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Sample records for male eastern wild

  1. Mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys.

    Luttrell, M P; Eleazer, T H; Kleven, S H

    1992-04-01

    Serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in South Carolina (USA) during 1985 to 1990. Sera were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. Tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic Mycoplasma spp., including M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. meleagridis, and M. iowae. However, M. gallopavonis was isolated from every group of wild turkeys tested in 1986 to 1990. These data suggest that M. gallopavonis, which is generally considered nonpathogenic, may be a common microorganism in eastern wild turkeys.

  2. Male Violence and Sexual Intimidation in a Wild Primate Society.

    Baniel, Alice; Cowlishaw, Guy; Huchard, Elise

    2017-07-24

    Sexual violence occurring in the context of long-term heterosexual relationships, such as sexual intimidation, is widespread across human populations [1-3]. However, its evolutionary origins remain speculative because few studies have investigated the existence of comparable forms of sexual coercion in animals [4, 5], in which repeated male aggression toward a female provides the aggressor with delayed mating benefits [6]. Here, we test whether male aggression toward females functions as sexual coercion in wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). We found support for all three main predictions of the sexual coercion hypothesis [7]: male aggression (1) is greatest against cycling females, (2) is costly and represents the main source of injuries for cycling females, and (3) increases male mating success with their victims in the future. Detailed analysis of chronological sequences between aggression and matings ruled out other coercive mechanisms, such as short-term harassment and punishment, by showing that aggression and matings are temporally decoupled. This decoupling may explain why some forms of sexual violence have been largely overlooked in well-studied animal populations despite their likely impact on the fitness of both sexes. Finally, we found no support for alternative hypotheses such as a female preference for aggressive males [8, 9]. This new, detailed study of the forms and intensity of sexual intimidation in a wild primate suggests that it may be widespread across mammalian societies, with important implications for understanding the evolution of mate choice and sexual conflict in mammals, as well as the origins of human sexual violence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Farmer–African wild dog (Lycaon pictus relations in the eastern Kalahari region of Botswana

    Valli-Laurente Fraser-Celin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus are the most endangered large carnivores in southern Africa. Direct and indirect persecution by farmers causes significant conservation challenges. Farmer– wild dog conflict in Botswana commonly occurs as a result of cattle and stocked game depredation by wild dogs, affecting farmer livelihood and causing economic and emotional distress. Although wild dogs predate livestock at lower levels than other carnivores, they continue to be killed both indiscriminately and in retaliation for incidents of depredation. Investigating farmer–wild dog conflict is a necessary step towards establishing appropriate conflict mitigation strategies. Eighty livestock and game farmers were interviewed in order to examine farmers’ value of, perceptions of and experiences with wild dogs as well as their insights on wild dog impacts and conservation in the eastern Kalahari region of Botswana. Interviews were semi-structured and used open-ended questions to capture complexities surrounding farmer–wild dog relations. This research contributes baseline data on wild dogs in understudied tribal land and commercial livestock and game farms in eastern Kalahari. It confirms the presence of wild dogs, livestock and stocked game depredation by wild dogs and negative perspectives amongst farmers towards wild dogs and their conservation. Mean losses were 0.85 livestock per subsistence farmer, 1.25 livestock per commercial livestock farmer, while game farmers lost 95.88 game animals per farmer during January 2012 through June 2013. Proportionally, more subsistence farmers than commercial livestock farmers and game farmers held negative perspectives of wild dogs (χ ² = 9.63, df = 2, p < 0.05. Farmer type, education level, socioeconomic status and land tenure, as well as positive wild dog characteristics should be considered when planning and operationalising conflict mitigation strategies. As such, conservation approaches should focus on

  4. Anophthalmia in a Wild Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis).

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Hartnett, Elizabeth A; James, Fiona M K; Grahn, Bruce H

    2017-10-01

    We describe bilateral true anophthalmia in a juvenile female eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) with histologic confirmation that orbital contents lacked ocular tissues. Additionally, the optic chiasm of the brain was absent and axon density in the optic tract adjacent to the lateral geniculate nucleus was reduced.

  5. Investigation of avian influenza infections in wild birds, poultry and humans in Eastern Dongting Lake, China.

    Shi, Jinghong; Gao, Lidong; Zhu, Yun; Chen, Tao; Liu, Yunzhi; Dong, Libo; Liu, Fuqiang; Yang, Hao; Cai, Yahui; Yu, Mingdong; Yao, Yi; Xu, Cuilin; Xiao, Xiangming; Shu, Yuelong

    2014-01-01

    We investigated avian influenza infections in wild birds, poultry, and humans at Eastern Dongting Lake, China. We analyzed 6,621 environmental samples, including fresh fecal and water samples, from wild birds and domestic ducks that were collected from the Eastern Dongting Lake area from November 2011 to April 2012. We also conducted two cross-sectional serological studies in November 2011 and April 2012, with 1,050 serum samples collected from people exposed to wild birds and/or domestic ducks. Environmental samples were tested for the presence of avian influenza virus (AIV) using quantitative PCR assays and virus isolation techniques. Hemagglutination inhibition assays were used to detect antibodies against AIV H5N1, and microneutralization assays were used to confirm these results. Among the environmental samples from wild birds and domestic ducks, AIV prevalence was 5.19 and 5.32%, respectively. We isolated 39 and 5 AIVs from the fecal samples of wild birds and domestic ducks, respectively. Our analysis indicated 12 subtypes of AIV were present, suggesting that wild birds in the Eastern Dongting Lake area carried a diverse array of AIVs with low pathogenicity. We were unable to detect any antibodies against AIV H5N1 in humans, suggesting that human infection with H5N1 was rare in this region.

  6. Female and male life tables for seven wild primate species

    Bronikowski, Anne M.; Cords, Marina; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K.; Fedigan, Linda M.; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara; Strier, Karen B.; Morris, William F.

    2016-01-01

    We provide male and female census count data, age-specific survivorship, and female age-specific fertility estimates for populations of seven wild primates that have been continuously monitored for at least 29 years: sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) in Madagascar; muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus) in Brazil; capuchin (Cebus capucinus) in Costa Rica; baboon (Papio cynocephalus) and blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya; chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) in Tanzania; and gorilla (Gorilla beringei) in Rwanda. Using one-year age-class intervals, we computed point estimates of age-specific survival for both sexes. In all species, our survival estimates for the dispersing sex are affected by heavy censoring. We also calculated reproductive value, life expectancy, and mortality hazards for females. We used bootstrapping to place confidence intervals on life-table summary metrics (R0, the net reproductive rate; λ, the population growth rate; and G, the generation time). These data have high potential for reuse; they derive from continuous population monitoring of long-lived organisms and will be invaluable for addressing questions about comparative demography, primate conservation and human evolution. PMID:26928014

  7. Male Participation in Contraception in an Eastern Province of Turkey

    Nevin Hotun Sahin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine men’s knowledge, attitudes and practice towards family planning in a province of north-eastern Turkey. Materials and Methods: This descriptive research was carried on 801 volunteers amongst men of reproductive age living in a city with a total population of 80,000 men. Data were gathered using a self-administered questionnaire that addressed men’s roles, attitudes and behaviors towards family planning. Results: The most commonly used contraceptives were condom (36.8% and withdrawal (27.3% methods in single men. Married men reported relying more on female methods and they were more satisfied with the method they used. The idea of shared responsibility in family planning was more appreciated by single men. The role of family as a source of knowledge about family planning was low in both groups. Married men were more against vasectomy and condom while single men had more negative attitudes towards using hormone pills for men if produced in the future.Conclusion: Comprehensive projects are needed to improve male participation in family planning, especially in male dominant cultures. This must be seen as a golden key in the reproductive health programs.

  8. CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS IN A WILD FAR EASTERN LEOPARD ( PANTHERA PARDUS ORIENTALIS).

    Sulikhan, Nadezhda S; Gilbert, Martin; Blidchenko, Ekaterina Yu; Naidenko, Sergei V; Ivanchuk, Galina V; Gorpenchenko, Tatiana Yu; Alshinetskiy, Mikhail V; Shevtsova, Elena I; Goodrich, John M; Lewis, John C M; Goncharuk, Mikhail S; Uphyrkina, Olga V; Rozhnov, Vyatcheslav V; Shedko, Sergey V; McAloose, Denise; Miquelle, Dale G

    2018-01-01

    The critically endangered population of Far Eastern leopards ( Panthera pardus orientalis) may number as few as 60 individuals and is at risk from stochastic processes such as infectious disease. During May 2015, a case of canine distemper virus (CDV) was diagnosed in a wild leopard exhibiting severe neurologic disease in the Russian territory of Primorskii Krai. Amplified sequences of the CDV hemagglutinin gene and phosphoprotein gene aligned within the Arctic-like clade of CDV, which includes viruses from elsewhere in Russia, China, Europe, and North America. Histologic examination of cerebral tissue revealed perivascular lymphoid cuffing and demyelination of the white matter consistent with CDV infection. Neutralizing antibodies against CDV were detected in archived serum from two wild Far Eastern leopards sampled during 1993-94, confirming previous exposure in the population. This leopard population is likely too small to maintain circulation of CDV, suggesting that infections arise from spillover from more-abundant domestic or wild carnivore reservoirs. Increasing the population size and establishment of additional populations of leopards would be important steps toward securing the future of this subspecies and reducing the risk posed by future outbreaks of CDV or other infectious diseases.

  9. Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank.

    Jordi Galbany

    Full Text Available Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank, but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size.

  10. Wild food trees in Eastern Nuba Mountains, Sudan: Use diversity and threatening factors

    Nagwa Kamal-Eldin M. Salih

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in 2010 in Eastern Nuba Mountains, Sudan to investigate ethnobotanical food and non-food uses of 16 wild edible fruit producing trees. Quantitative and qualitative information was collected from 105 individuals distributed in 7 villages using a semi-structured questionnaire. Also gathering of data was done using a number of rapid rural appraisal techniques, including key informant interviews, group discussion, secondary data sources and direct observations. Data was analysed using fidelity level and informant consensus factor methods to reveal the cultural importance of species and use category. Utilizations for timber products were found of most community importance than food usages, especially during cultivated food abundance. Balanites aegyptiaca, Ziziphus spina-christi and Tamarindus indica fruits were asserted as most preferable over the others and of high marketability in most of the study sites. Harvesting for timber-based utilizations in addition to agricultural expansion and overgrazing were the principal threats to wild edible food producing trees in the area. The on and off prevailing armed conflict in the area make it crucial to conserve wild food trees which usually play a more significant role in securing food supply during emergency times, especially in times of famine and wars. Increasing the awareness of population on importance of wild food trees and securing alternative income sources, other than wood products, is necessary in any rural development programme aiming at securing food and sustaining its resources in the area.

  11. Hormonal correlates of male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus).

    Jack, Katharine M; Schoof, Valérie A M; Sheller, Claire R; Rich, Catherine I; Klingelhofer, Peter P; Ziegler, Toni E; Fedigan, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to hormonal variation in relation to male dominance status and reproductive seasonality, but we know relatively little about how hormones vary across life history stages. Here we examine fecal testosterone (fT), dihydrotestosterone (fDHT), and glucocorticoid (fGC) profiles across male life history stages in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Study subjects included 37 males residing in three habituated social groups in the Área de Conservacíon Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Male life history stages included infant (0 to Life history stage was a significant predictor of fT; levels were low throughout the infant and juvenile phases, doubled in subadult and subordinate adults, and were highest for alpha males. Life history stage was not a significant predictor of fDHT, fDHT:fT, or fGC levels. Puberty in white-faced capuchins appears to begin in earnest during the subadult male phase, indicated by the first significant rise in fT. Given their high fT levels and exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics, we argue that alpha adult males represent a distinctive life history stage not experienced by all male capuchins. This study is the first to physiologically validate observable male life history stages using patterns of hormone excretion in wild Neotropical primates, with evidence for a strong association between fT levels and life history stage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Production and evaluation of YY-male Brook Trout to eradicate nonnative wild brook trout populations

    Kennedy, Patrick; Schill, Daniel J.; Meyer, Kevin A.; Campbell, Matthew R.; Vu, Ninh V.; Hansen, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis were introduced throughout western North America in the early 1900s, resulting in widespread self-sustaining populations that are difficult to eradicate and often threaten native salmonid populations. A novel approach for their eradication involves use of YY male (MYY) Brook Trout (created in the hatchery by feminizing XY males and crossing them with normal XY males). If MYY Brook Trout survive after stocking, and reproduce successfully with wild females, in theory this could eventually drive the sex ratio of the wild population to 100% males, at which point the population would not be able to reproduce and would be eradicated. This study represents the first successful development of a FYY and MYY salmonid broodstock, which was produced in four years at relatively low cost. Field trials demonstrated that stocked hatchery MYY Brook Trout survived and produced viable MYY offspring in streams, although reproductive fitness appeared to have been lower than their wild conspecifics. Even if reduced fitness is the norm in both streams and alpine lakes, our population simulations suggest that eradication can be achieved in reasonable time periods under some MYY stocking scenarios, especially when wild Brook Trout are simultaneously suppressed in the population.

  13. Seroprevalence of brucellosis, tularemia, and yersiniosis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from north-eastern Germany.

    Al Dahouk, S; Nöckler, K; Tomaso, H; Splettstoesser, W D; Jungersen, G; Riber, U; Petry, T; Hoffmann, D; Scholz, H C; Hensel, A; Neubauer, H

    2005-12-01

    Brucellosis and tularemia are classical zoonotic diseases transmitted from an animal reservoir to humans. Both, wildlife and domestic animals, contribute to the spreading of these zoonoses. The surveillance of the animal health status is strictly regulated for domestic animals, whereas systematic disease monitoring in wildlife does not exist. The aim of the present study was to provide data on the prevalence of anti-Brucella, anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies in wild boars from North-Eastern Germany to assess public health risks. A total of 763 sera of wild boars from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania hunted in 1995/1996 were tested using a commercially available Brucella suis ELISA, an in-house lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-based Francisella ELISA, and commercially available Western blot kits for the detection of anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies. The Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 LPS is able to induce serological cross-reactions indistinguishable from brucellosis due to a similar immunodominant epitope in the Brucella O-polysaccharide. The Yersinia Western blot assay was, therefore, based on five recombinant Yersinia outer proteins which have been proved to be specific for the serodiagnosis of yersiniosis. Anti-Brucella, anti-Francisella and anti-Yersinia antibodies were detected in 22.0%, 3.1%, and 62.6% of the wild boars, respectively. The high seroprevalence of tularemia and brucellosis in wild boars indicates that natural foci of these zoonoses are present in wildlife in Germany. However, the impact of transmission of zoonotic pathogens from wildlife to livestock is unknown. Only careful and systematic monitoring will help to prevent the (re)emergence of these zoonotic diseases in domestic animals and consequently human infection.

  14. Preliminary studies on environmental pollutants in chamois and wild boar from Eastern Piedmont, Italy.

    Federica Ceriani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are synthetic chlorinated compounds classified as POPs whereas only the penta e tetra-brominated polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs are so defined by the Stockolm Convention (Stockholm Convention, 2005 in order to elimitate or restrict the use of POPs. Organophosphorus insecticides (OCPs represent important environmental and food contamination sources, widely used in agriculture. Among polyciclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, benzo[a]pirene is classified by IARC in Group 1, as cancerogen  and Benzo[a]fluoranthene as a Group 2B, as possible cancerogen (IARC, 2012; IARC, 2010.  EFSA (European Food Safety Authority has released a scientific opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of brominated flame retardants in food (EFSA, 2011 and in 2014 European commission has asked Member States to monitor the presence of brominated flame retardants (BFRs in food over the next two years (EC, 2014. Due to their heir n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log Kow, they accumulate in fat tissue, bioconcentrate and biomagnify in the animals at the higher trophic levels, possibly causing, through chronic exposure, endocrine disruption and cancer (Wania et al., 1995; Vallack et al., 1998. The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of OCPs, PCBs, PBDEs and PAHs in chamois and wild boar from Eastern Piedmont, Italy. A total of 20 chamois and 20 wild boar muscle samples were collected during the hunting season 2017, from Verbania Cusio Ossola (VCO (Fig 1. The chemical analysis for the detection of OCPs, PCBs, PBDEs, and PAHs   was performed by GC-MS/MS on muscle samples purified and extracted using a QuEChERS technique, validated according to SANTE 2017 (SANTE/11183/2017. These preliminary results show the ubiquitary presence of the studied contaminants. PCBs have been found more in chamois (45% than in wild boar (35%. No PBDEs were detected in wild boar but in chamois

  15. The Genetic Structure of Wild Orobanche cumana Wallr. (Orobanchaceae Populations in Eastern Bulgaria Reflects Introgressions from Weedy Populations

    Rocío Pineda-Martos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche cumana is a holoparasitic plant naturally distributed from central Asia to south-eastern Europe, where it parasitizes wild Asteraceae species. It is also an important parasitic weed of sunflower crops. The objective of this research was to investigate genetic diversity, population structure, and virulence on sunflower of O. cumana populations parasitizing wild plants in eastern Bulgaria. Fresh tissue of eight O. cumana populations and mature seeds of four of them were collected in situ on wild hosts. Genetic diversity and population structure were studied with SSR markers and compared to weedy populations. Two main gene pools were identified in Bulgarian populations, with most of the populations having intermediate characteristics. Cross-inoculation experiments revealed that O. cumana populations collected on wild species possessed similar ability to parasitize sunflower to those collected on sunflower. The results were explained on the basis of an effective genetic exchange between populations parasitizing sunflower crops and those parasitizing wild species. The occurrence of bidirectional gene flow may have an impact on wild populations, as new physiological races continuously emerge in weedy populations. Also, genetic variability of wild populations may favour the ability of weedy populations to overcome sunflower resistance mechanisms.

  16. The Genetic Structure of Wild Orobanche cumana Wallr. (Orobanchaceae) Populations in Eastern Bulgaria Reflects Introgressions from Weedy Populations

    Pineda-Martos, Rocío; Pujadas-Salvà, Antonio J.; Fernández-Martínez, José M.; Stoyanov, Kiril; Pérez-Vich, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    Orobanche cumana is a holoparasitic plant naturally distributed from central Asia to south-eastern Europe, where it parasitizes wild Asteraceae species. It is also an important parasitic weed of sunflower crops. The objective of this research was to investigate genetic diversity, population structure, and virulence on sunflower of O. cumana populations parasitizing wild plants in eastern Bulgaria. Fresh tissue of eight O. cumana populations and mature seeds of four of them were collected in situ on wild hosts. Genetic diversity and population structure were studied with SSR markers and compared to weedy populations. Two main gene pools were identified in Bulgarian populations, with most of the populations having intermediate characteristics. Cross-inoculation experiments revealed that O. cumana populations collected on wild species possessed similar ability to parasitize sunflower to those collected on sunflower. The results were explained on the basis of an effective genetic exchange between populations parasitizing sunflower crops and those parasitizing wild species. The occurrence of bidirectional gene flow may have an impact on wild populations, as new physiological races continuously emerge in weedy populations. Also, genetic variability of wild populations may favour the ability of weedy populations to overcome sunflower resistance mechanisms. PMID:25143963

  17. Tree roosting by male and female eastern pipistrelles in a forested landscape

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill

    2007-01-01

    Little information has been published on selection of tree roosts by eastern pipistrelles (Perimyotis subflavus) in forested environments, and no radiotelemetry-based studies have been conducted on males in forested settings. Therefore, we used radiotelemetry to characterize summer roost selection by 21 male (33 roosts) and 7 female (14 roosts)...

  18. Correlates of androgens in wild male Barbary macaques: Testing the challenge hypothesis.

    Rincon, Alan V; Maréchal, Laëtitia; Semple, Stuart; Majolo, Bonaventura; MacLarnon, Ann

    2017-10-01

    Investigating causes and consequences of variation in hormonal expression is a key focus in behavioral ecology. Many studies have explored patterns of secretion of the androgen testosterone in male vertebrates, using the challenge hypothesis (Wingfield, Hegner, Dufty, & Ball, 1990; The American Naturalist, 136(6), 829-846) as a theoretical framework. Rather than the classic association of testosterone with male sexual behavior, this hypothesis predicts that high levels of testosterone are associated with male-male reproductive competition but also inhibit paternal care. The hypothesis was originally developed for birds, and subsequently tested in other vertebrate taxa, including primates. Such studies have explored the link between testosterone and reproductive aggression as well as other measures of mating competition, or between testosterone and aspects of male behavior related to the presence of infants. Very few studies have simultaneously investigated the links between testosterone and male aggression, other aspects of mating competition and infant-related behavior. We tested predictions derived from the challenge hypothesis in wild male Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus), a species with marked breeding seasonality and high levels of male-infant affiliation, providing a powerful test of this theoretical framework. Over 11 months, 251 hr of behavioral observations and 296 fecal samples were collected from seven adult males in the Middle Atlas Mountains, Morocco. Fecal androgen levels rose before the onset of the mating season, during a period of rank instability, and were positively related to group mating activity across the mating season. Androgen levels were unrelated to rates of male-male aggression in any period, but higher ranked males had higher levels in both the mating season and in the period of rank instability. Lower androgen levels were associated with increased rates of male-infant grooming during the mating and unstable periods. Our results

  19. Development of Novel Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Source from Dongxiang Wild Rice (Oryza rufipogon

    Xian-hua SHEN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to develop and characterize a novel cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS source which was identified from Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon by crossing Dongxiang wild rice as female with Zhongzao 35, an indica inbred variety, as male and continuous backcrossing with Zhongzao 35. Observation under optical microscope manifested that this novel CMS belonged to typical abortion type with less pollen compared with wild abortive type cytoplasm (CMS-WA. Sequential planting showed that this novel CMS has complete and stable male sterility. Testcross experiment showed that all the 24 tested materials including maintainer and restorer lines of CMS-WA and Honglian type cytoplasm (CMS-HL and other indica inbred varieties are the maintainers with complete maintaining ability, suggesting that this novel CMS has fertility restoration totally different from CMS-WA and CMS-HL and belongs to a novel type of CMS. So far, we only discovered a unique fertility restoration source for this novel CMS. Inheritance analysis showed that the fertility restoration of this CMS was governed by three pairs of independent dominant genes. Prospect for application of this novel CMS system in hybrid rice breeding was also discussed.

  20. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: relationship to age and parasitism.

    Klenavic, Katherine; Champoux, Louise; Mike, O'Brien; Daoust, Pierre-Y; Evans, R Douglas; Evans, Hayla E

    2008-11-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink.

  1. Wing Morphometry and Acoustic Signals in Sterile and Wild Males: Implications for Mating Success in Ceratitis capitata

    João Maria Gomes Alencar de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sterile insect technique (SIT is widely utilized in the biological control of fruit flies of the family Tephritidae, particularly against the Mediterranean fruit fly. This study investigated the interaction between mating success and morphometric variation in the wings and the production of acoustic signals among three male groups of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann: (1 wild males, (2 irradiated with Co-60 (steriles, and (3 irradiated (steriles and treated with ginger oil. The canonical variate analysis discriminated two groups (males irradiated and males wild, based on the morphological shape of the wings. Among males that emit buzz signals, wild males obtained copulation more frequently than males in Groups 2 and 3. The individuals of Group 3 achieved more matings than those in Group 2. Wild males displayed lower pulse duration, higher intervals between pulses, and higher dominant frequency. Regarding the reproductive success, the morphological differences in the wings’ shape between accepted and nonaccepted males are higher in wild males than in the irradiated ones. The present results can be useful in programs using the sterile insect technique for biological control of C. capitata.

  2. Visitation by wild and managed bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) to eastern U.S. native plants for use in conservation programs.

    Tuell, Julianna K; Fiedler, Anna K; Landis, Douglas; Isaacs, Rufus

    2008-06-01

    Addition of floral resources to agricultural field margins has been shown to increase abundance of beneficial insects in crop fields, but most plants recommended for this use are non-native annuals. Native perennial plants with different bloom periods can provide floral resources for bees throughout the growing season for use in pollinator conservation projects. To identify the most suitable plants for this use, we examined the relative attractiveness to wild and managed bees of 43 eastern U.S. native perennial plants, grown in a common garden setting. Floral characteristics were evaluated for their ability to predict bee abundance and taxa richness. Of the wild bees collected, the most common species (62%) was Bombus impatiens Cresson. Five other wild bee species were present between 3 and 6% of the total: Lasioglossum admirandum (Sandhouse), Hylaeus affinis (Smith), Agapostemon virescens (F.), Halictus ligatus Say, and Ceratina calcarata/dupla Robertson/Say. The remaining wild bee species were present at wild bees; 9 were highly attractive, and 20 were moderately attractive. Honey bees visited 24 of the 43 plant species at least once. Floral area was the only measured factor accounting for variation in abundance and richness of wild bees but did not explain variation in honey bee abundance. Results of this study can be used to guide selection of flowering plants to provide season-long forage for conservation of wild bees.

  3. Seasonal and social correlates of fecal testosterone and cortisol levels in wild male muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides).

    Strier, K B; Ziegler, T E; Wittwer, D J

    1999-04-01

    Fecal testosterone and cortisol levels were analyzed from six wild male muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) over a 19-month period at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga in Minas Gerais, Brazil, to investigate the hormonal correlates of seasonal sexual behavior and environmental conditions. Group mean testosterone levels based on weekly samples from the six males did not differ between copulatory and noncopulatory periods or between rainy and dry seasons. Cortisol levels did change with copulatory periods, and were significantly higher during the second dry season, when mating continued following an exceptionally heavy rainy season, than during the first dry season, when mating ceased. Males exhibited individual variation in the timing of their hormone shifts relative to their sexual activity, but neither hormone levels nor sexual activity were related to male age. Despite individual differences in the timing of testosterone fluctuations around the onset and offset of the copulatory season, all males exhibited elevated cortisol concentrations following a slight increase in testosterone at the beginning of the copulatory season. Both the lack of significant changes in testosterone levels with the onset of the rainy and copulatory season and the lack of prebreeding increases in cortisol may be related to the low levels of overt aggression displayed by male muriquis over access to mates. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. Male resource defense mating system in primates? An experimental test in wild capuchin monkeys.

    Barbara Tiddi

    Full Text Available Ecological models of mating systems provide a theoretical framework to predict the effect of the defendability of both breeding resources and mating partners on mating patterns. In resource-based mating systems, male control over breeding resources is tightly linked to female mating preference. To date, few field studies have experimentally investigated the relationship between male resource control and female mating preference in mammals due to difficulties in manipulating ecological factors (e.g., food contestability. We tested the within-group male resource defense hypothesis experimentally in a wild population of black capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus in Iguazú National Park, Argentina. Sapajus spp. represent an ideal study model as, in contrast to most primates, they have been previously argued to be characterized by female mate choice and a resource-based mating system in which within-group resource monopolization by high-ranking males drives female mating preference for those males. Here, we examined whether females (N = 12 showed a weaker preference for alpha males during mating seasons in which food distribution was experimentally manipulated to be less defendable relative to those in which it was highly defendable. Results did not support the within-group male resource defense hypothesis, as female sexual preferences for alpha males did not vary based on food defendability. We discuss possible reasons for our results, including the possibility of other direct and indirect benefits females receive in exercising mate choice, the potential lack of tolerance over food directed towards females by alpha males, and phylogenetic constraints.

  5. The social and ecological integration of captive-raised adolescent male African elephants (Loxodonta africana into a wild population.

    Kate Evans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A rapid rise in the number of captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana used in the tourism industry in southern Africa and orphaned elephants in human care has led to concerns about their long-term management, particularly males. One solution is to release them into the wild at adolescence, when young males naturally leave their herd. However, this raises significant welfare concerns: little is known about how well released elephants integrate into wild populations and whether they pose a greater threat to humans than wild elephants. We document the release of three captive-raised adolescent male African elephants in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Despite having been part of a herd of working elephants for at least eight years, the three males progressively integrated into the complex fission-fusion society of wild bull elephants. In the three years following release, they showed no tendency to be closer to human habitation, and there were no significant differences between wild and captive-raised adolescent males in the total number of social interactions, size of ranges and habitat use. However, the captive-raised elephants sparred less and vocalised more, and spent more time alone and in smaller social groups. Thereafter the released elephants continued to expand their ranges and interact with both mixed-sex herds and males. One male was shot by farmers 94 months after release, along with ten wild elephants, on a ranch outside the protected area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that captive-raised adolescent male elephants can integrate into a wild population. Long-term studies are required to determine the longevity, breeding success, and eventual fate of released male elephants, but we identified no significant short-term welfare problems for the released elephants or recipient population. Release of captive-raised mammals with complex social systems is a husbandry option that should be

  6. Wild Nicotiana Species as a Source of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Nicotianatabacum

    Nikova V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of our experiments executed to obtain tobacco male sterile lines through interspecific hybridization are summarized. Ten wild species from the genus Nicotiana: N. excelsior (exc, N. amplexicaulis (amp, N. rustica (rus, Nicotianaglauca (gla, N. velutina (vel, N. benthamiana (ben, N. maritima (mar, N. paniculata (pan, N. longiflora (lon and N. africana (afr were used as cytoplasmic donors and N. tabacum, cv. HarmanliiskaBasma (HB as a donor of the nucleus. Genetic effects of cytoplasmic-nuclear interaction of the studied species are discussed. Our results suggested that cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS was expressed when the cytoplasms of the above mentioned wild Nicotiana species were combined with the nucleus of N. tabacum. The 10 sources of CMS obtained in tobacco were characterized by altered flower phenotypes. Flowers are classified into types according the stamen, pistil and corolla modification. All these CMS sources were backcrossed to Oriental tobaccos, cvs. Tekne, Nevrokop B-12, Kroumovgrad 90 and Djebel 576, to develop corresponding CMS lines. The investigated cytoplasms produced compete male sterility in all those cultivars. The CMS lines preserved flower types, specific for every “sterile” cytoplasm. The extent of male organ modifications varied from apparently normal (but pollenless stamens in CMS (pan, (afr, some plants of (vel (mar through different degrees of malformations (shriveled anther on shortened filaments (lon, pinnate-like anthers on filaments of normal length (amp, petal - (ben, pistil- or stigma-like structures (rus, (gla to lack of male reproductive organs in (exc and in some plants of (vel, (mar, (rus and (gla. Most of the above mentioned cytoplasms had normal female gametophyte and good seed productivity. Alterations of the pistils were observed in CMS (rus, (exc and (ben causing reduction of the seed set. Electrophoresis of seed proteins of the tobacco cultivars and their CMS lines also suggested that

  7. Occurrence of tongue worm, Linguatula cf. serrata (Pentastomida: Linguatulidae in wild canids and livestock in south-eastern Australia

    Shokoofeh Shamsi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pentastomids are obligate zoonotic arthropod parasites utilising canids and vulpids as their definitive hosts and several herbivorous species as their intermediate hosts. Reported only 10 times in Australia over the last 150 years as incidental findings, adult Pentastomids referred to as Linguatula serrata have been encountered in nasal cavities of domestic and wild dogs, and foxes. Nymphs have been reported in cattle and rabbits. In the present study, a number of potential definitive hosts, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes, wild dogs (Canis lupus dingo and C.l. dingo x C. familiaris and feral cats (Felis catus, and intermediate hosts cattle (Bos taurus, sheep (Ovis aries, feral pigs (Sus scrofa, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, goats (Capra hircus and a European hare (Lepus europaeus, from the highlands of south-eastern Australia were examined. Of the animals examined 67.6% of wild dogs (n = 37, 14.5% of red foxes (n = 55 and 4.3% of cattle (n = 164 were found to be infected with Pentastomids, herein identified as Linguatula cf. serrata. The common occurrence of the parasite in wild dogs and less frequently in foxes suggests these wild canids have potential to act as a reservoir for infection of livestock, wildlife, domestic dogs and possibly humans. The unexpected high frequency of the parasite in wild dogs and foxes in south-eastern Australia suggests the parasite is more common than previously realised. Of the potential intermediate hosts in the region, only 4.3% of cattle were found to be infected with pentastomid nymphs which suggest the search for the host(s acting as the main intermediate host in the region should continue. Future studies should investigate transmission patterns, health impacts on hosts and whether the parasite has zoonotic significance in Australia. Keywords: Tongue worm, Australia, Linguatulidae, Pentastomida

  8. Wild orangutan males plan and communicate their travel direction one day in advance.

    Carel P van Schaik

    Full Text Available The ability to plan for the future beyond immediate needs would be adaptive to many animal species, but is widely thought to be uniquely human. Although studies in captivity have shown that great apes are capable of planning for future needs, it is unknown whether and how they use this ability in the wild. Flanged male Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii emit long calls, which females use to maintain earshot associations with them. We tested whether long calls serve to communicate a male's ever-changing predominant travel direction to facilitate maintaining these associations. We found that the direction in which a flanged male emits his long calls predicts his subsequent travel direction for many hours, and that a new call indicates a change in his main travel direction. Long calls given at or near the night nest indicate travel direction better than random until late afternoon on the next day. These results show that male orangutans make their travel plans well in advance and announce them to conspecifics. We suggest that such a planning ability is likely to be adaptive for great apes, as well as in other taxa.

  9. Responses to social and environmental stress are attenuated by strong male bonds in wild macaques

    Young, Christopher; Majolo, Bonaventura; Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In humans and obligatory social animals, individuals with weak social ties experience negative health and fitness consequences. The social buffering hypothesis conceptualizes one possible mediating mechanism: During stressful situations the presence of close social partners buffers against the adverse effects of increased physiological stress levels. We tested this hypothesis using data on social (rate of aggression received) and environmental (low temperatures) stressors in wild male Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in Morocco. These males form strong, enduring, and equitable affiliative relationships similar to human friendships. We tested the effect of the strength of a male’s top three social bonds on his fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels as a function of the stressors’ intensity. The attenuating effect of stronger social bonds on physiological stress increased both with increasing rates of aggression received and with decreasing minimum daily temperature. Ruling out thermoregulatory and immediate effects of social interactions on fGCM levels, our results indicate that male Barbary macaques employ a tend-and-befriend coping strategy in the face of increased environmental as well as social day-to-day stressors. This evidence of a stress-ameliorating effect of social bonding among males under natural conditions and beyond the mother–offspring, kin or pair bond broadens the generality of the social buffering hypothesis. PMID:25489097

  10. Wild-type male offspring of fmr-1+/- mothers exhibit characteristics of the fragile X phenotype.

    Zupan, Bojana; Toth, Miklos

    2008-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome is an X-linked disorder caused by the inactivation of the FMR-1 gene with symptoms ranging from impaired cognitive functions to seizures, anxiety, sensory abnormalities, and hyperactivity. Males are more severely affected than heterozygote (H) females, who, as carriers, have a 50% chance of transmitting the mutated allele in each pregnancy. fmr-1 knockout (KO) mice reproduce fragile X symptoms, including hyperactivity, seizures, and abnormal sensory processing. In contrast to the expectation that wild-type (WT) males born to H (fmr-1(+/-)) mothers (H>WT) are behaviorally normal and indistinguishable from WT males born to WT mothers (WT>WT); here, we show that H>WT offspring are more active than WT>WT offspring and that their hyperactivity is similar to male KO mice born to H or KO (fmr-1(-/-)) mothers (H>KO/KO>KO). H>WT mice, however, do not exhibit seizures or abnormal sensory processing. Consistent with their hyperactivity, the effect of the D2 agonist quinpirole is reduced in H>WT as well as in H>KO and KO>KO mice compared to WT>WT offspring, suggesting a diminished feedback inhibition of dopamine release. Our data indicate that some aspects of hyperactivity and associated dopaminergic changes in 'fragile X' mice are a maternal fmr-1 genotype rather than an offspring fmr-1 genotype effect.

  11. Effect of Radio-Elements in The Black Sands on Wild Plant That Grown Eastern and Western Rosetta Branch, Egypt

    Al-Shobaki, M.E.E.; Mashour, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The black-sand deposits are widely distributed alongside the Mediterranean Sea coast from Abu-Quir in the west to Rafah city in the extreme east. It contains, minerals, which is considered as the main source of uranium, thorium, potassium and iron oxides as a heavy and / or radio elements. These elements may be transferred with irrigation water to the plant organ (s), or even prevented the adsorption of nutrients. To achieve this purpose, surface soil samples (0-30 cm.) and subsurface soil samples (30 - 60 cm) were collected from eastern and western of Rosetta area., also Aerva plants samples (roots, stems, leaves and flowers) as a wild plant were collected from these areas to evaluate the object of this study..The results showed highest values of thorium, uranium, potassium and iron detected in soil and plant samples near Rosetta estuary at two sides (eastern and western). The available N. P. K. and Fe in western soil samples were higher than that obtained by eastern soil samples. The N. P. K. content of the plant organ (s) samples that grown at western side were higher than that found the eastern side..The highest thorium, uranium and iron content found in plant root and the least were in the leaves or flowers plants, at two Rosetta sides. Also, total uranium, thorium and iron content in western side were higher than eastern side soil samples.

  12. Prevalence of giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) in wild mink (Mustela vison) in Minnesota

    Mech, L. David; Tracy, Shawn P.

    2001-01-01

    Of 138 wild mink (Mustela vison) from eastern Minnesota, 27% contained Dioctophyma renale, primarily in the right kidney. No significant difference between prevalence in adult male and immature male mink was found, nor between the prevalence in males versus female mink. Thirteen worms were found in one male mink, representing the highest documented infection intensity of a single wild mink.

  13. Wild and native plants and mushrooms sold in the open-air markets of south-eastern Poland.

    Kasper-Pakosz, Renata; Pietras, Marcin; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2016-10-07

    The study of plants and fungi sold in open-air markets is an important part of ethnobotanical enquiry. Only few such studies were carried out in Europe. Four of the largest open-air markets of south-eastern Poland were visited regularly, and the plants sold in them were recorded between 2013 and 2015. The aim of the study was to record native and/or wild species sold in the markets. All the plants sold in the markets were photographed regularly. In each market, 25 sellers were interviewed. Voucher specimens were collected and fungi were identified using DNA barcoding. Altogether, 468 species of plants were recorded, 117 of them native to south-eastern Poland - 19 only collected from the wild and 11 both wild and cultivated. Seventeen of the species are under legal protection. Most protected plants were sold from cultivation, although proper authorization procedures had not been performed. Thirty-two species of fungi were sold (including two cultivated species), all of them for culinary purposes. Two species (Lactarius quieticolor, Leccinum schistophilum) are new to the mycobiota of Poland. Ornamental plants constituted a large section of the market, and they dominated the group of native species. Food plants dominated among wild-collected plants and were sold mainly as fruits for jams, juices and alcoholic drinks, or as culinary herbs. Very few medicinal or green vegetable plants were sold. An interesting feature of the markets was the sale of Ledum palustre as an insect repellent. Finding two species of fungi which are new to Poland highlights the importance of DNA barcoding in ethnomycological studies. Most items in the markets are ornamental plants, or edible fruits and mushrooms. Very few medicinal plants and green vegetables are sold, which differentiates the markets from southern European ones. Such a pattern is probably the model for most central European markets.

  14. Individual and seasonal variation in fecal testosterone and cortisol levels of wild male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella nigritus.

    Lynch, Jessica W; Ziegler, Toni E; Strier, Karen B

    2002-05-01

    This study tested the "challenge hypothesis" and rank-based predictions for temporal steroid production in male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. Fecal samples (n = 209) collected from six wild males were analyzed for testosterone and cortisol concentration by enzyme immunoassay. The temporal pattern in male steroid production was compared to female sexual activity and rates of male aggression. The top-ranking adult male did not differ from other adult males in testosterone or cortisol concentration. Mean adult testosterone was significantly higher than mean subadult testosterone throughout the year. There was a clear elevation of testosterone and cortisol in both adult and subadult males during the peak of adult female sexual activity after the birth season. In fact, the magnitude of increase in testosterone was higher than predicted for a species with low male-male aggression. However, there was no difference between nonbreeding baseline testosterone levels during the birth season, and the "breeding" baseline of testosterone in males found during asynchronous female sexual activity. Of all behavioral indices examined, the distribution of female-maintained consortships was the best predictor of mean adult male testosterone concentrations. Although in many species, elevated testosterone coincides with increased male-male aggression, in the present study, the sustained high-magnitude increase in steroids during the peak of adult female sexual activity was associated with a relatively low rate of male-male intragroup aggression. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  15. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: Relationship to age and parasitism

    Klenavic, Katherine [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Champoux, Louise [Service Canadien de la Faune Environnement Canada, 1141 Route de l' Eglise, c.p. 10100, Sainte-Foy, QC G1V 4H5 (Canada)], E-mail: louise.champoux@ec.gc.ca; Mike, O' Brien [Furbearers and Upland Game, Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, NS B4N 4E5 (Canada)], E-mail: obrienms@gov.ns.ca; Daoust, Pierre-Y. [Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of P.E.I., 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PEI C1A 4P3 (Canada)], E-mail: daoust@upei.ca; Evans, R. Douglas [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Evans, Hayla E. [Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada)], E-mail: hevans@trentu.ca

    2008-11-15

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink. - Mercury (Hg) concentrations in liver, brain and fur are correlated in mink (Mustela vison) and otters (Lontra canadensis), allowing the use of fur as an indicator of internal tissue concentrations.

  16. Mercury concentrations in wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada: Relationship to age and parasitism

    Klenavic, Katherine; Champoux, Louise; Mike, O'Brien; Daoust, Pierre-Y.; Evans, R. Douglas; Evans, Hayla E.

    2008-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in the fur, brain and liver of wild mink (Mustela vison) and river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from eastern and Atlantic Canada. Total Hg concentrations in fur were strongly correlated with levels in the brain and liver. There was no difference in tissue concentrations between male and female mink; however, female otters had significantly higher fur, brain and liver Hg levels than males. Similarly, there was not a significant relationship between Hg concentration and age of mink, whereas in otters, Hg concentrations in all three tissues decreased significantly with age. In both species, only a very small percentage of the variability in Hg concentration was explained by age. After adjusting the data for site-to-site differences in Hg levels, Hg concentrations in the fur of mink infected by the parasite, Dioctophyma renale, were found to be significantly higher than Hg levels in uninfected mink. - Mercury (Hg) concentrations in liver, brain and fur are correlated in mink (Mustela vison) and otters (Lontra canadensis), allowing the use of fur as an indicator of internal tissue concentrations

  17. Seasonal and annual variation in activity in wild male meadow voles (microtus pennsylvanicus)

    Turner, B.N.; Iverson, S.L.; Severson, K.L.

    1980-10-01

    Project ZEUS was designed to characterize the effects of long-term gamma irradiation on free-ranging meadow voles, and to determine the lowest level of radiation at which biological effects are discernible in the population. Behavioural tests are considered important since recent testing has shown that behavioural effects occur at lower levels of a given toxicant than do pathological ones, and radiation effects may be similar. Overnight activity of wild male voles was investigated to see whether sufficient variability exists in this activity to suggest its retention as a routine test of these irradiated animals. Variables determined included number of activity periods, total amount of activity, and statistical measures derived from these. Results from nearly 2500 activity tests recorded during a seven-year period indicated the annual pattern of activity is more closely associated with the photo-period than to reproductive maturity. There was little variability in activity among years, limiting the usefulness of this test in the context of Project ZEUS, and further suggesting behaviour may have little relationship to the population density fluctuations occurring in meadow voles. Consequently, the recording of this behaviour has been terminated in favour of emphasizing aggression and open-field tests as the behavioural component of the Project ZEUS. (auth)

  18. Polymorphism in hybrid male sterility in wild-derived Mus musculus musculus strains on proximal chromosome 17.

    Vyskocilová, Martina; Prazanová, Gabriela; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2009-02-01

    The hybrid sterility-1 (Hst1) locus at Chr 17 causes male sterility in crosses between the house mouse subspecies Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd) and M. m. musculus (Mmm). This locus has been defined by its polymorphic variants in two laboratory strains (Mmd genome) when mated to PWD/Ph mice (Mmm genome): C57BL/10 (carrying the sterile allele) and C3H (fertile allele). The occurrence of sterile and/or fertile (wild Mmm x C57BL)F1 males is evidence that polymorphism for this trait also exists in natural populations of Mmm; however, the nature of this polymorphism remains unclear. Therefore, we derived two wild-origin Mmm strains, STUS and STUF, that produce sterile and fertile males, respectively, in crosses with C57BL mice. To determine the genetic basis underlying male fertility, the (STUS x STUF)F1 females were mated to C57BL/10 J males. About one-third of resulting hybrid males (33.8%) had a significantly smaller epididymis and testes than parental animals and lacked spermatozoa due to meiotic arrest. A further one-fifth of males (20.3%) also had anomalous reproductive traits but produced some spermatozoa. The remaining fertile males (45.9%) displayed no deviation from values found in parental individuals. QTL analysis of the progeny revealed strong associations of male fitness components with the proximal end of Chr 17, and a significant effect of the central section of Chr X on testes mass. The data suggest that genetic incompatibilities associated with male sterility have evolved independently at the proximal end of Chr 17 and are polymorphic within both Mmd and Mmm genomes.

  19. Male dominance and reproductive success in wild white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) at Lomas Barbudal, Costa Rica.

    Muniz, Laura; Perry, Susan; Manson, Joseph H; Gilkenson, Hannah; Gros-Louis, Julie; Vigilant, Linda

    2010-12-01

    Theory and a growing body of empirical evidence suggest that higher ranking males experience reproductive advantages in group-living mammals. White-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) exhibit an interesting social system for investigating the relationship between dominance and reproductive success (RS) because they live in multimale multifemale social groups, in which the alpha males can have extraordinarily long tenures (i.e. they coreside with daughters of reproductive age). Genetic paternity was determined from fecal samples for 120 infants born into three social groups of wild C. capucinus at Lomas Barbudal Biological Reserve, Costa Rica. Alpha males produced far more offspring than expected by chance, and significantly high Nonac's B indices (a measure of deviation from a random distribution of RS among potentially breeding individuals) were a feature of six out of eight male tenures. The likelihood of the alpha male siring a particular offspring was predicted by the kin relationship between the mother and the alpha male, as well as the total number of males and females in the group. The almost complete lack of father-daughter inbreeding [Muniz et al., 2006] constitutes an impediment to alpha male reproductive monopolization in this population, particularly toward the end of long alpha male tenures. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Distribution and numbers of the wild boar population in south eastern Poland

    Fonseca, C.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available By using both plot sampling and line intercept snow track index, the population density and numbers of wild boar in Bieszczady Mountains and Bieszczady Foothills was estimated during February 2000. The total number of wild boar inhabiting the study area (140.4 thousands ha of forest was equal to 655 animals with an average population density of 4.66 wild boar per 1000 ha, ranging from 0.0 (Forest Districts of Cisna and Wetlina to 23.21 individuals/1000 ha (Krasiczyn Forest District. The low density of wild boar in Bieszczady Mountains is caused by the high wolf prédation and overharvest rate. The recomendation is to stop wild boar hunting in Bieszczady Mountains during the next 4 hunting seasons, and to use the harvest rate equal to 30% of the population size in February.

    [fr]
    En février 2000, nous avons estimé la densité de population et le nombre de sangliers sauvages dans les montagnes Bieszczady et les collines Bieszczady. Pour cela, un index des empreintes sur la neige interceptant une ligne ainsi que des parcelles d'échantillonage ont été utilisées. Le nombre total de sangliers habitant dans la zone d'étude -140.400 ha de forêts- s'élevait à 655 animais; la densité moyenne de population était de 4,66 sangliers sauvages par 1000 ha, chiffre oscillant entre 0,0 (Districts Forestiers de Cisna et Wetlina et 23,21 individus par 1000 ha (District de Krasiczyn. La très basse densité de sangliers sauvages dans les Montagnes Bieszczady est sans doute la conséquence de la forte prédation par le loup et de la chasse importante. Les auteurs proposent d'arrêter la chasse dans les Montagnes Bieszczady durant les 4 saisons suivantes et de limiter le taux d'extraction à 30% du niveau de la population en février.
    [es]
    Durante febrero de 2000, en las montañas Bieszczady y sus estribaciones, se estimó la densidad poblacional y número de jabalíes por medio del índice de intercepción lineal de huellas en nieve

  1. Comparison of some reproductive characteristics of farmed and wild white shrimp males Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae

    Sergio Rendón Rodríguez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We rated some reproductive characteristics of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 males using 46 farmed individuals (weighing 21.42±0.56 g and 40 wild individuals (weighing 36.10±0.72 g. In farmed shrimps, spermatophore mean weight was 8.94±0.51 mg; total mean sperm count was 3.90±0.27 x 10(6 in each spermatophore; and mean percentage of normal sperm was 86.9±0.37 %. In wild individuals, the respective values were 30.68±2.32 mg; 6.22±1.09 x 10(6; and 62.1±3.56 %. In both groups, the differences between right and left spermatophore were not significant (pResumen Se evaluaron características reproductivas como peso del espermatóforo, número de espermatozoides y porcentaje de espermatozoides normales en 86 organismos de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei. de éstos, 46 individuos provinieron de estanques de cultivo con un peso de 21.42±0.56 g y el resto, 40, silvestres con un peso de 36.10±0.72 g. En los camarones cultivados, el peso de los espermatóforos fue de 8.94±0.51 mg; el número total de espermatozoides en cada espermatóforo fue de 3.90±0.27 x 10(6; y el porcentaje de espermatozoides normales fue de 86.9±0.37 %. En los silvestres, los valores respectivos fueron de 30.68±2.32 mg; 6.22±1.09 x 10(6; y 62.1±3.56 %. En ambos grupos, las diferencias entre los espermatóforos derecho e izquierdo no fueron estadísticamente diferentes (p<0.01. Las diferencias en el peso de los espermatóforos y el porcentaje de espermatozoides normales, entre los camarones cultivados y silvestres, fueron significativas (p<0.01; sin embargo, en el número de espermatozoides tales diferencias no fueron significativas (p<0.01. La relación entre el peso del espermatóforo (Ws y el peso de los individuos (Wo fue Ws (mg=1.23(Wo-17.34 (r²=0.89, en camarones cultivados; y Ws (mg=2.57(Wo-60.04 (r²=0.64, en los silvestres. En organismos cultivados, la relación entre el número de espermatozoides (Cs y el peso de los individuos (Wo fue

  2. Wild food plants used on the Dubrovnik coast (south-eastern Croatia

    Katija Dolina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia’s versatile plant use traditions are still not sufficiently documented. The aim of this study was to record local traditions of wild food plant use on the Dubrovnik coast. We interviewed 40 inhabitants of 23 villages, mainly knowledgeable informants. On average 19 species were listed, which in total produced an inventory of 95 food plant species (including species whose leaves or inflorescences are used as recreational teas. The most commonly collected are: Sonchus oleraceus and S. asper, Asparagus acutifolius, Dioscorea communis, Cichorium intybus, Crepis zacintha, Allium ampeloprasum, Picris echioides and Foeniculum vulgare (all of them used as vegetables, the fruits of Rubus ulmifolius (mainly eaten raw, the fruits of roses (Rosa sempervirens and R. canina and the leaves of Salvia officinalis (both roses and salvia are used for making recreational teas. A particular feature of the local gastronomy is the collection of young Ruscus aculeatus shoots.

  3. Mating-induced changes in olfactory-mediated behavior of laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) mated to conspecific males

    Jang, E.B.; McInnis, D.O.; Lance, D.R.; Carvalho, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild female Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), were mated with laboratory-reared normal, sterile, and wild male flies to assess the ability of males to alter olfactory-mediated behavioral responses of females to male-produced pheromone or host fruit odor. Virgin females of all 3 types showed a preferential attraction and arrestment on yellow spheres emitting male-produced pheromone in a laboratory flight tunnel. Laboratory-reared normal and wild females mated to laboratory reared normal, sterile, or wild males switched their behavior showing strong preferential attraction to, arrestment on, and egg-laying in (for laboratory-reared females) yellow spheres emitting host fruit odor (guava) over male-produced pheromone. Sterile females did not show a significant switch in behavior except when mated to sterile males. The olfactory-mediated behavioral switch was most evident in the laboratory-reared normal female × laboratory-reared normal male mating. These findings suggest that irradiation of males inducing gamete sterility does not affect the factor(s) from the male accessory gland associated with altering female olfactory behavior. The ability of sterile males to alter adequately olfactory-mediated behavior of wild females is discussed in the context of the sterile insect technique for control of Mediterranean fruit flies in the field

  4. Habitat evaluation of wild Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and conservation priority setting in north-eastern China.

    Xiaofeng, Luan; Yi, Qu; Diqiang, Li; Shirong, Liu; Xiulei, Wang; Bo, Wu; Chunquan, Zhu

    2011-01-01

    The Amur Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is one of the world's most endangered species. Recently, habitat fragmentation, food scarcity and human hunting have drastically reduced the population size and distribution areas of Amur tigers in the wild, leaving them on the verge of extinction. Presently, they are only found in the north-eastern part of China. In this study, we developed a reference framework using methods and technologies of analytic hierarchy process (AHP), remote sensing (RS), geographic information system (GIS), GAP analysis and Natural Break (Jenks) classification to evaluate the habitat and to set the conservation priorities for Amur tigers in eastern areas of Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces of northeast China. We proposed a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) incorporating 7 factors covering natural conditions and human disturbance. Based on the HSI values, the suitability was classified into five levels from the most to not suitable. Finally, according to results of GAP analysis, we identified six conservation priorities and designed a conservation landscape incorporating four new nature reserves, enlarging two existing ones, and creating four linkages for Amur tigers in northeast China. The case study showed that the core habitats (the most suitable and highly suitable habitats) identified for Amur tigers covered 35,547 km(2), accounting for approximately 26.71% of the total study area (1,33,093 km(2)). However, existing nature reserves protected only (7124 km(2) or) 20.04% of the identified core habitats. Thus, enlargement of current reserves is necessary and urgent for the tiger's conservation and restoration. Moreover, the establishment of wildlife corridors linking core habitats will provide an efficient reserve network for tiger conservation to maintain the evolutionary potential of Amur tigers facing environmental changes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Males and females contribute unequally to offspring genetic diversity in the polygynandrous mating system of wild boar.

    Javier Pérez-González

    Full Text Available The maintenance of genetic diversity across generations depends on both the number of reproducing males and females. Variance in reproductive success, multiple paternity and litter size can all affect the relative contributions of male and female parents to genetic variation of progeny. The mating system of the wild boar (Sus scrofa has been described as polygynous, although evidence of multiple paternity in litters has been found. Using 14 microsatellite markers, we evaluated the contribution of males and females to genetic variation in the next generation in independent wild boar populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Hungary. Genetic contributions of males and females were obtained by distinguishing the paternal and maternal genetic component inherited by the progeny. We found that the paternally inherited genetic component of progeny was more diverse than the maternally inherited component. Simulations showed that this finding might be due to a sampling bias. However, after controlling for the bias by fitting both the genetic diversity in the adult population and the number of reproductive individuals in the models, paternally inherited genotypes remained more diverse than those inherited maternally. Our results suggest new insights into how promiscuous mating systems can help maintain genetic variation.

  6. Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia.

    Naomi E Davis

    Full Text Available Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor, brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp., common wombat (Vombatus ursinus, sambar deer (Rusa unicolor, cattle (Bos taurus and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries and house mouse (Mus musculus. Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food

  7. WILD FIRE RISK MAP IN THE EASTERN STEPPE OF MONGOLIA USING SPATIAL MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS

    E. Nasanbat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Grassland fire is a cause of major disturbance to ecosystems and economies throughout the world. This paper investigated to identify risk zone of wildfire distributions on the Eastern Steppe of Mongolia. The study selected variables for wildfire risk assessment using a combination of data collection, including Social Economic, Climate, Geographic Information Systems, Remotely sensed imagery, and statistical yearbook information. Moreover, an evaluation of the result is used field validation data and assessment. The data evaluation resulted divided by main three group factors Environmental, Social Economic factor, Climate factor and Fire information factor into eleven input variables, which were classified into five categories by risk levels important criteria and ranks. All of the explanatory variables were integrated into spatial a model and used to estimate the wildfire risk index. Within the index, five categories were created, based on spatial statistics, to adequately assess respective fire risk: very high risk, high risk, moderate risk, low and very low. Approximately more than half, 68 percent of the study area was predicted accuracy to good within the very high, high risk and moderate risk zones. The percentages of actual fires in each fire risk zone were as follows: very high risk, 42 percent; high risk, 26 percent; moderate risk, 13 percent; low risk, 8 percent; and very low risk, 11 percent. The main overall accuracy to correct prediction from the model was 62 percent. The model and results could be support in spatial decision making support system processes and in preventative wildfire management strategies. Also it could be help to improve ecological and biodiversity conservation management.

  8. Wild Fire Risk Map in the Eastern Steppe of Mongolia Using Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis

    Nasanbat, Elbegjargal; Lkhamjav, Ochirkhuyag

    2016-06-01

    Grassland fire is a cause of major disturbance to ecosystems and economies throughout the world. This paper investigated to identify risk zone of wildfire distributions on the Eastern Steppe of Mongolia. The study selected variables for wildfire risk assessment using a combination of data collection, including Social Economic, Climate, Geographic Information Systems, Remotely sensed imagery, and statistical yearbook information. Moreover, an evaluation of the result is used field validation data and assessment. The data evaluation resulted divided by main three group factors Environmental, Social Economic factor, Climate factor and Fire information factor into eleven input variables, which were classified into five categories by risk levels important criteria and ranks. All of the explanatory variables were integrated into spatial a model and used to estimate the wildfire risk index. Within the index, five categories were created, based on spatial statistics, to adequately assess respective fire risk: very high risk, high risk, moderate risk, low and very low. Approximately more than half, 68 percent of the study area was predicted accuracy to good within the very high, high risk and moderate risk zones. The percentages of actual fires in each fire risk zone were as follows: very high risk, 42 percent; high risk, 26 percent; moderate risk, 13 percent; low risk, 8 percent; and very low risk, 11 percent. The main overall accuracy to correct prediction from the model was 62 percent. The model and results could be support in spatial decision making support system processes and in preventative wildfire management strategies. Also it could be help to improve ecological and biodiversity conservation management.

  9. Shifting diets and the rise of male-biased inequality on the Central Plains of China during Eastern Zhou.

    Dong, Yu; Morgan, Chelsea; Chinenov, Yurii; Zhou, Ligang; Fan, Wenquan; Ma, Xiaolin; Pechenkina, Kate

    2017-01-31

    Farming domesticated millets, tending pigs, and hunting constituted the core of human subsistence strategies during Neolithic Yangshao (5000-2900 BC). Introduction of wheat and barley as well as the addition of domesticated herbivores during the Late Neolithic (∼2600-1900 BC) led to restructuring of ancient Chinese subsistence strategies. This study documents a dietary shift from indigenous millets to the newly introduced cereals in northcentral China during the Bronze Age Eastern Zhou Dynasty (771-221 BC) based on stable isotope analysis of human and animal bone samples. Our results show that this change affected females to a greater degree than males. We find that consumption of the newly introduced cereals was associated with less consumption of animal products and a higher rate of skeletal stress markers among females. We hypothesized that the observed separation of dietary signatures between males and females marks the rise of male-biased inequality in early China. We test this hypothesis by comparing Eastern Zhou human skeletal data with those from Neolithic Yangshao archaeological contexts. We find no evidence of male-female inequality in early farming communities. The presence of male-biased inequality in Eastern Zhou society is supported by increased body height difference between the sexes as well as the greater wealth of male burials.

  10. No postnatal maternal effect on male aggressiveness in wild-derived strains of house mice

    Ďureje, Ľudovít; Vošlajerová Bímová, Barbora; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2011), s. 48-55 ISSN 0096-140X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : aggression * cross-fostering * wild-derived inbred strains * house mouse Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2011

  11. Plutonium and other alpha-emitters in bones of wild, herbivorous animals from north-eastern Poland

    Mietelski, J.W. E-mail: mietelsk@alf.ifj.edu.pl; Gaca, P.; Jasinska, M

    2000-07-15

    The results of the investigation of {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am and thorium isotope activity concentrations in bones of wild herbivorous animals (deer, roe-deer, boars, elks) from north-eastern Poland are presented. The area on which the animals were living had relatively high Chernobyl plutonium fallout. Possible traces of plutonium were seen only in four samples, but only for one it was it 3{sigma} above background, at 6.2 {+-} 2.4 mBq/kg (ash). The {sup 241}Am activity concentration was below the detection limits in all samples. The maximum {sup 228}Th concentration in the samples was 7.81 {+-} 0.44 Bq/kg (ash), calculated under the assumption of 100% thorium recovery. This isotope seems to originate in bones not from direct incorporation but from the decay of {sup 228}Ra. Large variations in activity concentration was observed, as well as some differences between boars and the chewing animals.

  12. New parameters and reference values for monitoring iron status in Middle Eastern adolescent male athletes.

    Voss, S C; Varamenti, E; Elzain Elgingo, M; Bourdon, P C

    2014-04-01

    Hematological and biochemical parameters of 160 Middle Eastern adolescent male athletes (aged from 12-18 years) were tested in order to investigate their iron status and to establish reference values for this population. A focus of this study was also the investigation of Reticulocyte hemoglobin (RetHe) and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR). Complete blood count, reticulocyte and sera parameters were analyzed at the beginning of the training season for these adolescent athletes. As the diagnosis of iron deficiency in adolescents is extremely difficult subjects were subdivided in three age groups (12-13, 14-15, 16-18). For most of the parameters our results confirmed the existing reference values reported in young athletes. Exceptions were however found with lower Mean Cell Volumes (79.9±4.3 fl) in this group when compared to other age matched data. RetHe, ferritin and sTfR levels were monitored for the interpretation of the iron status in this population and reference values for these parameters were also established. Information to help evidence based decision making about the need for supplementation or further investigations is provided to physicians and nutritionists. RetHe with a proposed threshold value of 25 pg expands the list of parameters which can be used to monitor athletes.

  13. Reproductive performances of wild male tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon post-injection of oocyte developer without eyestalk ablation

    Dony Prasetyo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oodev on the gonadal maturation and characteristic of spermatophore and spermatozoa produced by the wild male black tiger shrimp against eyestalk ablation. The treatments were two doses of oodev injection at 0.5 (OD0.5 and 1 (OD1.0 mL/kg of body weight and a control was eyestalk ablation (AB. The male stock of tiger shrimp used was from wild with body weight ranged from 55‒85 g, stocked into three of 10 tonnages concrete tanks with density of 25 males/tank. Oodev injection was applied for two times with one week interval. Tiger shrimp of OD0.5 group produced the highest number of gonadal maturing which was 84% followed by AB (68% and OD1.0 (64%. Oodev injection was able to shorten the time required for spermatophore maturation at maturation phase which happened simultaneously within 7 days post injection compared to that of ablated males. Positive correlation (R2=0.612 was detected between the shrimp weight and weight of spermatophore of the tiger shrimp while correlation between spermatophore weight and number of spermatozoa was relatively low (R2=0.415. Total fatty acid tented to be higher in males injected with oodev compared to ablated males. Concentration of arachidonic acid in the muscle of male stock in OD1.0 group was extremely low of 0.0037% of total lipid compared to AB (0.3190% and OD0.5 (0.2806%. Oodev injection at the dose of 0.5 mL/kg of tiger shrimp could improve the number of males stock producing spermatophore compared to eyestalk ablation. Simultaneously matured-spermatophore of wild male tiger shrimp within short time could be achieved through oodev injection. Keywords: oodev, spermatophore, reproduction, tiger shrimp  ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi efek hormon oodev terhadap pematangan gonad dan karakter spermatofor dan spermatozoa yang dihasilkan oleh induk udang windu jantan alam dibandingkan dengan teknik ablasi tangkai mata. Perlakuan

  14. Behavioral profiles of genetically selected aggressive and nonaggressive male wild house mice in two anxiety tests

    Hogg, S; Wurbel, H; Steimer, T; de Ruiter, A; Koolhaas, J; Sluyter, F; Driscoll, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Artificially selected aggressive (SAL) and non-aggressive (LAL) male house mice were tested in a hexagonal tunnel maze and light-dark preference (LD) box to determine if the bidirectional selection for aggressive behavior leads to a coselection for different levels of trait anxiety. The tunnel maze

  15. Outcome and preferences in male-to-female subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India.

    Majumder, Anirban; Sanyal, Debmalya

    2017-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) is an increasingly recognized medical condition in India, and little scientific data on treatment outcomes are available. Our objective is to study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD in male-to-female (MTF) transgender subjects in Eastern India. This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 55 MTF transgender subjects who were presented to the endocrine clinic. Descriptive statistical analysis is carried out in the present study, and Microsoft Word and Excel are used to generate graphs and tables. The mean follow-up was 1.9 years and 14 subjects (25.5%) were lost to follow-up after a single or 2-3 contact sessions. Rest 41 subjects (74.5%) desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All 41 subjects were dressing to present herself as female and all of them were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy either estrogen only (68%), or drospirenone in combination with estrogen (12%) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH) in combination with estrogens (19.5%). Most of the subjects preferred estrogen therapy as it was most affordable and only a small number of subjects preferred drospirenone or GnRH agonist because of cost and availability. 23.6% subjects underwent esthetic breast augmentation surgery and 25.5% underwent orchiectomy and/or vaginoplasty. Three subjects presented with prior breast augmentation surgery and nine subjects presented with prior orchiectomy without vaginoplasty, depicting a high prevalence of poorly supervised surgeries. Standards of care documents provide clinical guidance for health professionals about the optimal management of transsexual people. The lack of information among health professionals about proper and protocolwise management leads to suboptimal physical, social, and sexual results.

  16. Bystanders, parcelling, and an absence of trust in the grooming interactions of wild male chimpanzees.

    Kaburu, Stefano S K; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2016-02-09

    The evolution of cooperation remains a central issue in socio-biology with the fundamental problem of how individuals minimize the risks of being short-changed ('cheated') should their behavioural investment in another not be returned. Economic decisions that individuals make during interactions may depend upon the presence of potential partners nearby, which offers co operators a temptation to defect from the current partner. The parcelling model posits that donors subdivide services into parcels to force cooperation, and that this is contingent on opportunities for defection; that is, the presence of bystanders. Here we test this model and the effect of bystander presence using grooming interactions of wild chimpanzees. We found that with more bystanders, initiators gave less grooming at the beginning of the bout and were more likely to abandon a grooming bout, while bouts were less likely to be reciprocated. We also found that the groomer's initial investment was not higher among frequent groomers or stronger reciprocators, suggesting that contrary to current assumptions, grooming decisions are not based on trust, or bonds, within dyads. Our work highlights the importance of considering immediate social context and the influence of bystanders for understanding the evolution of the behavioural strategies that produce cooperation.

  17. Vertebrate host specificity and experimental vectors of Plasmodium (Novyella) kempi sp. n. from the eastern wild turkey in Iowa.

    Christensen, B M; Barnes, H J; Rowley, W A

    1983-07-01

    Vertebrate host specificity, experimental laboratory vectors, and a description of Plasmodium (Novyella) kempi sp. n. from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris Vieillot) in Iowa are presented. Plasmodium kempi is infective for domestic turkeys, bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), chukars (Alectoris graeca), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), peacocks (Pavo cristatus), and canaries (Serinus canaria), produces a transient infection in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and domestic geese (Anser anser), but will not infect ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), pigeons (Columba livia), Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix), leghorn white chickens (Gallus gallus), or starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Oocysts and (or) sporozoites were recovered from 68% (84/124) and 98% (60/61) of the Culex pipiens pipiens and C. tarsalis examined, respectively. Oocysts developed faster and sporozoites invaded the salivary glands sooner in C. tarsalis (6 days) than in C. p. pipiens (7 days). Culex tarsalis transmitted P. kempi more effectively than C. p. pipiens, although both species were capable of transmitting the parasite by natural feeding. Oocysts developed and sporozoites also were produced in C. restuans, but its ability to transmit the parasite was not determined. Aedes aegypti (Rockefeller strain) and A. triseriatus were refractive to P. kempi. Plasmodium kempi produces trophozoites with large refractile globules and fine cytoplasmic extensions, mature schizonts in the form of a condensed fan containing four to eight nuclei (usually 5), and elongate gametocytes with irregular borders. All stages are confined almost exclusively to mature erythrocytes, with no effect on host cell size or position of host cell nucleus. Plasmodium kempi is most similar morphologically to P. (Novyella) hexamerium and P. (Novyella) vaughani. It differs from P. hexamerium in having large refractile globules in trophozoites and immature schizonts, an inability to infect starlings, an absence of

  18. Comparison of celioscopy and histological examinations to assess male gonadal health and functionality in adults and immature wild raptors.

    Dogliero, Andrea; Rossi, Giacomo; Mauthe von Degerfeld, Mitzy; Quaranta, Giuseppe; Rota, Ada

    2017-10-15

    Celioscopy is routinely used in birds for sex determination and diagnostic purposes. Aim of this work was to validate celioscopy for the assessment of male gonads functionality in wild raptors, comparing the results of direct observation with morphometrical and histological characteristics. The work was done at the 'Centro Animali Non Convenzionali' of the University of Turin, Italy, on 31 endoscopically evaluated raptors that died or were euthanized. Through celioscopic observation, the birds were classified in adults or immatures and maturity categories were defined according to the adrenal-gonad size ratio and to the degree of blood filling of testicular vessels. The gonads were removed immediately after death/euthanasia and measured. Albuginea tunic thickness, diameter of seminiferous tubules, number of meiosis figures, tubular development degree, tubular degeneration degree and germinal cells production degree were evaluated. Testicular size tended to increase from immature to adult birds and from 'out of' to 'in' breeding season; albuginea tunic thickness tended to be higher out of the reproductive season while diameter of the seminiferous tubules, germinative epithelium thickness and number of meiosis figures were higher in the breeding season. In season adults generally showed higher values in tubular development and germinal cells production, and lower degrees of tubular cells degeneration and fibrosis. From the interpretation of all the morphometrical and histological aspects, a general reproductive degree of activity was given to the birds and compared with celioscopic results. A perfect concordance was found in 23 out of 31 cases and a good concordance in six ones; histology could describe obviously better sub-clinical conditions undetectable at direct observation. These preliminary results suggest that celioscopy could be a useful tool to assess male gonads functionality in wild raptors, with the future goal to select the better potential semen donors

  19. Correlates of male circumcision in Eastern and Southern African countries: establishing a baseline prior to VMMC Scale-up.

    Khai Hoan Tram

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of male circumcision (MC prevalence to HIV prevention efforts in Eastern and Southern Africa, there has been no systematic analysis on the correlates of male circumcision. This analysis identifies correlates of MC in 12 countries in the region with available data. METHODS: Data from the male questionnaire of DHS surveys collected between 2006-2011 in Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were analyzed. The dependent variable was self-reported male circumcision status. Independent variables included age, education, wealth quintile, place of residence, ethnicity, religion and region. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted separately for each country. RESULTS: MC prevalence ranged from 8.2 percent in Swaziland to 92.2 percent in Ethiopia. Bivariate analyses showed a consistent positive association between age (being older and male circumcision. Education, wealth quintile, and place of residence were either not significantly related or differed in the direction of the relationship by country. Multivariate logistic regression showed three variables consistently associated with MC status: age (being older, religion (being Muslim and ethnicity. DISCUSSION: These data were collected prior to the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC programs in 11 of the 12 countries. As the VMMC scale-up intensifies in countries across Eastern and Southern Africa, the correlates of VMMC are likely to change, with (younger age and education emerging as key correlates of VMMC performed in medical settings. The centuries-long tradition among Muslims to circumcise should continue to favor MC among this group. Non-circumcising ethnicities may become more open to MC if promoted as a health practice for decreasing HIV risk.

  20. Comparison of sperm motility subpopulation structure among wild anadromous and farmed male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr using a CASA system.

    Caldeira, Carina; García-Molina, Almudena; Valverde, Anthony; Bompart, Daznia; Hassane, Megan; Martin, Patrick; Soler, Carles

    2018-04-13

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is an endangered freshwater species that needs help to recover its wild stocks. However, the priority in aquaculture is to obtain successful fertilisation and genetic variability to secure the revival of the species. The aims of the present work were to study sperm subpopulation structure and motility patterns in wild anadromous males and farmed male Atlantic salmon parr. Salmon sperm samples were collected from wild anadromous salmon (WS) and two generations of farmed parr males. Sperm samples were collected from sexually mature males and sperm motility was analysed at different times after activation (5 and 35s). Differences among the three groups were analysed using statistical techniques based on Cluster analysis the Bayesian method. Atlantic salmon were found to have three sperm subpopulations, and the spermatozoa in ejaculates of mature farmed parr males had a higher velocity and larger size than those of WS males. This could be an adaptation to high sperm competition because salmonid species are naturally adapted to this process. Motility analysis enables us to identify sperm subpopulations, and it may be useful to correlate these sperm subpopulations with fertilisation ability to test whether faster-swimming spermatozoa have a higher probability of success.

  1. Seroprevalence of tick-borne-encephalitis virus in wild game in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (north-eastern Germany).

    Frimmel, Silvius; Leister, Matthias; Löbermann, Micha; Feldhusen, Frerk; Seelmann, Matthias; Süss, Jochen; Reisinger, Emil Christian

    2016-10-01

    Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, a federal state in the north east of Germany, has never been a risk area for TBEV infection, but a few autochthonous cases, along with TBEV-RNA detection in ticks, have shown a low level of activity in natural foci of the virus in the past. As wild game and domestic animals have been shown to be useful sentinels for TBEV we examined sera from wild game shot in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania for the prevalence of TBEV antibodies. A total of 359 sera from wild game were investigated. All animals were shot in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in 2012. Thirteen of 359 sera tested positive or borderline for anti-TBEV-IgG with ELISA and four samples tested positive using NT. The four TBEV-positive sera confirmed by NT constitute the first detection of TBEV-antibodies in sera of wild game in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania since 1986-1989. This underlines that the serological examination of wild game can be a useful tool in defining areas of possible TBEV infection, especially in areas of low TBEV-endemicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, a Rapid Method for Predicting the Age of Male and Female Wild-Type and Wolbachia Infected Aedes aegypti.

    Maggy T Sikulu-Lord

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the age distribution of mosquito populations is crucial for assessing their capacity to transmit disease and for evaluating the efficacy of available vector control programs. This study reports on the capacity of the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS technique to rapidly predict the ages of the principal dengue and Zika vector, Aedes aegypti. The age of wild-type males and females, and males and females infected with wMel and wMelPop strains of Wolbachia pipientis were characterized using this method. Calibrations were developed using spectra collected from their heads and thoraces using partial least squares (PLS regression. A highly significant correlation was found between the true and predicted ages of mosquitoes. The coefficients of determination for wild-type females and males across all age groups were R2 = 0.84 and 0.78, respectively. The coefficients of determination for the age of wMel and wMelPop infected females were 0.71 and 0.80, respectively (P< 0.001 in both instances. The age of wild-type female Ae. aegypti could be identified as < or ≥ 8 days old with an accuracy of 91% (N = 501, whereas female Ae. aegypti infected with wMel and wMelPop were differentiated into the two age groups with an accuracy of 83% (N = 284 and 78% (N = 229, respectively. Our results also indicate NIRS can distinguish between young and old male wild-type, wMel and wMelPop infected Ae. aegypti with accuracies of 87% (N = 253, 83% (N = 277 and 78% (N = 234, respectively. We have demonstrated the potential of NIRS as a predictor of the age of female and male wild-type and Wolbachia infected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. After field validation, the tool has the potential to offer a cheap and rapid alternative for surveillance of dengue and Zika vector control programs.

  3. Six-year surveillance of Newcastle disease virus in wild birds in north-eastern Spain (Catalonia).

    Napp, Sebastian; Alba, Anna; Rocha, Ana Isabel; Sánchez, Azucena; Rivas, Raquel; Majó, Natalia; Perarnau, Mireia; Massot, Cristina; Miguel, Elena San; Soler, Mercé; Busquets, Núria

    2017-02-01

    Given that Newcastle disease (ND) is one of the major threats for the poultry industry, testing of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been carried out since 2010 in cases of mortality in wild birds (passive surveillance) in Catalonia. The objective is to provide an early warning system to prevent the infection of poultry. Since 2010, 35 episodes of mortality in wild birds were attributed to NDV infection. Throughout this period there was a progressive expansion of NDV to new areas, with an increase in the episodes of mortality, although it is not clear whether they were the result of the spread of the virus, or of the improvement of the surveillance. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that two distinct sublineages of NDV, 4a and 4b, were circulating in Catalonia. Both sublineages seem to be endemic in the wild bird population, affecting mainly Eurasian-collared doves, with a clear pattern in relation to its spatial distribution (coincident with the distribution of this species), and its temporal distribution (with the majority of cases between September and February). So far, endemicity in wild birds has not resulted in ND outbreaks in poultry. However, there are still many uncertainties about, for example, whether NDV may expand to new areas of Catalonia (with higher poultry density), or about the threat that the apparently more novel sublineage 4a may represent. Hence, efforts should be made so that measures to prevent infection of poultry farms (particularly in high-risk areas and periods) are encouraged, and surveillance is maintained.

  4. Life table and male mating competitiveness of wild type and of a chromosome mutation strain of Tetranychus urticae in relation to genetic pest control

    Feldmann, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Males of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae) from a strain, homozygous for a structural chromosome mutation (T) were competed against males from a standard (wild-type) strain for mating of wild-type fermales. The T-males exhibited only a slight reduction in male mating competitiveness. The debilitating influence of ageing on male mating competitiveness was equal for males of both strains. Life-table studies on both strains showed that the net reproductive rate (R 0 ) of the T-strain was 53.3, which was higher than the R 0 -value of the standard strain (43.3). This difference was caused by the higher rate of age-dependent mortality of adult females of the standard strain. Also differences between both strains in the total sex-ratio were observed; the T-strain produced significantly fewer males and more females than the standard strain. The mean generation time of both strains was almost equal (14 days). The values of the intrinsic rate of increase (rsub(m)) for the T-strain and the standard strain were 0.286 and 0.273, respectively. The life-table data correspond well with those published elsewhere on Tetranychus urticae. The feasibility of T-strains for application in genetic pest control considering the use of structural chromosome mutations as a 'transport mechanism' for conditional lethals is discussed. (orig.)

  5. Genetic and morphological contrasts between wild and anthropogenic populations of Agave parryi var. huachucensis in south-eastern Arizona.

    Parker, Kathleen C; Trapnell, Dorset W; Hamrick, J L; Hodgson, Wendy C

    2014-05-01

    At least seven species of Agave, including A. parryi, were cultivated prehistorically in Arizona, serving as important sources of food and fibre. Many relict populations from ancient cultivation remain in the modern landscape, offering a unique opportunity to study pre-Columbian plant manipulation practices. This study examined genetic and morphological variation in six A. p. var. huachucensis populations of unknown origin to compare them with previous work on A. parryi populations of known origin, to infer their cultivation history and to determine whether artificial selection is evident in populations potentially managed by early agriculturalists. Six A. p. var. huachucensis and 17 A. parryi populations were sampled, and morphometric, allozyme and microsatellite data were used to compare morphology and genetic structure in purportedly anthropogenic and wild populations, as well as in the two taxa. Analysis of molecular variance and Bayesian clustering were performed to partition variation associated with taxonomic identity and hypothesized evolutionary history, to highlight patterns of similarity among populations and to identify potential wild sources for the planting stock. A p. var. huachucensis and A. parryi populations differed significantly both morphologically and genetically. Like A. parryi, wild A. p. var. huachucensis populations were more genetically diverse than the inferred anthropogenic populations, with greater expected heterozygosity, percentage of polymorphic loci and number of alleles. Inferred anthropogenic populations exhibited many traits indicative of past active cultivation: greater morphological uniformity, fixed heterozygosity for several loci (non-existent in wild populations), fewer multilocus genotypes and strong differentiation among populations. Where archaeological information is lacking, the genetic signature of many Agave populations in Arizona can be used to infer their evolutionary history and to identify potentially fruitful

  6. Behaviour and Ecology of Male Aye-Ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) in the Kianjavato Classified Forest, South-Eastern Madagascar.

    Randimbiharinirina, Doménico Roger; Raharivololona, Brigitte M; Hawkins, Melissa T R; Frasier, Cynthia L; Culligan, Ryan R; Sefczek, Timothy M; Randriamampionona, Richard; Louis, Edward E

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies found that aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) consume a variety of non-invertebrate resources, supporting the hypothesis that aye-ayes are too large-bodied to focus feeding efforts on insects. However, these conclusions were based on introduced populations, with little known about aye-aye behaviour and ecology in its natural habitat. This study investigates activity budgets, diet, and home range/territories of 2 male aye-ayes in the Kianjavato Classified Forest, a disturbed forest in south-eastern Madagascar, from October 2013 to October 2014. We used radiotelemetry and focal-animal sampling methods to collect behavioural data. We recorded GPS coordinates of the focal animal every 20 min, calculating the home range size for each individual. Results showed that male aye-ayes spent most of their time feeding and travelling. Their feeding time primarily focussed on larvae and adult insects from various substrates, and to a lesser extent Canarium spp. seeds. Home range sizes of the 2 males varied between individuals, overlapped greatly, and appeared to be related to the location of females. Our findings indicate that aye-aye behaviours are strongly indicative of insect-centric feeding ecology. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Increased Pathogenicity of West Nile Virus (WNV by Glycosylation of Envelope Protein and Seroprevalence of WNV in Wild Birds in Far Eastern Russia

    Hiroaki Kariwa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we discuss the possibility that the glycosylation of West Nile (WN virus E-protein may be associated with enhanced pathogenicity and higher replication of WN virus. The results indicate that E-protein glycosylation allows the virus to multiply in a heat-stable manner and therefore, has a critical role in enhanced viremic levels and virulence of WN virus in young-chick infection model. The effect of the glycosylation of the E protein on the pathogenicity of WN virus in young chicks was further investigated. The results indicate that glycosylation of the WN virus E protein is important for viral multiplication in peripheral organs and that it is associated with the strong pathogenicity of WN virus in birds. The micro-focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT in which a large number of serum samples can be handled at once with a small volume (15 μL of serum was useful for differential diagnosis between Japanese encephalitis and WN virus infections in infected chicks. Serological investigation was performed among wild birds in the Far Eastern region of Russia using the FRNT. Antibodies specific to WN virus were detected in 21 samples of resident and migratory birds out of 145 wild bird samples in the region.

  8. Bio- and toxic elements in edible wild mushrooms from two regions of potentially different environmental conditions in eastern Poland.

    Brzezicha-Cirocka, Justyna; Mędyk, Małgorzata; Falandysz, Jerzy; Szefer, Piotr

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the composition of bio-elements (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn) and toxic elements (Ag, Cd) in seven edible mushrooms from the rural and woodland region of Morąg (north-eastern Poland) and the rural and industrial region of the Tarnobrzeska Upland (south-eastern Poland) were investigated using a validated method. The species examined were Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, Leccinum aurantiacum, Leccinum versipelle, Lycoperdon perlatum, Suillus luteus, and Xerocomus subtomentosus. Final determination was carried out by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) after microwave-assisted decomposition of sample matrices with solutions of concentrated nitric acid in the pressurized polytetrafluoroethylene vessels. The contents of the alkali elements and alkali earth elements were determined in the species surveyed. The alkali elements, earth alkali elements, and transition metals (Ag, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn) were at typical concentrations as was determined for the same or similar species elsewhere in Poland and Europe. The results may suggest a lack of local and regional emissions of those metallic elements from industrialization of some sites in the Tarnobrzeska Plain. Cadmium was at elevated concentrations in L. versipelle from the Tarnobrzeska Plain but the reason-pollution or geogenic source-was unknown, while it was at typical concentrations in other species.

  9. iTRAQ-facilitated proteomic profiling of anthers from a photosensitive male sterile mutant and wild-type cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Liu, Ji; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Song, Meizhen; Meng, Yanyan; Ma, Jianhui; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun

    2015-08-03

    Male sterility is a common phenomenon in flowering plants, and it has been successfully developed in several crops by taking advantage of heterosis. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important economic crop, used mainly for the production of textile fiber. Using a space mutation breeding technique, a novel photosensitive genetic male sterile mutant CCRI9106 was isolated from the wild-type upland cotton cultivar CCRI040029. To use CCRI9106 in cotton hybrid breeding, it is of great importance to study the molecular mechanisms of its male sterility. Here, histological and iTRAQ-facilitated proteomic analyses of anthers were performed to explore male sterility mechanisms of the mutant. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the anthers showed that the development of pollen wall in CCRI9106 was severely defective with a lack of exine formation. At the protein level, 6121 high-confidence proteins were identified and 325 of them showed differential expression patterns between mutant and wild-type anthers. The proteins up- or down-regulated in MT anthers were mainly involved in exine formation, protein degradation, calcium ion binding,etc. These findings provide valuable information on the proteins involved in anther and pollen development, and contribute to elucidate the mechanism of male sterility in upland cotton. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Evaluation of a safer male circumcision training programme for traditional surgeons and nurses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Peltzer, Karl; Nqeketo, Ayanda; Petros, George; Kanta, Xola

    2008-06-18

    Training designed to improve circumcision knowledge, attitude and practice was delivered over 5 days to 34 traditional surgeons and 49 traditional nurses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Training included the following topics: initiation rites; statutory regulation of traditional male circumcision and initiation into Manhood (TCIM); structure and function of the male sex organs; procedure of safe circumcision, infection control; sexually transmitted infections (STIs); HIV/AIDS; infection control measures; aftercare of the initiate including after care of the circumcision wound and initiate as a whole; detection and early management of common complications of circumcision; nutrition and fluid management; code of conduct and ethics; and sexual health education. The evaluation of the training consisted of a prospective assessment of knowledge and attitude immediately prior to and after training. Significant improvement in knowledge and/or attitudes was observed in legal aspects, STI, HIV and environmental aspects, attitudes in terms of improved collaboration with biomedical health care providers, normal and abnormal anatomy and physiology, sexually transmitted infections and including HIV, circumcision practice and aftercare of initiates. We concluded that safer circumcision training can be successfully delivered to traditional surgeons and nurses.

  11. Diet of dingoes and other wild dogs in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia

    Allen, Benjamin L.; Carmelito, Erin; Amos, Matt; Goullet, Mark S.; Allen, Lee R.; Speed, James; Gentle, Matt; Leung, Luke K.-P.

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of the resource requirements of urban predators can improve our understanding of their ecology and assist town planners and wildlife management agencies in developing management approaches that alleviate human-wildlife conflicts. Here we examine food and dietary items identified in scats of dingoes in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia to better understand their resource requirements and the potential for dingoes to threaten locally fragmented populations of native fauna. Our primary aim was to determine what peri-urban dingoes eat, and whether or not this differs between regions. We identified over 40 different food items in dingo scats, almost all of which were mammals. Individual species commonly observed in dingo scats included agile wallabies, northern brown bandicoots and swamp wallabies. Birds were relatively common in some areas but not others, as were invertebrates. Dingoes were identified as a significant potential threat to fragmented populations of koalas. Dietary overlap was typically very high or near-identical between regions, indicating that peri-urban dingoes ate the same types or sizes of prey in different areas. Future studies should seek to quantify actual and perceived impacts of, and human attitudes towards, peri-urban dingoes, and to develop management strategies with a greater chance of reducing human-wildlife conflicts.

  12. Outcome and preferences in female-to-male subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India.

    Majumder, Anirban; Sanyal, Debmalya

    2016-01-01

    Awareness of gender dysphoria (GD) and its treatment is increasing. There is paucity of scientific data from India regarding the therapeutic options being used for alleviating GD, which includes psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments. To study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD. This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 18 female-to-male (FTM) transgender subjects who presented to the endocrine clinic. The mean follow-up was 1.6 years and only one subject was lost to follow-up after a single visit. All subjects desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All FTM subjects were cross-dressing. Seventeen (94.4%) FTM subjects were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy, in the form of testosterone only (61.1%) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist in combination with testosterone (11.1%) or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) depot in combination with testosterone (22.2%). FTM subjects preferred testosterone or testosterone plus MPA; very few could afford GnRH therapy. Testosterone esters injection was preferred by most (72.2%) subjects as it was most affordable while 22.2% chose 3 monthly injections of testosterone undecanoate for convenience and better symptomatic improvement, but it was more expensive. None preferred testosterone gels because of cost and availability concerns. About 33.3% of our subjects underwent mastectomy, 38.9% had hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and only one subject underwent phalloplasty. About 16.7% of FTM subjects presented with prior mastectomy depicting a high prevalence of unsupervised or poorly supervised surgeries not following protocol wise approach. Notwithstanding of advances in Standards of Care in the Western world, there is lack of awareness and acceptance in the FTM subjects, about proper and timely protocol-wise management options leading to suboptimal physical, social, and

  13. Outcome and preferences in female-to-male subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India

    Anirban Majumder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Awareness of gender dysphoria (GD and its treatment is increasing. There is paucity of scientific data from India regarding the therapeutic options being used for alleviating GD, which includes psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments. Aim: To study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 18 female-to-male (FTM transgender subjects who presented to the endocrine clinic. Results: The mean follow-up was 1.6 years and only one subject was lost to follow-up after a single visit. All subjects desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All FTM subjects were cross-dressing. Seventeen (94.4% FTM subjects were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy, in the form of testosterone only (61.1% or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist in combination with testosterone (11.1% or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA depot in combination with testosterone (22.2%. FTM subjects preferred testosterone or testosterone plus MPA; very few could afford GnRH therapy. Testosterone esters injection was preferred by most (72.2% subjects as it was most affordable while 22.2% chose 3 monthly injections of testosterone undecanoate for convenience and better symptomatic improvement, but it was more expensive. None preferred testosterone gels because of cost and availability concerns. About 33.3% of our subjects underwent mastectomy, 38.9% had hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and only one subject underwent phalloplasty. About 16.7% of FTM subjects presented with prior mastectomy depicting a high prevalence of unsupervised or poorly supervised surgeries not following protocol wise approach. Conclusion: Notwithstanding of advances in Standards of Care in the Western world, there is lack of awareness and acceptance in the FTM subjects, about proper and timely protocol

  14. Using Stable Isotopes of Carbon and Nitrogen to Mark Wild Populations of Anopheles and Aedes Mosquitoes in South-Eastern Tanzania.

    Mercy A Opiyo

    Full Text Available Marking wild mosquitoes is important for understanding their ecology, behaviours and role in disease transmission. Traditional insect marking techniques include using fluorescent dyes, protein labels, radioactive labels and tags, but such techniques have various limitations; notably low marker retention and inability to mark wild mosquitoes at source. Stable isotopes are gaining wide spread use for non-invasive marking of arthropods, permitting greater understanding of mosquito dispersal and responses to interventions. We describe here a simple technique for marking naturally-breeding malaria and dengue vectors using stable isotopes of nitrogen (15N and carbon (13C, and describe potential field applications.We created man-made aquatic mosquito habitats and added either 15N-labelled potassium nitrate or 13C-labelled glucose, leaving non-adulterated habitats as controls. We then allowed wild mosquitoes to lay eggs in these habitats and monitored their development in situ. Pupae were collected promptly as they appeared and kept in netting cages. Emergent adults (in pools of ~4 mosquitoes/pool and individually stored pupae were desiccated and analysed using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS.Anopheles gambiae s.l and Aedes spp. from enriched 13C and enriched 15N larval habitats had significantly higher isotopic levels than controls (P = 0.005, and both isotopes produced sufficient distinction between marked and unmarked mosquitoes. Mean δ15N for enriched females and males were 275.6±65.1 and 248.0±54.6, while mean δ15N in controls were 2.1±0.1 and 3.9±1.7 respectively. Similarly, mean δ13C for enriched females and males were 36.08±5.28 and 38.5±6.86, compared to -4.3±0.2 and -7.9±3.6 in controls respectively. Mean δ15N and δ13C was significantly higher in any pool containing at least one enriched mosquito compared to pools with all unenriched mosquitoes, P<0.001. In all cases, there were variations in standardized isotopic ratios

  15. Transgenic expression of an unedited mitochondrial orfB gene product from wild abortive (WA) cytoplasm of rice (Oryza sativa L.) generates male sterility in fertile rice lines.

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Mitra, Joy; Bhattacharyya, Jagannath; Pradhan, Subrata; Sikdar, Narattam; Das, Srirupa; Chakraborty, Saikat; Kumar, Sachin; Lakhanpaul, Suman; Sen, Soumitra K

    2015-06-01

    Over-expression of the unedited mitochondrial orfB gene product generates male sterility in fertile indica rice lines in a dose-dependent manner. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and nuclear-controlled fertility restoration are widespread developmental features in plant reproductive systems. In self-pollinated crop plants, these processes often provide useful tools to exploit hybrid vigour. The wild abortive CMS has been employed in the majority of the "three-line" hybrid rice production since 1970s. In the present study, we provide experimental evidence for a positive functional relationship between the 1.1-kb unedited orfB gene transcript, and its translated product in the mitochondria with male sterility. The generation of the 1.1-kb unedited orfB gene transcripts increased during flowering, resulting in low ATP synthase activity in sterile plants. Following insertion of the unedited orfB gene into the genome of male-fertile plants, the plants became male sterile in a dose-dependent manner with concomitant reduction of ATPase activity of F1F0-ATP synthase (complex V). Fertility of the transgenic lines and normal activity of ATP synthase were restored by down-regulation of the unedited orfB gene expression through RNAi-mediated silencing. The genetic elements deciphered in this study could further be tested for their use in hybrid rice development.

  16. Does hierarchy stability influence testosterone and cortisol levels of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) adult males? A comparison between two wild groups.

    Mendonça-Furtado, Olívia; Edaes, Mariana; Palme, Rupert; Rodrigues, Agatha; Siqueira, José; Izar, Patrícia

    2014-11-01

    Testosterone and cortisol are hormones expected to play a major role in competitive behaviours (i.e. aggression), and are related to rank and hierarchical stability. Through a non-invasive technique, we analyzed faecal testosterone (FTM(1)) and cortisol (FCM(2)) metabolites of dominant and subordinate males from two wild groups of bearded capuchin monkeys. One group had a stable dominance hierarchy while the other had an unstable hierarchy, with a marked conflict period related to a male take-over. In the unstable hierarchy group (1) the dominant male had higher FTM peaks than subordinates, and (2) basal FTM levels were higher than in the stable group. These findings are in accordance with the Challenge Hypothesis and rank-based predictions, and confirm that in Sapajus libidinosus hierarchy stability, social status, aggression rates and testosterone are closely related. Dominants of both groups had higher basal and peak FCM levels, suggesting that in S. libidinosus the dominant male has a higher allostatic load than subordinates, related to his role in protection against predators, intragroup appeasement, and control of food sources. Finally, we suggest that males of S. libidinosus are resistant to testosterone suppression by cortisol, because in the unstable group in spite of an increase in FCM there was also an increase in FTM during the conflict period. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    David M Forsyth

    Full Text Available There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor is a large (≥ 150 kg exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and feral cats (Felis catus utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring. We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10% fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  18. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    Forsyth, David M; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D; Hampton, Jordan O; Woolnough, Andrew P; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥ 150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  19. How Does a Carnivore Guild Utilise a Substantial but Unpredictable Anthropogenic Food Source? Scavenging on Hunter-Shot Ungulate Carcasses by Wild Dogs/Dingoes, Red Foxes and Feral Cats in South-Eastern Australia Revealed by Camera Traps

    Forsyth, David M.; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D.; Hampton, Jordan O.; Woolnough, Andrew P.; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

  20. Proteomic comparisons of venoms of long-term captive and recently wild-caught Eastern brown snakes (Pseudonaja textilis) indicate venom does not change due to captivity.

    McCleary, Ryan J R; Sridharan, Sindhuja; Dunstan, Nathan L; Mirtschin, Peter J; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2016-07-20

    Snake venom is a highly variable phenotypic character, and its variation and rapid evolution are important because of human health implications. Because much snake antivenom is produced from captive animals, understanding the effects of captivity on venom composition is important. Here, we have evaluated toxin profiles from six long-term (LT) captive and six recently wild-caught (RC) eastern brown snakes, Pseudonaja textilis, utilizing gel electrophoresis, HPLC-MS, and shotgun proteomics. We identified proteins belonging to the three-finger toxins, group C prothrombin activators, Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors, and phospholipases A2, among others. Although crude venom HPLC analysis showed LT snakes to be higher in some small molecular weight toxins, presence/absence patterns showed no correlation with time in captivity. Shotgun proteomics indicated the presence of similar toxin families among individuals but with variation in protein species. Although no venom sample contained all the phospholipase A2 subunits that form the textilotoxin, all did contain both prothrombin activator subunits. This study indicates that captivity has limited effects on venom composition, that venom variation is high, and that venom composition may be correlated to geographic distribution. Through proteomic comparisons, we show that protein variation within LT and RC groups of snakes (Pseudonaja textilis) is high, thereby resulting in no discernible differences in venom composition between groups. We utilize complementary techniques to characterize the venom proteomes of 12 individual snakes from our study area, and indicate that individuals captured close to one another have more similar venom gel electrophoresis patterns than those captured at more distant locations. These data are important for understanding natural variation in and potential effects of captivity on venom composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Wild-Type Male Offspring of fmr-1+/− Mothers Exhibit Characteristics of the Fragile X Phenotype

    Zupan, Bojana; Toth, Miklos

    2008-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is an X-linked disorder caused by the inactivation of the FMR-1 gene with symptoms ranging from impaired cognitive functions to seizures, anxiety, sensory abnormalities, and hyperactivity. Males are more severely affected than heterozygote (H) females, who, as carriers, have a 50% chance of transmitting the mutated allele in each pregnancy. fmr-1 knockout (KO) mice reproduce fragile X symptoms, including hyperactivity, seizures, and abnormal sensory processing. In contrast ...

  2. Antioxidant effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts on the male reproductive function of boars and guinea pigs.

    Yun, Suk Jun; Bae, Gui-Seck; Park, Jae Hawn; Song, Tae Ho; Choi, Ahreum; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol; Kim, Eun Joong; Yoon, Minjung; Chang, Moon Baek

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts (cWGRE) on the sperm of boars and the reproductive system of guinea pigs. Firstly, semen collected from boars (n=10) were incubated in 38°C for 1h with xanthine and xanthine oxidase to generate ROS. The cWGRE was added to the sperm culture system to test its antioxidant effect on the boar sperm. The amount of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) was measured by a chemiluminescence assay using luminol. The results indicated that the addition of cWGRE to boar sperm culture inhibited xanthine and xanthine oxidase-induced ROS concentrations. Treatment with cWGRE also had a positive effect on maintaining sperm motility. Effects of cWGRE administration on vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs were further investigated. Hartley guinea pigs (n=25) at 8 weeks of age were randomly divided into five groups. With the exception of the positive control group, each group was fed vitamin C-deficient feed for 21days (d). Respective groups were also orally administered cWGRE, ginseng extract, or mixed ginsenosides for 21 days. In comparison to the control group, oral administration of cWGRE reduced (Pproduction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bleeding and Blood Disorders in Clients of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention - Eastern and Southern Africa, 2015-2016.

    Hinkle, Lawrence E; Toledo, Carlos; Grund, Jonathan M; Byams, Vanessa R; Bock, Naomi; Ridzon, Renee; Cooney, Caroline; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Thomas, Anne G; Odhiambo, Jacob; Odoyo-June, Elijah; Talam, Norah; Matchere, Faustin; Msungama, Wezi; Nyirenda, Rose; Odek, James; Come, Jotamo; Canda, Marcos; Wei, Stanley; Bere, Alfred; Bonnecwe, Collen; Choge, Isaac Ang'Ang'A; Martin, Enilda; Loykissoonlal, Dayanund; Lija, Gissenge J I; Mlanga, Erick; Simbeye, Daimon; Alamo, Stella; Kabuye, Geoffrey; Lubwama, Joseph; Wamai, Nafuna; Chituwo, Omega; Sinyangwe, George; Zulu, James Exnobert; Ajayi, Charles A; Balachandra, Shirish; Mandisarisa, John; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Davis, Stephanie M

    2018-03-23

    Male circumcision reduces the risk for female-to-male human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission by approximately 60% (1) and has become a key component of global HIV prevention programs in countries in Eastern and Southern Africa where HIV prevalence is high and circumcision coverage is low. Through September 2017, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) had supported 15.2 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMCs) in 14 priority countries in Eastern and Southern Africa (2). Like any surgical intervention, VMMC carries a risk for complications or adverse events. Adverse events during circumcision of males aged ≥10 years occur in 0.5% to 8% of procedures, though the majority of adverse events are mild (3,4). To monitor safety and service quality, PEPFAR tracks and reports qualifying notifiable adverse events. Data reported from eight country VMMC programs during 2015-2016 revealed that bleeding resulting in hospitalization for ≥3 days was the most commonly reported qualifying adverse event. In several cases, the bleeding adverse event revealed a previously undiagnosed or undisclosed bleeding disorder. Bleeding adverse events in men with potential bleeding disorders are serious and can be fatal. Strategies to improve precircumcision screening and performance of circumcisions on clients at risk in settings where blood products are available are recommended to reduce the occurrence of these adverse events or mitigate their effects (5).

  4. Male meiosis and gametogenesis in wild house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) from a chromosomal hybrid zone; a comparison between "simple" Robertsonian heterozygotes and homozygotes.

    Wallace, B M; Searle, J B; Everett, C A

    1992-01-01

    Wild male house mice Mus musculus domesticus were collected from the hybrid zone between the John o'Groats race (2n = 32) and the standard race (2n = 40) in northern Scotland. Meiosis in both homozygotes (2n = 32, 36, and 40) and single Robertsonian heterozygotes (2n = 33, 35, and 37) was found to be orderly. At prophase/metaphase I in heterozygotes, a trivalent was formed from the metacentric and two homologous acrocentrics. At pachytene, this trivalent usually had a single side arm at the position of the centromeres, as a result of nonhomologous pairing of the acrocentrics. This side arm persisted into diplotene. Generally only a single chiasma was formed between each acrocentric and the metacentric. Anaphase I nondisjunction frequencies were estimated as 1.5% for the homozygotes and 2.7% for the heterozygotes. The extent of germ cell death between the pachytene and round spermatid stages was 18% greater in heterozygotes than in homozygotes. Our results concur with previous studies which indicate that single Robertsonian heterozygotes in wild house mice have near-normal fertility.

  5. An experimental test of the role of structural blue and melanin-based chestnut coloration in aggressive contests in male eastern bluebirds

    Austin eMercadante

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Male eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis have feathers with either structurally based blue coloration or melanin-based chestnut coloration, and they hold territories during the breeding season that they defend vigorously. We tested whether the melanin pigmentation or structural coloration of feathers serve as signals during intrasexual aggressive encounters by placing color-modified stuffed bluebirds in male territories. We recorded the time to attack and the intensity of attacks on each model, and we then compared the response to color-enhanced versus color-reduced models. Male bluebirds attacked models with brighter and more chromatic blue coloration significantly more often than they attacked models with darker and less chromatic blue coloration. In contrast, the darkness of the chestnut breast coloration did not have a significant effect on the rate at which models were attacked. We conclude that territorial male bluebirds perceive intruding males with brighter blue coloration as a greater threat than males with drabber blue coloration, presumably because blue coloration is a signal of fighting ability. In contrast, the chestnut coloration of breast feathers appears to be a signal of gender and sexual maturity and not a graded signal of social status.

  6. Causes and consequences of voluntary anorexia during the parental care period of wild male smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu).

    Hanson, Kyle C; Abizaid, Alfonso; Cooke, Steven J

    2009-11-01

    By definition, parental care behaviors increase offspring survival, and individual fitness, at some cost to the parent. In smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), parental males provide sole care for the developing brood that includes an increase in activity during brood defense and decreased foraging resulting in a decline in endogenous energy reserves. No mechanisms have been proposed for cessation of voluntary foraging, though regulation of appetite hormones such as ghrelin have been documented to affect feeding behavior in other fishes. We documented baseline fluctuations in plasma ghrelin concentrations across parental care. Plasma ghrelin concentrations were lowest during the early stages of parental care before increasing as the brood developed to independence. Additionally, we performed an intervention experiment whereby plasma ghrelin levels were artificially increased through an injection of rodent ghrelin at the onset of parental care. Despite measuring a significant increase in plasma ghrelin approximately 1 week after injection, we noted no differences in plasma-borne indicators of recent foraging activity indicating that voluntary anorexia is possibly reinforced by receptor insensitivity to appetite hormones. Finally, we assessed the ultimate consequences of foraging during parental care by feeding fish to satiation and measuring post-prandial changes in swimming performance and aggression. Fish fed to satiation showed significant decreases in burst swimming ability and aggressiveness towards potential brood predators. Voluntary anorexia during smallmouth bass parental care is an adaptive behavior that avoids potentially deleterious declines in swimming performance and aggression apparently through a modulation of production and reception of appetite hormones including ghrelin.

  7. Complications of traditional circumcision amongst young Xhosa males seen at St Lucy’s Hospital, Tsolo, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Ugochukwu Anike

    2013-05-01

    Conclusion: Genital sepsis was the most common complication of traditional male circumcision.Complications were related to the circumciser, advanced age of the patient and place of circumcision. Thereis need for training of the traditional circumcisers on safe techniques and use of hygienic practices in orderto reduce the complications identified in this study.

  8. Allometric variation among juvenile, adult male and female eastern bearded dragons Pogona barbata (Cuvier, 1829), with comments on the behavioural implications.

    Wotherspoon, Danny; Burgin, Shelley

    2011-02-01

    The functional significance of allometric change in reptiles has received limited attention and the reason for such changes has been regarded as 'obscure'. In this paper we report data on the Australian Pogona barbata, the eastern bearded dragon, from across their range and review changes in allometric growth among juveniles, and adult males and females and consider the functional relevance of these changes. There were significant differences in the population for mass, tail length, tail width, rear leg length and jaw length. These differences were consistent with differences required in locomotor performance and thus habitat use, together with access to different preferred dietary components. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil-acquired cutaneous nocardiosis on the forearm of a healthy male contracted in a swamp in rural eastern Virginia

    Palmieri JR

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available James R Palmieri,1 Arben Santo,2 Shawn E Johnson1 1Department of Microbiology, Infectious and Emerging Diseases, 2Department of Pathology, Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine, Virginia Campus, Blacksburg, VA, USA Abstract: A 45-year-old man complained of pain and swelling on his right wrist after receiving a scratch while playing paintball in a swampy area of eastern Virginia. Two weeks later, he noticed a pimple-like lesion developing, which quickly grew in size and then ulcerated. Because of the severity of his condition, the patient was taken to the emergency room where surgical drainage of the abscess was carried out and the pus was sent for culture and sensitivity testing. Enlarged and tender lymph nodes were palpable going up the arm and surrounding the right axillary area. Three days following culture of pus from his lesion, colonies of Nocardia brasiliensis were isolated. He was successfully treated with an extended regimen of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Because of its low incidence, nocardiosis is usually not considered in the initial diagnosis. The rapidity with which his infection developed from a pimple-like lesion into an extensive ulcerated area, the involvement of his lymphatic system, the extended time needed to successfully treat his infection, and the potential for infection to rapidly disseminate, reinforces the necessity for laboratory identification and immediate treatment of severe pyogenic cutaneous lesions. Keywords: actinomycetes, cutaneous nocardiosis, immunocompromised, mycetoma, Nocardia brasiliensis, nocardiosis, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole

  10. Rejection, acceptance and the spectrum between: understanding male attitudes and experiences towards conflict-related sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Kelly, Jocelyn; Albutt, Katherine; Kabanga, Justin; Anderson, Kimberley; VanRooyen, Michael

    2017-12-08

    Female survivors of sexual violence in conflict experience not only physical and psychological sequelae from the event itself, but often many negative social outcomes, such as rejection and ostracisation from their families and community. Male relatives - whether husbands, fathers, brothers - play a key role in determining how the family and community respond to a survivor of sexual violence. Understanding these perspectives could help improve services for survivors of sexual violence, as well as their families and communities. This study draws on qualitative data gathered from focus groups of 68 men in the eastern region of Democratic Republic of Congo. Men were asked about their experiences as relatives of women who had experienced sexual violence. Two dominant themes arose throughout the focus groups: factors driving rejection and pathways to acceptance. Factors driving rejection included: fear of sexually transmitted infections, social stigma directed toward the husbands themselves, and an understanding of marriage and fidelity that is incompatible with rape. Men also touched on their own trauma, including struggling with witnessing a rape that took place in public, or caring for a survivor with a child from rape. They noted that the economic burden of medical treatment for survivors was a salient factor in the decision to reject. Pathways to acceptance included factors such as the love of their spouse or relative, survivors' potential to give continued financial contribution to the family, the need to keep the family together to care for children in the home, and pressure from people of importance in the community. This study provides unique insight into how male relatives respond to close family members who have experienced sexual violence. This is particularly critical since the reaction of a male relative after rape can be the most pivotal factor in promoting or impeding recovery for a survivor. These results emphasise the importance of services that focus

  11. Ecological characteristics and in situ genetic associations for yield-component traits of wild Miscanthus from eastern Russia

    Clark, Lindsay V; Dzyubenko, Elena; Dzyubenko, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    , a strategy is proposed to facilitate the rapid utilization of new germplasm collections: by implementing low-cost SNP genotyping to conduct GWA studies of phenotypic data obtained at collection sites, plant breeders can be provided with actionable information on which accessions have desirable traits...... that this crop is more temperate adapted than its C4 relatives maize, sorghum and sugarcane. Methods A plant exploration was conducted in eastern Russia, at the northern extreme of the native range for Miscanthus, with collections including 174 clonal germplasm accessions (160 M. sacchariflorus and 14 M....... sinensis) from 47 sites. Accessions were genotyped by restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) and plastid microsatellites. Key Results Miscanthus sinensis was found in maritime climates near Vladivostok (43·6°N) and on southern Sakhalin Island (46·6°N). Miscanthus sacchariflorus was found...

  12. Simultaneous Quantification of Forskolin and Iso-Forskolin in Coleus forskohlii (Wild.) Briq. and Identification of Elite Chemotype, Collected from Eastern Ghats (India)

    Shukla, Pushpendra Kumar; Misra, Ankita; Kumar, Manish; Jaichand; Singh, Kuldeep; Akhtar, Juber; Srivastava, Sharad; Agrawal, Pawan K; Singh Rawat, Ajay K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Coleus forskohlii is a well-known industrially important medicinal plant, for its high forskolin content. Objective: A simple, selective, and sensitive high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of forskolin and iso-forskolin in C. forskohlii germplasm collected from the Eastern Ghats, India. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation of the targeted marker(s) was obtained on precoated silica plates using toluene: ethyl acetate: methanol (90:30:0.5, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. Results: Densitometric quantification of forskolin and iso-forskolin was carried out at 545 nm. Forskolin and iso-forskolin were identified by comparing the ultraviolet spectra of standard and sample track at Rf of 0.64 ± 0.02 and 0.36 ± 0.01, after derivatization with anisaldehyde sulfuric acid reagent. The linearity of both the analytes was obtained in the range of 300–1200 ng/spot with the regression coefficient (R2) of 0.991 and 0.986. Recovery of analyte (s) at three levels, namely, 100, 150, and 200 ng/spot was found to be 100.46% ± 0.29%, 99.64% ± 0.33%, 100.02% ± 0.76% and 99.76% ± 0.62%, 99.56% ± 0.35%, 100.02% ± 0.22%, respectively, for forskolin and iso-forskolin. The content of forskolin and iso-forskolin varies from 0.046% to 0.187% and 0.002% to 0.077%, respectively (dry weight basis), the maximum content of both the markers was found in NBC-31, from Thakurwada, Maharashtra. Conclusion: The developed HPTLC method was linear, accurate, and reliable as per the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use guidelines. The study aids in the identification of elite chemotype for commercial prospection of industrially viable medicinal crop. SUMMARY 12 Samples are collected from different locations of the eastern ghat regionsQuantification of two major marker forskolin and iso forskolinThe maximum content of both

  13. Simultaneous Quantification of Forskolin and Iso-Forskolin in Coleus forskohlii (Wild.) Briq. and Identification of Elite Chemotype, Collected from Eastern Ghats (India).

    Shukla, Pushpendra Kumar; Misra, Ankita; Kumar, Manish; Jaichand; Singh, Kuldeep; Akhtar, Juber; Srivastava, Sharad; Agrawal, Pawan K; Singh Rawat, Ajay K

    2018-01-01

    Coleus forskohlii is a well-known industrially important medicinal plant, for its high forskolin content. A simple, selective, and sensitive high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of forskolin and iso-forskolin in C. forskohlii germplasm collected from the Eastern Ghats, India. Chromatographic separation of the targeted marker(s) was obtained on precoated silica plates using toluene: ethyl acetate: methanol (90:30:0.5, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. Densitometric quantification of forskolin and iso-forskolin was carried out at 545 nm. Forskolin and iso-forskolin were identified by comparing the ultraviolet spectra of standard and sample track at R f of 0.64 ± 0.02 and 0.36 ± 0.01, after derivatization with anisaldehyde sulfuric acid reagent. The linearity of both the analytes was obtained in the range of 300-1200 ng/spot with the regression coefficient ( R 2 ) of 0.991 and 0.986. Recovery of analyte (s) at three levels, namely, 100, 150, and 200 ng/spot was found to be 100.46% ± 0.29%, 99.64% ± 0.33%, 100.02% ± 0.76% and 99.76% ± 0.62%, 99.56% ± 0.35%, 100.02% ± 0.22%, respectively, for forskolin and iso-forskolin. The content of forskolin and iso-forskolin varies from 0.046% to 0.187% and 0.002% to 0.077%, respectively (dry weight basis), the maximum content of both the markers was found in NBC-31, from Thakurwada, Maharashtra. The developed HPTLC method was linear, accurate, and reliable as per the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use guidelines. The study aids in the identification of elite chemotype for commercial prospection of industrially viable medicinal crop. 12 Samples are collected from different locations of the eastern ghat regionsQuantification of two major marker forskolin and iso forskolinThe maximum content of both the markers was found in NBC -31, from Thakurwada, Maharashtra

  14. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLV. Helminths of dairy calves on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures in the Eastern Cape Province.

    Horak, I G; Evans, Ursula; Purnell, R E

    2004-12-01

    Successive pairs of approximately 4-month-old Friesland bull calves, raised under worm-free conditions, were exposed to helminth infection for 14 days on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures at 28-day to monthly intervals, on a coastal farm in a non-seasonal rainfall region of the Eastern Cape Province. With the exception of one pair of calves exposed for 28 days, this procedure was repeated for 28 consecutive months from December 1982 to March 1985. The day after removal from the pastures one calf of each pair was slaughtered and processed for helminth recovery and the other 21 days later. Both members of the last four pairs of calves were killed 21 days after removal from the pastures. Sixteen nematode species were recovered from the calves, and infection with Ostertagia ostertagi was the most intense and prevalent, followed by Cooperia oncophora. The calves acquired the greatest number of nematodes from the pastures from June to October of the first year and from June to August of the second year of the survey. Few worms were recovered from the tracer calves examined from November or December to March or April in each year of the survey. The seasonal patterns of infection with Cooperia spp., Haemonchus placei, Nematodirus helvetianus, Oesophagostomum spp., O. ostertagi and Trichostrongylus axei were all similar and were negatively correlated to atmospheric temperature and evaporation. Slight to moderate arrest in the development of fourth stage larvae occurred from July to September in Cooperia spp., April to July in H. placei, and August to October in O. ostertagi and Trichostrongylus spp. during the first year of the survey. Too few worms were present in the second year to determine a seasonal pattern of arrest. Species survival during the hot and windy summer months appeared to be achieved via a combination of arrested larval development and an ageing residual population of adult worms in the host, and a small extant population of infective larvae on the pastures.

  15. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLV. Helminths of dairy calves on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures in the Eastern Cape Province

    I.G. Horak

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Successive pairs of approximately 4-month-old Friesland bull calves, raised under worm-free conditions, were exposed to helminth infection for 14 days on dry-land Kikuyu grass pastures at 28-day to monthly intervals, on a coastal farm in a non-seasonal rainfall region of the Eastern Cape Province. With the exception of one pair of calves exposed for 28 days, this procedure was repeated for 28 consecutive months from December 1982 to March 1985. The day after removal from the pastures one calf of each pair was slaughtered and processed for helminth recovery and the other 21 days later. Both members of the last four pairs of calves were killed 21 days after removal from the pastures. Sixteen nematode species were recovered from the calves, and infection with Ostertagia ostertagi was the most intense and prevalent, followed by Cooperia oncophora. The calves acquired the greatest number of nematodes from the pastures from June to October of the first year and from June to August of the second year of the survey. Few worms were recovered from the tracer calves examined from November or December to March or April in each year of the survey. The seasonal patterns of infection with Cooperia spp., Haemonchus placei, Nematodirus helvetianus, Oesophagostomum spp., O. ostertagi and Trichostrongylus axei were all similar and were negatively correlated to atmospheric temperature and evaporation. Slight to moderate arrest in the development of fourth stage larvae occurred from July to September in Cooperia spp., April to July in H. placei, and August to October in O. ostertagi and Trichostrongylus spp. during the first year of the survey. Too few worms were present in the second year to determine a seasonal pattern of arrest. Species survival during the hot and windy summer months appeared to be achieved via a combination of arrested larval development and an ageing residual population of adult worms in the host, and a small extant population of infective

  16. Influence of male nutritional conditions on the performance and alimentary selection of wild females of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart)(Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando Sergio

    2006-01-01

    The behavior of A. obliqua females is regulated by endogenous and exogenous factors and among these the presence of males. Experiments were carried out to investigate whether the presence of males and their nutritional condition may affect the behavior of self-selection feeding and the performance of A. obliqua females. Females were sorted in groups containing yeast-deprived females and males, and non-yeast deprived females and males. The females were maintained apart from the males by a transparent plastic screen. Several yeast and sucrose combinations were offered to the females in a single diet block or in separate blocks. Ingestion, egg production, longevity and diet efficiency were determined. The non-yeast-deprived males positively influenced the females performance when the latter were fed with yeast and sucrose in distinct diet blocks. Performance was better in the groups without males and with yeast-deprived males where the females could not select the nutrient proportions (yeast and sucrose in a single diet block). (author)

  17. Influence of male nutritional conditions on the performance and alimentary selection of wild females of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart)(Diptera, Tephritidae)

    Cresoni-Pereira, Carla; Zucoloto, Fernando Sergio [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Biologia], e-mail: cresoni@usp.br, e-mail: zucoloto@ffclrp.usp.br

    2006-04-15

    The behavior of A. obliqua females is regulated by endogenous and exogenous factors and among these the presence of males. Experiments were carried out to investigate whether the presence of males and their nutritional condition may affect the behavior of self-selection feeding and the performance of A. obliqua females. Females were sorted in groups containing yeast-deprived females and males, and non-yeast deprived females and males. The females were maintained apart from the males by a transparent plastic screen. Several yeast and sucrose combinations were offered to the females in a single diet block or in separate blocks. Ingestion, egg production, longevity and diet efficiency were determined. The non-yeast-deprived males positively influenced the females performance when the latter were fed with yeast and sucrose in distinct diet blocks. Performance was better in the groups without males and with yeast-deprived males where the females could not select the nutrient proportions (yeast and sucrose in a single diet block). (author)

  18. High prevalence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm on eastern Hawai'i Island: A closer look at life cycle traits and patterns of infection in wild rats (Rattus spp..

    Susan I Jarvi

    Full Text Available The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic pathogen and the etiological agent of human angiostrongyliasis or rat lungworm disease. Hawai'i, particularly east Hawai'i Island, is the epicenter for angiostrongyliasis in the USA. Rats (Rattus spp. are the definitive hosts while gastropods are intermediate hosts. The main objective of this study was to collect adult A. cantonensis from wild rats to isolate protein for the development of a blood-based diagnostic, in the process we evaluated the prevalence of infection in wild rats. A total of 545 wild rats were sampled from multiple sites in the South Hilo District of east Hawai'i Island. Adult male and female A. cantonensis (3,148 were collected from the hearts and lungs of humanely euthanized Rattus rattus, and R. exulans. Photomicrography and documentation of multiple stages of this parasitic nematode in situ were recorded. A total of 45.5% (197/433 of rats inspected had lung lobe(s (mostly upper right which appeared granular indicating this lobe may serve as a filter for worm passage to the rest of the lung. Across Rattus spp., 72.7% (396/545 were infected with adult worms, but 93.9% (512/545 of the rats were positive for A. cantonensis infection based on presence of live adult worms, encysted adult worms, L3 larvae and/or by PCR analysis of brain tissue. In R. rattus we observed an inverse correlation with increased body mass and infection level of adult worms, and a direct correlation between body mass and encysted adult worms in the lung tissue, indicating that larger (older rats may have developed a means of clearing infections or regulating the worm burden upon reinfection. The exceptionally high prevalence of A. cantonensis infection in Rattus spp. in east Hawai'i Island is cause for concern and indicates the potential for human infection with this emerging zoonosis is greater than previously thought.

  19. Wild harvest

    Cruz-Garcia, G.S.; Struik, P.C.; Johnson, D.E.

    2016-01-01

    Rice fields provide not only a staple food but are also bio-diverse and multi-functional ecosystems. Wild food plants are important elements of biodiversity in rice fields and are critical components to the subsistence of poor farmers. The spatial and seasonal distribution of wild food plants

  20. The ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp. in Canada.

    Zsuzsanna Papp

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus (AIV occurrence and transmission remain important wildlife and human health issues in much of the world, including in North America. Through Canada's Inter-Agency Wild Bird Influenza Survey, close to 20,000 apparently healthy, wild dabbling ducks (of seven species were tested for AIV between 2005 and 2011. We used these data to identify and evaluate ecological and demographic correlates of infection with low pathogenic AIVs in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp. across Canada. Generalized linear mixed effects model analyses revealed that risk of AIV infection was higher in hatch-year birds compared to adults, and was positively associated with a high proportion of hatch-year birds in the population. Males were more likely to be infected than females in British Columbia and in Eastern Provinces of Canada, but more complex relationships among age and sex cohorts were found in the Prairie Provinces. A species effect was apparent in Eastern Canada and British Columbia, where teal (A. discors and/or A. carolinensis were less likely to be infected than mallards (A. platyrhynchos. Risk of AIV infection increased with the density of the breeding population, in both Eastern Canada and the Prairie Provinces, and lower temperatures preceding sampling were associated with a higher probability of AIV infection in Eastern Canada. Our results provide new insights into the ecological and demographic factors associated with AIV infection in waterfowl.

  1. Are endocrine and reproductive biomarkers altered in contaminant-exposed wild male Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) of Lake Mead, Nevada/Arizona, USA?

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Torres, Leticia; Echols, Kathy R.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Rosen, Michael R.; Orsak, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Male Largemouth Bass were sampled from two locations in Lake Mead (USA), a site influenced by treated municipal wastewater effluent and urban runoff (Las Vegas Bay), and a reference site (Overton Arm). Samples were collected in summer (July '07) and spring (March '08) to assess general health, endocrine and reproductive biomarkers, and compare contaminant body burdens by analyzing 252 organic chemicals. Sperm count and motility were measured in spring. Contaminants were detected at much higher frequencies and concentrations in fish from Las Vegas Bay than Overton Arm. Those with the highest concentrations included PCBs, DDTs, PBDEs, galaxolide, and methyl triclosan. Fish from Las Vegas Bay also had higher Fulton condition factor, hepatosomatic index, and hematocrit, and lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone concentration (KT). Gonadosomatic index (GSI) and sperm motility did not differ between sites, but sperm count was lower by nearly 50% in fish from Las Vegas Bay. A positive association between KT and GSI was identified, but this association was nonlinear. On average, maximal GSI was reached at sub-maximal KT concentrations. In conclusion, the higher concentration of contaminant body burdens coupled with reduced levels of KT and sperm count in fish from Las Vegas Bay suggest that male reproductive condition was influenced by contaminant exposures. Also, the nonlinear KT-GSI association provided a framework to understand why GSI was similar between male bass from both sites despite their large difference in KT, and also suggested the existence of post-gonadal growth functions of KT at high concentrations.

  2. Are endocrine and reproductive biomarkers altered in contaminant-exposed wild male Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) of Lake Mead, Nevada/Arizona, USA?

    Goodbred, Steven L; Patiño, Reynaldo; Torres, Leticia; Echols, Kathy R; Jenkins, Jill A; Rosen, Michael R; Orsak, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Male Largemouth Bass were sampled from two locations in Lake Mead (USA), a site influenced by treated municipal wastewater effluent and urban runoff (Las Vegas Bay), and a reference site (Overton Arm). Samples were collected in summer (July '07) and spring (March '08) to assess general health, endocrine and reproductive biomarkers, and compare contaminant body burdens by analyzing 252 organic chemicals. Sperm count and motility were measured in spring. Contaminants were detected at much higher frequencies and concentrations in fish from Las Vegas Bay than Overton Arm. Those with the highest concentrations included PCBs, DDTs, PBDEs, galaxolide, and methyl triclosan. Fish from Las Vegas Bay also had higher Fulton condition factor, hepatosomatic index, and hematocrit, and lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone concentration (KT). Gonadosomatic index (GSI) and sperm motility did not differ between sites, but sperm count was lower by nearly 50% in fish from Las Vegas Bay. A positive association between KT and GSI was identified, but this association was nonlinear. On average, maximal GSI was reached at sub-maximal KT concentrations. In conclusion, the higher concentration of contaminant body burdens coupled with reduced levels of KT and sperm count in fish from Las Vegas Bay suggest that male reproductive condition was influenced by contaminant exposures. Also, the nonlinear KT-GSI association provided a framework to understand why GSI was similar between male bass from both sites despite their large difference in KT, and also suggested the existence of post-gonadal growth functions of KT at high concentrations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Wild Marshmallows.

    Kallas, John N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides information for teaching a unit on wild plants, including resources to use, plants to learn, safety considerations, list of plants (with scientific name, edible parts, and uses), list of plants that might cause allergic reactions when eaten. Also describes the chickweed, bull thistle, and common mallow. (BC)

  4. HIV seroprevalence among male prison inmates in the six countries of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean states in the Caribbean (OECS).

    Boisson, E V; Trotman, C

    2009-03-01

    To determine HIV prevalence among male prison inmates in the six OECS countries in the Caribbean. Six unlinked, anonymous point prevalence surveys of a total of 1288 male inmates were conducted during a one-year period, August 2004 - August 2005. An oral fluid sample was collected and an interviewer-administered questionnaire and consent form was completed for each survey participant. The overall HIV prevalence was 2.8% (range 2.0-4.1%). Only 39% of all inmates had previously been tested, compared to 67% of the HIV-positive inmates. Of all inmates who previously tested, 61% had their last test less than two years ago, 45% had done so while in prison and 39% had done so in a hospital. Most of those who had not previously been tested had no particular reason for not doing so (57%); 24% of them felt it was not necessary or they were not at risk. HIV prevalence among male prison inmates was three times higher than the estimated OECS population prevalence in 2003, slightly higher than the prevalence among incarcerated males in the United States of America and Canada, and lower than that in other Caribbean countries in earlier years. Health information on prison populations is important as this is a vulnerable group, with frequent movement in and out of the general population. Preventative services, voluntary counselling and testing, and appropriate care and treatment should be available to all inmates as this is an opportunity for many who may not otherwise access these services.

  5. Histological and Morphological Aspects of Reproduction in Male Blackspotted Smooth-Hound Mustelus punctulatus in the Adriatic Sea (Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Romana Gračan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present first data on reproductive biology of male blackspotted smooth-hound Mustelus punctulatus in the Adriatic Sea and first histological examination of gonads at different maturation stages and seasonal cycles for this species. We collected samples from 117 male specimens of M. punctulatus ranging in length from 44.6 to 126.5 cm, caught by commercial bottom trawls in the North-Central Adriatic Sea. Microscopic observation revealed a diametric development of testes, in which round-shaped spermatocysts have zonal arrangement, showing seven different stages of development. Males began to mature when they were between 61 and 88 cm body length, which was indicated by the presence of functional claspers or appearance of the spermatogenic cysts. While the smallest mature shark was only 80 cm long, all animals longer than 89 cm were sexually mature. The seasonal analysis of the testes indicated that mature spermatozoa dominated in testes during the first half of the year with a peak in May and June, after which followed less active period during July and August.

  6. Male-female differences in households' resource allocation and decision to seek healthcare in south-eastern Nigeria: Results from a mixed methods study.

    Onah, Michael Nnachebe; Horton, Susan

    2018-05-01

    Ability to influence household decision-making has been shown to increase with improved social capital and power and is linked to better access to household financial resources and other services outside the household including healthcare. To examine the male-female differences in household custody of financial resources, decision-making, and type of healthcare utilised, we used a mixed methods approach of cross-sectional household surveys and focus-group discussions (FGDs). Data was collected between 10 January-28 February 2011. We analyzed a sample of 411 households and a sub-sample of 223 households with a currently married head. We conducted six single-sex FGDs in 3 communities (1 urban, 2 rural) among a random sub-sample of participants in the survey. We performed univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses with a 95% confidence interval. For the qualitative data, we performed thematic analysis where broad themes relevant to the research objective were abstracted. In all households and in those with a married head, sick male members were less likely to forgo healthcare (aOR all 0.87, 95% CI 0.80-0.90; aOR married 0.52, 95% CI 0.18-0.83) and more likely to utilise formal healthcare relative to female sick members (aOR all 3.36, 95% CI 3.20-3.87; aOR married 19.50, 95% CI 9.62-39.52). Formal healthcare providers are medically trained while informal providers are untrained vendors that dispense medications for profit. There were more reports of sole custody of household resources among men within households with married heads. Joint decision-making on healthcare expenditure improved women's access to healthcare but is not reflective of unhindered access to household financial resources. Qualitatively, women spoke of seeking permission from male household head before expenditure was incurred, while male heads spoke of concealing household financial resources from their spouse. Gender constructs and male-female differences have important effects on

  7. Changes in gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene expression after an increase in carbon monoxide concentration in the cavernous sinus of male wild boar and pig crossbread.

    Romerowicz-Misielak, M; Tabecka-Lonczynska, A; Koziol, K; Gilun, P; Stefanczyk-Krzymowska, S; Och, W; Koziorowski, M

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies indicate that there are at least a few regulatory systems involved in photoperiodic synchronisation of reproductive activity, which starts with the retina and ends at the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator. Recently we have shown indicated that the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) released from the eye into the ophthalmic venous blood depends on the intensity of sunlight. The aim of this study was to test whether changes in the concentration of carbon monoxide in the ophthalmic venous blood may modulate reproductive activity, as measured by changes in GnRH and GnRH receptor gene expression. The animal model used was mature male swine crossbred from wild boars and domestic sows (n = 48). We conducted in vivo experiments to determine the effect of increased CO concentrations in the cavernous sinus of the mammalian perihypophyseal vascular complex on gene expression of GnRH and GnRH receptors as well as serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. The experiments were performed during long photoperiod days near the summer solstice (second half of June) and short photoperiod days near the winter solstice (second half of December). These crossbred swine demonstrated a seasonally-dependent marked variation in GnRH and GnRH receptor gene expression and systemic LH levels in response to changes in CO concentration in ophthalmic venous blood. These results seem to confirm the hypothesis of humoral phototransduction as a mechanism for some of bright light's effects in animal chronobiology and the effect of CO on GnRH and GnRH receptor gene expression.

  8. Cave bear (Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller & Heinroth males' den from Velika Pećina in Duboka Near Kučevo, Eastern Serbia

    Dimitrijević Vesna M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available More a 100 years after the first research in the cave Velika pećina in Duboka near Kučevo cave bear remains were discovered in a small chamber cut off from the passable channels by a 7 m high slope. A whole skull, bones of a forearm in articulation, and other skeleton parts were laying on the cave floor encrusted in travertine cover and in some places overgrown by stalagmites. Bones belonged to adult males, which found there the shelter to hibernate, in a short epizode that ended by closing the channels that once linked this part of the cave to a surface.

  9. DEMAND FOR WILD BLUEBERRIES AT FARM AND PROCESSOR LEVELS

    Cheng, Hsiang-Tai; Peavey, Stephanie R.; Kezis, Alan S.

    2000-01-01

    The wild blueberry crop harvested in Maine and eastern Canada has increased considerably in recent years. The purpose of this study is to understand the recent trends in demand for wild blueberries with particular attention to the effects of production and the marketing of wild and cultivated blueberries. A price response model was developed to analyze farm-gate price and the processor price, using annual data from 1978 through 1997. Key explanatory variables in the model include quantity of ...

  10. Assessment of the potential for gene flow from transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) to eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.).

    Lee, Moon-Sub; Anderson, Eric K; Stojšin, Duška; McPherson, Marc A; Baltazar, Baltazar; Horak, Michael J; de la Fuente, Juan Manuel; Wu, Kunsheng; Crowley, James H; Rayburn, A Lane; Lee, D K

    2017-08-01

    Eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) belongs to the same tribe of the Poaceae family as maize (Zea mays L.) and grows naturally in the same region where maize is commercially produced in the USA. Although no evidence exists of gene flow from maize to eastern gamagrass in nature, experimental crosses between the two species were produced using specific techniques. As part of environmental risk assessment, the possibility of transgene flow from maize to eastern gamagrass populations in nature was evaluated with the objectives: (1) to assess the seeds of eastern gamagrass populations naturally growing near commercial maize fields for the presence of a transgenic glyphosate-tolerance gene (cp4 epsps) that would indicate cross-pollination between the two species, and (2) to evaluate the possibility of interspecific hybridization between transgenic maize used as male parent and eastern gamagrass used as female parent. A total of 46,643 seeds from 54 eastern gamagrass populations collected in proximity of maize fields in Illinois, USA were planted in a field in 2014 and 2015. Emerged seedlings were treated with glyphosate herbicide and assessed for survival. An additional 48,000 seeds from the same 54 eastern gamagrass populations were tested for the presence of the cp4 epsps transgene markers using TaqMan ® PCR method. The results from these trials showed that no seedlings survived the herbicide treatment and no seed indicated presence of the herbicide tolerant cp4 epsps transgene, even though these eastern gamagrass populations were exposed to glyphosate-tolerant maize pollen for years. Furthermore, no interspecific hybrid seeds were produced from 135 hand-pollination attempts involving 1529 eastern gamagrass spikelets exposed to maize pollen. Together, these results indicate that there is no evidence of gene flow from maize to eastern gamagrass in natural habitats. The outcome of this study should be taken in consideration when assessing for environmental

  11. Eastern Europe

    Baret, J.P.; Corcuff, A.; Jousten, M.; Cherie, J.B.; Gorge, X.; Augustin, X.; Belime, F.

    1999-01-01

    By its economical and political impact, nuclear energy has an important contribution the countries of Eastern Europe that goes beyond simple energy source. The most important challenge is to gain a safety culture. Improvements have been noted but the reactors safety must stay a priority of the international cooperation in Eastern Europe. The plan for the completion and improvement of Mochovce nuclear plant is described, the situation of Chernobyl and how to make the sarcophagus in safe is discussed, the experience of a french P.M.E. ( small and medium size firm) called Corys Tess that has chosen to position itself on the Eastern Europe nuclear market is related. (N.C.)

  12. Seroprevalence of simian immunodeficiency virus in wild and captive born Sykes' monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis in Kenya

    Otsyula Moses G

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sykes' monkey and related forms (Cercopithecus mitis make up an abundant, widespread and morphologically diverse species complex in eastern Africa that naturally harbors a distinct simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsyk. We carried out a retrospective serological survey of SIV infection from both wild and captive Sykes' monkeys from Kenya. We compared two commercially available, cross-reactive ELISA tests using HIV antigens with a novel SIVsyk antigen-specific Western blot assay and analyzed the data by origin, subspecies, age and sex. Results The SIVsyk antigen-specific Western blot assay detected more serum samples as positive than either of the cross-reactive ELISA assays. Using this assay, we found that seroprevalence is higher than previously reported, but extremely variable in wild populations (from 0.0 to 90.9%. Females were infected more often than males in both wild and captive populations. Seropositive infants were common. However, no seropositive juveniles were identified. Conclusion We have developed a specific and sensitive Western blot assay for anti-SIVsyk antibody detection. Sykes' monkeys are commonly infected with SIVsyk, but with extremely variable prevalence in the wild. Higher infection prevalence in females suggests predominantly sexual transmission. High infection prevalence in infants, but none in juveniles, suggests maternal antibodies, but little or no vertical transmission.

  13. In situ biomonitoring of the genotoxic effects of mixed industrial emissions using the Tradescantia micronucleus and pollen abortion tests with wild life plants: Demonstration of the efficacy of emission controls in an eastern European city

    Misik, Miroslav [Department of Botany, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Revova 39, SK 811 02 Bratislava 1 (Slovakia); Micieta, Karol [Department of Botany, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Revova 39, SK 811 02 Bratislava 1 (Slovakia); Solenska, Martina [Department of Botany, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Revova 39, SK 811 02 Bratislava 1 (Slovakia); Misikova, Katarina [Department of Botany, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Revova 39, SK 811 02 Bratislava 1 (Slovakia); Pisarcikova, Helena [Department of Botany, Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Revova 39, SK 811 02 Bratislava 1 (Slovakia); Knasmueller, Siegfried [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Inner Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Borschkegasse 8a, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: siegfried.knasmueller@meduniwien.ac.at

    2007-01-15

    Aim of the study was to monitor changes of genotoxic activity of urban air caused by an incinerator and a petrochemical plant in Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) and pollen fertility assays with wild plants (Chelidonium majus, Clematis vitalba, Cichorium intybus, Linaria vulgaris, Robinia pseudoacacia). While in the first sampling period (1997-2000) significantly (on average 80%) more MN were found at the polluted site in comparison to controls from a rural area, no significant effects were observed during a later period (between 2003 and 2005). A similar pattern was observed in the pollen abortion assays in which the most pronounced effects were found in chicory and false acacia. The differences of the results obtained in the two periods can be explained by a substantial reduction of air pollution by use of new technologies. In particular the decrease of SO{sub 2} emissions may account for the effects seen in the present study. - Air pollution caused by industrial emissions induced micronuclei in Tradescantia and increased pollen abortion in wild plant species.

  14. Is a wild mammal kept and reared in captivity still a wild animal?

    Künzl, Christine; Kaiser, Sylvia; Meier, Edda; Sachser, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    This study compared domestic guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus; DGP) and two different populations of the wild cavy (Cavia aperea), its ancestor, to examine whether rearing of wild mammals in captivity affects their behavior and physiological stress responses. One population of wild cavies consisted of wild-trapped animals and their first laboratory-reared offspring (WGP-1). The animals of the other population were reared in captivity for about 30 generations (WGP-30). The spontaneous behavior of each of six groups of WGP-1 and WGP-30 and nine groups of DGP, each consisting of one adult male and two adult females, was analyzed quantitatively. Blood samples of the males were taken to determine cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations. In addition, the exploratory behavior of 60-day-old male WGP-1, WGP-30, and DGP was investigated in an exploration apparatus. The domesticated animals displayed significantly less aggression, but significantly more sociopositive and male courtship behavior than their wild ancestors. In addition, DGP were much less attentive to their physical environment. Surprisingly, no behavioral difference was found between WGP-1 and WGP-30. Basal cortisol concentrations did not differ between wild and domestic guinea pigs. Catecholamine concentrations, however, as well as the challenge values of cortisol, were distinctly reduced in the DGP. WGP-1 and WGP-30 did not differ with respect to their endocrine stress responses. In the exploration apparatus both forms of wild cavies were much more explorative than the domestic animals. These data suggest that the long-term breeding and rearing of wild guinea pigs in captivity do not result in significant changes in behavior and hormonal stress responses. It appears to take much longer periods of time and artificial selection by humans to bring about characters of domestication in wild animals.

  15. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  16. Ophthalmological abnormalities in wild European hedgehogs ...

    In this study we aimed to examine wild European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in rescue centres and to determine ocular abnormalities in this animal population. Three hundred animals varying in age from 2 months to 5 years were examined, 147 being male and 153 female. All animals were evaluated with direct ...

  17. Wild reindeer of Yakutia

    V.M. Safronov

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Three major herds of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L., totaling over 200,000 animals, occur in the tundra and taiga of northern Yakutia. These herds have been expanding since the late 1950s and now occupy most of their historic range. In addition, several thousand wild reindeer occupy the New Siberian Islands and adjacent coastal mainland tundra, and there are about 60,000 largely sedentary forest reindeer in mountainous areas of the southern two-thirds of the province. Wild reindeer are commercially hunted throughout the mainland, and the production of wild meat is an important part of the economy of the province and of individual reindeer enterprises which produce both wild and domestic meat.

  18. Phylogeny and biogeography of North-American wild rice (Zizania L.Poaceae)

    The wild-rice genus Zizania includes four species disjunctly distributed in eastern Asia and North America, with three species (Z. aquatica, Z. palustris, and Z. texana) in North America and one (Z. latifolia) in eastern Asia. The phylogeny and biogeography of Zizania were explored using sequences o...

  19. Identification of Wild Boar-Habitat Epidemiologic Cycle in African Swine Fever Epizootic.

    Chenais, Erika; Ståhl, Karl; Guberti, Vittorio; Depner, Klaus

    2018-04-01

    The African swine fever epizootic in central and eastern European Union member states has a newly identified component involving virus transmission by wild boar and virus survival in the environment. Insights led to an update of the 3 accepted African swine fever transmission models to include a fourth cycle: wild boar-habitat.

  20. Identification of Wild Boar–Habitat Epidemiologic Cycle in African Swine Fever Epizootic

    Ståhl, Karl; Guberti, Vittorio; Depner, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The African swine fever epizootic in central and eastern European Union member states has a newly identified component involving virus transmission by wild boar and virus survival in the environment. Insights led to an update of the 3 accepted African swine fever transmission models to include a fourth cycle: wild boar–habitat. PMID:29553337

  1. Wild and Scenic Rivers

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer portrays the linear federally-owned land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the...

  2. An unedited 1.1 kb mitochondrial orfB gene transcript in the Wild Abortive Cytoplasmic Male Sterility (WA-CMS system of Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica

    Maiti Mrinal K

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of hybrid rice technology has significantly increased global rice production during the last three decades. Approximately 90% of the commercially cultivated rice hybrids have been derived through three-line breeding involving the use of WA-CMS lines. It is believed that during the 21st century, hybrid rice technology will make significant contributions to ensure global food security. This study examined the poorly understood molecular basis of the WA-CMS system in rice. Results RFLPs were detected for atp6 and orfB genes in sterile and fertile rice lines, with one copy of each in the mt-genome. The RNA profile was identical in both lines for atp6, but an additional longer orfB transcript was identified in sterile lines. 5' RACE analysis of the long orfB transcript revealed it was 370 bp longer than the normal transcript, with no indication it was chimeric when compared to the genomic DNA sequence. cDNA clones of the longer orfB transcript in sterile lines were sequenced and the transcript was determined unedited. Sterile lines were crossed with the restorer and maintainer lines, and fertile and sterile F1 hybrids were respectively generated. Both hybrids contained two types of orfB transcripts. However, the long transcript underwent editing in the fertile F1 hybrids and remained unedited in the sterile lines. Additionally, the editing of the 1.1 kb orfB transcript co-segregated with fertility restoring alleles in a segregating population of F2 progeny; and the presence of unedited long orfB transcripts was detected in the sterile plants from the F2 segregating population. Conclusion This study helped to assign plausible operative factors responsible for male-sterility in the WA cytoplasm of rice. A new point of departure to dissect the mechanisms governing the CMS-WA system in rice has been identified, which can be applied to further harness the opportunities afforded by hybrid vigor in rice.

  3. Interspecific Mating between Wild and Sterile Fruit Flies of Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) with Guava Fruit Fly, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi) in Cages

    Pransopon, Prapon; Sutantawong, Manon

    2003-06-01

    Copulation and sperm transfer were observed between wild flies and sterile flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi) in cages. 8-day old pupae of B. dorsalis and B. correcta were irradiated with gamma rays at 90 and 80 gray respectively. Wild flies from infested fruits and sterile flies from artificial diet in the labolatory were used for testing. The experiments were conducted 3 treatments and 3 replications. The ratio of sterile male : wild male: wild female were 3:1:1 by using sterile male of B. dorsalis: wild male of B. correcta : wild female of B. correcta and sterile male of B. correcta: wild male of B. dorsalis: wild female of B. dorsalis as 60:20:20 flies respectively. The experiment found 69 pairs of copulation consisting of 3 mating pairs(4.3%) of wild male with wild female of B. dorsalis, 22 mating pairs (31.9%) of wild male with wild female of B. correcta, 2 mating pairs(2.9%) of sterile male of B dorsalis with wild female of B. correcta, 42 mating pairs(60.9%) of sterile male of B. correcta with wild female of B. dorsalis. The cages which ratio 1:1 consisted of wild B. dorsalis and wild B. correcta (male and female = 50:50 flies) were observed and found that 43 pairs of copulation such as 2 mating pairs (4.6%) of wild male with wild female of B. dorsalis, 26 mating pairs (60.5%) of wild male with wild female of B. correcta, 2 mating pairs(2.9%) of sterile male of B. dorsalis with wild female of B. correcta and 15 mating pairs(34.9%) of wild male of B. correcta with wild female of B. dorsalis. Mated female flies were separated from male flies. Egg hatch and sperm were checked. The hatchability of normal copulation of B. dorsalis and B. correcta were 81 and 90%. The average sperm level in spermathecae of normal copulation of B. dorsalis and B. correcta were 2.2 and 2.3 respectively but had no sperm in their spemathecae of females of interspecific copulations Mating behavior of both species began in the evening before sunset at

  4. NUTRITIONAL AND ANTINUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF WILD YAM (Dioscorea spp.

    Veerabahu Ramasamy Mohan

    2011-05-01

    The wild yam tubers consumed by the tribes Kanikkars / Palliyars of South- Eastern slopes of Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu (Dioscorea alata, D. bulbifera var vera, D. esculenta, D. oppositifolia var dukhumensis, D.oppositifolia var. oppositifolia, D. pentaphylla var. pentaphylla, D. spicata, D. tomentosa and D. wallichi were evaluated for its nutritional quality. From the present investigation, it is observed that most of the wild edible yams were found to be a good source of protein, lipid, crude fibre, starch, vitamins and minerals. Antinutritional substances like total free phenolics, tannins, hydrogen cyanide, total oxalate, amylase and trypsin inhibitor activities were quantified. Â

  5. William Wilde: Historian.

    Geary, L

    2016-05-01

    This essay attempts to assess William Wilde as a social historian. It examines some of his contributions to the discipline of history and looks particularly at 'The food of the Irish', which was published in the Dublin University Magazine in February 1854.

  6. Wild ideas in food

    Münke, Christopher; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Vantomme, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Foraging for all manner of wild plants, animals and fungi and their products makes up part of the traditional diets of approximately 300 million worldwide (Bharucha and Pretty, 2010). Furthermore, their relevance in the global food supply is often underestimated, as policies and statistics...

  7. Diseases of wild rice

    Diseases are much more pronounced in cultivated wild rice than in natural stands, most likely due to the narrower genetic base of the populations, plant stress due to high planting density and floodwater removal prior to harvest, and high relative humidity in the plant canopy. Yield losses occur as ...

  8. Into the urban wild

    Mollee, Eefke Maria; Pouliot, Mariéve; McDonald, Morag A.

    2017-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, many people depend on natural resources for their livelihoods. While urbanisation causes landscape changes, little is known of how this process affects the use of wild plant resources by urban populations. This study contributes to addressing this knowledge gap by exploring...

  9. Wild grapevine management

    H. Clay Smith

    1989-01-01

    Wild grapevines are a problem for forest managers in many areas of the central hardwood forests. The vines grow on a wide range of soil and site conditions but usually are more concentrated on good sites (northern red oak site index 70 and above), on the faster growing more valuable timber. Presently there is more interest and concern in controlling grapevine for the...

  10. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    Sachser Norbert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus, starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all

  11. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs.

    Lewejohann, Lars; Pickel, Thorsten; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia

    2010-03-25

    Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment.In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all perform worse than their wild relatives in tests of spatial

  12. Physical body parameters of red-crowned cranes Grus japonensis by sex and life stage in eastern Hokkaido, Japan.

    Inoue, Masako; Shimura, Ryoji; Uebayashi, Akiko; Ikoma, Shinobu; Iima, Hiroko; Sumiyoshi, Takashi; Teraoka, Hiroki; Makita, Kohei; Hiraga, Takeo; Momose, Kunikazu; Masatomi, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Red-crowned (or Japanese) cranes Grus japonensis are native to eastern Hokkaido, Japan--the island population, and mainland Asia--the continental population that migrates from breeding grounds along the Amur River Basin to winter in east China and the Korean Peninsula. The island population was reduced to about 50-60 birds in early part of the 20th century. Since 1950s, the population has increased to more than 1,300 as a consequence of human-provided food in winter, resulted in change of their habitats and food resource. From the carcasses of 284 wild cranes from the island population, collected in Hokkaido since 1976 until 2010, we measured six physical parameters (body weight and lengths of body, wing, tarsus, tail and exposed culmen) and divided into groups by sex and three developmental stages (juvenile, yearling and adult). All parameters of males were larger than those of females at the same stage. Total body length of females tends to grow up earlier than males, in contrast to body weight. Obvious time trends were not observed in these all parameters during 34 years for these six categories measured, except total length of male juveniles, which showed a significant increasing trend. These results provide the first extensive data on body size and mass in the wild red-crowned cranes.

  13. Calling behavior of mass-reared and wild Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Castrejón-Gómez, Victor R; Lascares, Shaila; Malo, Edi A; Toledo, Jorge; Rojas, Julio C

    2007-08-01

    The calling behavior of mass-reared and wild males of Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was studied both in the laboratory and in field cage tests. In the laboratory, density (1, 5, and 10 males per container), age, and hour of day significantly affected calling behavior. Mass-reared males called independently of density, whereas wild males only called at densities of 5 and 10 individuals. Males of both strains started calling when they were 5-7 d old. The daily pattern of male calling was similar in both strains, starting at 0730 hours, and reaching a peak at 1330-1630 hours. Field cage tests showed that mass-reared males started calling when they were 5d old; the period of peak calling was when males were 8-9 d old. In contrast, wild males began calling when they were 10 d old, reaching peaks when males were 13, 15, and 18 d old. Wild males tended to form leks to call during each day of the experiment, whereas mass-reared males only formed leks during 2 d, both strains displaying very low levels. During field cage tests, males, independently of strain, displayed two calling peaks, one peak in the morning and one peak in the afternoon, whereas males observed in the laboratory only showed a single calling peak. The results are discussed in view of the effects of mass rearing A. serpentina males in relation to potential use of the sterile insect technique.

  14. Male Infertility

    ... hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male hypogonadism) and other hormonal problems have a number of possible underlying causes. Defects of tubules that transport sperm. Many ... syndrome — in which a male is born with two X chromosomes and one ...

  15. Survey report: Eastern Caribbean.

    Yinger, N

    1991-01-01

    Over 1 million people live on 8 small islands in the Eastern Caribbean: St. Kitts-Nevis, Montserrat, Grenada, St. Vincent, Antigua, Barbados, St. Lucia, and Dominica. Starting in 1985 the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region has carried out a series of contraceptive prevalence surveys in these countries. Current information is provided by these surveys in the areas of fertility levels and preferences, contraceptive knowledge and use. Also, socioeconomic, historical and demographic background and analysis such as fertility patterns, desire for additional children, and breastfeeding data; contraceptive awareness including family planning methods and sources; contraceptive use by method, source, and timing, satisfaction, and male attitudes are provided in the surveys, but not in the report abstracted here. The total fertility rate (TFR) and the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) for the 8 islands are as follows: St. Kitts-Nevis (1984) 2.9 TFR, 40.6 CPR; St. Vincent (1988) 2.9 TFR, 58.3 CPR; Antigua (1988) 1.8 TFR, 52.6 CPR; Barbados (1988) not given, 55.0 CPR; St. Lucia (1988) 3.2 TFR, 47.3 CPR; Dominica (1987) 3.2 TFR, 49.8 CPR. The islands have unusual demographic patterns related to extensive out-migration.

  16. Male Hypogonadism

    ... the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an ... Adulthood In adult males, hypogonadism may alter certain masculine physical characteristics and impair normal reproductive function. Signs ...

  17. Male Infertility

    ... to have a baby? If treatment doesn’t work, what are our other options? Resources National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, What Causes Male Infertility? Last Updated: May 30, 2017 This ...

  18. Male contraception.

    Amory, John K

    2016-11-01

    Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women can not use them because of health conditions or side-effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies, of which 80-90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper briefly reviews the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies and then discusses the research directed toward development of novel methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Condoms - male

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... your health care provider or pharmacy about emergency contraception ("morning-after pills"). PROBLEMS WITH CONDOM USE Some ...

  20. Male contraception

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...

  1. Annual Report for 2003 Wild Horse Research and Field Activities

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    As stated in the Wild Horse Fertility Control Field Trial Plan, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has an immediate need for a safe, effective contraceptive agent to assist in the management of the large number of wild horses on western rangelands. The BLM and the U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) are testing the immunocontraceptive agent Porcine Zonae Pellucida (PZP) in field trials with three free-roaming herds of western wild horses. Extensive research has already been conducted on the safety, efficacy, and duration of PZP applications in both domestic and feral horses on eastern barrier islands and in some select trials I with wild horses in Nevada managed by the BLM. However, significant questions remain concerning the effects of I PZP application at the population level in the wild, as well as effects at the individual level on behavior, social structure, and harem dynamics of free-ranging animals. These questions are best answered with field trials on wild horse herds under a tight research protocol. The ultimate goal is to provide the BLM with the protocols and information necessary to begin using fertility control to regulate population growth rates in wild horse herds on a broader scale. Fertility control is intended to assist the conventional capture, removal, and adoption process as a I means of controlling excess numbers of wild horses and burros, and to greatly reduce the adoption costs and numbers of animals handled. Fertility control is not intended to totally replace the removal and adoption process.

  2. Male sexuality.

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Perceived medical benefit, peer/partner influence and safety and cost to access the service: client motivators for voluntary seeking of medical male circumcision in Iganga district eastern Uganda, a qualitative study.

    Muhamadi, Lubega; Ibrahim, Musenze; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Peterson, Stefan; Reynolds, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Although voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in Iganga district was launched in 2010 as part of the Uganda national strategy to prevent new HIV infections with a target of having 129,896 eligible males circumcised by 2012, only 35,000 (27%) of the anticipated target had been circumcised by mid 2012. There was paucity of information on why uptake of VMMC was low in this setting where HIV awareness is presumably high. This study sought to understand motivators for uptake of VMMC from the perspective of the clients themselves in order to advocate for feasible approaches to expanding uptake of VMMC in Iganga district and similar settings. In Iganga district, we conducted seven key informant interviews with staff who work in the VMMC clinics and twenty in-depth interviews with clients who had accepted and undergone VMMC. Ten focus-group discussions including a total of 112 participants were also conducted with clients who had undergone VMMC. Motivators for uptake of VMMC in the perspective of the circumcised clients and the health care staff included: perceived medical benefit to those circumcised such as protection against acquiring HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, peer/partner influence, sexual satisfaction and safety and cost to access the service. Since perceived medical benefit was a motivator for seeking VMMC, it can be used to strengthen campaigns for increasing uptake of VMMC. Peer influence could also be used in advocacy campaigns for VMMC expansion, especially using peers who have already undergone VMMC. There is need to ensure that safety and cost to access the service is affordable especially to rural poor as it was mentioned as a motivator for seeking VMMC.

  4. Eastern Redcedar Seedling Assessment

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Eastern redcedar tree seedling growth in response to various soil, nitrogen, and photosynthetic radiation characteristics. This dataset is associated with the...

  5. Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity

    Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity...

  6. Male baldness.

    Clarke, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Male baldness is very common. Its effect on individuals is extremely variable, and in some people it will have a significant adverse effect on their quality of life. The objectives of this article are to help general practitioners (GPs) be aware of potential health problems related to male baldness, to have an approach to assessing hair loss and to be aware of treatment options. Male baldness is, most often, a normal occurrence, but it may have significant effects on a man's health. It may also be a pointer to other potential health issues. The GP is in the ideal position to conduct an initial evaluation, consider other health issues and advise on treatment options.

  7. Emerging fungal pathogen Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in wild European snakes

    Franklinos, Lydia H. V.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Bohuski, Elizabeth A.; Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, Julia; Wright, Owen; Fitzpatrick, Liam; Petrovan, Silviu; Durrant, Chris; Linton, Chris; Baláž, Vojtech; Cunningham, Andrew A; Lawson, Becki

    2017-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging disease of conservation concern in eastern North America. Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, the causative agent of SFD, has been isolated from over 30 species of wild snakes from six families in North America. Whilst O. ophiodiicola has been isolated from captive snakes outside North America, the pathogen has not been reported from wild snakes elsewhere. We screened 33 carcasses and 303 moulted skins from wild snakes collected from 2010–2016 in Great Britain and the Czech Republic for the presence of macroscopic skin lesions and O. ophiodiicola. The fungus was detected using real-time PCR in 26 (8.6%) specimens across the period of collection. Follow up culture and histopathologic analyses confirmed that both O. ophiodiicola and SFD occur in wild European snakes. Although skin lesions were mild in most cases, in some snakes they were severe and were considered likely to have contributed to mortality. Culture characterisations demonstrated that European isolates grew more slowly than those from the United States, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that isolates from European wild snakes reside in a clade distinct from the North American isolates examined. These genetic and phenotypic differences indicate that the European isolates represent novel strains of O. ophiodiicola. Further work is required to understand the individual and population level impact of this pathogen in Europe.

  8. Gas in Eastern Europe

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    West European gas companies have long recognised the potential for lucrative business within eastern Europe. But they recognise that the region's integration into the west European system will be far from straightforward, with deals between east European gas companies and their western counterparts invariably containing financial mechanisms, such as barter trade, that are designed to cope with the easterners' shortage of hard currency. (author)

  9. Middle Eastern rhinoplasty.

    Azizzadeh, Babak; Mashkevich, Grigoriy

    2010-02-01

    The ethnic appearance of the Middle Eastern nose is defined by several unique visual features, particularly a high radix, wide overprojecting dorsum, and an amorphous hanging nasal tip. These external characteristics reflect distinct structural properties of the osseo-cartilaginous nasal framework and skin-soft tissue envelope in patients of Middle Eastern extraction. The goal, and the ultimate challenge, of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients is to achieve balanced aesthetic refinement, while avoiding surgical westernization. Detailed understanding of the ethnic visual harmony in a Middle Eastern nose greatly assists in preserving native nasal-facial relationships during rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Esthetic alteration of a Middle Eastern nose follows a different set of goals and principles compared with rhinoplasties on white or other ethnic patients. This article highlights the inherent nasal features of the Middle Eastern nose and reviews pertinent concepts of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Essential considerations in the process spanning the consultation and surgery are reviewed. Reliable operative techniques that achieve a successful aesthetic outcome are discussed in detail. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Flowering in the wild olive ( Olea europaea L.) tree (oleaster ...

    flowers with absence or reduced stamens and flowers with absence of pistil) are frequently observed and may reduce fruit set. This study investigates the phenology evolution and the male and female abortion of the oleaster tree (or the wild olive ...

  11. Fitness of Mass-Reared Males of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) Resulting From Mating Competition Tests in Field Cages.

    Hernández, Emilio; Liedo, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge; Montoya, Pablo; Perales, Hugo; Ruiz-Montoya, Lorena

    2017-12-05

    The sterile insect technique uses males that have been mass-reared in a controlled environment. The insects, once released in the field, must compete to mate. However, the mass-rearing condition supposes a loss of fitness that will be noticeable by wild females. To compare the fitness of wild males and mass-reared males, three competition settings were established. In setting 1, wild males, mass-reared males and wild females were released in field cages. In setting 2, wild females and wild males were released without competition, and in setting 3, mass-reared males and mass-reared females were also released without competition. Male fitness was based on their mating success, fecundity, weight and longevity. The fitness of the females was measured based on weight and several demographic parameters. The highest percentage of mating was between wild males and wild females between 0800 and 0900 h in the competition condition, while the mass-reared males started one hour later. The successful wild males weighed more and showed longer mating times, greater longevity and a higher number of matings than the mass-reared males. Although the mass-reared males showed the lowest percentage of matings, their fecundity when mating with wild females indicated a high fitness. Since the survival and fecundity of wild females that mated with mass-reared males decreased to become similar to those of mass-reared females that mated with mass-reared males, females seem to be influenced by the type of male (wild or mass-reared). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Prevalence of blood parasites in eastern versus Western house finches: are eastern birds resistant to infection?

    Davis, Andrew K; Hood, Wendy R; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2013-09-01

    The rapid spread of the bacterial disease, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), throughout the introduced range of house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) in eastern North America, compared to its slower spread through the native western range, has puzzled researchers and highlights the need to understand the relative differences in health state of finches from both populations. We conducted a light-microscope survey of hemoparasites in populations of finches from Arizona (within the western range) and from Alabama (within the eastern range), and compared our estimates of prevalence to published reports from house finches sampled in both ranges. Of the 33 Arizona birds examined, we recorded hematozoan infections in 16 (48.5%) individuals, compared to 1 infected Alabama bird out of 30 birds examined (3.3%). Based on independent surveys of seven western North American and five eastern North American populations of house finches the average prevalence of blood parasites in western populations is 38.8% (±17.9 SD), while the average prevalence within the eastern range is only 5.9% (±6.1 SD). The average rate of infection among all songbirds sampled in the east is 34.2% (±4.8 SD). Thus, our surveys of wild birds as well as previously published observations point to eastern house finches having a much lower prevalence of blood parasite infections than their western counterparts. Combined with the fact that eastern finches also tend to have lower rates of avian pox infections than do western birds (based on a literature review), these observations suggest that eastern birds have either strong resistance to these infections or high susceptibility and associated mortality.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF WILD PIG VEHICLE COLLISIONS

    Mayer, J; Paul E. Johns, P

    2007-05-23

    Wild pig (Sus scrofa) collisions with vehicles are known to occur in the United States, but only minimal information describing these accidents has been reported. In an effort to better characterize these accidents, data were collected from 179 wild pig-vehicle collisions from a location in west central South Carolina. Data included accident parameters pertaining to the animals involved, time, location, and human impacts. The age structure of the animals involved was significantly older than that found in the population. Most collisions involved single animals; however, up to seven animals were involved in individual accidents. As the number of animals per collision increased, the age and body mass of the individuals involved decreased. The percentage of males was significantly higher in the single-animal accidents. Annual attrition due to vehicle collisions averaged 0.8 percent of the population. Wild pig-vehicle collisions occurred year-round and throughout the 24-hour daily time period. Most accidents were at night. The presence of lateral barriers was significantly more frequent at the collision locations. Human injuries were infrequent but potentially serious. The mean vehicle damage estimate was $1,173.

  14. Adaptive plasticity in wild field cricket's acoustic signaling.

    Susan M Bertram

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity can be adaptive when phenotypes are closely matched to changes in the environment. In crickets, rhythmic fluctuations in the biotic and abiotic environment regularly result in diel rhythms in density of sexually active individuals. Given that density strongly influences the intensity of sexual selection, we asked whether crickets exhibit plasticity in signaling behavior that aligns with these rhythmic fluctuations in the socio-sexual environment. We quantified the acoustic mate signaling behavior of wild-caught males of two cricket species, Gryllus veletis and G. pennsylvanicus. Crickets exhibited phenotypically plastic mate signaling behavior, with most males signaling more often and more attractively during the times of day when mating activity is highest in the wild. Most male G. pennsylvanicus chirped more often and louder, with shorter interpulse durations, pulse periods, chirp durations, and interchirp durations, and at slightly higher carrier frequencies during the time of the day that mating activity is highest in the wild. Similarly, most male G. veletis chirped more often, with more pulses per chirp, longer interpulse durations, pulse periods, and chirp durations, shorter interchirp durations, and at lower carrier frequencies during the time of peak mating activity in the wild. Among-male variation in signaling plasticity was high, with some males signaling in an apparently maladaptive manner. Body size explained some of the among-male variation in G. pennsylvanicus plasticity but not G. veletis plasticity. Overall, our findings suggest that crickets exhibit phenotypically plastic mate attraction signals that closely match the fluctuating socio-sexual context they experience.

  15. Hybrids between cultivated and wild carrots in natural populations in Denmark

    Magnussen, L.S.; Hauser, Thure Pavlo

    2007-01-01

    Many cultivated plant species are able to hybridize with related wild plants. However, it is not clear whether their hybrids are able to survive and reproduce outside managed fields, and if cultivar genes introgress into wild populations. In areas where wild carrots co-occur with carrot root......-crops, pollen and seeds may flow from two different sources in the fields to the surrounding wild populations: from pure cultivar plants that occasionally flower, and from flowering 'bolters' that originate from hybridizations between wild (male) and cultivated carrots (female) in seed production fields...... by AFLP. Four hybrids were identified among the 71 plants analysed, and these were most likely F(2) or backcross individuals, sired by pollen from hybrid bolters. Wild populations close to fields were genetically somewhat more similar to cultivars than wild populations far from fields, suggesting...

  16. REPRODUCTIVE SEASONALITY OF THE MALE FLORIDA GAR, LEPISOSTEUS PLATYRHINCUS.

    The objective of this study was to characterize the reproductive seasonality of a wild population of male Florida gar, Lepisosteus platyrhincus. We measured the gonadosomatic index, reproductive stage of the testes, seminiferous tubule area, and plasma concentrations of testoster...

  17. Preferred nasolabial angle in Middle Eastern population.

    Alharethy, Sami

    2017-05-01

    To define the preferred nasolabial angle measurement in Middle Eastern population. An observational study was conducted from January 2012 to January 2016 at the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 1027 raters, 506 males, and 521 females were asked to choose the most ideal nasolabial angle for 5 males and 5 females lateral photographs whose nasolabial angle were modified with Photoshop into the following angles (85°, 90°, 95°, 100°, 105°, and 110°). Male raters preferred the angle of 89.5° ± 3.5° (mean ± SD) for males and 90.8° ± 5.6° for females. While female raters preferred the angle of 89.3° ± 3.8° for males and 90.5° ± 4.8° for females. ANOVA test compare means among groups: p: 0.342, and there is no statistically significant difference between groups. The results of our study showed an even more acute angles than degrees found in the literature. It shows that what young generation in our region prefers and clearly reflects that what could be explained as under rotation of the nasal tip in other cultures is just the ideal for some Middle Eastern population.

  18. 29 CFR 780.114 - Wild commodities.

    2010-07-01

    ... Agricultural Or Horticultural Commodities § 780.114 Wild commodities. Employees engaged in the gathering or harvesting of wild commodities such as mosses, wild rice, burls and laurel plants, the trapping of wild... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wild commodities. 780.114 Section 780.114 Labor Regulations...

  19. Triadic male-infant-male interaction serves in bond maintenance in male Assamese macaques.

    Josefine Kalbitz

    Full Text Available While the ultimate consequences of social bonds start to be better understood, the proximate behavioural mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of these close affiliative relationships have received less attention. We investigated the possible function of male-infant-male interactions (MIMIs in male-male social bonding processes by analysing about 9000h of focal animal observations collected on two groups of wild Assamese macaques. In support of an agonistic buffering function of MIMIs, after engaging in a MIMI upon approach, subordinates stayed longer in close proximity of a dominant male. Overall, the frequency of MIMIs increased the stronger the affiliative relationship between two males, suggesting that MIMIs like grooming function in relationship maintenance. We did not find support for a role of MIMIs in bond formation as the frequency of MIMIs did not affect the time a male dyad spent in proximity in the consecutive year. Our results contribute to the general debate on behaviours influencing social dynamics in group living mammals.

  20. A 12-Month Prospective, Observational Study of Treatment Regimen and Quality of Life Associated with ADHD in Central and Eastern Europe and Eastern Asia

    Goetz, Michal; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Ondrejka, Igor; Akay, Aynur; Herczeg, Ilona; Dobrescu, Iuliana; Kim, Boong Nyun; Jin, Xingming; Riley, Anne W.; Martenyi, Ferenc; Harrison, Gavan; Treuer, Tamas

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This prospective, observational, non-randomized study aimed to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and the quality of life (QoL) of ADHD patients in countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and Eastern Asia over 12 months. Methods: 977 Male and female patients aged 6-17 years seeking treatment for…

  1. Chimpanzee females queue but males compete for social status

    Foerster, Steffen; Franz, Mathias; Murray, Carson M.; Gilby, Ian C.; Feldblum, Joseph T.; Walker, Kara K.; Pusey, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Dominance hierarchies are widespread in animal social groups and often have measureable effects on individual health and reproductive success. Dominance ranks are not static individual attributes, however, but instead are influenced by two independent processes: 1) changes in hierarchy membership and 2) successful challenges of higher-ranking individuals. Understanding which of these processes dominates the dynamics of rank trajectories can provide insights into fitness benefits of within-sex competition. This question has yet to be examined systematically in a wide range of taxa due to the scarcity of long-term data and a lack of appropriate methodologies for distinguishing between alternative causes of rank changes over time. Here, we expand on recent work and develop a new likelihood-based Elo rating method that facilitates the systematic assessment of rank dynamics in animal social groups, even when interaction data are sparse. We apply this method to characterize long-term rank trajectories in wild eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and find remarkable sex differences in rank dynamics, indicating that females queue for social status while males actively challenge each other to rise in rank. Further, our results suggest that natal females obtain a head start in the rank queue if they avoid dispersal, with potential fitness benefits. PMID:27739527

  2. Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity.

    Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity caused by wild lettuce intake and an accurate history formed the basis of the diagnosis. Conservative treatment, vital sign monitoring, control of patient intake and output, and reducing patient agitation provided the basis for treatment.

  3. Wild dogma II: The role and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia

    Benjamin L. ALLEN, Richard M. ENGEMAN, Lee R. ALLEN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies of Allen (2011 and Allen et al. (2011 recently examined the methodology underpinning claims that dingoes provide net benefits to biodiversity by suppressing foxes and cats. They found most studies to have design flaws and/or observational methods that preclude valid interpretations from the data, describing most of the current literature as ‘wild dogma’. In this short supplement, we briefly highlight the roles and implications of wild dogma for wild dog management in Australia. We discuss nomenclature, and the influence that unreliable science can have on policy and practice changes related to apex predator management [Current Zoology 57 (6: 737–740, 2011].

  4. Natural outbreak of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) infection in wild giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), and other wild fish in northern Queensland, Australia.

    Bowater, R O; Forbes-Faulkner, J; Anderson, I G; Condon, K; Robinson, B; Kong, F; Gilbert, G L; Reynolds, A; Hyland, S; McPherson, G; Brien, J O'; Blyde, D

    2012-03-01

    Ninety-three giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), were found dead in Queensland, Australia, from 2007 to 2011. Most dead fish occurred in northern Queensland, with a peak of mortalities in Cairns in June 2008. In 2009, sick wild fish including giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus (Rüppell), and javelin grunter, Pomadasys kaakan (Cuvier), also occurred in Cairns. In 2009 and 2010, two disease epizootics involving wild stingrays occurred at Sea World marine aquarium. Necropsy, histopathology, bacteriology and PCR determined that the cause of deaths of 12 giant Queensland grouper, three wild fish, six estuary rays, Dasyatis fluviorum (Ogilby), one mangrove whipray, Himantura granulata (Macleay), and one eastern shovelnose ray, Aptychotrema rostrata (Shaw), was Streptococcus agalactiae septicaemia. Biochemical testing of 34 S. agalactiae isolates from giant Queensland grouper, wild fish and stingrays showed all had identical biochemical profiles. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of isolates confirmed all isolates were S. agalactiae; genotyping of selected S. agalactiae isolates showed the isolates from giant Queensland grouper were serotype Ib, whereas isolates from wild fish and stingrays closely resembled serotype II. This is the first report of S. agalactiae from wild giant Queensland grouper and other wild tropical fish and stingray species in Queensland, Australia. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and State of Queensland.

  5. Inherited XX sex reversal originating from wild medaka populations.

    Shinomiya, A; Otake, H; Hamaguchi, S; Sakaizumi, M

    2010-11-01

    The teleost fish, medaka (Oryzias latipes), has an XX/XY sex-determining mechanism. A Y-linked DM domain gene, DMY, has been isolated by positional cloning as the sex-determining gene in this species. Previously, we conducted a field survey of genotypic sex and found that approximately 1% of wild medaka are sex-reversed (XX males and XY females). Here, we performed genetic analyses of nine spontaneous XX sex-reversed males to elucidate its genetic basis. In all cases, the F(1) progeny were all females, whereas XX males reappeared in the backcross (BC) progeny, suggesting that XX sex reversal is a recessive trait. Although the incidences of sex reversal in the BC progeny were mostly low, 40% were males derived from one XX male. We performed linkage analysis using 55 BC males and located a single major factor, sda-1 (sex-determining autosomal factor-1), controlling sex reversal in an autosomal linkage group. Thus, genes involved in the sex-determining pathway can be isolated from spontaneous mutants in wild populations.

  6. Melatonin delays clutch initiation in a wild songbird

    Greives, Timothy J.; Kingma, Sjouke A.; Beltrami, Giulia; Hau, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    The hormone melatonin is known to play an important role in regulating many seasonal changes in physiology, morphology and behaviour. In birds, unlike in mammals, melatonin has thus far been thought to play little role in timing seasonal reproductive processes. This view is mainly derived from laboratory experiments on male birds. This study tests whether melatonin is capable of influencing the timing of clutch initiation in wild female songbirds. Free-living female great tits (Parus major) treated with melatonin-filled implants prior to the breeding season initiated their first clutch of the season significantly later than females carrying an empty implant. Melatonin treatment did not affect clutch size. Further, melatonin treatment did not delay the onset of daily activity in the wild nor adversely affect body mass in captivity compared with controls. These data suggest a previously unknown role for this hormone in regulating the timing of clutch initiation in the wild. PMID:22171024

  7. Personality in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus).

    Garai, Cintia; Weiss, Alexander; Arnaud, Coline; Furuichi, Takeshi

    2016-11-01

    To understand the evolution of personality structure requires examining personality dimensions in multiple species using a common set of traits. Little research has been conducted on personality in wild populations of nonhuman primates. Using behavioral observations and questionnaire ratings, we examined factors influencing personality in 16 wild bonobos (Pan paniscus) at Wamba, Luo Scientific Reserve, Democratic Republic of the Congo. We extracted five factors from 31 of the items from the Hominoid Personality Questionnaire (HPQ) and three factors from observed behaviors. The HPQ factors were labeled Unemotionality Q , Friendliness Q , Aggressiveness Q , Irritability Q , and Activity Q . The behavioral factors were labeled Grooming B , Playfulness B , and Introversion B . We established the convergent and divergent validity of these factors by obtaining correlations between the HPQ and behavioral factors. We tested for sex differences and found that males were significantly higher on Introversion B and significantly lower in Irritability Q . We then tested for age differences and found that Friendliness Q was lower and Aggressiveness Q was higher in older individuals. Finally, we found that, among males, hierarchical rank was associated with higher Aggressiveness Q . These findings contrast with findings in chimpanzees in ways consistent with known species differences. For one, consistent with the more egalitarian structure of bonobo society, we did not identify a clear Dominance factor. Also, the results related to sex differences were consistent with previous findings that reveal closer bonds between female bonobos than female chimpanzees. These findings highlight the importance of studying personality in closely related species and the need to consider species' socioecology when studying personality. Am. J. Primatol. 78:1178-1189, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Central and Eastern Europe aim to protect their ecological backbone

    Cohn, J.P.

    1992-12-01

    Important environmental issues face the newly democratic countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The problems of habitat and wildlife conservation are given less attention than other issues such as air and water pollution. However, a variety of opportunities exist to protect the remaining wild areas. Existing national parks, undeveloped lands especially along borders, and the Danube delta ecosystem still retain wild character, at least in part. Lack of money and equipment, the rush to privatization, lack of government priority, small core areas of wild land, and the effects of pollution all stand in the way of conservation efforts. Technical aid is coming from aid funding through US agencies and environmental and conservation organizations, but the future remains a concern.

  9. The Eastern Partnership

    Nielsen, Kristian L.; Vilson, Maili

    2014-01-01

    When the EU launched the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in 2009, it did so with much rhetoric about projecting its soft power into Eastern Europe. Yet today, the EU's soft power project seems to have stalled, with developments in the region being less than favourable. This article argues that the EaP...... essentially replicated the main weaknesses of the European Neighbourhood Policy, by offering too little incentive and support to the partners, rendering both conditionality and soft power ineffective as tools for milieu shaping. In promoting the EaP as a policy of soft power, the EU has once again forgotten...

  10. Snake fungal disease: an emerging threat to wild snakes.

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Knowles, Susan; Lankton, Julia S; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L; Kapfer, Joshua M; Staffen, Richard A; Wild, Erik R; Schmidt, Katie Z; Ballmann, Anne E; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M; Glorioso, Brad M; Last, Lisa A; Price, Steven J; Schuler, Krysten L; Smith, Christopher E; Wellehan, James F X; Blehert, David S

    2016-12-05

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Snake fungal disease: An emerging threat to wild snakes

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Knowles, Susan N.; Lankton, Julia S.; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L.; Kapfer, Joshua M.; Staffen, Richard A.; Wild, Erik R.; Schmidt, Katie Z.; Ballmann, Anne; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M.; Glorioso, Brad M.; Last, Lisa A.; Price, Steven J.; Schuler, Krysten L.; Smith, Christopher; Wellehan, James F. X.; Blehert, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused byOphidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.

  12. Y chromosomal and sex effects on the behavioral stress response in the defensive burying test in wild house mice

    Sluyter, F; Korte, SM; Van Baal, GCM; De Ruiter, AJH; Van Oortmerssen, GA

    1999-01-01

    Genetically selected short attack latency (SAL) and long attack latency (LAL) male wild house mice behave differently in the defensive burying test. When challenged, SAL males respond actively with more time spent on defensive burying, whereas LAL males are more passive with more time remaining

  13. The wild tapered block bootstrap

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    In this paper, a new resampling procedure, called the wild tapered block bootstrap, is introduced as a means of calculating standard errors of estimators and constructing confidence regions for parameters based on dependent heterogeneous data. The method consists in tapering each overlapping block...... of the series first, the applying the standard wild bootstrap for independent and heteroscedastic distrbuted observations to overlapping tapered blocks in an appropriate way. Its perserves the favorable bias and mean squared error properties of the tapered block bootstrap, which is the state-of-the-art block......-order asymptotic validity of the tapered block bootstrap as well as the wild tapered block bootstrap approximation to the actual distribution of the sample mean is also established when data are assumed to satisfy a near epoch dependent condition. The consistency of the bootstrap variance estimator for the sample...

  14. Use of femur bone density to segregate wild from farmed Dybowski's frog (Rana dybowskii).

    Yang, Shu Hui; Huang, Xiao Ming; Xia, Rui; Xu, Yan Chun; Dahmer, Thomas D

    2011-04-15

    Wildlife has been utilized by humans throughout history and demand continues to grow today. Farming of wildlife can supplement the supply of wild-harvested wildlife products and, in theory, can reduce pressure on free-ranging populations. However, poached wildlife products frequently enter legal markets where they are fraudulently sold as farmed wildlife products. To effectively close this illegal trade in wild-captured wildlife, there is a need to discriminate wild products from farmed products. Because of the strong market demand for wild-captured frog meat and the resulting strong downward pressure on wild populations, we undertook research to develop a method to discriminate wild from farmed Dybowski's frog (Rana dybowskii) based on femur bone density. We measured femur bone density (D(f)) as the ratio of bone mass to bone volume. D(f) of wild frogs revealed a slightly increasing linear trend with increasing age (R(2)=0.214 in males and R(2)=0.111 in females, p=0.000). Wild males and wild females of age classes from 2 to ≥ 5 years had similar D(f) values. In contrast, 2-year-old farmed frogs showed significantly higher D(f) values (p=0.000) among males (mean D(f)=0.623 ± 0.011 g/ml, n=32) than females (mean D(f)=0.558 ± 0.011 g/ml, n=27). For both sexes, D(f) of wild frogs was significantly higher than that of farmed frogs (p=0.000). Among males, 87.5% (28 of 32 individuals) of farmed frogs were correctly identified as farmed frogs and 86.3% (69 of 80 individuals) of wild frogs were correctly identified as wild frogs. These results suggest that femur bone density is one reliable tool for discriminating between wild and farmed Dybowski's frog. This study also highlights a novel strategy with explicit forensic potential to discriminate wild from captive bred wildlife species. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of a wild Siberian tiger.

    Sun, Yujiao; Lu, Taofeng; Sun, Zhaohui; Guan, Weijun; Liu, Zhensheng; Teng, Liwei; Wang, Shuo; Ma, Yuehui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) was sequenced, using muscle tissue obtained from a male wild tiger. The total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,996 bp. The genome structure of this tiger is in accordance with other Siberian tigers and it contains 12S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and 1 control region.

  16. Atrial septal defect in a Korean wild raccoon dog

    YIM, Soomi; CHOI, Sooyoung; KIM, Jongtaek; CHUNG, Jin-Young; PARK, Inchul

    2017-01-01

    An approximately two-year-old, male 6.1 kg body weight, Korean wild raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides koreensis) was captured by the wildlife medical rescue center of Kangwon National University. Upon physical examination, the heart rate was 87 beats per min and there were no clinical signs. The hematological, and blood biochemical profiles revealed no remarkable findings; however, thoracic radiographs showed cardiac enlargement, especially in the right atrium. On electrocardiogram, sinus...

  17. Wild mountains, wild rivers: Keeping the sacred origins

    Linda Moon Stumpff

    2007-01-01

    For many indigenous peoples in North America, wild mountains and rivers and other natural formations exist as physical beings formed as part of a whole by forces that interconnect people with them. This perspective frames a discussion around an idea that expresses time and space as wrapped up in the mountain. If time is within the being of place and space within the...

  18. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D' Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  19. Reproductive endocrinology of wild, long-lived raptors.

    Blas, Julio; López, Lidia; Tanferna, Alessandro; Sergio, Fabrizio; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2010-08-01

    The last decades have witnessed a surge of studies analyzing the role of sex hormones on the behavior and ecology of wild bird populations, allowing a more integrated view of the evolution of avian physiology and life histories. Despite a marked progress, field studies show a considerable bias towards research on specific phylogenetic groups, neglecting a significant fraction of the class Aves. Here we analysed changes in the circulating levels of sex steroids in relation to reproductive behaviour in wild black kites (Milvus migrans), a long-lived and socially monogamous Accipitridae raptor. Males and females displayed a single seasonal peak of circulating testosterone (males) and estradiol (females) during pre-laying and laying. Absolute male testosterone levels were low even at the seasonal maximum and remained below detection limits in females. The latter results supports the idea that avian species establishing long-term pair bonds require lower amounts of circulating androgens for reproduction. Circulating progesterone showed a single seasonal peak in females and males, but their timing (during Incubation and Post-brooding respectively) did not overlap. The fact that females black kites perform the majority of incubation and males provide the majority of care to fledglings suggests that progesterone is involved in the expression of parental behaviors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Surgical Indications for Eye Removal in Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria

    Objective: To determine the surgical indications for removal of the eye in Enugu in south eastern Nigeria. Method: Retrospective case series review. Results: At the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, between 1st January 1994 and 31st December 2003, 106 eyes of 106 patients, comprising 71 (67.0%) males ...

  1. First documented case of snake fungal disease in a free-ranging wild snake in Louisiana

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Green, David E.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is a recently documented mycotic disease characterized by scabs or crusty scales, subcutaneous nodules, abnormal molting, cloudiness of the eyes (not associated with molting), and localized thickening or crusting of the skin. SFD has been documented in many species in the Eastern and Midwestern United States within the last decade. SFD has proven lethal in many snakes, and the disease is recognized as an emerging threat to wild snake populations. Here, we describe the first documented case of SFD in Louisiana in a free-ranging wild snake.

  2. TB in Wild Asian Elephants

    2017-05-10

    Dr. Susan Mikota, co-founder of Elephant Care International, discusses TB in wild Asian elephants.  Created: 5/10/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/10/2017.

  3. Bee-Wild about Pollinators!

    Johnson, Bonnie; Kil, Jenny; Evans, Elaine; Koomen, Michele Hollingsworth

    2014-01-01

    With their sunny stripes and fuzzy bodies, bees are beloved--but unfortunately, they are in trouble. Bee decline, of both wild bees as well as managed bees like honey bees, has been in the news for the last several years. Habitat loss, diseases, pests, and pesticides have made it difficult for bees to survive in many parts of our world (Walsh…

  4. Laboratory Animal Management: Wild Birds.

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Inst. of Lab. Animal Resources.

    This is a report on the care and use of wild birds in captivity as research animals. Chapters are presented on procurement and identification, housing, nutrition, health of birds and personnel, reproduction in confinement, and surgical procedures. Also included are addresses of federal, state, and provencial regulatory agencies concerned with wild…

  5. Wild Vietnamese relatives of blueberries

    rom 25 October to 14 November 2015, wild relatives of cultivated blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum, were collected during a Vietnamese-US cooperative expedition in Northern Vietnam. The exploration involved representatives of the Plant Resources Center, Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences, in Han...

  6. Wild Maid, Wild Soul, A Wild Wild Weed: Niki de Saint Phalle’s Fierce Femininities, c. 1960-66

    Amelia Jones

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Self-described as “wild maid,” “wild soul,” “a wild wild weed,” Niki de Saint Phalle narrated herself as artistic subject in a concerted way that stands out in the history of art: as both creatively driven and emotionally renegade and excessive, as both definitively woman and definitively artist. In this essay I take this special case of self-narration, and the particular power of St. Phalle’s work, as an opportunity to explore the relationship between.(auto-biography and artistic practice. The case of St. Phalle, a radical sculptor, performance artist, writer, and filmmaker, allows us to understand the exaggerated way in which women artists were until very recently forced to adopt “fierce femininities” to make a place for themselves as artists. In this way, I suggest that St. Phalle represents a key inspirational force opening the door for second wave feminism and the feminist art movement.

  7. Sexual performance of mass reared and wild Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from various origins of the Madeira Islands

    Pereira, R.; Silva, N.; Quintal, C.; Abreu, R.; Andrade, J.; Dantas, L.

    2007-01-01

    The success of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) control programs integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT) is based on the capacity of released the sterile males to compete in the field for mates. The Islands of Madeira are composed of 2 populated islands (Madeira and Porto Santo) where the medfly is present. To evaluate the compatibility and sexual performance of sterile flies we conducted a series of field cage tests. At same time, the process of laboratory domestication was evaluated. 3 wild populations, one semi-wild strain, and 1 mass reared strain were evaluated: the wild populations of (1) Madeira Island (north coast), (2) Madeira Island (south coast), and (3) Porto Santo Island; (4) the semi-wild population after 7 to 10 generations of domestication in the laboratory (respectively, for first and second experiment); and (5) the genetic sexing strain in use at Madeira medfly facility (VIENNA 7mix2000). Field cage experiments showed that populations of all origins are mostly compatible. There were no significant differences among wild populations in sexual competitiveness. Semi-wild and mass-reared males performed significantly poorer in both experiments than wild males in achieving matings with wild females. The study indicates that there is no significant isolation among strains tested, although mating performance is reduced in mass-reared and semi-wild flies after 7 to 10 generations in the laboratory. (author) [es

  8. Attraction of wild-like and colony-reared Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Cuelure in the field

    The attraction of wild tephritids to semiochemical-based lures are the ideal basis for trap network design in detection programs, but in practice, mass-reared colony insects are usually used to determine trap efficiency. For Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, a lower response by wild males compared w...

  9. Wild mallards have more "goose-like" bills than their ancestors: a case of anthropogenic influence?

    Pär Söderquist

    Full Text Available Wild populations of the world's most common dabbling duck, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, run the risk of genetic introgression by farmed conspecifics released for hunting purposes. We tested whether bill morphology of free-living birds has changed since large-scale releases of farmed mallards started. Three groups of mallards from Sweden, Norway and Finland were compared: historical wild (before large-scale releases started, present-day wild, and present-day farmed. Higher density of bill lamellae was observed in historical wild mallards (only males. Farmed mallards had wider bills than present-day and historical wild ones. Present-day wild and farmed mallards also had higher and shorter bills than historical wild mallards. Present-day mallards thus tend to have more "goose-like" bills (wider, higher, and shorter than their ancestors. Our study suggests that surviving released mallards affect morphological traits in wild population by introgression. We discuss how such anthropogenic impact may lead to a maladapted and genetically compromised wild mallard population. Our study system has bearing on other taxa where large-scale releases of conspecifics with 'alien genes' may cause a cryptic invasive process that nevertheless has fitness consequences for individual birds.

  10. EvoWild: a demosimulator about wild life

    Eduardo Palacio Gayoso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last years we can see how AI (Artificial Intelligence is reappearing because of technological improvements. These improvements make possible the management of large groups of information with acceptable reply times.On the other hand, cost reductions in technology make possible that an investigation field like AI becomes to an inversion field closer to scale economies, that’s why it’ll be economically profitable to invert in this type of applications.One of the fastest consequences is the AI implantation in a big amount of devices of our environment, cell telephones, palms and of course, in the video game industry.This is the reason that took us to develop EvoWild, a simulation about wild life that has video game format and tools but at the same time implements AI algorithms like genetic algorithms and reasoning based in cases.

  11. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    Ya Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  12. Eastern Europe's market role

    Schreiber, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    Until the late 1980s, trade in nuclear fuel between market economy countries and those with planned economies was limited. The exception to this was in the enrichment market across Western Europe during the 1970s. Most of the nuclear generating plants in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe are light water reactors needing enriched uranium. Under the fuel supply agreements with Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union has provided all of the regions' enrichment services, and therefore it has developed the only enrichment facilities. Techsnabexport (TENEX), the USSR foreign trade organization for the nuclear fuel cycle, first appeared in the early 1970s. It was as an alternative supplier to the US government, which had a monopoly in the West regarding enrichment. In 1986 the USSR entered and soon dominated the spot market for enrichment. Political changes in Eastern Europe at the end of 1989 and throughout 1990 opened the nuclear fuel market even wider. In 1990 the USSR began allowing exports of concentrates, as well as enriched product, and a free flow of trade to the Western market is now developing for both enrichment and uranium. (author)

  13. Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis infection in a leopard (Panthera pardus pardus housed in a zoological park in north-eastern Italy

    Frangipane di Regalbono Antonio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine heartworm (cHW disease is now recognised as potential cause of serious disease in cats and other felids, especially in endemic areas. In March 2009, a 23-years-old male African leopard (Panthera pardus pardus housed in a zoological park located in the Province of Padova (Veneto Region, a cHW endemic area of the north-eastern Italy, died and was immediately necropsied. A cloth completely occluding the pyloric lumen was considered the presumptive cause of death. During necropsy, six nematodes (4 males and 2 females were found within the right ventricle of the heart and the pulmonary artery. Diagnosis of HW (Dirofilaria immitis infection was carried out by morphological features of adult worms and microfilariae, and then confirmed by detection of circulating HW antigens using a commercial SNAP kit (IDEXX Laboratories inc., USA. D. immitis infection was also confirmed by PCR amplification of the 5S ribosomal spacer region, performed on worm fragments and microfilaraemic blood samples obtained from the right ventricle of the heart. A glomerulonephritis of immuno-mediated origin and most likely associated with the HW infection is also reported. HW chemoprophylaxis and annual serological testing on wild felids housed outdoors in endemic cHW disease areas are recommended. This is the first diagnosis of D. immitis infection in an exotic felid in Italy.

  14. Vitamin D deficiency is endemic in Middle Eastern sportsmen.

    Hamilton, Bruce; Grantham, Justin; Racinais, Sebastien; Chalabi, Hakim

    2010-10-01

    While vitamin D deficiency is well recognized in Middle Eastern women as a result of cultural norms of remaining covered, Middle Eastern men are an under-reported group. Vitamin D is now known to have multiple effects, including an impact on muscle function, thereby increasing the relevance for sportsmen. The aim of the present study was to evaluate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in young male Middle Eastern athletes. Cross-sectional study. Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar. Ninety-three Middle Eastern men presenting to hospital for an annual screening undertook a blood test to evaluate their vitamin D status. Ninety-one per cent of athletes were found to be deficient in 25(OH)D (serum concentration Middle Eastern male athletes. Given the potentially significant long- and short-term effects of 25(OH)D deficiency, serum 25(OH)D evaluation should be part of the routine assessment in this region.

  15. Radioactive Cs distribution of paddy field ecosystems in eastern part of Nihonmatsu, Fukushima, Japan

    Watanabe, Izumi; Aoyama, Hikaru; Watai, Chie; Ozaki, Hirokazu; Hayashidani, Hideki; Gomi, Takashi; Yoshida, Makoto; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive elements including "1"3"7Cs were analyzed in various animals such as aquatic invertebrates, insects, amphibian and reptilian collected from paddy ecosystems of eastern part of Nihonmatsu-City and from nearby towns, Fukushima, Japan in 2013. In addition, two frog species from Fuchu-City, Tokyo were also analyzed as control animals. In the analyzed wild animals inhabiting paddy ecosystems, highest concentrations were observed in whole body of tadpoles that is a larva of frog depending on their habitat's levels. After metamorphosis of frogs, radiocesium concentrations decreased in subadult frogs due to non-eating and excretion during metamorphosis. Inter-species differences were suggested between species living in paddy throughout the year and forest species that accumulates radiocesium with high levels. Sexual difference of radiocesium concentrations in bodies of freshwater gastropod Cipangopaludina chinensis laeta and crustacean Procambarus clarkia were observed. In case of both invertebrates, radiocesium concentrations in the male were higher than those in female. The concentrations of radiocesium in the bodies of amphibians (frogs and newts) might be affected by habitat's levels directly. This finding suggests that bioaccumulation of radiocesium depends on limited narrow environments. Therefore, evaluations of bioconcentration and biomagnification are required to consider the species-specific ecological characteristics depending on geographical features such as local predator-prey relationships and mobility capability (range of migration) of each population of animal. (author)

  16. Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates.

    Muller, Martin N

    2017-05-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone mediates major life-history trade-offs in vertebrates, promoting mating effort at the expense of parenting effort or survival. Observations from a range of wild primates support the "Challenge Hypothesis," which posits that variation in male testosterone is more closely associated with aggressive mating competition than with reproductive physiology. In both seasonally and non-seasonally breeding species, males increase testosterone production primarily when competing for fecund females. In species where males compete to maintain long-term access to females, testosterone increases when males are threatened with losing access to females, rather than during mating periods. And when male status is linked to mating success, and dependent on aggression, high-ranking males normally maintain higher testosterone levels than subordinates, particularly when dominance hierarchies are unstable. Trade-offs between parenting effort and mating effort appear to be weak in most primates, because direct investment in the form of infant transport and provisioning is rare. Instead, infant protection is the primary form of paternal investment in the order. Testosterone does not inhibit this form of investment, which relies on male aggression. Testosterone has a wide range of effects in primates that plausibly function to support male competitive behavior. These include psychological effects related to dominance striving, analgesic effects, and effects on the development and maintenance of the armaments and adornments that males employ in mating competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Oxalosis in wild desert tortoises, Gopherus agassizii

    Jacobson, Elliott R.; Berry, Kristin H.; Stacy, Brian; Huzella, Louis M.; Kalasinsky, Victor F.; Fleetwood, Michelle L.; Mense, Mark G.

    2009-01-01

    We necropsied a moribund, wild adult male desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) with clinical signs of respiratory disease and elevated plasma biochemical analytes indicative of renal disease (blood urea nitrogen [415 mg/dl], uric acid [11.8 mg/dl], sodium >180 mmol/l] and chloride [139 mmol/l]). Moderate numbers of birefringent oxalate crystals, based on infrared and electron microscopy, were present within renal tubules; small numbers were seen in colloid within thyroid follicles. A retrospective analysis of 66 additional cases of wild desert tortoises was conducted to determine whether similar crystals were present in thyroid and kidney. The tortoises, from the Mojave and Sonoran deserts, were necropsied between 1992 and 2003 and included juveniles and adults. Tortoises were classified as healthy (those that died due to trauma and where no disease was identified after necropsy and evaluation by standard laboratory tests used for other tortoises) or not healthy (having one or more diseases or lesions). For all 67 necropsied tortoises, small numbers of crystals of similar appearance were present in thyroid glands from 44 of 54 cases (81%) and in kidneys from three of 65 cases (5%). Presence of oxalates did not differ significantly between healthy and unhealthy tortoises, between age classes, or between desert region, and their presence was considered an incidental finding. Small numbers of oxalate crystals seen within the kidney of two additional tortoises also were considered an incidental finding. Although the source of the calcium oxalate could not be determined, desert tortoises are herbivores, and a plant origin seems most likely. Studies are needed to evaluate the oxalate content of plants consumed by desert tortoises, and particularly those in the area where the tortoise in renal failure was found.

  18. Hsp90 depletion goes wild

    Siegal, Mark L; Masel, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hsp90 reveals phenotypic variation in the laboratory, but is Hsp90 depletion important in the wild? Recent work from Chen and Wagner in BMC Evolutionary Biology has discovered a naturally occurring Drosophila allele that downregulates Hsp90, creating sensitivity to cryptic genetic variation. Laboratory studies suggest that the exact magnitude of Hsp90 downregulation is important. Extreme Hsp90 depletion might reactivate transposable elements and/or induce aneuploidy, in addition to r...

  19. Parasitism of wild Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) by the air-sac mite Sternostoma tracheacolum.

    Tidemann, S C; McOrist, S; Woinarski, J C; Freeland, W J

    1992-01-01

    Sixty-two percent of 26 wild caught Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) were infected with Sternostoma tracheacolum, a parasitic rhinonyssid mite. The intensity of infection was higher in adult finches than juveniles, and higher in juvenile females than juvenile males. Histopathological investigation of wild Gouldian Finches revealed bronchopneumonia and air sacculitis associated with mite infection. Although this mite may not have contributed to the decline of Gouldian finch populations in the wild during the past 20 yr, it may be suppressing the return of the finch to its former status.

  20. AHP 35: Review: TIBET WILD

    William V Bleisch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Es sieht ein Mondenshcatten Als mein Gefrährte mit, Und aug den wei en Matten Such ich des Wildes Tritt….. Wilhelm Müller, Gute Nacht George Schaller's remarkable career spans nearly six decades of work resulting in field studies of wildlife in the most remote regions, including pioneering investigations on four continents. More than half of that time was spent involved with studies of the wildlife of the Tibetan Plateau and neighboring regions. Following each new phase of his career, from his work on mountain gorillas in Rwanda, tigers in India, lions on the Serengeti, wild sheep in the Himalayas, and Tibetan antelope and other wildlife on the Tibetan steppes, he has made the time to publish a book on each of his expeditions – or more exactly, two (see full list in Appendix. One is always a scholarly monograph full of data, tables, and maps, the other a popular account for the general public. These paired volumes are usually published within one year of each other, and there have been six such pairings so far. For example, Schaller's classic the Mountain Monarchs: Wild Sheep and Goats of the Himalaya was published in 1978; in 1980, he published Stones of Silence: Journeys in the Himalaya; in 1997 he published the popular Tibet's Hidden Wilderness: Wildlife and Nomads of the Chang Tang Reserve; and the next year, 1998, saw the appearance of his scholarly monograph Wildlife of the Tibetan Steppe. ...

  1. Age structure changes and extraordinary lifespan in wild medfly populations.

    Carey, James R; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Müller, Hans-Georg; Katsoyannos, Byron I; Kouloussis, Nikos A; Wang, Jane-Ling; Wachter, Kenneth; Yu, Wei; Liedo, Pablo

    2008-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that major changes in age structure occur in wild populations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) and that a substantial fraction of individuals survive to middle age and beyond (> 3-4 weeks). We thus brought reference life tables and deconvolution models to bear on medfly mortality data gathered from a 3-year study of field-captured individuals that were monitored in the laboratory. The average time-to-death of captured females differed between sampling dates by 23.9, 22.7, and 37.0 days in the 2003, 2004, and 2005 field seasons, respectively. These shifts in average times-to-death provided evidence of changes in population age structure. Estimates indicated that middle-aged medflies (> 30 days) were common in the population. A surprise in the study was the extraordinary longevity observed in field-captured medflies. For example, 19 captured females but no reference females survived in the laboratory for 140 days or more, and 6 captured but no reference males survived in the laboratory for 170 days or more. This paper advances the study of aging in the wild by introducing a new method for estimating age structure in insect populations, demonstrating that major changes in age structure occur in field populations of insects, showing that middle-aged individuals are common in the wild, and revealing the extraordinary lifespans of wild-caught individuals due to their early life experience in the field.

  2. Circadian chronotypes among wild-captured west Andean octodontids

    ADRIÁN OCAMPO-GARCÉS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rest activity pattern was studied in wild-captured males of Octodon degus (n=9, Octodon bridgesi (n=3, and Spalacopus cyanus (n=6 (Rodentia: Octodontidae. Ten-minute resolution actograms were constructed from data obtained by an automated acquisition system. After two months of habituation to a stable light-dark schedule, recordings were performed in isolation chambers under a 12: 12 Light Dark schedule. A free-running period (constant darkness was recorded for O. bridgesi and S. cyanus. O. degus displayed a crepuscular pattern of rest activity rhythm. Entrained O. bridgesi and S. cyanus displayed nocturnal preference, with rest anticipating light phase and without crepuscular activity bouts. Under constant darkness, active phase occurred at subjective night in O. bridgesi and S. cyanus. Wild-captured O. bridgesi and S. cyanus possess a circadian driven nocturnal preference, while wild O. degus displays a crepuscular profile. Diurnal active phase preference of wild S. cyanus colonies observed in the field could not be explained solely by photic entrainment, since social and/or masking processes appear to be operative. The genus Octodon includes species with diverse chronotypes. We propose that crepuscular diurnal pattern observed in O. degus is a recent acquisition among the octodontid lineage

  3. Toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals

    Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in wild and domestic animals. The present chapter reviews toxoplasmosis in wild and domestic animals. Coverage in wild animal species is limited to confirmed cases of toxoplasmosis, cases with parasite isolation, cases with parasite detection by PCR, and exper...

  4. A unique view on male infertility around the globe.

    Agarwal, Ashok; Mulgund, Aditi; Hamada, Alaa; Chyatte, Michelle Renee

    2015-04-26

    Infertility affects an estimated 15% of couples globally, amounting to 48.5 million couples. Males are found to be solely responsible for 20-30% of infertility cases and contribute to 50% of cases overall. However, this number does not accurately represent all regions of the world. Indeed, on a global level, there is a lack of accurate statistics on rates of male infertility. Our report examines major regions of the world and reports rates of male infertility based on data on female infertility. Our search consisted of systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and population-based studies by searching the terms "epidemiology, male infertility, and prevalence." We identified 16 articles for detailed study. We typically used the assumption that 50% of all cases of infertility are due to female factors alone, 20-30% are due to male factors alone, and the remaining 20-30% are due to a combination of male and female factors. Therefore, in regions of the world where male factor or rates of male infertility were not reported, we used this assumption to calculate general rates of male factor infertility. Our calculated data showed that the distribution of infertility due to male factor ranged from 20% to 70% and that the percentage of infertile men ranged from 2·5% to 12%. Infertility rates were highest in Africa and Central/Eastern Europe. Additionally, according to a variety of sources, rates of male infertility in North America, Australia, and Central and Eastern Europe varied from 4 5-6%, 9%, and 8-12%, respectively. This study demonstrates a novel and unique way to calculate the distribution of male infertility around the world. According to our results, at least 30 million men worldwide are infertile with the highest rates in Africa and Eastern Europe. Results indicate further research is needed regarding etiology and treatment, reduce stigma & cultural barriers, and establish a more precise calculation.

  5. Paleotsunamis in Eastern Taiwan

    Yen, Jiun-Yee; Yu, Neng-Ti; Hirakawa, Kazuomi; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Huang, Shao-Yi

    2017-04-01

    Although Taiwan is located in the active collision zone between Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plate with very high seismicity in and surrounding the island, and supposedly highly susceptible to tsunami hazard. However, there is no record of tsunami hazard in the past one hundred years, and only very few historical records show some possible extreme event occurred. Therefore study of tsunami was scarce in Taiwan. Although historical records do show possible tsunami events, the records were too sparse and incomplete to confidently reconstruct the paleotsunami events. In the past few years, numerical simulations based on possible tsunami-genic zones near Taiwan show that the island could be affected by the correctly directed tsunami. Nevertheless, there is no detail, scientific research of paleotsunami records yet in Taiwan. Our field survey in eastern Taiwan (facing the western Pacific Ocean) along the coast uncovered several outcrops contain gravels embedded in well-developed soil layers. The rounded meta-sandstone gravels are clearly beach-origin and were brought to their current location upon extreme wave events, which is composed of either volcanic-clastic deposits from nearby hills or organic soil layers formed locally. Our investigation indicates that there are at least 3 events in the northern half of eastern Taiwan and at least 2 events in southern part of eastern Taiwan. Although these outcrops are next to the shoreline and Taiwan is susceptible from typhoons, these gravels could be farther away from the beach at the time of their deposition due to current high retreat rate of the sea cliff. Further investigations are needed to delineate possible sources of tsunamis that caused the deposits.

  6. Microplastic Contamination of Wild and Captive Flathead Grey Mullet (Mugil cephalus)

    Lui, Ching Yee

    2018-01-01

    A total of 60 flathead grey mullets were examined for microplastic ingestion. Thirty wild mullets were captured from the eastern coast of Hong Kong and 30 captive mullets were obtained from fish farms. Microplastic ingestion was detected in 60% of the wild mullets, with an average of 4.3 plastic items per mullet, while only 16.7% of captive mullets were found to have ingested microplastics, with an average of 0.2 items per mullet. The results suggested that wild mullets have a higher risk of microplastic ingestion than their captive counterparts. The most common plastic items were fibres that were green in colour and small in size (microplastics was positively correlated with larger body size among the mullets. PMID:29587444

  7. Microplastic Contamination of Wild and Captive Flathead Grey Mullet (Mugil cephalus

    Lewis T. O. Cheung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 60 flathead grey mullets were examined for microplastic ingestion. Thirty wild mullets were captured from the eastern coast of Hong Kong and 30 captive mullets were obtained from fish farms. Microplastic ingestion was detected in 60% of the wild mullets, with an average of 4.3 plastic items per mullet, while only 16.7% of captive mullets were found to have ingested microplastics, with an average of 0.2 items per mullet. The results suggested that wild mullets have a higher risk of microplastic ingestion than their captive counterparts. The most common plastic items were fibres that were green in colour and small in size (<2 mm. Polypropylene was the most common polymer (42%, followed by polyethylene (25%. In addition, the abundance of microplastics was positively correlated with larger body size among the mullets.

  8. The effect of exposure to farmed salmon on piscine orthoreovirus infection and fitness in wild Pacific salmon in British Columbia, Canada.

    Alexandra Morton

    Full Text Available The disease Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation (HSMI is causing substantial economic losses to the Norwegian salmon farming industry where the causative agent, piscine orthoreovirus (PRV, is reportedly spreading from farmed to wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar with as yet undetermined impacts. To assess if PRV infection is epidemiologically linked between wild and farmed salmon in the eastern Pacific, wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp. from regions designated as high or low exposure to salmon farms and farmed Atlantic salmon reared in British Columbia (BC were tested for PRV. The proportion of PRV infection in wild fish was related to exposure to salmon farms (p = 0.0097. PRV was detected in: 95% of farmed Atlantic salmon, 37-45% of wild salmon from regions highly exposed to salmon farms and 5% of wild salmon from the regions furthest from salmon farms. The proportion of PRV infection was also significantly lower (p = 0.0008 where wild salmon had been challenged by an arduous return migration into high-elevation spawning habitat. Inter-annual PRV infection declined in both wild and farmed salmon from 2012-2013 (p ≤ 0.002. These results suggest that PRV transfer is occurring from farmed Atlantic salmon to wild Pacific salmon, that infection in farmed salmon may be influencing infection rates in wild salmon, and that this may pose a risk of reduced fitness in wild salmon impacting their survival and reproduction.

  9. Male pattern baldness

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  10. Genital sores - male

    Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...

  11. Identification of Chemicals Emitted by Calling Males of the Sapote Fruit Fly, Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Emissions from sexually active Anastrepha serpentine males were collected by solid-phase microextraction. Calling behavior of wild-type males showed no clear peak during the day, except that it was evident less frequently immediately after daybreak and just before dark. Calling by laboratory males...

  12. Atrial septal defect in a Korean wild raccoon dog.

    Yim, Soomi; Choi, Sooyoung; Kim, Jongtaek; Chung, Jin-Young; Park, Inchul

    2017-10-07

    An approximately two-year-old, male 6.1 kg body weight, Korean wild raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides koreensis) was captured by the wildlife medical rescue center of Kangwon National University. Upon physical examination, the heart rate was 87 beats per min and there were no clinical signs. The hematological, and blood biochemical profiles revealed no remarkable findings; however, thoracic radiographs showed cardiac enlargement, especially in the right atrium. On electrocardiogram, sinus node dysfunction and bradyarrhythmia were revealed. Echocardiography showed a left-to-right shunting atrial septal defect. Based on these findings, this Korean wild raccoon dog was diagnosed with atrial septal defect. This is the rare case report of atrial septal defect in wildlife.

  13. Social Rank, Stress, Fitness, and Life Expectancy in Wild Rabbits

    von Holst, Dietrich; Hutzelmeyer, Hans; Kaetzke, Paul; Khaschei, Martin; Schönheiter, Ronald

    Wild rabbits of the two sexes have separate linear rank orders, which are established and maintained by intensive fights. The social rank of individuals strongly influence their fitness: males and females that gain a high social rank, at least at the outset of their second breeding season, have a much higher lifetime fitness than subordinate individuals. This is because of two separate factors: a much higher fecundity and annual reproductive success and a 50% longer reproductive life span. These results are in contrast to the view in evolutionary biology that current reproduction can be increased only at the expense of future survival and/or fecundity. These concepts entail higher physiological costs in high-ranking mammals, which is not supported by our data: In wild rabbits the physiological costs of social positions are caused predominantly by differential psychosocial stress responses that are much lower in high-ranking than in low-ranking individuals.

  14. Spatiotemporal trends in Canadian domestic wild boar production and habitat predict wild pig distribution

    Michel, Nicole; Laforge, Michel; van Beest, Floris

    2017-01-01

    eradication of wild pigs is rarely feasible after establishment over large areas, effective management will depend on strengthening regulations and enforcement of containment practices for Canadian domestic wild boar farms. Initiation of coordinated provincial and federal efforts to implement population...... wild boar and test the propagule pressure hypothesis to improve predictive ability of an existing habitat-based model of wild pigs. We reviewed spatiotemporal patterns in domestic wild boar production across ten Canadian provinces during 1991–2011 and evaluated the ability of wild boar farm...... distribution to improve predictive models of wild pig occurrence using a resource selection probability function for wild pigs in Saskatchewan. Domestic wild boar production in Canada increased from 1991 to 2001 followed by sharp declines in all provinces. The distribution of domestic wild boar farms in 2006...

  15. Exploring Geographic Variability in Cancer Prevalence in Eastern Morocco: A Retrospective Study over Eight Years.

    Elidrissi Errahhali, Manal; Elidrissi Errahhali, Mounia; Abda, Naima; Bellaoui, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Malignant diseases have been believed to be more common in some areas of Eastern Morocco, but until now, cancer patterns have not been reported for this region. In this paper we present for the first time the cancer prevalence analysis in Eastern Morocco. Cross-sectional study carried out among all patients diagnosed and/or treated with cancer at the Hassan II Regional Oncology Center (ROC) since it was established in October 2005 until December 2012. The ROC is the only hospital specialized in cancer care in Eastern Morocco. A total of 8,508 cases of cancer were registered among residents in Eastern Morocco, with a female to male ratio of 2.1. The mean age at diagnosis was 53.9 ± 15.2 years (median age = 53 years). Thus, unlike in Western countries, cancer in Eastern Morocco afflicts younger population. The areas of Eastern Morocco did not differ significantly by mean age at diagnosis (p = 0.061). However, these regions differed significantly by sex ratio (p Morocco was observed, both in males and females (p Morocco differed significantly by cancer prevalence (p Morocco. Our study illustrates substantial differences in cancer patterns between areas of Eastern Morocco. These findings are important for cancer control and highlight the need to develop program aiming at controlling and preventing the spread of major cancer sites in Eastern Morocco, particularly in areas with increased cancer prevalence rates.

  16. Reduced reproductive success of hatchery coho salmon in the wild: insights into most likely mechanisms.

    Thériault, Véronique; Moyer, Gregory R; Jackson, Laura S; Blouin, Michael S; Banks, Michael A

    2011-05-01

    Supplementation of wild salmonids with captive-bred fish is a common practice for both commercial and conservation purposes. However, evidence for lower fitness of captive-reared fish relative to wild fish has accumulated in recent years, diminishing the apparent effectiveness of supplementation as a management tool. To date, the mechanism(s) responsible for these fitness declines remain unknown. In this study, we showed with molecular parentage analysis that hatchery coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) had lower reproductive success than wild fish once they reproduced in the wild. This effect was more pronounced in males than in same-aged females. Hatchery spawned fish that were released as unfed fry (age 0), as well as hatchery fish raised for one year in the hatchery (released as smolts, age 1), both experienced lower lifetime reproductive success (RS) than wild fish. However, the subset of hatchery males that returned as 2-year olds (jacks) did not exhibit the same fitness decrease as males that returned as 3-year olds. Thus, we report three lines of evidence pointing to the absence of sexual selection in the hatchery as a contributing mechanism for fitness declines of hatchery fish in the wild: (i) hatchery fish released as unfed fry that survived to adulthood still had low RS relative to wild fish, (ii) age-3 male hatchery fish consistently showed a lower relative RS than female hatchery fish (suggesting a role for sexual selection), and (iii) age-2 jacks, which use a sneaker mating strategy, did not show the same declines as 3-year olds, which compete differently for females (again, implicating sexual selection). © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Dispersal and longevity of wild and mass-reared Anastrepha Ludens and Anastrepha Obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Hernandez, E.; Orozco, D.; Flores Breceda, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-01-01

    The rates of dispersal and survival of sterile mass-reared laboratory flies and sterile wild flies of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) were estimated and compared with a regular rectangular array of 64 food-baited traps spaced 60 m between traps around the release point in Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico. The traps were scored every day during the first week, and then every 3 d over a 30-d period. For A. obliqua, the number of males recaptured was higher than that of females, while for A. ludens, females were recaptured more frequently than males. The recapture rate for the wild strains ranged from 0.6-24.8% for A. ludens and 1.3-16.2% for A. obliqua and the corresponding ranges for the mass-reared strains were 0.5-7.1% and 0.5-3.0% respectively. The life expectancy was 4.7 d for wild and 4.3 d for mass-reared A. obliqua males but 3 and 2 d, respectively, for wild and mass-reared A. ludens males. The net displacement of A. ludens and A. obliqua ranged approximately from 100-250 m and took place mostly on the first day. Wild A. ludens moved to the northwest from the release point while the mass-reared strain moved to the west. The A. obliqua wild flies moved to the west, while the mass-reared strain shifted to the southwest. We discuss the implications of our findings as to the spacing and frequency of sterile fly releases for the suppression of wild populations. (author) [es

  18. Hsp90 depletion goes wild

    Siegal Mark L

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hsp90 reveals phenotypic variation in the laboratory, but is Hsp90 depletion important in the wild? Recent work from Chen and Wagner in BMC Evolutionary Biology has discovered a naturally occurring Drosophila allele that downregulates Hsp90, creating sensitivity to cryptic genetic variation. Laboratory studies suggest that the exact magnitude of Hsp90 downregulation is important. Extreme Hsp90 depletion might reactivate transposable elements and/or induce aneuploidy, in addition to revealing cryptic genetic variation. See research article http://wwww.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/12/25

  19. WILD HONEY INTOXICATION: CASE REPORT

    Munire Babayigit

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild honey intoxication (WHI is a rare disease that results from consuming honey produced by Rhododendron polen feeded bees. WHI develops due to grayanotoxin (GT that it contains. WHI might present with mild symptoms of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological systems or might also present in a life threatining form with AV block and cardiovascular collaps. In this report we aimed to present clinical presentation and treatment of a case of WHI. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(3.000: 197-199

  20. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    Wild fire vulnerability is a measure of potential socio-economic damage caused by a fire in a specific area. As such it is an important component of long-term fire risk management, helping policy-makers take informed decisions about adequate expenditures for fire prevention and suppression, and to target those regions at highest risk. This paper presents a first approach to assess wild fire vulnerability at the European level. A conservative approach was chosen that assesses the cost of restoring the previous land cover after a potential fire. Based on the CORINE Land Cover, a restoration cost was established for each land cover class at country level, and an average restoration time was assigned according to the recovery capacity of the land cover. The damage caused by fire was then assessed by discounting the cost of restoring the previous land cover over the restoration period. Three different vulnerability scenarios were considered assuming low, medium and high fire severity causing different levels of damage. Over Europe, the potential damage of wild land fires ranges from 10 - 13, 732 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for low fire severity, 32 - 45,772 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for medium fire severity and 54 - 77,812 Euro*ha-1*yr-1 for high fire severity. The least vulnerable are natural grasslands, moors and heathland and sclerophyllous vegetation, while the highest cost occurs for restoring broad-leaved forest. Preliminary validation comparing these estimates with official damage assessments for past fires shows reasonable results. The restoration cost approach allows for a straightforward, data extensive assessment of fire vulnerability at European level. A disadvantage is the inherent simplification of the evaluation procedure with the underestimation of non-markets goods and services. Thus, a second approach has been developed, valuing individual wild land goods and services and assessing their annual flow which is lost for a certain period of time in case of a fire event. However

  1. Energy in Eastern Europe

    Bouma, J.W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The present energy market in Central and Eastern Europe differs strongly from the energy situation in open market economies. Compared to the European Communities, the energy market in Central and eastern Europe is characterized by its high energy intensity, high quantity of imported oil and gas from a one country (the ex-Soviet Union), the dominant role of solid fossil fuels in some countries, and environmental pollution. Expected future developments are the reduction of the energy intensity and the total energy consumption, the reduction of the industrial energy consumption, the reduction of the solid fossil fuels as well as the geographic distribution of energy import. The restructuring of the energy industry has been started by introducing a market orientated policy including privatisation and the promotion of the free play of price-making forces, accompanied by relatively small-scale investments. Recent data indicate a decrease of energy consumption due to the economic decline and the shut-down of companies in the heavy industries. (A.S.) 4 figs. 5 tabs

  2. Pipelines to eastern Canada

    Otsason, J.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on four main topics: (1) the existing path of pipelines to eastern Canada, (2) the Chicago hub, (3) transport alternatives, and (4) the Vector Pipeline' expansion plans. In the eastern Canadian market, TransCanada Pipelines dominates 96 per cent of the market share and is effectively immune to expansion costs. Issues regarding the attractiveness of the Chicago hub were addressed. One attractive feature is that the Chicago hub has access to multiple supply basins including western Canada, the Gulf Coast, the mid-continent, and the Rockies. Regarding Vector Pipelines' future plans, the company proposes to construct 343 miles of pipeline from Joliet, Illinois to Dawn, Ontario. Project description included discussion of some of the perceived advantages of this route, namely, extensive storage in Michigan and south-western Ontario, the fact that the proposed pipeline traverses major markets which would mitigate excess capacity concerns, arbitrage opportunities, cost effective expansion capability reducing tolls, and likely lower landed costs in Ontario. Project schedule, costs, rates and tariffs are also discussed. tabs., figs

  3. Radiation preservation of black velvet tamarind (Dialium Guineense Wild)

    Osei Ofosu, D

    2010-12-15

    The economic distribution and marketing of the lesser known fruit Dialium guineense Wild in Ghana has been studied using a structured questionnaire and the rapid appraisal system. The seasonality of the fruit (from January to May) makes it abundant in the peak season and rare or not all for the best part of the year. Some fruits also to waste in the peak season and rare or not all for the best part of the year. Some fruits also go to waste in the field owing to under exploitation. This thesis provides information on the resident fungi, mycological quality, sorption isotherm, and the effect of gamma irradiation and packaging on the physic-chemical properties of the fruit and the sensory evaluation of the pulp by a taste panel with the view to showing the economical and nutritional potential of the fruit. The resident fungi and mycological quality were assessed by the conventional decimal serial dilution technique and plating on three media (PDA, DG 18 and OGYE). Sorption isotherms at 29 {+-}1 degrees Celsius were determine under simulated Environmental Relative Humidity (20, 55, 65, 75, 85, 95%) provided by glycerol: water mixtures; physic-chemical properties were assessed by the method of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Descriptive and preference sensory evaluation were administered using prescribed international methods on a hedonic scale. The tamarind markets are in the southern sector of the country, namely Greater Accra, Eastern, Central, Ashanti and Volta Region. The local names of the fruit varied from one region to another. The fruit was purchased mostly by adult females (48.25%) followed by school children (37.06%) and adult males (14.68). The produce is marketed predominantly in polypropylene sacks (81.81%) with jute sack taking only 3.63% of the packaging. The sizes of the fruit as expected were variable. The pulp did not lose moisture at 75% ERH but lose moisture to the surrounding at ERH's 20, 25, and 65% and the same was true for the

  4. Radiation preservation of black velvet tamarind (Dialium Guineense Wild)

    Osei Ofosu, D.

    2010-12-01

    The economic distribution and marketing of the lesser known fruit Dialium guineense Wild in Ghana has been studied using a structured questionnaire and the rapid appraisal system. The seasonality of the fruit (from January to May) makes it abundant in the peak season and rare or not all for the best part of the year. Some fruits also to waste in the peak season and rare or not all for the best part of the year. Some fruits also go to waste in the field owing to under exploitation. This thesis provides information on the resident fungi, mycological quality, sorption isotherm, and the effect of gamma irradiation and packaging on the physic-chemical properties of the fruit and the sensory evaluation of the pulp by a taste panel with the view to showing the economical and nutritional potential of the fruit. The resident fungi and mycological quality were assessed by the conventional decimal serial dilution technique and plating on three media (PDA, DG 18 and OGYE). Sorption isotherms at 29 ±1 degrees Celsius were determine under simulated Environmental Relative Humidity (20, 55, 65, 75, 85, 95%) provided by glycerol: water mixtures; physic-chemical properties were assessed by the method of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Descriptive and preference sensory evaluation were administered using prescribed international methods on a hedonic scale. The tamarind markets are in the southern sector of the country, namely Greater Accra, Eastern, Central, Ashanti and Volta Region. The local names of the fruit varied from one region to another. The fruit was purchased mostly by adult females (48.25%) followed by school children (37.06%) and adult males (14.68). The produce is marketed predominantly in polypropylene sacks (81.81%) with jute sack taking only 3.63% of the packaging. The sizes of the fruit as expected were variable. The pulp did not lose moisture at 75% ERH but lose moisture to the surrounding at ERH's 20, 25, and 65% and the same was true for the

  5. Sexual competitiveness and compatibility between mass-reared sterile flies and wild populations of Anastrepha Ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from different regions in Mexico

    Orozco-Davila, D.; Hernandez, R.; Meza, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-01-01

    The mass-reared colony of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) currently used in Mexico for suppression of the Mexican fruit fly has been in use for over 10 years. Sterile flies are released into a wide range of environmental conditions as part of an integrated area-wide approach to suppress diverse populations of this pest in the Mexican Republic. This paper assesses the performance of the sterile flies interacting with wild populations from the different environments. We investigated the sexual compatibility and competitiveness of the sterile flies when competing with wild populations from 6 representatives Mexican states: Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Michoacan, and Chiapas. Results show that the males of the wild populations differed in the time to the onset and peak of sexual activity. Nevertheless, the index of sexual isolation (ISI) reflected sexual compatibility between the populations and the mass-reared strain, indicating that the sterile individuals mate satisfactorily with the wild populations from the 6 states. The male relative performance index (MRPI) showed that the sterile male is as effective in copulating as the wild males. The female relative performance index (FRPI) reflected a general tendency for wild females to copulate in greater proportion than the sterile females, except for the strains from Tamaulipas and Chiapas. In general, the lower participation of the sterile females in copulation increases the possibilities of sterile males to mate with wild females. The relative sterility index (RSI) showed that the acceptance by wild females of the sterile males (25-55%) was similar to that of wild males. Females of the Chiapas strain showed the lowest acceptance of sterile males. Finally, the results obtained in the Fried test (which measures induced sterility in eggs) showed a competitiveness coefficient ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. This suggests that sterile males successfully compete and are compatible with flies from different geographic origins

  6. Eastern Sources of Invitational Education.

    Ryback, David

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical perspective suggesting that invitational theory shares many beliefs with ancient Eastern philosophies. Submits that teachers and other educators who embrace the invitational perspective may benefit from an understanding of Eastern principles. Briefly describes Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and their relevance to…

  7. Rhinoplasty in Middle Eastern Patients.

    Sajjadian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty in patients of Middle Eastern origin requires complete understanding of nasal morphology and an individualized approach to create a racially congruent and aesthetically pleasing outcome. In this article, common anatomic features and characteristics and detailed steps, surgical techniques, and operative maneuvers that can lead to predictable outcome in rhinoplasty of Middle Eastern patients are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mating competitiveness of sterile male Anopheles coluzzii in large cages.

    Maïga, Hamidou; Damiens, David; Niang, Abdoulaye; Sawadogo, Simon P; Fatherhaman, Omnia; Lees, Rosemary S; Roux, Olivier; Dabiré, Roch K; Ouédraogo, Georges A; Tripet, Fréderic; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2014-11-26

    a wild female population. However, further trials in field conditions with wild males and females should be undertaken to estimate the ratio of sterile males to wild males required to produce an effect on wild populations.

  9. Hybrids between wild and cultivated carrots in Danish carrot fields

    Hauser, T.P.; Bjørn, G.K.

    2001-01-01

    , and as biennials they should normally not flower before harvest of the roots. Still, flowering individuals can be found in most Danish fields, and sometimes in very high numbers. At least 75% of the flowering plants are male fertile, with ca. 83% of the pollen being viable. More than half of the plants produce...... seeds. Pollen and seed dispersal from fields into wild carrot populations is probably rather frequent in Denmark. A closer inspection of the morphology of flowering plants indicate that some of these (2-60%) are bolters of pure cultivar origin, as indicated primarily by orange root colour. The remainder...

  10. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Borucki, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-05

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a variety of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.

  11. Middle Eastern power systems

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Middle Eastern Power systems have evolved independently of each other over many decades. The region covers a wide geographical area of over 4 million square kilometers with an estimated population in 1990 of over 120 million people. This paper discusses the present status and future power system developments in the Middle East with emphasis on the Mashrequ Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, and the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interconnections within MAC and possible extensions to Turkey, Europe, and Central Africa are discussed. A common characteristic of the MAC power systems is that they are all operated by government or semi-government bodies. The energy resources in the region are varied. Countries such as Iraq, Egypt, and Syria have significant hydro power resources. On the other hand, the GCC countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel reserves

  12. Molecular tracing of classical swine fever viruses isolated from wild boars and pigs in France from 2002 to 2011.

    Simon, Gaëlle; Le Dimna, Mireille; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique; Pol, Françoise

    2013-10-25

    There were three outbreaks of classical swine fever (CSF) in north-eastern France between 2002 and 2011. The first two occurred in April 2002 in the Moselle department, in a wild boar and pig herd, respectively, while the third occurred in April 2003, in the Bas-Rhin department, in a wild boar. A survey was subsequently implemented in wild boar and domestic pig populations, during which 43 CSF viruses (CSFVs) were genetically characterized to provide information on virus sources, trace virus evolution and help in the monitoring of effective control measures. Phylogenetic analyses, based on fragments of the 5'NTR, E2 and NS5B genes, showed that all French CSFVs could be assigned to genotype 2, subgenotype 2.3. CSFVs isolated in Moselle were classified in the "Rostock" lineage, a strain first described in 2001 in wild boar populations in the Eifel region of north-western Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany, and in Luxemburg. In contrast, the CSFVs isolated in Bas-Rhin were homologous to strains from the "Uelzen" lineage, a strain previously isolated from wild boars in south-eastern Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, as well as in Vosges du Nord, France, during a previous outbreak that had occurred in wild boars between 1992 and 2001. The outbreak in Moselle domestic pigs was quickly resolved as it concerned only one herd. The infection in wild boars from Moselle was extinguished after a few months whereas wild boars from Bas-Rhin remained infected until 2007. Molecular tracing showed that the Bas-Rhin index virus strain evolved slightly during the period but that no strain from a novel lineage was introduced until this outbreak ended after application of a vaccination scheme for six years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Leukosis in captive wild birds].

    Loupal, G

    1984-10-01

    Among 2589 captive wild birds, examined between 1974 and 1983, we found leukosis in 26 birds belonging to 13 different species and five orders. We diagnosed lymphoid leukosis in 11 birds (two Melopsittacus undulatus, two Psittacus erithacus one Platycerus eximius, one Columba livia, one Streptopelia decaocto, one Polyplectron bicalcaratum, one Pavo cristatus, one Aptenodytes patachonia and one finch, species unknown), myeloid leukosis in 14 (nine Melopsittacus undulatus, two Agapomis personata fischeri, two Urgeainthus bengalus and one Neophemia pulchella) and stem cell leukosis in one bird (Serinus canaria). Among the cases with lymphoid leukosis we distinguished between lymphoblastic (four cases) and prolymphocytic forms (seven). Myeloid leukosis was subdivided into poorly differentiated (12 cases) and well differentiated myeloblastosis (two).

  14. Wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus (L. in Chukotka

    Felix B. Chernyavskii

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed historical records of the abundance and distribution of wild reindeer {Rangifer tarandus L. in Chukotka and studied reindeer numbers, distribution and behavior from 1983 to 1993. There were large numbers of wild reindeer in Chukotka until the end of the eighteenth century, but during the nineteenth century the population declined probably from intensive harvest after the introduction of firearms by the Cossacks. During the nineteenth century herding of domestic reindeer also increased, and reindeer herders continued to hunt wild reindeer intensively. During the 1950s there were only about 8500 wild reindeer in two separate herds in Chukotka. By the late 1970s the wild reindeer population had increased to about 11 000. Ten years later we estimated 16 534 reindeer, and found only one contiguous population. Presently, the population calves and spends the summer in the Anadyr Uplands and migrates west and southwest to spend the winter in forest tundra and northern taiga regions. Predators, primarily wolves and brown bears, kill a significant number of calves. Today, the wild reindeer in Chukotka coexist with 300 000 domestic reindeer. However, current costs of gasoline and helicopters make it prohibitive to herd reindeer in much of central Chukotka, so that wild reindeer have room for expansion. Poaching is a major conservation problem. Poachers shoot wild reindeer from helicopters to obtain velvet antlers. Leaders of domestic reindeer cooperatives encourage poaching by telling people that wild reindeer are in fact just stray domestic reindeer and there is no enforcement of game laws.

  15. Wild Musa Species Collection of Purwodadi Botanic Garden: Inventory and Its Morpho - taxonomic Review

    Lia Hapsari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia, being part of the center of origin of bananas (Musaceae, has a large number diversity of bananas both wild seeded species and edible seedless cultivated varieties. Inventory of wild Musa species in Purwodadi Botanic Garden has been conducted through compiling data records from PBG’s Registration section, field inspection and observation to living collections in the garden, herbarium specimens and literature studies. The results show that total 17 wild Musa accessions has been recorded planted in Purwodadi Botanic Garden since 1990 until 2012; comprises of 8 Musa acuminata sub species, 2 Musa balbisiana forms, 1 Musa ornata, 1 Musa troglodytarum, 1 Musa borneensis and 4 unidentified species Musa spp.; but only 8 living accessions remained in 2012. Morphotaxonomic review of those 8 wild Musa accessions remained will be discussed in this paper including their geographical distributions. According to its differentiated morphological characteristics observations, it is known that there are three accessions were resembled cultivars and one unidentified species have been determined its species level, so that their registration identity needs to be revised. It is important next to prioritize ex-situ conservation of wild Musa species not yet collected in Purwodadi Botanic Garden especially from Eastern Indonesia.

  16. Patterns of testicular activity in captive and wild Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis)

    Kerry Fanson; Nadja C. Wielebnowski; Tanya M. Shenk; Walter J. Jakubas; John R. Squires; Jeffrey R. Lucas

    2010-01-01

    Canada lynx are listed as a threatened species in the contiguous US. Understanding the reproductive characteristics (i.e., mating system, behavior, physiology) of a species is useful for ensuring effective in situ and ex situ management plans. The goal of this study was to describe patterns of androgen expression in both captive and wild male Canada lynx using...

  17. Uniting ecological and genetic data for the conservation of wild ibex

    M. K. Schwartz

    2009-01-01

    There are few taxa more endangered than the Ethiopian Walia ibex. This wild mountain goat inhabits the Simen Mountains of Ethiopia and is known for its enormous backwards curving horns that exceed a meter in length on some males. Historically, hunting and habitat degradation endangered this ibex's persistence. Now this national symbol of Ethiopia is threatened by...

  18. Effect of wild Helianthus cytoplasms on agronomic and oil characteristics of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus L.)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) productions reliance on a single source of cytoplasmic male-sterility, PET1, derived from H. petiolaris Nutt., makes the crop genetically vulnerable. Twenty diverse cytoplasmic substitution lines from annual and perennial wild species were compared with the inbred li...

  19. First record of the blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae from the Tropical Eastern Pacific

    Andrés López-Garro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus, is one of the most common Indo-Pacific reef sharks. On April 29, 2012, a juvenile male blacktip reef shark measuring 89 cm total length (TL, was incidentally caught during a research expedition in Chatham Bay, Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, located in the Tropical Eastern Pacific. This is the first record of the species from Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica, and from the Tropical Eastern Pacific.

  20. Do Wild Great Tits Avoid Exposure to Light at Night?

    Maaike de Jong

    Full Text Available Studies of wild populations have provided important insights into the effects of artificial light at night on organisms, populations and ecosystems. However, in most studies the exact amount of light at night individuals are exposed to remains unknown. Individuals can potentially control their nighttime light exposure by seeking dark spots within illuminated areas. This uncertainty makes it difficult to attribute effects to a direct effect of light at night, or to indirect effects, e.g., via an effect of light at night on food availability. In this study, we aim to quantify the nocturnal light exposure of wild birds in a previously dark forest-edge habitat, experimentally illuminated with three different colors of street lighting, in comparison to a dark control. During two consecutive breeding seasons, we deployed male great tits (Parus major with a light logger measuring light intensity every five minutes over a 24h period. We found that three males from pairs breeding in brightly illuminated nest boxes close to green and red lamp posts, were not exposed to more artificial light at night than males from pairs breeding further away. This suggests, based on our limited sample size, that these males could have been avoiding light at night by choosing a roosting place with a reduced light intensity. Therefore, effects of light at night previously reported for this species in our experimental set-up might be indirect. In contrast to urban areas where light is omnipresent, bird species in non-urban areas may evade exposure to nocturnal artificial light, thereby avoiding direct consequences of light at night.

  1. Integrating ethnobiological knowledge into biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas.

    O'Neill, Alexander R; Badola, Hemant K; Dhyani, Pitamber P; Rana, Santosh K

    2017-03-29

    Biocultural knowledge provides valuable insight into ecological processes, and can guide conservation practitioners in local contexts. In many regions, however, such knowledge is underutilized due to its often-fragmented record in disparate sources. In this article, we review and apply ethnobiological knowledge to biodiversity conservation in the Eastern Himalayas. Using Sikkim, India as a case study, we: (i) traced the history and trends of ethnobiological documentation; (ii) identified priority species and habitat types; and, (iii) analyzed within and among community differences pertaining to species use and management. Our results revealed that Sikkim is a biocultural hotspot, where six ethnic communities and 1128 species engage in biocultural relationships. Since the mid-1800s, the number of ethnobiological publications from Sikkim has exponentially increased; however, our results also indicate that much of this knowledge is both unwritten and partitioned within an aging, gendered, and caste or ethnic group-specific stratum of society. Reviewed species were primarily wild or wild cultivated, native to subtropical and temperate forests, and pend IUCN Red List of Threatened Species assessment. Our results demonstrate the value of engaging local knowledge holders as active participants in conservation, and suggest the need for further ethnobiological research in the Eastern Himalayas. Our interdisciplinary approach, which included rank indices and geospatial modelling, can help integrate diverse datasets into evidence-based policy.

  2. Individual and contextual variation in Thomas langur male loud calls

    Wich, S.A.; Koski, S.; Vries, Han de; Schaik, Carel P. van

    2003-01-01

    Individual and contextual differences in male loud calls of wild Thomas langurs (Presbytis thomasi) were studied in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Loud calls were given in the following contexts: morning calls, vocal responses to other groups, between-group encounter calls and alarmcalls. Loud

  3. Genetic relationships and epidemiological links between wild type 1 poliovirus isolates in Pakistan and Afghanistan.

    Angez, Mehar; Shaukat, Shahzad; Alam, Muhammad M; Sharif, Salmaan; Khurshid, Adnan; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor

    2012-02-22

    Efforts have been made to eliminate wild poliovirus transmission since 1988 when the World Health Organization began its global eradication campaign. Since then, the incidence of polio has decreased significantly. However, serotype 1 and serotype 3 still circulate endemically in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Both countries constitute a single epidemiologic block representing one of the three remaining major global reservoirs of poliovirus transmission. In this study we used genetic sequence data to investigate transmission links among viruses from diverse locations during 2005-2007. In order to find the origins and routes of wild type 1 poliovirus circulation, polioviruses were isolated from faecal samples of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) patients. We used viral cultures, two intratypic differentiation methods PCR, ELISA to characterize as vaccine or wild type 1 and nucleic acid sequencing of entire VP1 region of poliovirus genome to determine the genetic relatedness. One hundred eleven wild type 1 poliovirus isolates were subjected to nucleotide sequencing for genetic variation study. Considering the 15% divergence of the sequences from Sabin 1, Phylogenetic analysis by MEGA software revealed that active inter and intra country transmission of many genetically distinct strains of wild poliovirus type 1 belonged to genotype SOAS which is indigenous in this region. By grouping wild type 1 polioviruses according to nucleotide sequence homology, three distinct clusters A, B and C were obtained with multiple chains of transmission together with some silent circulations represented by orphan lineages. Our results emphasize that there was a persistent transmission of wild type 1 polioviruses in Pakistan and Afghanistan during 2005-2007. The epidemiologic information provided by the sequence data can contribute to the formulation of better strategies for poliomyelitis control to those critical areas, associated with high risk population groups which include migrants

  4. Characterization of H7 Influenza A Virus in Wild and Domestic Birds in Korea

    Kang, Hyun-Mi; Park, Ha-Young; Lee, Kyu-Jun; Choi, Jun-Gu; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Lee, Hee-Soo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    During surveillance programs in Korea between January 2006 and March 2011, 31 H7 avian influenza viruses were isolated from wild birds and domestic ducks and genetically characterized using large-scale sequence data. All Korean H7 viruses belonged to the Eurasian lineage, which showed substantial genetic diversity, in particular in the wild birds. The Korean H7 viruses from poultry were closely related to those of wild birds. Interestingly, two viruses originating in domestic ducks in our study had the same gene constellations in all segment genes as viruses originating in wild birds. The Korean H7 isolates contained avian-type receptors (Q226 and G228), no NA stalk deletion (positions 69–73), no C-terminal deletion (positions 218–230) in NS1, and no substitutions in PB2-627, PB1-368, and M2-31, compared with H7N9 viruses. In pathogenicity experiments, none of the Korean H7 isolates tested induced clinical signs in domestic ducks or mice. Furthermore, while they replicated poorly, with low titers (10 0.7–1.3EID50/50 µl) in domestic ducks, all five viruses replicated well (up to 7–10 dpi, 10 0.7–4.3EID50/50 µl) in the lungs of mice, without prior adaptation. Our results suggest that domestic Korean viruses were transferred directly from wild birds through at least two independent introductions. Our data did not indicate that wild birds carried poultry viruses between Korea and China, but rather, that wild-type H7 viruses were introduced several times into different poultry populations in eastern Asia. PMID:24776918

  5. Characterization of H7 influenza A virus in wild and domestic birds in Korea.

    Hyun-Mi Kang

    Full Text Available During surveillance programs in Korea between January 2006 and March 2011, 31 H7 avian influenza viruses were isolated from wild birds and domestic ducks and genetically characterized using large-scale sequence data. All Korean H7 viruses belonged to the Eurasian lineage, which showed substantial genetic diversity, in particular in the wild birds. The Korean H7 viruses from poultry were closely related to those of wild birds. Interestingly, two viruses originating in domestic ducks in our study had the same gene constellations in all segment genes as viruses originating in wild birds. The Korean H7 isolates contained avian-type receptors (Q226 and G228, no NA stalk deletion (positions 69-73, no C-terminal deletion (positions 218-230 in NS1, and no substitutions in PB2-627, PB1-368, and M2-31, compared with H7N9 viruses. In pathogenicity experiments, none of the Korean H7 isolates tested induced clinical signs in domestic ducks or mice. Furthermore, while they replicated poorly, with low titers (10⁰·⁷⁻¹·³ EID₅₀/50 µl in domestic ducks, all five viruses replicated well (up to 7-10 dpi, 10⁰·⁷⁻⁴·³EID₅₀/50 µl in the lungs of mice, without prior adaptation. Our results suggest that domestic Korean viruses were transferred directly from wild birds through at least two independent introductions. Our data did not indicate that wild birds carried poultry viruses between Korea and China, but rather, that wild-type H7 viruses were introduced several times into different poultry populations in eastern Asia.

  6. Studies on the bionomics of male Anopheles gambiae Giles and male Anopheles funestus Giles from southern Mozambique

    Charlwood, J D

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the fitness of wild male mosquitoes, the females of which are vectors of malaria. The problem of studying male biology has been exacerbated by difficulties associated with catching them. In southern Mozambique, however, almost the entire adult population of An. funestus and An...... strategies of sterile or genetically modified mosquitoes....

  7. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  8. [Male urinary incontinence

    Boer, T.A. de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment

  9. Self catheterization - male

    ... male; CIC - male Images Catheterization References Davis JE, Silverman MA. Urologic procedures. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  10. Environmental Assessment for Wild Horse Gathering Inside and Outside Wild Horse Herd Management Areas

    United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management

    1999-01-01

    Enclosed you will find the Environmental Assessment (EA) which describes the impacts of gathering wild horses in the Rock Springs Field Office area. Gathering wild horses would take place in the Great Divide Basin, White Mountain, Little Colorado, and Salt Wells Creek Wild Horse Herd Management Areas (HMA) and in an area known as the North Baxter/Jack Morrow area (outside the HMAs).

  11. Dietary values of wild and semi-wild edible plants in Southern Ethiopia

    However, traditional processing methods lower most of the anti-nutritionals and their respective risks. New food composition tables that integrate indigenous knowledge and nutritional content of the semi-wild and wild edibles are recommended. Wild edibles can be considered to improve livelihood security and reduce ...

  12. Puberty and dispersal in a wild primate population.

    Onyango, Patrick O; Gesquiere, Laurence R; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". The onset of reproduction is preceded by a host of organismal adjustments and transformations, involving morphological, physiological, and behavioral changes. In highly social mammals, including humans and most nonhuman primates, the timing and nature of maturational processes are affected by the animal's social milieu as well as its ecology. Here, we review a diverse set of findings on how maturation unfolds in wild baboons in the Amboseli basin of southern Kenya, and we place these findings in the context of other reports of maturational processes in primates and other mammals. First, we describe the series of events and processes that signal maturation in female and male baboons. Sex differences in age at both sexual maturity and first reproduction documented for this species are consistent with expectations of life history theory; males mature later than females and exhibit an adolescent growth spurt that is absent or minimal in females. Second, we summarize what we know about sources of variance in the timing of maturational processes including natal dispersal. In Amboseli, individuals in a food-enhanced group mature earlier than their wild-feeding counterparts, and offspring of high-ranking females mature earlier than offspring of low-ranking females. We also report on how genetic admixture, which occurs in Amboseli between two closely related baboon taxa, affects individual maturation schedules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Middle Eastern Christians in Europe

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei; Hunter, Alistair; Jørgensen, Anne Rosenlund

    This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience.......This booklet, published in English, Danish, Swedish and Arabic, has the aim to present overall findings of the research project Defining and Identifying Middle Eastern Christians in Europe (DIMECCE) to a broader audience....

  14. Prostatitis and male infertility.

    Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Geographic distribution of wild potato species

    Hijmans, R.J.; Spooner, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The geographic distribution of wild potatoes (Solanaceae sect. Petota) was analyzed using a database of 6073 georeferenced observations. Wild potatoes occur in 16 countries, but 88% of the observations are from Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, and Peru. Most species are rare and narrowly endemic: for 77

  16. Wild and domesticated mushroom consumption in Nigeria ...

    African Crop Science Journal ... On the other hand, if nutrition analysis reveals different nutrition parameters for both types of mushrooms, 43.3% opted for cultivated mushroom, 42.2%, wild; 12.2% both; while 2.2% would eat ... Keywords: Consumption pattern, Lentinus squarrosulus, nutrition, perception, wild mushroom ...

  17. Sampling wild species to conserve genetic diversity

    Sampling seed from natural populations of crop wild relatives requires choice of the locations to sample from and the amount of seed to sample. While this may seem like a simple choice, in fact careful planning of a collector’s sampling strategy is needed to ensure that a crop wild collection will ...

  18. Varicocele and male infertility

    Jensen, Christian Fuglesang S.; Østergren, Peter; Dupree, James M.

    2017-01-01

    The link between varicoceles and male infertility has been a matter of debate for more than half a century. Varicocele is considered the most common correctable cause of male infertility, but some men with varicoceles are able to father children, even without intervention. In addition, improvements...... if the male partner has a clinically palpable varicocele and affected semen parameters....

  19. Wild food plants of Remote Oceania

    Will C. McClatchey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural societies partly depend upon wild foods. Relationships between an agricultural society and its wild foods can be explored by examining how the society responds through colonization of new lands that have not been previously inhabited. The oldest clear example of this phenomenon took place about 5000 years ago in the tropical Western Pacific at the “boundary” interface between Near and Remote Oceania. An inventory of wild and domesticated food plants used by people living along “the remote side of ” that interface has been prepared from the literature. This was then assessed for the roles of plants at the time of original colonization of Remote Oceania. The majority of species are wild foods, and most of these are used as leafy vegetables and fruits. The wild food plants mostly serve as supplements to domesticated species, although there are a few that can be used as substitutes for traditional staples.

  20. First report of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae seroprevalence in farmed wild boars in China.

    Liang, Qin-Li; Zou, Yang; Gao, Yun-Hang; Nie, Lan-Bi; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Hu, Gui-Xue; Du, Rui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2018-06-01

    Porcine enzootic pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae affects the global pig industry with significant economic losses. It is yet to know whether wild boars in China were infected with M. hyopneumoniae. The present study was conducted to examine the seroprevalence and to evaluate risk factors of M. hyopneumoniae infection in farmed wild boars in China. A total of 882 serum samples were collected from farmed wild boars in Jilin City, Siping City and Baishan City in Jilin Province, northeastern China from April 2015 to February 2016, and were examined by the double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Seventy-eight out of 882 (8.8%) serum samples were M. hyopneumoniae-seropositive. Among region groups, wild boars from Jilin city (11.7%, 33/281) had the highest seropositivity, followed by Siping city (11%, 29/263) and Baishan city (4.7%, 16/338), and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.0031). The M. hyopneumoniae seroprevalence in the female wild boars (9.0%, 75/831) was higher than that in the male wild boars (5.9%, 3/51) (P = 0.4429). The results of this investigation showed that farmed wild boars were susceptible to M. hyopneumoniae. Logistic regression analysis showed that there is a significant correlation between the geographical area and M. hyopneumoniae infection, which may be related to the regional environment. This is the first report of M. hyopneumoniae seroprevalence in farmed wild boars in China, which provided baseline information for further studies and control of M. hyopneumoniae infection in wild boars in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  2. Low level of pollen-mediated gene flow from cultivated to wild grapevine: consequences for the evolution of the endangered subspecies Vitis vinifera L. subsp. silvestris.

    Di Vecchi-Staraz, Manuel; Laucou, Valérie; Bruno, Gérard; Lacombe, Thierry; Gerber, Sophie; Bourse, Thibaut; Boselli, Maurizio; This, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    A parentage and a paternity-based approach were tested for estimation of pollen-mediated gene flow in wild grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. subsp. silvestris), a wind-pollinated species occurring in Mediterranean Europe and southwestern Asia. For this purpose, 305 seedlings collected in 2 years at 2 locations in France from 4 wild female individuals and 417 wild individuals prospected from France and Italy were analyzed using 20 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci. Their profiles were compared with a database consisting of 3203 accessions from the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique Vassal collection including cultivars, rootstocks, interspecific hybrids, and other wild individuals. Paternity was assigned for 202 (66.2%) of the 305 seedlings, confirming the feasibility of the method. Most of the fertilizing pollen could be assigned to wild males growing nearby. Estimates of pollen immigration from the cultivated compartment (i.e., the totality of cultivars) ranged from 4.2% to 26% from nearby vineyards and from hidden pollinators such as cultivars and rootstocks that had escaped from farms. In an open landscape, the pollen flow was correlated to the distance between individuals, the main pollinator being the closest wild male (accounting for 51.4-86.2% of the pollen flow). In a closed landscape, more complex pollination occurred. Analysis of the parentage of the 417 wild individuals also revealed relationships between nearby wild individuals, but in the case of 12 individuals (3%), analysis revealed pollen immigration from vineyards, confirming the fitness of the hybrid seedlings. These pollen fluxes may have a significant effect on the evolution of wild populations: on the one hand, the low level of pollen-mediated gene flow from cultivated to wild grapevine could contribute to a risk of extinction of the wild compartment (i.e., the totality of the wild individuals). On the other hand, pollen dispersal within the wild populations may induce inbreeding

  3. Effects of ionizing radiation on codling moth Cydia pomonella (L) female's ability to attract males in the field

    Mansour, M.; Mohamad, F.

    2010-01-01

    Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. males and females were exposed to three levels of gamma radiation (0, 250 and 350 Gy). Females were used in pheromone traps (instead of pheromone capsules) inside wire cages at a rate of one female / trap. Males were released in a 2 * 2 m square in the middle of the orchard and the number of caught males (wild and released ) in female baited traps was recorded. Results showed an inverse relationship between radiation dose and the ability of females to attract males (wild and released). Contrary to that, result showed that the higher the dose, the lower was the number of males caught in female baited traps. (author)

  4. Supportive breeding boosts natural population abundance with minimal negative impacts on fitness of a wild population of Chinook salmon

    Hess, Maureen A; Rabe, Craig D; Vogel, Jason L; Stephenson, Jeff J; Nelson, Doug D; Narum, Shawn R

    2012-01-01

    While supportive breeding programmes strive to minimize negative genetic impacts to populations, case studies have found evidence for reduced fitness of artificially produced individuals when they reproduce in the wild. Pedigrees of two complete generations were tracked with molecular markers to investigate differences in reproductive success (RS) of wild and hatchery-reared Chinook salmon spawning in the natural environment to address questions regarding the demographic and genetic impacts of supplementation to a natural population. Results show a demographic boost to the population from supplementation. On average, fish taken into the hatchery produced 4.7 times more adult offspring, and 1.3 times more adult grand-offspring than naturally reproducing fish. Of the wild and hatchery fish that successfully reproduced, we found no significant differences in RS between any comparisons, but hatchery-reared males typically had lower RS values than wild males. Mean relative reproductive success (RRS) for hatchery F1 females and males was 1.11 (P = 0.84) and 0.89 (P = 0.56), respectively. RRS of hatchery-reared fish (H) that mated in the wild with either hatchery or wild-origin (W) fish was generally equivalent to W × W matings. Mean RRS of H × W and H × H matings was 1.07 (P = 0.92) and 0.94 (P = 0.95), respectively. We conclude that fish chosen for hatchery rearing did not have a detectable negative impact on the fitness of wild fish by mating with them for a single generation. Results suggest that supplementation following similar management practices (e.g. 100% local, wild-origin brood stock) can successfully boost population size with minimal impacts on the fitness of salmon in the wild. PMID:23025818

  5. [Genetic diversity and kin relationships among wild and cultivated populations of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes, Palmae) using microsatellite markers].

    Ugalde, José Alfredo Hernández; Urpí, Jorge Mora; Nuñez, Oscar Rocha

    2008-03-01

    Genetic diversity and kin relationships among wild and cultivated populations of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes, Palmae) using microsatellite markers. The genetic diversity of the peach palm (Pejibaye, Bactris gasipaes Kunth) was evaluated using four nuclear DNA microsatellites in an effort to elucidate the evolution and domestication of this crop. A total of 258 samples from seven wild populations and eleven races were analyzed. All loci were polymorphic and a total of 50 alleles were identified. Average genetic diversity (0.67) and genetic differentiation among populations (Fst=0.16) were high when all populations were considered. Genetic differentiation was lower when the populations were grouped according to their origin into Western and Eastern populations (Fst=0.13 for both). Gene flow was slightly higher among Western populations (Nm=1.71) than among Eastern populations (Nm=1.62). The Putumayo, Yurimaguas, Vaupés, Tucurrique and Guatuso races seem to have been subjected to intense human selection. Hybrid populations exist in Azuero, Tuira, Cauca, Vaupés, Puerto Ayacucho and Solimões, probably resulting from exchange and introgressions among sympatric wild and cultivated populations. Genetic distance (Dm) was estimated to determine the degree of relationship among populations using the neighbor-joining method; the wild populations from Maracaibo were used as the outgroup. The populations were divided into three general groups: Maracaibo (B. caribaea, B. macana var veragua and B. macana var arapuey), Eastern Amazon (Tembe, Pará and Acre) and a third group with two subgroups, Western (Azuero, Chontilla, Tuira, Cauca, Tucurrique and Guatuso) and Upper Amazon (B. dahlgreniana, Puerto Ayacucho, Solimões, Vaupés and Putumayo). The genetic relationships strongly support the hypothesis that peach palm was brought into cultivation independently in no less than three areas: the Western Andes (extending into lower Central America); Upper Amazon (extending

  6. Seroprevalence of simian immunodeficiency virus in wild and captive born Sykes' monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis) in Kenya

    Otsyula Moses G; Robinson James; Elliott Debra; Munene Elephas; Ellis Brett R; Michael Scott F

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The Sykes' monkey and related forms (Cercopithecus mitis) make up an abundant, widespread and morphologically diverse species complex in eastern Africa that naturally harbors a distinct simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsyk). We carried out a retrospective serological survey of SIV infection from both wild and captive Sykes' monkeys from Kenya. We compared two commercially available, cross-reactive ELISA tests using HIV antigens with a novel SIVsyk antigen-specific Western...

  7. Low Titers of Canine Distemper Virus Antibody in Wild Fishers (Martes pennanti) in the Eastern USA.

    Peper, Steven T; Peper, Randall L; Mitcheltree, Denise H; Kollias, George V; Brooks, Robert P; Stevens, Sadie S; Serfass, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects species in the order Carnivora. Members of the family Mustelidae are among the species most susceptible to CDV and have a high mortality rate after infection. Assessing an animal's pathogen or disease load prior to any reintroduction project is important to help protect the animal being reintroduced, as well as the wildlife and livestock in the area of relocation. We screened 58 fishers for CDV antibody prior to their release into Pennsylvania, US, as part of a reintroduction program. Five of the 58 (9%) fishers had a weak-positive reaction for CDV antibody at a dilution of 1:16. None of the fishers exhibited any clinical sign of canine distemper while being held prior to release.

  8. The effects of genetic manipulation, dieldrin treatment and irradiation on the mating competitiveness of male Anopheles arabiensis in field cages.

    Yamada, Hanano; Vreysen, Marc J B; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Munhenga, Givemore; Damiens, David D

    2014-08-13

    To enable the release of only sterile male Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes for the sterile insect technique, the genetic background of a wild-type strain was modified to create a genetic sexing strain ANO IPCL1 that was based on a dieldrin resistance mutation. Secondly, the eggs of ANO IPCL1 require treatment with dieldrin to allow complete elimination of female L1 larvae from the production line. Finally, male mosquito pupae need to be treated with an irradiation dose of 75 Gy for sterilization. The effects of these treatments on the competitiveness of male An. arabiensis were studied. The competitiveness of ANO IPCL1 males that were treated either with irradiation or both dieldrin and irradiation, was compared with that of the wild-type strain (An. arabiensis Dongola) at a 1:1 ratio in 5.36 m3 semi-field cages located in a climate-controlled greenhouse. In addition, three irradiated: untreated male ratios were tested in semi-field cages (1:1, 5:1 and 10:1) and their competition for virgin wild-type females was assessed. The ANO IPCL1 males were equally competitive as the wild-type males in this semi-field setting. The ANO IPCL1 males irradiated at 75 Gy were approximately half as competitive as the unirradiated wild-type males. ANO IPCL1 males that had been treated with dieldrin as eggs, and irradiated with 75 Gy as pupae were slightly more competitive than males that were only irradiated. Ratios of 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 irradiated ANO IPCL1 males: untreated wild-type males resulted in 31, 66 and 81% induced sterility in the female cage population, respectively. An irradiation dose of 75 Gy reduced the competitiveness of male ANO IPCL1 significantly and will need to be compensated by releasing higher numbers of sterile males in the field. However, the dieldrin treatment used to eliminate females appears to have an unexpected radioprotectant effect, however the mechanism is not understood. A sterile to wild-type ratio of 10:1 effectively reduced the population

  9. Linkage disequilibrium in wild mice.

    Cathy C Laurie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Crosses between laboratory strains of mice provide a powerful way of detecting quantitative trait loci for complex traits related to human disease. Hundreds of these loci have been detected, but only a small number of the underlying causative genes have been identified. The main difficulty is the extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD in intercross progeny and the slow process of fine-scale mapping by traditional methods. Recently, new approaches have been introduced, such as association studies with inbred lines and multigenerational crosses. These approaches are very useful for interval reduction, but generally do not provide single-gene resolution because of strong LD extending over one to several megabases. Here, we investigate the genetic structure of a natural population of mice in Arizona to determine its suitability for fine-scale LD mapping and association studies. There are three main findings: (1 Arizona mice have a high level of genetic variation, which includes a large fraction of the sequence variation present in classical strains of laboratory mice; (2 they show clear evidence of local inbreeding but appear to lack stable population structure across the study area; and (3 LD decays with distance at a rate similar to human populations, which is considerably more rapid than in laboratory populations of mice. Strong associations in Arizona mice are limited primarily to markers less than 100 kb apart, which provides the possibility of fine-scale association mapping at the level of one or a few genes. Although other considerations, such as sample size requirements and marker discovery, are serious issues in the implementation of association studies, the genetic variation and LD results indicate that wild mice could provide a useful tool for identifying genes that cause variation in complex traits.

  10. The goat domestication process inferred from large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis of wild and domestic individuals

    Naderi, Saeid; Rezaei, Hamid-Reza; Pompanon, François; Blum, Michael G. B.; Negrini, Riccardo; Naghash, Hamid-Reza; Balkız, Özge; Mashkour, Marjan; Gaggiotti, Oscar E.; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Kence, Aykut; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Taberlet, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of farming during the Neolithic transition, including the domestication of livestock, was a critical point in the evolution of human kind. The goat (Capra hircus) was one of the first domesticated ungulates. In this study, we compared the genetic diversity of domestic goats to that of the modern representatives of their wild ancestor, the bezoar, by analyzing 473 samples collected over the whole distribution range of the latter species. This partly confirms and significantly clarifies the goat domestication scenario already proposed by archaeological evidence. All of the mitochondrial DNA haplogroups found in current domestic goats have also been found in the bezoar. The geographic distribution of these haplogroups in the wild ancestor allowed the localization of the main domestication centers. We found no haplotype that could have been domesticated in the eastern half of the Iranian Plateau, nor further to the east. A signature of population expansion in bezoars of the C haplogroup suggests an early domestication center on the Central Iranian Plateau (Yazd and Kerman Provinces) and in the Southern Zagros (Fars Province), possibly corresponding to the management of wild flocks. However, the contribution of this center to the current domestic goat population is rather low (1.4%). We also found a second domestication center covering a large area in Eastern Anatolia, and possibly in Northern and Central Zagros. This last domestication center is the likely origin of almost all domestic goats today. This finding is consistent with archaeological data identifying Eastern Anatolia as an important domestication center. PMID:19004765

  11. Resource base influences genome-wide DNA methylation levels in wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus)

    Lea, Amanda J.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.; Tung, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Variation in resource availability commonly exerts strong effects on fitness-related traits in wild animals. However, we know little about the molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects, or about their persistence over time. To address these questions, we profiled genome-wide whole blood DNA methylation levels in two sets of wild baboons: (i) ‘wild-feeding’ baboons that foraged naturally in a savanna environment and (ii) ‘Lodge’ baboons that had ready access to spatially concentrated human food scraps, resulting in high feeding efficiency and low daily travel distances. We identified 1,014 sites (0.20% of sites tested) that were differentially methylated between wild-feeding and Lodge baboons, providing the first evidence that resource availability shapes the epigenome in a wild mammal. Differentially methylated sites tended to occur in contiguous stretches (i.e., in differentially methylated regions or DMRs), in promoters and enhancers, and near metabolism-related genes, supporting their functional importance in gene regulation. In agreement, reporter assay experiments confirmed that methylation at the largest identified DMR, located in the promoter of a key glycolysis-related gene, was sufficient to causally drive changes in gene expression. Intriguingly, all dispersing males carried a consistent epigenetic signature of their membership in a wild-feeding group, regardless of whether males dispersed into or out of this group as adults. Together, our findings support a role for DNA methylation in mediating ecological effects on phenotypic traits in the wild, and emphasize the dynamic environmental sensitivity of DNA methylation levels across the life course. PMID:26508127

  12. The effects of captive versus wild rearing environments on long bone articular surfaces in common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes

    Kristi L. Lewton

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The physical environments of captive and wild animals frequently differ in substrate types and compliance. As a result, there is an assumption that differences in rearing environments between captive and wild individuals produce differences in skeletal morphology. Here, this hypothesis is tested using a sample of 42 captive and wild common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes. Articular surface areas of the humerus, radius, ulna, femur, and tibia were calculated from linear breadth measurements, adjusted for size differences using Mosimann shape variables, and compared across sex and environmental groups using two-way ANOVA. Results indicate that the articular surfaces of the wrist and knee differ between captive and wild chimpanzees; captive individuals have significantly larger distal ulna and tibial plateau articular surfaces. In both captive and wild chimpanzees, males have significantly larger femoral condyles and distal radius surfaces than females. Finally, there is an interaction effect between sex and rearing in the articular surfaces of the femoral condyles and distal radius in which captive males have significantly larger surface areas than all other sex-rearing groups. These data suggest that long bone articular surfaces may be sensitive to differences experienced by captive and wild individuals, such as differences in diet, body mass, positional behaviors, and presumed loading environments. Importantly, these results only find differences due to rearing environment in some long bone articular surfaces. Thus, future work on skeletal morphology could cautiously incorporate data from captive individuals, but should first investigate potential intraspecific differences between captive and wild individuals.

  13. Area Studies and Eastern Europe: How Eastern Europe Collapsed

    Mirjana Kasapović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part, the author outlines the development of area studies in contemporary comparative politics, and points to their importance for the development of political science. In the second part, she examines the methodology – research design and methods – of regional comparatistics, paying particular attention to the problem of defining the region as a central category in this field of comparative politics. The third and central part is focused on the emergence of Eastern Europe as a historical-political and socio-cultural region in the course of history, especially after World War II, and on its dissolution in the processes of democratic transformation of communist regimes in the last two decades. The dissolution of Eastern Europe has resulted in restoration of a tripartite political geography in the area which it used to take up, made up of Central Europe, Southeast Europe and the proper Eastern Europe.

  14. Wild steelhead studies. 1993 Annual report

    Holubetz, T.B.

    1995-11-01

    Significant progress was attained in implementing the complex and challenging studies of wild steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss production in Idaho. Study sites were selected and techniques were developed to collect the needed data in remote wilderness locations. Cursory examination of existing data provides indication that most wild steelhead stocks are under escaped, especially the Group B stocks. Abundance of wild steelhead is generally declining in recent years. The portable weir concept and electronic fish counting developed through this project have been well received by land owners and reviewing governmental agencies with less impact to the land, stream, and fishery resources than conventional permanent weirs

  15. Ethnobotanic importance of plants used in pigeon-breeding in Eastern Spain.

    Belda, Antonio; Cortés, Carolina; Peiró, Victoriano

    2013-05-20

    The importance that birds of the Columbidae family have had throughout history is visible on the Mediterranean coast. Pigeon fancying is the art of breeding and training carrier pigeons and currently, several breeds exist. The sport of racing pigeons consists in covering a distance at maximum possible speed. However, pigeon breeding has another modality called "sport pigeon", where several males follow a female. This study focusses on ethnobotanical knowledge of native and exotic plant species that are used for diet, breeding, stimulation, healing illnesses and staining the plumage of pigeons bred in captivity. Using semi-structured interviews, we gathered information about the different plant species traditionally used for pigeon-breeding in the region of Valencia. Background material on remedies for bird illnesses was gathered from folk botanical references, local books and journals.The plant species were collected in the study area, then identified in the laboratory using dichotomous keys and vouchered in the ABH (Herbarium of Alicante University). We used Excel (®) 2003 to perform a simple statistical analysis of the data collected. We collected 56 species of plants (and one variety) that included 29 botanical families. The total number of species was made up of 35 cultivated and 21 wild plants. The most common were Gramineae (14 species), Leguminosae (6 species), and Compositae (4 species). Pigeon breeding is an immensely popular activity in Eastern Spain, and ethnobiological knowledge about breeding pigeons and caring for them is considerable. The names and traditional uses of plants depend on their geographical location, vernacular names serve as an intangible heritage. Feeding, environmental features, and genetic makeup of individuals are relevant aspects in the maintenance of avian health.

  16. Wild Edible Plants Used by the Polish Community in Misiones, Argentina.

    Kujawska, Monika; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    We studied the cultural significance of wild edible plants for Eastern European migrants who settled in rural subtropical areas of South America. In 50 interviews with Polish migrants and their descendants in northern Misiones, Argentina, we recorded the use of 41 botanical species and two mushroom taxa. Different cultural significance indices were applied and sociodemographic factors such as gender, age and origin were addressed. Out of the ten most salient species, nine were fruits ( Eugenia uniflora , Eugenia involucrata , Rollinia salicifolia , Campomanesia xanthocarpa , Syagrus romanzoffiana , Allophylus edulis , Plinia peruviana , Plinia rivularis , Eugenia pyriformis ) and only one was a green vegetable ( Hypochaeris chillensis ). None of our informants reported famine foods, recreational teas or condiments. Men mentioned more wild edible species than women due to their more extensive knowledge of the forest plants growing further from settlements.

  17. Sexuality and spirituality: the relevance of eastern traditions.

    Francoeur, R T

    1992-01-01

    This article outlines some of the major Eastern sexual and spiritual traditions (primarily Hinduism, Taoism and Tantrism), and discusses their relevance for the contemporary Western world. The article begins by examining the sources of Eastern sexual traditions, before and after the "Axial" period, the turning point at which male consciousness and power gained ascendancy over the female principle. Although a phallocentric view of the world came to dominate the East, Eastern cultures -- unlike the West -- maintained a respect for nature. According to this view, health and spirituality are gained only when humanity respects its place in the cosmos and lives in harmony with nature. The article then examines the sexual traditions of Hinduism, in which sexual asceticism not only coexisted but also complimented the celebration of sexual desire and pleasure. The article then discusses the Taoist traditions, which, among other things, stressed the importance of female sexual satisfaction. Taoism argued that men cannot experience true sexual ecstasy unless they develop the ability to control their ejaculation. The Tantric sexual tradition, the article explains, maintained that ultimate sexual pleasure would enable one to experience the true nature of reality. The article then goes on to review variations of these traditions: the Hindu Tantric Doctrine (Shaktism), the Buddhist Tantric Doctrine, and Tantra and Yoga. Finally, the article considers the relevance of these Eastern philosophies to the Western sexual tradition, which has tended to view sexuality as antagonistic to spiritual liberation.

  18. Secular trends in Cherokee cranial morphology: Eastern vs Western bands.

    Sutphin, Rebecca; Ross, Ann H; Jantz, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    The research objective was to examine if secular trends can be identified for cranial data commissioned by Boas in 1892, specifically for cranial breadth and cranial length of the Eastern and Western band Cherokee who experienced environmental hardships. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the degree of relationship between each of the cranial measures: cranial length, cranial breadth and cephalic index, along with predictor variables (year-of-birth, location, sex, admixture); the model revealed a significant difference for all craniometric variables. Additional regression analysis was performed with smoothing Loess plots to observe cranial length and cranial breadth change over time (year-of-birth) separately for Eastern and Western Cherokee band females and males born between 1783-1874. This revealed the Western and Eastern bands show a decrease in cranial length over time. Eastern band individuals maintain a relatively constant head breadth, while Western Band individuals show a sharp decline beginning around 1860. These findings support negative secular trend occurring for both Cherokee bands where the environment made a detrimental impact; this is especially marked with the Western Cherokee band.

  19. Dominance relationships among siamang males living in multimale groups.

    Morino, Luca

    2016-03-01

    Intense intolerance among males is considered to be an important mechanism maintaining the uni-male organization traditionally attributed to socially monogamous gibbons. Long-term field work, however, has revealed the existence of stable, socially polyandrous groups in at least two populations, raising questions about the mechanism that allows two adult males to co-reside in the same group. I collected 21 months of behavioral data on 7 two-male groups of wild siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus) in southern Sumatra (Indonesia) to test the hypothesis that dominance relationships regulate the interactions of adult male siamangs and ultimately facilitate multi-male social groups. A dominant male could clearly be identified in each dyad, based on a consistent direction of agonistic interactions, displacements and the maintenance of an advantageous position in the canopy. Males identified as dominant enjoyed greater social access to the resident female and monopolized copulations. These results suggest that gibbons possess the psycho-social flexibility to regulate intra-sexual aggression and live in multi-male social units under certain social conditions. I discuss the effects that relatedness between males and female choice have in determining this grouping pattern, and the role of male intolerance in the maintenance of primate mating systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Environmental protection in Eastern Europe

    Kabala, S.

    1990-01-01

    There is a need for the development of institutional structures to make the transfer of technology work to improve the ability of Eastern Europe to find solutions to its environmental problems. Envisioned is technical assistance: U.S. experts who will work on-site with Eastern European experts. The idea is to technically train individuals in pollution-prevention methods. Trained experts could then upgrade processes to save input, energy, and materials. In the exchange of environmental information, discussions have led to four issues: it is expensive to transfer equipment and make qualified personnel available for a long period; information is comparatively inexpensive to convey; in Eastern Europe there are trained and competent personnel; the theoretical knowledge, academic knowledge, and education are at a very high level but little of this knowledge has been put into practice. The technology transfer goal is to develop a response to needs identified by partner institutions and counterpart professionals that will enable Eastern Europe to tap resources that do exist- scientific, managerial, and economic resources and tap information resources in the US in order to address the environmental problems that exist in Eastern Europe

  1. The Relationship Between Morphological Symmetry and Immune Response in Wild-Caught Adult Bush-Crickets

    Åsa Berggren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite interest in the relationship between fluctuating asymmetry (FA, immune response and ecological factors in insects, little data are available from wild populations. In this study we measured FA and immune response in 370 wild-caught male bush-crickets, Metrioptera roeseli, from 20 experimentally introduced populations in southern-central Sweden. Individuals with more-symmetric wings had a higher immune response as measured by the cellular encapsulation of a surgically-implanted nylon monofilament. However, we found no relationship between measures of FA in other organs (i.e. tibia and maxillary palp and immune response, suggesting that this pattern may reflect differing selection pressures.

  2. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants of Iğdır Province (East Anatolia, Turkey

    Ernaz Altundağ Çakır

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Iğdır Province is situated in the Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey. Wild edible plants and their utilization methods have not been previously documented there. This study was conducted during an ethnobotanical survey of Iğdır Province from 2007 to 2012, in the period from May to October, when plants were in their flowering and fruiting periods. There were 210 interviews carried out in 78 villages. This study provides information about 154 wild plant taxa belonging to 27 families that have been used as foodstuffs, spices, or hot drinks. Seventeen wild edible plants were recorded for the first time during this study. Eight endemic species were reported as used for their edibility, and new local names for plants were also recorded. The cultural importance index was calculated for each taxon. The most culturally important species are Mentha longifolia, Falcaria vulgaris, Polygonum aviculare, Rosa canina, Crataegus azarolus, Capsella bursa-pastoris, and Malus sylvestris. This study presents the richest heritage in terms of the diversity of wild edible plants ever recorded in Turkey.

  3. Nuclear power in Eastern Europe

    Thomas, S. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Science Policy Research Unit)

    1991-01-01

    The main aim of this article is that of illustrating the experience of the use of nuclear power in Eastern Europe in order to estimate the degree of adequacy or inadequacy of COMECON's nuclear technology. The author examines four areas of interest concerning: the feasibility of new orders for nuclear plants in Eastern Europe; the pros and cons of completing half-built nuclear power plants; current policy towards existing nuclear power plants; and a review of the available evidence on the operating performance of plants in Eastern Europe. The common belief that the nuclear power experience had by old COMECON countries is uniformly bad does not seem to be fully supported by the limited evidence available. In the author's opinion, the prospects for a successful nuclear power industry in these countries depends on a series on interdependent factors among which, human skills hold a prominent position.

  4. Strategy Formation in Eastern Jutland

    Olesen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

      In Eastern Jutland a strategy formation process has been initiated with the aim of developing a strategic spatial plan for the city region.  An organisation has been set up to deal with the first phase of the process, which is to carry out three functional analyses and prepare a common vision...... in the area.   The municipalities acknowledge the articulation of the city region and the initiated planning process.  However, the municipalities might see the arena as means to lobby for infrastructure investments in Eastern Jutland, as it is doubtful whether the municipalities will feel encouraged to enter...... a process, which is aiming at increasing the national regulation within their territory.    The result might very well be that the discussion about future infrastructure investments is not linked to discussions about future urban development in Eastern Jutland.  These aspects raises serious questions about...

  5. Eastern Orthodox perspectives on violence

    Hilton Saggau, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: In the post-communist era, the contemporary national Eastern Orthodox churches have often been accused of taking either direct or ideological part in violence across Eastern Europe. In several scholarly analyses, the churches have been linked with ethnic and national violence. They have...... thus been identified as an ideological root for a distinctive ethno-religious nationalism either blocking the way for a pluralistic society or simply defying it. These cases of violence and conflicts, as well as their subsequent analysis, only point to a practical and visible manifestation of conflicts......, and they therefore don’t answer a broader theological question, namely the question of the general position of the Eastern Orthodox churches regarding violence. This article will address this broader question of what the Orthodox churches’ position is on violence and discuss the co-relation and intersection between...

  6. Regional Development of Eastern Slovakia

    Monika Hergezelová

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The aim of the work is to provide an overview of regional development in Eastern Slovakia, where are Košice and Prešov Region. The originality of the work lies in the work of enriching the SWOT analysis from the author Eve Rajčáková, which is given in the book deals with the issue of Regional development and regional policy of the European Union and Slovakia. Research question: The conditions of life of people in eastern Slovakia. Method: For writing this contribution will be used method of analysis and statistics. Knowledge on this subject have been looking on the internet and in books and sources of information publicly available. Using the data collected, we dealt with the issue of regional development in the Košice and Prešov regions. Results: The topic was the beginning focused on the overall characteristics of eastern Slovakia. Furthermore, we are at work we dealt with social and economic phenomena in both regions of eastern Slovakia. We focused on GDP, unemployment and tourism, which is in the region is widespread. Society: It is well known that there are obviously different living conditions in eastern Slovakia as in other parts of Slovakia. People are forced to, mainly because of employment, leave their region to move or commute to work to the west. The paper point out the right of this negative phenomenon that is quite visible - high unemployment. Limitations: The limits of work are limited by problems of regional development in eastern Slovakia, mainly focusing on economic and social phenomena in the society.

  7. Biochemical and hematologic reference values for free-ranging, chemically immobilized wild norwegian reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus) during early winter.

    Miller, Andrea L; Evans, Alina L; Os, Øystein; Arnemo, Jon M

    2013-04-01

    Hematologic and serum biochemistry values were evaluated in free-ranging, wild Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) as part of a reintroduction program in southwestern Norway in November 1995 and 1996. Animals were immobilized with medetomidine-ketamine by dart from a helicopter. Blood was drawn for serum chemistry from 31 adults (nine males and 22 females) and for hematology from 29 adults (eight males and 21 females). Significant differences (Ppaper provides the first report of baseline hematologic and serum biochemistry reference ranges for free-ranging, wild Norwegian reindeer during early winter.

  8. Wild translation surfaces and infinite genus

    Randecker, Anja

    2014-01-01

    The Gauss-Bonnet formula for classical translation surfaces relates the cone angle of the singularities (geometry) to the genus of the surface (topology). When considering more general translation surfaces, we observe so-called wild singularities for which the notion of cone angle is not applicable any more. In this article, we study whether there still exist relations between the geometry and the topology for translation surfaces with wild singularities. By considering short saddle connectio...

  9. Legal regulation of treatment of wild animals

    Kolečkářová, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with the legal regulation of the treatment with wild animals. It compares different terms used in legal regulation of protection of animals. It specified differences between concept of an animal in private law and public law. The diploma thesis is focused on possibilities of gaining ownership to the wild animals, proving origin of animals bred in human care. It concerns with legal regulation of treatment with handicap animals. The diploma thesis analyzes preparation a...

  10. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  11. Transfer of 137Cs to wild vegetables

    Ito, Nobuhiko; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Mezawa, Akane; Kawakami, Akira

    1998-01-01

    For the evaluation of internal radiation dose, it is needed to estimate the amount of radionuclide incorporated to human body using a simulation model. 137 Cesium (Cs) is easily transferred associating with food intake as well as potassium and so, Cs is an important nuclide for evaluation of internal radiation. 137 Cs concentrations in wild vegetables are higher than those of cultured vegetables and milk. Therefore, the transfer coefficients of 137 Cs from soil to wild vegetables were estimated in this study. Wild vegetables and soils of their farms were collected in the Hakkoda Mountain range of Aomori Prefecture. The levels of 137 Cs in wild vegetables were 0.42-18.35 (Bq/kg), whereas those in cabbage and spinach were 0.08 and 0.01 (Bq/kg), respectively, indicating that the Cs level is dozens to several hundreds times higher in wild vegetables than cultured ones. And the transfer coefficient was estimated as 0.003-0.94 for the former and 0.001-0.8 for the latter. On the other hand, 1 37 Cs levels of the soils on which wild vegetables grew was 28.0 Bq/kg and it was 3.9 Bq/kg for the farm soil. Furthermore, the effects of water content and pH of the soil on the transfer coefficient were studied. (M.N.)

  12. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    Sachser Norbert; Pickel Thorsten; Lewejohann Lars; Kaiser Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less i...

  13. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  14. Male mating biology

    Howell, Paul I.; Knols, Bart G. J.

    2009-01-01

    Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings

  15. Male breast cancer

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980-2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  16. Male depression in females?

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete

    2010-02-01

    Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; p<0.05). Overall, prototypic depressive symptoms as well as externalizing symptoms were more pronounced in females. In the subgroup of those at risk for male depression, biological sex and kind of symptoms were unrelated. Principal component analyses revealed a similar symptom structure for males and females. Low scores on masculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not

  17. Eastern European retailers and wholesalers' buying behaviour

    Esbjerg, Lars; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    During the last ten years, retailing in Eastern Europe has undergone considerable changes. The entry of Western European retail chains into Eastern Europe has helped accelerate the distributive trade of Eastern Europe. But what does it take to sell fish and cheese to retailers and wholesalers...... in Eastern Europe compared to Western Europe? Eastern European buyers attach great importance to other aspects when they list new suppliers and products than does Western European retailing. These are the results of a MAPP study of Eastern European retail and wholesale buying behaviour for fish and cheese....... Low prices and favourable terms of payment are most important when retailers in Eastern Europe buy fish and cheese. Then follows the supplier's range of products, trustworthiness of the supplier and product quality. Eastern European wholesalers also rank price and financial conditions as most...

  18. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. The effect of methyl eugenol exposure on subsequent mating performance of sterile males of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    Ji Qing'e; Guo Qingliang; Chen Jiahua

    2011-01-01

    The effect of methyl eugenol (ME) on the total times of mating, consecutive mating, mating competitiveness, multiple mating, and the incidence of wild female remating were studied in sterile males from a genetic sexing strain of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Male pupae were irradiated at dose of 100 Gy by 137 Cs at 2 d before emergence and the dose rate was 1.00 Gy/min. Sexually mature 10 day old sterile males were fed ME, while Non-ME-fed sterile males and normal wild males were used as control, and wild females as mating partners. The results showed that some ME-fed sterile males could mate continuously up to nine times, but the total times of consecutive mating and the mean value of continuous mating times were not significant (P > 0.05) compared with the control. The total mating times of ME-fed sterile males was 344.33 ± 12.55 and the mean value was 6.88 ± 0.25, but both have no significant difference compared with the control. The mating success rate of ME-fed and non-ME-fed sterile males mated with wild females were 44.67 ± 2.40% and 22.00 ± 2.31% separately. There were significant differences between them (t = -6.8, P = 0.002). The outcomes were that feeding on ME did not increase the frequency of multiple mating by sterile males, but significantly increased the mating competitiveness of sterile males against wild males. At the same time, sterile males fed ME did not significantly affect the remating of wild females 5 days after the initial mating, but increased the remating frequency of females 10 and 15 days after the initial mating. (authors)

  20. The effect of methyl eugenol exposure on subsequent mating performance of sterile males of the oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis

    Ji Qing'e; Guo Qingliang; Chen Jiaye

    2012-01-01

    The effect of methyl eugenol (ME) on the total times of mating, consecutive mating, mating competitiveness, multiple mating, and the incidence of wild female remating were studied in sterile males from a genetic sexing strain of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Male pupae were irradiated at dose of 100 Gy by 137 Cs at 2 d before emergence and the dose rate was 1.00 Gy/min. Sexually mature 10 day old sterile males were fed ME, while Non-ME-fed sterile males and normal wild males were used as control, and wild females as mating partners. The results showed that some ME-fed sterile males could mate continuously up to nine times, but the total times of consecutive mating and the mean value of continuous mating times were not significant (P> 0.05) compared with the control. The total mating times of ME-fed sterile males was 344.33±12.55 and the mean value was 6.88±0.25, but both have no significant difference compared with the control. The mating success rate of ME-fed and non- ME-fed sterile males mated with wild females were (44.67±2.40)% and (22.00±2.31)% separately. There were significant differences between them (t = -6.8, P = 0.002). The outcomes were that feeding on ME did not increase the frequency of multiple mating by sterile males, but significantly increased the mating competitiveness of sterile males against wild males. At the same time, sterile males fed ME did not significantly affect the remating of wild females 5 days after the initial mating, but increased the remating frequency of females 10 and 15 days after the initial mating. (authors)

  1. Demand for male contraception.

    Dorman, Emily; Bishai, David

    2012-10-01

    The biological basis for male contraception was established decades ago, but despite promising breakthroughs and the financial burden men increasingly bear due to better enforcement of child support policies, no viable alternative to the condom has been brought to market. Men who wish to control their fertility must rely on female compliance with contraceptives, barrier methods, vasectomy or abstinence. Over the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned most of its investment in the field, leaving only nonprofit organisations and public entities pursuing male contraception. Leading explanations are uncertain forecasts of market demand pitted against the need for critical investments to demonstrate the safety of existing candidate products. This paper explores the developments and challenges in male contraception research. We produce preliminary estimates of potential market size for a safe and effective male contraceptive based on available data to estimate the potential market for a novel male method.

  2. Male depression and suicide.

    Wålinder, J; Rutzt, W

    2001-03-01

    Based on the experiences of the Gotland Study that education of general practitioners about depressive illness resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the number of female suicides, leaving the rate of male suicides almost unaffected, we propose the concept of a male depressive syndrome. This syndrome comprises a low stress tolerance, an acting-out behavior, a low impulse control, substance abuse and a hereditary loading of depressive illness, alcoholism and suicide. This notion is supported by data from The Amish study as well as the concept of van Praag of a stress-precipitated, cortisol-induced, serotonin-related and anxiety-driven depressive illness most often seen in males. In order to identify depressed males, the Gotland Male Depression Scale has been developed. Some preliminary data using the scale in a group of alcohol-dependant patients are presented.

  3. Comparison of reproductive traits of regular and irradiated male desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Evidence of last-male sperm precedence

    Severin Dushimirimana

    2012-02-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT is increasingly used to control pest insect populations. The success of SIT control programs depends on the ability to release sterile males and on the capacity of sterile males to compete with wild males to inseminate wild females. In this study, we evaluated the mating performance of Schistocerca gregaria (Försk. males irradiated with 4 Gray. We compared reproductive traits, such as duration of precopulation time, mating duration, quantity of sperm stored by females after copulation, number of females mated successively and postmating competition of irradiated males with non-irradiated males. Irradiated males were able to mate but the resulting number of offspring was dramatically reduced compared to the average number of offspring observed during a regular mating. During a single copulation, irradiated males transferred fewer sperm than regular males but, theoretically, this quantity is enough to fertilize all the eggs produced by a female during its reproductive life. Irradiated males also had the ability to remove sperm from a previous mating with unirraditated males. This new information on the mating strategies helps explain the post-copulation guarding behaviour of S. gregaria.

  4. RISK FACTORS FOR AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISEASE VIRUS (LPDV) IN WILD TURKEYS (MELEAGRIS GALLOPAVO) IN NEW YORK STATE, USA.

    Alger, Katrina; Bunting, Elizabeth; Schuler, Krysten; Whipps, Christopher M

    2017-07-01

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is an oncogenic avian retrovirus that was previously thought to exclusively infect domestic turkeys but was recently shown to be widespread in Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo ) throughout most of the eastern US. In commercial flocks, the virus spreads between birds housed in close quarters, but there is little information about potential risk factors for infection in wild birds. Initial studies focused on distribution of LPDV nationally, but investigation of state-level data is necessary to assess potential predictors of infection and detect patterns in disease prevalence and distribution. We tested wild turkey bone marrow samples (n=2,538) obtained from hunter-harvested birds in New York State from 2012 to 2014 for LPDV infection. Statewide prevalence for those 3 yr was 55% with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 53-57%. We evaluated a suite of demographic, anthropogenic, and land cover characteristics with logistic regression to identify potential predictors for infection based on odds ratio (OR). Age (OR=0.16, 95% CI=0.13-0.19) and sex (OR=1.3, 95% CI=1.03-1.24) were strong predictors of LPDV infection, with juveniles less likely to test positive than adults, and females more likely to test positive than males. The number of birds released during the state's 40-yr translocation program (OR=0.993, 95% CI=0.990-0.997) and the ratio of agriculture to forest cover (OR=1.13, 95% CI=1.03-1.19) were also predictive of LPDV infection. Prevalence distribution was analyzed using dual kernel density smoothing to produce a risk surface map, combined with Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic and the Anselin Local Moran's I to identify statistically significant geographic clusters of high or low prevalence. These methods revealed the prevalence of LPDV was high (>50%) throughout New York State, with regions of variation and several significant clusters. We revealed new information about the risk factors and distribution of LPDV in New

  5. Currency substitution in Eastern Europe

    van Aarle, B.; Budina, N.

    1995-01-01

    Monetary instability during the transition process from a command economy to a market economy has induced a considerable increase in currency substitution in Eastern Europe. Currency substitution itself affects monetary stability since it reduces the stability of velocity. This paper investigates

  6. Anthracnose Diseases of Eastern Hardwoods

    Frederick H. Berry

    1985-01-01

    Anthracnose diseases of hardwood trees are widespread throughout the Eastern United States. The most common symptom of these diseases is dead areas or blotches on the leaves. Because of the brown and black, scorched appearance of the leaves, the diseases are sometimes called leaf blight.

  7. Citizenship norms in Eastern Europe

    Coffé, H.R.; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens’ definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech

  8. Uranium mining in Eastern Germany

    Sauer, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    A problem which simply does not exist in Western Germany is the uranium mining in the South of Eastern Germany (SDAG Wismuth). The cleaning up and control measure which are urgently needed will be a task for more than one generation. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Blood chemistry of wild Brazilian Coscoroba Swans during molt.

    Calabuig, Cecilia Pérez; Ferrer, Miguel; Muriel, Roberto

    2010-04-01

    The Coscoroba Swan (Coscoroba coscoroba) is an unusual member of the Anatidae found in South America, from the Falkland Islands and Tierra del Fuego through Chile and Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay as far north as Mato Grosso do Sul in Brazil. The species is not threatened globally, but some local populations have declined and the status of others is unknown. The objective of this study was to quantify the plasma chemistry of a wild population of Coscoroba Swans in southern Brazil during their molting period. We captured 12 chicks, 14 juveniles, and 31 mature birds. The following blood parameters were measured: glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, uric acid, creatine-kinase, aspartate amino transferase, alanine-aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, and pancreatic amylase. Significant differences between males and females were not observed for any of the parameters, and only the levels of alkaline phosphatase differed significantly among age groups.

  10. Cannibalistic behavior of octopus (Octopus vulgaris) in the wild.

    Hernández-Urcera, Jorge; Garci, Manuel E; Roura, Alvaro; González, Angel F; Cabanellas-Reboredo, Miguel; Morales-Nin, Beatriz; Guerra, Angel

    2014-11-01

    The first description of cannibalism in wild adult Octopus vulgaris is presented from 3 observations made in the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain), which were filmed by scuba divers. These records document common traits in cannibalistic behavior: (a) it was intercohort cannibalism; (b) attacks were made by both males and females; (c) in 2 of the records, the prey were transported to the den, which was covered with stones of different sizes; (d) the predator started to eat the tip of the arms of its prey; (e) predation on conspecifics occurred even if there were other abundant prey available (i.e., mussels); and (f) the prey/predator weight ratio in the 3 cases ranged from 20% to 25% body weight. The relationships between this behavior and sex, defense of territory, energy balance, food shortage, competition and predation, as well as how the attacker kills its victim are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Call mimicry by eastern towhees and its significance in relation to auditory learning

    Jon S. Greenlaw; Clifford E. Shackelford; Raymond E. Brown

    1998-01-01

    The authors document cases of eastern towhees (Pipilo erythrophthalmus) using mimicked alarm calls from three presumptive models (blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata), brown thrasher (Toxostoma rufum), and American robin (Turdus migratorius)). In four instances, male towhees employed heterospecific calls without substitution in their own call repertoires. Three birds (New...

  12. Quality of life and sex-differences in a South-Eastern Nigerian stroke ...

    This study set out to provide preliminary data on the QOL of stroke survivors in South-Eastern Nigeria and also investigate sex-differences in the QOL. Methods One hundred and three volunteering stroke survivors (53 males, 50 females) were recruited from various settings. The Stroke-Specific Quality of Life (SS-QOL) scale ...

  13. Use of trees by the Texas ratsnake (Elaphe obsoleta) in eastern Texas

    Josh B. Pierce; Robert R. Fleet; Lance McBrayer; D. Craig Rudolph

    2008-01-01

    We present information on the use of trees by Elaphe obsoleta (Texas Ratsnake) in a mesic pine-hardwood forest in eastern Texas. Using radiotelemetry, seven snakes (3 females, 4 males) were relocated a total of 363 times from April 2004 to May 2005, resulting in 201 unique locations. Snakes selected trees containing cavities and used hardwoods and...

  14. The Prevalence of Middle Eastern Extremist Ideologies among Some Canadian Offenders

    Loza, Wagdy

    2010-01-01

    The Belief Diversity Scale (BDS) was administered to 89 male Canadian offenders of different religious backgrounds. The BDS is a 33-item, six-subscale instrument designed to quantitatively measure the religious attitudes, beliefs, and ideologies of Middle Eastern extremists on risk areas described in the literature. Results indicated that the…

  15. Male Body Practices.

    Lefkowich, Maya; Oliffe, John L; Hurd Clarke, Laura; Hannan-Leith, Madeline

    2017-03-01

    The pressure on boys and men to engage in extensive body practices (e.g., closely monitored eating and exercise habits) and achieve ideal male bodies has grown significantly over the past 20 years. Central to the depiction of ideal male bodies and body practices are both the pursuit and achievement of lean and well-defined muscles. The labels "pitches," "purchases," and "performativities" were inductively derived from the literature, and used to describe the multifaceted connections between masculinities, muscularity, and idealized male body practices. "Pitches" distil how popular culture posture norms of masculinity, and manly bodies and behaviors attainable and necessary. "Purchases" refer to men's diverse buy-in to dominant discourses about acceptable male bodies and practices. "Performativities" chronicle how men embody and navigate gender norms as they evaluate their own bodies, behaviors, and eating habits and those of their peers. Based on findings from the current scoping review, future research could benefit from fully linking masculinities with the drive for muscularity to address health and social risks associated with the pursuit of the idealized male body. In highlighting the plurality of masculinities and the complexity of men's diverse identities, health care providers can better reach and support men. Focusing on, and celebrating, a wider range of male bodies could help recenter dominant discourses about how and whose bodies and experiences are idealized. The current scoping review article offers an overview of how masculinities and muscularity have been linked to male body practices, and recommendations to advance this emergent field.

  16. Non-invasive genetic monitoring of wild central chimpanzees.

    Mimi Arandjelovic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An assessment of population size and structure is an important first step in devising conservation and management plans for endangered species. Many threatened animals are elusive, rare and live in habitats that prohibit directly counting individuals. For example, a well-founded estimate of the number of great apes currently living in the wild is lacking. Developing methods to obtain accurate population estimates for these species is a priority for their conservation management. Genotyping non-invasively collected faecal samples is an effective way of evaluating a species' population size without disruption, and can also reveal details concerning population structure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We opportunistically collected wild chimpanzee faecal samples for genetic capture-recapture analyses over a four-year period in a 132 km(2 area of Loango National Park, Gabon. Of the 444 samples, 46% yielded sufficient quantities of DNA for genotyping analysis and the consequent identification of 121 individuals. Using genetic capture-recapture, we estimate that 283 chimpanzees (range: 208-316 inhabited the research area between February 2005 and July 2008. Since chimpanzee males are patrilocal and territorial, we genotyped samples from males using variable Y-chromosome microsatellite markers and could infer that seven chimpanzee groups are present in the area. Genetic information, in combination with field data, also suggested the occurrence of repeated cases of intergroup violence and a probable group extinction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The poor amplification success rate resulted in a limited number of recaptures and hence only moderate precision (38%, measured as the entire width of the 95% confidence interval, but this was still similar to the best results obtained using intensive nest count surveys of apes (40% to 63%. Genetic capture-recapture methods applied to apes can provide a considerable amount of novel information on

  17. Oscar Wilde and the brain cell.

    Cohn, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    This chapter considers Oscar Wilde's interest in the brain cell as an aesthetic object. Offering an account of Wilde's career that analyzes his early interest in physiology and philosophy, this chapter argues that Wilde's uniquely aesthetic take on the brain suggests that he rejects an account of the self as autonomous or self-determining. For many late Victorians brain science threatened both the freedom of human action and the legitimacy of beauty because it had the potential to invalidate conscious experience. But writers whose work Wilde knew, like John Ruskin, W. K. Clifford, and John Tyndall, avoided the despair of materialism by using aesthetic terms in their own discussions of life's invisible materials. Wilde's art collaborates with the contemporary sciences. His depictions of the cell direct the senses to a new field of being that emphasizes the molecular life all humans have in common, in which individual responsibility and activity matter less than the necessity of beauty. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mating competitiveness of Aedes albopictus radio-sterilized males in large enclosures exposed to natural conditions.

    Bellini, R; Balestrino, F; Medici, A; Gentile, G; Veronesi, R; Carrieri, M

    2013-01-01

    Mating competitiveness trials have been conducted in large net-screened enclosures (8 by 5 by 2.8 m) built in a natural shaded environment, in the summers of 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 in northern Italy. Aedes albopictus (Skuse) males were radio-sterilized by applying gamma radiations at doses in the range 30-60 Gy. Gamma radiation was administered to aged pupae at the rate of 2.3 Gy/min. Reared radiated males (originally collected in Rimini, Forli, Bologna, Matera, Pinerolo) and hybrid radiated males were tested against wild fertile males (originated from eggs collected in Rimini and Cesena) and reared fertile males, in multiple comparisons for mating competitiveness with reared or wild females. The ratio was kept constant at 100-100_100 (fertile males-radiated males_virgin females). Mating competitiveness was estimated through the calculation of the hatching rate of the eggs laid in oviposition traps positioned inside enclosures. No clear effect of the strains tested (reared, wild, or hybrid) was found. Results demonstrated that reducing the radiation dose from 60 to 30 Gy increases males' competitiveness. Laboratory investigations conducted after controversial results in the 2006 preliminary trials, showed that radiation induces precociousness in adult male emergence.

  19. Intertextuality and Intermediality in Oscar Wilde's Salome : How Oscar Wilde Become a Postmodernist

    de Vries, Kornelis; Bennett, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper approaches Wilde's play from three separate directions: intertextual, visual and musical. Comparing ideas and techniques in the play to the positions of postmodern thinkers, this chapter argues that Wilde sought to incorporate literary and philosophical elements more common to the late

  20. Sexual differences in telomere selection in the wild.

    Olsson, Mats; Pauliny, Angela; Wapstra, Erik; Uller, Tobias; Schwartz, Tonia; Miller, Emily; Blomqvist, Donald

    2011-05-01

    Telomere length is restored primarily through the action of the reverse transcriptase telomerase, which may contribute to a prolonged lifespan in some but not all species and may result in longer telomeres in one sex than the other. To what extent this is an effect of proximate mechanisms (e.g. higher stress in males, higher oestradiol/oestrogen levels in females), or is an evolved adaptation (stronger selection for telomere length in one sex), usually remains unknown. Sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) females have longer telomeres than males and better maintain telomere length through life than males do. We also show that telomere length more strongly contributes to life span and lifetime reproductive success in females than males and that telomere length is under sexually diversifying selection in the wild. Finally, we performed a selection analysis with number of recruited offspring into the adult population as a response variable with telomere length, life span and body size as predictor variables. This showed significant differences in selection pressures between the sexes with strong ongoing selection in females, with these three predictors explaining 63% of the variation in recruitment. Thus, the sexually dimorphic telomere dynamics with longer telomeres in females is a result of past and ongoing selection in sand lizards. Finally, we compared the results from our selection analyses based on Telometric-derived data to the results based on data generated by the software ImageJ. ImageJ resulted in shorter average telomere length, but this difference had virtually no qualitative effect on the patterns of ongoing selection. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Comparison of mating performance of medfly (Diptera: Tephritidae) genetic sexing and wild type strains: field cage and video recording experiments

    Calcagno, G.E.; Vilardi, J.C.; Manso, F.

    2002-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of the sterile insect technique (SIT) efforts are being devoted to obtain genetic sexing strains (GSS). The present work was carried out in order to compare the mating efficiency of flies from the GSS [(Ty34228 y + /X)sw x ] and from a wild type strain (Mendoza). Females of the GSS (T228) exhibit longer embryonic development, while males develop in a normal time period. In a field-cage experiment, mating competitiveness was compared between the T228 and the Mendoza, Argentina mass reared strain. The number and duration of matings and the location of copula in the tree were recorded. The analysis was repeated using irradiated males of T228. The results showed that mating efficiency of the GSS is good in comparison with that of the Mendoza strain. Although copulatory success in T228 is reduced by the radiation treatment, the high numbers of sterilized males released would compensate this effect in the control programs. In a second experiment, under laboratory conditions, video recording techniques were applied. In this case two virgin males, one of the GSS and one emerged from wild collected fruits, competed during 30 min for a virgin wild female. The proportion of successful males did not differ between strains, but some differences were observed between strains in the time spent in different stages of the courtship. Males of the T228 were more aggressive, and they attempted to copulate with the other male more frequently than did wild males. These differences may be due to selection for more aggressive individuals under the overcrowded laboratory breeding conditions for this strain. (author)

  2. Cytogenetic of Male Infertility

    Lutfiye Ozpak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Infertility by definition, is not to get pregnant within one year of regular sexual relationship without protection, affects 15-20% of reproductive age couples. Approximately 30% of infertility cases are male originated. Male infertility is caused by endocrine-related genetic defects affecting urogenital system function. These defects adversely affect subsequent spermatogenesis, sexual function, fertility, early embryonic stage of sexual maturation. Autosomal and gonosomal, numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities and related syndromes rank at the top causes of male infertility. Similar chromosome abnormalities are detected in male infertility and as the rate of these abnormalities increase, it was found to reduce sperm count especially in azospermic and oligozoospermic men. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(4.000: 230-245

  3. Males and Eating Disorders

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  4. Male hypogonadism (Part 1)

    Ye.V. Luchytskyy; V.Yе. Luchytskyy; M.D. Tronko

    2017-01-01

    The first part of the review presents the current data on the prevalence of male hypogonadism, methods of diagnosing different forms of hypogonadism, describes the clinical manifestations of the most common forms of this disease.

  5. Male hypogonadism (Part 1

    Ye.V. Luchytskyy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the review presents the current data on the prevalence of male hypogonadism, methods of diagnosing different forms of hypogonadism, describes the clinical manifestations of the most common forms of this disease.

  6. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour

    McLean Lynn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Results Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. Conclusions This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals. See associated

  7. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour.

    Roberts, Sarah A; Simpson, Deborah M; Armstrong, Stuart D; Davidson, Amanda J; Robertson, Duncan H; McLean, Lynn; Beynon, Robert J; Hurst, Jane L

    2010-06-03

    Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed) behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP) of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals.See associated Commentary http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/71.

  8. Cue lure and the mating behavior of male melon flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Shelly, T.E.; Villalobos, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the effect of the parapheromone cue lure on the mating behavior of male Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). Exposure to cue lure resulted in a short-term mating advantage. For wild flies, treated males that fed on cue lure on the day of testing, or 1 day prior to testing, mated more frequently than control males that had no prior exposure to cue lure. However, control and treated males had similar mating success in tests performed 3 or 7 days after the treated males were exposed to the lure. Exposure to cue lure also increased the mating success of mass-reared, irradiated males relative to unexposed wild males, though this advantage was evident for only 1 day following exposure. Cue lure appeared to enhance mating performance by increasing male wing-fanning activity but not the attractiveness of the signal per se. A field study revealed that irradiated males exposed to cue lure 1 week prior to release were less likely to be captured (in Steiner traps baited with cue lure and naled) than unexposed males. These findings suggest that exposure of sterile males to cue lure might improve the effectiveness of sterile insect release as well as enable simultaneous control programs of sterile insect release and male annihilation

  9. Male ruff colour as a rank signal in a monomorphic-horned mammal: behavioural correlates

    Lovari, S.; Fattorini, N.; Boesi, R.; Bocci, A.

    2015-08-01

    Coexistence of individuals within a social group is possible through the establishment of a hierarchy. Social dominance is achieved through aggressive interactions, and, in wild sheep and goats, it is related mainly to age, body size and weapon size as rank signals. Adult male Himalayan tahr are much larger than females and subadult males. They have a prominent neck ruff, ranging in colour from yellow (5.5-9.5 years old, i.e. young adults, golden males) to brown (7.5-14.5 years old, i.e. older individuals, pale and dark brown males), with golden males being the most dominant. We investigated the social behaviour of male tahr and analysed the relationships between ruff colour, courtship and agonistic behaviour patterns during the rut. Colour classes varied in their use of several behaviour patterns (male dominance: approach, stare, horning vegetation; courtship: low stretch, naso- genital contact, rush). Golden-ruffed males used more threats than darker ones. Pale brown and dark brown males addressed threats significantly more often to males of lower or their own colour classes, respectively, whereas golden ones addressed threats to all colour classes, including their own. The courtship of dominant males was characterised by the assertive rush, whereas that of subordinates did not. Ruff colour of male Himalayan tahr may have evolved as a rank signal, homologous to horn size in wild sheep and goats.

  10. DNA barcoding of wild edible mushrooms consumed by the ethnic tribes of India.

    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2014-10-15

    Wild edible mushrooms are consumed by the tribes of Meghalaya in the North-Eastern region of India, as part of their ethnic cuisine because of their favored organoleptic characteristics and traditionally known health benefits. Majority of these mushrooms have not yet been characterized in detail and are slowly shrinking in their natural habitats owing to anthropogenic factors and climate change. In the present study, representative specimens of ten morphologically distinct groups of wild edible mushrooms available in the traditional markets and their respective forest habitats, were subjected to multi-loci molecular characterization using SSU, ITS, RPB1 and RPB2 markers. The species identities inferred for the ten mushroom types using the SSU marker matched their morphological description in the case of four morphological groups only whereas the ITS marker successfully resolved the species identity for nine out of the ten mushroom groups under study. Both the protein coding gene markers RPB1 and RPB2 successfully resolved the species identity for three out of the ten morphologically distinct groups. Finally the most likely identity of the wild edible mushrooms under study has been suggested by matching their unique morphological characteristics with the generated DNA barcoding data. The present molecular characterization reveals the ten widely consumed wild mushroom types of Meghalaya, India to be Gomphus floccosus, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius volemus, Cantharellus cibarius, Tricholoma viridiolivaceum, Inocybe aff. sphaerospora, Laccaria vinaceoavellanea, Albatrellus ellisii, Ramaria maculatipes and Clavulina cristata. The final species identity generated by the ITS marker matched more accurately with the morphological characteristics/appearance of the specimens indicating the ITS region as a reliable barcode for identifying wild edible mushrooms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Male breast lesions

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Andrade, L.G. de; Carregal, E.; Marimatsu, R.I.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Roentgenographic examination of the male breast is an important aspect of the continued, intensive investigation of the radiologic morphology of the normal and diseased breast conducted in 17 cases examined at the Instituto Nacional do Cancer - RJ. It is purpose of this report to present the Roentgen appearance of various lesions of the male breast as they have been found in our practice and also to stress some of the difficulties in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. (author) [pt

  12. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  13. Ombre di ombre. Wilde cita Balzac II

    Susi Pietri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Wilde, “reader of Balzac” in Balzac in English and in The Decay of Lying, as well as in other essays and imagined conversations, tests an especially transgressive practice of quotation, rewriting and rereading both Balzac’s self-readings and the readings of Balzac made by other writers, such as Charles Baudelaire, Théophile Gautier and Algernon Charles Swinburne. In this way, Oscar Wilde transforms the manipulation of quotations into a new aesthetic invention. Indeed, by inserting themes and characters taken from the Comédie humaine in his own essays and dialogues, Wilde follows a complex strategy to take possession of Balzac’s inheritance and explores the performative power of the “mask”, the systematic use of critical paradoxes, the poetics of “plagiarism” and of “living plagiarism” as “reverse quotation” of Art by Life and vice versa.

  14. Use of wild and semi-wild edible plants in nutrition and survival of people in 1430 days of siege of Sarajevo during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995).

    Redzić, Sulejman

    2010-06-01

    This study is a systematic overview of data on use of wild and semi-wild edible plants in nutrition of people in 1430 days of the siege of Sarajevo during aggression on Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995). The author of this study spent all that time in Sarajevo. In 1993, the author prepared a survival program for people that included usage of edible wild plants. In addition, he conducted a detailed survey, including special interviews, on 630 people of average age 37.4 years (55% residential inhabitants, the rest were refuges), 310 males and the rest were females. According to survey, 91 species of mostly wild plants and three species of fungus were used: Küchneromyces mutabilis, Armillariella mellea and Coprinus comatus. Wild vegetables included 49 species, spices 24, wild fruits 16, and 2 species of bread-plants. They belong to 26 plants communities, and grew on 24 different habitats (urban surfaces, river coasts, low forest and scrubs, meadows and rocky grasslands). The 156 plant parts (leaves, young branches, fruit, flower, seed, root and rhizome) from 91 plant species were used. Vegetables were dominant category of use (soups, pottages, sauces) with 80 ways of preparation (30.53%), then salads 41 (15.65%), spices 39 (14.89%), different beverages 38 (14.50%), sweets 21 (8.02%), nutritive teas 15 (5.73%), and other preparations. In order to improve conventional food (war pasta, rice, lentils, old beans) people used spices made from different wild plants.

  15. Comparative gonadogenesis and hormonal induction of spawning of cultured and wild mediterranean amberjack (Seriola dumerili, Risso 1810

    V. Kozul

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The histological characteristics of wild and cultured Mediterranean amberjack gonads were studied during the first four years of their life cycle. No differences were found in the gonad development of both wild and captive males and females during the first and second year. In the third year, wild females showed more advanced oocyte development than captive females. In the fourth year, vitellogenic oocytes were noted for captive females. Fertilised eggs were obtained after a HCG hormone treatment of four- to nine-year old wild specimens. A smaller quantity of mature and fertilised eggs was also obtained through the spawning of hormone-treated four-year old captive broodstock specimens. Eggs in the stage of gastrulation died within eight hours following fertilisation.

  16. Epidemiological study of the intestinal helminths of wild boar (Sus scrofa) and mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon) in central Italy.

    Magi, M; Bertani, M; Dell'Omodarme, M; Prati, M C

    2002-12-01

    Since 1995 the population of wild ungulates increased significantly in the "Parco provinciale dei Monti Livornesi" (Livorno, Tuscany, Central Italy). We studied the intestinal macroparasites of two hosts, the wild boar (Sus scrofa) and the mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon). In the case of wild boars we found a dominant parasite species, Globocephalus urosubulatus. For this parasite the frequency distribution of the number of parasites per host agrees with a negative binomial distribution. There is not a significant correlation between the age of the animals and the parasitosis. Furthermore the mean parasite burden of male and female wild boars does not differ significantly. In the case of mouflons we found a dominant parasite species Nematodirus filicollis with Trichuris ovis as codominant species.

  17. Central and eastern European activities

    Rea, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Florida State University/Technical University of Budapest environmental research center, Center for Hungarian/American Environmental Research, Studies and Exchanges (CHAERSE), provides a resource base for information and technologies that is used to address near- and long-term environmental problems within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and in Central and Eastern Europe. The CHAERSE is used as a technology transfer conduit for environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM) problems and solutions. The International Technology Exchange Division (ITED) used the CHAERSE as one source of information for the identification of international ER/WM technologies being developed in Central and Eastern Europe. This was accomplished by matching high-priority problems in that region to high-priority problems in the DOE Complex; conducting symposia, meetings and workshops with international environmental experts; and identifying innovative technologies

  18. Nuclear power in Eastern Europe

    Sturm, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyses the operating experience of nuclear power plants in Eastern and Western Europe, the former Soviet Union and the United States to investigate differences in the effects of learning, technical change and the effect of recent political developments. The performance of Soviet-designed reactors compares favourably with Western reactors on the standard performance measures. However, learning curve estimates reveal a disturbing trend: the former Soviet Union and all countries in Eastern Europe experience increasing unplanned losses as plants age, whereas all Western countries reduce their unplanned losses. A similar ''forgetting'' phenomenon is observable for plant availability and there is some evidence that the recent political and economic reorganization have exacerbated this trend. (Author)

  19. Differences in basal and stress-induced HPA regulation of wild house mice selected for high and low aggression

    Veenema, AH; Meijer, OC; de Kloet, ER; Koolhaas, JM; Bohus, BG; Meijer, Onno C.; Koolhaas, J M

    Male wild house mice, selected for short (SAL) and long (LAL) attack latency, show distinctly different behavioral strategies in coping with environmental challenges. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that this difference in coping style is associated with a differential stress responsiveness

  20. Mating compatibility and competitiveness between wild and laboratory strains of Eldana saccharina (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) after radiation treatment

    The efficacy of the sterile insect technique (SIT) applied as part of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes depends on the efficient transfer of sperm carrying dominant lethal mutations from sterile males to wild females. The success or failure of this strategy is therefore critic...

  1. Museology History of Eastern Siberia

    Natalia D. Firer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the aspects of the establishment of the first museums and libraries in Eastern Siberia. The author considers the role of the museum in development of culture and public education in Minusinsk, Yeniseysk, notes the valuable contribution of the activities of merchants and intelligentsia to the museum business, as well as the reflection of the present and past of museums in Siberia.

  2. Eastern Africa Coastal Forest Programme

    Younge, A.

    2002-01-01

    The eastern African coastal forest ecoregion is recognised as one of Africa’s centres of species endemism, and is distributed over six countries (Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi). Most is found in Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique, which form our focal region. The coastal forests are fragmented, small and surrounded by poor communities that have a high demand for land and forest resources. Although coastal forests have significant cultural and traditional...

  3. Certainty of paternity and paternal investment in eastern bluebirds and tree swallows

    Kempenaers, Bart; Lanctot, Richard B.; Robertson, Raleigh J.

    1998-01-01

    Extra-pair paternity is common in many socially monogamous passerine birds with biparental care. Thus, males often invest in offspring to which they are not related. Models of optimal parental investment predict that, under certain assumptions, males should lower their investment in response to reduced certainty of paternity. We attempted to reduce certainty of paternity experimentally in two species, the eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis, and the tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, by temporarily removing fertile females on two mornings during egg laying. In both species, experimental males usually attempted to copulate with the female immediately after her reappearance, suggesting that they experienced the absence of their mate as a threat to their paternity. Experimental males copulated at a significantly higher rate than control males. However, contrary to the prediction of the model, experimental males did not invest less than control males in their offspring. There was no difference between experimental and control nests in the proportion of male feeds, male and female feeding rates, nestling growth and nestling condition and size at age 14 days. We argue that females might have restored the males’ confidence in paternity after the experiment by soliciting or accepting copulations. Alternatively, males may not reduce their effort, because the fitness costs to their own offspring may outweigh the benefits for the males, at least in populations where females cannot fully compensate for reduced male investment.

  4. Profile of colorectal cancer in Eastern India.

    Sarkar, Snigdha; Mukherjee, Ramanuj; Paira, Susil Kumar; Roy, Bipradas; Banerjee, Shubhabrata; Mukherjee, Saibal Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Although colorectal cancer is a major cause of concern in the western population, recent studies are showing the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer to be rapidly rising in Asia. The present study is an insight into the epidemiological profile of colorectal cancer of a representative Eastern Indian population. Over a period of three years, all histologically proved patients with colorectal cancer were assessed for age, sex, body mass index, dietary habits, socioeconomic status and stage of disease. Of a total of 168 patients male to female ratio was 1.7:1.The mean age of presentation was 47.01 years. Although colorectal cancer has been known as a disease of sedentary obese men, 41.66% of the patients were from a low socioeconomic rural set-up and 40.47% were involved in heavy physical labour with only 15% of being obese; 62% patients were harbouring a locally advanced disease at the time of presentation. The epidemiological pattern of colorectal cancer in India is different from that of the west as regards to earlier age of presentation, prevalence in low socio economic class with low fat diet and scanty meat intake.

  5. Alpha male replacements and delayed dispersal in crested macaques (Macaca nigra).

    Marty, Pascal R; Hodges, Keith; Agil, Muhammad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2017-07-01

    In species with a high male reproductive skew, competition between males for the top dominant position is high and escalated fights are common between competitors. As a consequence, challenges incur potentially high costs. Selection should favor males who time an alpha male challenge to maximize chances of a successful outcome minimizing costs. Despite the importance of alpha male replacements for individual males, we know little about the timing of challenges and the condition of the challenger. We investigated the timing and process of alpha male replacements in a species living in multi-male groups with high male reproductive skew, the crested macaque. We studied four wild groups over 6 years in the Tangkoko Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia, during which 16 alpha male replacements occurred. Although unusual for cercopithecines, male crested macaques delayed their natal dispersal until they attained maximum body mass and therefore fighting ability whereupon they emigrated and challenged the alpha male in another group. Accordingly, all observed alpha male replacements were from outside males. Ours is the first report of such a pattern in a primate species living in multi-male groups. Although the majority of alpha male replacements occurred through direct male-male challenges, many also took place opportunistically (i.e., after the alpha male had already been injured or had left the group). Furthermore, alpha male tenures were very short (averaging ca. 12 months). We hypothesize that this unusual pattern of alpha male replacements in crested macaques is related to the species-specific combination of high male reproductive skew with a large number of males per group. Am. J. Primatol. 79:e22448, 2017. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Primatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Primatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Biology of the eastern chipmunk, Tamias striatus. Final report

    Snyder, D.P.

    1976-08-01

    Major goals of this project were development of baseline ecological data for the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) over time and space; and determination of the effect of sublethal ionizing radiation on populations of this species. The study focussed on free-ranging populations in southern Vermont, was long term 1965-1973, and was simultaneously descriptive and experimental. Data were integrated with those from a concurrent similar study in Pennsylvania. The work has produced one of the most extensive sets of ecological data available on a native, free-ranging small mammal and makes the eastern chipmunk a useful and desirable species for experimental studies in physiology, behavior, ecology, and evolution. Eastern chipmunk densities are correlated in general with production of mast, their staple food. Variation in production of young from season to season is one of the major ways in which numbers are regulated. Single insults of 200 R or 400 R of gamma radiation decreased the rate of disappearance of individuals from the populations so treated. In a population in which average range size of males was quite large, irradiation resulted in reduction in home range in comparison to a control group

  7. Complex Mhc-based mate choice in a wild passerine

    Bonneaud, Camille; Chastel, Olivier; Federici, Pierre; Westerdahl, Helena; Sorci, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    The extreme polymorphism of the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) is famous for protecting hosts against constantly evolving pathogens. Mate choice is often evoked as a means of maintaining Mhc variability through avoidance of partners with similar Mhc alleles or preference for heterozygotes. Evidence for these two hypotheses mostly comes from studies on humans and laboratory mice. Here, we tested these hypotheses in a wild outbred population of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Females were not more or less closely related to the males they paired with when considering neutral genetic variation. However, males failed to form breeding pairs when they had too few Mhc alleles and when they were too dissimilar from females at Mhc loci (i.e. had no common alleles). Furthermore, pairs did not form at random as Mhc diversity positively correlated in mating pairs. These results suggest that mate choice evolves in response to (i) benefits in terms of parasite resistance acquired from allelic diversity, and (ii) costs associated with the disruption of co-adapted genes. PMID:16600889

  8. Genetically conditioned male sterility

    Gottschalk, W.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given of two different types of genetically controlled male sterility in higher plants. 'Functional' male sterility is due to the action of mutated genes causing a misdifferentiation of the growing points in different specific ways. Under the influence of the genes of this group either the stamens or the archespore tissues are not differentiated. In other mutants functionable male germ cells are produced but cannot be used for fertilizing the egg cells because the anthers remain closed or anthers and stigma become spatially separated from each other. Other genes of the group are responsible for the transformation of stamens into carpels, i.e. for a change of the hermaphrodite flower into a unisexually female one. A second type of male sterility is due to the action of ms genes influencing the course of micro-sporogenesis directly. They cause the breakdown of this process in a specific meiotic stage characteristic for each gene of the group. This breakdown is introduced by the degeneration of PMCs, microspores, or pollen grains preventing the production of male germ cells. The female sex organs remain uninfluenced. (author)

  9. Male sterility in chestnuts

    Omura, Mitsuo; Akihama, Tomoya

    1982-01-01

    A tentative plan was proposed for chestnuts based on their pollination system, male sterility and restoration. The studies on the male sterility of 1,063 cultivars and clones suggested that there were three types of male sterility. The first type (S-1) was characterized by antherless florets. In the second type (S-2), the catkins fell before anthesis, and the third type (S-3) appeared to develop normally in gross floral morphology, but the pollen grains were abnormal in shape and did not have germinating power. In an interspecific hybrid clone CS which belonged to S-1, fertility was restored in an open pollinated progeny. The use of CS and CSO-3 with its restored fertility, permitted the planning of breeding the chestnut hybrid cultivars propagated by seeds. The inbred clones with either male sterility or restorer genes are first bred mainly by back crossing with parents with favorable pollen. The clones are selected individually for early bearing, wasp and disease resistance, and restoration. Then, the hybrid seedling lines between male sterile and restorer inbreds are evaluated for homogenity in nut characters and tree habits. Next, the hybrid seedling lines selected will be examined for crop yield, vigor and cross compatibility. The superior seedling lines are finally selected, and the parental inbreds are grafted to be propagated for seed production orchards. (Kaihara, S.)

  10. Comparing the Reproductive Success of Yakima River Hatchery- and Wild-Origin Spring Chinook; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Schroder, S.L.; Pearsons, T.N. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); Knudsen, C.M. (Oncorh Consulting, Olympia, WA)

    2006-05-01

    Reproductive success in wild- and first generation hatchery-origin spring Chinook males was examined by allowing the fish to compete for spawning opportunities in two sections of an observation stream. Behavioral observations were used to characterize the frequency of aggression and courting activities. Microsatellite DNA from each male and fry collected from the observation stream were used in pedigree analyses to estimate reproductive success. The coefficient of variation in male reproductive success equaled 116 and 86% in the two populations. No differences were detected in reproductive success due to hatchery or wild origin. Nor were any behavioral differences found between hatchery and wild males. Although statistical power was low due to intrinsic variation a great deal of overlap existed in the reproductive success values of hatchery and wild males. Significant disparities existed among the males on their ability to produce offspring. Males achieving high reproductive success mated with numerous females, were socially dominant, aggressive, and tended to stay in localized areas, courting and spawning with females that were adjacent to one another.

  11. Male courtship behavior in Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) that have received Aromatherapy with ginger root oil

    Briceno, D.; Eberhard, W.; Shelly, T.

    2007-01-01

    The results of previous studies that showed that exposing mass-reared male Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) to ginger root oil ('aromatherapy') increases the likelihood of mating with wild females were confirmed. The increased male success could be due to female responses to changes in male behavior or male pheromones. There were no significant differences in the types of courtship movements executed by males with and without aromatherapy. The durations of movements also did not differ when mass-reared males were paired with mass-reared females; however, when they were paired with wild females, there were a few, small differences. Previous studies indicated that the effectiveness of the male long-distance attractant pheromone is not affected by aromatherapy, but these studies did not consider pheromones released at close range during courtship, which behavioral analyses suggest may be different. We propose the following possible explanation for the different effects of aromatherapy with different females. Selection on males under mass rearing may have altered their close-range pheromones in ways that can be remedied by aromatherapy; and only wild females respond because the pheromonal responsiveness of mass-reared females has also changed. We propose observations that could test these ideas. (author) [es

  12. Incremental Face Alignment in the Wild

    Asthana, Akshay; Asthana, Ashish; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Cheng, Shiyang; Pantic, Maja

    The development of facial databases with an abundance of annotated facial data captured under unconstrained 'in-the-wild' conditions have made discriminative facial deformable models the de facto choice for generic facial landmark localization. Even though very good performance for the facial

  13. Wild beans (Phaseolus L.) of North America

    The wild relatives of the five domesticated species of bean (Phaseolus L.) are widely distributed across the tropics and subtropics of the New World, with taxa extending to the Canadian border, the Caribbean islands and Bermuda, the Galapagos Islands, and south to Argentina. Mesoamerica holds the la...

  14. Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and…

  15. Human Infection in Wild Mountain Gorillas

    This podcast discusses a study about the transmission of Human Metapneumovirus Infection to wild mountain gorillas in Rwanda in 2009, published in the April 2011 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. Dr. Ian Lipkin, Director of the Center for Infection and Immunity and Dr. Gustavo Palacios, investigator in the Center of Infection & Immunity share details of this study.

  16. The wild animal as a research animal

    Swart, JAA

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e. g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to

  17. Telepresence Robots in the Wide Wild World

    Bruijnes, Merijn; van Delden, Robby; Vroon, Jered Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Mobile remote presence systems (MRPs) are the logical next step in telepresence, but what are the ethical, social, legal, and technical implications of such systems going into the wide wild world? We explored these potential issues by immersing ourselves in a range of possible applications by

  18. Market tntegration between farmed and wild fish

    Bronnmann, Julia; Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Following decade-long growth in worldwide farming of pangasius and tilapia, imports to Germany, a main European market, have been reduced since 2010. One reason for this might be supply growth of wild species at the total German whitefish market, if market integration exists between farmed and wi...

  19. Hepatic Transcriptome Responses of Domesticated and Wild Turkey Embryos to Aflatoxin B1

    Melissa S. Monson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, and mutagenic contaminant of food and animal feeds. In poultry, AFB1 can be maternally transferred to embryonated eggs, affecting development, viability and performance after hatch. Domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo are especially sensitive to aflatoxicosis, while Eastern wild turkeys (M. g. silvestris are likely more resistant. In ovo exposure provided a controlled AFB1 challenge and comparison of domesticated and wild turkeys. Gene expression responses to AFB1 in the embryonic hepatic transcriptome were examined using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq. Eggs were injected with AFB1 (1 μg or sham control and dissected for liver tissue after 1 day or 5 days of exposure. Libraries from domesticated turkey (n = 24 and wild turkey (n = 15 produced 89.2 Gb of sequence. Approximately 670 M reads were mapped to a turkey gene set. Differential expression analysis identified 1535 significant genes with |log2 fold change| ≥ 1.0 in at least one pair-wise comparison. AFB1 effects were dependent on exposure time and turkey type, occurred more rapidly in domesticated turkeys, and led to notable up-regulation in cell cycle regulators, NRF2-mediated response genes and coagulation factors. Further investigation of NRF2-response genes may identify targets to improve poultry resistance.

  20. Mapping risk of avian influenza transmission at the interface of domestic poultry and wild birds

    Prosser, Diann J.; Hungerford, Laura L.; Erwin, R. Michael; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Takekawa, John Y.; Ellis, Erle C.

    2013-01-01

    Emergence of avian influenza viruses with high lethality to humans, such as the currently circulating highly pathogenic A(H5N1) (emerged in 1996) and A(H7N9) cause serious concern for the global economic and public health sectors. Understanding the spatial and temporal interface between wild and domestic populations, from which these viruses emerge, is fundamental to taking action. This information, however, is rarely considered in influenza risk models, partly due to a lack of data. We aim to identify areas of high transmission risk between domestic poultry and wild waterfowl in China, the epicenter of both viruses. Two levels of models were developed: one that predicts hotspots of novel virus emergence between domestic and wild birds, and one that incorporates H5N1 risk factors, for which input data exists. Models were produced at 1 and 30 km spatial resolution, and two temporal seasons. Patterns of risk varied between seasons with higher risk in the northeast, central-east, and western regions of China during spring and summer, and in the central and southeastern regions during winter. Monte-Carlo uncertainty analyses indicated varying levels of model confidence, with lowest errors in the densely populated regions of eastern and southern China. Applications and limitations of the models are discussed within.

  1. Male gametogenesis without centrioles.

    Riparbelli, Maria Giovanna; Callaini, Giuliano

    2011-01-15

    The orientation of the mitotic spindle plays a central role in specifying stem cell-renewal by enabling interaction of the daughter cells with external cues: the daughter cell closest to the hub region is instructed to self-renew, whereas the distal one starts to differentiate. Here, we have analyzed male gametogenesis in DSas-4 Drosophila mutants and we have reported that spindle alignment and asymmetric divisions are properly executed in male germline stem cells that lack centrioles. Spermatogonial divisions also correctly proceed in the absence of centrioles, giving rise to cysts of 16 primary spermatocytes. By contrast, abnormal meiotic spindles assemble in primary spermatocytes. These results point to different requirements for centrioles during male gametogenesis of Drosophila. Spindle formation during germ cell mitosis may be successfully supported by an acentrosomal pathway that is inadequate to warrant the proper execution of meiosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A tortoiseshell male cat

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells....... Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  3. Competition for trophies triggers male generosity.

    Xiaofei Sophia Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cooperation is indispensable in human societies, and much progress has been made towards understanding human pro-social decisions. Formal incentives, such as punishment, are suggested as potential effective approaches despite the fact that punishment can crowd out intrinsic motives for cooperation and detrimentally impact efficiency. At the same time, evolutionary biologists have long recognized that cooperation, especially food sharing, is typically efficiently organized in groups living on wild foods, even absent formal economic incentives. Despite its evident importance, the source of this voluntary compliance remains largely uninformed. Drawing on costly signaling theory, and in light of the widely established competitive nature of males, we hypothesize that unique and displayable rewards (trophies out of competition may trigger male generosity in competitive social environments. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we use a controlled laboratory experiment to show that cooperation is sustained in a generosity competition with trophy rewards, but breaks down in the same environment with equally valuable but non-unique and non-displayable rewards. Further, we find that males' competition for trophies is the driving force behind treatment differences. In contrast, it appears that female competitiveness is not modulated by trophy rewards. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest new approaches to promoting cooperation in human groups that, unlike punishment mechanisms, do not sacrifice efficiency. This could have important implications in any domain where voluntary compliance matters--including relations between spouses, employers and employees, market transactions, and conformity to legal standards.

  4. Genetic relationships and epidemiological links between wild type 1 poliovirus isolates in Pakistan and Afghanistan

    Angez Mehar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aim Efforts have been made to eliminate wild poliovirus transmission since 1988 when the World Health Organization began its global eradication campaign. Since then, the incidence of polio has decreased significantly. However, serotype 1 and serotype 3 still circulate endemically in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Both countries constitute a single epidemiologic block representing one of the three remaining major global reservoirs of poliovirus transmission. In this study we used genetic sequence data to investigate transmission links among viruses from diverse locations during 2005-2007. Methods In order to find the origins and routes of wild type 1 poliovirus circulation, polioviruses were isolated from faecal samples of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP patients. We used viral cultures, two intratypic differentiation methods PCR, ELISA to characterize as vaccine or wild type 1 and nucleic acid sequencing of entire VP1 region of poliovirus genome to determine the genetic relatedness. Results One hundred eleven wild type 1 poliovirus isolates were subjected to nucleotide sequencing for genetic variation study. Considering the 15% divergence of the sequences from Sabin 1, Phylogenetic analysis by MEGA software revealed that active inter and intra country transmission of many genetically distinct strains of wild poliovirus type 1 belonged to genotype SOAS which is indigenous in this region. By grouping wild type 1 polioviruses according to nucleotide sequence homology, three distinct clusters A, B and C were obtained with multiple chains of transmission together with some silent circulations represented by orphan lineages. Conclusion Our results emphasize that there was a persistent transmission of wild type1 polioviruses in Pakistan and Afghanistan during 2005-2007. The epidemiologic information provided by the sequence data can contribute to the formulation of better strategies for poliomyelitis control to those critical areas

  5. Male recombination in Brazilian populations of Drosophila ananassae.

    Goñi, Beatriz; Matsuda, Muneo; Tobari, Yoshiko N

    2016-07-01

    With few exceptions, spontaneous crossing over does not normally occur in male Drosophila. Drosophila ananassae males show considerable amounts of crossing over. In wild males of D. ananassae from Asian (2008) and Brazilian populations (1986 and 2007) variable frequencies of meiotic crossing over, estimated from chiasmata counts, suggested the existence of factors controlling male crossing over in these populations. To corroborate for such prediction, we present data on spontaneous recombination in F1 males of D. ananassae heterozygous for chromosomes of the same Brazilian populations (1986) and marker chromosomes using three testers stocks. Mean recombination value was low, although high variability existed between individual frequencies. Recombination frequencies between lines in each tester stock were not significantly different, excepting when the 3ple-px and 3ple-cy testers were compared (p recombination in chromosomes 2 and 3 in F1 males tested with e(65) se; bri ru was not related, suggesting they are under independent genetic control. Our data are consistent with proposed genetic factors controlling male crossing over in the tester stocks and to the presence of enhancers and suppressors of male crossing over segregating in the Brazilian populations (1986).

  6. Using photogrammetry and color scoring to assess sexual dimorphism in wild western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla).

    Breuer, Thomas; Robbins, Martha M; Boesch, Christophe

    2007-11-01

    Investigating sexual dimorphism is important for our understanding of its influence on reproductive strategies including male-male competition, mate choice, and sexual conflict. Measuring physical traits in wild animals can be logistically challenging and disruptive for the animals. Therefore body size and ornament variation in wild primates have rarely been quantified. Gorillas are amongst the most sexually dimorphic and dichromatic primates. Adult males (silverbacks) possess a prominent sagittal crest, a pad of fibrous and fatty tissue on top of the head, have red crest coloration, their saddle appears silver, and they possess a silverline along their stomach. Here we measure levels of sexual dimorphism and within-male variation of body length, head size, and sexual dichromatism in a population of wild western gorillas using photogrammetry. Digital photogrammetry is a useful and precise method to measure sexual dimorphism in physical traits yielding sexual dimorphism indices (ISD), similar to those derived from traditional measurements of skeletal remains. Silverbacks were on an average 1.23 times longer in body length than adult females. Sexual dimorphism of head size was highest in measures of crest size (max ISD: 60.4) compared with measures of facial height (max ISD: 24.7). The most sexually dimorphic head size measures also showed the highest within-sex variation. We found no clear sex differences in crest coloration but there was large sexual dichromatism with high within-male variation in saddle coloration and silverline size. Further studies should examine if these sexually dimorphic traits are honest signals of competitive ability and confer an advantage in reproductive success.

  7. How Effective Is Male Contraception?

    ... Twitter Pinterest Email Print How effective is male contraception? Not all contraceptive methods are appropriate for all ... is best for them. For men, methods of contraception include male condoms and sterilization (vasectomy). Male condoms. ...

  8. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  9. Migration of whooper swans and outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in eastern Asia.

    Scott H Newman

    Full Text Available Evaluating the potential involvement of wild avifauna in the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (hereafter H5N1 requires detailed analyses of temporal and spatial relationships between wild bird movements and disease emergence. The death of wild swans (Cygnus spp. has been the first indicator of the presence of H5N1 in various Asian and European countries; however their role in the geographic spread of the disease remains poorly understood. We marked 10 whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus with GPS transmitters in northeastern Mongolia during autumn 2006 and tracked their migratory movements in relation to H5N1 outbreaks. The prevalence of H5N1 outbreaks among poultry in eastern Asia during 2003-2007 peaked during winter, concurrent with whooper swan movements into regions of high poultry density. However outbreaks involving poultry were detected year round, indicating disease perpetuation independent of migratory waterbird presence. In contrast, H5N1 outbreaks involving whooper swans, as well as other migratory waterbirds that succumbed to the disease in eastern Asia, tended to occur during seasons (late spring and summer and in habitats (areas of natural vegetation where their potential for contact with poultry is very low to nonexistent. Given what is known about the susceptibility of swans to H5N1, and on the basis of the chronology and rates of whooper swan migration movements, we conclude that although there is broad spatial overlap between whooper swan distributions and H5N1 outbreak locations in eastern Asia, the likelihood of direct transmission between these groups is extremely low. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that swans are best viewed as sentinel species, and moreover, that in eastern Asia, it is most likely that their infections occurred through contact with asymptomatic migratory hosts (e.g., wild ducks at or near their breeding grounds.

  10. Migration of whooper swans and outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in eastern Asia.

    Newman, Scott H; Iverson, Samuel A; Takekawa, John Y; Gilbert, Martin; Prosser, Diann J; Batbayar, Nyambyar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Douglas, David C

    2009-05-28

    Evaluating the potential involvement of wild avifauna in the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (hereafter H5N1) requires detailed analyses of temporal and spatial relationships between wild bird movements and disease emergence. The death of wild swans (Cygnus spp.) has been the first indicator of the presence of H5N1 in various Asian and European countries; however their role in the geographic spread of the disease remains poorly understood. We marked 10 whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) with GPS transmitters in northeastern Mongolia during autumn 2006 and tracked their migratory movements in relation to H5N1 outbreaks. The prevalence of H5N1 outbreaks among poultry in eastern Asia during 2003-2007 peaked during winter, concurrent with whooper swan movements into regions of high poultry density. However outbreaks involving poultry were detected year round, indicating disease perpetuation independent of migratory waterbird presence. In contrast, H5N1 outbreaks involving whooper swans, as well as other migratory waterbirds that succumbed to the disease in eastern Asia, tended to occur during seasons (late spring and summer) and in habitats (areas of natural vegetation) where their potential for contact with poultry is very low to nonexistent. Given what is known about the susceptibility of swans to H5N1, and on the basis of the chronology and rates of whooper swan migration movements, we conclude that although there is broad spatial overlap between whooper swan distributions and H5N1 outbreak locations in eastern Asia, the likelihood of direct transmission between these groups is extremely low. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that swans are best viewed as sentinel species, and moreover, that in eastern Asia, it is most likely that their infections occurred through contact with asymptomatic migratory hosts (e.g., wild ducks) at or near their breeding grounds.

  11. CIS/Eastern countries. A curtain raising on eastern Europe

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Slowly and laboriously a new russian petroleum industry is setting in. To illustrate this new scenery, statistical data and maps, giving the production and consumption rates are presented. Two big companies (Shell and B.P.) stand for the privatization of Rosneft, the russian petroleum group. The legal and financial petroleum aspects of Russian are changing but very slowly, attracting the western companies around the petroleum industry. But this interest remains careful. The european bank of investment (BEI) decided to take a financial share in the eastern energy. (A.L.B.)

  12. The prevalence of middle eastern extremist ideologies among some canadian offenders.

    Loza, Wagdy

    2010-05-01

    The Belief Diversity Scale (BDS) was administered to 89 male Canadian offenders of different religious backgrounds. The BDS is a 33-item, sixsubscale instrument designed to quantitatively measure the religious attitudes, beliefs, and ideologies of Middle Eastern extremists on risk areas described in the literature. Results indicated that the Muslim offenders scored much higher than and significantly different from both the Christian and atheist groups on the BDS. Results also suggested the prevalence of Middle Eastern extremist ideologies among the Muslim offenders involved in this study.

  13. Early life traits of farm and wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and first generation hybrids in the south coast of Newfoundland.

    Hamoutene, D; Perez-Casanova, J; Burt, K; Lush, L; Caines, J; Collier, C; Hinks, R

    2017-06-01

    This study examined fertilization rates, survival and early life-trait differences of pure farm, wild and first generation (F1) hybrid origin embryos after crossing farm and wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Results show that despite a trend towards higher in vitro fertilization success for wild females, differences in fertilization success in river water are not significantly different among crosses. In a hatchery environment, wild females' progeny (pure wild and hybrids with wild maternal parent) hatched 7-11 days earlier than pure farm crosses and hybrids with farm maternal parents. In addition, pure wild progeny had higher total lengths (L T ) at hatch than pure farm crosses and hybrids. Directions in trait differences need to be tested in a river environment, but results clearly show the maternal influence on early stages beyond egg-size differences. Differences in L T were no longer significant at 70 days post hatch (shortly after the onset of exogenous feeding) showing the need to investigate later developmental stages to better assess somatic growth disparities due to genetic differences. Higher mortality rates of the most likely hybrids (farm female × wild male hybrids) at egg and fry stages and their delayed hatch suggest that these F1 hybrids might be less likely to survive the early larval stages than wild stocks. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of Fish Biology © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Pediatric hypertension in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Alkahtani, Shaea A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the levels of blood pressure (BP) between male and female adolescents in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and reference percentiles for Saudi adolescents. A secondary aim was to explore the distribution of BP among the participants based on age and gender. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 146 boys and girls attending intermediate and secondary schools in 2 regions (Al-Mallaha and Al-Mubarraz) in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Weight, random blood glucose, and BP were collected by a team of health educators in the morning of the school day between April and May 2014. Results: Of the current sample of adolescents originally from the Eastern Province, 30% had systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ≥140 mm Hg and 22% had diastolic blood pressure of ≥90 mm Hg. For girls between 13 and 16 years old, the SBP was greater than the 95th percentile of Saudi national norms. Participants were classified by gender and school stage, and one-way analysis of variance showed significant differences in the means of SBP between intermediate boys (127±2.5 mm Hg) and secondary boys (136±2.1 mm Hg) (p<0.05), and between intermediate boys and intermediate girls (138±1.6 mm Hg) (p<0.01). Conclusion: The increased level of BP among adolescents originally from the Eastern Province raises the need to update the current BP nomograms, considering possible differences for specific geographic areas across the country. Implementing therapeutic life style management in girls’ schools is recommended. PMID:25987114

  15. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic (Columba livia domestica) and wild (Columba livia livia) pigeons in Niğde region, Turkey.

    Karatepe, Mustafa; Kılıç, Selçuk; Karatepe, Bilge; Babür, Cahit

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii specific antibodies in domestic (Columba livia domestica) and wild (Columba livia livia) pigeons between October 2003-June 2004. Blood samples were collected from 216 pigeons, consisting of 105 (55 female, 50 male) domestic pigeons and 111 (53 female, 58 male) wild pigeons. The sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the Sabin Feldman Dye Test (SFDT). One of the 105 (0.95%) domestic pigeon and one of the 111 (0.90%) wild pigeon were found to be seropositive for T. gondii antibodies at the titer of 1:16. This is the first serological study on toxoplasmosis in the domestic and wild pigeon in the Niğde region of Turkey.

  16. Scream-embrace displays in wild black-horned capuchin monkeys.

    Lynch Alfaro, Jessica

    2008-06-01

    Reintroduction of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) into their social group in captivity can elicit sirena screams and embraces. Captive scream-embrace displays are male biased, and females never perform sirena screams. One hypothesis is that scream-embrace displays serve a tension-reduction or reconciliatory function between males with conflicting interests. Alternatively, these displays may function to maintain strong affiliative bonds between friendly male dyads. Scream and/or embrace displays in wild Brazilian black-horned capuchins were analyzed for social and ecological contexts, behavioral components, and individuals involved. Seventy-two displays were observed during the 199-day study period. Among the 66 displays for which both members could be identified by sex, there were 42 occurrences of male-male dyads, 17 of male-female dyads, and seven of female-female dyads. Scream-embrace dyads were male-male pairs significantly more often than expected from group membership, and the alpha male was the only male to engage in scream-embrace displays with females. Female-female pairs did embrace, but never emitted sirena screams. Displays most commonly occurred in "reunion" contexts, primarily the reuniting of subgroups after hours or days out of contact, but also after intergroup encounters, and across groups in "intergroup" displays. Displays were rare, but socially contagious, and subgroup reunions could elicit multiple displays in rapid succession. Although the occurrence of screams and embraces was positively correlated, both behaviors also occurred independently, and their functions may be different. Male sirena screams may be honest advertisements of united alliances, directed toward a third party, whereas the embrace may be a risky affiliative signal, directed primarily within the dyad. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Geodemographic Features of Human Blastomycosis in Eastern Wisconsin

    Megan E. Huber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Blastomycosis is an endemic fungal infection. In rural northern Wisconsin, blastomycosis cases are associated with certain environmental features including close proximity to waterways. Other studies have associated blastomycosis with particular soil chemicals. However, blastomycosis also occurs in urban and suburban regions. We explored the geodemographic associations of blastomycosis cases in the more urban/suburban landscape of eastern Wisconsin. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 193 laboratory-identified blastomycosis cases in a single eastern Wisconsin health system, 2007–2015. Controls were 250 randomly selected cases of community-diagnosed pneumonia from a similar time period. Geographic features of home addresses were explored using Google Maps. Categorical variables were analyzed with chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests and continuous variables by two-sample t-tests. Stepwise regression followed by binary logistic regression was used for multivariable analysis. Results: Compared to pneumonia cases, blastomycosis cases were younger (47.7 vs. 55.3 years and more likely to be male (67.9% vs. 45.6%, nonwhite (23.2% vs. 9.7% and machinists, automobile workers/mechanics or construction workers (32.7% vs. 7.2%; P 0.5 acres (30.4% vs. 14.2%, P = 0.0002, be < 0.25 miles from an automobile repair facility or junkyard (35.9% vs. 19.4%, P = 0.0005, and be < 0.1 miles from a park, forest or farm field (54.9% vs. 39.6%, P = 0.002. Only the latter association remained on multivariable analysis. Conclusions: Eastern Wisconsin blastomycosis case subjects were younger, more often male and more likely to live near parks/forests/fields. Novel associations of blastomycosis cases with machinery- and automobile-related occupations and/or facilities should be further explored.

  18. Male Reproductive System

    ... With the Male Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor masculino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  19. TRICHOMONAS URETHRITIS IN MALES

    Le Duc, Ector

    1955-01-01

    Trichomonas urethritis in the male should be suspected in all chronic cases of urethritis. The diagnosis is easily established by the hanging-drop method of examining the urethral discharge, or the first-glass urine specimen. Curative treatment is readily accomplished by the use of urethral instillations of Carbarsone suspension using 1 capsule of Carbarsone per ounce of distilled water. PMID:13270111

  20. Lycopene and male infertility

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi

    2014-01-01

    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility—lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4–8 mg of lycopene daily for 3–12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. PMID:24675655

  1. Chemical composition of oils from wild almond (Prunus scoparia and wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica

    Jafari Mohammadi, S. A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acids, sterols and triacylglycerol compositions as well as the amount of tocopherols, total phenols and pigments wild almond and cold pressed wild pistachio oils. Triacylglycerols, tocopherols and pigments were analyzed with HPLC, fatty acids and sterols with gas chromatography, and total phenols photometrically. The main fatty acids in both samples were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids. The most predominant TAG species are SLL + PLO (21.83% in wild pistachio oil and OOO (47.27% in wild almond oil. Pheophytin a was the major pigment in wild pistachio oil. There were no pigments detected in wild almond oil. Total phenols were 57.6 mg kg-1 oil for wild pistachio and 45.3 mg kg-1 oil for wild almond oil.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la composición en ácidos grasos, esteroles, triglicéridos, así como tocoferoles, fenoles totales y pigmentos de aceites de almendras y pistachos silvestres prensados en frío. Triglicéridos (TAG, tocoferoles y pigmentos se analizaron mediante HPLC, los ácidos grasos y esteroles mediante cromatografía de gases, y los fenoles totales espectrofotométricamente. Los principales ácidos grasos de ambas especies fueron los ácidos oleico, linoleico y palmítico. Las especies de TAG predominantes son SLL + OLP (21,83% en el pistacho silvestre y OOO (47,27% en almendras silvestre. Feofitina a es un pigmento importante en los aceites de pistacho silvestre. No se detectó pigmentos en los aceites de almendras silvestres. Los fenoles totales fueron 57,6 mg kg-1 y 45,3 mg kg-1 en los aceites de pistacho silvestre y de almendra silvestre respectivamente.

  2. Sex-Specific Diurnal Immobility Induced by Forced Swim Test in Wild Type and Clock Gene Deficient Mice

    Ningyue Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The link between alterations in circadian rhythms and depression are well established, but the underlying mechanisms are far less elucidated. We investigated the circadian characteristics of immobility behavior in wild type (WT mice and mice with mutations in core Clock genes. Methods: All mice were tested with forced swim test (FST at 4 h intervals. Results: These experiments revealed significant diurnal rhythms associated with immobility behavior in both male and female WT mice with sex-different circadian properties. In addition, male mice showed significantly less immobility during the night phase in comparison to female mice. Female Per1Brdm1 mice also showed significant rhythmicity. However, the timing of rhythmicity was very different from that observed in female wild type mice. Male Per1Brdm1 mice showed a pattern of rhythmicity similar to that of wild type mice. Furthermore, female Per1Brdm1 mice showed higher duration of immobility in comparison to male Per1Brdm1 mice in both daytime and early night phases. Neither Per2Brdm1 nor ClockΔ19 mice showed significant rhythmicity, but both female Per2Brdm1 and ClockΔ19 mice had lower levels of immobility, compared to males. Conclusions: This study highlights the differences in the circadian characteristics of immobility induced by FST in WT, ClockΔ19, Per1, and Per2 deficient mice.

  3. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and cultivated ginseng extracts

    Hae Young, Jang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by total antioxidant capacity (TAC, oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC, total phenolic content, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochondria, reactive oxygen species(ROS scavenging effect using 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein(DCF fluorescence. Results : 1. TAC of 1.5 and 3.75 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 2. ORAC of 2, 10, and 20 μg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 3. Total phenolic content of 0.375, 0.938, and 1.875 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 4. DPPH(1, 1 -Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity between wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng did not differ significantly (p>0.05. 5. Induced lipid peroxidation, measured by TBARS concentration in solution containing rat liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of FeSO4/ascorbic acid was inhibited as amounts of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased. TBARS concentration of ginseng extracts were significantly (p<0.05 higher than wild ginseng or cultivated wild ginseng extracts. 6. DCF fluorescence intensity was decreased as concentrations of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased, demonstrating that ROS generation was inhibited in a concentrationdependent manner. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had similar antioxidant activities to wild ginseng extracts and greater that of cultivated ginseng extracts.

  4. Cultural Clues to the Middle Eastern Student

    Parker, Orin D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Cultural patterns and characteristics of Middle Eastern students indicate their adaptability ease or difficulty in American society. Manners, paternalistic patterns, religion, and social relationships are discussed. (LBH)

  5. Re-membering Eastern Europe

    Wilken, Lisanne

    2016-01-01

    -Soviet states into the “Eurovision” has been represented and discussed in Britain and Denmark, two countries with their own complex and complicated relationship to "Europe". Taking the cue from a growing scholarly production that argues for the importance of pop culture in the construction of social...... for analysing (political) memory. It then discusses the ways that the “Eastern enlargement” of the Contest in the 1990s triggered discussions of borders and belonging in both a historical and contemporary perspective. Finally the paper zooms in on British and Danish debates of three post-Soviet states; Estonia...

  6. HOMED-Homicides Eastern Denmark

    Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Frisch, Morten; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Background:An introduction to a forensic medical homicide database established at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen. Content: The database contains substantial clinical and demographic data obtained in conjunction with medico-legal autopsies of victims and forensic clinical...... examinations of perpetrators in homicide cases in eastern Denmark. Validity and coverage: The database contains information on all homicide cases investigated at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Copenhagen since 1971. Coverage for the catchment area of the department is assumed to be very good because...

  7. Courtship behavior of different wild strains of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Briceno, D.; Eberhard, W.; Vilardi, J.; Cayol, J.-P.; Shelly, T.

    2007-01-01

    This study documents differences in the courtship behavior of wild strains of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) from Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (U.S.A.), Costa Rica, and Patagonia (Argentina). Some traits showed large variations and others substantial overlaps. The angle at which the male faced toward the female at the moment of transition from continuous wing vibration and intermittent buzzing changed very little during the course of courtship in all strains, but males from Madeira tended to face more directly toward the female than other males. Females tended to look more, and more directly, toward the males as courtship progressed in all strains. The distance between male and female tended to decrease as courtship proceeded in all strains, but the distances at which males initiated continuous vibration, intermittent buzzing, and jumped onto the female were relatively less variable between strains, except for the strain from Costa Rica. Flies of Madeira courted for longer and the male moved his head and buzzed his wings longer than the other strains. (author) [es

  8. Chewing lice from wild birds in northern Greece.

    Diakou, Anastasia; Pedroso Couto Soares, José Bernardo; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kazantzidis, Savas; Literák, Ivan; Sychra, Oldřich

    2017-10-01

    Greece represents an important area for wild birds due to its geographical position and habitat diversity. Although the bird species in Greece are well recorded, the information about the chewing lice that infest them is practically non-existent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to record the species of lice infesting wild birds in northern Greece and furthermore, to associate the infestation prevalence with factors such as the age, sex, migration and social behaviour of the host as well as the time of the year. In total 729 birds, (belonging to 9 orders, 32 families and 68 species) were examined in 7 localities of northern Greece, during 9 ringing sessions from June 2013 until October 2015. Eighty (11%) of the birds were found to be infested with lice. In 31 different bird species, 560 specimens of lice, belonging to 33 species were recorded. Mixed infestations were recorded in 11 cases where birds were infested with 2-3 different lice species. Four new host-parasite associations were recorded i.e. Menacanthus curuccae from Acrocephalus melanopogon, Menacanthus agilis from Cettia cetti, Myrsidea sp. from Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, and Philopretus citrinellae from Spinus spinus. Moreover, Menacanthus sinuatus was detected on Poecile lugubris, rendering this report the first record of louse infestation in this bird species. The statistical analysis of the data collected showed no association between parasitological parameters (prevalence, mean and median intensity and mean abundance) in two different periods of the year (breeding vs post-breeding season). However, there was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of infestation between a) migrating and sedentary passerine birds (7.4% vs 13.2%), b) colonial and territorial birds (54.5% vs 9.6%), and c) female and male birds in breeding period (2.6% vs 15.6%). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Terrorists or cowards: negative portrayals of male Syrian refugees in social media

    Rettberg, Jill Walker; Gajjala, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines images and words shared on the Twitter hashtag #refugeesNOTwelcome to understand the portrayal of male Syrian refugees in a post-9/11 context where the Middle-Eastern male is often primarily cast as a potential terrorist. Queer theorist Jasbir Puar (2007) and Middle- East scholar Paul Amar (2011) provide us with a theoretical approach to make sense of the contradictions we see emerging in this social media context.

  10. Ionizing radiation and wild birds: a review

    Mellinger, P.J.; Schultz, V.

    1975-01-01

    Since the first atomic explosion, 16 July 1945 at the Trinity Site in south-central New Mexico, the impact of ionizing radiation on bird populations has been of concern to a few individuals. The proliferation of nuclear power plants has increased public concern as to possible deleterious effects of nuclear power plant operation on resident and migratory bird populations. Literature involving wild birds and ionizing radiation is not readily available, and only a few studies have been anywhere near comprehensive, with most effort directed towards monitoring radionuclide concentration in birds. The objective of the paper is to document the literature on wild birds and ionizing radiation including a brief description of pertinent papers

  11. Travel fosters tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    Gruber, Thibaud; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Neumann, Christof

    2016-07-19

    Ecological variation influences the appearance and maintenance of tool use in animals, either due to necessity or opportunity, but little is known about the relative importance of these two factors. Here, we combined long-term behavioural data on feeding and travelling with six years of field experiments in a wild chimpanzee community. In the experiments, subjects engaged with natural logs, which contained energetically valuable honey that was only accessible through tool use. Engagement with the experiment was highest after periods of low fruit availability involving more travel between food patches, while instances of actual tool-using were significantly influenced by prior travel effort only. Additionally, combining data from the main chimpanzee study communities across Africa supported this result, insofar as groups with larger travel efforts had larger tool repertoires. Travel thus appears to foster tool use in wild chimpanzees and may also have been a driving force in early hominin technological evolution.

  12. Locomotion dynamics of hunting in wild cheetahs.

    Wilson, A M; Lowe, J C; Roskilly, K; Hudson, P E; Golabek, K A; McNutt, J W

    2013-06-13

    Although the cheetah is recognised as the fastest land animal, little is known about other aspects of its notable athleticism, particularly when hunting in the wild. Here we describe and use a new tracking collar of our own design, containing a combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurement units, to capture the locomotor dynamics and outcome of 367 predominantly hunting runs of five wild cheetahs in Botswana. A remarkable top speed of 25.9 m s(-1) (58 m.p.h. or 93 km h(-1)) was recorded, but most cheetah hunts involved only moderate speeds. We recorded some of the highest measured values for lateral and forward acceleration, deceleration and body-mass-specific power for any terrestrial mammal. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed locomotor information on the hunting dynamics of a large cursorial predator in its natural habitat.

  13. Low habitat overlap at landscape scale between wild camelids and feral donkeys in the Chilean desert

    Malo, Juan E.; González, Benito A.; Mata, Cristina; Vielma, André; Donoso, Denise S.; Fuentes, Nicolás; Estades, Cristián F.

    2016-01-01

    Feral domestic ungulates may compete with the populations of wild herbivores with which they coexist, particularly so in arid regions. The potential competition between wild camelids and feral donkeys at the eastern sector of the Atacama Desert is evaluated in terms of their coincidence or segregation in habitat use and complemented with a comparison of reproductive output (yearling/adult ratio) of vicuña family groups in the proximity vs. distant from donkey observations. Habitat use of wild camelids and donkeys was sampled driving some 1250 km of roads and tracks at the dry and wet seasons. There were 221 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna) sightings, 77 for donkeys (Equus asinus), 25 for guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and 8 for hybrids between guanacos and domestic llamas (Lama glama), as well as 174 randomly selected control locations. By means of Generalised Discriminant Analysis and Analysis of Variance we show that all ungulates actively select their habitat, with significant differences between use and availability in the area. Donkeys are relatively abundant in comparison with camelids and coincide broadly with both of them across the altitudinal gradient, but they fall between them in local scale habitat selection and do not seem to force their displacement from their preferred habitats. Thus donkeys occur preferentially on slopes with a high cover of tall shrubs, whereas vicuñas use valley bottoms with grass and guanacos the upper slope zones with grass. The potential for competition between donkeys and wild camelids is thus limited and it does not affect the reproductive output of vicuña in this region. Therefore, with the present knowledge we suggest that population control is not currently merited for feral donkeys.

  14. Popularisation of Physics in the Wild

    Boccardi, Beatrice; Fragona, Michela; Parolini, Giovanna

    Science popularisation is important to inform tax payers on how their money is used and to inform the general public of the progresses of research. The web 2.0, comprising the 3D virtual worlds, offers science and physics popularisation new communication channels and tools constituting, as a whole, a large part of "learning in the wild", with the consequent citizen science projects. Tags: physics popularisation, informal learning, web 2.0, virtual worlds, Second Life.

  15. Observation of dystocia in wild elk

    Chad P. Lehman; Lowell E. Schmitz; Mark A. Rumble; Jackie J. Kragel; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of reports in the literature, incidence of dystocia in wild elk (Cervus elaphus) across the west is rare. In 2011, one of 34 (3%) pregnant cow elk in our study experienced dystocia during birth. Our visual observations indicated that it took approximately 4 days for a radio-collared cow elk to succumb to dystocia in our study. Little is known about...

  16. Geometry and topology of wild translation surfaces

    Randecker, Anja

    2016-01-01

    A translation surface is a two-dimensional manifold, equipped with a translation structure. It can be obtained by considering Euclidean polygons and identifying their edges via translations. The vertices of the polygons form singularities if the translation structure can not be extended to them. We study translation surfaces with wild singularities, regarding the topology (genus and space of ends), the geometry (behavior of the singularities), and how the topology and the geometry are related.

  17. La seconda visione. Wilde cita Balzac I

    Susi Pietri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Oscar Wilde, “lettore di Balzac” in Balzac in English, The Decay of Lying, e in diversi altri saggi e conversazioni immaginarie, sperimenta una pratica particolarmente trasgressiva della citazione, riscrivendo e rileggendo auto-letture dello stesso Balzac e letture balzachiane di altri scrittori, come Charles Baudelaire, Théophile Gautier e Algernon Charles Swinburne, fino a trasformare la manipolazione delle citazioni in reinvenzione estetica. L’inserzione di temi e personaggi della Comédie humaine nelle proprie opere saggistiche e dialogiche risponde a una complessa strategia di “riappropriazione” dell’eredità balzachiana, attraverso l’esplorazione del potere performativo della “maschera”, l’uso sistematico di paradossi critici, la poetica del “plagio” e del “plagio vivente” in quanto “citazione a rovescio” dell’Arte da parte della Vita e viceversa. Oscar Wilde, “reader of Balzac” in Balzac in English and in The Decay of Lying, as well as in other essays and imagined conversations, tests an especially transgressive practice of quotation, rewriting and rereading both Balzac’s self-readings and the readings of Balzac made by other writers, such as Charles Baudelaire, Théophile Gautier and Algernon Charles Swinburne. In this way, Oscar Wilde transforms the manipulation of quotations into a new aesthetic invention. Indeed, by inserting themes and characters taken from the Comédie humaine in his own essays and dialogues, Wilde follows a complex strategy to take possession of Balzac’s inheritance and explores the performative power of the “mask”, the systematic use of critical paradoxes, the poetics of “plagiarism” and of “living plagiarism” as “reverse quotation” of Art by Life and vice versa.

  18. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F.; Eskridge, Pamela H.; Hoss, Shannon K.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Schuett, Gordon W.

    2012-01-01

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)—asexual reproduction by bisexual species—has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seem...

  19. Tartusse tuleb Wilde'i ja Vilde monument

    1998-01-01

    Tartu kesklinnas Wilde Irish Pubi ees peaks 1999. a. kevadel avatama kirjanike Oscar Wilde'i ja Eduard Vilde pronkskujud. Elusuuruses kirjanikud hakkavad istuma graniitistmel. Idee autorid - pubipidaja Liam Allen, ettevõtja Marju Unt, skulptor Tiiu Kirsipuu.

  20. Population genetics and disease ecology of European wild boar

    Goedbloed, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Welke factoren beïnvloeden de frequentie van de ziekten in wilde populaties? Het promotieonderzoek van Daniel Goedbloed beoordeelde de invloed van demografische, genetische en omgevingsfactoren op de frequentie van twee infectieziekten in Noordwest-Europese wilde zwijnen populaties.

  1. Characterization and expression of dehydrins in wild Egyptian pea ...

    Characterization and expression of dehydrins in wild Egyptian pea ( Pisum sativum L.) ... was isolated and characterized from wild Egyptian pea (Pisum sativum L.) ... DNA sequence indicated an open reading frame which predicts a protein ...

  2. Muscle dysmorphia in Hungarian non-competitive male bodybuilders.

    Babusa, B; Túry, F

    2012-03-01

    Muscle dysmorphia (MD) has been described as a male body image disorder, characterized by a pathological preoccupation with muscle size. The aim of the study was to examine the MD features, eating disorder characteristics and body attitudes in non-competitive male bodybuilders in a Hungarian sample. Sixty male bodybuilders and 60 undergraduate university students completed the self-report questionnaires of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale, the Body Attitude Test and the Eating Disorders Inventory. MD was associated with current bodybuilding activity, higher ideal body weight and eating disorder characteristics. Moreover, current selfreported steroid users displayed higher tendency for MD symptoms than self-reported steroid non-users. Results emphasize the relationship between MD symptoms, eating disorder characteristics and steroid use. MD and body image related concerns among men could be a wide-spread phenomena also in the Central-Eastern European region.

  3. Reproduction in the endangered African wild dog: basic physiology, reproductive suppression and possible benefits of artificial insemination.

    Van den Berghe, F; Paris, D B B P; Van Soom, A; Rijsselaere, T; Van der Weyde, L; Bertschinger, H J; Paris, M C J

    2012-07-01

    The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) is an endangered exotic canid with less than 5500 animals remaining in the wild. Despite numerous strategies to conserve this species, numbers of free-living animals are in decline. It is a highly social species with a complex pack structure: separate male and female dominant hierarchies with, typically, participation of subdominant adults in the rearing of the dominant breeding pairs' pups. Basic reproductive knowledge is largely missing in this species, with only limited information available on the profile of reproductive hormones, based on non-invasive endocrine monitoring. The dominant or alpha male and female are reproductively active and the subdominants are generally reproductively suppressed. However, the occasional production of litters by subdominant females and evidence of multiple paternity within litters suggests that fertility of subordinates is not completely inhibited. In this respect, there are still considerable gaps in our knowledge about the mechanisms governing reproduction and reproductive suppression in African wild dogs, particularly the influence of dominance and pack structure on both male and female fertility. Given concerns over the long-term survival of this species, further research in this area is essential to provide valuable information for their captive breeding and conservation. Reproductive information can also be applied to the development of Assisted Reproductive Techniques for this species; the utility of which in African wild dog conservation is also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Avian Plasmodium in Eastern Austrian mosquitoes.

    Schoener, Ellen; Uebleis, Sarah Susanne; Butter, Julia; Nawratil, Michaela; Cuk, Claudia; Flechl, Eva; Kothmayer, Michael; Obwaller, Adelheid G; Zechmeister, Thomas; Rubel, Franz; Lebl, Karin; Zittra, Carina; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2017-09-29

    Insect vectors, namely mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), are compulsory for malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) to complete their life cycle. Despite this, little is known about vector competence of different mosquito species for the transmission of avian malaria parasites. In this study, nested PCR was used to determine Plasmodium spp. occurrence in pools of whole individuals, as well as the diversity of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences in wild-caught mosquitoes sampled across Eastern Austria in 2013-2015. A total of 45,749 mosquitoes in 2628 pools were collected, of which 169 pools (6.43%) comprising 9 mosquito species were positive for avian Plasmodium, with the majority of positives in mosquitoes of Culex pipiens s.l./Culex torrentium. Six different avian Plasmodium lineages were found, the most common were Plasmodium vaughani SYAT05, Plasmodium sp. Linn1 and Plasmodium relictum SGS1. In 2014, mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex were genetically identified and Culex pipiens f. pipiens presented with the highest number of avian Plasmodium positives (n = 37; 16.74%). Despite this, the minimum infection rate (MIR) was highest in Culex torrentium (5.36%) and Culex pipiens f. pipiens/f. molestus hybrids (5.26%). During 2014 and 2015, seasonal and annual changes in Plasmodium lineage distribution were also observed. In both years P. vaughani SYAT05 dominated at the beginning of the sampling period to be replaced later in the year by P. relictum SGS1 (2014) and Plasmodium sp. Linn1 (2015). This is the first large-scale study of avian Plasmodium parasites in Austrian mosquitoes. These results are of special interest, because molecular identification of the taxa of the Cx. pipiens complex and Cx. torrentium enabled the determination of Plasmodium prevalence in the different mosquito taxa and hybrids of this complex. Since pools of whole insects were used, it is not possible to assert any vector competence in any of the examined mosquitoes, but the results

  5. The agricultural contaminant 17β-trenbolone disrupts male-male competition in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Tomkins, Patrick; Saaristo, Minna; Bertram, Michael G; Tomkins, Raymond B; Allinson, Mayumi; Wong, Bob B M

    2017-11-01

    Despite a growing literature highlighting the potential impact of human-induced environmental change on mechanisms of sexual selection, relatively little is known about the effects of chemical pollutants on male-male competition. One class of environmental pollutant likely to impact male competitive interactions is the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), a large and heterogeneous group of chemical contaminants with the potential to influence morphology, physiology and behaviour at minute concentrations. One EDC of increasing concern is the synthetic, androgenic steroid 17β-trenbolone, which is used globally to promote growth in beef cattle. Although 17β-trenbolone has been found to cause severe morphological and behavioural abnormalities in fish, its potential impact on male-male competition has yet to be investigated. To address this, we exposed wild male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to an environmentally realistic concentration of 17β-trenbolone (average measured concentration: 8 ng/L) for 21 days using a flow-through system. We found that, in the presence of a competitor, 17β-trenbolone-exposed males carried out more frequent aggressive behaviours towards rival males than did unexposed males, as well as performing less courting behaviour and more sneak (i.e., coercive) mating attempts towards females. Considering that, by influencing mating outcomes, male-male competition has important consequences for population dynamics and broader evolutionary processes, this study highlights the need for greater understanding of the potential impact of EDCs on the mechanisms of sexual selection. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Saponin Profile of Wild Asparagus Species.

    Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; Rodriguez-Arcos, Rocío; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana; López, Sergio; Gil, Juan; Moreno, Roberto; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the saponin profiles from spears of different wild asparagus species in the context of its genetic diversity aside from geographical seed origin. They included Asparagus pseudoscaber Grecescu, Asparagus maritimus (L.) Mill., Asparagus brachiphyllus Turcz., Asparagus prostrates Dumort., and Asparagus officinalis L. The saponin analysis by LC-MS has shown that saponin profile from wild asparagus is similar to that previously described for triguero asparagus from Huétor-Tájar landrace (triguero HT), which had not ever been reported in the edible part of asparagus. All the samples, except A. officinalis, were characterized for having saponins distinct to protodioscin and the total saponin contents were 10-fold higher than those described for commercial hybrids of green asparagus. In particular, A. maritimus from different origins were rich in saponins previously found in triguero HT. These findings supported previous suggestion, based on genetic analysis, about A. maritimus being the origin of triguero HT. Multivariate statistics including principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis were used to define both similarities and differences among samples. The results showed that the greatest variance of the tested wild asparagus could be attributed to differences in the concentration of particular saponins and this knowledge could be a tool for identifying similar species. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Evolutionary significance of ageing in the wild.

    Kowald, Axel; Kirkwood, Thomas B L

    2015-11-01

    Human lifespan has risen dramatically over the last 150 years, leading to a significant increase in the fraction of aged people in the population. Until recently it was believed that this contrasted strongly with the situation in wild populations of animals, where the likelihood of encountering demonstrably senescent individuals was believed to be negligible. Over the recent years, however, a series of field studies has appeared that shows ageing can also be observed for many species in the wild. We discuss here the relevance of this finding for the different evolutionary theories of ageing, since it has been claimed that ageing in the wild is incompatible with the so-called non-adaptive (non-programmed) theories, i.e. those in which ageing is presumed not to offer a direct selection benefit. We show that a certain proportion of aged individuals in the population is fully compatible with the antagonistic pleiotropy and the disposable soma theories, while it is difficult to reconcile with the mutation accumulation theory. We also quantify the costs of ageing using life history data from recent field studies and a range of possible metrics. We discuss the merits and problems of the different metrics and also introduce a new metric, yearly death toll, that aims directly at quantifying the deaths caused by the ageing process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic and 'cultural' similarity in wild chimpanzees.

    Langergraber, Kevin E; Boesch, Christophe; Inoue, Eiji; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Mitani, John C; Nishida, Toshisada; Pusey, Anne; Reynolds, Vernon; Schubert, Grit; Wrangham, Richard W; Wroblewski, Emily; Vigilant, Linda

    2011-02-07

    The question of whether animals possess 'cultures' or 'traditions' continues to generate widespread theoretical and empirical interest. Studies of wild chimpanzees have featured prominently in this discussion, as the dominant approach used to identify culture in wild animals was first applied to them. This procedure, the 'method of exclusion,' begins by documenting behavioural differences between groups and then infers the existence of culture by eliminating ecological explanations for their occurrence. The validity of this approach has been questioned because genetic differences between groups have not explicitly been ruled out as a factor contributing to between-group differences in behaviour. Here we investigate this issue directly by analysing genetic and behavioural data from nine groups of wild chimpanzees. We find that the overall levels of genetic and behavioural dissimilarity between groups are highly and statistically significantly correlated. Additional analyses show that only a very small number of behaviours vary between genetically similar groups, and that there is no obvious pattern as to which classes of behaviours (e.g. tool-use versus communicative) have a distribution that matches patterns of between-group genetic dissimilarity. These results indicate that genetic dissimilarity cannot be eliminated as playing a major role in generating group differences in chimpanzee behaviour.

  9. Toxoplasma gondii in small neotropical wild felids

    William Alberto Cañon-Franco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, studies on wildlife worldwide have discovered key epidemiological aspects of the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. However, despite the known role of wild felines as definitive hosts in the transmission and maintenance of this parasite, few studies have focused on the involvement of these animals. Brazil exhibits the largest number of wild felid species in the Americas, all of which have a critical conservation status. However, serological detections, epidemiological studies and some molecular characterizations of T. gondii have primarily used Neotropical felid populations that are maintained in captivity, which does not reflect the disease behavior in free-living conditions. A systematic review of the worldwide scientific literature was conducted focusing on toxoplasmosis in small Neotropical felids. This review covered a number of aspects, including the state of scientific research, parasite transmission in the wild, the genetic characteristics of isolates, the relationship between these genetic characteristics and the pathogenicity of the parasite, and the risk factors linked to conflicts with humans. The present review shows the relevance of studying these felid populations based on their frequent interactions with humans in peri-urban areas and the need for further comprehensive studies to establish the real significance of T. gondii in public and animal health in tropical and temperate regions.

  10. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates.

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F; Eskridge, Pamela H; Hoss, Shannon K; Mendelson, Joseph R; Schuett, Gordon W

    2012-12-23

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)-asexual reproduction by bisexual species-has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes-the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted.

  11. Mycobacterium spp. in wild game in Slovenia.

    Pate, Mateja; Zajc, Urška; Kušar, Darja; Žele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd; Pirš, Tina; Ocepek, Matjaž

    2016-02-01

    Wildlife species are an important reservoir of mycobacterial infections that may jeopardise efforts to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Slovenia is officially free of bTB, but no data on the presence of mycobacteria in wild animals has been reported. In this study, samples of liver and lymph nodes were examined from 306 apparently healthy free-range wild animals of 13 species in Slovenia belonging to the families Cervidae, Suidae, Canidae, Mustelidae and Bovidae. Mycobacteria were isolated from 36/306 (11.8%) animals (red deer, roe deer, fallow deer, wild boar and jackal) and identified by PCR, commercial diagnostic kits and sequencing. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria identified in five species were Mycobacterium peregrinum, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, M. intracellulare, M. confluentis, M. fortuitum, M. terrae, M. avium subsp. avium, M. celatum, M. engbaekii, M. neoaurum, M. nonchromogenicum and M. vaccae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Variable Nitrogen Fixation in Wild Populus.

    Sharon L Doty

    Full Text Available The microbiome of plants is diverse, and like that of animals, is important for overall health and nutrient acquisition. In legumes and actinorhizal plants, a portion of essential nitrogen (N is obtained through symbiosis with nodule-inhabiting, N2-fixing microorganisms. However, a variety of non-nodulating plant species can also thrive in natural, low-N settings. Some of these species may rely on endophytes, microorganisms that live within plants, to fix N2 gas into usable forms. Here we report the first direct evidence of N2 fixation in the early successional wild tree, Populus trichocarpa, a non-leguminous tree, from its native riparian habitat. In order to measure N2 fixation, surface-sterilized cuttings of wild poplar were assayed using both 15N2 incorporation and the commonly used acetylene reduction assay. The 15N label was incorporated at high levels in a subset of cuttings, suggesting a high level of N-fixation. Similarly, acetylene was reduced to ethylene in some samples. The microbiota of the cuttings was highly variable, both in numbers of cultured bacteria and in genetic diversity. Our results indicated that associative N2-fixation occurred within wild poplar and that a non-uniformity in the distribution of endophytic bacteria may explain the variability in N-fixation activity. These results point to the need for molecular studies to decipher the required microbial consortia and conditions for effective endophytic N2-fixation in trees.

  13. Male breast pathology

    Puebla, C.; Sainz, J.M.; Pujala, M.; Villavieja, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    To review the specific radiological signs of male breast pathology observed in our center over the past five years, as well as the pertinent medical literature. A retrospective study was carried out of the 47 mammographic studies performed in 41 men. Oblique mediolateral and craniocaudal views were employed. The distribution of different types of male breast pathology among our patients was as follows: gynecomastia was detected in 30 cases (73.1%), pseudogynectomastia in 4 (9.7%), carcinoma in 3(7.3%), abscess in 2 (4.9%), lipoma in 1 (2.5%) and epidermoid cyst in the remaining patient (2.5%). The results obtained agree with those reported in the literature reviewed. The most significant findings were the low incidence of carcinoma and the high rate of gynecomastia. (Author) 26 refs

  14. Project finance in Eastern Europe

    Hart, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    A dysfunctional system of commercial, legal, and financial institutions is the primary problem facing the energy sectors in Eastern Europe. Generally, a major systemic transformation is well underway in the area and is already showing signs of success. The empty promise of export credit financing exerts a significant negative influence on this reform process. The discipline of project finance provides the best, if not the only, basis for financing the modernization of the Eastern European energy sector. An example is given of the Cracow Environmental Project, a modernization project. The power plant is a combined heat and power facility with 460 MW of electric capacity and 1450 MW of thermal energy capacity. Located near the center of Cracow, the plant burns hard coal and provides more than seventy percent of the central district heat consumed in the city. The scope of proposed improvements has changed from the addition of capacity to a combination of modernization and environmental retrofit of the existing plant. The total estimated cost of the improvements program is 150 million dollars. The project consists of three major elements. First, it has proposed and is in the process of restructuring the ownership of the power plant. Second, it is engaged in a major restructuring of the commercial arrangements that govern the operation of the plant. Finally, it is in the late stages of selecting an engineering, procurement, and construction consortium with which it will contract to design and make major improvements to the existing plant

  15. Natural gas in Eastern Europe

    Grabarczyk, Ewa; McCallum, Robert; Wergeland, Tor H

    1994-12-31

    The paper is based on Ewa Grabarczyk`s thesis ``The European Gas Market and the Former East Block Countries`` in the Master of International Business Programme at the Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration. The material of Grabarczyk`s work has been split into two parts; SNF Working Papers Nos. 97/93 and 98/93. Working Paper 97/93 ``The European Gas Markets`` contains an equilibrium model of the European Gas Market employed to investigate some scenarios to the consequences of an integration of the former Soviet Union. Working Paper 98/93 ``Natural Gas in Eastern Europe`` contains descriptions of the energy sectors of former Eastern European countries and an evaluation of the potential future demand for natural gas in these nations. The paper has chapters on each country and sections on reserves, production, exports and markets, transport possibilities and technology, demand and development as well as evaluation of the present situation. 11 figs., 37 tabs., 33 refs

  16. Advances in Male Contraception

    Page, Stephanie T.; Amory, John K.; Bremner, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, almost half of all pregnancies are still unwanted or unplanned. Clearly, there is a need for expanded, reversible, contraceptive options. Multicultural surveys demonstrate the willingness of men to participate in contraception and their female partners to trust them to do so. Notwithstanding their paucity of options, male methods including vasectomy and condoms account for almost one third of contraceptive use in the United States and other countries. Recent international clinical research efforts have demonstrated high efficacy rates (90–95%) for hormonally based male contraceptives. Current barriers to expanded use include limited delivery methods and perceived regulatory obstacles, which stymie introduction to the marketplace. However, advances in oral and injectable androgen delivery are cause for optimism that these hurdles may be overcome. Nonhormonal methods, such as compounds that target sperm motility, are attractive in their theoretical promise of specificity for the reproductive tract. Gene and protein array technologies continue to identify potential targets for this approach. Such nonhormonal agents will likely reach clinical trials in the near future. Great strides have been made in understanding male reproductive physiology; the combined efforts of scientists, clinicians, industry and governmental funding agencies could make an effective, reversible, male contraceptive an option for family planning over the next decade. PMID:18436704

  17. Endometriosis in the male.

    Martin, J D; Hauck, A E

    1985-07-01

    An 83-year-old man with an endometrioma of the lower abdominal wall has been reported. This occurred following the administration of 25 mg of TACE for a period of about 10 years for what was thought to be carcinoma of the prostate. A second transurethral resection done by Dr. R. C. Thompson proved to be adenocarcinoma. Subsequent to this he was continued on TACE. A review of the more commonly accepted theories of the development of endometriosis in the female has been presented. It is pointed out that the separation between the male and female urogenital systems occurs in the embryo between the eighth week and the fourth month. There is always a possibility for remnants of the opposite sex to remain in individuals. No such was seen in the case which is herein reported. Normal phenotype male was demonstrated in the chromosomal evaluation. A review of the literature on endometriosis in the male reveals several cases which have occurred; the origin of which is though to be from the prostatic utricle which is a remnant of the uterus existing in the male. After a prolonged course the patient reported was followed until he died in 1979. There was no recurrence of the abdominal wall mass but persistent low grade carcinoma of the prostate remained. The terminal process was related to cardiovascular disease and not carcinoma of the prostate. There was delay in publication of this unusual case. The original plan was to await final confirmation of the exact pathologic nature of this condition; unfortunately this was never done since a postmortem examination was not performed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and potentially zoonotic helminths in wild boars (Sus scrofa hunted in central Italy

    Roberto Amerigo Papini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the risk of human toxoplasmosis via meat consumption from wild boars by estimating the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in animals hunted in central Italy. Using a modified agglutination test, 213 sera from wild boars were examined for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies. Diaphragm samples (n=65 from seropositive and seronegative animals were tested by nested-PCR to detect T. gondii DNA. Toxoplasma DNA from diaphragms was genotyped by PCR-RFLP using 12 genetic markers. Moreover, the aim of the study was also to identify helminth infections of wild boars in the selected area and to evaluate their hazard for humans. Examination of sera revealed a seroprevalence of 12.2%. Only one T. gondii strain could be genotyped from a seropositive animal and PCR-RFLP revealed that it belonged to type II. Analysis of 50 samples of faeces and 32 small intestines revealed that 78% and 15.6% of the samples harboured parasites, respectively, with the occurrence of parasites potentially dangerous for humans. These latter included Ascaris suum, Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, Trichuris suis, and Metastrongylus spp. A significant association was found between coprological positivity and male sex. These results indicate that T. gondii infection may be present in wild boar tissues and consumption of undercooked or raw wild boar meat may expose humans to risk of toxoplasmosis in the study area. Furthermore, the study highlights that wild boars are hosts of helminths of veterinary and medical importance transmissible to pigs and humans.

  19. Male Body Contouring.

    Singh, Babu; Keaney, Terrence; Rossi, Anthony M

    2015-09-01

    Men are increasingly turning to dermatologists and plastic surgeons to request procedures that correct or enhance physical features. With the advent of this emerging new patient population, alterations in preexisting aesthetic techniques, gender-specific uses of existing devices and overall approaches need to be revisited and adapted to obtain results that are suitable for the male patient. Recently, body contouring has become one of the most sought out procedures by men. Although the majority of clinical studies involving body contouring esthetics are performed with female patients, gains from such studies can be extrapolated to men. Body contouring can be broadly classified as non-invasive or invasive, depending on the modality used. Non-invasive contouring is most frequently performed with devices that target subcutaneous adipose with focused electrical or thermal energy, including low-level laser, cryolipolysis, ultrasonography, and radiofrequency. Invasive body contouring modalities useful for male body contouring include liposuction, pectoral and abdominal wall etching, jawline fillers, synthetic deoxycholic acid injections, and solid silicone implants. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to the unique aspects, strategies, and modalities used in aesthetic body contouring for the male patient.

  20. Gender-disturbed males.

    Levine, S B

    1993-01-01

    Adolescent and adult cross-dressing or "transvestism" is the most common antecedent behavioral pattern among those who request sex reassignment surgery. Transvestites are actually a diverse group of men who differ in their gender identities, orientation, and intention. They do, however, have in common a soothing image of themselves as women. Because of this, whether cross-dressing occurs among masculine or feminine males or heterosexuals, homosexuals, bisexuals, or asexuals, or among those with paraphilia, the behavior should be considered the expression of their consciously felt femininity. The confusing differences among cross-dressing males may be explained by their diversity along three dimensions: 1) the ambition for heterosexual intercourse; 2) the natural history of their sexual arousal to female clothing; 3) their current capacity to integrate their masculine and feminine strivings into separate compartments. When cross-dressers give up all vestiges of male gender role behaviors and successfully live and work full time as women, the appropriate descriptive term for them becomes "transsexual."

  1. Comparison of various physiological traits in flies (Drosophila melanogaster) of wild origin, infected or uninfected by the hereditary Rhabdovirus sigma.

    Fleuriet, A

    1981-01-01

    Flies infected or uninfected by the hereditary Rhabdovirus sigma have been collected in the natural French populations of Drosophila melanogaster. The have been compared for various physiological traits: male and female fertility, female longevity, sexual selection and egg viability. The only significant difference was the lower viability of eggs laid by infected females. For all the other traits, infected and uninfected flies were quite comparable. The viral types found in flies of wild origin, thus appear to be almost harmless for their carriers. This result can be connected with previous findings which gave evidence for the relative infrequency of infectious particles in stabilized flies of wild origin.

  2. Age and sex-specific mortality of wild and captive populations of a monogamous pair-bonded primate (Aotus azarae)

    Larson, Sam; Colchero, Fernando; Jones, Owen

    2016-01-01

    In polygynous primates, a greater reproductive variance in males has been linked to their reduced life expectancy relative to females. The mortality patterns of monogamous pair-bonded primates, however, are less clear. We analyzed the sex differences in mortality within wild (NMales = 70, NFemales...... = 73) and captive (NMales = 25, NFemales = 29) populations of Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarae), a socially and genetically monogamous primate exhibiting bi-parental care. We used Bayesian Survival Trajectory Analysis (BaSTA) to test age-dependent models of mortality. The wild and captive populations...

  3. Low genetic diversity of the endangered Indian wild ass Equus ...

    DEVENDRA KHAIRE

    (Equus hemionus khur) belongs to an endangered wild species/subspecies of wild ... species of the Asiatic wild asses, E. hemionus and E. kiang, have been described on .... 57.9. Tseng et al. (2010). 5 -TCA CCC ACT AAA TCT CAA ATC C-3.

  4. Estimation of in situ mating systems in wild sorghum (Sorghum ...

    The high outcrossing rates of wild/weedy sorghum populations in Ethiopia indicate a high potential for crop genes (including transgenes) to spread within the wild pool. Therefore, effective risk management strategies may be needed if the introgression of transgenes or other crop genes from improved cultivars into wild or ...

  5. 50 CFR 12.34 - Return to the wild.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Return to the wild. 12.34 Section 12.34... SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Disposal of Forfeited or Abandoned Property § 12.34 Return to the wild... the wild in suitable habitat within the historical range of the species in the United States with the...

  6. Identifying risk factors for victimization among male prisoners in Taiwan.

    Kuo, Shih-Ya; Cuvelier, Steven J; Huang, Yung-Shun

    2014-02-01

    This study identified risk factors for prison victimization in Taiwan with an application of Western literature and assessed the extent of its applicability in an Eastern context. The sample was drawn from four male prisons located in Northern, Central, Southern, and Eastern Taiwan; a total of 1,181 valid surveys were collected. The results generally support the major findings of the extant Western studies. Crowding, however, was not significantly associated with the risk of victimization in any of the statistical models, which might be related to the different experiences and living conditions in the free community between Taiwanese and American inmates. This study generated clear policy implications, which may reduce prison victimization and engender a greater sense of well-being in the prison environment.

  7. 76 FR 28210 - Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee

    2011-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern Arizona Counties will meet...: Julia Faith Rivera, RAC Program Manager, Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory Committee, Apache...

  8. 76 FR 41755 - Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory; Meeting

    2011-07-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Eastern Arizona Counties Resource Advisory; Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern Arizona Counties Resource... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Julia Faith Rivera, RAC Program Manager, Eastern Arizona Counties Resource...

  9. Old age mortality in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia

    Danan Gu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eastern and South-Eastern Asian countries have witnessed a marked decline in old age mortality in recent decades. Yet no studies have investigated the trends and patterns in old age morality and cause-of-death in the region. Objective: We reviewed the trends and patterns of old age mortality and cause-of-death for countries in the region. Methods: We examined data on old age mortality in terms of life expectancy at age 65 and age-specific death rates from the 2012 Revision of the World Population Prospects for 14 countries in the region (China, Hong Kong, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam and data on cause-of-death from the WHO for five countries (China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Singapore from 1980 to 2010. Results: While mortality transitions in these populations took place in different times, and at different levels of socioeconomic development and living environment, changes in their age patterns and sex differentials in mortality showed certain similarities: women witnessed a similar decline to men in spite of their lower mortality, and young elders had a larger decline than the oldest-old. In all five countries examined for cause-of-death, most of the increases in life expectancy at age 65 in both men and women were attributable to declines in mortality from stroke and heart disease. GDP per capita, educational level, and urbanization explained much of the variations in life expectancy and cause-specific mortality, indicating critical contributions of these basic socioeconomic development indicators to the mortality decline over time in the region. Conclusions: These findings shed light on the relationship between epidemiological transition, changing age patterns of mortality, and improving life expectancy in these populations.

  10. Babesia microti infection, eastern Pennsylvania, USA.

    Acosta, Marcela E Perez; Ender, Peter T; Smith, Erin M; Jahre, Jeffrey A

    2013-07-01

    Infection with Babesia microti has not been well-described in eastern Pennsylvania, USA, despite the vector of this organism being prevalent. We report 3 cases of babesiosis in eastern Pennsylvania in persons without recent travel outside the region or history of blood transfusions, suggesting emergence of this infection.

  11. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review

    The Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review (EASSRR) is a bi-annual journal published by the Organization for Social Science Research in Eastern Africa (OSSREA). Since the publication of its maiden ... Emerging regions in Ethiopia: are they catching up with the rest of Ethiopia? EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  12. tive conflict resolution mechanism in eastern Ethiopia

    eastern Ethiopia: The case of the Ittu ... The study was conducted in eastern Ethiopia where the Somali and ... Zigale Tamir Tenaw is assistant professor in the Department of Gender and Development ..... regional state in collaboration with the local people – aggravate the already ..... Resource Based Conflict Network,.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships among domesticated and wild species of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) inferred from a mitochondrial gene: Implications for crop plant evolution and areas of origin.

    Sanjur, Oris I; Piperno, Dolores R; Andres, Thomas C; Wessel-Beaver, Linda

    2002-01-08

    We have investigated the phylogenetic relationships among six wild and six domesticated taxa of Cucurbita using as a marker an intron region from the mitochondrial nad1 gene. Our study represents one of the first successful uses of a mtDNA gene in resolving inter- and intraspecific taxonomic relationships in Angiosperms and yields several important insights into the origins of domesticated Cucurbita. First, our data suggest at least six independent domestication events from distinct wild ancestors. Second, Cucurbita argyrosperma likely was domesticated from a wild Mexican gourd, Cucurbita sororia, probably in the same region of southwest Mexico that gave rise to maize. Third, the wild ancestor of Cucurbita moschata is still unknown, but mtDNA data combined with other sources of information suggest that it will probably be found in lowland northern South America. Fourth, Cucurbita andreana is supported as the wild progenitor of Cucurbita maxima, but humid lowland regions of Bolivia in addition to warmer temperate zones in South America from where C. andreana was originally described should possibly be considered as an area of origin for C. maxima. Fifth, our data support other molecular results that indicate two separate domestications in the Cucurbita pepo complex. The potential zone of domestication for one of the domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. ovifera, includes eastern North America and should be extended to northeastern Mexico. The wild ancestor of the other domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. pepo, is undiscovered but is closely related to C. pepo subsp. fraterna and possibly will be found in southern Mexico.

  14. Records of the Genus Paramerina (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) from Eastern Himalaya and Satpura Hill Regions of India.

    Paul, N; Hazra, N; Mazumdar, A

    2013-10-01

    The pupa and the male imago of Paramerina valida n. sp. and the larva of Paramerina inficia Chaudhuri & Debnath are described and illustrated along with a brief re-description of the adult of P. inficia from the Eastern Himalaya and Satpura hill regions of India. A key to the adult males of the Indian species of the genus Paramerina Fittkau is provided. The notes on ecology of the two species are also provided.

  15. Rearing in seawater mesocosms improves the spawning performance of growth hormone transgenic and wild-type coho salmon.

    Rosalind A Leggatt

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L, semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic

  16. Morphological characteristics of the Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni Gmelin, 1789 in the south-eastern part of Kosovo and Metohija

    Labus Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of the analysis of morphological characteristics of the Hermann's tortoise from three localities in south­eastern part of Kosovo and Metohija. 75 adult Hermann's tortoises (33 males and 42 females have been analyzed. Morphometric analysis has been done on 7 traits. We considered the plastron black pigmentation patterns and frequencies for each pigmentation states were calculated. Females were larger than males for all morphometric traits. Based on the most important dimensions of carapace and plastron length and width, the Hermann's tortoises from the south-eastern part of Kosovo and Metohija are the most similar to the individuals of the population from the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula (the southern part of Serbia and the northern part of Greece. In relation to the populations from central and eastern Serbia, individuals from our studied area have higher values.

  17. 77 FR 51966 - Eastern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee

    2012-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Eastern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Eastern Arizona Resource Advisory Committee...

  18. When things go wrong: Cysticercus longicollis in an adult wild red fox (Vulpes vulpes).

    Konjević, Dean; Živičnjak, Tatjana; Kurilj, Andrea Gudan; Sindičić, Magda; Martinković, Franjo; Jan, Dagny Stojčević

    2016-03-01

    First case of Cysticercus longicollis, larval stage of Taenia crassiceps, was diagnosed in a wild adult male red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The fox was killed by dogs at Nature Park Medvednica and presented to the University of Zagreb Faculty of Veterinary Medicine with history of being unable to run away and having skin lesions on legs that resembled to those of mange. Necropsy revealed whitish fluctuant mass full of cysticercus-like structures, surrounded by fibrous capsule and placed between the leg muscles, and numerous of spherical cysts in the subcutis and in the peritoneal cavity. Cysticerci were identified as C. longicollis based on their size, number and size of the rostellar hooks, mode of proliferation and DNA analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of T. crassiceps cysticercosis in a wild carnivore.

  19. Toxocara cati (Nematoda, Ascarididae in different wild feline species in Brazil: new host records

    Moisés Gallas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n3p117 This is the first detailed description of Toxocara cati parasitizing felines in South America. Seventeen run over wild felines (Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus, and Puma yagouaroundi were collected from different towns in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The morphometry of males and females allowed the identification of specimens as being T. cati. The helminths were found in the stomach and intestine of hosts with prevalences of 66.6% in L. colocolo, L. geoffroyi, and L. tigrinus; and 60% in P. yagouaroundi. The ecological parameters were calculated for each host and L. colocolo had the highest infection intensity (22.5 helminths/ host. This is the first report of T. cati parasitizing four wild felines species in southern Brazil, besides a new record of this parasite for two host species.

  20. Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788 (Nematoda, Ascarididae in different wild feline species in Brazil: new host records

    Moisés Gallas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first detailed description of Toxocara cati parasitizing felines in South America. Seventeen run over wild felines (Leopardus colocolo, Leopardus geoffroyi, Leopardus tigrinus, and Puma yagouaroundi were collected from different towns in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The morphometry of males and females allowed the identification of specimens as being T. cati. The helminths were found in the stomach and intestine of hosts with prevalences of 66.6% in L. colocolo, L. geoffroyi, and L. tigrinus; and 60% in P. yagouaroundi. The ecological parameters were calculated for each host and L. colocolo had the highest infection intensity (22.5 helminths/host. This is the first report of T. cati parasitizing four wild felines species in southern Brazil, besides a new record of this parasite for two host species.

  1. Hematology, plasma chemistry, and bacteriology of wild Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus) in Alaska.

    Milani, Juliana F; Wilson, Heather; Ziccardi, Michael; LeFebvre, Rance; Scott, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Blood and cloacal swabs were collected from 100 (66 female, 34 male) wild Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus) molting in northwestern Alaska, USA, 25-28 July 2008, to establish hematologic and serum chemistry reference values and to isolate enteric Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Plasma biochemistry and hematology values did not vary significantly by sex or age. Tundra swans had high levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, amylase, and alkaline phosphatase compared with some other avian species (values were up to 7 times greater), possibly indicating capture myopathy. However, concentrations were much lower (up to 8 times lower) than in other waterfowl exposed to similar or more intensive capture methods. White blood cell count and hematocrit values were similar to other waterfowl species, and enteric Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 were not present among birds sampled. Our data provide the first biochemical, hematologic, and bacteriologic reference values for wild Tundra Swans.

  2. Sexually transmitted bacteria affect female cloacal assemblages in a wild bird

    White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Phillipp; Wagner, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem.

  3. Hormonal changes during the mating and conception seasons of wild northern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus).

    Strier, Karen B; Lynch, Jessica W; Ziegler, Toni E

    2003-10-01

    We investigated hormonal and behavioral changes in wild male and female northern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus) at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil, during a 6-mo period that encompassed the onset of the 1998-1999 mating and conception seasons. Individual females resumed mating with the resumption of ovarian cycling, which was not synchronized among them or related to their cortisol levels. Females experienced two to seven cycles prior to conceiving, and the first conception occurred 2 mo after the onset of the group's mating season. There were no differences in female cortisol levels across their premating, mating, and conception conditions. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in females than in males prior to the conception season, consistent with the prediction that energy reserves may be associated with breeding readiness in females, but not males, in this species. The sustained elevation in male cortisol occurred after the peak in their sexual activity, which resulted in the first conception of the year. Male cortisol levels were positively correlated between years that were similar in rainfall, but differed in the timing of sexual and reproductive events. The timing of cortisol elevations in males appears to be generally regulated by environmental cues, but is responsive to fine-tuning by social and behavioral cues related to the unpredictable timing of reproductive opportunities within their extended mating season. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Sex-specific consequences of experimental cortisol elevation in pre-reproductive wild largemouth bass.

    O'Connor, Constance M; Nannini, Michael; Wahl, David H; Wilson, Samantha M; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Cooke, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Experimental implants were used to investigate the effect of elevated cortisol (the primary stress hormone in teleost fish) on energetic and physiological condition prior to reproduction in male and female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Fish were wild-caught from lakes in Illinois, and held in experimental ponds for the duration of the study. Between 9 and 13 days after cortisol treatment, and immediately prior to the start of the reproductive period, treated and control animals were sampled. Females exhibited lower muscle lipid content, lower liver glycogen content, and higher hepatosomatic indices than males, regardless of treatment. Also, cortisol-treated females had higher hepatosomatic indices and lower final mass than control females, whereas males showed no differences between treatment groups. Finally, cortisol-treated females had higher gonadal cortisol concentrations than control females. In general, we found evidence of reduced energetic stores in female fish relative to male fish, likely due to timing differences in the allocation of resources during reproduction between males and females. Perhaps driven by the difference in energetic reserves, our data further suggest that females are more sensitive than males to elevated cortisol during the period immediately prior to reproduction. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Hendrichs, M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Hendrichs, J.; Katsoyannos, B.

    2007-01-01

    Sterile male insects, mass-reared and released as part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, must survive long enough in the field to mature sexually and compete effectively with wild males for wild females. An often reported problem in Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) SIT programs is that numbers of released sterile males decrease rapidly in the field for various reasons, including losses to different types of predators. This is a serious issue in view that most operational programs release sterile flies at an age when they are still immature. Previous field and field-cage tests have confirmed that flies of laboratory strains are less able to evade predators than wild flies. Such tests involve, however, considerable manipulation and observation of predators and are therefore not suitable for routine measurements of predator evasion. Here we describe a simple quality control method with aspirators to measure agility in medflies and show that this parameter is related to the capacity of flies to evade predators. Although further standardization of the test is necessary to allow more accurate inter-strain comparisons, results confirm the relevance of measuring predator evasion in mass-reared medfly strains. Besides being a measure of this sterile male quality parameter, the described method could be used for the systematic selection of strains with a higher capacity for predator evasion. (author) [es

  6. Gynecomastia in Adolescent Males

    Lemaine, Valerie; Cayci, Cenk; Simmons, Patricia S.; Petty, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Gynecomastia is defined as an enlargement of the male breast. It is often benign, and can be the source of significant embarrassment and psychological distress. A general medical history and careful physical examination are essential to distinguish normal developmental variants from pathological causes. Treatment is geared toward the specific etiology when identified. In the majority of cases of pubertal gynecomastia, observation and reassurance are the mainstays of therapy as the condition usually resolves naturally. Pharmacological treatment and surgery are recommended only in selected cases. PMID:24872741

  7. Ozone modelling in Eastern Austria

    Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.; Kromp-Kolb, H. [Univ. of Agriculture, Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Meteorology and Physics; Winiwater, W. [Austrian Research Centre, Seibersdorf (Austria); Baumann, R.; Spangl, W. [Federal Environmental Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    High ozone concentrations are frequently observed in Eastern Austria, often exceeding local as well as international health standards, both for short-term as well as for long-term exposures. The maximum concentrations are produced in urban plumes, e.g. of the city of Vienna, whereas regional-scale transport and production of ozone is more important for the long-term concentrations. The Pannonian Ozone Project (POP) is an Austrian research initiative to model photochemical processes on a regional as well as on a local scale with a Lagrangian model to better understand the mechanisms leading to the high ozone concentrations and to develop abatement strategies. Up to now, focus has been on the regional scale. Aircraft, tethered balloon, tetroon and intensified ground measurements are carried out to validate the model. Although the major measurement campaign will be held in summer 1995, first results from a measurement campaign in summer 1994 are already available

  8. Analysis of Powdery Mildew Resistance in Wild Melon MLO Mutants

    Cheng Hong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wild species have a potential value in crop breeding. Explore MLO gene which related with powdery mildew natural resistance is very important for improving the quality of melon. Resistance to powdery mildew was examined in cultivar and wild species by leaf inoculation. The wild germplasms showed resistance to powdery mildew Race1. Cloning and sequence analysis of the CmMLO2 gene identified an 85 bp difference between the wild and cultivated species. The CmMLO2 gene was expressed in the wild germplasm after fluorescence-labeled Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A positive transgenic plant showed successful invasion by powdery mildew Race1. These results suggested that the wild species might have failed to encode the MLO protein, thereby resulting in the MLO-negative regulation of powdery mildew, which in turn resulted in the broad-spectrum resistance of the wild species to powdery mildew.

  9. Hyperspectral remote sensing of wild oyster reefs

    Le Bris, Anthony; Rosa, Philippe; Lerouxel, Astrid; Cognie, Bruno; Gernez, Pierre; Launeau, Patrick; Robin, Marc; Barillé, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    The invasion of the wild oyster Crassostrea gigas along the western European Atlantic coast has generated changes in the structure and functioning of intertidal ecosystems. Considered as an invasive species and a trophic competitor of the cultivated conspecific oyster, it is now seen as a resource by oyster farmers following recurrent mass summer mortalities of oyster spat since 2008. Spatial distribution maps of wild oyster reefs are required by local authorities to help define management strategies. In this work, visible-near infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing was investigated to map two contrasted intertidal reef structures: clusters of vertical oysters building three-dimensional dense reefs in muddy areas and oysters growing horizontally creating large flat reefs in rocky areas. A spectral library, collected in situ for various conditions with an ASD spectroradiometer, was used to run Spectral Angle Mapper classifications on airborne data obtained with an HySpex sensor (160 spectral bands) and SPOT satellite HRG multispectral data (3 spectral bands). With HySpex spectral/spatial resolution, horizontal oysters in the rocky area were correctly classified but the detection was less efficient for vertical oysters in muddy areas. Poor results were obtained with the multispectral image and from spatially or spectrally degraded HySpex data, it was clear that the spectral resolution was more important than the spatial resolution. In fact, there was a systematic mud deposition on shells of vertical oyster reefs explaining the misclassification of 30% of pixels recognized as mud or microphytobenthos. Spatial distribution maps of oyster reefs were coupled with in situ biomass measurements to illustrate the interest of a remote sensing product to provide stock estimations of wild oyster reefs to be exploited by oyster producers. This work highlights the interest of developing remote sensing techniques for aquaculture applications in coastal

  10. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda; Yucebilgili Kurtoglu, Kuaybe

    2013-01-01

    The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance. PMID:23766697

  11. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    Hikmet Budak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum and durum wheat (Triticum durum and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides, which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance.

  12. Trace elements in wild and orchard honeys

    Almeida-Silva, M.; Canha, N.; Galinha, C.; Dung, H.M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Sitoe, T. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    The present study aims the identification and quantification of trace elements in two types of honey samples: Orchard honey and Wild honey from mainland Portugal. Chemical elements content was assessed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Concentrations were determinated for Ag, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, U, V and Zn. The nutritional values of both honey types were evaluated since this product contains some elements that are essential dietary nutrients for humans. Physical properties of the honey samples, such as electrical conductivy and pH, were assessed as well.

  13. O espelho partido de Oscar Wilde

    Marcus Rodrigues Jacobina Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tece algumas considerações a respeito dos processos de luto e melancolia, dos desafios que surgem à elaboração de lutos e perdas. Foi inspirado na teoria psicanalítica e na leitura de alguns aspectos da vida de Oscar Wilde extraídos de sua biografia, escrita por Daniel Salvatore Schiffer, para iluminar a mesma problemática de inibição do luto, conduzindo à melancolia e ao empobrecimento da criatividade.

  14. Human Infection in Wild Mountain Gorillas

    2011-04-25

    This podcast discusses a study about the transmission of Human Metapneumovirus Infection to wild mountain gorillas in Rwanda in 2009, published in the April 2011 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. Dr. Ian Lipkin, Director of the Center for Infection and Immunity and Dr. Gustavo Palacios, investigator in the Center of Infection & Immunity share details of this study.  Created: 4/25/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/2/2011.

  15. Transgenerational effect of the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin on male spermatogenesis.

    Anway, Matthew D; Memon, Mushtaq A; Uzumcu, Mehmet; Skinner, Michael K

    2006-01-01

    The current study was designed to examine the actions of a model endocrine disruptor on embryonic testis development and male fertility. Pregnant rats (F0) that received a transient embryonic exposure to an environmental endocrine disruptor, vinclozolin, had male offspring (F1) with reduced spermatogenic capacity. The reduced spermatogenetic capacity observed in the F1 male offspring was transmitted to the subsequent generations (F2-F4). The administration of vinclozolin, an androgen receptor antagonist, at 100 mg/kg/day from embryonic day 8-14 (E8-E14) of pregnancy to only the F0 dam resulted in a transgenerational phenotype in the subsequent male offspring in the F1-F4 generations. The litter size and male/female sex ratios were similar in controls and the vinclozolin generations. The average testes/body weight index of the postnatal day 60 (P60) males was not significantly different in the vinclozolin-treated generations compared to the controls. However, the testicular spermatid number, as well as the epididymal sperm number and motility, were significantly reduced in the vinclozolin generations compared to the control animals. Postnatal day 20 (P20) testis from the vinclozolin F2 generation had no morphological abnormalities, but did have an increase in spermatogenic cell apoptosis. Although the P60 testis morphology was predominantly normal, the germ cell apoptosis was significantly increased in the testes cross sections of animals from the vinclozolin generations. The increase in apoptosis was stage-specific in the testis, with tubules at stages IX-XIV having the highest increase in apoptotic germ cells. The tubules at stages I-V also had an increase in apoptotic germ cells compared to the control samples, but tubules at stages VI-VIII had no increase in apoptotic germ cells. An outcross of a vinclozolin generation male with a wild-type female demonstrated that the reduced spermatogenic cell phenotype was transmitted through the male germ line. An outcross

  16. Experiencing Male Infertility

    Esmée Hanna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the qualitative research literature that exists in relation to men’s experiences of male infertility. Since men have often been marginalized in the realm of reproduction, including academic research on infertility, it is important to focus on any qualitative research that gives voices to male perspectives and concerns. Given the distress documented by studies of infertile women, we focus in particular on the emotive responses and lived experiences of men in relation to infertility. In this article then, we present an analysis of the core themes across 19 qualitative articles, which include “infertility as crisis”; “emoting infertility- men as “being strong”’ “infertility as a source of stigma”; and the “desire for fatherhood.” In light of these insights, we identify key areas for future research and development including men’s emotional responses to infertility, how men seek support for infertility, the intersection between masculinity and infertility, the relationship between the desire to father and infertility, and the outcomes of infertility for men in terms of other aspects of their lives. We suggest that such research would facilitate making the experiences of men more central within our understandings of infertility within a field that has primarily been female focused.

  17. Imaging of male urethra

    Pavlica, Pietro; Barozzi, Libero; Menchi, Ilario

    2003-01-01

    The male urethral imaging and pathology is not widespread in the radiology literature because this part of the urinary tract is easily studied by urologists with clinical or endoscopic examinations. Ultrasonography and MR imaging are increasingly being used in association with voiding cystourethrography and retrograde urethrography. The posterior urethra is being studied with voiding cystourethrography or voiding sonography which allows the detection of bladder neck pathology, post-surgical stenosis, and neoplasms. The functional aspects of the bladder neck and posterior urethra can be monitored continuously in patients with neuromuscular dysfunction of the bladder. The anterior urethral anatomy and pathology is commonly explored by retrograde urethrography, but recently sonourethrography and MR imaging have been proposed, distending the lumen with simple saline solution instead of iodinated contrast media. They are being used to study the urethral mucosa and the periurethral spongy tissue which can be involved in the urethral pathologies such as strictures, diverticula, trauma, and tumors. Imaging has an important role to play in the study of the diseases of the male urethra since it can detect pathology not visible on urethroscopy. The new imaging techniques in this area, such as sonography and MR, can provide adjunct information that cannot be obtained with other modalities. (orig.)

  18. Male breast cancer

    Ferrando, F.; Vidal, M.A.; Caballero, A.J.; Martinez, A.; Lluch, A.

    1997-01-01

    To analyze the radiological and ultrasonographic signs that contribute to the diagnosis of male breast cancer to establish its differential diagnosis with regard to the most common pathologies involving the male breast. We studied 14 patients diagnosed as heaving breast cancer over the past 23 years. We reviewed their medical records, personal and familial history disease, use of pharmacological agents and the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings. The literature on this subject was also reviewed. Given the fact that his lesion is rare and unexpected in men, a large percentage of the cases, especially those studied in the early years of the study period, involved very advanced stages of the disease at diagnosis. The most common clinical finding was retroarelar mass. Mammography usually reveals a well.defined mass and ultrasound shows a well-defined, hypoechoic, heterogeneous mass. The most frequent histological type is, an in women, the infiltrating ductal carcinoma. A palpable breast mass in a man should suggest possible malignant disease. Thus, mammographic and ultrasonographic studies should be performed early, accompanied, if necessary, by aspiration biopsy; with these measures the prognosis may approximate that of women. (Author) 21 refs

  19. Imaging of male urethra

    Pavlica, Pietro [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital M. Malpighi, Via Palagi 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Barozzi, Libero [Department of Emergency Radiology, Hospital S. Orsola-Malpighi, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Menchi, Ilario [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hospital S. Maria Nuova, 55100 Florence (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    The male urethral imaging and pathology is not widespread in the radiology literature because this part of the urinary tract is easily studied by urologists with clinical or endoscopic examinations. Ultrasonography and MR imaging are increasingly being used in association with voiding cystourethrography and retrograde urethrography. The posterior urethra is being studied with voiding cystourethrography or voiding sonography which allows the detection of bladder neck pathology, post-surgical stenosis, and neoplasms. The functional aspects of the bladder neck and posterior urethra can be monitored continuously in patients with neuromuscular dysfunction of the bladder. The anterior urethral anatomy and pathology is commonly explored by retrograde urethrography, but recently sonourethrography and MR imaging have been proposed, distending the lumen with simple saline solution instead of iodinated contrast media. They are being used to study the urethral mucosa and the periurethral spongy tissue which can be involved in the urethral pathologies such as strictures, diverticula, trauma, and tumors. Imaging has an important role to play in the study of the diseases of the male urethra since it can detect pathology not visible on urethroscopy. The new imaging techniques in this area, such as sonography and MR, can provide adjunct information that cannot be obtained with other modalities. (orig.)

  20. Sex differences in wild chimpanzee behavior emerge during infancy.

    Elizabeth V Lonsdorf

    Full Text Available The role of biological and social influences on sex differences in human child development is a persistent topic of discussion and debate. Given their many similarities to humans, chimpanzees are an important study species for understanding the biological and evolutionary roots of sex differences in human development. In this study, we present the most detailed analyses of wild chimpanzee infant development to date, encompassing data from 40 infants from the long-term study of chimpanzees at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Our goal was to characterize age-related changes, from birth to five years of age, in the percent of observation time spent performing behaviors that represent important benchmarks in nutritional, motor, and social development, and to determine whether and in which behaviors sex differences occur. Sex differences were found for indicators of social behavior, motor development and spatial independence with males being more physically precocious and peaking in play earlier than females. These results demonstrate early sex differentiation that may reflect adult reproductive strategies. Our findings also resemble those found in humans, which suggests that biologically-based sex differences may have been present in the common ancestor and operated independently from the influences of modern sex-biased parental behavior and gender socialization.

  1. Demographic variables for wild Asian elephants using longitudinal observations.

    de Silva, Shermin; Webber, C Elizabeth; Weerathunga, U S; Pushpakumara, T V; Weerakoon, Devaka K; Wittemyer, George

    2013-01-01

    Detailed demographic data on wild Asian elephants have been difficult to collect due to habitat characteristics of much of the species' remaining range. Such data, however, are critical for understanding and modeling population processes in this endangered species. We present data from six years of an ongoing study of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Uda Walawe National Park, Sri Lanka. This relatively undisturbed population numbering over one thousand elephants is individually monitored, providing cohort-based information on mortality and reproduction. Reproduction was seasonal, such that most births occurred during the long inter-monsoon dry season and peaked in May. During the study, the average age at first reproduction was 13.4 years and the 50(th) percentile inter-birth interval was approximately 6 years. Birth sex ratios did not deviate significantly from parity. Fecundity was relatively stable throughout the observed reproductive life of an individual (ages 11-60), averaging between 0.13-0.17 female offspring per individual per year. Mortalities and injuries based on carcasses and disappearances showed that males were significantly more likely than females to be killed or injured through anthropogenic activity. Overall, however, most observed injuries did not appear to be fatal. This population exhibits higher fecundity and density relative to published estimates on other Asian elephant populations, possibly enhanced by present range constriction. Understanding the factors responsible for these demographic dynamics can shed insight on the future needs of this elephant population, with probable parallels to other populations in similar settings.

  2. Demographic variables for wild Asian elephants using longitudinal observations.

    Shermin de Silva

    Full Text Available Detailed demographic data on wild Asian elephants have been difficult to collect due to habitat characteristics of much of the species' remaining range. Such data, however, are critical for understanding and modeling population processes in this endangered species. We present data from six years of an ongoing study of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus in Uda Walawe National Park, Sri Lanka. This relatively undisturbed population numbering over one thousand elephants is individually monitored, providing cohort-based information on mortality and reproduction. Reproduction was seasonal, such that most births occurred during the long inter-monsoon dry season and peaked in May. During the study, the average age at first reproduction was 13.4 years and the 50(th percentile inter-birth interval was approximately 6 years. Birth sex ratios did not deviate significantly from parity. Fecundity was relatively stable throughout the observed reproductive life of an individual (ages 11-60, averaging between 0.13-0.17 female offspring per individual per year. Mortalities and injuries based on carcasses and disappearances showed that males were significantly more likely than females to be killed or injured through anthropogenic activity. Overall, however, most observed injuries did not appear to be fatal. This population exhibits higher fecundity and density relative to published estimates on other Asian elephant populations, possibly enhanced by present range constriction. Understanding the factors responsible for these demographic dynamics can shed insight on the future needs of this elephant population, with probable parallels to other populations in similar settings.

  3. Behavioral and spermatogenic hybrid male breakdown in Nasonia.

    Clark, M E; O'Hara, F P; Chawla, A; Werren, J H

    2010-03-01

    Several reproductive barriers exist within the Nasonia species complex, including allopatry, premating behavioral isolation, postzygotic inviability and Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility. Here we show that hybrid males suffer two additional reproductive disadvantages, an inability to properly court females and decreased sperm production. Hybrid behavioral sterility, characterized by a reduced ability of hybrids to perform necessary courtship behaviors, occurs in hybrids between two species of Nasonia. Hybrid males produced in crosses between N. vitripennis and N. giraulti courted females at a reduced frequency (23-69%), compared with wild-type N. vitripennis and N. giraulti males (>93%). Reduced courtship frequency was not a simple function of inactivity among hybrids. A strong effect of cytoplasmic (mitochondrial) background was also found in N. vitripennis and N. giraulti crosses; F2 hybrids with giraulti cytoplasm showing reduced ability at most stages of courtship. Hybrids produced between a younger species pair, N. giraulti and N. longicornis, were behaviorally fertile. All males possessed motile sperm, but sperm production is greatly reduced in hybrids between the older species pair, N. vitripennis and N. giraulti. This effect on hybrid males, lowered sperm counts rather than nonfunctional sperm, is different from most described cases of hybrid male sterility, and may represent an earlier stage of hybrid sperm breakdown. The results add to previous studies of F2 hybrid inviability and behavioral sterility, and indicate that Wolbachia-induced hybrid incompatibility has arisen early in species divergence, relative to behavioral sterility and spermatogenic infertility.

  4. Behavioural and spermatogenic hybrid male breakdown in Nasonia

    Clark, Michael E.; O’Hara, F. Patrick; Chawla, Ankur; Werren, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Several reproductive barriers exists within the Nasonia species complex, including allopatry, premating behavioural isolation, postzygotic inviability and Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility. Here we show that hybrid males suffer two additional reproductive disadvantages, an inability to properly court females and decreased sperm production. Hybrid behavioural sterility, characterized by a reduced ability of hybrids to perform necessary courtship behaviours, occurs in hybrids between two species of Nasonia. Hybrid males produced in crosses between N. vitripennis and N. giraulti courted females at a reduced frequency (23-69%), compared to wild-type N. vitripennis and N. giraulti males (>93%). Reduced courtship frequency was not a simple function of inactivity among hybrids. A strong effect of cytoplasmic (mitochondrial) background was also found in N. vitripennis and N. giraulti crosses; F2 hybrids with giraulti cytoplasm showing reduced ability at most stages of courtship. Hybrids produced between a younger species pair, N. giraulti and N. longicornis, were behaviourally fertile. All males possessed motile sperm, but sperm production is greatly reduced in hybrids between the older species pair, N. vitripennis and N. giraulti. This effect on hybrid males, lowered sperm counts rather than non-functional sperm, is different from most described cases of hybrid male sterility and may represent an earlier stage of hybrid sperm breakdown. The results add to previous studies of F2 hybrid inviability and behavioural sterility, and indicated that Wolbachia induced hybrid incompatibility has arisen early in species divergence, relative to behavioural sterility and spermatogenic infertility. PMID:20087395

  5. Morphometrics and behavior of a wild Asian elephant exhibiting disproportionate dwarfism.

    de Silva, Shermin; Weerathunga, U Sameera; Pushpakumara, Tennekoon V

    2014-12-19

    Dwarfism is a condition characterized by shorter stature, at times accompanied by differential skeletal growth proportions relative to the species-typical physical conformation. Causes vary and are well-documented in humans as well as certain mammalian species in captive or laboratory conditions, but rarely observed in the wild. We report on a single case of apparent dwarfism in a free-ranging adult male Asian elephant in Sri Lanka, comparing physical dimensions to those of other males in the population as well as in previous literature. The subject M459 was found to have a shoulder height of approximately 195 cm, is shorter than the average height of typical mature males, with a body length of 218 cm. This ratio of body length to height deviates from what is typically observed, which is approximately 1:1, but was similar to the attributes of a dwarf elephant in captivity documented in 1955. We report on behavior including the surprising observation that M459 appears to have a competitive advantage in intrasexual contests. We discuss how this phenotype compares to cases of dwarfism in other non-human animals. M459 exemplifies a rare occurrence of disproportionate dwarfism in a free-ranging wild mammal that has survived to reproductive maturity and appears otherwise healthy.

  6. Selected Biometric Characteristics of Wild Boar (Sus Scrofa Ferus in North-East Romania

    Alina Narcisa Postolache

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Our study analyzed selected biometric characteristics from 117 wild boars (Sus scrofa ferus harvested during 2008 – 2014 in the Frasin and Marginea Forest hunting ground districts of Suceava County. Hunted boars were measured individually for head-body length (cm, height at withers (cm, length of metatarsus (cm, ear length (cm, tail length (cm and body weight (kg in accordance with their age-class and gender. These characteristics give information on the growth and development of wild boars and on the quality of their habitat. It was found that the average carcass weight was: piglets – 28.4 kg, yearling – 78.1 kg, subadults – 102.9 kg. The results show a faster body growth in females during their first year, while males make up for the weight difference in their 2nd and 3rd year. Statistical differences shown that males differentiate significantly to females by weight, body length, height at withers and length of metatarsus (P < 0.05 starting with their second year of life. The results regarding growth dynamic go along with the changes in boar’s social life, when the males are forced to leave and form smaller groups.

  7. Sexual Selection on male cuticular hydrocarbons via male-male competition and female choice.

    Lane, S M; Dickinson, A W; Tregenza, T; House, C M

    2016-07-01

    Traditional views of sexual selection assumed that male-male competition and female mate choice work in harmony, selecting upon the same traits in the same direction. However, we now know that this is not always the case and that these two mechanisms often impose conflicting selection on male sexual traits. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) have been shown to be linked to both social dominance and male attractiveness in several insect species. However, although several studies have estimated the strength and form of sexual selection imposed on male CHCs by female mate choice, none have established whether these chemical traits are also subject to sexual selection via male-male competition. Using a multivariate selection analysis, we estimate and compare sexual selection exerted by male-male competition and female mate choice on male CHC composition in the broad-horned flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. We show that male-male competition exerts strong linear selection on both overall CHC abundance and body size in males, while female mate choice exerts a mixture of linear and nonlinear selection, targeting not just the overall amount of CHCs expressed but the relative abundance of specific hydrocarbons as well. We discuss the potential implications of this antagonistic selection with regard to male reproductive success. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Do hormone-modulating chemicals impact on reproduction and development of wild amphibians?

    Orton, Frances; Tyler, Charles R

    2015-11-01

    Globally, amphibians are undergoing a precipitous decline. At the last estimate in 2004, 32% of the approximately 6000 species were threatened with extinction and 43% were experiencing significant declines. These declines have been linked with a wide range of environmental pressures from habitat loss to climate change, disease and pollution. This review evaluates the evidence that endocrine-disrupting contaminants (EDCs) - pollutants that affect hormone systems - are impacting on wild amphibians and contributing to population declines. The review is limited to anurans (frogs and toads) as data for effects of EDCs on wild urodeles (salamanders, newts) or caecilians (limbless amphibians) are extremely limited. Evidence from laboratory studies has shown that a wide range of chemicals have the ability to alter hormone systems and affect reproductive development and function in anurans, but for the most part only at concentrations exceeding those normally found in natural environments. Exceptions can be found for exposures to the herbicide atrazine and polychlorinated biphenyls in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) and perchlorate in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). These contaminants induce feminising effects on the male gonads (including 'intersex' - oocytes within testes) at concentrations measured in some aquatic environments. The most extensive data for effects of an EDC in wild amphibian populations are for feminising effects of atrazine on male gonad development in regions across the USA. Even where strong evidence has been provided for feminising effects of EDCs, however, the possible impact of these effects on fertility and breeding outcome has not been established, making inference for effects on populations difficult. Laboratory studies have shown that various chemicals, including perchlorate, polychlorinated biphenyls and bromodiphenylethers, also act as endocrine disrupters through interfering with thyroid-dependent processes that are fundamental for

  9. Component analysis of cultivated ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng by structural parts using HPLC method

    Young-Ju,Han

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this experiments is to provide an objective differentiation of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng through components analysis of different parts of ginseng. Methods : Comparative analyses of ginsenoside-, ginsenoside-, and ginsenosides and from the root, stem, and leaves of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng were conducted using HPLC. Results : 1. For content comparison of leaves, ginseng showed highest content of ginsenoside than other samples. Natural wild ginseng showed relatively high content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 2. For content comparison of the stem, ginseng and 10 years old Chinese cultivated wild ginseng didn't contain ginsenoside . Natural wild ginseng showed higher content of ginsenosides and than other samples. 3. For content comparison of the root, ginsenoside was found only in 5 and 10 years old Korean cultivated wild ginseng. 4. Distribution of contents by the parts of ginseng was similar in ginseng and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng. Conclusions : Above experiment data can be an important indicator for the identification of ginseng, Korean and Chinese cultivated wild ginseng, and natural wild ginseng.

  10. Occupational causes of male infertility

    Bonde, Jens P E

    2013-01-01

    To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function.......To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function....

  11. Study of the compatibility and competitiveness of sterile males in the framework of the struggle by the sterile insect technique against the Ceratitis

    Azzabi, Jihene

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated under semi-natural field-cage conditions sexual compatibility and competitivity of laboratory strain (Genetic Sexing Strain GSS) ''Vienna 8''. The GSS strain is produced under mass (rearing conditions at the facility of production of sterile males at Sidi Thabat. Wild flies were obtained from infested Sommer oranges. Twenty-five wild males, 25 wild females and 25 GSS were released into cage and mating pairs collected. The determination of indices such as the Isolation Index (ISI), the Male Relative Index (MRPI), the Stalker Index (I) and the Relative Sterile Index (RSI) shows that there is no compatibility and competitiveness between the two strains with a tendency to behaviour of sexual isolation. Sterile male tests dissection irradiated at the dose of (0 Gy, 110 Gy, 120 Gy, 130 Gy and 145 Gy) and correspondent female spermatic show the important damage of the irradiation on the cells but decrease the quality of the sterile male (mating duration, sperm transfer.). (Author)

  12. Females with a mutation in a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein pay a higher cost of survival than do males in Drosophila.

    Melvin, Richard G; Ballard, J William O

    2011-07-01

    Males and females age at different rates in a variety of species, but the mechanisms underlying the difference is not understood. In this study, we investigated sex-specific costs of a naturally occurring mildly deleterious deletion (DTrp85, DVal86) in cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7A (cox7A) in Drosophila simulans. We observed that females and males homozygous for the mutation had 30% and 26% reduced Cox activity, respectively, compared with wild type. Furthermore, 4-day-old females had 34%-42% greater physical activity than males. Greater physical activity in mutant females was correlated with a 19% lower 50% survival compared with wild-type females. Mutant and wild-type males had equal survival. These data suggest that females paid a higher cost of the mutation than did males. The data demonstrate linking population genetics and structural modeling to experimental manipulations that lead to functional predictions of mitochondrial bioenergetics and organism aging.

  13. Epidemiological Study of Hepatitis A Infection in Eastern Bulgaria.

    Tsankova, Gabriela St; Todorova, Tatina T; Ermenlieva, Neli M; Popova, Tsvetelina K; Tsankova, Dayana T

    2017-03-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is an acute, self-limited liver disease transmitted usually through the faecal-oral route via person-to-person contact. Bulgaria has intermediate HAV endemicity with higher susceptibility among adults and recurrent outbreaks. As HAV infection is strongly related to human movements and represents a significant risk to travelers and migrants, as well as to local population receiving these groups, we set out to analyze the epidemiological data on hepatitis A in five of the largest tourist border regions of Bulgaria located in its eastern part: Varna, Shumen, Dobrich, Burgas and Yambol. We reviewed retrospectively all reported cases of acute hepatitis A in the eastern regions of Bulgaria over a 7-year period between 2008 and 2014. A total of 2879 newly infected patients were registered during the study period, the number varying widely: from 190 cases in 2014 to 923 in 2012. The average incidence of HAV was higher in the south-eastern regions than in the northeastern regions (55.30%000 vs 15.04%000 respectively, p < 0.0001). The most affected age group in all regions was the 5-9-year olds (p < 0.0001) and males were significantly more susceptible to HAV (p = 0.02). Hepatitis A is still a major public health problem in Bulgaria; there is a significant difference in the incidence of the disease between the regions in the south-east and those in the north-east and between the different age groups and sexes.

  14. Ethnographies of Grey Zones in Eastern Europe

    Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states’ and internationa......Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states...... contemporary Eastern Europe....

  15. Ethnographies of Grey Zones in Eastern Europe:

    Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states’ and internationa......Over the last two decades, Eastern Europe has experienced extensive changes in geo-political relocations and relations leading to everyday uncertainty. Attempts to establish liberal democracies, re-orientations from planned to market economics, and a desire to create ‘new states...... contemporary Eastern Europe....

  16. Sport and male sexuality.

    Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L

    2017-09-01

    The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.

  17. Cancer incidence in eastern Morocco: cancer patterns and incidence trends, 2005-2012.

    Elidrissi Errahhali, Manal; Elidrissi Errahhali, Mounia; Ouarzane, Meryem; Boulouiz, Redouane; Bellaoui, Mohammed

    2017-08-29

    Cancer is one of the major health problems worldwide. In this article, we present for the first time the cancer incidence trends, the distribution and the socioeconomic profile of incident cancer cases in Eastern Morocco over a period of eight years. Retrospective descriptive study of patients diagnosed with cancer at the Hassan II Regional Oncology Center (ROC) since it was created in October 2005 until December 2012. During the study period, the ROC was the only hospital specialized in cancer care in Eastern Morocco. A total of 7872 incident cases of cancer were registered in Eastern Morocco. Among these incident cases 5220 cases were women and 2652 were men, with a female to male ratio of 1.97. The mean age at diagnosis was 58 years for males and 52 for females and 94% of the patients aged over 30 years. For both sexes combined and for all cancer sites, breast cancer was the commonest followed by cervix uteri, colon-rectum, lung, nasopharynx, and stomach cancers. The most common cancer in women was breast cancer, followed respectively by cervix uteri cancer, colon-rectum cancer, ovary cancer, and stomach cancer. In men, the lung cancer ranked first, followed respectively by colon-rectum cancer, nasopharynx cancer, prostate cancer, and stomach cancer. For most cancers, crude incidence rates (CR) have increased significantly. The CR for all cancers combined has increased from 56.6 to 80.3 per 100,000 females and from 32.3 to 42.6 per 100,000 males during the study period. Patients profile analysis showed that 79% of cancer patients were from urban areas, 83% were unemployed and 85% had no health insurance. The distribution of cancers in Eastern Morocco is different from those observed in other regions of Morocco. Unlike most countries, women were much more affected with cancer than men in Eastern Morocco. More importantly, the rates of many cancers are rising. Therefore, our data justify the need to develop effective programs for cancer control and prevention in

  18. The Recombination Landscape in Wild House Mice Inferred Using Population Genomic Data.

    Booker, Tom R; Ness, Rob W; Keightley, Peter D

    2017-09-01

    Characterizing variation in the rate of recombination across the genome is important for understanding several evolutionary processes. Previous analysis of the recombination landscape in laboratory mice has revealed that the different subspecies have different suites of recombination hotspots. It is unknown, however, whether hotspots identified in laboratory strains reflect the hotspot diversity of natural populations or whether broad-scale variation in the rate of recombination is conserved between subspecies. In this study, we constructed fine-scale recombination rate maps for a natural population of the Eastern house mouse, Mus musculus castaneus We performed simulations to assess the accuracy of recombination rate inference in the presence of phase errors, and we used a novel approach to quantify phase error. The spatial distribution of recombination events is strongly positively correlated between our castaneus map, and a map constructed using inbred lines derived predominantly from M. m. domesticus Recombination hotspots in wild castaneus show little overlap, however, with the locations of double-strand breaks in wild-derived house mouse strains. Finally, we also find that genetic diversity in M. m. castaneus is positively correlated with the rate of recombination, consistent with pervasive natural selection operating in the genome. Our study suggests that recombination rate variation is conserved at broad scales between house mouse subspecies, but it is not strongly conserved at fine scales. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. Sterile medfly males of the tsl Vienna 8 genetic sexing strain display improved mating performance with ginger root oil

    Paranhos, Beatriz Jordao; Alves, Renata Morelli; McInnis, Donald; Damasceno, Itala; Malavasi, Aldo; Goncalves, Nilmara; Costa, Maria de Lourdes; Walder, Julio; Nascimento, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A key point of the sterile insect technique applied to the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is that the sterile males produced in the laboratory should have at least a minimal sexual compatibility with wild females. Among several genetic sexing tsl (Temperature Sensitive Lethal) strains of C. capitata mass-reared around the world, the Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil has chosen the most recent mass produced tsl strain, Vienna 8 (V8), which has been evaluated in the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil, since April, 2005. The tests were accomplished in field cages, with different treatments for V8 males, sterile or fertile, exposed to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) or not, versus wild males and females. Males of one strain (V8 or wild) were painted white on the thorax the day before the mating tests. All the insects were virgin, and early in the morning (7-8 A.M.) males were released inside the field cages, 10 min. before females. Mating pairs were collected in glass vials, until early afternoon. From this raw data, both the type of male mating and the time in copula were recorded for each pair. Then, the total percentage of mated females, the RSI (Relative Sterility Index), and Fried's competitiveness values (C), were calculated for each field cage. The percentage of females mated was statistically higher to sterile males exposed to GRO than to non exposed to GRO. Time in copula was significantly higher for wild flies than for laboratory flies, except for the case of fertile V8 males exposed to GRO x wild females. The RSI and C values were significantly higher for V8 males (irradiated and fertile) treated with GRO than for V8 males not treated with GRO. The results indicate that there is adequate sexual compatibility between sterile males of the tsl Vienna 8 strain and wild C. capitata females from the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Also, the radiation dose of 95 Gy, used to sterilize the males, did not affect their sexual activity. Ginger root oil acted as a

  20. Sterile medfly males of the tsl Vienna 8 genetic sexing strain display improved mating performance with ginger root oil

    Paranhos, Beatriz Jordao; Alves, Renata Morelli, E-mail: bjordao@cpatsa.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); McInnis, Donald [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/PBARC), Honolulu, HI (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center; Uramoto, Keiko [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Damasceno, Itala; Malavasi, Aldo [Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilmara [Valexport, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Costa, Maria de Lourdes; Walder, Julio [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Antonio [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    A key point of the sterile insect technique applied to the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is that the sterile males produced in the laboratory should have at least a minimal sexual compatibility with wild females. Among several genetic sexing tsl (Temperature Sensitive Lethal) strains of C. capitata mass-reared around the world, the Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil has chosen the most recent mass produced tsl strain, Vienna 8 (V8), which has been evaluated in the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil, since April, 2005. The tests were accomplished in field cages, with different treatments for V8 males, sterile or fertile, exposed to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) or not, versus wild males and females. Males of one strain (V8 or wild) were painted white on the thorax the day before the mating tests. All the insects were virgin, and early in the morning (7-8 A.M.) males were released inside the field cages, 10 min. before females. Mating pairs were collected in glass vials, until early afternoon. From this raw data, both the type of male mating and the time in copula were recorded for each pair. Then, the total percentage of mated females, the RSI (Relative Sterility Index), and Fried's competitiveness values (C), were calculated for each field cage. The percentage of females mated was statistically higher to sterile males exposed to GRO than to non exposed to GRO. Time in copula was significantly higher for wild flies than for laboratory flies, except for the case of fertile V8 males exposed to GRO x wild females. The RSI and C values were significantly higher for V8 males (irradiated and fertile) treated with GRO than for V8 males not treated with GRO. The results indicate that there is adequate sexual compatibility between sterile males of the tsl Vienna 8 strain and wild C. capitata females from the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Also, the radiation dose of 95 Gy, used to sterilize the males, did not affect their sexual activity. Ginger root oil acted as a

  1. The Importance of Wild Canids in the Epidemiology of Rabies in Northeast Brazil: A Retrospective Study.

    Cordeiro, R de A; Duarte, N F H; Rolim, B N; Soares Júnior, F A; Franco, I C F; Ferrer, L L; Almeida, C P; Duarte, B H; de Araújo, D B; Rocha, M F G; Brilhante, R S N; Favoretto, S R; Sidrim, J J C

    2016-09-01

    Rabies is an endemic disease in Brazil, where it is considered a serious public health problem. Although the number of human and dog-transmitted cases has declined in recent decades, rabies in wildlife has emerged considerably. Among the sylvatic animals, wild canids have been considered important hosts of the rabies virus. We performed a retrospective study of reported cases of rabies in wild canids and human victims in Ceará state (Northeast Brazil) during 2003 to 2013. Information was provided by governmental laboratories involved in rabies detection and by the Ministry of Health. From January 2003 to December 2013, a total of 11 931 animal samples were examined for rabies. Positivity were detected in 438 samples (3.67%), of which 229 (52.28%) were domestic animals, 105 (23.97%) wild canids and 104 (23.74%) other wild animals (bats, marmosets and raccoons). Approximately 33% of wild canids surveyed (n = 317) were positive for rabies. During the studied period, a total of 1923 attacks on humans by wild canids were registered. Males (n = 1405) were more affected than females (n = 520; 72.98% versus 27.01%), and the median age of all cases was 36.5 years. Injuries to individuals up to 19 years old corresponded to approximately 30% (n = 565) of all cases. Most of the victims lived in rural areas (72.46%; n = 1395), and the majority showed bites (81.13%; n = 1677) or scratches (12.23%; n = 253). Injuries were considered profound (52.1%; n = 1003), superficial (40.91; n = 788) or multiple with severe laceration (6.98%; n = 134). Only 1300 (67.53%) victims were enrolled for the complete rabies post-exposure prophylaxis scheme. Data from the present study confirm that wild canids are important hosts of rabies virus in northeastern Brazil and jeopardize rabies control in this area. Local authorities should focus their efforts in education of health professionals. In addition, strategies should be formulated to preserve wildlife. © 2016 Blackwell

  2. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study

    Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Jack [RePPAE LLC, Wexford, PA (United States); Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Gary [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Eastern Interconnection (EI) is one of the largest power systems in the world, and its size and complexity have historically made it difficult to study in high levels of detail in a modeling environment. In order to understand how this system might be impacted by high penetrations (30% of total annual generation) of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) during steady state operations, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS). This study investigates certain aspects of the reliability and economic efficiency problem faced by power system operators and planners. Specifically, the study models the ability to meet electricity demand at a 5-minute time interval by scheduling resources for known ramping events, while maintaining adequate reserves to meet random variation in supply and demand, and contingency events. To measure the ability to meet these requirements, a unit commitment and economic dispatch (UC&ED) model is employed to simulate power system operations. The economic costs of managing this system are presented using production costs, a traditional UC&ED metric that does not include any consideration of long-term fixed costs. ERGIS simulated one year of power system operations to understand regional and sub-hourly impacts of wind and PV by developing a comprehensive UC&ED model of the EI. In the analysis, it is shown that, under the study assumptions, generation from approximately 400 GW of combined wind and PV capacity can be balanced on the transmission system at a 5-minute level. In order to address the significant computational burdens associated with a model of this detail we apply novel computing techniques to dramatically reduce simulation solve time while simultaneously increasing the resolution and fidelity of the analysis. Our results also indicate that high penetrations of wind and PV (collectively variable generation (VG

  3. Periaortic haemangiosarcoma in an African wild dog (Lycaon pictus : clinical communication

    A. Newell-Fugate

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A 9-year-old apparently healthy male African wild dog (Lycaon pictus was found dead in its enclosure at the De Wildt Cheetah and Wildlife Centre. Necropsy revealed a pericardium distended by approximately 250mℓ of thick blood. A soft, red, lobulated mass was attached to the periaortic fat between the level of the aortic valves and the pericardial reflection. Histologically, the mass was consistent with a haemangiosarcoma. Other findings in the heart included mild to moderate ventricular hypertrophy and moderate, acute perivascular myocardial necrosis. Sudden death was attributed to acute heart failure precipitated by cardiac tamponade.

  4. Selection by mating competitiveness improves the performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the genetic sexing strain Tapachula-7.

    Quintero-Fong, L; Toledo, J; Ruiz, L; Rendón, P; Orozco-Dávila, D; Cruz, L; Liedo, P

    2016-10-01

    The sexual performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the Tapachula-7 genetic sexing strain, produced via selection based on mating success, was compared with that of males produced without selection in competition with wild males. Mating competition, development time, survival, mass-rearing quality parameters and pheromone production were compared. The results showed that selection based on mating competitiveness significantly improved the sexual performance of offspring. Development time, survival of larvae, pupae and adults, and weights of larvae and pupae increased with each selection cycle. Differences in the relative quantity of the pheromone compounds (Z)-3-nonenol and anastrephin were observed when comparing the parental males with the F4 and wild males. The implications of this colony management method on the sterile insect technique are discussed.

  5. Effects of ionizing radiation on codling moth cydia pomonella (L) female's ability to attract males in the field

    Mohamad, F.; Mansour, M.

    2009-06-01

    Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. males and females were exposed to three levels of gamma radiation (0, 250 and 350 Gy). Females were used in pheromone traps (instead of pheromone capsules) inside wire cages at a rate of one female / trap. Males were released in a 2 x 2 m square in the middle of the orchard and the number of caught males (wild and released ) in female baited traps was recorded. Results showed an inverse relationship between radiation dose and the ability of females to attract males (wild and released). Contrary to that, result showed that the higher the dose, the lower was the number of males caught in female baited traps. (author)

  6. 78 FR 43874 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    2013-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP13-514-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application On July 2, 2013, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern) filed... natural gas facilities no longer in service. As described more fully in the Application, Texas Eastern...

  7. 76 FR 7833 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    2011-02-11

    ...] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 25, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in the above... TEAM 2012 Project. Specifically, Texas Eastern requests: (i) Authorization under NGA sections 7(b) and...

  8. Transcultural Memory in Eastern European Migrant Literature

    Ortner, Jessica

    of the major processes that circulate memories across cultural and national borderlines. This paper will investigate the circulation of memories in Eastern Europe migrant-literature that since 2000 has become an increasingly influential literary tendency in Germany. Articulating an eastern perspective...... consciously follow the mission to “enlighten and inform Western readers about their eastern neighbours” (Haines 2008). Causing an “eastern enlargement” of German literature (Bürger-Koftis 2008), the wave of migrant authors broadens Germany’s cultural memory by supplementing it with “new” memories. Furthermore......The “transcultural turn” of memory studies focuses on the fluid and dynamic aspects of cultural memory. This paper is concerned with the traveling of memories along the paths of migration. As migrants carry along “collective images and narratives of the past” (Erll 2011), migration is one...

  9. Eastern and Southern Africa Seismological Working Group

    Ogubazghi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Member countries of the Eastern and Southern Africa Seismologica Working Group are listed. The presentation also gives the objectives, activities, date of birth and sponsors of the said ESARSWG. Areas of possible cooperation with CTBTO are indicated

  10. Fatal canine distemper infection in a pack of African wild dogs in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania.

    Goller, Katja V; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Nikolin, Veljko; East, Marion L; Kilewo, Morris; Speck, Stephanie; Müller, Thomas; Matzke, Martina; Wibbelt, Gudrun

    2010-12-15

    In 2007, disease related mortality occurred in one African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) pack close to the north-eastern boundary of the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Histopathological examination of tissues from six animals revealed that the main pathologic changes comprised interstitial pneumonia and suppurative to necrotizing bronchopneumonia. Respiratory epithelial cells contained numerous eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies and multiple syncytial cells were found throughout the parenchymal tissue, both reacting clearly positive with antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) antigen. Phylogenetic analysis based on a 388 nucleotide (nt) fragment of the CDV phosphoprotein (P) gene revealed that the pack was infected with a CDV variant most closely related to Tanzanian variants, including those obtained in 1994 during a CDV epidemic in the Serengeti National Park and from captive African wild dogs in the Mkomazi Game Reserve in 2000. Phylogenetic analysis of a 335-nt fragment of the fusion (F) gene confirmed that the pack in 2007 was infected with a variant most closely related to one variant from 1994 during the epidemic in the Serengeti National Park from which a comparable fragment is available. Screening of tissue samples for concurrent infections revealed evidence of canine parvovirus, Streptococcus equi subsp. ruminatorum and Hepatozoon sp. No evidence of infection with Babesia sp. or rabies virus was found. Possible implications of concurrent infections are discussed. This is the first molecular characterisation of CDV in free-ranging African wild dogs and only the third confirmed case of fatal CDV infection in a free-ranging pack. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioaccumulation of mercury in reared and wild Ruditapes philippinarum of a Mediterranean lagoon

    Giani, Michele; Rampazzo, Federico; Berto, Daniela; Maggi, Chiara; Mao, Andrea; Horvat, Milena; Emili, Andrea; Covelli, Stefano

    2012-11-01

    The Marano and Grado lagoon, one of the largest wetlands in the Mediterranean Sea, has been subject to mercury contamination by industrial and mining activities. This must be considered a severe threat for Manila clam harvesting, which is an important fishing and commercial activity in the area. Contamination levels and potential risk for human consumption both in reared and wild clams collected from the lagoon were assessed by analyzing total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) contents. In addition, relationships between THg and MeHg in sediments and in the bivalves were investigated. Increased bioaccumulation of THg but not of MeHg with increasing size of wild clam populations was observed at most sites. Higher concentrations both of THg (605 ± 210 ng g-1 ww) and MeHg (147 ± 37 ng g-1 ww) were detected in the eastern lagoon where the highest THg contents in sediments were observed as a consequence of the long-term supply of cinnabar rich suspended material from the Isonzo river. The variation of Hg content in seeded Manila clams during growth was monitored over a period of 18 months at two sites of the western sector of the lagoon. Results showed that the two areas were suitable for clam farming, with THg levels in reared bivalves always lower than the 0.5 mg kg-1 ww European Community limit. At the same time, as clams grew bigger in size, their THg and MeHg concentrations decreased, becoming lower than in the starting seeded pool. Reared clams presented lower THg (84 ± 55 ng g-1 ww) and MeHg (44.1 ± 24.6 ng g-1 ww) content than wild clams of the same commercial size (>30 mm). Based on a precautionary approach, intake of Hg and MeHg with the estimated clam consumption does not seem to constitute a risk for human health in the studied area.

  12. Male behaviors reveal multiple pherotypes within vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera; Pseudococcidae) populations

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Levi-Zada, Anat; Franco, José Carlos; Dunkelblum, Ezra; Protasov, Alex; Eliyaho, Miriam; Mendel, Zvi

    2010-12-01

    The vine mealybug (VM) females collected in Israel produce two sex pheromone compounds: lavandulyl senecioate (LS) and ( S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (LI). The males display ambiguous behavior to LI: repulsion in the vineyard and attraction of laboratory-reared males. We addressed the question of individual male behavior, i.e., do males respond to both LS and LI, or might they display a distinct response to each of the two pheromone compounds. We compared male pherotype frequencies between wild-caught and laboratory-reared populations. Then, we examined the relationship between pherotype composition and male capture rates in pheromone traps. Finally, we addressed the heredity of the pherotypes. The Israeli VM populations contain nine different male pherotypes, as defined according to the male behavior to pheromone compounds. The studied Portuguese populations included five of the nine pherotypes; none of the Portuguese males were attracted to LI. It seems that the high frequency of males that were attracted to LI is related to dense VM populations. It is hypothesized that selection for the male pherotypes, I males, those that respond to LI, occur under high-density rearing conditions. This may result from shorter development times of males and females that produce more I male pherotypes. The lower relative frequency of trapping of males in LI-baited traps than expected from the percentage determined in a Petri dish arena suggests that males that respond solely to LS (S males) are better fliers. The results also suggest that the pherotype trait is inherited by both sexes of the VM.

  13. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    Wall, A.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  14. Eastern countries - WIN activity review

    Stiopol, Mihaela

    1998-01-01

    Women can play this important role in informing people about nuclear energy. WIN is a world-wide association of women working professionally in the fields of nuclear energy and radiation application who want to devote their time to public information. The main goal of the WIN is to establish an objective and effective communication with the public through educational programmes, information exchange and arranging study visits. The membership includes women working in medicine and health care, in regulatory authorities, in industry and as independent researches at Universities. They want to contribute to objectively informing the public by making presentation, discussing and giving information materials on subjects such as; radiation, radioactivity and health effects medical applications nuclear energy nuclear power plants and their safety nuclear and environment uranium mining radiation protection energy sustainable development WIN is also open to men, supporting the goals of WIN. The intention of this paper was to underline the main aspects which reflect WIN activity in some Eastern and Central countries. There are common features and also specific elements for each country. But the goal is the same: to assure an effective and a real information of the public related to the nuclear field

  15. Social organization and space use of a wild mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) group.

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Kappeler, Peter M; Willaume, Eric; Benoit, Laure; Mboumba, Sylvère; Charpentier, Marie J E

    2015-10-01

    Mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) are enigmatic Old World primates whose social organization and ecology remain poorly known. Previous studies indicated, for example, that groups are composed of only adult females and their young or that several units composed of one adult male and several females make up larger permanent social units. Here, we present the first data on group composition and male ranging patterns from the only habituated wild mandrill group and examine how home range size and daily path length varied with environmental and demographic factors over a 15-month period. Our study site is located in southern Gabon where we followed the group on a daily basis, collecting data on presence, ranging, behavior, and parasite load of its individual members. Throughout the study, the group was made up of about 120 individuals, including several non-natal and natal adult and sub-adult males. One-male units were never observed. The mandrills traveled an estimated 0.44-6.50 km/day in a home range area of 866.7 ha. Exploratory analyses revealed that precipitation, the number of adult males present, and the richness of protozoan parasites were all positively correlated with daily path length. These results clarify the social system of mandrills and provide first insights into the factors that shape their ranging patterns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Poult adoption in Merriam's wild turkeys

    Todd R. Mills; Mark A. Rumble

    1991-01-01

    There are few documented cases of gallinaceous birds caring for offspring other than their own. Willow Ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) usually mate monogamously, with pairs remaining together throughout the breeding season, but they occasionally are polygynous (Hannon 1984, Martin and Cooke 1987, Martin 1989). If males are removed from monogamous pairs...

  17. The energy question in Eastern Europe

    Locatelli, C.

    1992-01-01

    In a first part, this book describes the energetic schemes, energy consumption and centralized economy in Eastern Europe countries. In the second part, the relationships between energy supply and macro-economic disequilibria in USSR is studied: Petroleum and power generation are chosen as example. In the third part, the book shows the energetic stakes in Central and Eastern Europe: the end of the exchange model (imports, exports) and the energetic schemes facing economical reforms

  18. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple matings among glossina and the sterile male technique

    Pinhao, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The fact that multiple matings are a common phenomenon among glossina turns the sterile male technique into a competition not between adult insects but between two types of sperm, and the proportion of females inseminated with the one or the other is given by the binomial (p+q)sup(n), where p is the percentage of normal males, q the percentage of sterile males and n the average number of matings per female. However, multiple matings cannot damage the effectiveness of the technique unless two conditions are present either separately or simultaneously: precocious death of the spermatozoa and reduced inseminating potential among the sterile males. Study of the factors which can alter the inseminating potential is thus important for those who wish to use the sterile male technique. These factors are of three kinds: factors connected with quality, with quantity and with availability. The first are associated with the nature and intensity of the alterations brought about in the spermatozoa by the sterilizing agent, the second with possible variations in the amount of sperm reaching the spermotheca, the third with the behaviour of the sterile males in the nature - that is, the question whether sterilization has a favourable or unfavourable influence on their chances of mating with wild females. The author describes his observations of the quantity of sperm produced by Glossina morsitans submorsitans males from the colony reared at the Institute for Tropical Hygiene and Medicine in Lisbon, compares them with the observations of other authors and discusses their practical significance. Specific research is suggested. Advantages from assessing the behaviour of colonies not by female productivity but by male inseminating potential, and appropriate laboratory techniques

  20. North Spain (Burgos wild mammals ectoparasites

    Domínguez G.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of arthropods were collected from 105 wild mammals, six wolves Canis lupus (Linnaeus, 1758 included. A total of 87 animals (82,8 % harboured some ectoparasites. Ticks were found in 60 % of the samples, fleas in 51.4 %, chewing-lice in 3.8 %, and others (Mesostigmata and hippoboscids in 3.8 %. Moreover, 42.5 % were single infestation and 57.5 % mixed. Some of the species were new records for a host in spanish country such as Trichodectes canis (De Géer, 1778, Ixodes trianguliceps (Birula, 1895, Ceralophyllus (Monopsyllus S. sciurorum (Schrank, 1803 and Paraceras melis melis (Walker, 1856 on several mammals. Two species were new records for Spain: Chaetopsylla matina (Jordan, 1925 and Archaeopsylla erinacei erinacei (Bouché, 1835.