on maximal muscle strength (MVC), contractile rate of force development (RFD), muscle fiber morphology and composition, capillarization, aerobic power (VO2max), cycling economy (CE) and long/short-term endurance...... capacity in young elite competitive cyclists (n=14). MVC and RFD increased 12-20% with SE (P...

  2. Energy Balance of Triathletes during an Ultra-Endurance Event

    Anna Barrero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional strategy during an ultra-endurance triathlon (UET is one of the main concerns of athletes competing in such events. The purpose of this study is to provide a proper characterization of the energy and fluid intake during real competition in male triathletes during a complete UET and to estimate the energy expenditure (EE and the fluid balance through the race. Methods: Eleven triathletes performed a UET. All food and drinks ingested during the race were weighed and recorded in order to assess the energy intake (EI during the race. The EE was estimated from heart rate (HR recordings during the race, using the individual HR-oxygen uptake (Vo2 regressions developed from three incremental tests on the 50-m swimming pool, cycle ergometer, and running treadmill. Additionally, body mass (BM, total body water (TBW and intracellular (ICW and extracellular water (ECW were assessed before and after the race using a multifrequency bioimpedance device (BIA. Results: Mean competition time and HR was 755 ± 69 min and 137 ± 6 beats/min, respectively. Mean EI was 3643 ± 1219 kcal and the estimated EE was 11,009 ± 664 kcal. Consequently, athletes showed an energy deficit of 7365 ± 1286 kcal (66.9% ± 11.7%. BM decreased significantly after the race and significant losses of TBW were found. Such losses were more related to a reduction of extracellular fluids than intracellular fluids. Conclusions: Our results confirm the high energy demands of UET races, which are not compensated by nutrient and fluid intake, resulting in a large energy deficit.

  3. Energy balance of triathletes during an ultra-endurance event.

    Barrero, Anna; Erola, Pau; Bescós, Raúl

    2014-12-31

    The nutritional strategy during an ultra-endurance triathlon (UET) is one of the main concerns of athletes competing in such events. The purpose of this study is to provide a proper characterization of the energy and fluid intake during real competition in male triathletes during a complete UET and to estimate the energy expenditure (EE) and the fluid balance through the race. Eleven triathletes performed a UET. All food and drinks ingested during the race were weighed and recorded in order to assess the energy intake (EI) during the race. The EE was estimated from heart rate (HR) recordings during the race, using the individual HR-oxygen uptake (Vo2) regressions developed from three incremental tests on the 50-m swimming pool, cycle ergometer, and running treadmill. Additionally, body mass (BM), total body water (TBW) and intracellular (ICW) and extracellular water (ECW) were assessed before and after the race using a multifrequency bioimpedance device (BIA). Mean competition time and HR was 755 ± 69 min and 137 ± 6 beats/min, respectively. Mean EI was 3643 ± 1219 kcal and the estimated EE was 11,009 ± 664 kcal. Consequently, athletes showed an energy deficit of 7365 ± 1286 kcal (66.9% ± 11.7%). BM decreased significantly after the race and significant losses of TBW were found. Such losses were more related to a reduction of extracellular fluids than intracellular fluids. Our results confirm the high energy demands of UET races, which are not compensated by nutrient and fluid intake, resulting in a large energy deficit.

  4. Radiologic abnormalities of the thoraco-lumbar spine in athletes

    Hellstroem, M.; Jacobsson, B.; Swaerd, L.; Peterson, L. (Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Radiology Oestra Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopedics King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Radiology)

    1990-03-01

    A radiologic study of the thoraco-lumbar spine was performed in 143 (117 male and 26 female) athletes (wrestlers, gymnasts, soccer players and tennis players), aged 14 to 25 years and 30 male nonathletes, aged 19 to 25 years. Film interpretation was made after mixing the films from all groups and without knowledge of the individual's identity. Various types of radiologic abnormalities occured in both athletes and non-athletes but were more common among athletes, especially male-gymnasts and wrestlers. Abnormalities of the vertebral ring apophysis occurred exclusively in athletes. Combinations of different types of abnormalities were most common in male gymnasts and wrestlers. (orig.).

  5. Radiologic abnormalities of the thoraco-lumbar spine in athletes

    Hellstroem, M.; Jacobsson, B.; Swaerd, L.; Peterson, L.; Oestra Sjukhuset, Goeteborg; King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh

    1990-01-01

    A radiologic study of the thoraco-lumbar spine was performed in 143 (117 male and 26 female) athletes (wrestlers, gymnasts, soccer players and tennis players), aged 14 to 25 years and 30 male nonathletes, aged 19 to 25 years. Film interpretation was made after mixing the films from all groups and without knowledge of the individual's identity. Various types of radiologic abnormalities occured in both athletes and non-athletes but were more common among athletes, especially male-gymnasts and wrestlers. Abnormalities of the vertebral ring apophysis occurred exclusively in athletes. Combinations of different types of abnormalities were most common in male gymnasts and wrestlers. (orig.)

  6. Mental skills comparison between elite sprint and endurance track and field runners according to their genetic polymorphism: a pilot study.

    Znazen, Hela; Slimani, Maamer; Miarka, Bianca; Butovskaya, Marina; Siala, Hajer; Messaoud, Taieb; Chamari, Karim; Souissi, Nizar

    2017-09-01

    Achieving excellence in track and field athletes requires specific mental skills. The aim of the present study was to compare the mental skills between elite sprint and endurance athletes. Forty elite athletes (age 20.55±2.22 years, body mass 74.8±7.9 kg, height 1.70±0.1 m) participated in the present study. The athletes were classified into two groups according to their genetic polymorphism to physical activity: Endurance group (allele I, N.=20) and power group (allele D, N.=20). The mental skills were assessed by means of Ottawa Mental Skill Assessment Tool-3 inventory (OMSAT-3: based in foundation mental skills, psychosomatic skills, and cognitive skills subscales) before the competition period. Furthermore, genetic data were also collected. Sprint and endurance runners were participating in Tunisian National championship. The results showed a significant difference between elite sprint and endurance runners in the foundation mental and psychosomatic skills subscales (all, Pstudy revealed that goal setting, commitment, stress reactions, fear control, imagery, competition planning and mental practice were significantly higher among the elite sprint runners compared to the endurance runners (all, Pstudy could confirm the widely acclaimed research assumption that mental skills, such as goal setting, commitment and mental practice, are the predictor variables of power performances, while endurance performances are associated with different mental skills components. Finally, the results may inform applied practitioners regarding the differences in mental skill demands between power and endurance athletes and the genetic predisposition of practitioners.

  7. ACUTE EFFECTS OF TWO DIFFERENT WARM-UP PROTOCOLS ON FLEXIBILITY AND LOWER LIMB EXPLOSIVE PERFORMANCE IN MALE AND FEMALE HIGH LEVEL ATHLETES

    Charilaos Tsolakis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of two different warm-up protocols on lower limb power and flexibility in high level athletes. Twenty international level fencers (10 males and 10 females performed two warm-up protocols that included 5-min light jogging and either short (15s or long (45s static stretching exercises for each of the main leg muscle groups (quadriceps, hamstrings and triceps surae, followed by either 3 sets of 3 (short stretching treatment, or 3 sets of 5 tuck jumps (long stretching treatment, in a randomized crossover design with one week between treatments. Hip joint flexion was measured with a Lafayette goniometer before and after the 5-min warm-up, after stretching and 8 min after the tuck jumps, while counter movement jump (CMJ performance was evaluated by an Ergojump contact platform, before and after the stretching treatment, as well as immediately after and 8 minutes after the tuck jumps. Three way ANOVA (condition, time, gender revealed significant time (p < 0.001 and gender (p < 0.001 main effects for hip joint flexion, with no interaction between factors. Flexibility increased by 6. 8 ± 1.1% (p < 0.01 after warm-up and by another 5.8 ± 1.6% (p < 0.01 after stretching, while it remained increased 8 min after the tuck jumps. Women had greater ROM compared with men at all time points (125 ± 8° vs. 94 ± 4° p<0.01 at baseline, but the pattern of change in hip flexibility was not different between genders. CMJ performance was greater in men compared with women at all time points (38.2 ± 1.9 cm vs. 29.8 ± 1.2 cm p < 0.01 at baseline, but the percentage of change CMJ performance was not different between genders. CMJ performance remained unchanged throughout the short stretching protocol, while it decreased by 5.5 ± 0.9% (p < 0.01 after stretching in the long stretching protocol However, 8 min after the tuck jumps, CMJ performance was not different from the baseline value (p = 0.075. In conclusion, lower limb power may

  8. Deep Neck Flexor Endurance in the Adolescent and Young Adult: Normative Data and Associated Attributes.

    Jarman, Nathan F; Brooks, Toby; James, C Roger; Hooper, Troy; Wilhelm, Mark; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Domenech, Manuel A; Kotara, Stanley J; Sizer, Phillip S

    2017-10-01

    Deep neck flexor (DNF) muscles stabilize the neck and contribute to head acceleration control. The function of DNF in cervical spine dynamic stabilization has not been examined in athletes of any age group, including adolescents. This investigation was necessary prior to studying the DNF muscles' role in cervical spine injury patterns. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine average Deep Neck Flexor Endurance Test (DNFET) time scores in high school-aged and university-aged subjects (aged 14-22 years); and (2) to establish the relationship between gender and age for adolescent DNFET time scores. Cross-sectional design. Public high school and private university. A total of 81 (40 male, 41 female) healthy high school and collegiate athletes. DNFET time scores (in seconds) were collected and means values were calculated. Interrater reliability was established using the first 15 university-aged subjects enrolled in the study. Mean DNFET time (seconds) scores. The DNF muscle endurance interrater reliability coefficient of reproducibility for 4 allied health clinicians was intraclass correlation coefficient (2,4) 0.712 (confidence interval, 0.24-0.85). The mean (± standard deviation) DNFET time score for females was 31.86 (±8.53) seconds versus 35.57 (±10.43) seconds for males. The DNFET performance demonstrated a significant but fair correlation with age (r = 0.401, P = .0001). No significant performance differences were found between male and female subjects in the 14- to 17-year-old group (U = 187.0, P = .285), the 18- to 22-year-old group (U = 145.0, P = .215), or the total male versus female subject groups (U = 653.0, P = .083). Our study establishes a normative data set available for the DNFET in the adolescent population. The fair correlation between DNFET time scores and age is consistent with other studies. These findings serve as a basis for clinician testing, objectifying, and monitoring DNF dysfunction in an adolescent athletic population. II

  9. The Athletic Body.

    Edgar, Andrew

    2016-09-10

    This paper seeks to explore the attraction and the beauty of the contemporary athletic body. It will be suggested that a body shaped through muscular bulk and definition has come to be seen as aesthetically normative. This body differs from the body of athletes from the early and mid-twentieth century. It will be argued that the contemporary body is not merely the result of advances in sports science, but rather that it is expressive of certain meanings and values. The visual similarity of the contemporary athletic body and that of the comic book superhero suggests that both bodies carry a similar potential for narrative story-telling, and that their attraction is bound up with this narrative potential. The superhero and athlete live meaningful lives, pursuing clear and morally unambiguous goals. The aesthetic attraction of the body lies in its capacity to facilitate the articulation of a story of a meaningful life, and to do so in the face of the growing anomie and thus meaninglessness of life as experienced in contemporary society. Athleticism offers an illusion of meaning, serving to reproduce dominant justificatory narratives and social stereotypes. Yet, as an illusion of meaning, it may be challenged and negotiated, not least with respect to its bias towards a certain form of the male body. The female athletic body disrupts the illusion, opening up new existential possibilities, new ways of living and being, and thus new, and potentially disruptive, narratives.

  10. How does high-intensity intermittent training affect recreational endurance runners? Acute and chronic adaptations: A systematic review

    Felipe García-Pinillos

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: HIIT-based running plans (2 to 3 HIIT sessions per week, combining HIIT and CR runs show athletic performance improvements in endurance runners by improving maximal oxygen uptake and running economy along with muscular and metabolic adaptations. To maximize the adaptations to training, both HIIT and CR must be part of training programs for endurance runners.

  11. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation

    Paola Rossi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day, in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in “Gran Fondo” cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity. A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO or the overtraining syndrome (OTS. The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes’ serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress.

  12. Gender differences in muscular protection of the knee in torsion in size-matched athletes.

    Wojtys, Edward M; Huston, Laura J; Schock, Harold J; Boylan, James P; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2003-05-01

    Female athletes who participate in sports involving jumping and cutting maneuvers are up to eight times more likely to sustain a rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament than are men participating in the same sports. We tested the hypothesis that healthy young women are able to volitionally increase the apparent torsional stiffness of the knee, by maximally activating the knee muscles, significantly less than are size-matched men participating in the same type of sport. Twenty-four NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) Division-I athletes (twelve men and twelve women) competing in sports associated with a high risk of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (basketball, volleyball, and soccer) were compared with twenty-eight collegiate endurance athletes (fourteen men and fourteen women) participating in sports associated with a low risk of such injuries (bicycling, crew, and running). Male and female pairs were matched for age, height, weight, body mass index, shoe size, and activity level. Testing was performed with a weighted pendulum that applied a medially directed 80-N impulse force to the lateral aspect of the right forefoot. The resulting internal rotation of the leg was measured optically, to the nearest 0.25 degrees, at 30 degrees and 60 degrees of knee flexion, both with and without maximal activation of the knee muscles. Maximal rotations of the leg were greater in women than in men in both the passive and the active muscle state (16% and 27% greater [p = 0.01 and p = 0.02], respectively). Moreover, female athletes exhibited a significantly (18%) smaller volitional increase in apparent torsional stiffness of the knee under internal rotation loading than did the matched male athletes (p = 0.014); this was particularly the case for those who participated in sports involving jumping and pivoting maneuvers (42% difference between genders, p = 0.001). The collegiate female athletes involved in high-risk sports exhibited less muscular protection

  13. ANTHROPOLOGY DIMENSIONS AS INDEPENDENT AEROBIC ENDURANCE

    Ratko Pavlović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Endurance as human capability is treated in two ways. Some authors define it as mobility capability, while others deny this theory. The denying of this theory lies in attitude that endurance is saturated with psychological factors (motivation and cardio- vascular factors as well and is often identified with aero power, typical dimension of fun- ctional diagnostics. Having that in mind this research enabled the obtaining of necessary informations which could contribute to the clearing up of these uncoordinated opinions. The research included 110 student of the III year Phisical Education in East Sarajevo, male gender. Nine (9 predictors has been applied (4 variables for mobility space estima- te, 5 variables for morphology and functional space estimate and variable used for the estimate of endurance race 1500m. Obtained results confirmed statistical significance of two functional capability variable of Harvard step test, Margarija test and mobility variable race 4x15 meters with the race results.

  14. Dietary Protein Intake and Distribution Patterns of Well-Trained Dutch Athletes.

    Gillen, Jenna B; Trommelen, Jorn; Wardenaar, Floris C; Brinkmans, Naomi Y J; Versteegen, Joline J; Jonvik, Kristin L; Kapp, Christoph; de Vries, Jeanne; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-04-01

    Dietary protein intake should be optimized in all athletes to ensure proper recovery and enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. In addition to total protein intake, the use of specific proteincontaining food sources and the distribution of protein throughout the day are relevant for optimizing protein intake in athletes. In the present study, we examined the daily intake and distribution of various proteincontaining food sources in a large cohort of strength, endurance and team-sport athletes. Well-trained male (n=327) and female (n=226) athletes completed multiple web-based 24-hr dietary recalls over a 2-4 wk period. Total energy intake, the contribution of animal- and plant-based proteins to daily protein intake, and protein intake at six eating moments were determined. Daily protein intake averaged 108±33 and 90±24 g in men and women, respectively, which corresponded to relative intakes of 1.5±0.4 and 1.4±0.4 g/kg. Dietary protein intake was correlated with total energy intake in strength (r=0.71, p sport (r=0.77, p protein intake was 57% and 43%, respectively. The distribution of protein intake was 19% (19±8 g) at breakfast, 24% (25±13 g) at lunch and 38% (38±15 g) at dinner. Protein intake was below the recommended 20 g for 58% of athletes at breakfast, 36% at lunch and 8% at dinner. In summary, this survey of athletes revealed they habitually consume > 1.2 g protein/kg/d, but the distribution throughout the day may be suboptimal to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to training.

  15. Developing a multi-component immune model for evaluating the risk of respiratory illness in athletes.

    Gleeson, Maree; Pyne, David B; Elkington, Lisa J; Hall, Sharron T; Attia, John R; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Wood, Lisa G; Callister, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory identification of the underlying risk of respiratory illness in athletes has proved problematic. The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical data, combined with immune responses to standardised exercise protocols and genetic cytokine polymorphism status, could identify the risk of respiratory illness (symptoms) in a cohort of highly-trained athletes. Male endurance athletes (n=16; VO2max 66.5 ± 5.1 mL.kg-1.min-1) underwent a clinical evaluation of known risk factors by a physician and comprehensive laboratory analysis of immune responses both at rest and after two cycling ergometer tests: 60 min at 65% VO2max (LONG); and 6 x 3 min intervals at 90% VO2max (INTENSE). Blood tests were performed to determine Epstein Barr virus (EBV) status and DNA was genotyped for a panel of cytokine gene polymorphisms. Saliva was collected for measurement of IgA and detection of EBV DNA. Athletes were then followed for 9 months for self-reported episodes of respiratory illness, with confirmation of the underlying cause by a sports physician. There were no associations with risk of respiratory illness identified for any parameter assessed in the clinical evaluations. The laboratory parameters associated with an increased risk of respiratory illnesses in highly-trained athletes were cytokine gene polymorphisms for the high expression of IL-6 and IFN-ɣ; expression of EBV-DNA in saliva; and low levels of salivary IgA concentration. A genetic risk score was developed for the cumulative number of minor alleles for the cytokines evaluated. Athletes prone to recurrent respiratory illness were more likely to have immune disturbances that allow viral reactivation, and a genetic predisposition to pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to intense exercise. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Exercise and Immunology. All rights reserved.

  16. Markers of Oxidative stress in Smoker and Nonsmoker Athletes

    Wahba, O.; Shalby, H.; Ashry, Kh.

    2009-01-01

    To Investigate the effect of smoking on oxidative stress in male athletes. Plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO), apoptosis % in circulating lymphocytes and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA (iNOS mRNA) expression in neutrophils, erythrocytes antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in the blood of 40 non smoker and 25 smoker athletes compared to age and socioeconomic class matching 20 smoker and 20 non-smoker non-athlete controls. Plasma levels NO, apoptosis % in circulating lymphocytes and inducible iNOS mRNA expression in neutrophils were significantly higher among athletes compared to non athletes and exhibited the highest levels in athlete smokers followed by control smokers. Concurrently, erythrocytes SOD was significantly higher among athletes compared to non athletes and exhibited highest levels in athlete smokers followed by control smokers. Conclusion: The results of this work demonstrate the impact of smoking on the health of athletes

  17. Lower white blood cell counts in elite athletes training for highly aerobic sports.

    Horn, P L; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Barnes, C J

    2010-11-01

    White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were quantified. Each sport was scaled (1-5) for its perceived metabolic stress (aerobic-anaerobic) and mechanical stress (concentric-eccentric) by 13 sports physiologists. Substantially lower total white cell and neutrophil counts were observed in aerobic sports of cycling and triathlon (~16% of test results below the normal reference range) compared with team or skill-based sports such as water polo, cricket and volleyball. Mechanical stress of sports had less effect on the distribution of cell counts. The lower white cell counts in athletes in aerobic sports probably represent an adaptive response, not underlying pathology.

  18. Effect of speed endurance and strength training on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners

    Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Tybirk, Jonas; Gunnarsson, Thomas Petursson

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of combined strength and speed endurance (SE) training along with a reduced training volume on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners. METHODS: Sixteen male endurance runners (VO2-max: ~60 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were rand...... and speed endurance training, along with a reduced training volume, can improve short-term exercise capacity and induce muscular adaptations related to anaerobic capacity in endurance-trained runners.......PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of combined strength and speed endurance (SE) training along with a reduced training volume on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners. METHODS: Sixteen male endurance runners (VO2-max: ~60 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were...... randomly assigned to either a combined strength and SE training (CSS; n = 9) or a control (CON; n = 7) group. For 8 weeks, CSS replaced their normal moderate-intensity training (~63 km week(-1)) with SE (2 × week(-1)) and strength training (2 × week(-1)) as well as aerobic high (1 × week(-1)) and moderate...

  19. The Effect of Two Speed Endurance Training Regimes on Performance of Soccer Players

    Iaia, F. Marcello; Fiorenza, Matteo; Perri, Enrico; Alberti, Giampietro; Millet, Grégoire P.; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand the specificity of training adaptations, we compared the effects of two different anaerobic training regimes on various types of soccer-related exercise performances. During the last 3 weeks of the competitive season, thirteen young male professional soccer players (age 18.5±1 yr, height 179.5±6.5 cm, body mass 74.3±6.5 kg) reduced the training volume by ~20% and replaced their habitual fitness conditioning work with either speed endurance production (SEP; n = 6) or speed endurance maintenance (SEM; n = 7) training, three times per wk. SEP training consisted of 6–8 reps of 20-s all-out running bouts followed by 2 min of passive recovery, whereas SEM training was characterized by 6–8 x 20-s all-out efforts interspersed with 40 s of passive recovery. SEP training reduced (pstrategies target different determinants of soccer-related physical performance. SEP improved repeated sprint and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, whereas SEM increased muscles’ ability to maximize fatigue tolerance and maintain speed development during both repeated all-out and continuous short-duration maximal exercises. These results provide new insight into the precise nature of a stimulus necessary to improve specific types of athletic performance in trained young soccer players. PMID:26394225

  20. Mouth rinsing improves cycling endurance performance during Ramadan fasting in a hot humid environment.

    Che Muhamed, Ahmad Munir; Mohamed, Nazirah Gulam; Ismail, Norjana; Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the effect of mouth rinsing during endurance cycling in a hot humid environment (32 °C and 75% relative humidity) on athletes in the Ramadan fasted state. Nine trained adolescent male cyclists completed 3 trials that consisted of a carbohydrate mouth-rinse (CMR), a placebo mouth-rinse (PMR), and a no-rinse (NOR) trial during the last 2 weeks of Ramadan. Each trial consisted of a preloading cycle at 65% peak rate of oxygen consumption for 30 min followed by a 10-km time trial (TT10 km) under hot humid condition. During the CMR and PMR trials, each cyclist rinsed his mouth with 25 mL of the solution for 5 s before expectorating the solution pre-exercise, after 5, 15, and 25 min of the preloading cycle, and 15 s prior to the start of TT10 km. Time to complete the TT10 km was significantly faster in the CMR and PMR trials compared with the NOR trial (12.9 ± 1.7 and 12.6 ± 1.7 vs. 16.8 ± 1.6 min, respectively; p benefits compared with a no-rinse condition on TT10 km performance in acute Ramadan fasted subjects during endurance cycling in a heat stress environment.

  1. The FTO A/T Polymorphism and Elite Athletic Performance: A Study Involving Three Groups of European Athletes

    Eynon, Nir; Nasibulina, Emiliya S.; Banting, Lauren K.; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Bondareva, Elvira A.; Shagimardanova, Roza R.; Raz, Maytal; Sharon, Yael; Williams, Alun G.; Ahmetov, Ildus I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609) is a strong candidate to influence obesity-related traits. Elite athletes from many different sporting disciplines are characterized by low body fat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether athletic status is associated with the FTO A/T polymorphism. Subjects and Methods A large cohort of European Caucasians from Poland, Russia and Spain were tested to examine the association between FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609) and athletic status. A total of 551 athletes were divided by type of sport (endurance athletes, n = 266 vs. sprint/power athletes, n = 285) as well as by level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level). The control group consisted of 1,416 ethnically-matched, non-athletic participants, all Europeans. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between FTO A/T genotypes and athletic status/competition level. Results There were no significantly greater/lesser odds of harbouring any type of genotype when comparing across athletic status (endurance athletes, sprint/power athletes or control participants). These effects were observed after controlling for sex and nationality. Furthermore, no significantly greater/lesser odds ratios were observed for any of the genotypes in respect to the level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level). Conclusion The FTO A/T polymorphism is not associated with elite athletic status in the largest group of elite athletes studied to date. Large collaborations and data sharing between researchers, as presented here, are strongly recommended to enhance the research in the field of exercise genomics. PMID:23573268

  2. The FTO A/T polymorphism and elite athletic performance: a study involving three groups of European athletes.

    Nir Eynon

    Full Text Available The FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609 is a strong candidate to influence obesity-related traits. Elite athletes from many different sporting disciplines are characterized by low body fat. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether athletic status is associated with the FTO A/T polymorphism.A large cohort of European Caucasians from Poland, Russia and Spain were tested to examine the association between FTO A/T polymorphism (rs9939609 and athletic status. A total of 551 athletes were divided by type of sport (endurance athletes, n = 266 vs. sprint/power athletes, n = 285 as well as by level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level. The control group consisted of 1,416 ethnically-matched, non-athletic participants, all Europeans. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between FTO A/T genotypes and athletic status/competition level.There were no significantly greater/lesser odds of harbouring any type of genotype when comparing across athletic status (endurance athletes, sprint/power athletes or control participants. These effects were observed after controlling for sex and nationality. Furthermore, no significantly greater/lesser odds ratios were observed for any of the genotypes in respect to the level of competition (elite-level vs. national-level.The FTO A/T polymorphism is not associated with elite athletic status in the largest group of elite athletes studied to date. Large collaborations and data sharing between researchers, as presented here, are strongly recommended to enhance the research in the field of exercise genomics.

  3. Serum oxidant and antioxidant status in adolescents undergoing professional endurance sports training.

    Tong, Tom K; Lin, Hua; Lippi, Giuseppe; Nie, Jinlei; Tian, Ye

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of professional training on serum oxidant and antioxidant status in adolescent endurance athletes and compared it with that of untrained individuals. Firstly, serum thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARSs), xanthine oxidase (XO), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were measured in 67 male runners, cyclists, and untrained adolescents. Seven-day dietary intakes were also assessed. Secondly, for age- and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 36 out of the 67 subjects (12 for each group) were then selected and investigated. In cyclists, XO, GSH, and CAT were higher as compared with runners and controls. The CAT in runners, but not GSH and XO, was also higher than in controls. TBARS, T-AOC, and SOD did not differ among the study populations. Regarding the inter-individual relationships among serum redox statuses and dietary nutrient intakes, significant correlations were noted in CAT versus carbohydrates, protein, magnesium, and manganese; GSH versus carbohydrates, protein, fat, selenium, zinc, iron, and magnesium; XO versus cholesterol; CAT versus GSH. These findings suggest that the resting blood redox balance in the professional adolescent athletes was well maintained partly by the increase of individual antioxidant in adaptation to chronic exercise.

  4. Assessment of psychological pain management techniques: a comparative study between athletes and non-athletes

    Azevedo Daniel Câmara

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Athletes usually deal with injuries and pain. They seem to have similar pain threshold when compared to non-athletes, although they have higher pain tolerance and the exact cause for that is unknown. High levels for pain tolerance and control can improve performance and time for injury recovery. The literature shows that use of coping strategies can increase pain control; possible differences on coping with pain between athletes and non-athletes are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate frequency of coping strategies used by athletes and non-athletes of both genders and look for possible association between preferred coping style and pain intensity. The sample included 160 subjects with actual pain experience, 80 athletes (52 male, 28 female and 80 non-athletes (50 male and 30 female. All subjects were evaluated for pain intensity, frequency and duration and for coping strategies using a questionnaire (SBS-V. The results show that athletes and non-athletes, despite of gender, use with the same frequency coping strategies. The less common coping strategies for all groups were those poor-adaptative (p < 0.001; the most commonly strategy used was self-statement and regulation of body tension (p < 0.001. Female athletes use more frequently poor-adaptative strategies when pain intensity increases (p < 0.05.

  5. Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)

  6. Anaerobic work capacity in elite wheelchair athletes

    van der Woude, L H; Bakker, W H; Elkhuizen, J W; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Gwinn, T

    1997-01-01

    To study the anaerobic work capacity in wheelchair athletes, 67 elite wheelchair athletes (50 male) were studied in a 30-second sprint test on a computer-controlled wheelchair ergometer during the World Championships and Games for the Disabled in Assen (1990). The experimental set-up (ergometer,

  7. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Austin, Kathleen J.; Alexander, Brenda M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2016-01-01

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance. PMID:27096869

  8. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women.

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Austin, Kathleen J; Alexander, Brenda M; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-04-18

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18-40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3-36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3-36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.

  9. Effect of inhaled corticosteroids on bronchial asthma in Japanese athletes.

    Hoshino, Yoshifumi; Koya, Toshiyuki; Kagamu, Hiroshi; Tsukioka, Keisuke; Toyama, Mio; Sakagami, Takuro; Hasegawa, Takashi; Narita, Ichiei; Arakawa, Masaaki; Suzuki, Eiichi

    2015-04-01

    Asthma has a higher prevalence in athlete populations such as Olympic athletes than in the general population. Correct diagnosis and management of asthma in athletes is important for symptom control and avoidance of doping accusations. However, few reports are available on asthma treatment in the athlete population in clinical practice. In this study, we focused on the clinical efficacy of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) for asthma in a Japanese athlete population. The study subjects included athletes who visited the Niigata Institute for Health and Sports Medicine, Niigata, Japan for athletic tests and who were diagnosed with asthma on the basis of respiratory symptoms and positive results in a bronchodilator or bronchial provocation test such as exercise, hypertonic saline, or methacholine provocation. The athletes received ICS alone for at least 3 months, and the clinical background, sports type, and treatment efficacy were analyzed. The study population comprised 80 athletes (59 men and 21 women) with a median age of 16.0 years. Regarding sports type, 28 athletes engaged in winter sports (35%), 22 in endurance sports (27.5%), and 25 in indoor sports (31.3%). Although ICS is the primary treatment in athlete asthma, 16.3% of the athletes showed an unsatisfactory response to treatment according to the Global Evaluation of Treatment Effectiveness (GETE). These subjects were characterized by a decreased response to methacholine and lower values for FEV1/FVC and type 2 helper T cell (Th2)-associated biomarkers relative to responsive athletes. In multivariate analysis, FEV1/FVC and the logarithm to the base 10 of the IgE level were independently associated with the ICS response. These data suggest that ICS is effective for asthma in most athletes. However, certain asthmatic athletes are less responsive to ICS than expected. The pathogenesis in these subjects may differ from that of conventional asthma characterized by chronic allergic airway inflammation. Copyright

  10. Examining physical training versus physical and mental training programmes in Swimrun semi-professional athletes: A randomised, controlled, trial

    Francesco Chirico

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of two psychological interventions, named ‘Mental imagery’ and ‘Motivational self-talk’ training used in combination, on perceived excertion and flow state in a sample of Swimrun semi-professional athletes. Methods: Thirty male semi-professional athletes, enrolled for a Swimrun competition, were randomly selected into an experimental group (EXP and a control group (CON. The modified Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion (RPE and the Flow State Scale (FSS were the dependent variables. Before a Swimrun competition, the EXP Group performed both physical and mental training programs, while the CON group only performed a physical training program. Immediately after the race, we measured the dependent variables in both groups. Results: The results of unpaired-t test showed that levels of perceived exertion were less in EXP group than CON group, (t(28 = 12.87, P < .001, while levels of flow state were higher in EXP group than CON group (t(28 = 5.96, P < .001, immediately after the end of the endurance competition. The use of both mental imagery and self-talk training in order to reduce perceived exertion and improve flow state was supported (P < .001. Discussion and Conclusion: The findings of this study support the psychobiological model of endurance performance. Our research is the first to demonstrate that mental imagery used in combination with motivational self-talk can reduce the perceived exertion and improve the flow state in Swimrun athletes during their endurance performance.

  11. Assessment of nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad syndrome

    Petroczi Andrea

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed to i assess nutritional knowledge in female athletes susceptible to the Female Athlete Triad (FAT syndrome and to compare with controls; and ii to compare nutritional knowledge of those who were classified as being 'at risk' for developing FAT syndrome and those who are 'not at risk'. Methods In this study, participants completed General Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ, the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 and survey measures of training/physical activity, menstrual and skeletal injury history. The sample consisted of 48 regional endurance athletes, 11 trampoline gymnasts and 32 untrained controls. Based on proxy measures for the FAT components, participants were classified being 'at risk' or 'not at risk' and nutrition knowledge scores were compared for the two groups. Formal education related to nutrition was considered. Results A considerably higher percentage of athletes were classified 'at risk' of menstrual dysfunction than controls (28.8% and 9.4%, respectively and a higher percentage scored at or above the cutoff value of 20 on the EAT-26 test among athletes than controls (10.2% and 3.1%, respectively. 8.5% of athletes were classified 'at risk' for bone mineral density in contrast to none from the control group. Nutrition knowledge and eating attitude appeared to be independent for both athletes and controls. GNKQ scores of athletes were higher than controls but the differences between the knowledge of 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes and controls were inconsequential. Formal education in nutrition or closely related subjects does not have an influence on nutrition knowledge or on being classified as 'at risk' or 'not at risk'. Conclusion The lack of difference in nutrition knowledge between 'at risk' and 'not at risk' athletes suggests that lack of information is not accountable for restricted eating associated with the Female Athlete Triad.

  12. Online video-based resistance training improves the physical capacity of junior basketball athletes.

    Klusemann, Markus J; Pyne, David B; Fay, Tristan S; Drinkwater, Eric J

    2012-10-01

    Junior basketball athletes require a well-designed resistance training program to improve their physical development. Lack of expert supervision and resistance training in junior development pathways may be overcome by implementing an online video-based program. The aim of this study was to compare the magnitude of improvement (change) in physical performance and strength and functional movement patterns of junior basketball athletes using either a fully supervised or an online video-based resistance training program. Thirty-eight junior basketball athletes (males, n = 17; age, 14 ± 1 year; height, 1.79 ± 0.10 m; mass, 67 ± 12 kg; females, n = 21; age, 15 ± 1 year; height, 1.70 ± 0.07 m; mass, 62 ± 8 kg) were randomly assigned into a supervised resistance training group (SG, n = 13), video training group (VG, n = 13) or control group (CG, n = 12) and participated in a 6-week controlled experimental trial. Pre- and posttesting included measures of physical performance (20-m sprint, step-in vertical jump, agility, sit and reach, line drill, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1), strength (15 s push-up and pull-up), and functional movement screening (FMS). Both SG and VG achieved 3-5% ± 2-4% (mean ± 90% confidence limits) greater improvements in several physical performance measures (vertical jump height, 20-m sprint time, and Yo-Yo endurance performance) and a 28 ± 21% greater improvement in push-up strength compared with the CG. The SG attained substantially larger gains in FMS scores over both the VG (12 ± 10%) and CG (13 ± 8%). Video-based training appears to be a viable option to improve physical performance and strength in junior basketball athletes. Qualified supervision is recommended to improve functional movement patterns in junior athletes.

  13. Strength Training Prior to Endurance Exercise: Impact on the Neuromuscular System, Endurance Performance and Cardiorespiratory Responses

    Conceição Matheus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strengthtraining and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05. These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  14. Athletic Engagement and Athletic Identity in Top Croatian Sprint Runners.

    Babić, Vesna; Sarac, Jelena; Missoni, Sasa; Sindik, Josko

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to determine construct validity and reliability for two questionnaires (Athlete Engagement Questionnaire-AEQ and Athletic Identity Measurement Scale-AIMS), applied on elite Croatian athletes-sprinters, as well as the correlations among the dimensions in these measuring instruments. Then, we have determined the differences in the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity, according to gender, education level and winning medals on international competitions. A total of 71 elite athletes-sprinters (former and still active) are examined, from which 27 (38%) females and 44 (62%) males. The results of factor analyses revealed the existence of dimensions very similar as in the original instruments, which showed moderate to-high reliabilities. A small number of statistically significant correlations have been found between the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity, mainly in male sprinter runners. Small number of statistically significant differences in the dimensions of sport engagement and sport identity have been found according to the gender, education level and winning medals on the international competitions. The most reasonable explanation of these differences could be given in terms of very similar characteristics of elite athletes on the same level of sport excellence.

  15. THE ASSOCIATION OF GENE POLYMORPHISMS WITH ATHLETE STATUS IN UKRAINIANS

    Svitlana B. Drozdovska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Athletic performance is a polygenic trait influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Objective: to investigate individually and in combination the association of common gene polymorphisms with athlete status in Ukrainians. Methods: A total of 210 elite Ukrainian athletes (100 endurance-oriented and 110 power-orientated athletes and 326 controls were genotyped for ACE I/D, HIF1A Pro582Ser, NOS3 –786 T/C, PPARA intron 7 G/C, PPARG Pro12Ala and PPARGC1B Ala203Pro gene polymorphisms, most of which were previously reported to be associated with athlete status or related intermediate phenotypes in different populations. Results: Power-oriented athletes exhibited an increased frequency of the HIF1A Ser (16.1 vs. 9.420P = 0.034 and NOS3 T alleles (78.3 vs. 66.220P = 0.0019 in comparison with controls. Additionally, we found that the frequency of the PPARG Ala allele was significantly higher in power-oriented athletes compared with the endurance-oriented athletes (24.7 vs. 13.520P = 0.0076. Next, we determined the total genotype score (TGS, from the accumulated combination of the three polymorphisms, with a maximum value of 100 for the theoretically optimal polygenic score in athletes and controls. The mean TGS was significantly higher in power-oriented athletes (39.1 ± 2.3 vs. 32.6 ± 1.5; P = 0.0142 than in controls. Conclusions: We found that the HIF1A Ser, NOS3 T and PPARG Ala alleles were associated with power athlete status in Ukrainians.

  16. Comparison of Mental Health Components among Athlete and Non-athlete Adolescents

    Zeinab Ghiami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a period of rapid biological and behavioral changes that may expand the risk of mental health issues. Objective: This study aimed to compare the mental health of male and female athletes and non-athletes among a high school student groups. Methodology: On this base 100 students (50 athletes and 50 non-athletes, Mage = 16 (SD = ±1 were selected through multi stage random sampling and divided equally into four groups (female athlete / non-athlete, male athlete / non-athlete. General Health Questionnaire designed by Goldberg and Hiller (1979 was used for data collections. Results: The analysis of one-way ANOVA displayed significant differences between the mean scores in mental health among the groups in terms of mental health, F (3, 96 =39, P = .01 with less prevalence of these symptoms among athletes comparing to non-athletes. Conclusion: Increasing opportunities for students to take part in sport competitions can protect them against poor psychological well-being. Keywords: Mental Health; Depression; Anxiety; Social dysfunction; Somatic

  17. The influence of sleep duration and sleep-related symptoms on baseline neurocognitive performance among male and female high school athletes.

    Sufrinko, Alicia; Johnson, Eric W; Henry, Luke C

    2016-05-01

    Typically, the effects of sleep duration on cognition are examined in isolation. This study examined the effects of restricted sleep and related symptoms on neurocognitive performance. Baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) and postconcussion symptom scale (PCSS) were administered to athletes (N = 7,150) ages 14-17 (M = 15.26, SD = 1.09) prior to sport participation. Three groups of athletes were derived from total sleep duration: sleep restriction (≤5 hours), typical sleep (5.5-8.5 hours), and optimal sleep (≥9 hours). A MANCOVA (age and sex as covariates) was conducted to examine differences across ImPACT/PCSS. Follow-up MANOVA compared ImPACT/PCSS performance among symptomatic (e.g., trouble falling asleep, sleeping less than usual) adolescents from the sleep restriction group (n = 78) with asymptomatic optimal sleepers (n = 99). A dose-response effect of sleep duration on ImPACT performance and PCSS was replicated (Wilk's λ = .98, F2,7145 = 17.25, p sleep restricted adolescents (n = 78) had poorer neurocognitive performance: verbal memory, F = 11.60, p = .001, visual memory, F = 6.57, p = .01, visual motor speed, F = 6.19, p = .01, and reaction time (RT), F = 5.21, p = .02, compared to demographically matched controls (n = 99). Girls in the sleep problem group performed worse on RT (p = .024). Examining the combination of sleep-related symptoms and reduced sleep duration effectively identified adolescents at risk for poor neurocognitive performance than sleep duration alone. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Comparison between two types of anaerobic speed endurance training in competitive soccer players

    Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of additional in-season speed endurance production versus speed endurance maintenance training regimes on performance in competitive male soccer players. In a randomised controlled trial 18 male sub-elite players were exposed to additional...... during training were higher (psoccer players with superior...... speed endurance production (SEP) or speed endurance maintenance (SEM) training (two additional sessions/wk for 4 weeks) during the competitive season. Players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test (YYIR2) and a repeated sprint test (RST) pre- and postintervention. Yo-Yo IR2 performance...

  19. Exploring the Relationship between Endurance and Strength Training in Power Sports

    Rohleva, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research work is to track down the level of relation between strength and endurance in training exercises of handball athletes. The most successful ratio has been established during work with two groups of 10 players each, all of whom are university students. They were trained, respectively, according to the general training…

  20. Testing of badminton specific endurance

    Madsen, Christian Møller; Højlyng, Mads; Nybo, Lars

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a novel intermittent badminton endurance test (B-ENDURANCE) was developed and tested in elite (n=17) and skilled (n=9) badminton players as well as in age-matched physically active men (non-badminton players; n=8). In addition, B-ENDURANCE test-retest reproducibility...... was evaluated in nine badminton players.B-ENDURANCE is an incremental test where each level consists of repeated sequences of badminton specific actions towards the four corners on the court. The subject starts in the center of the court in front of a computer screen and within each sequence he must...... decreases until the subjects cannot follow the dictated tempo.B-ENDURANCE performance for elite players was better (Pbadminton players. In addition, B-ENDURANCE performance correlated (r=0.8; P

  1. High Prevalence of Hypertension Among Collegiate Football Athletes

    Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt; Roumie, Christianne L.; Nian, Hui; Diamond, Alex B.; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hypertension among collegiate football athletes is not well described. Methods and Results A retrospective cohort of all male athletes who participated in varsity athletics at a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university between 1999–2012 was examined through chart review. Mandatory annual preparticipation physical examinations included blood pressure, body mass index, medication use, and supplement use. Prevalence of hypertension was compared between football and non-football athletes. A mixed-effects linear regression model examined change in blood pressure over time. 636 collegiate athletes, including 323 football players, were identified. In the initial year of athletic participation, 19.2% of football athletes had hypertension and 61.9% had prehypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among football athletes than non-football athletes in their initial (19.2% vs. 7.0%, Pfootball athletes in the initial year (AOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21 to 4.30) but not the final year (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 0.69 to 2.28). Over the course of their collegiate career, football athletes had an annual decrease in systolic blood pressure (−0.82 mmHg, P=0.002), while non-football athletes did not (0.18 mmHg, P=0.58). Conclusions Hypertension and prehypertension were common among collegiate football athletes, and football athletes were more likely to have hypertension than male non-football athletes. This presents a potential cardiovascular risk in a young population of athletes. Strategies for increasing awareness, prevention and treatment are needed. PMID:24221829

  2. The human endurance athlete: heterogeneity and adaptability of ...

    1997-12-09

    Dec 9, 1997 ... a genotypic effect on these variables and any distinctly differ- ent phenotypic .... study aimed to control bias by using siblings of the same gen- der or twins who were .... in 42 Kenyans (active boys and junior and senior runners) and. 12 elite .... Cross innervation and electrical stimulation of skeletal mus-.

  3. YOUNG ATHLETES' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES

    Juan Antonio Moreno Murcia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational characteristics and dispositional flow. In order to accomplish this goal, motivational profiles emerging from key constructs within Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory were related to the dispositional flow measures. A sample of 413 young athletes (Age range 12 to 16 years completed the PMCSQ-2, POSQ, SMS and DFS measures. Cluster analysis results revealed three profiles: a "self-determined profile" characterised by higher scores on the task-involving climate perception and on the task orientation; a "non-self-determined profile", characterised by higher scores on ego-involving climate perception and ego orientation; and a "low self-determined and low non-self-determined profile" which had the lowest dispositional flow. No meaningful differences were found between the "self-determined profile" and the "non-self-determined profile" in dispositional flow. The "self-determined profile" was more commonly associated with females, athletes practising individual sports and those training more than three days a week. The "non-self-determined profile" was more customary of males and athletes practising team sports as well as those training just two or three days a week

  4. The legend of plantar neuropraxia in long-distance athletes

    Legend has it, and anecdotal reports reinforce that endurance athletes who ... of the great toe; the test was considered positive if the participant could not feel the ... is a well-known phenomenon that occurs during and after exercise. Perhaps ...

  5. The Association Analysis between ACE and ACTN3 Genes Polymorphisms and Endurance Capacity in Young Cross-Country Skiers: Longitudinal Study.

    Mägi, Agnes; Unt, Eve; Prans, Ele; Raus, Liina; Eha, Jaan; Veraksitš, Alar; Kingo, Külli; Kõks, Sulev

    2016-06-01

    Endurance performance depends on the integration of several phenotypic traits influenced by multiple environmental and genetic factors. Objectives of the study were: (1) to examine the genotypic frequencies of the ACE I/D, ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms and endurance performance-related phenotypes, (2) to evaluate the dynamics of endurance performance parameters during a 5-year period in relation to ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X genotypes in Estonian young skiers. Determination of VO2peak was performed in 58 skiers aged 15-19 years (41 males, 17 females) during a 5-year period. The control group consisted of 322 healthy non-athletic subjects (145 males, 177 females). The study groups were genotyped for the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X variants. Frequencies of the ACE ID and ACTN3 RR genotypes were significantly higher (p = 0.047 and p = 0.003, respectively) and the RX genotype was lower (p = 0.008) in young male skiers compared with controls. A significant relationship was found between change (Δ) of training volume and ΔVO2peak (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) (r = 0.475, p = 0.002). No significant main effect was detected between VO2peak (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) dynamics (comparison with the previous age group data) and ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X genotypes interactions (F = 0.571, p = 0.770 and F = 0.650 and p = 0.705, respectively) in all young skiers. Study results indicated a significantly higher frequency of the ACE ID and ACTN3 RR genotypes among Estonian young male skiers compared with the male control group. Significant genotype-related differences in dynamics of VO2peak during a 5-year period were not found. In the future, longitudinal research including different gene variants may contribute to a better understanding of the nature of endurance performance. Key pointsSignificantly higher prevalence of the ACE ID and the ACTN3 RR genotypes were found among Estonian young male skiers compared with the male control group, which may be an advantage for the explosive speed and power

  6. Endurance training increases the efficiency of rat skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Koziel, Agnieszka; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej; Celichowski, Jan; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2016-10-01

    Endurance training enhances mitochondrial oxidative capacity, but its effect on mitochondria functioning is poorly understood. In the present study, the influence of an 8-week endurance training on the bioenergetic functioning of rat skeletal muscle mitochondria under different assay temperatures (25, 35, and 42 °C) was investigated. The study was performed on 24 adult 4-month-old male Wistar rats, which were randomly assigned to either a treadmill training group (n = 12) or a sedentary control group (n = 12). In skeletal muscles, endurance training stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity. In isolated mitochondria, endurance training increased the phosphorylation rate and elevated levels of coenzyme Q. Moreover, a decrease in mitochondrial uncoupling, including uncoupling protein-mediated proton leak, was observed after training, which could explain the increased reactive oxygen species production (in nonphosphorylating mitochondria) and enhanced oxidative phosphorylation efficiency. At all studied temperatures, endurance training significantly augmented H2O2 production (and coenzyme Q reduction level) in nonphosphorylating mitochondria and decreased H2O2 production (and coenzyme Q reduction level) in phosphorylating mitochondria. Endurance training magnified the hyperthermia-induced increase in oxidative capacity and attenuated the hyperthermia-induced decline in oxidative phosphorylation efficiency and reactive oxygen species formation of nonphosphorylating mitochondria via proton leak enhancement. Thus, endurance training induces both quantitative and qualitative changes in muscle mitochondria that are important for cell signaling as well as for maintaining muscle energy homeostasis, especially at high temperatures.

  7. The LEAF questionnaire: a screening tool for the identification of female athletes at risk for the female athlete triad.

    Melin, Anna; Tornberg, Asa B; Skouby, Sven; Faber, Jens; Ritz, Christian; Sjödin, Anders; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2014-04-01

    Low energy availability (EA) in female athletes with or without an eating disorder (ED) increases the risk of oligomenorrhoea/functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea and impaired bone health, a syndrome called the female athlete triad (Triad). There are validated psychometric instruments developed to detect disordered eating behaviour (DE), but no validated screening tool to detect persistent low EA and Triad conditions, with or without DE/ED, is available. The aim of this observational study was to develop and test a screening tool designed to identify female athletes at risk for the Triad. Female athletes (n=84) with 18-39 years of age and training ≥5 times/week filled out the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), which comprised questions regarding injuries and gastrointestinal and reproductive function. Reliability and internal consistency were evaluated in a subsample of female dancers and endurance athletes (n=37). Discriminant as well as concurrent validity was evaluated by testing self-reported data against measured current EA, menstrual function and bone health in endurance athletes from sports such as long distance running and triathlon (n=45). The 25-item LEAF-Q produced an acceptable sensitivity (78%) and specificity (90%) in order to correctly classify current EA and/or reproductive function and/or bone health. The LEAF-Q is brief and easy to administer, and relevant as a complement to existing validated DE screening instruments, when screening female athletes at risk for the Triad, in order to enable early detection and intervention.

  8. Motivation and Goal-Setting in College Athletes

    Cash, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Motivation and goal-setting are important concepts in athletics and sport and exercise psychology. However, little research has compared motivation and goal-setting by gender. The self-determination theory was used and the purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference between male and female athletes when looking at amotivation, external regulation, identified regulation, intrinsic motivation, and goal-setting. One hundred and six student-athletes (fifty one males and f...

  9. [Endurance capabilities of triathlon competitors with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Boehncke, S; Poettgen, K; Maser-Gluth, C; Reusch, J; Boehncke, W-H; Badenhoop, K

    2009-04-01

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) aims to prevent complications by strictly optimizing blood glucose levels. Although physical exercise is an important part of metabolic control, endurance sports are considered hazardous for patients with type 1 diabetes because of the extreme physiological stress they represent. To further elucidate the metabolic challenge this form of exercise presented we investigated the performance of triathlon competitors with type 1 diabetes. Ten patients (32-61 years) with type 1 diabetes (disease duration 2-35 years) were followed for three years, during which each year they participated in one triathlon long-distance competitions (2.4 miles swimming, 26.2 miles running and 112 miles cycling; Ironman Germany 2005-2007). Glucose, cortisol, aldosterone, renin, thyroid hormones, testosterone, growth hormone and catecholamines were measured in blood and saliva. Five non-diabetic competitors served as controls. The performance equalled those of age-matched healthy athletes. Several participants experienced hyperglycemia early in the bike leg, whereas all of them developed low blood glucose levels during the marathon leg. Basal insulin supply was reduced up to 50 % on race day. Hormone levels in athletes with type 1 DM and healthy controls were similar. Patients with type 1 DM can successfully sustain extreme endurance challenges. Physiological alterations of the metabolic state complicated by type 1 DM can readily be compensated by adapting intensified insulin therapy and nutritional modifications. Thus 1 DM should not be regarded a contraindication to participating in high endurance sports.

  10. Influence of different characteristics of sport on heart rate recovery in elite athletes

    Anđić Radovan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the benefits of regular physical activity is lower resting heart rate and its faster recovery after maximal exercise test, as a result of a stronger parasympatic (vagal tone. Heart rate recovery is used as reliable parameter for prescription of the training program and also in prognostic purposes as a parameter of risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Aim: The purpose of this study is to show significant differences in heart rate recovery after maximal exercise test and resting heart rate among different groups of elite athletes. Material and Methods: This study subjected 575 adult (23.1 ± 4.3 years, male athletes divided into four sport groups: skill, power, mixed and endurance. Every subject performed progressive, maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test on a treadmill. Heart rate recovery in first (ΔHRR1 and third (ΔHRR3 minute was calculated as a difference of maximal heart rate and heart rate in the first and the third minute after cessation of exercise, respectively. Results: Compared to skill, power and mixed group (62.9 ± 11.4; 61.5 ± 10.0; 59.9 ± 10.4 min-1 respectively, significantly lower values od resting heart rate are recorded in the endurance group (56.2 ± 10.6 min-1 (p = 0,05. Also, ΔHRR1 was significantly higher in the endurance group (33.5 ±14.3 min-1 compared to skill, power and mixed group (24.3 ± 10.9; 25.5 ± 11.2; 27.8 ± 15.6 min-1 respectively (p = 0,05. Values od ΔHRR3 were significantly higher in power, mixed and endurance groups (74.8 ± 14.3; 79.5 ± 12.7; 79.4 ± 12.6 min-1 respectively compared to skill group (67.3±16.1 min-1 (p = 0,05. Conclusion: Training endurance group of sports has the most contribution to lower resting heart rate and faster recovery of heart rate in the first minute after exercising, due to dominant parasympatic tone.

  11. Life-long endurance running is associated with reduced glycation and mechanical stress in connective tissue

    Couppé, Christian; Svensson, René B; Grosset, Jean-Francois

    2014-01-01

    ) that is associated with aging and lifestyle-related diseases. We therefore examined two groups of healthy elderly men: 15 master athletes (64 ± 4 years) who had been engaged in life-long endurance running and 12 old untrained (66 ± 4 years) together with two groups of healthy young men; ten young athletes matched...... for running distance (26 ± 4 years), and 12 young untrained (24 ± 3 years). AGE cross-links (pentosidine) of the patellar tendon were measured biochemically, and in the skin, it was assessed by a fluorometric method. In addition, we determined mechanical properties and microstructure of the patellar tendon....... Life-long regular endurance runners (master athletes) had a 21 % lower AGE cross-link density compared to old untrained. Furthermore, both master athletes and young athletes displayed a thicker patellar tendon. These cross-sectional data suggest that life-long regular endurance running can partly...

  12. The influence of collective behaviour on pacing in endurance competitions

    Andrew eRenfree

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of theoretical models have been proposed to explain pacing strategies in individual competitive endurance events. These have typically related to internal regulatory processes informing the making of decisions relating to muscular work rate. Despite a substantial body of research investigating the influence of collective group dynamics on individual behaviours in various animal species, this issue has not been comprehensively studied in individual athletic events. This is surprising given that athletes directly compete in close proximity to one another, and that collective behaviour has also been observed in other human environments. Whilst reasons for adopting collective behaviour are not fully understood, it is thought to result from individual agents following simple local rules resulting in seemingly complex large systems acting to confer some biological advantage to the collective as a whole. Although such collective behaviours may generally be beneficial, endurance events are complicated by the fact that increasing levels of physiological disruption as activity progresses may compromise the ability of individuals to continue to interact with other group members. This could result in early fatigue and relative underperformance due to suboptimal utilisation of physiological resources by some athletes. Alternatively, engagement with a collective behaviour may benefit all due to a reduction in the complexity of decisions to be made and a subsequent reduction in cognitive loading and mental fatigue. This paper seeks evidence for collective behaviour in previously published analyses of pacing behaviour and proposes mechanisms through which it could potentially be either beneficial, or detrimental to individual performance.

  13. Physical Performance Measures of Flexibility, Hip Strength, Lower Limb Power and Trunk Endurance in Healthy Navy Cadets: Normative Data and Differences Between Sex and Limb Dominance.

    Lopes, Thiago Jambo Alves; Simic, Milena; Alves, Daniel de Souza; Bunn, Priscila Dos Santos; Rodrigues, Allan Inoue; Terra, Bruno de Souza; Lima, Maicom da Silva; Ribeiro, Fabrício Miranda; Vilão, Patrick; Pappas, Evangelos

    2018-01-17

    The objectives were to provide normative data on commonly used physical performance tests that may be associated with musculoskeletal injuries in Navy cadets, and assess for sex and limb dominance differences. A large cohort of Navy cadets were assessed for physical performance tests of flexibility (ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and sit and reach), isometric hip strength, lower limb power (single leg hop), and trunk endurance (plank and side plank tests). Besides providing normative data tables, sex and limb dominance differences were assessed by a two-way mixed ANOVA. A total of 545 Brazilian Navy cadets (394 males) representing 79% of the cadets in the Academy participated. Normative reference values were reported as mean±SD, 95%CI and percentiles. For tests of muscle strength, power and endurance, males performed better than females (p<0.001). For flexibility tests, females achieved greater distances than males for the sit and reach test (p<0.001), but no difference for ankle dorsiflexion (p=0.51). Overall, there were no clinically relevant differences between limbs. In conclusion, normative data for commonly used physical performance tests were provided. Although no clinically relevant side-to-side differences were found, males presented higher values for lower limb strength and power, as well as trunk endurance than females, while females demonstrated increased flexibility. Valuable normative data are provided to professionals who work with young, active populations from the injury prevention or rehabilitation perspective; as the current study may help professionals to identify athletes or cadets whose performance is outside the normative values and may be at risk for injury.

  14. Psychological consequences of athletic injury among high-level competitors.

    Leddy, M H; Lambert, M J; Ogles, B M

    1994-12-01

    Injury prohibiting continued athletic participation has been hypothesized to have a predictable emotional impact on athletes (Rotella & Heyman, 1986). However, the psychological impact of injury has not been well documented. This study examined the psychological reactions to injury among 343 male collegiate athletes participating in 10 sports. All athletes were assessed using measures of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem during preseason physical examinations. Injured athletes along with matched controls were later assessed within one week of experiencing an athletic injury and 2 months later. A 4 x 3 (Injury Status x Time of Testing) repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (DM MANOVA) revealed that injured athletes exhibited greater depression and anxiety and lower self-esteem than controls immediately following physical injury and at follow-up 2 months later. These findings supported the general observation that physically injured athletes experience a period of emotional distress that in some cases may be severe enough to warrant clinical intervention.

  15. Relational demography in coach-athlete dyads | Zhang | African ...

    This study used an adapted version of Zhang's (2004) trust questionnaire to examine perceived characteristic and trust differences between coach and athlete dyads that differ in gender or ethnicity as well as in dyads that were similar. The four different gender dyad groups were male athlete with male coach (MAMC), ...

  16. Effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on exercise performance and muscle strength in athletes

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on repeated sprint ability, exercise performance, and muscle strength in elite endurance athletes. Twenty male elite athletes [VO2max : 69.4 ± 1.8 (Mean ± SE) mL/min/kg], aged 25.9 ± 1.4 years, were....... deltoideus were measured, followed by three repeated Wingate tests. Exercise performance at 110% of VO2max was determined on a bike ergometer. Acute administration of salbutamol increased peak power during first Wingate test by 4.1 ± 1.7% (P ....05) peak power during first and second Wingate test by 6.4 ± 2.0 and 4.2 ± 1.0%. Neither acute nor 2-week administration of salbutamol had any effect on MVC, exercise performance at 110% of VO2max or on isometric endurance. No differences were observed in the placebo group. In conclusion, salbutamol...

  17. Comparison of physical capacities between nonselected and selected elite male competitive surfers for the National Junior Team.

    Tran, Tai T; Lundgren, Lina; Secomb, Josh; Farley, Oliver R L; Haff, G Gregory; Seitz, Laurent B; Newton, Robert U; Nimphius, Sophia; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2015-03-01

    To determine whether a previously validated performance-testing protocol for competitive surfers is able to differentiate between Australian elite junior surfers selected (S) to the national team and those not selected (NS). Thirty-two elite male competitive junior surfers were divided into 2 groups (S=16, NS=16). Their age, height, body mass, sum of 7 skinfolds, and lean-body-mass ratio (mean±SD) were 16.17±1.26 y, 173.40±5.30 cm, 62.35±7.40 kg, 41.74±10.82 mm, 1.54±0.35 for the S athletes and 16.13±1.02 y, 170.56±6.6 cm, 61.46±10.10 kg, 49.25±13.04 mm, 1.31±0.30 for the NS athletes. Power (countermovement jump [CMJ]), strength (isometric midthigh pull), 15-m sprint paddling, and 400-m endurance paddling were measured. There were significant (P≤.05) differences between the S and NS athletes for relative vertical-jump peak force (P=.01, d=0.9); CMJ height (P=.01, d=0.9); time to 5-, 10-, and 15-m sprint paddle; sprint paddle peak velocity (P=.03, d=0.8; PV); time to 400 m (P=.04, d=0.7); and endurance paddling velocity (P=.05, d=0.7). All performance variables, particularly CMJ height; time to 5-, 10-, and 15-m sprint paddle; sprint paddle PV; time to 400 m; and endurance paddling velocity, can effectively discriminate between S and NS competitive surfers, and this may be important for athlete profiling and training-program design.

  18. The career planning, athletic identity, and student role identity of intercollegiate student athletes.

    Lally, Patricia S; Kerr, Gretchen A

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the career planning of university student athletes and relationships between their career planning and athletic and student role identities. Two retrospective in-depth interviews were held with four male and four female university student athletes. Participants entered university with vague or nonexistent career objectives and invested heavily in their athletic roles. In the latter years of their college career, the participants discarded their sport career ambitions and allowed the student role to become more prominent in their identity hierarchies. The current findings support Brown and Hartley's (1998) suggestion that student athletes may invest in both the athlete and student role identities simultaneously and that investing in the latter may permit the exploration of nonsport career options.

  19. Validation of the student athletes' motivation towards sports and academics questionnaire to Korean student-athletes.

    Park, Sunghee; Hong, Seungbun; Lee, Miyoung

    2015-08-01

    The current study had three aims: (1) to validate a Korean version of the Student Athletes' Motivation toward Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ-Kr), (2) to examine South Korean university student-athletes' motivation towards athletic and academic achievement, and (3) to identify the relationship between athletic identity and their athletic and academic achievement. A total of 126 South Korean university student-athletes (41.4% males and 58.6% females; mean age 20.5, SD = 2.74) completed the SAMSAQ-Kr. To investigate the validity evidence of the SAMSAQ-Kr a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch model were employed. To examine the relationship between Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) and SAMSAQ for Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated. Findings indicated that the SAMSAQ-Kr showed a different model from other versions and revealed positive correlations between AIMS scores and athletic motivations. The current study highlighted that importance of considering socio-cultural context in developing questionnaire and contributed to help understand South Korean university student-athletes' motivation towards athletic and academic achievement.

  20. Cannabinoids cases in polish athletes

    A Pokrywka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the number of cases and the profiles of Polish athletes who had occasionally been using marijuana or hashish throughout the period of 1998-2004, with respect to: sex, age, and discipline of sport as well as the period of testing (in- and out-of-competition. Results of the study were compared with some data reported by other WADA accredited anti-doping laboratories. Totally, 13 631 urine samples taken from Polish athletes of both sexes, aged 10-67 years, performing 46 disciplines of sport were tested. Cannabinoids were detected in 267 samples. Among Polish athletes the relative number of positive THC (tetrahydrocannabinol samples was one of the highest in Europe. The group of young Polish athletes (aged 16-24 years was the most THC-positive. THC-positive cases were noted more frequently in male athletes tested during out of competitions. The so-called contact sports (rugby, ice hockey, skating, boxing, badminton, body building and acrobatic sports were those sports, where the higher risk of cannabis use was observed. The legal interpretation of some positive cannabinoids results would be difficult because of some accidental and unintentional use of the narcotics by sportsmen. It was concluded that national anti-doping organizations (NADO’s, which are competent to judge whether the anti-doping rules were violated, should take into account the possibility of non-intentional doping use of cannabinoids via passive smoking of marijuana.

  1. Effects of In-Season Explosive Strength Training on Maximal Leg Strength, Jumping, Sprinting, and Intermittent Aerobic Performance in Male Handball Athletes.

    Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Fieseler, Georg; Bartels, Thomas; Schulze, Stephan; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Shephard, Roy J; Schwesig, René

    2017-09-01

    training compromising players' speed and endurance capacities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Pacing and Self-regulation: Important Skills for Talent Development in Endurance Sports.

    Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2017-07-01

    Pacing has been characterized as a multifaceted goal-directed process of decision making in which athletes need to decide how and when to invest their energy during the race, a process essential for optimal performance. Both physiological and psychological characteristics associated with adequate pacing and performance are known to develop with age. Consequently, the multifaceted skill of pacing might be under construction throughout adolescence, as well. Therefore, the authors propose that the complex skill of pacing is a potential important performance characteristic for talented youth athletes that needs to be developed throughout adolescence. To explore whether pacing is a marker for talent and how talented athletes develop this skill in middle-distance and endurance sports, they aim to bring together literature on pacing and literature on talent development and self-regulation of learning. Subsequently, by applying the cyclical process of self-regulation to pacing, they propose a practical model for the development of performance in endurance sports in youth athletes. Not only is self-regulation essential throughout the process of reaching the long-term goal of athletic excellence, but it also seems crucial for the development of pacing skills within a race and the development of a refined performance template based on previous experiences. Coaches and trainers are advised to incorporate pacing as a performance characteristic in their talent-development programs by stimulating their athletes to reflect, plan, monitor, and evaluate their races on a regular basis to build performance templates and, as such, improve their performance.

  3. Impact of 10-weeks of yoga practice on flexibility and balance of college athletes

    M Jay Polsgrove

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Results suggest that a regular yoga practice may increase the flexibility and balance as well as whole body measures of male college athletes and therefore, may enhance athletic performances that require these characteristics.

  4. Coping skills of olympic developmental soccer athletes.

    Meyers, M C; Stewart, C C; Laurent, C M; Leunes, A D; Bourgeois, A E

    2008-12-01

    Athletes at Olympic Developmental Program (ODP) camps experience unusually high levels of expectations and inherent mental and physical challenges within such a short span of time. With the increasing emphasis on talent development, there has been consensus by the ODP staff to more clearly define present levels of coping skills, in order to enhance athletic prediction, maximize training efforts, identify the predisposition to injury, and focus on areas pertinent to successful performance. This study examined athletic and pain coping skills of U. S. ODP soccer athletes not previously investigated. Following written informed consent, 70 males completed the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Data were analyzed by competitive level (U-14, U-15), and skill position (goalkeeper/defense, midfield/foward). MANOVA indicated a significant main effect across competitive level (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 2.27; p = 0.02; n-beta = 0.915) but no significant effect by skill position (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 0.931; p = 0.523; n-beta = 0.457). Post hoc analyses indicated that U-15 athletes scored significantly higher in concentration (p = 0.01) and body awareness (p = 0.03), but lower in avoidance (p = 0.01) than U-14 competitors. In conclusion, older, more experienced athletes revealed more positive athletic and pain coping skills than younger, less experienced athletes, although athletes in skill positions requiring spontaneous decision-making skills and split-second adjustment in a constantly changing sport environment (forwards, midfielders) did not exhibit more positive athletic and pain coping skills than those positions requiring reaction and protection (defenders, goalkeepers).

  5. The relation between athletic sports and prevalence of amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea in Iranian female athletes

    Dadgostar Haleh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1992, the concept of female athlete triad was introduced to describe the interrelated problems of amenorrhea, eating disorders and osteoporosis seen in female athletes. To gain a clearer picture of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in Iran, one of the main components of the female athlete triad, we therefore established this study on the prevalence of amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea in elite Iranian female athletes, also evaluating the risk factors of these disorders in the same population. Methods This study performed as a cross-sectional study. All elite Iranian female athletes of 34 sports federation, including female athletes in national teams and medalists of Tehran were invited to participate. A total of 788 (95% response rate returned the questionnaires and were examined. Younger athletes under the age of menarche were excluded. Each athlete completed a self-administered questionnaire, which covered the following questions about participant's demographic information, athletic history, history of injuries and menstrual pattern. In order to diagnose the causes of amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea including polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS, participants with amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea underwent further investigation. They were evaluated by following Para clinic investigation, and an ultrasonographic study of ovary. Results The age ranged from 13–37 (mean = 21.1, SD = 4.5. Seventy one (9.0% individuals had amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, among those, 11 (15.5% had PCOS. There was also a positive association between amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea and the following: age under 20 OR; 2.67, 95%CI(1.47 – 4.85, weight class sports OR; 2.09, 95%CI(1.15 – 3.82, endurance sports OR; 2.89, 95%CI(1.22 – 6.84, late onset of menarche OR; 3.32 95%CI(1.04–10.51, and use of oral contraceptive pills OR; 6.17, 95%CI(3.00 – 12.69. Intensity of training sport or BMI were not risk factors. Conclusion These findings support the previous findings in the literature

  6. Effect of athletic taping and kinesiotaping® on measurements of functional performance in basketball players with chronic inversion ankle sprains.

    Bicici, Seda; Karatas, Nihan; Baltaci, Gul

    2012-04-01

    Chronic inversion ankle sprains are common in basketball players. The effect of taping on functional performance is disputed in the literature. Kinesiotaping® (KT®) is a new method that is being used as both a therapeutic and performance enhancement tool. To date, it appears that no study has investigated the effect of ankle KT® on functional performance. To investigate the effects of different types of taping (KT® using Kinesio Tex®, athletic taping) on functional performance in athletes with chronic inversion sprains of the ankle. Crossover Study Design Fifteen male basketball players with chronic inversion ankle sprains between the ages of 18 and 22 participated in this study. Functional performance tests (Hopping test by Amanda et al, Single Limb Hurdle Test, Standing Heel Rise test, Vertical Jump Test, The Star Excursion Balance Test [SEBT] and Kinesthetic Ability Trainer [KAT] Test) were used to quantify agility, endurance, balance, and coordination. These tests were conducted four times at one week intervals using varied conditions: placebo tape, without tape, standard athletic tape, and KT®. One-way ANOVA tests were used to examine difference in measurements between conditions. Bonferroni correction was applied to correct for repeated testing. There were no significant differences among the results obtained using the four conditions for SEBT (anterior p=0.0699; anteromedial p=0.126; medial p=0.550; posteromedial p=0.587; posterior p=0.754; posterolateral p=0.907; lateral p=0.124; anterolateral p=0.963) and the KAT dynamic measurement (p=0.388). Faster performance times were measured with KT® and athletic tape in single limb hurdle test when compared to placebo and non-taped conditions (Athletic taping- placebo taping: p=0.03; athletic taping- non tape p=0.016;KT®- Placebo taping p=0.042; KT®-Non tape p=0.016). In standing heel rise test and vertical jump test, athletic taping led to decreased performance. (Standing heel rise test: Athletic taping

  7. Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva.

    Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n = 15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P = 0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r = 0.347, P = 0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P = 0.001 stimulated; P = 0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P = 0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. EFFECTS OF PALM VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENTATION ON EXERCISE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE IN THE HEAT

    Chen Chee Keong

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E supplementation on exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and endurance performance in the heat. In a double blind, cross-over study, eighteen healthy, male recreational athletes completed two endurance running trials, until exhaustion, on a motorized treadmill at 70% VO2max on two separate occasions following a 6-week supplementation regimen of either tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E (E or placebo (P. Both trials were conducted in the heat (31oC, 70% relative humidity. During the trials, rectal temperature (Trec, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and oxygen uptake (VO2 were recorded. Blood samples were collected for the determination of plasma volume changes (PVC, malondialdehyde (MDA, creatine kinase (CK, total antioxidant status (TAS and vitamin E. After the supplementation regimen, serum alpha-tocopherol increased ~33% but serum concentrations of tocotrienols were negligible. No significant differences were evident in mean Trec, RPE, VO2 or in the time to exhaustion between the E-supplemented and the placebo- supplemented groups. Similarly, mean PVC, CK and TAS were also not different between the two groups. Resting plasma mean MDA concentration in the E-supplemented group was significantly lower than that in the placebo-supplemented group. At exhaustion, plasma mean MDA was higher than the resting values in both groups. Although tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E supplementation decreased lipid peroxidation at rest and, to some extent, during exercise in the heat, as evident from the lower MDA levels, it however did not enhance endurance running performance or prevent exercise-induced muscle damage or influenced body core temperature or plasma volume changes during exercise in the heat

  9. Effects of acute supplementation of caffeine on cardiorespiratory responses during endurance running in a hot & humid climate.

    Ping, Wong Chee; Keong, Chen Chee; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2010-07-01

    Athletes in Malaysia need to perform in a hot and humid climate. Chronic supplementation of caffeine on endurance performance have been studied extensively in different populations. However, concurrent research on the effects of acute supplementation of caffeine on cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise in the Malaysian context especially in a hot and humid environment is unavailable. Nine heat adapted recreational Malaysian male runners (aged: 25.4+/-6.9 yr) who were nonusers of caffeine (23.7+/-12.6 mg per day) were recruited in this placebo--controlled double--blind randomized study. Caffeine (5 mg per kg of body weight) or placebo was ingested in the form of a capsule one hour prior to the running exercise trial at 70 per cent of VO2max on a motorised treadmill in a heat-controlled laboratory (31 degrees C, 70% relative humidity). Subjects drank 3 ml of cool water per kg of body weight every 20 min during the running trials to avoid the adverse effects of dehydration. Heart rate, core body temperature and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded at intervals of 10 min, while oxygen consumption was measured at intervals of 20 min. Running time to exhaustion was significantly (Pexercise from their respective resting values in both trials (P<0.001). Our study showed that ingestion of 5 mg of caffeine per kg of body weight improved the endurance running performance but did not impose any significant effect on other individual cardiorespiratory parameters of heat-acclimated recreational runners in hot and humid conditions.

  10. Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids in athletes.

    Hartgens, Fred; Kuipers, Harm

    2004-01-01

    Androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone. They can exert strong effects on the human body that may be beneficial for athletic performance. A review of the literature revealed that most laboratory studies did not investigate the actual doses of AAS currently abused in the field. Therefore, those studies may not reflect the actual (adverse) effects of steroids. The available scientific literature describes that short-term administration of these drugs by athletes can increase strength and bodyweight. Strength gains of about 5-20% of the initial strength and increments of 2-5 kg bodyweight, that may be attributed to an increase of the lean body mass, have been observed. A reduction of fat mass does not seem to occur. Although AAS administration may affect erythropoiesis and blood haemoglobin concentrations, no effect on endurance performance was observed. Little data about the effects of AAS on metabolic responses during exercise training and recovery are available and, therefore, do not allow firm conclusions. The main untoward effects of short- and long-term AAS abuse that male athletes most often self-report are an increase in sexual drive, the occurrence of acne vulgaris, increased body hair and increment of aggressive behaviour. AAS administration will disturb the regular endogenous production of testosterone and gonadotrophins that may persist for months after drug withdrawal. Cardiovascular risk factors may undergo deleterious alterations, including elevation of blood pressure and depression of serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-, HDL2- and HDL3-cholesterol levels. In echocardiographic studies in male athletes, AAS did not seem to affect cardiac structure and function, although in animal studies these drugs have been observed to exert hazardous effects on heart structure and function. In studies of athletes, AAS were not found to damage the liver. Psyche and behaviour seem to be strongly affected by AAS

  11. The Impact of Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercises on the Level of Depression, Anxiety, Stress and Happiness of Non-Athlete Male

    Toktam Kianian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives Exercises bring about health. Therefore, knowing what kind of exercise is more effective in individuals’ spirituals health indices is important. Thus, the present study aims at comparing the impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercises on the level of depression, anxiety, stress, and happiness of nonathletic male students. Methods In this clinical trial study, sample included the nonathletic male students of Zahedan Azad University in 2014. 90 students were selected through convenience sampling and they were divided randomly into two experimental groups (aerobic and anaerobic and one control group. The aerobic group must do aerobic exercises and the anaerobic group must do anaerobic exercises for a period of 10 weeks (3 sessions a week, each lasted for 60 minutes. The data were collected using DASS-21 questionnaire for measuring the level of depression, anxiety and stress, and Oxford OHI questionnaire for measuring the amount of happiness before and after the intervention. The results were analyzed using statistical tests of MANCOVA in SPSS-13. Results The results showed that in both aerobic and anaerobic groups the mean score of depression, anxiety, stress and happiness improved after treatment. However, the improve in the mean score of anxiety, stress and happiness was more apparent in the anaerobic group. The results also showed that only stress and happiness resulted in a significant difference in different groups. Conclusions Both aerobic and anaerobic exercises result in reduction of stress and Anxiety. So it seems necessary to include such exercises in students’ daily schedule.

  12. The metabolic and performance effects of caffeine compared to coffee during endurance exercise.

    Hodgson, Adrian B; Randell, Rebecca K; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2013-01-01

    There is consistent evidence supporting the ergogenic effects of caffeine for endurance based exercise. However, whether caffeine ingested through coffee has the same effects is still subject to debate. The primary aim of the study was to investigate the performance enhancing effects of caffeine and coffee using a time trial performance test, while also investigating the metabolic effects of caffeine and coffee. In a single-blind, crossover, randomised counter-balanced study design, eight trained male cyclists/triathletes (Mean ± SD: Age 41 ± 7 y, Height 1.80 ± 0.04 m, Weight 78.9 ± 4.1 kg, VO2 max 58 ± 3 ml • kg(-1) • min(-1)) completed 30 min of steady-state (SS) cycling at approximately 55% VO2max followed by a 45 min energy based target time trial (TT). One hour prior to exercise each athlete consumed drinks consisting of caffeine (5 mg CAF/kg BW), instant coffee (5 mg CAF/kg BW), instant decaffeinated coffee or placebo. The set workloads produced similar relative exercise intensities during the SS for all drinks, with no observed difference in carbohydrate or fat oxidation. Performance times during the TT were significantly faster (~5.0%) for both caffeine and coffee when compared to placebo and decaf (38.35 ± 1.53, 38.27 ± 1.80, 40.23 ± 1.98, 40.31 ± 1.22 min respectively, pperformance times were similar for both caffeine and coffee. Average power for caffeine and coffee during the TT was significantly greater when compared to placebo and decaf (294 ± 21 W, 291 ± 22 W, 277 ± 14 W, 276 ± 23 W respectively, pcaffeine (5 mg/kg/BW) and coffee (5 mg/kg/BW) consumed 1 h prior to exercise can improve endurance exercise performance.

  13. Physical fitness differences of students with different cardiorespiratory endurance levels

    Stojanović Darko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine physical fitness differences in students with different cardiorespiratory endurance levels, a study was conducted on a sample of students of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education at the University of Nis. The sample was divided into two subsamples, where the first subsample comprised 27 female students and the other 35 male students. Physical fitness was assessed using eight tests from the Eurofit battery of tests: the single-leg balance test - for the assessment of general balance, plate tapping - for the assessment of speed of movement, sit-and-reach - for the assessment of flexibility, the standing broad jump - for the assessment of explosive strength, the handgrip test - for the assessment of static strength, sit-ups - for the assessment of repetitive trunk strength, the bent arm hang - for the assessment of muscular endurance and the 10x5 meter shuttle run - for the assessment of the speed/agility. Cardiorespiratory endurance was estimated with the aid of 20 m endurance shuttle-run test. Based on the level of cardiorespiratory endurance, the participants in each subsample, were divided into three groups using a cluster analysis: high (VKRI, average (PKRI and low level (NKRI. The physical fitness differences of students with different cardiorespiratory endurance levels were calculated using the one-way analysis of variance. The results showed that there were no differences in physical fitness of students with different cardiorespiratory endurance levels. Based on the results it can be concluded that the level of cardiorespiratory endurance does not affect the components of physical fitness among students of both sexes.

  14. Non-allergic activation of eosinophils after strenuous endurance ...

    Objective. To determine the effect of prolonged endurance exercise on the serum concentrations of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), immunoglobulin E (IgE) and upper respiratory tract symptoms (URTS). Design. In 11 healthy, experienced volunteers (6 males, 5 females, age 43 ± 9.8 years) the serum concentrations of ...

  15. The effect of extensive interval training at altitude on the physiological, aerobic, anaerobic and various blood parameters of athletes

    Kaya Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to compare the physiological performances of athletes at sea level, at high altitude and 8 days after returning back to sea level on the basis of certain blood parameters, pulse and blood pressure. 12 male athletes between the ages of 19 and 23 voluntarily participated in the research. The subjects were exposed to endurance training at high altitude and at sea level between 09.00 and 11.00 in the morning. The subjects’ erythrocyte (RBC, leucocyte (WBC, haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit (HCT, systolic blood pressure at rest (SBPR and diastolic blood pressure at rest (DBPR, heart rate at rest (HRR, aerobic (20m shuttle run test and anaerobic capacity (vertical jump levels were tested at sea level, on the 15th day at high altitude (3120m and 8 days after returning back to sea level. Statistical analysis comprised of t-test and the significance level of the results was accepted at (P<0.05. As a result of the research the following were determined: It can be said that high altitude trainings for fifteen days included in the annual training program of athletes can improve their performance.

  16. The effect of 12-month participation in osteogenic and non-osteogenic sports on bone development in adolescent male athletes. The PRO-BONE study

    Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Barker, Alan R; Ubago-Guisado, Esther

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Research investigating the longitudinal effects of the most popular sports on bone development in adolescent males is scarce. The aim is to investigate the effect of 12-month participation in osteogenic and non-osteogenic sports on bone development. DESIGN: A 12-month study...... by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and bone stiffness was measured by quantitative ultrasound. Bone outcomes at 12 months were adjusted for baseline bone status, age, height, lean mass and moderate to vigorous physical activity. RESULTS: Footballers had higher improvement in adjusted BMC at the total...... body, total hip, shaft, Ward's triangle, legs and bone stiffness compared to cyclists (6.3-8.0%). Footballers had significantly higher adjusted BMC at total body, shaft and legs compared to swimmers (5.4-5.6%). There was no significant difference between swimmers and cyclists for any bone outcomes...

  17. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in athletes undertaking regular exercise training.

    Watson, Trent A; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Garg, Manohar L

    2005-04-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase the production of reactive oxygen species to a point that can exceed antioxidant defenses to cause oxidative stress. Dietary intake of antioxidants, physical activity levels, various antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were examined in 20 exercise-trained "athletes" and 20 age- and sex-matched sedentary "controls." Plasma F2-isoprostanes, antioxidant enzyme activities, and uric acid levels were similar in athletes and sedentary controls. Plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene were higher in athletes compared with sedentary controls. Total antioxidant capacity tended to be lower in athletes, with a significant difference between male athletes and male controls. Dietary intakes of antioxidants were also similar between groups and well above recommended dietary intakes for Australians. These findings suggest that athletes who consume a diet rich in antioxidants have elevated plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene that were likely to be brought about by adaptive processes resulting from regular exercise.

  18. Hypoxanthine as a predictor of performance in highly trained athletes.

    Zieliński, J; Krasińska, B; Kusy, K

    2013-12-01

    Purine metabolism reflects the exercise-induced muscle adaptations and training status. This study evaluated the utility of plasma hypoxanthine in the prediction of actual sport performance. We studied male athletes: 28 triathletes (21.4±2.9 years), 12 long-distance runners (23.2±1.9 years), 13 middle-distance runners (22.9±1.8 years) and 18 sprinters (22.0±2.7 years). Season-best race times were considered, achieved over standard triathlon, 5 000 m, 1 500 m and 100 m, respectively. Incremental treadmill test was administered to determine maximum and "threshold" oxygen uptake. Resting and post-exercise plasma concentrations of hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid and lactate were measured as well as resting erythrocyte hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase activity. Simple and multiple regression analyses were used to identify significant contributors to the variance in performance. Hypoxanthine considered alone explained more variance in triathletes, long-distance runners, middle-distance runners and sprinters (r 2=0.81, 0.81, 0.88 and 0.78, respectively) than models based on aerobic capacity and lactate (R 2=0.51, 0.37, 0.59 and 0.31, respectively). Combining purine metabolites and cardiorespiratory variables resulted in the best prediction (R 2=0.86, 0.93, 0.93 and 0.91; r=0.93, 0.96, 0.96 and 0.95, respectively). In summary, hypoxanthine is a strong predictor of performance in highly trained athletes and its prediction ability is very high regardless of sport specialization, spanning the continuum from speed-power to endurance disciplines. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. The Association Analysis between ACE and ACTN3 Genes Polymorphisms and Endurance Capacity in Young Cross-Country Skiers: Longitudinal Study

    Agnes Mägi, Eve Unt, Ele Prans, Liina Raus, Jaan Eha, Alar Veraksitš, Külli Kingo, Sulev Kõks

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Endurance performance depends on the integration of several phenotypic traits influenced by multiple environmental and genetic factors. Objectives of the study were: (1 to examine the genotypic frequencies of the ACE I/D, ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms and endurance performance-related phenotypes, (2 to evaluate the dynamics of endurance performance parameters during a 5-year period in relation to ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X genotypes in Estonian young skiers. Determination of VO2peak was performed in 58 skiers aged 15-19 years (41 males, 17 females during a 5-year period. The control group consisted of 322 healthy non-athletic subjects (145 males, 177 females. The study groups were genotyped for the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X variants. Frequencies of the ACE ID and ACTN3 RR genotypes were significantly higher (p = 0.047 and p = 0.003, respectively and the RX genotype was lower (p = 0.008 in young male skiers compared with controls. A significant relationship was found between change (Δ of training volume and ΔVO2peak (mL·kg-1·min-1 (r = 0.475, p = 0.002. No significant main effect was detected between VO2peak (mL·kg-1·min-1 dynamics (comparison with the previous age group data and ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X genotypes interactions (F = 0.571, p = 0.770 and F = 0.650 and p = 0.705, respectively in all young skiers. Study results indicated a significantly higher frequency of the ACE ID and ACTN3 RR genotypes among Estonian young male skiers compared with the male control group. Significant genotype-related differences in dynamics of VO2peak during a 5-year period were not found. In the future, longitudinal research including different gene variants may contribute to a better understanding of the nature of endurance performance.

  20. Plasma and urine profiles of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites 11-hydroxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol after cannabis smoking by male volunteers to estimate recent consumption by athletes.

    Brenneisen, Rudolf; Meyer, Pascale; Chtioui, Haithem; Saugy, Martial; Kamber, Matthias

    2010-04-01

    Since 2004, cannabis has been prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency for all sports competitions. In the years since then, about half of all positive doping cases in Switzerland have been related to cannabis consumption. In doping urine analysis, the target analyte is 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), the cutoff being 15 ng/mL. However, the wide urinary detection window of the long-term metabolite of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) does not allow a conclusion to be drawn regarding the time of consumption or the impact on the physical performance. The purpose of the present study on light cannabis smokers was to evaluate target analytes with shorter urinary excretion times. Twelve male volunteers smoked a cannabis cigarette standardized to 70 mg THC per cigarette. Plasma and urine were collected up to 8 h and 11 days, respectively. Total THC, 11-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH), and THC-COOH were determined after hydrolysis followed by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The limits of quantitation were 0.1-1.0 ng/mL. Eight puffs delivered a mean THC dose of 45 mg. Plasma levels of total THC, THC-OH, and THC-COOH were measured in the ranges 0.2-59.1, 0.1-3.9, and 0.4-16.4 ng/mL, respectively. Peak concentrations were observed at 5, 5-20, and 20-180 min. Urine levels were measured in the ranges 0.1-1.3, 0.1-14.4, and 0.5-38.2 ng/mL, peaking at 2, 2, and 6-24 h, respectively. The times of the last detectable levels were 2-8, 6-96, and 48-120 h. Besides high to very high THC-COOH levels (245 +/- 1,111 ng/mL), THC (3 +/- 8 ng/mL) and THC-OH (51 +/- 246 ng/mL) were found in 65 and 98% of cannabis-positive athletes' urine samples, respectively. In conclusion, in addition to THC-COOH, the pharmacologically active THC and THC-OH should be used as target analytes for doping urine analysis. In the case of light cannabis use, this may allow the estimation of more recent consumption, probably influencing

  1. Influence of nitrate supplementation on VO(2) kinetics and endurance of elite cyclists

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Bangsbo, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined if an elevated nitrate intake would improve VO(2) kinetics, endurance, and repeated sprint capacity in elite endurance athletes. Ten highly trained cyclists (72¿±¿4¿mL O(2) /kg/min, mean¿±¿standard deviation) underwent testing for VO(2) kinetics (3¿×¿6¿min at 298¿±¿28¿W...... juice. Plasma NOx (nitrate¿+¿nitrite) levels were higher (P¿......The present study examined if an elevated nitrate intake would improve VO(2) kinetics, endurance, and repeated sprint capacity in elite endurance athletes. Ten highly trained cyclists (72¿±¿4¿mL O(2) /kg/min, mean¿±¿standard deviation) underwent testing for VO(2) kinetics (3¿×¿6¿min at 298¿±¿28¿W......), endurance (120¿min preload followed by a 400-kcal time trial), and repeated sprint capacity (6¿×¿20¿s sprints, recovery 100¿s) during two 6-day periods in randomized order with a daily ingestion of either 0.5¿L beetroot (BR) juice to increase nitrate levels or a 0.5¿L placebo (PLA) drink with blackcurrant...

  2. The relationship between stressors and burnout in college athletes

    木村, 彩; 手塚, 洋介; 杉山, 佳生; Kimura, Aya; Tezuka, Yosuke; Sugiyama, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship between stressors and burnout (in terms of stress response) in college athletes. Participants comprised 233 college athletes (84 males and 149 females; M_ = 20.0 years and SD = 1.2 years) who completed the daily and competitive stressor scale and the Athletic Burnout Inventory. Multiple regression analysis showed that almost all the observed factors of stressors tended to be associated with each burnout factor. It also showed that not only ...

  3. Motivation and elite performance : an exploratory investigation with Bulgarian athletes

    Chantal, Yves; Guay, Frédéric; Dobreva-Martinova, Tzvetanka; Vallerand, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 98 Bulgarian top athletes (35 females and 63 males): canoeists, biathletes, figure skaters, boxers, tennis players and skiers, were investigated to explore the motivation of elite sport athletes and to determine the effects of motivation on performance. Participants' athletic performances in national and international events over 2 years (September 1990 to November 1992) was documented. Participants also completed the Bulgarian version of the Sport Motivation Scale (Brière, Valler...

  4. CONNECTION OF FUNCTIONAL ABILITIES WITH JUMPING AND THROWING ATHLETIC DISCIPLINES

    Igor Stanojević; Dejan Milenković

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the connection between functional abilities with results of jumping and throwing athletic disciplines with athletes. The sample was taken from a population of elementary school students from Prokuplje region, 13 and 14 old, included in regular physical education classes. The sample consisted of 200 male athletes involved in the training process in sports clubs at least three times a week in addition to physical education classes. For assessment of functi...

  5. Electrocardiographic Findings in National Basketball Association Athletes.

    Waase, Marc P; Mutharasan, R Kannan; Whang, William; DiTullio, Marco R; DiFiori, John P; Callahan, Lisa; Mancell, Jimmie; Phelan, Dermot; Schwartz, Allan; Homma, Shunichi; Engel, David J

    2018-01-01

    While it is known that long-term intensive athletic training is associated with cardiac structural changes that can be reflected on surface electrocardiograms (ECGs), there is a paucity of sport-specific ECG data. This study seeks to clarify the applicability of existing athlete ECG interpretation criteria to elite basketball players, an athlete group shown to develop significant athletic cardiac remodeling. To generate normative ECG data for National Basketball Association (NBA) athletes and to assess the accuracy of athlete ECG interpretation criteria in this population. The NBA has partnered with Columbia University Medical Center to annually perform a review of policy-mandated annual preseason ECGs and stress echocardiograms for all players and predraft participants. This observational study includes the preseason ECG examinations of NBA athletes who participated in the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 seasons, plus all participants in the 2014 and 2015 NBA predraft combines. Examinations were performed from July 2013 to May 2015. Data analysis was performed between December 2015 and March 2017. Active roster or draft status in the NBA and routine preseason ECGs and echocardiograms. Baseline quantitative ECG variables were measured and ECG data qualitatively analyzed using 3 existing, athlete-specific interpretation criteria: Seattle (2012), refined (2014), and international (2017). Abnormal ECG findings were compared with matched echocardiographic data. Of 519 male athletes, 409 (78.8%) were African American, 96 (18.5%) were white, and the remaining 14 (2.7%) were of other races/ethnicities; 115 were predraft combine participants, and the remaining 404 were on active rosters of NBA teams. The mean (SD) age was 24.8 (4.3) years. Physiologic, training-related changes were present in 462 (89.0%) athletes in the study. Under Seattle criteria, 131 (25.2%) had abnormal findings, compared with 108 (20.8%) and 81 (15.6%) under refined and international criteria, respectively

  6. A Clinician Guide to Altitude Training for Optimal Endurance Exercise Performance at Sea Level.

    Constantini, Keren; Wilhite, Daniel P; Chapman, Robert F

    2017-06-01

    Constantini, Keren, Daniel P. Wilhite, and Robert F. Chapman. A clinician guide to altitude training for optimal endurance exercise performance at sea level. High Alt Med Biol. 18:93-101, 2017.-For well over 50 years, endurance athletes have been utilizing altitude training in an effort to enhance performance in sea level competition. This brief review will offer the clinician a series of evidence-based best-practice guidelines on prealtitude and altitude training considerations, which can ultimately maximize performance improvement outcomes.

  7. Glucose ingestion during endurance training does not alter adaptation

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Fischer, Christian P; Plomgaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    , 2) lower citrate synthase (CS) and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (beta-HAD) activity and glycogen content in skeletal muscle, and 3) attenuated endurance performance enhancement in the trained state. To investigate this we studied nine male subjects who performed 10 wk of one-legged knee...... extensor training. They trained one leg while ingesting a 6% glucose solution (Glc) and ingested a sweetened placebo while training the other leg (Plc). The subjects trained their respective legs 2 h at a time on alternate days 5 days a week. Endurance training increased peak power (P(max)) and time...

  8. THE ROLE OF PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ATHLETES IN COACH-ATHLETE RELATIONSHIPS.

    Hülya Aşçı, F; Kelecek, Selen; AltintaŞ, Atahan

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between athletes' personality characteristics and the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. 84 female (M age = 20.6 yr., SD = 2.8) and 129 male (M age = 22.0 yr., SD = 3.3) elite youth athletes competing at least for 7 yr. participated in this study. The Five-Factor Personality Inventory (short version) and the Quality of Relationships Inventory were administered to all participants. Stepwise multiple regression analysis assessed which of the five personality factors predicted scores for the different subscales of the Quality of Relationships Inventory (Depth, Support, and Conflict). Results indicated that depth of relationship was not predicted by personality factors. On the other hand, neuroticism and extraversion were significant predictors of support dimension of relationship. Analysis indicated that conscientiousness was the strongest predictor of conflict. In conclusion, athletes' personality characteristics may be important in determining the quality of the coach-athlete relationship.

  9. Effect of gender on computerized electrocardiogram measurements in college athletes.

    Mandic, Sandra; Fonda, Holly; Dewey, Frederick; Le, Vy-van; Stein, Ricardo; Wheeler, Matt; Ashley, Euan A; Myers, Jonathan; Froelicher, Victor F

    2010-06-01

    Broad criteria for classifying an electrocardiogram (ECG) as abnormal and requiring additional testing prior to participating in competitive athletics have been recommended for the preparticipation examination (PPE) of athletes. Because these criteria have not considered gender differences, we examined the effect of gender on the computerized ECG measurements obtained on Stanford student athletes. Currently available computer programs require a basis for "normal" in athletes of both genders to provide reliable interpretation. During the 2007 PPE, computerized ECGs were recorded and analyzed on 658 athletes (54% male; mean age, 19 +/- 1 years) representing 22 sports. Electrocardiogram measurements included intervals and durations in all 12 leads to calculate 12-lead voltage sums, QRS amplitude and QRS area, spatial vector length (SVL), and the sum of the R wave in V5 and S wave in V2 (RSsum). By computer analysis, male athletes had significantly greater QRS duration, PR interval, Q-wave duration, J-point amplitude, and T-wave amplitude, and shorter QTc interval compared with female athletes (all P < 0.05). All ECG indicators of left ventricular electrical activity were significantly greater in males. Although gender was consistently associated with indices of atrial and ventricular electrical activity in multivariable analysis, ECG measurements correlated poorly with body dimensions. Significant gender differences exist in ECG measurements of college athletes that are not explained by differences in body size. Our tables of "normal" computerized gender-specific measurements can facilitate the development of automated ECG interpretation for screening young athletes.

  10. Patellofemoral pain in athletes: clinical perspectives

    Halabchi, Farzin; Abolhasani, Maryam; Mirshahi, Maryam; Alizadeh, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is a very common problem in athletes who participate in jumping, cutting and pivoting sports. Several risk factors may play a part in the pathogenesis of PFP. Overuse, trauma and intrinsic risk factors are particularly important among athletes. Physical examination has a key role in PFP diagnosis. Furthermore, common risk factors should be investigated, such as hip muscle dysfunction, poor core muscle endurance, muscular tightness, excessive foot pronation and patellar malalignment. Imaging is seldom needed in special cases. Many possible interventions are recommended for PFP management. Due to the multifactorial nature of PFP, the clinical approach should be individualized, and the contribution of different factors should be considered and managed accordingly. In most cases, activity modification and rehabilitation should be tried before any surgical interventions. PMID:29070955

  11. Influence of Endurance Training During Childhood on Total Hemoglobin Mass.

    Prommer, Nicole; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Thieme, Ina; Wachsmuth, Christian; Mancera-Soto, Erica M; Hohmann, Andreas; Schmidt, Walter F J

    2018-01-01

    Elite endurance athletes are characterized by markedly increased hemoglobin mass (Hbmass). It has been hypothesized that this adaptation may occur as a response to training at a very young age. Therefore, the aim of this study was to monitor changes in Hbmass in children aged 8-14 years following systematic endurance training. In the first study, Hbmass, VO2max, and lean body mass (LBM) were measured in 17 endurance-trained children (13 boys and 4 girls; aged 9.7 ± 1.3 years; training history 1.5±1.8 years; training volume 3.5 ± 1.6 h) twice a year for up to 3.5 years. The same parameters were measured once in a control group of 18 age-matched untrained children. Hbmass and blood volume (BV) were measured using the optimized CO-rebreathing technique, VO2max by an incremental test on a treadmill, and LBM by skin-fold measurements. In the second pilot study, the same parameters were measured in 9 young soccer athletes (aged 7.8 ± 0.2 years), and results were assessed in relation to soccer performance 2.5 years later. The increase in mean Hbmass during the period of study was 50% which was closely related to changes in LBM ( r = 0.959). A significant impact of endurance training on Hbmass was observed in athletes exercising more than 4 h/week [+25.4 g compared to the group with low training volume (LBM (11.4 g·kg -1 LBM) and overlapped with the effects of age. A strong relationship was present between absolute Hbmass and VO2max ( r = 0.939), showing that an increase of 1 g hemoglobin increases VO2max by 3.6 ml·min -1 . Study 2 showed a positive correlation between Hbmass and soccer performance 2.5 years later at age 10.3 ± 0.3 years ( r = 0.627, p = 0.035). In conclusion, children with a weekly training volume of more than 4 h show a 7% higher Hbmass than untrained children. Although this training effect is significant and independent of changes in LBM, the major factor driving the increase in Hbmass is still LBM.

  12. The Reproducibility of Blood Acid Base Responses in Male Collegiate Athletes Following Individualised Doses of Sodium Bicarbonate: A Randomised Controlled Crossover Study.

    Gough, Lewis A; Deb, Sanjoy K; Sparks, Andy S; McNaughton, Lars R

    2017-10-01

    Current evidence suggests sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) should be ingested based upon the individualised alkalotic peak of either blood pH or bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) because of large inter-individual variations (10-180 min). If such a strategy is to be practical, the blood analyte response needs to be reproducible. This study aimed to evaluate the degree of reproducibility of both time to peak (TTP) and absolute change in blood pH, HCO 3 - and sodium (Na + ) following acute NaHCO 3 ingestion. Male participants (n = 15) with backgrounds in rugby, football or sprinting completed six randomised treatments entailing ingestion of two doses of 0.2 g·kg -1 body mass (BM) NaHCO 3 (SBC2a and b), two doses of 0.3 g·kg -1 BM NaHCO 3 (SBC3a and b) or two control treatments (CON1a and b) on separate days. Blood analysis included pH, HCO 3 - and Na + prior to and at regular time points following NaHCO 3 ingestion over a 3-h period. HCO 3 - displayed greater reproducibility than pH in intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis for both TTP (HCO 3 - SBC2 r = 0.77, P = 0.003; SBC3 r = 0.94, P < 0.001; pH SBC2 r = 0.62, P = 0.044; SBC3 r = 0.71, P = 0.016) and absolute change (HCO 3 - SBC2 r = 0.89, P < 0.001; SBC3 r = 0.76, P = 0.008; pH SBC2 r = 0.84, P = 0.001; SBC3 r = 0.62, P = 0.041). Our results indicate that both TTP and absolute change in HCO 3 - is more reliable than pH. As such, these data provide support for an individualised NaHCO 3 ingestion strategy to consistently elicit peak alkalosis before exercise. Future work should utilise an individualised NaHCO 3 ingestion strategy based on HCO 3 - responses and evaluate effects on exercise performance.

  13. Energy availability and the female athlete triad in elite endurance athletes

    Melin, Anna Katarina; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, Sven O.

    2015-01-01

    measured 7 days to assess EA; eating disorder (ED) examination; blood analysis. Subjects with low/reduced EA (FFM/day), had lower resting metabolic rate (RMR) compared with those with optimal EA [28.4 ± 2.0 kcal/kg fat-free mass (FFM)/day vs 30.5 ± 2.2 kcal/kg FFM/day, P ... subjects with MD compared with eumenorrheic subjects (28.6 ± 2.4 kcal/kg FFM/day vs 30.2 ± 1.8 kcal/kg FFM/day, P 

  14. Bibliography on Collegiate Athletics.

    Francois, Denise; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A bibliography on collegiate athletics with approximately 400 items is presented. Topics include: sports administration, sports histories, women's athletics, physical education, problems and scandals, sports organizations, sports and health, and references on many specific sports, especially football. (JMD)

  15. Amenorrhea in the Female Athlete: What to Do and When to Worry.

    Berz, Kate; McCambridge, Teri

    2016-03-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea is a diagnosis of exclusion that is common in female athletes, particularly those participating in aesthetic sports (ballet, other dance genres, figure skating, and gymnastics) and endurance sports (cross-country running). Although common, it should be considered abnormal even in the high-level elite athlete. Amenorrhea in combination with low energy availability and low bone density is labeled "the Female Athlete Triad." Studies have demonstrated numerous long-term consequences of athletes suffering from all or a portion of this triad, including increased rate of musculoskeletal injuries, stress fractures, abnormal lipid profiles, endothelial dysfunction, potential irreversible bone loss, depression, anxiety, low self- esteem, and increased mortality. This article provides the clinician with the tools to evaluate an athlete with secondary amenorrhea, reviews the recommended treatment options for affected athletes, and discusses when to return to the activity in an effort to facilitate "healthy" participation. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Polarized training has greater impact on key endurance variables than threshold, high intensity or high volume training

    Thomas eStöggl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletes integrate four conditioning concepts in their training programs: high-volume training (HVT, ‘threshold-training’ (THR, high-intensity interval training (HIIT and a combination of these aforementioned concepts known as polarized training (POL. The purpose of this study was to explore which of these four training concepts provides the greatest response on key components of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Forty eight runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers (peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 62.6±7.1 mL∙min-1∙kg-1 were randomly assigned to one of four groups performing over nine weeks. An incremental test, work economy and a VO2peak tests were performed. Training intensity was heart rate controlled. Results: POL demonstrated the greatest increase in VO2peak (+6.8 ml∙min∙kg-1 or 11.7%, P0.05. Conclusion: POL resulted in the greatest improvements in most key variables of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. THR or HVT did not lead to further improvements in performance related variables.

  17. America's Cup yacht racing: race analysis and physical characteristics of the athletes.

    Neville, Vernon; Calefato, Julian; Pérez-Encinas, Cristina; Rodilla-Sala, Enrique; Rada-Ruiz, Sergio; Dorochenko, Paul; Folland, Jonathan P

    2009-07-01

    The America's Cup is the oldest competing trophy in sport, yet little is known of the nature and intensity of racing or the physical characteristics of the athletes. In this study, aspects of the physical demands of America's Cup yacht racing were analysed, including the intensity of exercise and activity pattern of "grinding". Anthropometric data were collected from 92 professional male America's Cup sailors, and fitness data from a top-4 and a lower-7 ranking team during the 32nd America's Cup. Over the 135 races, mean race duration was 82 min (s = 9), with 20 tacks (s = 10) and 8 gybes (s = 3) per race. Grinding bouts were 5.5 s (s = 5.4; range: 2.2-66.3) long, with 143 exercise bouts per race and an exercise-to-rest ratio of 1:6. Mean and peak heart rate was 64% and 92% of maximum for all positions, with bowmen highest (71% and 96%). Grinders were taller, heavier, and stronger than all other positions. Body fat was similar between positions (13%, s = 4). The higher-standard team was stronger and had greater strength endurance, which probably contributed to their quicker manoeuvres. Intensity of exercise was dependent on the similarity of competing boats and the role of the athlete. The short duration and intermittent nature of grinding is indicative of predominantly anaerobic energy provision.

  18. Endurance training enhances BDNF release from the human brain

    Seifert, Thomas; Brassard, Patrice; Wissenberg, Mads

    2010-01-01

    The circulating level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is reduced in patients with major depression and type-2 diabetes. Because acute exercise increases BDNF production in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, we hypothesized that endurance training would enhance the release of BDNF from...... the human brain as detected from arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples. In a randomized controlled study, 12 healthy sedentary males carried out 3 mo of endurance training (n = 7) or served as controls (n = 5). Before and after the intervention, blood samples were obtained at rest and during...... exercise. At baseline, the training group (58 + or - 106 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1), means + or - SD) and the control group (12 + or - 17 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1)) had a similar release of BDNF from the brain at rest. Three months of endurance training enhanced the resting release of BDNF to 206 + or - 108...

  19. Winter sports athletes: long-term effects of cold air exposure.

    Sue-Chu, Malcolm

    2012-05-01

    Athletes such as skaters and skiers inhale large volumes of cold air during exercise and shift from nasal to mouth breathing. Endurance athletes, like cross-country skiers, perform at 80% or more of their maximal oxygen consumption and have minute ventilations in excess of 100 l/min. Cold air is always dry, and endurance exercise results in loss of water and heat from the lower respiratory tract. In addition, athletes can be exposed to indoor and outdoor pollutants during the competitive season and during all-year training. Hyperpnoea with cold dry air represents a significant environmental stress to the airways. Winter athletes have a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms and airway hyper-responsiveness to methacholine and hyperpnoea. The acute effects of exercise in cold air are neutrophil influx as demonstrated in lavage fluid and airway epithelial damage as demonstrated by bronchoscopy. Upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been observed in horses. Chronic endurance training damages the epithelium of the small airways in mice. Airway inflammation has been observed on bronchoscopy of cross-country skiers and in dogs after a 1100-mile endurance race in Alaska. Neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation with remodelling is present in bronchial biopsies from skiers. Repeated peripheral airway hyperpnoea with dry air causes inflammation and remodelling in dogs. As it is currently unknown if these airway changes are reversible upon cessation of exposure, preventive measures to diminish exposure of the lower airways to cold air should be instituted by all winter sports athletes.

  20. Relationship between sleep and mood states among student-athlete ...

    This study aims to examine the relationship between sleep and mood states on student-athlete. The respondent consists of 89 student-athletes from MajlisSukanNegeri, Perak. There were 53 male respondent (59.3%) and 36 female respondent (40.4%). These respondent were range from age 13 to 21 years old are chosen ...

  1. Comparison of respiratory functions of athletes engaged in different individual sports branches

    Tülin Atan; Pelin Akyol; Mehmet Çebi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: It was aimed to research pulmonary functionsof sedentary males and athletes who engaged in differentindividual sports branches in the same age group.Methods: 50 male athletes in 15-16 age group in the starcategory participated from each of the branches of judo,athletics, wrestling, taekwondo, table tennis and swimmingand 50 sedentary males participated as well; beingin total 350 subjects. Among respiratory functions tests;vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC) and maximu...

  2. Coaching the Vegetarian Athlete

    Mandali, Swarna L.

    2011-01-01

    Good nutrition is important for optimal athletic performance. Adolescent athletes often depend on their coaches for nutritional information on weight management, dietary supplements, and dietary practices. Some dietary practices, such as vegetarianism, have the potential to be harmful to the adolescent athlete if not followed with careful…

  3. Analysis of Tests Evaluating Sport Climbers’ Strength and Isometric Endurance

    Ozimek Mariusz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine which types of specific tests provide an effective evaluation of strength and endurance in highly trained competitive sport climbers. The research process consisted of three basic components: the measurement of selected somatic characteristics of the climbers, the assessment of their physical conditioning, and a search for correlations between the anthropometric and “conditioning” variables on the one hand, and climber’s performance on the other. The sample of subjects consisted of 14 experienced volunteer climbers capable of handling 7a- 8a+/b on-sight rock climbing grades. The strongest correlations (Spearman’s rank were found between climber’s competence and the relative results of the finger strength test (r = 0.7; much lower, but still statistically significant coefficients were found between the level of competence and the results of the muscle endurance tests (r = 0.53 – 0.57. Climbers aspiring to attain an elite level must have strong finger and forearm muscles, but most of all, they must be capable of releasing their potential during specific motor capability tests engaging these parts of the body. The forearm muscles of elite climbers must also be very resistant to fatigue. Since highly trained athletes vary only slightly in body mass, this variable does not have a major effect on their performance during strength and endurance tests.

  4. Athletes' Perception of Athletic Trainer Empathy: How Important Is It?

    David, Shannon; Larson, Mary

    2018-01-01

    Health care practitioners face increasing expectations to provide patient-centered care. Communication skills, specifically empathy, are critical in the provision of patient-centered care. Past work correlates empathy with improved patient satisfaction, compliance, and treatment outcomes. In particular, a predictive relationship exists between clients' ratings of their clinician's empathy and treatment outcomes. There is a dearth of studies examining empathy using qualitative methodology and factors of empathy in athletic training. To gain an understanding of athletes' perceptions of empathy in the patient-clinician relationship. Qualitative interviews were completed using grounded-theory techniques. A quiet office. A typical, purposeful sample of 15 college-age Division I student-athletes (8 female, 7 male; 19.3 ± 1.2 y) from a variety of sports (football, wrestling, volleyball, baseball, etc) participated. Researchers utilized an interview protocol designed to understand the factors of empathy related to athletic training. The interview protocol established a concept of empathy to help facilitate discussion of ideas. Data were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for themes and patterns using grounded-theory techniques. Trustworthiness of the data was ensured using an external auditor, member checks, and methods triangulation. Five themes described empathy: advocacy, communication, approachability, access, and competence. Advocacy was described as the athletic trainer (AT) representing the patient. Communication was the ability to listen reflectively; approachability emerged as the comfort and personal connection the patient felt with the AT. Access and technical competence were bridges required for the development of empathy. Providing patient-centered care facilitated by developing good patient-clinician relationships is critical in enabling the best treatment outcomes. ATs portray empathy through advocacy, communication, and approachability. Empathy

  5. Metabolic characteristics of keto-adapted ultra-endurance runners.

    Volek, Jeff S; Freidenreich, Daniel J; Saenz, Catherine; Kunces, Laura J; Creighton, Brent C; Bartley, Jenna M; Davitt, Patrick M; Munoz, Colleen X; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Maresh, Carl M; Lee, Elaine C; Schuenke, Mark D; Aerni, Giselle; Kraemer, William J; Phinney, Stephen D

    2016-03-01

    Many successful ultra-endurance athletes have switched from a high-carbohydrate to a low-carbohydrate diet, but they have not previously been studied to determine the extent of metabolic adaptations. Twenty elite ultra-marathoners and ironman distance triathletes performed a maximal graded exercise test and a 180 min submaximal run at 64% VO2max on a treadmill to determine metabolic responses. One group habitually consumed a traditional high-carbohydrate (HC: n=10, %carbohydrate:protein:fat=59:14:25) diet, and the other a low-carbohydrate (LC; n=10, 10:19:70) diet for an average of 20 months (range 9 to 36 months). Peak fat oxidation was 2.3-fold higher in the LC group (1.54±0.18 vs 0.67±0.14 g/min; P=0.000) and it occurred at a higher percentage of VO2max (70.3±6.3 vs 54.9±7.8%; P=0.000). Mean fat oxidation during submaximal exercise was 59% higher in the LC group (1.21±0.02 vs 0.76±0.11 g/min; P=0.000) corresponding to a greater relative contribution of fat (88±2 vs 56±8%; P=0.000). Despite these marked differences in fuel use between LC and HC athletes, there were no significant differences in resting muscle glycogen and the level of depletion after 180 min of running (-64% from pre-exercise) and 120 min of recovery (-36% from pre-exercise). Compared to highly trained ultra-endurance athletes consuming an HC diet, long-term keto-adaptation results in extraordinarily high rates of fat oxidation, whereas muscle glycogen utilization and repletion patterns during and after a 3 hour run are similar. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Feasibility and reliability of measuring strength, sprint power, and aerobic capacity in athletes and non-athletes with cerebral palsy

    De Groot, Sonja; Janssen, Thomas W. J.; Evers, Marijn; Van der Luijt, Pieter; Nienhuys, Kirsten N. G.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    Aim The aim of this study was to analyse the feasibility and reliability of the tests used to determine muscle strength, sprint power, and aerobic capacity in athletes and non-athletes with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Twenty individuals with spastic CP (four females, 16 males; age range 1849y;

  7. Feasibility and reliability of measuring strength, sprint power, and aerobic capacity in athletes and non-athletes with cerebral palsy

    de Groot, S.; Janssen, T.W.J.; Evers, M.; Van der Luijt, P.; Nienhuys, K.N.G.; Dallmeijer, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to analyse the feasibility and reliability of the tests used to determine muscle strength, sprint power, and aerobic capacity in athletes and non-athletes with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods Twenty individuals with spastic CP (four females, 16 males; age range 18-49y;

  8. Psychometric properties of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS: measurement invariance between athletes and non-athletes and construct validity

    Yi-Hsiang Chiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Although Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, Cohen, Kamarack & Mermelstein, 1983 has been validated and widely used in many domains, there is still no validation in sports by comparing athletes and non-athletes and examining related psychometric indices. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of PSS between athletes and non-athletes, and examine construct validity and reliability in the sports contexts. Methods Study 1 sampled 359 college student-athletes (males = 233; females = 126 and 242 non-athletes (males = 124; females = 118 and examined factorial structure, measurement invariance and internal consistency. Study 2 sampled 196 student-athletes (males = 139, females = 57, Mage = 19.88 yrs, SD = 1.35 and examined discriminant validity and convergent validity of PSS. Study 3 sampled 37 student-athletes to assess test-retest reliability of PSS. Results Results found that 2-factor PSS-10 fitted the model the best and had appropriate reliability. Also, there was a measurement invariance between athletes and non-athletes; and PSS positively correlated with athletic burnout and life stress but negatively correlated with coping efficacy provided evidence of discriminant validity and convergent validity. Further, the test-retest reliability for PSS subscales was significant (r = .66 and r = .50. Discussion It is suggested that 2-factor PSS-10 can be a useful tool in assessing perceived stress either in sports or non-sports settings. We suggest future study may use 2-factor PSS-10 in examining the effects of stress on the athletic injury, burnout, and psychiatry disorders.

  9. [Sleep and academic performance in young elite athletes].

    Poussel, M; Laure, P; Genest, J; Fronzaroli, E; Renaud, P; Favre, A; Chenuel, B

    2014-07-01

    In French law (Code du Sport), the status of elite athlete is allowed for young athletes beginning at the age of 12 years. For these young athletes, the aim is to reach the highest level of performance in their sport without compromising academic performance. Training time is therefore often substantial and sleep patterns appear to play a key role in performance recovery. The aim of this study was to assess sleep patterns and their effects on academic performance in young elite athletes. Sleep patterns were assessed using questionnaires completed during a specific information-based intervention on sports medicine topics. The academic performance of young elite athletes was assessed by collecting their grades (transmitted by their teachers). Sleep patterns were assessed for 137 young elite athletes (64 females, 73 males; mean age, 15.7 years) and academic performance for 109 of them. Daily sleep duration during school periods (8h22 ± 38 min) were shorter compared to holidays and week-ends (10h02 ± 1h16, Psleep quality as poor or just sufficient. Poor sleep quality was correlated with poor academic performance in this specific athlete population. Sleep is the most important period for recovery from daily activity, but little information is available regarding the specific population of young elite athletes. The results reported herein suggest insufficiency (quantitatively and qualitatively) of sleep patterns in some of the young athletes, possibly leading to detrimental effects on athletic performance. Moreover, disturbed sleep patterns may also impact academic performance in young elite athletes. Teachers, athletic trainers, physicians, and any other professionals working with young elite athletes should pay particular attention to this specific population regarding the possible negative repercussions of poor sleep patterns on academic and athletic performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding sleep disturbance in athletes prior to important competitions.

    Juliff, Laura E; Halson, Shona L; Peiffer, Jeremiah J

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally many athletes report worse sleep in the nights prior to important competitions. Despite sleep being acknowledged as an important factor for optimal athletic performance and overall health, little is understood about athlete sleep around competition. The aims of this study were to identify sleep complaints of athletes prior to competitions and determine whether complaints were confined to competition periods. Cross-sectional study. A sample of 283 elite Australian athletes (129 male, 157 female, age 24±5 y) completed two questionnaires; Competitive Sport and Sleep questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. 64.0% of athletes indicated worse sleep on at least one occasion in the nights prior to an important competition over the past 12 months. The main sleep problem specified by athletes was problems falling asleep (82.1%) with the main reasons responsible for poor sleep indicated as thoughts about the competition (83.5%) and nervousness (43.8%). Overall 59.1% of team sport athletes reported having no strategy to overcome poor sleep compared with individual athletes (32.7%, p=0.002) who utilised relaxation and reading as strategies. Individual sport athletes had increased likelihood of poor sleep as they aged. The poor sleep reported by athletes prior to competition was situational rather than a global sleep problem. Poor sleep is common prior to major competitions in Australian athletes, yet most athletes are unaware of strategies to overcome the poor sleep experienced. It is essential coaches and scientists monitor and educate both individual and team sport athletes to facilitate sleep prior to important competitions. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ingestion of carbohydrate or carbohydrate plus protein does not enhance performance during endurance exercise: a randomized cross-over placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Finger, Débora; Lanferdini, Fábio Juner; Farinha, Juliano Boufleur; Brusco, Clarissa Müller; Helal, Lucas; Boeno, Francesco Pinto; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Pinto, Ronei Silveira

    2018-03-15

    Protein (PRO) combined with a carbohydrate (CHO) beverage may have an ergogenic effect on endurance performance. However, evidence regarding its efficacy on similar conditions to athletes' race day is still lacking. To compare the effect of three different nutritional supplementation strategies on performance and muscle recovery in a duathlon protocol. , 13 male athletes (29.7 ± 7.7 years) participated in three simulated Olympic-distance duathlons under three different, randomly assigned, supplementation regimens: carbohydrate drink (CHO, 75 g); isocaloric CHO plus protein drink (CHO+PRO, 60.5 g CHO + 14.5 g PRO); and, placebo drink (PLA), offered during the cycling bout. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 24 h after each test for creatine kinase (CK) analysis. Isometric peak torque (PT) was measured before and 24 h after each condition. The primary outcome was the time to complete the last 5km running section (t5km) in a self-selected pace. Statistical differences were considered when p<0.05. There was no difference in t5km between CHO (1270.3 ± 130.5 s) vs. CHO+PRO (1267.2 ± 138.9 s) vs. PLA (1275.4 ± 120 s); p = 0.87; ES ≤ 0.1. Pre-post changes for PT and CK values did not show differences in any of three conditions (p = 0.24, ES ≤ 0.4, p = 0.32, 0.3-1.04). For endurance sports lasting up to 2 h, with a pre-meal containing 1.5 g/kg of CHO, CHO or CHO+PRO supplementation does not offer additional benefits when compared to a PLA in performance and muscle recovery.

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COMPETITIVE STATE ANXIETY AMONG TEAM SPORT AND INDIVIDUAL SPORT ATHLETES IN IRAN

    Soltani Hossein; Hojati Zahra; Reza Attarzadeh Hossini Seyed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: With respect to the fact that every sport field has its own special nature, the aim of present study was to compare competitive state anxiety among team sport and individual sport athletes in Iran. Material: The statistic sample included 120 male athletes, 60 athletes in individual sports (wrestling, taekwondo and karate) and 60 athletes in team sports (futsal, volleyball and basketball). The research instrument employed was the Persian version of the Competitive State Anxiety Invent...

  13. Specific Physical Training in Elite Male Team Handball.

    Wagner, Herbert; Gierlinger, Manuel; Adzamija, Nermin; Ajayi, Samuel; Bacharach, David W; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2017-11-01

    Wagner, H, Gierlinger, M, Adzamija, N, Ajayi, S, Bacharach, DW, and von Duvillard, SP. Specific physical training in elite male team handball. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3083-3093, 2017-Specific physical training in elite team handball is essential for optimal player's performance; however, scientific knowledge is generally based on temporary training studies with subelite athletes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to analyze the effects of specific physical training in an elite male handball team over the entire season. Twelve players of a male handball team from the First Austrian Handball League conducted a 1-year specific physical training program in addition to their normal (team handball techniques and tactics) weekly training. Performance was measured with 5 general and 4 specific tests as well as game statistics during competition. Repeated measures analysis of variances and paired sample t-test were used to analyze differences in performance during training. We found a significant increase in oxygen uptake, offense time, defense time, fast break time, and jump height in the specific tests. Game performance statistics revealed a lower throwing percentage in the hosting team (59%) compared with the rival teams (63%). Our results indicated that specific endurance and agility are an acceptable modality in elite male team handball. However, performance in competition is strongly influenced by specific techniques and tactics. We recommend to strength and conditioning professionals that they tailor strength and power training, coordination and endurance as specific as possible, using free weights, agility exercises that include change in direction and jumps as well as short (10-15 seconds) high-intensity intervals.

  14. Caffeine improves muscular performance in elite Brazilian Jiu-jitsu athletes.

    Diaz-Lara, Francisco Javier; Del Coso, Juan; García, Jose Manuel; Portillo, Luis J; Areces, Francisco; Abián-Vicén, Javier

    2016-11-01

    Scientific information about the effects of caffeine intake on combat sport performance is scarce and controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of caffeine to improve Brazilian Jiu-jitsu (BJJ)-specific muscular performance. Fourteen male and elite BJJ athletes (29.2 ± 3.3 years; 71.3 ± 9.1 kg) participated in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled and crossover experiment. In two different sessions, BJJ athletes ingested 3 mg kg(-1) of caffeine or a placebo. After 60 min, they performed a handgrip maximal force test, a countermovement jump, a maximal static lift test and bench-press tests consisting of one-repetition maximum, power-load, and repetitions to failure. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of the caffeine increased: hand grip force in both hands (50.9 ± 2.9 vs. 53.3 ± 3.1 kg; respectively p caffeine also increased the one-repetition maximum (90.5 ± 7.7 vs. 93.3 ± 7.5 kg; p = .02), maximal power obtained during the power-load test (750.5 ± 154.7 vs. 826.9 ± 163.7 W; p caffeine increased dynamic and isometric muscular force, power, and endurance strength in elite BJJ athletes. Thus, caffeine might be an effective ergogenic aid to improve physical performance in BJJ.

  15. The study of athletes' body perception and gender role.

    Bastug, Gulsum

    2011-12-01

    In this study, it has been aimed to examine athletes' body perception and gender role. 120 male athletes and 120 non-athletic male university students participated in the study voluntarily. In the study, as the data collecting means, The Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-MBSRQ was used in order to determine males' body perception levels, BEM Sex Role Inventory-BSRI was used to determine gender roles and Personal Information Form developed by the researcher was used to ascertain personal features of the subjects. When the athletes' body perception levels are examined, the features of physical competence orientation, health orientation, appearance evaluation, fitness evaluation, health evaluation and body areas satisfaction have been found to be higher than non-athletes' (p orientation (p > 0.05). When gender roles are examined, athletes have been found to have higher values than non-athletes' in terms of masculinity, femininity and social desirability (p gender role, it is also thought that athletes care about health, appearance and physical competence and are glad of body parts because of their muscled body structure developing due to the exercises and have flexible personality to show feminine and masculine features that the environment needs in terms of gender role.

  16. 'Endurance' Courtesy of Mars Express

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its panoramic camera to capture this false-color image of the interior of 'Endurance Crater' on the rover's 188th martian day (Aug. 4, 2004). The image data were relayed to Earth by the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter. The image was generated from separate frames using the cameras 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters.

  17. Soccer Endurance Development in Professionals

    Roescher, C. R.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Huijgen, B. C. H.; Visscher, C.

    The development of intermittent endurance capacity, its underlying mechanisms and role in reaching professional level in soccer was investigated. The sample included 130 talented youth soccer players aged 14-18, who became professional (n = 53) or non-professional (n = 77) players in adulthood. In

  18. Proposed algorithm for the management of athletes with athletic pubalgia (sports hernia): a case series.

    Kachingwe, Aimie F; Grech, Steven

    2008-12-01

    A case series of 6 athletes with a suspected sports hernia. Groin pain in athletes is common, and 1 source of groin pain is athletic pubalgia, or a sports hernia. Description of this condition and its management is scarce in the physical therapy literature. The purpose of this case series is to describe a conservative approach to treating athletes with a likely sports hernia and to provide physical therapists with an algorithm for managing athletes with this dysfunction. Six collegiate athletes (age range, 19-22 years; 4 males, 2 females) with a physician diagnosis of groin pain secondary to possible/probable sports hernia were referred to physical therapy. A method of evaluation was constructed and a cluster of 5 key findings indicative of a sports hernia is presented. The athletes were managed according to a proposed algorithm and received physical therapy consisting of soft tissue and joint mobilization/manipulation, neuromuscular re-education, manual stretching, and therapeutic exercise. Three of the athletes received conservative intervention and were able to fully return to sport after a mean of 7.7 sessions of physical therapy. The other 3 athletes reached this outcome after surgical repair and a mean of 6.7 sessions of physical therapy. Conservative management including manual therapy appears to be a viable option in the management of athletes with a sports hernia. Follow-up randomized clinical trials should be performed to further investigate the effectiveness of conservative rehabilitation compared to a homogeneous group of patients undergoing surgical repair for this condition. Therapy, level 4.

  19. Motivation Factors as Indicators of Academic Achievement: A Comparative Study of Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes Academic and Social Motivation

    Pedescleaux, Jonell

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate non-cognitive motivational factors as indicators of academic achievement of male athletes and male non-athletes as measured by a secondary data analysis of the College Student Inventory (CSI) from Fall 2003 to Fall 2005. Deci and Ryan's (2000) self-determination theory provided the conceptual framework…

  20. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.

  1. Telomere length and long-term endurance exercise: does exercise training affect biological age? A pilot study.

    Ida Beate Ø Østhus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomeres are potential markers of mitotic cellular age and are associated with physical ageing process. Long-term endurance training and higher aerobic exercise capacity (VO(2max are associated with improved survival, and dynamic effects of exercis